Science.gov

Sample records for ja populaarsusest nii

  1. The NII and the New World Trade Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoot, Oliver

    1994-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the new General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Topics discussed include the reduction or elimination of tariffs on NII products; protection of copyrighted works; unresolved trade issues, including the European telecommunications market; standards; and privacy and…

  2. 78 FR 21320 - Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) Devices in the 5 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ...This document proposes to amend the Commission's rules governing the operation of Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices in the 5 GHz band. The Commission has gained much experience with U-NII devices since it first made spectrum available in the 5 GHz band for U-NII in 1997. The Commission believes that the time is now right to revisit the rules. The initiation of this......

  3. Binuclear complexes of Ni(I) from 4-terphenyldithiophenol.

    PubMed

    Koch, Felix; Schubert, Hartmut; Sirsch, Peter; Berkefeld, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Binuclear complexes of Ni(i) have been prepared from a 4-terphenyldithiophenol ligand. Steric effects were found to determine the formation of coordination isomeric structures that differ in the nature of metal-to-ligand bonding. Coordination of spatially demanding phosphine ligands PR3, R = C6H6, C6H11, at nickel sites results in a butterfly shaped thiolate-bridged Ni2(μ-S)2 motif. For smaller PMe3, the central π-system of the 4-terphenyl backbone adopts a bis-allyl like μ-syn-η(3):η(3)-C6H4 structure due to significant d-π* Ni(i)-to-ligand charge transfer. Delocalisation indices δ(Ni-Ni) derived from DFT calculations provide a metric to assess the strength of electronic coupling of the Ni sites based on solid state structural data, and indicated less strong electronic coupling for the bis-allyl like structure with δ(Ni-Ni) = 0.225 as compared to 0.548 for the Ni2(μ-S)2 structural motif. A qualitative reactivity study toward CNCH3 as an auxiliary ligand has provided the first insight into the chemical properties of the bimetallic complexes presented. PMID:26130424

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NiI transition probability measurements (Wood+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2014-04-01

    As in much of our previous branching fraction work, this NiI branching fraction study makes use of archived FTS data from both the 1.0m Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) previously at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak and the Chelsea Instruments FT500 UV FTS at Lund University in Sweden. Table 1 lists the 37 FTS spectra used in our NiI branching fraction study. All NSO spectra, raw interferograms, and header files are available in the NSO electronic archives. The 80 CCD frames of spectra from commercial Ni HCD lamps of the echelle spectrograph are listed in Table 2. (6 data files).

  5. Protein kinase NII and the regulation of rDNA transcription in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Belenguer, P; Baldin, V; Mathieu, C; Prats, H; Bensaid, M; Bouche, G; Amalric, F

    1989-01-01

    Transcription of ribosomal RNA genes is generally accepted to correlate with cell growth. Using primary cultures of adult bovine aortic endothelial (ABAE) cells, we have shown that transcription of rDNA in confluent cells falls to 5% of the transcription level in growing cells. Protein kinase NII appears to be a limiting factor to promote rDNA transcription in isolated nuclei of confluent cells. Protein kinase NII was detected by immunocytochemistry in the cytoplasm, nuclei and nucleoli of growing cells while it was no longer present in nucleoli of confluent cells. The kinase activity, in isolated nuclei, was estimated by endogenous phosphorylation of a specific substrate, nucleolin. A 10% residual activity was present in confluent cell nuclei compared to growing cell nuclei. Concomitantly, the transcription 'in vitro' of rDNA in the corresponding nuclei was also highly reduced (by 85%). Addition of exogenous protein kinase NII to confluent cell nuclei induced a strong increase in the phosphorylation of specific proteins including nucleolin. In parallel, the transcription of rDNA was increased by a factor of 5, to nearly the level observed in nuclei prepared from growing cells. These data suggest that, in confluent cells, factors necessary for rDNA transcription machinery are present but inactive in the nucleolus and that the phosphorylation of one or several of these factors (nucleolin, topoisomerase I,...) by protein kinase NII is a key event in the regulation of rDNA transcription. Images PMID:2780290

  6. Catching a Ride on the NII: The Federal Policy Vehicles Paving the Information Highway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Patricia D.; Westerback, Lisa K.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses implications to the management of the U.S. federal government information resources from recent legislation. Examines relevant policy instruments in light of the federal government's high-level commitment to the development of a National Information Infrastructure (NII) which promotes accessible and high-quality services to its citizens.…

  7. The fallacy of using NII in analyzing aircraft operations. [Noise Impact Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, R. G.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three measures of noise annoyance (Noise Impact Index, Level-Weighted Population, and Annoyed Population Number) are compared, regarding their utility in assessing noise reduction schemes for aircraft operations. While NII is intended to measure the average annoyance per person in a community, it is found that the method of averaging can lead to erroneous conclusions, particularly if the population does not have uniform spatial distribution. Level-Weighted Population and Annoyed Population Number are shown to be better indicators of noise annoyance when rating different strategies for noise reduction in a given community.

  8. Crude oil biodegradation aided by biosurfactants from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 or its culture broth.

    PubMed

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the biosurfactants produced by the yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 for enhancing the degradation of crude oil by a model hydrocarbon degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Pseudozyma biosurfactants were supplemented at various concentrations to the P. putida culture medium containing crude oil as sole carbon source. Supplementation of the biosurfactants enhanced the degradation of crude oil by P. putida; the maximum degradation of hydrocarbons was observed with a 2.5 mg L(-1) supplementation of biosurfactants. Growth inhibition constant of the Pseudozyma biosurfactants was 11.07 mg L(-1). It was interesting to note that Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 alone could also degrade diesel and kerosene. Culture broth of Pseudozyma containing biosurfactants resulted up to ∼46% improvement in degradation of C10-C24 alkanes by P. putida. The enhancement in degradation efficiency of the bacterium with the culture broth supplementation was even more pronounced than that with relatively purer biosurfactants. PMID:25985416

  9. Comparison of the performances of DRAINMOD-NII and ADAPT models in simulating nitrate losses from subsurface drainage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate knowledge on the movement of nitrate under different subsurface (tile) drain configurations and management practices in the U.S. Midwest, is essential for developing remedial measures for reducing hypoxic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, DRAINMOD-NII, a daily time-step soil ...

  10. ISM band to U-NII band frequency transverter and method of frequency transversion

    DOEpatents

    Stepp, Jeffrey David; Hensley, Dale

    2006-04-04

    A frequency transverter (10) and method for enabling bi-frequency dual-directional transfer of digitally encoded data on an RF carrier by translating between a crowded or otherwise undesirable first frequency band, such as the 2.4 GHz ISM band, and a less-crowded or otherwise desirable second frequency band, such as the 5.0 GHz-6.0 GHz U-NII band. In a preferred embodiment, the transverter (10) connects between an existing data radio (11) and its existing antenna (30), and comprises a bandswitch (12); an input RF isolating device (14); a transmuter (16); a converter (18); a dual output local oscillator (20); an output RF isolating device (22); and an antenna (24) tuned to the second frequency band. The bandswitch (12) allows for bypassing the transverter (10), thereby facilitating its use with legacy systems. The transmuter (14) and converter (16) are adapted to convert to and from, respectively, the second frequency band.

  11. ISM band to U-NII band frequency transverter and method of frequency transversion

    DOEpatents

    Stepp, Jeffrey David; Hensley, Dale

    2006-09-12

    A frequency transverter (10) and method for enabling bi-frequency dual-directional transfer of digitally encoded data on an RF carrier by translating between a crowded or otherwise undesirable first frequency band, such as the 2.4 GHz ISM band, and a less-crowded or otherwise desirable second frequency band, such as the 5.0 GHz 6.0 GHz U-NII band. In a preferred embodiment, the transverter (10) connects between an existing data radio (11) and its existing antenna (30), and comprises a bandswitch (12); an input RF isolating device (14); a transmuter (16); a converter (18); a dual output local oscillator (20); an output RF isolating device (22); and an antenna (24) tuned to the second frequency band. The bandswitch (12) allows for bypassing the transverter (10), thereby facilitating its use with legacy systems. The transmuter (14) and converter (16) are adapted to convert to and from, respectively, the second frequency band.

  12. Studies on structural and physical characteristics of a novel exopolysaccharide from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165.

    PubMed

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Jayamurthy, Himani; Dhar, Kiran S; Pandey, Ashok

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) from a novel ustilaginomycetes yeast strain Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165. The culture produced 3.5g/l EPS on fourth day of fermentation in a glucose-based medium. The structural characterization revealed that the EPS was a polymer of glucose, galactose and mannose in the ratio of 2.4:5.0:2.6 with a molecular weight of 1.7MDa. The pseudoplastic behaviour of aqueous EPS with a thermal stability up to 220°C indicated its potential utility as a thickening or gelling agent in food industry. SEM studies of the EPS showed that it had compact film-like structure, which could make it a useful in preparing plasticized films. The AFM studies showed that EPS had spike-shaped microstructure. Physical properties of the exopolysaccharide determined further indicated its possible potential in different industrial applications. PMID:23597707

  13. The utility`s role in the future of PC services and the NII. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The paper is a report by C3 Communications (formerly CSW Communications) summarizing the experience and lessons learned during an 18 month Department of Energy Grant to evaluate how electric utilities can further the growth of the NII by developing a hybrid Internet-energy management service. In addition, the project was also expanded to include evaluation of residential gateway issues, in particular the energy management aspects of this developing area. The report is broken up into three sections, the first section focuses on the issues surrounding the start-up of a traditional ISP and provides a road map for utilities interested in this area. The second section provides an overview of the Internet energy management projects which were undertaken and the key lessons learned from each. Lastly, the third section outlines the gateway progress made during the grant and provides some of the recommendations which the work produced.

  14. Access to Formally Ni(I) States in a Heterobimetallic NiZn System

    PubMed Central

    Uyeda, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Heterobimetallic NiZn complexes featuring metal centers in distinct coordination environments have been synthesized using diimine-dioxime ligands as binucleating scaffolds. A tetramethylfuran-containing ligand derivative enables a stable one-electron-reduced S = 1/2 species to be accessed using Cp2Co as a chemical reductant. The resulting pseudo-square planar complex exhibits spectroscopic and crystallographic characteristics of a ligand-centered radical bound to a Ni(II) center. Upon coordination of a π-acidic ligand such as PPh3, however, a five-coordinate Ni(I) metalloradical is formed. The electronic structures of these reduced species provide insight into the subtle effects of ligand structure on the potential and reversibility of the NiII/I couple for complexes of redox-active tetraazamacrocycles. PMID:25614786

  15. Isolation and characterization of novel plant growth promoting Micrococcus sp NII-0909 and its interaction with cowpea.

    PubMed

    Dastager, Syed G; Deepa, C K; Pandey, Ashok

    2010-12-01

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strain NII-0909 isolated from the Western ghat forest soil in India was identified as Micrococcus sp on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, carbon source utilization pattern, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain exhibited the plant growth-promoting attributes of phosphate solubilization, auxin production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, and siderophore production. It was able to solubilize (122.4μg of Ca(3)PO(4) ml(-1)), and produce IAA (109μgml(-1)) at 30°C. P-solubilizing activity of the strain NII-0909 was associated with the release of organic acids and a drop in the pH of the NBRIP medium. HPLC analysis detected two organic acids in the course of P-solubilization. A significant increase in the growth of cow pea was recorded for inoculations under controlled conditions. Scanning electron microscopic study revealed the root colonization of strain on cow pea seedlings. These results demonstrate that isolates NII-0909 has the promising PGPR attributes to be develop as a biofertilizer to enhance soil fertility and promote the plant growth. PMID:20951599

  16. Spermine stimulation of a nuclear NII kinase from pea plumules and its role in the phosphorylation of a nuclear polypeptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, N.; Schell, M. B.; Roux, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that spermine stimulates the phosphorylation of a 47 kilodalton nuclear polypeptide from pea plumules (N Datta, LK Hardison, SJ Roux 1986 Plant Physiol 82: 681-684). In this paper we report that spermine stimulates the activity of a cyclic AMP independent casein kinase, partially purified from a chromatin fraction of pea plumule nuclei. This effect of spermine was substrate specific; i.e. with casein as substrate, spermine stimulated the kinase activity, and with phosvitin as substrate, spermine completely inhibited the activity. The stimulation by spermine of the casein kinase was, in part, due to the lowering of the Mg2+ requirement of the kinase. Heparin could partially inhibit this casein kinase activity and spermine completely overcame this inhibition. By further purification of the casein kinase extract on high performance liquid chromatography, we fractionated it into an NI and an NII kinase. Spermine stimulated the NII kinase by 5- to 6-fold but had no effect on the NI kinase. Using [gamma-32P]GTP, we have shown that spermine promotes the phosphorylation of the 47 kilodalton polypeptide(s) in isolated nuclei, at least in part by stimulating an NII kinase.

  17. Estimation of small business activity by county for the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, S.E. ); Yoder, T.N. )

    1992-09-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has commissioned the design of an assessment system to perform rapid analysis of the economic impacts of various disasters. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS) in response to this need. Its design includes several modules to support emergency assessment--the Facility Damage Assessment Module to provide rapid summaries of economic capacity at risk in a disaster area, the Regional Impacts Module (RIM) to estimate the change in a region's production, consumption, and net exports as a result of capacity lost in the disaster area, the Inter-Regional Trade Flows Module to identify potential interruptions in commodity trade flows between regions, based on the results of the RIM analysis, and the National Economic Model to identify potential macroeconomic impacts of the disaster. In addition to the assessment system, FEMA needs a core data base that contains the comprehensive, county-level information required to conduct regional and national impact analyses. The effort is focused on a general overview of the seriousness of each disaster (e.g., how large is the relative impact) and not on detailed local effects. However, the core data file must be complete enough and accurate enough to support analysis of the relative costs of different disasters. Coverage must be comprehensive in order to address equity issues, as well as detailed in the specific industries that most affect the economy's ability to respond to disaster.

  18. Estimation of small business activity by county for the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, S.E.; Yoder, T.N.

    1992-09-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has commissioned the design of an assessment system to perform rapid analysis of the economic impacts of various disasters. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS) in response to this need. Its design includes several modules to support emergency assessment--the Facility Damage Assessment Module to provide rapid summaries of economic capacity at risk in a disaster area, the Regional Impacts Module (RIM) to estimate the change in a region`s production, consumption, and net exports as a result of capacity lost in the disaster area, the Inter-Regional Trade Flows Module to identify potential interruptions in commodity trade flows between regions, based on the results of the RIM analysis, and the National Economic Model to identify potential macroeconomic impacts of the disaster. In addition to the assessment system, FEMA needs a core data base that contains the comprehensive, county-level information required to conduct regional and national impact analyses. The effort is focused on a general overview of the seriousness of each disaster (e.g., how large is the relative impact) and not on detailed local effects. However, the core data file must be complete enough and accurate enough to support analysis of the relative costs of different disasters. Coverage must be comprehensive in order to address equity issues, as well as detailed in the specific industries that most affect the economy`s ability to respond to disaster.

  19. Esterase Active in Polar Organic Solvents from the Yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165

    PubMed Central

    Shainu, Anju; Pandey, Ashok; Sukumaran, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Esterases/lipases active in water miscible solvents are highly desired in biocatalysis where substrate solubility is limited and also when the solvent is desired as an acyl acceptor in transesterification reactions, as with the case of biodiesel production. We have isolated an esterase from the glycolipid producing yeast-Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 which in its crude form was alkali active, thermo stable, halo tolerant and also capable of acting in presence of high methanol concentration. The crude enzyme which maintained 90% of its original activity after being treated at 70°C was purified and the properties were characterized. The partially purified esterase preparation had temperature and pH optima of 60°C and 8.0 respectively. The enzyme retained almost complete activity in presence of 25% methanol and 80% activity in the same strength of ethanol. Conditions of enzyme production were optimized, which lead to 9 fold increase in the esterase yield. One of the isoforms of the enzyme LIP1 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Purified LIP1 had a Km and Vmax of 0.01 and 1.12, respectively. The purified esterase lost its thermo and halo tolerance but interestingly, retained 97% activity in methanol. PMID:24800063

  20. Esterase Active in Polar Organic Solvents from the Yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165.

    PubMed

    Alex, Deepthy; Shainu, Anju; Pandey, Ashok; Sukumaran, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    Esterases/lipases active in water miscible solvents are highly desired in biocatalysis where substrate solubility is limited and also when the solvent is desired as an acyl acceptor in transesterification reactions, as with the case of biodiesel production. We have isolated an esterase from the glycolipid producing yeast-Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 which in its crude form was alkali active, thermo stable, halo tolerant and also capable of acting in presence of high methanol concentration. The crude enzyme which maintained 90% of its original activity after being treated at 70°C was purified and the properties were characterized. The partially purified esterase preparation had temperature and pH optima of 60°C and 8.0 respectively. The enzyme retained almost complete activity in presence of 25% methanol and 80% activity in the same strength of ethanol. Conditions of enzyme production were optimized, which lead to 9 fold increase in the esterase yield. One of the isoforms of the enzyme LIP1 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Purified LIP1 had a K m and V max of 0.01 and 1.12, respectively. The purified esterase lost its thermo and halo tolerance but interestingly, retained 97% activity in methanol. PMID:24800063

  1. Combined Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Detection of a Ni(I) ⋅⋅⋅H-N Bonding Interaction with Relevance to Electrocatalytic H2 Production.

    PubMed

    Kochem, Amélie; O'Hagan, Molly; Wiedner, Eric S; van Gastel, Maurice

    2015-07-13

    The [Ni(P(R) 2 N(R') 2 )2 ](2+) family of complexes are exceptionally active catalysts for proton reduction to H2 . In this manuscript, we explore the first protonation step of the proposed catalytic cycle by using a catalytically inactive Ni(I) complex possessing a sterically demanding variation of the ligand. Due to the paramagnetic nature of the Ni(I) oxidation state, the protonated Ni(I) intermediate has been characterized through a combination of cyclic voltammetry, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy, and hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopy. Both the electrochemical and spectroscopic studies indicate that the Ni(I) complex is protonated at a pendant amine that is endo to Ni, which suggests the presence of an intramolecular Ni(I) ⋅⋅⋅HN bonding interaction. Using density functional theory, the hydrogen bond was found to involve three doubly-occupied, localized molecular orbitals: the 3dxz , 3d z 2, and 3dyz orbitals of nickel. These studies provide the first direct experimental evidence for this critical catalytic intermediate, and implications for catalytic H2 production are discussed. PMID:26041715

  2. Replacement P212H altered the pH-temperature profile of phytase from Aspergillus niger NII 08121.

    PubMed

    Ushasree, Mrudula Vasudevan; Vidya, Jalaja; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    Microbial phytase, a widely used animal feed enzyme, needs to be active and stable in the acidic milieu for better performance in the monogastric gut. Aspergillus niger phytases exhibit an activity dip in the pH range from 3.0 to 3.5. Replacement of amino acids, which changed the pKa of catalytic residues H82 and D362, resulted in alteration of the pH profile of a thermostable phytase from A. niger NII 08121. Substitution P212H in the protein loop at 14 Å distance to the active site amended the pH optimum from 2.5 to pH 3.2 nevertheless with a decrease in thermostability than the wild enzyme. This study described the utility of amino acid replacements based on pKa shifts of catalytic acid/base to modulate the pH profile of phytases. PMID:25595493

  3. Emergency Preparedness technology support to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the United Kingdom. Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    O`Kula, K.R.

    1994-03-01

    The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the United Kingdom (UK) suggested the use of an accident progression logic model method developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for K Reactor to predict the magnitude and timing of radioactivity releases (the source term) based on an advanced logic model methodology. Predicted releases are output from the personal computer-based model in a level-of-confidence format. Additional technical discussions eventually led to a request from the NII to develop a proposal for assembling a similar technology to predict source terms for the UK`s advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) type. To respond to this request, WSRC is submitting a proposal to provide contractual assistance as specified in the Scope of Work. The work will produce, document, and transfer technology associated with a Decision-Oriented Source Term Estimator for Emergency Preparedness (DOSE-EP) for the NII to apply to AGRs in the United Kingdom. This document, Appendix A is a part of this proposal.

  4. Predicting dissolved organic nitrogen export from a poorly drained loblolly pine plantation using the forestry version of DRAINMOD-NII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, S.; Youssef, M. M.; Skaggs, R. W.; Chescheir, G. M.; Amatya, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is one of the main nitrogen forms exported from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems and it plays important ecological functions in receiving surface water bodies. The DRAINMOD-NII forestry model was developed to predict water, carbon and nitrogen dynamics in drained forest ecosystems. We present an extended version of the model to predict DON export from drained forested lands. A new module has been added to the model to describe key mechanisms and processes regulating DON losses from forested lands. DON production rates was linked to the surface letter and soil microbial compartments and root exudates. The Langmuir isotherm was used to quantify the assumed instantaneous equilibrium between DON in solid and aqueous phases. DON transport with groundwater flow is simulated using numerical solutions to the advection-dispersion-reaction equation. We calibrated and validated the modified model using 21 years of water flow and DON loading data measured at the outlets of three forested (loblolly pine plantations) watersheds located in eastern North Carolina, USA. Field-testing results indicated that the model is capable of reproducing DON export dynamics on both annual and monthly basis. Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were above 0.70 for predicted annual DON losses and above 0.63 for monthly predictions. The good model performance is most likely attributed to accurate predictions of drainage rates and reasonable quantification of biotic and abiotic controls on DON dynamics. Although there are some uncertainties of assumptions and methods adapted by the model, the relatively accurate predictions of DON loads indicates a good performance of the model given the currently limited understanding of these inherent factors and mechanisms controlling DON dynamics.

  5. Biomimetic mono- and dinuclear Ni(I) and Ni(II) complexes studied by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuth, N.; Gehring, H.; Horn, B.; Holze, P.; Kositzki, R.; Schrapers, P.; Limberg, C.; Haumann, M.

    2016-05-01

    Five biomimetic mono- or dinuclear nickel complexes featuring Ni(I) or Ni(II) sites were studied by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Ni K-edge XANES spectra and Kβ main and satellite emission lines were collected on powder samples. The pre-edge absorption transitions (core-to-valence excitation) and Kβ2,5 emission transitions (valence-to-core decay) were calculated using DFT (TPSSh/TZVP) on crystal structures. This yielded theoretical ctv and vtc spectra in near-quantitative agreement with the experiment, showing the adequacy of the DFT approach for electronic structure description, emphasizing the sensitivity of the XAS/XES spectra for ligation/redox changes at nickel, and revealing the configuration of unoccupied and occupied valence levels, as well as the spin-coupling modes in the dinuclear complexes. XAS/XES-DFT is valuable for molecular and electronic structure analysis of synthetic complexes and of nickel centers in H2 or COx converting metalloenzymes.

  6. First Detections of the [NII] 122 Micrometer Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [NIl] 122 {\\mu} m line from a high redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (> 6{\\sigma}) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and HI413+ 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) on the CSO. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line-to-FIR continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0x10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1x10(exp -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line-to-continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8 to 17% of the molecular gas mass. The [OIII]/[NII] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an AGN. Using our previous detection of the [01II] 88 {\\mu}m line, the [OIII]/ [NIl] line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar HII regions ionized by 09.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter 10g(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30 to 50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [NIl] line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This work demonstrates the utility of the [NIl] and [OIII] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  7. NII Simulator 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-12-02

    The software listed here is a simulator for SAIC P7500 VACIS non intrusive inspection system. The simulator provides messages similar to those provided by this piece of equipment.To facilitate testing of the Second Line of Defense systems and similar software products from commercial software vendors, this software simulation application has been developed to simulate the P7500 that the Second Line of Defense communications software system must interface with. The primary use of this simulator ismore » for testing of both Sandia developed and DOE contractor developed software.« less

  8. NII Simulator 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Craig; Salazar, Anthony; Humphrey, Walter; & Johnson, ALfred

    2009-12-02

    The software listed here is a simulator for SAIC P7500 VACIS non intrusive inspection system. The simulator provides messages similar to those provided by this piece of equipment.To facilitate testing of the Second Line of Defense systems and similar software products from commercial software vendors, this software simulation application has been developed to simulate the P7500 that the Second Line of Defense communications software system must interface with. The primary use of this simulator is for testing of both Sandia developed and DOE contractor developed software.

  9. X-Ray Crystallographic, Multifrequency EPR, and DFT Characterization of the Ni(PCy2NtBu2)2n+ Hydrogen Oxidation Catalyst in the Ni(I) Oxidation State

    PubMed Central

    Niklas, Jens; Westwood, Mark; Mardis, Kristy L.; Brown, Tiara L.; Pitts-McCoy, Anthony M.; Hopkins, Michael D.; Poluektov, Oleg G.

    2016-01-01

    The Ni(I) hydrogen oxidation catalyst [Ni(PCy2NtBu2)2]+ (1+; PCy2NtBu2= 1,5bis(tert-butyl)-3,7-dicyclo-hexyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacychlooctane) has been studied using a combination of EPR techniques (X-, Q-, and D-band; electron-nuclear double resonance, hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy), X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Crystallographic and DFT studies indicate that the molecular structure of 1+ is highly symmetrical. EPR spectroscopy has allowed determination of the electronic g-tensor and the spin density distribution on the ligands, and revealed that the Ni(I) center does not interact strongly with the potentially coordinating solvents acetonitrile and butyronitrile. The EPR spectra and magnetic parameters of 1+ are found to be distinctly different from those for the related compound [Ni(PPh2NPh2)2]+ (4+). One significant contributor to these differences is that the molecular structure of 4+ is unsymmetrical, unlike that of 1+. DFT calculations on derivatives in which the R and R′ groups are systematically varied have allowed elucidation of structure/substituent relationships and their corresponding influence on the magnetic resonance parameters. PMID:26098955

  10. Design Documentation for JaWE2Openflow Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, N; Barter, R H

    2004-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has chosen CIGNEX Technologies, Inc. (CIGNEX) to design and develop the JaWE2Openflow conversion software. This document was created by CIGNEX as a project deliverable.

  11. RuBPCase activase mediates growth-defense tradeoffs: Silencing RCA redirects JA flux from JA-Ile to MeJA to attenuate induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sirsha; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary RuBPCase activase (RCA), an abundant photosynthetic protein is strongly down-regulated in response to Manduca sexta’s oral secretion (OS) in Nicotiana attenuata. RCA-silenced plants are impaired not only in photosynthetic capacity and growth, but also in jasmonic acid (JA)-isoleucine (Ile) signaling, and herbivore resistance mediated by JA-Ile dependent defense traits. These responses are consistent with a resource-based growth-defense trade-off. Since JA+Ile-supplementation of OS restored WT levels of JA-Ile, defenses and resistance to M. sexta, but OS supplemented individually with JA- or Ile did not, the JA-Ile deficiency of RCA-silenced plants could not be attributed to lower JA or Ile pools or JAR4/6 conjugating activity. Similar levels of JA-Ile derivatives after OS elicitation indicated unaltered JA-Ile turnover and lower levels of other JA-conjugates ruled out competition from other conjugation reactions. RCA-silenced plants accumulated more methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after OS elicitation, which corresponded with increased jasmonate methyltransferase (JMT) activity. RCA-silencing phenocopies JMT over-expression, wherein elevated JMT activity redirects OS-elicited JA flux towards inactive MeJA, creating a JA sink which depletes JA-Ile and its associated defense responses. Hence RCA plays an additional non-photosynthetic role in attenuating JA-mediated defenses and their associated costs potentially allowing plants to anticipate resource-based constraints on growth before they actually occur. PMID:24491116

  12. NII Task Force Issues Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Presents the preliminary report of the National Information Infrastructure's Task Force on Intellectual Property. Topics addressed include current copyright law; distribution rights; publication; first sale doctrine; technological protection; copyright management information; public performance right; fair use; licensing; international issues;…

  13. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its ro...

  14. Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-02-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 μmol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. PMID:24128452

  15. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity of two diastereomeric JA-Ile macrolactones.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Machado, Ricardo A R; Görls, Helmar; Baldwin, Ian T; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-06-01

    Jasmonates are phytohormones involved in a wide range of plant processes, including growth, development, senescence, and defense. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile, 2), an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA, 1), has been identified as a bioactive endogenous jasmonate. However, JA-Ile (2) analogues trigger different responses in the plant. ω-Hydroxylation of the pentenyl side chain leads to the inactive 12-OH-JA-Ile (3) acting as a “stop” signal. On the other hand, a lactone derivative of 12-OH-JA (5) (jasmine ketolactone, JKL) occurs in nature, although with no known biological function. Inspired by the chemical structure of JKL (6) and in order to further explore the potential biological activities of 12-modified JA-Ile derivatives, we synthesized two macrolactones (JA-Ile-lactones (4a) and (4b)) derived from 12-OH-JA-Ile (3). The biological activity of (4a) and (4b) was tested for their ability to elicit nicotine production, a well-known jasmonate dependent secondary metabolite. Both macrolactones showed strong biological activity, inducing nicotine accumulation to a similar extent as methyl jasmonate does in Nicotiana attenuata leaves. Surprisingly, the highest nicotine contents were found in plants treated with the JA-Ile-lactone (4b), which has (3S,7S) configuration at the cyclopentanone not known from natural jasmonates. Macrolactone (4a) is a valuable standard to explore for its occurrence in nature. PMID:25806705

  16. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  17. Maize MeJA-responsive proteins identified by high-resolution 2-DE PAGE.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuliang; Pennerman, Kayla K; Yang, Fengshan; Yin, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is well-known to induce plant defense mechanisms effective against a wide variety of insect and microbial pests. High-resolution 2-DE gel electrophoresis was used to discover changes in the leaf proteome of maize exposed to MeJA. We sequenced 62 MeJA-responsive proteins by tandem mass spectroscopy, and deposited the mass spectra and identities in the EMBL-EBI PRIDE repository under reference number PXD001793. An analysis and discussion of the identified proteins in relation to maize defense against Asian corn borer is published by Zhang et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26509185

  18. Mutations in jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine-12-hydroxylases suppress multiple JA-dependent wound responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Arati N; Zhang, Tong; Kwasniewski, Misha; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Koo, Abraham J

    2016-09-01

    Plants rapidly perceive tissue damage, such as that inflicted by insects, and activate several key defense responses. The importance of the fatty acid-derived hormone jasmonates (JA) in dictating these wound responses has been recognized for many years. However, important features pertaining to the regulation of the JA pathway are still not well understood. One key unknown is the inactivation mechanism of the JA pathway and its relationship with plant response to wounding. Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 enzymes in the CYP94 clade metabolize jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a major metabolite of JA responsible for many biological effects attributed to the JA signaling pathway; thus, CYP94s are expected to contribute to the attenuation of JA-Ile-dependent wound responses. To directly test this, we created the double and triple knock-out mutants of three CYP94 genes, CYP94B1, CYP94B3, and CYP94C1. The mutations blocked the oxidation steps and caused JA-Ile to accumulate 3-4-fold the WT levels in the wounded leaves. Surprisingly, over accumulation of JA-Ile did not lead to a stronger wound response. On the contrary, the mutants displayed a series of symptoms reminiscent of JA-Ile deficiency, including resistance to wound-induced growth inhibition, decreased anthocyanin and trichomes, and increased susceptibility to insects. The mutants, however, responded normally to exogenous JA treatments, indicating that JA perception or signaling pathways were intact. Untargeted metabolite analyses revealed >40% reduction in wound-inducible metabolites in the mutants. These observations raise questions about the current JA signaling model and point toward a more complex model perhaps involving JA derivatives and/or feedback mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:26968098

  19. Continuous Dust Formation in SNe 2010jl and 2011ja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafton, Kelsie; Clayton, Geoffrey; Andrews, Jennifer; Barlow, Michael; De Looze, Ilse

    2016-08-01

    Studies in the last 10 years of dust formation in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) have found only small amounts, ~0.001 solar masses. This is far less than the amount needed to account for the large masses of dust seen in some high redshift galaxies. However, the recent discovery of ~1 solar mass of cold dust in the ejecta of SN 1987A has has caused a complete re-evaluation of dust formation in CCSNe. It has been suggested that the CCSNe are continuously forming dust so that by the time they are about 25 years old they will have dust masses similar to SN 1987A. However, there is a wide time gap between the CCSNe that have been studied recently and SN 1987A. We plan to use the sensitivity of Spitzer to detect dust emission from CCSNe 5 or more years after explosion. Radiative transfer models will be used to estimate the dust masses. This proposal is to continue our study of two interesting SNe 2010jl and 2011ja. These observations are part of a long term study requiring multiple epochs of Spitzer observations to look for evidence of continuous dust formation. These observations will help shed light on the mystery of dust in SN 1987A.

  20. Shared binding sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins.

    PubMed

    Herrero, S; González-Cabrera, J; Tabashnik, B E; Ferré, J

    2001-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far. PMID:11722929

  1. Shared Binding Sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Salvador; González-Cabrera, Joel; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Ferré, Juan

    2001-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far. PMID:11722929

  2. Update from the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM).

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) was established in 2005 to promote the use of alternatives to animal testing in regulatory studies, thereby replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, according to the Three Rs principles. JaCVAM assesses the utility, limitations and suitability for use in regulatory studies, of test methods needed to determine the safety of chemicals and other materials. JaCVAM also organises and performs validation studies of new test methods, when necessary. In addition, JaCVAM co-operates and collaborates with similar organisations in related fields, both in Japan and internationally, which also enables JaCVAM to provide input during the establishment of guidelines for new alternative experimental methods. These activities help facilitate application and approval processes for the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, pesticides, and other products, as well as for revisions to standards for cosmetic products. In this manner, JaCVAM plays a leadership role in the introduction of new alternative experimental methods for regulatory acceptance in Japan. PMID:24512226

  3. Influence factors and gene expression patterns during MeJa-induced gummosis in peach.

    PubMed

    Li, Minji; Liu, Meiyan; Peng, Futian; Fang, Long

    2015-06-15

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in gummosis in peach. Mechanical damage, methyl jasmonate (MeJa), and ethylene can induce gummosis on peach shoots in the field. In this study, we used MeJa (2%, w/w) to induce gummosis on current-year shoots in peach on high temperature (35°C). Based on the experimental model, we studied the influence of factors on the development of peach gummosis. Our experimental results showed that high temperature could promote gummosis development induced by MeJa. Exogenous CaCl2 treatment reduced the degree of gummosis by increasing the calcium content in shoots, which is conducive to the synthesis and maintenance of the cell wall. Using digital gene expression (DGE), 3831 differentially expressed genes were identified in the MeJa treatment versus the control. By analyzing changes in gene expression associated with cell wall degradation, genes encoding pectin methylesterase (PME) and endo-polygalacturonase (PG) were found to be significantly induced, suggesting that they are key enzymes in cell wall degradation that occurs during MeJa-induced gummosis. Genes for glycosyltransferase (GT) and cellulose synthase (CS) were also significantly upregulated by MeJa. This result suggests that MeJa treatment not only promotes the degradation of polysaccharides to destroy the cell wall, but also promotes the synthesis of new polysaccharides. We also analyzed changes in gene expression associated with sugar metabolism, senescence, and defense. MeJa treatment affected the expression of genes related to sugar metabolism and promoted plant senescence. Among the defense genes, the expression pattern of phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL) suggested that PAL may play an important role in protecting against the effects of MeJa treatment. Our experimental results showed that MeJa treatment can promote the biosynthesis and signal transduction of ethylene in peach shoots; they can induce gummosis on peach shoots respectively, and there are overlaps between

  4. Using Modified J-A model in MMM detection at elastic stress stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, MingXiu; Xu, MinQiang; Li, JianWei; Xing, HaiYan

    2012-06-01

    In order to propel the development of metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique in fatigue damage detection, a modified Jiles-Atherton (J-A) model is constructed to describe MMM mechanism in elastic stress stage. The MMM phenomenon is discussed from the view of energy minimum theory and equivalent magnetic field theory, the modified J-A model is constructed based on the energy balance in the process of magnetisation and the idea of J-A model, and the new model is used to simulate magnetomechanical effect by Matlab and compare with experimental results. It is shown that the forming process of MMM field is cyclic magnetisation in the range of equivalent magnetic field and the MMM field moves irreversibly towards a local equilibrium state ? . ? is the intermediate state with some pinning before M reaches the anhysteretic magnetisation state ? . The ? curve is a loop around the ? curve, and it changes with ? , H and the type of stress cycle. The modified J-A model that is suited for MMM detection is constructed by replacing ? in J-A model with ? and changing some parameters, and it can describe magnetisation features in tension, release processes better and explain the changes in the sign of ? that have been observed in experiments more reasonably. The modified J-A model can simulate the process of MMM field to become steady and the MMM field variation at fatigue process theoretically by changing model parameters, which is confirmed by experimental results. The results of theoretical research, simulation analysis and experiment verification all indicate that the modified J-A model can be used to describe MMM mechanism in elastic stress stage and analyse MMM field changes at fatigue process.

  5. A balanced JA/ABA status may correlate with adaptation to osmotic stress in Vitis cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed; Seo, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Water-related stress is considered a major type of plant stress. Osmotic stress, in particular, represents the common part of all water-related stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved different adaptive mechanisms to cope with osmotic-related disturbances. In the current work, two grapevine cell lines that differ in their osmotic adaptability, Vitis rupestris and Vitis riparia, were investigated under mannitol-induced osmotic stress. To dissect signals that lead to adaptability from those related to sensitivity, osmotic-triggered responses with respect to jasmonic acid (JA) and its active form JA-Ile, abscisic acid (ABA), and stilbene compounds, as well as the expression of their related genes were observed. In addition, the transcript levels of the cellular homeostasis gene NHX1 were examined. The data are discussed with a hypothesis suggesting that a balance of JA and ABA status might correlate with cellular responses, either guiding cells to sensitivity or to progress toward adaptation. PMID:26277753

  6. Dermal sensitization potential of ja-2 solid propellant in guinea pigs. Report for 4 April-9 May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.M.; Brown, L.D.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-11-01

    JA-2 Solid Propellant was evaluated for its potential to produce dermal sensitization in male guinea pigs. The Buehler test, which utilizes repeated closed patch inductions with the test compound, was used for this evaluation. No evidence that JA-2 Solid Propellant induced sensitization was obtained in the study.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:26484871

  8. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:26484871

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae UCD-JA29 Isolated from a Patient with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Alexiev, Alexandra; Coil, David A.; Jospin, Guillaume; Adams, Jason Y.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the 6,155,188-bp draft genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae UCD-JA29, isolated from blood cultures from a patient with sepsis at the University of California, Davis Medical Center in Sacramento, California, USA. PMID:27151785

  10. Integrated metabolomic and proteomic analysis reveals systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Prasuna, M Lakshmi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch Venkata

    2015-02-01

    Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress were deciphered using metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling. Strain JA2 tolerated high concentrations of aniline (30 mM) with trace amounts of aniline being transformed to acetanilide. GC-MS metabolite profiling revealed aniline stress phenotype wherein amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, nitrogen metabolisms, and TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were modulated. Strain JA2 responded to aniline by remodeling the proteome, and cellular functions, such as signaling, transcription, translation, stress tolerance, transport and carbohydrate metabolism, were highly modulated. Key adaptive responses, such as transcription/translational changes, molecular chaperones to control protein folding, and efflux pumps implicated in solvent extrusion, were induced in response to aniline stress. Proteo-metabolomics indicated extensive rewiring of metabolism to aniline. TCA cycle and amino acid catabolism were down-regulated while gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated, leading to the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, increased saturated fatty acid ratios in membranes due to aniline stress suggest membrane adaptation. The present study thus indicates that strain JA2 employs multilayered responses: stress response, toxic compound tolerance, energy conservation, and metabolic rearrangements to aniline. PMID:25388363

  11. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  12. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  13. Physiological Characteristics and Production of Folic Acid of Lactobacillus plantarum JA71 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, is an essential substance for maintaining the functions of the nervous system, and is also known to decrease the level of homocysteine in plasma. Homocysteine influences the lowering of the cognitive function in humans, and especially in elderly people. In order to determine the strains with a strong capacity to produce folic acid, 190 bacteria were isolated from various kinds of jeotgal and chungkuk-jang. In our test experiment, JA71 was found to contain 9.03μg/mL of folic acid after 24 h of incubation in an MRS broth. This showed that JA71 has the highest folic acid production ability compared to the other lactic acid bacteria that were isolated. JA71 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16s rDNA sequence. JA71 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of JA71 was 37℃, and the cultures took 12 h to reach pH 4.4. JA71 proved more sensitive to bacitracin when compared with fifteen different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to neomycin and vancomycin. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant of bile juice and acid, and displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus with restraint rates of 60.4%, 96.7%, and 76.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that JA71 could be an excellent strain for application to functional products. PMID:26760752

  14. Physiological Characteristics and Production of Folic Acid of Lactobacillus plantarum JA71 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Do, Jeong-Ryong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Kee-Sung; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, is an essential substance for maintaining the functions of the nervous system, and is also known to decrease the level of homocysteine in plasma. Homocysteine influences the lowering of the cognitive function in humans, and especially in elderly people. In order to determine the strains with a strong capacity to produce folic acid, 190 bacteria were isolated from various kinds of jeotgal and chungkuk-jang. In our test experiment, JA71 was found to contain 9.03μg/mL of folic acid after 24 h of incubation in an MRS broth. This showed that JA71 has the highest folic acid production ability compared to the other lactic acid bacteria that were isolated. JA71 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16s rDNA sequence. JA71 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of JA71 was 37℃, and the cultures took 12 h to reach pH 4.4. JA71 proved more sensitive to bacitracin when compared with fifteen different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to neomycin and vancomycin. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant of bile juice and acid, and displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus with restraint rates of 60.4%, 96.7%, and 76.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that JA71 could be an excellent strain for application to functional products. PMID:26760752

  15. Physiological impacts of ABA-JA interactions under water-limitation.

    PubMed

    de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Plant responses to drought stress depend on highly regulated signal transduction pathways with multiple interactions. This complex crosstalk can lead to a physiological outcome of drought avoidance or tolerance/resistance. ABA is the principal mediator of these responses due to the regulation of stomatal closure that determines plant growth and survival, but also other strategies of drought resistance such as osmotic adjustment. However, other hormones such as JA seem responsible for regulating a subset of plant responses to drought by regulating ABA biosynthesis and accumulation and ABA-dependent signalling, but also by ABA independent pathways. Here, we review recent reports of ABA-JA hormonal and molecular interactions within a physiological framework of drought tolerance. Understanding the physiological significance of this complex regulation offers opportunities to find strategies of drought tolerance that avoid unwanted side effects that limit growth and yield, and may allow biotechnological crop improvement. PMID:27299601

  16. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  17. A self-adaptive genetic algorithm to estimate JA model parameters considering minor loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-liang; Wen, Xi-shan; Lan, Lei; An, Yun-zhu; Li, Xiao-ping

    2015-01-01

    A self-adaptive genetic algorithm for estimating Jiles-Atherton (JA) magnetic hysteresis model parameters is presented. The fitness function is established based on the distances between equidistant key points of normalized hysteresis loops. Linearity function and logarithm function are both adopted to code the five parameters of JA model. Roulette wheel selection is used and the selection pressure is adjusted adaptively by deducting a proportional which depends on current generation common value. The Crossover operator is established by combining arithmetic crossover and multipoint crossover. Nonuniform mutation is improved by adjusting the mutation ratio adaptively. The algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of one kind of silicon-steel sheet's hysteresis loops, and the results are in good agreement with published data.

  18. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  19. Elevated CO2 Influences Nematode-Induced Defense Responses of Tomato Genotypes Differing in the JA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yucheng; Yin, Jin; Cao, Haifeng; Li, Chuanyou; Kang, Le; Ge, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations can affect the induced defense of plants against chewing herbivores but little is known about whether elevated CO2 can change the induced defense of plants against parasitic nematodes. This study examined the interactions between the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and three isogenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genotypes grown under ambient (390 ppm) and elevated (750 ppm) CO2 in growth chambers. In a previous study with open-top chambers in the field, we reported that elevated CO2 increased the number of nematode-induced root galls in a JA-defense-dominated genotype but not in a wild-type or JA-defense-recessive genotype. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 will favor the salicylic acid (SA)-pathway defense but repress the jasmonic acid (JA)-pathway defense of plants against plant-parasitic nematodes. Our data showed that elevated CO2 reduced the JA-pathway defense against M. incognita in the wild-type and in a genotype in which defense is dominated by the JA pathway (a JA-defense-dominated genotype) but up-regulated the SA-pathway defense in the wild type and in a JA-defense-recessive genotype (jasmonate-deficient mutant). Our results suggest that, in terms of defense genes, secondary metabolites, and volatile organic compounds, induced defense of nematode-infected plants could be affected by elevated CO2, and that CO2-induced changes of plant resistance may lead to genotype-specific responses of plants to nematodes under elevated CO2. The changes in resistance against nematodes, however, were small relative to those reported for chewing insects. PMID:21629688

  20. Rice Rab11 is required for JA-mediated defense signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Min Ji; Lee, Yun mi; Son, Young Sim; Im, Chak Han; Yi, Young Byung; Rim, Yeong Gil; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Heo, Jae Bok

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •OsRab11 interacts with OsOPR8. •OsOPR8 is localized in the cytosol and peroxisome. •OsRab11 enhances the NADPH consumption by OsOPR8. •Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsRab11 represents a pathogen-resistant phenotype. -- Abstract: Rab proteins play an essential role in regulating vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Previously, we characterized OsRab11, which in concert with OsGAP1 and OsGDI3 regulates vesicular trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane or vacuole. To further elucidate the physiological function of OsRab11 in plants, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using OsRab11 as bait. OsOPR8 was isolated and shown to interact with OsRab11. A co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed this interaction. The green fluorescent protein-OsOPR8 fusion product was targeted to the cytoplasm and peroxisomes of protoplasts from Arabidopsis thaliana. OsOPR8 exhibited NADPH-dependent reduction activity when 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CyHE) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) were supplied as possible substrates. Interestingly, NADPH oxidation by OsOPR8 was increased when wild-type OsRab11 or the constitutively active form of OsRab11 (Q78L) were included in the reaction mix, but not when the dominant negative form of OsRab11 (S28N) was included. OsRab11 was expressed broadly in plants and both OsRab11 and OsOPR8 were induced by jasmonic acid (JA) and elicitor treatments. Overexpressed OsRab11 transgenic plants showed resistance to pathogens through induced expression of JA-responsive genes. In conclusion, OsRab11 may be required for JA-mediated defense signaling by activating the reducing activity of OsOPR8.

  1. Novel JAZ co-operativity and unexpected JA dynamics underpin Arabidopsis defence responses to Pseudomonas syringae infection.

    PubMed

    de Torres Zabala, Marta; Zhai, Bing; Jayaraman, Siddharth; Eleftheriadou, Garoufalia; Winsbury, Rebecca; Yang, Ron; Truman, William; Tang, Saijung; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Grant, Murray

    2016-02-01

    Pathogens target phytohormone signalling pathways to promote disease. Plants deploy salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defences against biotrophs. Pathogens antagonize SA immunity by activating jasmonate signalling, for example Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces coronatine (COR), a jasmonic acid (JA) mimic. This study found unexpected dynamics between SA, JA and COR and co-operation between JAZ jasmonate repressor proteins during DC3000 infection. We used a systems-based approach involving targeted hormone profiling, high-temporal-resolution micro-array analysis, reverse genetics and mRNA-seq. Unexpectedly, foliar JA did not accumulate until late in the infection process and was higher in leaves challenged with COR-deficient P. syringae or in the more resistant JA receptor mutant coi1. JAZ regulation was complex and COR alone was insufficient to sustainably induce JAZs. JAZs contribute to early basal and subsequent secondary plant defence responses. We showed that JAZ5 and JAZ10 specifically co-operate to restrict COR cytotoxicity and pathogen growth through a complex transcriptional reprogramming that does not involve the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2 and related MYC3 and MYC4 previously shown to restrict pathogen growth. mRNA-seq predicts compromised SA signalling in a jaz5/10 mutant and rapid suppression of JA-related components on bacterial infection. PMID:26428397

  2. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress. PMID:25582191

  3. Early dust formation and a massive progenitor for SN 2011ja?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. E.; Krafton, Kelsie M.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, E.; Wesson, R.; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M.; Drass, H.

    2016-04-01

    SN 2011ja was a bright (I = -18.3) Type II supernova occurring in the nearby edge on spiral galaxy NGC 4945. Flat-topped and multipeaked H α and H β spectral emission lines appear between 64 and 84 d post-explosion, indicating interaction with a disc-like circumstellar medium inclined ˜45° from edge-on. After day 84, an increase in the H- and K-band flux along with heavy attenuation of the red wing of the emission lines are strong indications of early dust formation, likely located in the cool dense shell created between the forward shock of the SN ejecta and the reverse shock created as the ejecta plows into the existing circumstellar material. Radiative transfer modelling reveals both ≈1 × 10-5 M⊙ of pre-existing dust located ˜1016.7 cm away and up to ≈6 × 10-4 M⊙ of newly formed dust. Spectral observations after 1.5 yr reveal the possibility that the fading SN is located within a young (3-6 Myr) massive stellar cluster, which when combined with tentative 56Ni mass estimates of 0.2 M⊙ may indicate a massive (≥25 M⊙) progenitor for SN 2011ja.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643T with Special Reference to Hopanoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tushar, L.; Sasikala, Ch.; Ramana, Ch. V.

    2014-01-01

    Hopanoids are present in vast amounts as integral components of bacteria and plants with their primary function to strengthen rigidity of the plasma membrane. To establish their roles more precisely, we conducted sequencing of the whole genome of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643T isolated from a fresh water stream of Udaipur in Himachal Pradesh, India, by using the Illumina HiSeq pair end chemistry of 2 × 100 bp platform. Determined genome showed a high degree of similarity to the genome of R. vannielii ATCC17100T and the 13.7 million reads generated a sequence of 3,649,277 bp possessing 3,611 putative genes. The genomic data were subsequently investigated with respect to genes involved in various features. The machinery required for the degradation of aromatic compounds and resistance to solvents as well as all that required for photosynthesis are present in this organism. Also, through extensive functional annotation, 18 genes involved in the biosynthesis of hopanoids are predicted, namely those responsible for the synthesis of diploptene, diplopterol, adenosylhopane, ribosylhopane, aminobacteriohopanetriol, glycosyl group containing hopanoids and unsaturated hopanoids. The hopanoid biosynthetic pathway was then inferred based on the genes identified and through experimental validation of individual hopanoid molecules. The genome data of R. udaipurense JA643T will be useful in understanding the functional features of hopanoids in this bacterium. PMID:25117430

  5. Banana fruit VQ motif-containing protein5 represses cold-responsive transcription factor MaWRKY26 involved in the regulation of JA biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Han, Yan-Chao; Shan, Wei; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Qun-Gang; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Most harvested fruits and vegetables are stored at low temperature but many of them are highly sensitive to chilling injury. Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone associated with various stress responses, is known to reduce chilling injury in fruits. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in relation to cold response of fruits. Here, we show the involvement of a Group I WRKY transcription factor (TF) from banana fruit, MaWRKY26, in regulating JA biosynthesis. MaWRKY26 was found to be nuclear-localized with transcriptional activation property. MaWRKY26 was induced by cold stress or by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which enhances cold tolerance in banana fruit. More importantly, MaWRKY26 transactivated JA biosynthetic genes MaLOX2, MaAOS3 and MaOPR3 via binding to their promoters. Further, MaWRKY26 physically interacted with a VQ motif-containing protein MaVQ5, and the interaction attenuated MaWRKY26-induced transactivation of JA biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that MaVQ5 might act as a repressor of MaWRKY26 in activating JA biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in response to cold stress and a better understanding of the molecular aspects of chilling injury in banana fruit. PMID:27004441

  6. Banana fruit VQ motif-containing protein5 represses cold-responsive transcription factor MaWRKY26 involved in the regulation of JA biosynthetic genes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Han, Yan-Chao; Shan, Wei; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Qun-Gang; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Most harvested fruits and vegetables are stored at low temperature but many of them are highly sensitive to chilling injury. Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone associated with various stress responses, is known to reduce chilling injury in fruits. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in relation to cold response of fruits. Here, we show the involvement of a Group I WRKY transcription factor (TF) from banana fruit, MaWRKY26, in regulating JA biosynthesis. MaWRKY26 was found to be nuclear-localized with transcriptional activation property. MaWRKY26 was induced by cold stress or by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which enhances cold tolerance in banana fruit. More importantly, MaWRKY26 transactivated JA biosynthetic genes MaLOX2, MaAOS3 and MaOPR3 via binding to their promoters. Further, MaWRKY26 physically interacted with a VQ motif-containing protein MaVQ5, and the interaction attenuated MaWRKY26-induced transactivation of JA biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that MaVQ5 might act as a repressor of MaWRKY26 in activating JA biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in response to cold stress and a better understanding of the molecular aspects of chilling injury in banana fruit. PMID:27004441

  7. HiJaK: the high-resolution J, H and K spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Hall, Zachary J.; Veyette, Mark J.

    2014-08-01

    We present the science drivers, design requirements and a preliminary design for a high-resolution, broad- bandwidth, slit-fed cross-dispersed near-infrared spectrometer for 5-meter-class telescopes. Our concept, called the High-Resolution J, H and K Spectrometer, or HiJaK, utilizes an R6 echelle in a white-pupil design to achieve high resolution in a compact configuration with a 2048 x 2048 pixel infrared detector. We present a preliminary ray-traced optical design matched to the new 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope in Happy Jack, Arizona. We also discuss mechanical and cryogenic options to house our optical design.

  8. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 Are New Targets of JAZ Repressors Negatively Regulating JA Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Sandra; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Fernández, Guillermo M.; Díez-Díaz, Monica; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; López-Vidriero, Irene; Godoy, Marta; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Van Leene, Jelle; De Jaeger, Geert; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs). Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation. PMID:24465948

  9. The interaction of an electrothermal plasma with JA2 solid propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Michael David

    Electrothermal plasmas are being studied as an ignition mechanism for solid propellants in large caliber guns. Benefits of electrothermal plasma ignition over conventional primer charge ignition include a reduction of ignition delay and delay jitter (bootstrapping) and compensation for the variable burn rate of propellants at different initial temperatures. When JA2 solid propellant is exposed to plasma radiation alone, significant decomposition results. This radiative interaction is a possible mechanism that causes the bootstrapping and temperature compensation. In addition, the effects of plasma radiation exposure have the potential to increase the propellant burn rate. To characterize this radiation interaction, PLIF imaging of NO, a JA2 decomposition product, was conducted at the propellant surface. Also, simultaneous high speed video of the propellant surface and scattering of ejected particles has been performed. During the radiation interaction scattering particles and NO appeared between 100 and 150 mus after the beginning of the discharge and propagated away from the propellant surface. This ejected material appeared in identifiable structures that are irregular in shape and distribution. This suggests that the material was ejected at semi-discrete locations on the surface rather than diffused uniformly from the surface. During the plasma firing the propellant surface changed markedly by forming irregularly shaped decomposition structures that grew in size over the course of the discharge. No correlation was observed between the structure of the ejected material and the decomposition structures formed on the propellant surface during the discharge. After the plasma discharge, the propellant continued to react, with bubbles forming on the surface up to 9 ms after the discharge finished. These bubbles are probably the largest decomposition structures in images taken of the propellant surface minutes after radiation exposure. The delayed reaction of the

  10. Observatio of HF noise in an intense aurora by the sounding rocket S-310JA-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Nomura, Y.

    1982-09-01

    Observation of noise in the frequency range from 0.6 to 7.6 MHz has been made in an auroral plasma up to approximately 220 km by an instrument (PWN-H) on board the S-310JA-7 sounding rocket. This rocket was launched at 1915:50 UT on March 27, 1978 from Syowa Station in Antarctica, just prior to an intense auroral substorm (magnetic H component decrease = -700 nT and 30 MHz CNA = -5 dB). The observed HF emissions are classified into three types according to their frequency ranges and spectral shape; (1) High level and narrow band signals whose frequencies are nearly equal to nf(ce) or (n + 1/2)f(ce), where n is an integer and f(ce) is the electron gyrofrequency. (2) A low level broad band emission whose upper-limiting frequency is below the local electron plasma frequency. (3) Signals at frequencies below f(ce). Excitation mechanism of these waves in the aurora is discussed.

  11. Seed Germination Ecology of Feather Lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S.

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha-1 was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies. PMID:24255700

  12. Children with learning disabilities in the paediatric clinic, Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mariana, A M Aina; Wong, S L

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to document the prevalence of learning disability among the children attending the Paediatric Clinic in Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban. The demographic distribution of these patients; the age of detection of the problem; the associated medical conditions and types of intervention received by these patients were documented. Patients who were between the ages of five to twelve years were included in the study. Learning disability was divided into three categories: speech and articulation problems, academic skills disorder and other categories which included developmental delay. Children with cerebral palsy were excluded from the study. Out of 1320 patients screened, 355 were found to have learning disorders. Majority were Malays, with the male to female ratio of 1.9:1. Most of the patients stayed in Seremban. The learning problem was most commonly detected at the age of 4 years and below. The commonest type of learning disorder was developmental delay, followed by academic skills disorder, speech and academic skills problems and speech disorders. Problems that were detected early were speech problems and developmental delay. Majority of the children had associated medical conditions. Most of the patients received some form of intervention but 11.3% did not attend any intervention program at all. A strategy should be formulated and implemented to help this group of children. PMID:22390107

  13. Seed germination ecology of feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes].

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha(-1) was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies. PMID:24255700

  14. Elevated CO2 Reduces the Resistance and Tolerance of Tomato Plants to Helicoverpa armigera by Suppressing the JA Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Qin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Kang, Le; Wang, Chenzhu; Li, Chuanyou; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Both resistance and tolerance, which are two strategies that plants use to limit biotic stress, are affected by the abiotic environment including atmospheric CO2 levels. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 would reduce resistance (i.e., the ability to prevent damage) but enhance tolerance (i.e., the ability to regrow and compensate for damage after the damage has occurred) of tomato plants to the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The results showed that elevated CO2 reduced resistance by decreasing the jasmonic acid (JA) level and activities of lipoxygenase, proteinase inhibitors, and polyphenol oxidase in wild-type (WT) plants infested with H. armigera. Consequently, the activities of total protease, trypsin-like enzymes, and weak and active alkaline trypsin-like enzymes increased in the midgut of H. armigera when fed on WT plants grown under elevated CO2. Unexpectedly, the tolerance of the WT to H. armigera (in terms of photosynthetic rate, activity of sucrose phosphate synthases, flower number, and plant biomass and height) was also reduced by elevated CO2. Under ambient CO2, the expression of resistance and tolerance to H. armigera was much greater in wild type than in spr2 (a JA-deficient genotype) plants, but elevated CO2 reduced these differences of the resistance and tolerance between WT and spr2 plants. The results suggest that the JA signaling pathway contributes to both plant resistance and tolerance to herbivorous insects and that by suppressing the JA signaling pathway, elevated CO2 will simultaneously reduce the resistance and tolerance of tomato plants. PMID:22829948

  15. Cyclic lipopeptide iturin A structure-dependently induces defense response in Arabidopsis plants by activating SA and JA signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Yumi; Shiraishi, Soma; Kondo, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Shoko; Aoki, Yoshinao; Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-05-15

    Iturin A is the most well studied antifungal cyclic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus species that are frequently utilized as biological control agents. Iturin A not only shows strong antifungal activity against phytopathogens but also induces defense response in plants, thereby reducing plant disease severity. Here we report the defense signaling pathways triggered by iturin A in Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)-insensitive mutants. Iturin A activated the transcription of defense genes PR1 and PDF1.2 through the SA and JA signaling pathways, respectively. The role of iturin A as an elicitor was dependent on the cyclization of the seven amino acids and/or the β-hydroxy fatty acid chain. The iturin A derivative peptide, NH2-(L-Asn)-(D-Tyr)-(D-Asn)-(L-Gln)-(L-Pro)-(D-Asn)-(L-Ser)-COOH, completely suppressed PR1 and PDF1.2 gene expression in wild Arabidopsis plants. The identification of target molecules binding to iturin A and its derivative peptide is expected to shed new light on defense response in plants through the SA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:25842204

  16. A bHLH-Type Transcription Factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1, Acts as a Repressor to Negatively Regulate Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Herde, Marco; Koo, Abraham J.K.; Moreno, Javier E.; Suzuki, Kaoru; Howe, Gregg A.; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses remain elusive. Here, we report that a basic helix-loop-helix–type transcription factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), acts as a transcriptional repressor and negatively regulates JA signaling. Gain-of-function transgenic plants expressing the chimeric repressor for JAM1 exhibited substantial reduction of JA responses, including JA-induced inhibition of root growth, accumulation of anthocyanin, and male fertility. These plants were also compromised in resistance to attack by the insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua. Conversely, jam1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced JA responsiveness, including increased resistance to insect attack. JAM1 and MYC2 competitively bind to the target sequence of MYC2, which likely provides the mechanism for negative regulation of JA signaling and suppression of MYC2 functions by JAM1. These results indicate that JAM1 negatively regulates JA signaling, thereby playing a pivotal role in fine-tuning of JA-mediated stress responses and plant growth. PMID:23673982

  17. DnaJA1/Hsp40 Is Co-Opted by Influenza A Virus To Enhance Its Viral RNA Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Mengmeng; Wei, Candong; Zhao, Lili; Wang, Jingfeng; Jia, Qiannan; Wang, Xue

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of influenza A virus is a heterotrimeric complex composed of the PB1, PB2, and PA subunits. The interplay between host factors and the three subunits of the RdRp is critical to enable viral RNA synthesis to occur in the nuclei of infected cells. In this study, we newly identified host factor DnaJA1, a member of the type I DnaJ/Hsp40 family, acting as a positive regulator for influenza virus replication. We found that DnaJA1 associates with the bPB2 and PA subunits and enhances viral RNA synthesis both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, DnaJA1 could be translocated from cytoplasm into the nucleus upon influenza virus infection. The translocation of DnaJA1 is specifically accompanied by PB1-PA nuclear import. Interestingly, we observed that the effect of DnaJA1 on viral RNA synthesis is mainly dependent on its C-terminal substrate-binding domain and not on its typical J domain, while the J domain normally mediates the Hsp70-DnaJ interaction required for regulating Hsp70 ATPase activity. Therefore, we propose that DnaJA1 is co-opted by the influenza A virus to enter the nucleus and to enhance its RNA polymerase activity in an Hsp70 cochaperone-independent manner. IMPORTANCE The interplay between host factors and influenza virus RNA polymerase plays a critical role in determining virus pathogenicity and host adaptation. In this study, we newly identified a host protein, DnaJA1/Hsp40, that is co-opted by influenza A virus RNA polymerase to enhance its viral RNA synthesis in the nuclei of infected cells. We found that DnaJA1 associates with both PB2 and PA subunits and translocates into the nucleus along with the nuclear import of the PB1-PA dimer during influenza virus replication. Interestingly, the effect of DnaJA1 is mainly dependent on its C-terminal substrate-binding domain and not on its typical J domain, which is required for its Hsp70 cochaperone function. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a member of the

  18. ABA Is an Essential Signal for Plant Resistance to Pathogens Affecting JA Biosynthesis and the Activation of Defenses in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Adie, Bruce A.T.; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Pérez-Pérez, Manuel M.; Godoy, Marta; Sánchez-Serrano, José-J.; Schmelz, Eric A.; Solano, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana defense response to the damping-off oomycete pathogen Pythium irregulare show that resistance to P. irregulare requires a multicomponent defense strategy. Penetration represents a first layer, as indicated by the susceptibility of pen2 mutants, followed by recognition, likely mediated by ERECTA receptor-like kinases. Subsequent signaling of inducible defenses is predominantly mediated by jasmonic acid (JA), with insensitive coi1 mutants showing extreme susceptibility. In contrast with the generally accepted roles of ethylene and salicylic acid cooperating with or antagonizing, respectively, JA in the activation of defenses against necrotrophs, both are required to prevent disease progression, although much less so than JA. Meta-analysis of transcriptome profiles confirmed the predominant role of JA in activation of P. irregulare–induced defenses and uncovered abscisic acid (ABA) as an important regulator of defense gene expression. Analysis of cis-regulatory sequences also revealed an unexpected overrepresentation of ABA response elements in promoters of P. irregulare–responsive genes. Subsequent infections of ABA-related and callose-deficient mutants confirmed the importance of ABA in defense, acting partly through an undescribed mechanism. The results support a model for ABA affecting JA biosynthesis in the activation of defenses against this oomycete. PMID:17513501

  19. An Arabidopsis Plasma Membrane Proton ATPase Modulates JA Signaling and Is Exploited by the Pseudomonas syringae Effector Protein AvrB for Stomatal Invasion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhaoyang; Wu, Yujiao; Yang, Yongqing; Du, Minmin; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Guo, Yan; Li, Chuanyou; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2015-07-01

    Stomata are natural openings through which many pathogenic bacteria enter plants. Successful bacterial pathogens have evolved various virulence factors to promote stomatal opening. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector protein AvrB induces stomatal opening and enhances bacterial virulence in a manner dependent on RPM1-INTERACTING4 (RIN4), which promotes stomatal opening by positively regulating the Arabidopsis plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (AHA1), which is presumed to directly regulate guard cell turgor pressure. In support of a role of AHA1 in AvrB-induced stomatal opening, AvrB enhances ATPase activity in plants. Unexpectedly, AHA1 promotes the interaction between the jasmonate (JA) receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and enhances JA signaling. JA signaling is required for optimum stomatal infection in AHA1-active plants. Similarly, AvrB also induces the COI1-JAZ9 interaction and the degradation of multiple JAZ proteins. AvrB-induced stomatal opening and virulence require the canonical JA signaling pathway, which involves the COI1 and NAC transcription factors. The findings thus point to a previously unknown pathway exploited by P. syringae that acts upstream of COI1 to regulate JA signaling and stomatal opening. PMID:26198069

  20. The Lipoxygenase Gene Family in Poplar: Identification, Classification, and Expression in Response to MeJA Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu; Chen, Xue; Yan, Hanwei; Li, Weiwei; Li, Yuan; Cai, Ronghao; Xiang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are important dioxygenases in cellular organisms. LOXs contribute to plant developmental processes and environmental responses. However, a systematic and comprehensive analysis has not been focused on the LOX gene family in poplar. Therefore, in the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the LOX gene family in poplar. Results Using bioinformatics methods, we identified a total of 20 LOX genes. These LOX genes were clustered into two subfamilies. The gene structure and motif composition of each subfamily were relatively conserved. These genes are distributed unevenly across nine chromosomes. The PtLOX gene family appears to have expanded due to high tandem and low segmental duplication events. Microarray analysis showed that a number of PtLOX genes have different expression pattern across disparate tissues and under various stress treatments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was further performed to confirm the responses to MeJA treatment of the 20 poplar LOX genes. The results show that the PtLOX genes are regulated by MeJA (Methyl jasmonate) treatment. Conclusions This study provides a systematic analysis of LOX genes in poplar. The gene family analysis reported here will be useful for conducting future functional genomics studies to uncover the roles of LOX genes in poplar growth and development. PMID:25928711

  1. A maize jasmonate Zim-domain protein, ZmJAZ14, associates with the JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaojin; Yan, Shengwei; Sun, Cheng; Li, Suzhen; Li, Jie; Xu, Miaoyun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhao, Qianqian; Li, Ye; Fan, Yunliu; Chen, Rumei; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) is an important signaling molecule involved in the regulation of many physiological and stress-related processes in plants. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins have been implicated in regulating JA signaling pathways and the cross talk between various phytohormones. Maize is not only an important cereal crop, but also a model plant for monocotyledon studies. Although many JAZ proteins have been characterized in Arabidopsis and rice, few reports have examined the function of JAZ proteins in maize. In this report, we examined the phylogenetic relationship and expression pattern of JAZ family genes in maize. In addition, a tassel and endosperm-specific JAZ gene, ZmJAZ14, was identified using microarray data analysis and real-time RT-PCR, and its expression was induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), jasmonate (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellins (GAs). ZmJAZ14 was shown to be localized in the nucleus and possessed no transcriptional activating activity, suggesting that it functions as a transcriptional regulator. We found that overexpression of ZmJAZ14 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to JA and ABA treatment, as well as PEG stress, while it promoted growth under GA stimulus. Moreover, ZmJAZ14 interacted with a subset of transcription factors in Arabidopsis, and the accumulation of several marker genes involved in JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways were altered in the overexpression lines. These results suggest that ZmJAZ14 may serve as a hub for the cross talk among the JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways. Our results can be used to further characterize the function of JAZ family proteins in maize, and the gene cloned in this study may serve as a candidate for drought tolerance and growth promotion regulation in maize. PMID:25807368

  2. The JaICA-genox oxidative stress profile--an overview on the profiling technique in the oxidative stress assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Ochi, H; Cheng, R Z; Kantha, S S; Takeuchi, M; Ramarathnam, N

    2000-01-01

    It is widely accepted that oxidative stress (OS) is a major causative factor for many of the age-related dysfunctions and specific diseases. Since the oxidative stress state (OSS) of an individual depends on hereditary, dietary, and environmental factors, there is a large heterogeneity in the population that may be related to disease incidence and longevity. Hence there is a need to assess how well an individual is coping against OS. The Japan Institute for the Control of Aging (JaICA) and Genox have jointly developed a profiling technique to measure the "Oxidative Stress Profiles (JaICA-Genox OSP)" of individuals and laboratory test animals. The JaICA-Genox OSP consists of about 45 different assays measuring the levels of oxidative damage in lipids and nucleic acids, and the antioxidant defenses in the serum. In addition, several bio-markers for cardiovascular disease risk are also measured, and assays to measure specific age- and sex-related hormones in the serum and urine, and race elements in serum, urine, and drinking water are also undertaken. This overview discusses the designing of the JaICA-Genox OSP and its application in the testing of human subjects. PMID:11237182

  3. An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Fernando; Yazaki, Junshi; Lee, Melissa; Takahashi, Yohei; Kim, Alice Y; Li, Zixing; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ecker, Joseph R; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that mediates abiotic stress tolerance and regulates growth and development. ABA binds to members of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family that initiate signal transduction inhibiting type 2C protein phosphatases. Although crosstalk between ABA and the hormone Jasmonic Acid (JA) has been shown, the molecular entities that mediate this interaction have yet to be fully elucidated. We report a link between ABA and JA signaling through a direct interaction of the ABA receptor PYL6 (RCAR9) with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in yeast two hybrid assays and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of ABA. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins. Furthermore, PYL6 was able to modify transcription driven by MYC2 using JAZ6 and JAZ8 DNA promoter elements in yeast one hybrid assays. Finally, pyl6 T-DNA mutant plants show an increased sensitivity to the addition of JA along with ABA in cotyledon expansion experiments. Overall, the present study identifies a direct mechanism for transcriptional modulation mediated by an ABA receptor different from the core ABA signaling pathway, and a putative mechanistic link connecting ABA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:27357749

  4. An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Fernando; Yazaki, Junshi; Lee, Melissa; Takahashi, Yohei; Kim, Alice Y.; Li, Zixing; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ecker, Joseph R.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that mediates abiotic stress tolerance and regulates growth and development. ABA binds to members of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family that initiate signal transduction inhibiting type 2C protein phosphatases. Although crosstalk between ABA and the hormone Jasmonic Acid (JA) has been shown, the molecular entities that mediate this interaction have yet to be fully elucidated. We report a link between ABA and JA signaling through a direct interaction of the ABA receptor PYL6 (RCAR9) with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in yeast two hybrid assays and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of ABA. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins. Furthermore, PYL6 was able to modify transcription driven by MYC2 using JAZ6 and JAZ8 DNA promoter elements in yeast one hybrid assays. Finally, pyl6 T-DNA mutant plants show an increased sensitivity to the addition of JA along with ABA in cotyledon expansion experiments. Overall, the present study identifies a direct mechanism for transcriptional modulation mediated by an ABA receptor different from the core ABA signaling pathway, and a putative mechanistic link connecting ABA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:27357749

  5. Integrated Performance of Next Generation High Data Rate Receiver and AR4JA LDPC Codec for Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Lyubarev, Mark; Nakashima, Michael A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Lee, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are the state-of-the-art in forward error correction (FEC) technology that exhibits capacity approaching performance. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has designed a family of LDPC codes that are similar in structure and therefore, leads to a single decoder implementation. The Accumulate-Repeat-by-4-Jagged- Accumulate (AR4JA) code design offers a family of codes with rates 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 and lengths 1024, 4096, 16384 information bits. Performance is less than one dB from capacity for all combinations.Integrating a stand-alone LDPC decoder with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) receiver faces additional challenges than building a single receiver-decoder unit from scratch. In this work, we outline the issues and show that these additional challenges can be over-come by simple solutions. To demonstrate that an LDPC decoder can be made to work seamlessly with a COTS receiver, we interface an AR4JA LDPC decoder developed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with a modern high data rate receiver and mea- sure the combined receiver-decoder performance. Through optimizations that include an improved frame synchronizer and different soft-symbol scaling algorithms, we show that a combined implementation loss of less than one dB is possible and therefore, most of the coding gain evidence in theory can also be obtained in practice. Our techniques can benefit any modem that utilizes an advanced FEC code.

  6. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus “Ferrovum”

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; González, Carolina; Ossandon, Francisco J.; Daniel, Rolf; Holmes, David S.; Schlömann, Michael; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus “Ferrovum” are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus “Ferrovum” is extremely scarce. Objective In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus “Ferrovum” we sequenced the genome of a “Ferrovum”-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel “Ferrovum” strain JA12. Phylogeny and Lifestyle The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct “Ferrovum” species. “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that “Ferrovum” strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively. Unique Metabolic Features The potential utilisation of urea by “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs “Ferrovum” strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin) and Acidithiobacillus

  7. 78 FR 37499 - Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) Devices in the 5 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Rulemaking (``NPRM''), 78 FR 21320, April 10, 2013, in the above-captioned proceeding. That NPRM established... period submitted by IEEE 802 and W-Fi Alliance. We find that good cause exist for an extension of the..., IEEE 802 requested that the reply comment deadline be extended by 30 days because in reviewing...

  8. [CII] 158 μm and [NII] 205μm emission in IC342

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Güsten, R.; Stutzki, J.; Israel, F.; Jacobs, K.

    2016-05-01

    Atomic fine-structure line emission is a major cooling process in the interstellar medium (ISM). In particular the [C ii] 158 μm line is one of the dominant cooling lines in photon-dominated regions (PDRs). However, it is not confined to PDRs only but can also originate from the ionized gas closely surrounding young massive stars. Here we discuss the question how much of the [C ii] emission in the nucleus of the nearby spiral galaxy IC 342 is contributed by PDRs and by the ionized gas. Particularly the correlation of the [C ii] line with the also observed [N ii] 205 μm emission line coming exclusively from the [H ii] regions is investigated. The emission coming from the ionized gas shows a kinematic component in addition to the general Doppler signature of the molecular gas. We discuss how this requires an adaptation of our understanding of the geometrical structure of the nucleus of IC 342. Applying predictions from numerical models of [H ii] and PDR regions to derive the contribution from the ionized phase to the total [C ii] emission we find that 30-60% of the observed [C ii] intensity stems from the ionized gas if both phases contribute.

  9. The [NII] 205 μm Emission in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Lord, Steven D.; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Evans, Aaron; Howell, Justin; Petric, Andreea O.; van der Werf, Paul P.; Sanders, David B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present the measurements of the [N ii] 205 μm line for a flux-limited sample of 122 (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs] and 20 additional normal galaxies, obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel). We explore the far-infrared (FIR) color dependence of the [N ii] 205 μm (L[N ii]205 μm) to the total infrared (LIR) luminosity ratio, and find that L[N ii]205 μm/LIR only depends modestly on the 70-160 μm flux density ratio ({f}70/{f}160) when {f}70/{f}160≲ 0.6, whereas such dependence becomes much steeper for {f}70/{f}160\\gt 0.6. We also investigate the relation between L[N ii]205 μm and star formation rate (SFR), and show that L[N ii]205 μm has a nearly linear correlation with SFR, albeit the intercept of such a relation varies somewhat with {f}60/{f}100, consistent with our previous conclusion that [N ii] 205 μm emission can serve as an SFR indicator with an accuracy of ˜0.4 dex, or ˜0.2 dex if {f}60/{f}100 is known independently. Furthermore, together with the Infrared Space Observatory measurements of [N ii], we use a total of ˜200 galaxies to derive the local [N ii] 205 μm luminosity function (LF) by tying it to the known IR LF with a bivariate method. As a practical application, we also compute the local SFR volume density ({\\dot{ρ }}{{SFR}}) using the newly derived SFR calibrator and LF. The resulting {log} {\\dot{ρ }}{{SFR}}=-1.96+/- 0.11 {M}⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3 agrees well with previous studies. Finally, we determine the electron densities (ne) of the ionized medium for a subsample of 12 (U)LIRGs with both [N ii] 205 μm and [N ii] 122 μm data, and find that ne is in the range of ˜1-100 cm-3, with a median value of 22 cm-3. Based on Herschel observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  10. Physical Properties of the Magellanic Bridge Tidal Remnant through Mapped Hα, [SII], and [NII] Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Kathleen; Haffner, L. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We present the first kinematically resolved [S II] λ6716 and [N II] λ6583 emission maps of the entire Magellanic Bridge that were observed with the Wisconsin Hα Mapper Telescope. Combining these maps with the complementary Hα maps of Barger et al. (2013), we explore the temperature, sulfur and nitrogen ionization state, and sources of the ionization of the warm-ionized gas in the Magellanic Bridge, the SMC-Tail, and the LMC-Bridge interface region. Within the Magellanic Bridge, we find that the low velocity (+100 to +200 km s-1 ) and the high velocity (+200 to +300 km s-1 ) gas have different properties, suggesting that it is composed of at least two separate and coherent filaments. Within the high-velocity filament, a high-velocity ridge of gas—with different properties from the high-velocity structure—extends along the high-latitude edge of the Hα SMC-Tail to low latitude edge LMC-Bridge interface. This ridge coincides with a strip of early-type stars, suggesting that these stars are influencing this gas. We further find that the properties of both the SMC-Tail and LMC-Bridge interface regions have similar properties and therefore are likely affected by similar ionization sources.

  11. A Practical and Cost Effective Demonstration of Efficient Energy Usage and Quality Management Using the NII

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    In order to be competitive in the changing electric power industry, and to promote energy efficiency and conservation, electric power providers need to have access to information on the power system to a level of detail that has not been available in the past. This level of detail extends beyond the usual voltage, current, power, and energy quantities obtained from traditional utility SCADA systems.

  12. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  13. Gene-to-metabolite network for biosynthesis of lignans in MeJA-elicited Isatis indigotica hairy root cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruibing; Li, Qing; Tan, Hexin; Chen, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Ma, Ruifang; Gao, Shouhong; Zerbe, Philipp; Chen, Wansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Root and leaf tissue of Isatis indigotica shows notable anti-viral efficacy, and are widely used as “Banlangen” and “Daqingye” in traditional Chinese medicine. The plants' pharmacological activity is attributed to phenylpropanoids, especially a group of lignan metabolites. However, the biosynthesis of lignans in I. indigotica remains opaque. This study describes the discovery and analysis of biosynthetic genes and AP2/ERF-type transcription factors involved in lignan biosynthesis in I. indigotica. MeJA treatment revealed differential expression of three genes involved in phenylpropanoid backbone biosynthesis (IiPAL, IiC4H, Ii4CL), five genes involved in lignan biosynthesis (IiCAD, IiC3H, IiCCR, IiDIR, and IiPLR), and 112 putative AP2/ERF transcription factors. In addition, four intermediates of lariciresinol biosynthesis were found to be induced. Based on these results, a canonical correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient was performed to construct gene-to-metabolite networks and identify putative key genes and rate-limiting reactions in lignan biosynthesis. Over-expression of IiC3H, identified as a key pathway gene, was used for metabolic engineering of I. indigotica hairy roots, and resulted in an increase in lariciresinol production. These findings illustrate the utility of canonical correlation analysis for the discovery and metabolic engineering of key metabolic genes in plants. PMID:26579184

  14. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J A; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Julian, V; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Carrascosa, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  15. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  16. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  17. The MeJA-inducible copper amine oxidase AtAO1 is expressed in xylem tissue and guard cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghuge, Sandip A; Carucci, Andrea; Rodrigues-Pousada, Renato A; Tisi, Alessandra; Franchi, Stefano; Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases oxidize the polyamine putrescine to 4-aminobutanal with the production of the plant signal molecule hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ammonia. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene At4g14940 (AtAO1, previously referred to as ATAO1) encodes an apoplastic copper amine oxidase expressed in lateral root cap cells and developing xylem, especially in root protoxylem and metaxylem precursors. In our recent study, we demonstrated that AtAO1 expression is strongly induced in the root vascular tissues by the wound-signal hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that the H2O2 derived by the AtAO1-driven oxidation of putrescine, mediates the MeJA–induced early protoxylem differentiation in Arabidopsis roots. H2O2 may contribute to protoxylem differentiation by signaling developmental cell death and by acting as co-substrate in peroxidase-mediated cell wall stiffening and lignin polymerization. Here, by the means of AtAO1 promoter::green fluorescent protein-β-glucuronidase (AtAO1::GFP-GUS) fusion analysis, we show that a strong AtAO1 gene expression occurs also in guard cells of leaves and flowers. The high expression levels of AtAO1 in tissues or cell types regulating water supply and water loss may suggest a role of the encoded protein in water balance homeostasis, by modulating coordinated adjustments in anatomical and functional features of xylem tissue and guard cells during acclimation to adverse environmental conditions. PMID:26241131

  18. Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

    2012-04-01

    The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a

  19. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA. PMID:27200023

  20. GA3 and other signal regulators (MeJA and IAA) improve xanthumin biosynthesis in different manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Li, Changfu; Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberrellin A3 (GA3) at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM) or IAA (200 µM) treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM) led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment. PMID:25157461

  1. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA. PMID:27200023

  2. Factors influencing the structure and spatial distribution of fishes in the headwater streams of the Jaú River in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Kemenes, A; Forsberg, B R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of spatial variation in river channels and habitats on the distribution of fish communities in the headwater streams of the Jaú River System, a blackwater tributary of the Negro River. Collections and measurements were made in 34 headwater streams during the period of November- December, 1998. Fish were captured with fish traps and hand nets along standard reaches of two meanders. Data on benthic habitat structure, stream depth and width were collected along lateral transects in each sample reach. A total of 66 fish species from 24 families were collected and classified into seven trophic guilds: allocthonous insectivore, autochthonous insectivore, general insectivore, piscivore, detritivorous planktivore, detritivorous insectivore and insectivorous piscivore. Variations in the distribution and diversity of bottom substrates were important factors influencing fish community structures in these systems. Also, variation in stream size explained the observed variability in fish communities. PMID:25627363

  3. Effects of Adding Vindoline and MeJA on Production of Vincristine and Vinblastine, and Transcription of their Biosynthetic Genes in the Cultured CMCs of Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjin; Yang, Jiazeng; Zi, Jiachen; Zhu, Jianhua; Song, Liyan; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-12-01

    Vincristine and vinblastine were found by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) in Catharanthus roseuscambial meristem cells (CMCs) jointly treated with 0.25 mM vindoline and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), suggesting that C. roseus CMCs contain a complete set of the enzymes which are in response to convert vindoline into vincristine and vinblastine. Based on the facts that the transcript levels of vindoline-biosynthetic genes (STR, SGD and D4H) were up-regulated instead of being down-regulated by adding itself to the culture, and that the transcriptional factor ORCA3 was up-regulated simultaneously, we further confirmed that the transcription of STR, SGD, D4H was manipulated by ORCA3. PMID:26882673

  4. Variability of phenotype, anthocyanin indexes, and flavonoids in accessions from a close relative of soybean, Neontonia wightii (Wright & Arn. J.A. Lackey) in the U.S. germplasm collection for potential use as a health forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A close relative of soybean, Neonotonia wightii (Wright & Arn. J.A. Lackey), is used as a ruminant feed and restores soil productivity in Brazil and Zimbabwe, respectively. Neonotonia wightii accessions were grown in a greenhouse at Griffin, Georgia, characterized for various phenotypic traits, and...

  5. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  6. Molecular characterisation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and plasmid AmpC-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers in Béjaïa, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belmahdi, Mohamed; Bakour, Sofiane; Al Bayssari, Charbel; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the molecular support of antibiotic resistance in expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy broilers in Béjaïa, northeast Algeria. A total of 61 intestinal swabs from slaughtered broilers from four regions in Béjaïa locality, Algeria, were collected between February and April 2014, from which 20 ESC-resistant E. coli strains were isolated. Escherichia coli isolates were identified by classical biochemical and MALDI-TOF methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Screening for β-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME)-encoding genes and qnr determinants was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was determined using molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that the isolates showed high rates of resistance (>90%) to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime, streptomycin, tobramycin, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Low rates of resistance were observed for kanamycin (35%), amikacin (30%), cefoxitin (20%) and cefotaxime (15%). Molecular characterisation revealed that all of the isolates expressed the blaTEM-1 gene. Fourteen of them harboured the blaSHV-12 gene, two harboured the blaCTX-M-1 gene and four isolates harboured blaCMY-2. Screening for AME-encoding genes demonstrated that all isolates contained the aadA gene. In addition, qnrA was detected as the quinolone resistance determinant in 13 isolates. MLST revealed four known sequence types (STs), including ST744, ST38, ST1011 and ST2179, as well as one new sequence type (ST5086). Here we report the first study describing the clonal diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from healthy broilers in Algeria. PMID:27530851

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: [NII]205um emission in local luminous IR galaxies (Zhao+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Lu, N.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Lord, S. D.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A.; Howell, J.; Petric, A. O.; van der Werf, P. P.; Sanders, D. B.

    2016-05-01

    The primary sample studied in this paper is from the Herschel open time project Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (OT1nlu1; PI: N. Lu). The observations were conducted with the Herschel SPIRE/FTS in its point source spectroscopy mode and high spectral resolution configuration, yielding a spectral resolution of 0.04/cm (or 1.2GHz) over the spectral coverage of 194-672um. (1 data file).

  8. The Russian Scientific Research Institue Of Parachute Design And Production (NII Parachutostroyeniya, NIIPC)- History, Research And Collaboration In Space Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyalin, V.; Ladygin, V.; Komarov, V.; Kuleshov, V.; Wong, H.; Offerman, J.; Thirkettle, A.

    2011-05-01

    NIIPC was established in 1946 for the development of paradrop equipment and is one of a few companies in the world to perform the full cycle of parachute development, including scientific research, design, manufacturing, test and modification. NIIPC produced the parachute systems for Yuri Gagarin and all of the Russian manned space missions, Vistok, Voshod and Soyuz. It produced the parachutes for unmanned missions, Almaz, Bion, Cosmos as well as the reentry modules for Mars, Venus and from the Moon. NIIPC has its own school for training of scientific personnel and large scientific and technical archive. The existing knowledge and computer codes are used for the development of prospective parachute systems. Research includes all aspects such as payload- parachute dynamics, inflation, clusters, gliding parachutes, and aeroballistic heating and strength of supersonic parachutes. International collaboration included the Ariane 5 booster parachutes with Dutch Space and development of the current supersonic parachute system for EXPERT. An Ariane 5 booster weighs 41 tonnes dry and involves a 3-stage parachute system. The EXPERT parachute deploys a drogue supersonic parachute at Mach 1.7, before extracting a main cross-shaped parachute. The test campaign for EXPERT started in 2010 and will be completed by summer 2011.

  9. Comment on ``Geoeffectiveness of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections'' by N. Gopalswamy, S. Yashiro, and S. Akiyama (J. Geophys. Res. 2007, 112, doi:10.1029/2006JA012149)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolaev, Yu. I.

    2008-12-01

    Comment on paper: Gopalswamy, N., S. Yashiro, and S. Akiyama (2007), Geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A06112, doi:10.1029/2006JA012149 Gopalswamy et al. [2007] studied the geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the basis of solar observations during 1996-2005 and found that the geoeffectiveness of 229 frontside halo CMEs was 71%. Recently for observations of 305 frontside halo CMEs during 1997-2003 the geoeffectiveness was found to be 40% [Kim et al., 2005]. Complex analysis of both solar and interplanetary measurements showed that the geoeffectiveness of frontside halo CMEs is likely to be about 50% [Yermolaev et al., 2005; Yermolaev and Yermolaev, 2006]. Gopalswamy et al. [2007] did not discuss possible causes of this difference and were limited only to the general words: "The reason for the conflicting results (geoeffectiveness of CMEs ranging from 35% to more than 80%) may be attributed to the different definition of halo CMEs and geoeffectiveness." So, here we shall present our point of view on high geoeffectivenees of CME obtained in paper by Gopalswamy et al. [2007].

  10. LOW-TEMPERATURE ION TRAP STUDIES OF N{sup +}({sup 3} P{sub ja} ) + H{sub 2}(j) {yields} NH{sup +} + H

    SciTech Connect

    Zymak, I.; Hejduk, M.; Mulin, D.; Plasil, R.; Glosik, J.; Gerlich, D.

    2013-05-01

    Using a low-temperature 22-pole ion trap apparatus, detailed measurements for the title reaction have been performed between 10 K and 100 K in order to get some state specific information about this fundamental hydrogen abstraction process. The relative population of the two lowest H{sub 2} rotational states, j = 0 and 1, has been varied systematically. NH{sup +} formation is nearly thermo-neutral; however, to date, the energetics are not known with the accuracy required for low-temperature astrochemistry. Additional complications arise from the fact that, so far, there is no reliable theoretical or experimental information on how the reactivity of the N{sup +} ion depends on its fine-structure (FS) state {sup 3} P{sub ja} . Since in the present trapping experiment, thermalization of the initially hot FS population competes with hydrogen abstraction, the evaluation of the decay of N{sup +} ions over long storage times and at various He and H{sub 2} gas densities provides information on these processes. First assuming strict adiabatic behavior, a set of state specific rate coefficients is derived from the measured thermal rate coefficients. In addition, by recording the disappearance of the N{sup +} ions over several orders of magnitude, information on nonadiabatic transitions is extracted including FS-changing collisions.

  11. Impact of agricultural activity and geologic controls on groundwater quality of the alluvial aquifer of the Guadalquivir River (province of Jaén, Spain): a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorite-Herrera, Miguel; Jiménez-Espinosa, Rosario

    2008-06-01

    The alluvial aquifer of the Alto Guadalquivir River is one of the most important shallow aquifers in Jaén, Spain. It is located in the central-eastern part of the province, and its groundwater resources are used mainly for crop irrigation in an agriculture-dominated area. Hydrochemical and water-quality data obtained through a 2-year sampling (2004-2006) and analysis program indicate that nitrate pollution is a serious problem affecting groundwater due to the use of nitrogen (N)-fertilizers in agriculture. During the study, 231 water samples were collected from wells and springs to determine water chemistry and the extent of nitrate pollution. The concentration of nitrate in groundwater ranged from 1.25 to 320.88 mg/l. Considerable seasonal fluctuations in groundwater quality were observed as a consequence of agricultural practices and other factors such as annual rainfall distribution and the Guadalquivir River flow regime. The chemical composition of the water is not only influenced by agricultural practices, but also by interaction with the alluvial sediments. The dissolution of evaporites accounts for part of the Na+, K+, Cl-, SO4 2-, Mg2+, and Ca2+, but other processes, such as calcite precipitation and dedolomitization, also contribute to groundwater chemistry.

  12. Java Tomography System (JaTS), a Seismic Tomography Software Using Fresnel Volumes, a Fast Marching Eikonal Solver and a Probabilistic Reconstruction Method: Conclusive Synthetic Test Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Sandrine; Grandjean, Gilles; Verly, Jacques

    Problems related to landscape management, natural hazards and civil engineering involve subsurface structures that can be delineated by geophysical imaging. Seismic tomography can accurately characterize a medium according to its velocity variations. Traditional seismic travel time tomography based on ray-tracing methods assumes that the waves frequency is infinite. Therefore, only the medium located along the ray path has an impact on the wave propagation. In subsurface tomography, the infinite frequency assumption does not hold, as targets have about the same size as the wavelength. The seismic waves propagation is affected not only by the medium along the shortest travel time path but also by the medium located in its vicinity. In this study, Fresnel volumes are used to determine the medium affecting the wave propagation given the seismic waves frequency. The choice of the travel time computation and reconstruction methods determines the overall efficiency and soundness of the tomography process. In this research, a second order Fast Marching eikonal solver is used for computing travel times. The Fast Marching Method is an original approach that propagates a monotonously expanding wave front in a medium. It is fast, reliable and easy to implement in both 2D and 3D. An innovative probabilistic approach enables the iterative reconstruction process based upon Fresnel volumes. This study compares the performances of JaTS, our java Fresnel volume tomography software to those of Sardine, a ray-tracing tomography software, over an unfavourable synthetic case.

  13. Physical and Metabolic Interactions of Pseudomonas sp. Strain JA5-B45 and Rhodococcus sp. Strain F9-D79 during Growth on Crude Oil and Effect of a Chemical Surfactant on Them

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Ward, Owen P.

    2001-01-01

    Methods to enhance crude oil biodegradation by mixed bacterial cultures, for example, (bio)surfactant addition, are complicated by the diversity of microbial populations within a given culture. The physical and metabolic interactions between Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 were examined during growth on Bow River crude oil. The effects of a nonionic chemical surfactant, Igepal CO-630 (nonylphenol ethoxylate), also were evaluated. Strain F9-D79 grew attached to the oil-water interface and produced a mycolic acid-containing capsule. Crude oil emulsification and surface activity were associated with the cellular fraction. Strain JA5-B45 grew in the aqueous phase and was unable to emulsify oil, but cell-free supernatants mediated kerosene-water emulsion formation. In coculture, stable emulsions were formed and strain JA5-B45 had an affinity for the capsule produced by strain F9-D79. Igepal CO-630 inhibited F9-D79 cells from adhering to the interface, and cells grew dispersed in the aqueous phase as 0.5-μm cocci rather than 2.5-μm rods. The surfactant increased total petroleum hydrocarbon removal by strain JA5-B45 from 4 to 22% and included both saturated compounds and aromatics. In coculture, TPH removal increased from 13 to 40% following surfactant addition. The culture pH normally increased from 7.0 to between 7.5 and 8.5, although addition of Igepal CO-630 to F9-D79 cultures resulted in a drop to pH 5.5. We suggest a dual role for the nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the coculture: (i) to improve hydrocarbon uptake by strain JA5-B45 through emulsification and (ii) to prevent strain F9-D79 from adhering to the oil-water interface, indirectly increasing hydrocarbon availability. These varied effects on hydrocarbon biodegradation could explain some of the known diversity of surfactant effects. PMID:11571196

  14. Comparative genomic analysis of single-molecule sequencing and hybrid approaches for finishing the Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1 strain DSM 10061 genome

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Nagaraju, Shilpa; Utturkar, Sagar M; De Tissera, Sashini; Segovia, Simón; Mitchell, Wayne; Land, Miriam L; Dassanayake, Asela; Köpke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium autoethanogenum strain JA1-1 (DSM 10061) is an acetogen capable of fermenting CO, CO2 and H2 (e.g. from syngas or waste gases) into biofuel ethanol and commodity chemicals such as 2,3-butanediol. A draft genome sequence consisting of 100 contigs has been published. Results A closed, high-quality genome sequence for C. autoethanogenum DSM10061 was generated using only the latest single-molecule DNA sequencing technology and without the need for manual finishing. It is assigned to the most complex genome classification based upon genome features such as repeats, prophage, nine copies of the rRNA gene operons. It has a low G + C content of 31.1%. Illumina, 454, Illumina/454 hybrid assemblies were generated and then compared to the draft and PacBio assemblies using summary statistics, CGAL, QUAST and REAPR bioinformatics tools and comparative genomic approaches. Assemblies based upon shorter read DNA technologies were confounded by the large number repeats and their size, which in the case of the rRNA gene operons were ~5 kb. CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Paloindromic Repeats) systems among biotechnologically relevant Clostridia were classified and related to plasmid content and prophages. Potential associations between plasmid content and CRISPR systems may have implications for historical industrial scale Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation failures and future large scale bacterial fermentations. While C. autoethanogenum contains an active CRISPR system, no such system is present in the closely related Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528. A common prophage inserted into the Arg-tRNA shared between the strains suggests a common ancestor. However, C. ljungdahlii contains several additional putative prophages and it has more than double the amount of prophage DNA compared to C. autoethanogenum. Other differences include important metabolic genes for central metabolism (as an additional hydrogenase and the absence of a

  15. Nicotiana attenuata MPK4 suppresses a novel JA signaling-independent defense pathway against the specialist insect Manduca sexta but is not required for the resistance to the generalist Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Baldwin, Ian T.; Wu, Jianqiang

    2014-01-01

    Summary How plants tailor their defense responses to attack from different insects remains largely unknown. Here we studied the role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), MPK4, in the resistance of a wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata to two herbivores, the specialist Manduca sexta and the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Stably transformed N. attenuata plants silenced in MPK4 (irMPK4) were generated and characterized for traits important for defense against herbivores. Only the oral secretions (OS) from M. sexta, but not the OS from S. littoralis or mechanical wounding, induced elevated levels of jasmonic acid (JA) in irMPK4 plants compared to the wild-type plants. Moreover, silencing MPK4 highly increased the resistance of N. attenuata to M. sexta in a fashion that was independent of COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1)-mediated JA signaling. Untargeted metabolomic screening identified several new MPK4-dependent putative defensive compounds against M. sexta. In contrast, silencing MPK4 did not affect the growth of the generalist insect S. littoralis, and we propose that this was due to the very low levels of fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in S. littoralis OS. Thus, MPK4 is likely to be a key signaling element that enables plants to tailor defense responses to different attackers. PMID:23672856

  16. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study. PMID:26212293

  17. Regulative influence of o-aminobenzoic acid on the biosynthesis of nourseothricin in cultures of Streptomyces noursei JA 3890b. IV. Bistability of metabolism and the mechanism of action of aminobenzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Gräfe, U; Bocker, H; Thrum, H

    1979-01-01

    Using the semi-continuous cultivation technique we could establish that specifically in Streptomyces noursei JA 3890b during growth on a medium supplied with D,L-alanine, NH4+, and maize starch there are two different phenotypes of the organism and stationary states of metabolism, respectively. The expression of either the metabolic state I with an enhanced capacity to oxidative deamination of alanine via the NAD+-dependent alanaine dehydrogenase or the metabolic state 2 which may be characterized by the preferred use of ammonium ions via the NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase was shown to depend strongly on the conditions of inoculum cultivation. When the amino acid permeases were derepressed by cultivating the inoculum cells on amino acid media, probably due to the defective mechanism of negative feedback control of amino acid influx in this strain an abnormously high uptake of alanine was observed that, consequently, was correlated to the enhanced oxidation of this amino acid as well as to the intensive production of ammonia within the cell. This overproduction of cellular NH4+ seems to bring about the subsequent repression of biosynthetic glutamate dehydrogenase and so on the accumulation of ammonia autocatalytically may rise up (metabolic state I). On the other hand, if the influx of alanine was kept low and the NADH oxidation was less efficient, respectively, or when there was high cellular activity of glutamate dehydrogenase the level of ammonia never did exceed the respressory limit and, accordingly, the expression of the metabolic state 2 was observed. Switching-over of metabolic flux from the state 2 towards the state 1 can be brought about either by increasing the level of nitrogen sources in the medium or by adding buffers pH greater than 7.5. In contrast, decrease of cellular level of NH4+ was shown to induce the transition of metabolic state 1 into the state 2. This can be achieved not only by limitation of nitrogen source but also by adding

  18. Personnel Management: A J/A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Recently, personnel executives and their staffs are being asked to help management solve an increasing number of human resource and business problems. Personnel management must undergo some changes if it is to achieve its full potential. (Author/AJ)

  19. Design of Current Source Dc/Dc Converter for Interfacing a 5 Kw Pem Fuel Cell / Paaugstinošā Strāvas Avota Līdzsprieguma Pārveidotāja Izstrāde 5 Kw Ūdeņraža Degvielas Elementam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreičiks, A.; Steiks, I.; Krievs, O.

    2013-08-01

    In domestic applications the low DC output voltage of a hydrogen fuel cell used as the main power supply or a backup power source has to be matched to the level and frequency of the AC voltage of utility grid. The interfacing power converter system usually consists of a DC/DC converter and an inverter. In this work, a DC/DC step-up converter stage is designed for interfacing a 5kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The losses of DC/DC conversion are estimated and, basing on the relevant analysis, the most appropriate configuration of converter modules is selected for a DC/DC converter stage of increased efficiency. The authors present the results of experimental analysis and simulation for the selected configuration of four double inductor step-up push-pull converter modules Ūdeņraža degvielas elementa invertoru sistēmas mājsaimniecības pielietojumiem parasti sastāv no līdzsprieguma paaugstināšanas un invertēšanas mezgliem. Šis raksts ir veltīts paaugstinošā līdzsprieguma pārveidotāja izstrādei 5 kW protonu apmaiņas membrānas degvielas elementam. Rakstā izpētīts divu induktoru divtaktu strāvas avota paaugstinošais līdzsprieguma pārveidotājs, aplūkojot gan datormodelēšanas, gan eksperimentālos rezultātus. Lai palielinātu DC/DC pārveidotāja efektivitāti var izmantot vairākus pārveidotāja moduļus, kam ieejas savienotas paralēli un izejās - virkne. Analīze Šajā raksta ir veikta analīze, balstoties uz kuras var izvēlieties skaitu pārveidotāj moduļu skaitu, kuri nodrošina vislabāko efektivitāti DC/DC pārveidotāja posmā. Kopējais eksperimentāli noteiktais izstrādātās degvielas elementa pārveidotāju sistēmas fizikālā modeļa lietderības koeficients ir 93%

  20. Infrared and EPR Spectroscopic Characterization of a Ni(I) Species Formed by Photolysis of a Catalytically Competent Ni(I)-CO Intermediate in the Acetyl-CoA Synthase Reaction†

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Güneş; Stich, Troy A.; Yan, Lifen; Britt, R. David; Cramer, Stephen P.; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS) catalyzes the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from CO, coenzyme A (CoA), and a methyl-group from the CH3-Co3+ site in the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CFeSP). These are the key steps in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO and CO2 fixation. The active site of ACS is the A-cluster, which is an unusual nickel-iron-sulfur cluster. There is significant evidence for the catalytic intermediacy of a CO-bound paramagnetic Ni species, with an electronic configuration of [Fe4S4]2+-(Nip1+–CO)-(Nid2+), where Nip and Nid represent the Ni centers in the A-cluster that are proximal and distal to the [Fe4S4]2+ cluster. This well-characterized Nip1+–CO intermediate is often called NiFeC species. Photolysis of the Nip1+–CO state generates a novel Nip1+ species (Ared*) with a rhombic electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum (g-values of 2.56, 2.10, 2.01) and an extremely low (1 kJ/mol) barrier for recombination with CO. We suggest that the photolytically generated Ared* species is (or is similar to) the Nip1+ species that binds CO (to form the Nip1+–CO species) and the methyl group (to form Nip-CH3) in the ACS catalytic mechanism. The results provide support for a binding site (an “alcove”) for CO near Nip, indicated by X-ray crystallographic studies of the Xe-incubated enzyme. We propose that, during catalysis, a resting Nip2+ state predominates over the active Nip1+ species (Ared*) that is trapped by the coupling of a one-electron transfer step to the binding of CO, which pulls the equilibrium toward Nip1+-CO formation. PMID:20669901

  1. Technology Deployment and Interoperability in the National Information Infrastructure. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science, Space and Technology.

    This document presents the proceedings of a Congressional hearing on private sector initiatives to develop the National Information Infrastructure (NII) with a focus on understanding the nature of industry investment in the NII and how those investments will contribute to the Administration's goals for NII. Statements are provided by the following…

  2. Services and the National Information Infrastructure. Report of the Information Infrastructure Task Force Committee on Applications and Technology, Technology Policy Working Group. Draft for Public Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC.

    In this report, the National Information Infrastructure (NII) services issue is addressed, and activities to advance the development of NII services are recommended. The NII is envisioned to grow into a seamless web of communications networks, computers, databases, and consumer electronics that will put vast amounts of information at users'…

  3. Results of the International Validation of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: Individual data for 1,2-dibromoethane, p-anisidine, and o-anthranilic acid in the 2nd step of the 4th phase Validation Study under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Takasawa, Hironao; Takashima, Rie; Narumi, Kazunori; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hattori, Akiko; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative International Validation Study of an in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), p-anisidine (ASD), and o-anthranilic acid (ANT) to investigate the effectiveness of the comet assay in detecting genotoxic carcinogens. Each of the three test chemicals was administered to 5 male Sprague-Dawley rats per group by oral gavage at 48, 24, and 3h before specimen preparation. Single cells were collected from the liver and glandular stomach at 3h after the final dosing, and the specimens prepared from these two organs were subjected to electrophoresis under alkaline conditions (pH>13). The percentage of DNA intensity in the comet tail was then assessed using an image analysis system. A micronucleus (MN) assay was also conducted using these three test chemicals with the bone marrow (BM) cells collected from the same animals simultaneously used in the comet assay, i.e., combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay. A genotoxic (Ames positive) rodent carcinogen, DBE gave a positive result in the comet assay in the present study, while a genotoxic (Ames positive) non-carcinogen, ASD and a non-genotoxic (Ames negative) non-carcinogen, ANT showed negative results in the comet assay. All three chemicals produced negative results in the BM MN assay. While the comet assay findings in the present study were consistent with those obtained from the rodent carcinogenicity studies for the three test chemicals, we consider the positive result in the comet assay for DBE to be particularly meaningful, given that this chemical produced a negative result in the BM MN assay. Therefore, the combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay is a useful method to detect genotoxic carcinogens that are undetectable with the BM MN assay alone. PMID:26212305

  4. Treatment Plan Adherence for Your Child With JA

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the medication which controls the inflammation,” says Carol Lindsley, MD, chief of pediatric rheumatology at the ... with the medication which controls the inflammation,” says Carol Lindsley, MD, chief of pediatric rheumatology at the ...

  5. "Oya?"--O, Ja! Reading "Jugendliteratur" in the German Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffit, Gisela

    1998-01-01

    Makes a plea for reading authentic "Jugendliteratur" in the foreign-language classroom. Focuses on the reasons for inclusions of this literature, discusses some of the reasons for its omission, and offers solutions to the problems perceived. Strategies for reading whole texts are shared and applied to the reading of "Oya" by Karin Konig, Hanne…

  6. The Public Library Building and Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Gerard B.

    A library building consultant discusses ways in which public libraries can plan for the participation of their libraries in the National Information Infrastructure (NII). With participants ranging from schools to agencies of local government, large volumes of information will be passing through the NII network. Public libraries will be engaged in…

  7. Enthusiasts, Deregulators, Guardians, and Skeptics: Contrasting Policy Viewpoints on the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Donald O.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews more than 80 National Information Infrastructure (NII)-related documents, published from 1988 to 1997, and classifies their views and authors according to a two-dimensional typology by policy analyst William Dutton. Comparisons are made between those advocating "Public" versus "Market" leadership in NII development, and between promotional…

  8. Putting the Information Infrastructure to Work. Report of the Information Infrastructure Task Force Committee on Applications and Technology. NIST Special Publication 857.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

    An interconnection of computer networks, telecommunications services, and applications, the National Information Infrastructure (NII) can open up new vistas and profoundly change much of American life. This report explores some of the opportunities and obstacles to the use of the NII by people and organizations. The goal is to express how…

  9. The Uses of the National Information Infrastructure in Providing Services to Small Industry, State and Local Governments, and Education in Rural Areas. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session (Billings, Montana).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    The Senate Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space held a hearing in Billings, Montana, on rural America's access to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and uses of NII in the provision of rural education and services. An Assistant Secretary of Commerce discussed the development of the Internet, problems in rural access to the…

  10. JaMBES: A "New" Way of Calculating Plate Tectonic Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambord, A. I.; Smith, E. G. C.; Sutherland, R.

    2014-12-01

    Calculating the paleoposition of tectonic plates using marine geophysical data has been usually done by using the Hellinger criterion [Hellinger, 1981]. However, for the Hellinger software [Kirkwood et al., 1999] to produce stable results, we find that the input data must be abundant and spatially well distributed. Although magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data have been increasingly abundant since the 1960s, some parts of the globe remain too sparsely explored to provide enough data for the Hellinger code to provide satisfactory rotations. In this poster, we present new software to calculate the paleopositions of tectonic plates using magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data. Our method is based on the theory of plate tectonics as introduced by [Bullard et al., 1965] and [Morgan, 1968], which states that ridge segments (ie. magnetic lineations) and fracture zones are at right angles to each other. In order to test our software, we apply it to a region of the world where climatic conditions hinder the acquisition of magnetic data: the Southwest Pacific, between New Zealand and Antarctica from breakup time to chron 20 (c43Ma). Bullard, E., J. E. Everett, and A. G. Smith (1965), The fit of continents around the atlantic, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 258(1088), 41-51. Hellinger, S. J. (1981), The uncertainties of finite rotations in plate tectonics, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86(B10), 9312-9318. Kirkwood, B. H., J. Y. Royer, T. C. Chang, and R. G. Gordon (1999), Statistical tools for estimating and combining finite rotations and their uncertainties, Geophysical Journal International, 137(2), 408-428. Morgan, W. J. (1968), Rises, trenches, great faults, and crustal blocks, Journal of Geophysical Research, 73(6), 1959-1982.

  11. Japan Link Center (JaLC): link management and DOI assignment for Japanese electronic scholarly contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takafumi; Tsuchiya, Eri; Kubota, Soichi; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    JST, cooperated with several national institutes, is currently developing “Japan Link Center”, which manages Japanese electronic scholarly contents (journal articles, books, dissertations etc.) in an integrated fashion using Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Japan Link Center will manage metadata and whereabouts information of the contents in the digital environment and provide domestic and international linking information, cite/cited information to activate dissemination of S&T information, furthermore, to strengthen transmission of S&T information from Japan. Japan Link Center is expected to be appointed as the 9th DOI registration agency (RA) in the world by the International DOI Foundation (IDF) this spring.

  12. Greener routes to organics and nanomaterials: Sustainable applications of nano-catalysts (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic activity involving alternate energy input and greener reaction medium in aqueous or under solvent-free conditions is summarized. This includes the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a variety of reactions catalyzed by basic water o...

  13. The Flintlock Site (8JA1763): An Unusual Underwater Deposit in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrell, Christopher E.; Scott-Ireton, Della A.; Smith, Roger C.; Levy, James; Knetsch, Joe

    2009-06-01

    In the fall of 2001, staff of the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research were led by river divers to an underwater site in the Apalachicola River containing a large concentration of prehistoric and historic artifacts lying on the riverbed. Subsequent inspection of the submerged river bank and scoured limestone river channel revealed a myriad of objects, which included iron fasteners, metal tools and implements, broken glass bottles, stone projectile points, scattered bricks and stone blocks, and other materials. Discovery of two large fragments of a wooden watercraft, a bayonet, a copper arrowhead, and flintlock gun barrels initially prompted researchers to hypothesize that the site might represent the remains of a U.S. Army boat that was attacked in 1817 by Seminole Indians while en route upriver. The episode, which caused the deaths of more than 30 soldiers and several women who were aboard the boat, led to the First Seminole War and the U.S. Army invasion of Florida. To investigate this hypothesis, a systematic survey of the riverbed was undertaken in the spring of 2002 to record underwater features and recover additional diagnostic artifacts. These activities employed side-scan sonar as well as diver visual investigations. This paper presents a case study of the value and broader significance of aggregate data where interpretation was underpinned by artefactual, historical and environmental analysis.

  14. 42 CFR 488.115 - Care guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EC01JA91.132 EC01JA91.133 EC01JA91.134 EC01JA91.135 EC01JA91.136 EC01JA91.137 EC01JA91.138 EC01JA91.139... EC01JA91.180 EC01JA91.181 EC01JA91.182 EC01JA91.183 EC01JA91.184 EC01JA91.185 EC01JA91.186 EC01JA91.187 EC01JA91.188 EC01JA91.189 EC01JA91.190 EC01JA91.191 EC01JA91.192 EC01JA91.193 EC01JA91.194...

  15. 42 CFR 488.115 - Care guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EC01JA91.132 EC01JA91.133 EC01JA91.134 EC01JA91.135 EC01JA91.136 EC01JA91.137 EC01JA91.138 EC01JA91.139... EC01JA91.180 EC01JA91.181 EC01JA91.182 EC01JA91.183 EC01JA91.184 EC01JA91.185 EC01JA91.186 EC01JA91.187 EC01JA91.188 EC01JA91.189 EC01JA91.190 EC01JA91.191 EC01JA91.192 EC01JA91.193 EC01JA91.194...

  16. 42 CFR 488.115 - Care guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EC01JA91.132 EC01JA91.133 EC01JA91.134 EC01JA91.135 EC01JA91.136 EC01JA91.137 EC01JA91.138 EC01JA91.139... EC01JA91.180 EC01JA91.181 EC01JA91.182 EC01JA91.183 EC01JA91.184 EC01JA91.185 EC01JA91.186 EC01JA91.187 EC01JA91.188 EC01JA91.189 EC01JA91.190 EC01JA91.191 EC01JA91.192 EC01JA91.193 EC01JA91.194...

  17. 42 CFR 488.115 - Care guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EC01JA91.132 EC01JA91.133 EC01JA91.134 EC01JA91.135 EC01JA91.136 EC01JA91.137 EC01JA91.138 EC01JA91.139... EC01JA91.180 EC01JA91.181 EC01JA91.182 EC01JA91.183 EC01JA91.184 EC01JA91.185 EC01JA91.186 EC01JA91.187 EC01JA91.188 EC01JA91.189 EC01JA91.190 EC01JA91.191 EC01JA91.192 EC01JA91.193 EC01JA91.194...

  18. Neuronal intranuclear inclusions are ultrastructurally and immunologically distinct from cytoplasmic inclusions of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Mosaheb, Sabrina; Thorpe, Julian R; Hashemzadeh-Bonehi, Lida; Bigio, Eileen H; Gearing, Marla; Cairns, Nigel J

    2005-10-01

    Abnormal neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) containing aggregates of alpha-internexin and the neurofilament (NF) subunits, NF-H, NF-M, and NF-L, are the signature lesions of neuronal intermediate filament (IF) inclusion disease (NIFID). The disease has a clinically heterogeneous phenotype, including frontotemporal dementia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs presenting at a young age. NCIs are variably ubiquitinated and about half of cases also have neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), which are also ubiquitinated. NIIs have been described in polyglutamine-repeat expansion diseases, where they are strongly ubiquitin immunoreactive. The fine structure of NIIs of NIFID has not previously been described. Therefore, to determine the ultrastructure of NIIs, immunoelectron microscopy was undertaken on NIFID cases and normal aged control brains. Our results indicate that the NIIs of NIFID are strongly ubiquitin immunoreactive. However, unlike NCIs which contain ubiquitin, alpha-internexin and NF epitopes, NIIs contain neither epitopes of alpha-internexin nor NF subunits. Neither NIIs nor NCIs were recognised by antibodies to expanded polyglutamine repeats. The NII of NIFID lacks a limiting membrane and contains straight filaments of 20 nm mean width (range 11-35 nm), while NCIs contain filaments with a mean width of 10 nm (range 5-18 nm; t-test, P<0.001). Biochemistry revealed no differences in neuronal IF protein mobilities between NIFID and normal brain tissue. Therefore, NIIs of NIFID contain filaments morphologically and immunologically distinct from those of NCIs, and both types of inclusion lack expanded polyglutamine tracts of the triplet-repeat expansion diseases. These observations indicate that abnormal protein aggregation follows separate pathways in different neuronal compartments of NIFID. PMID:16025283

  19. A systems configuration toolkit for modular integration of mechatronic resources

    SciTech Connect

    Oppel, F.J. III; Palmquist, R.

    1995-07-01

    The use of the NII (National Information Infrastructure) is growing rapidly in the number of users and in the areas in which it is being applied. Sandia is using, the NII to leverage the use of geographically distributed mechatronic (electromechanical) assets. This paper discusses the availability of networks, new challenges for robotics technology, and how the use of networks is helping to meet these challenges. A brief overview of the NII is provided, followed by a listing of ``needs`` within the intelligent systems community. An approach is then given for meeting, these needs and, finally, implementation, examples, and future research directions are discussed.

  20. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increased use of organophosphorus compounds as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has led to widespread human exposure, There is, however, limited information on their potential health effects. This study compared the effects of nii ne organophosphorus flame...

  1. Analysis of NASA communications (Nascom) II network protocols and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom II (NII) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System, and other projects. NII is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The authors describe various baseline protocol architectures based on current and evolving technologies. They address the internetworking issues suggested for reliable transfer of data over heterogeneous segments. They also describe the NII architecture, topology, system components, and services. A comparative evaluation of the current and evolving technologies was made, and suggestions for further study are described. It is shown that the direction of the NII configuration and the subsystem component design will clearly depend on the advances made in the area of broadband integrated services.

  2. Búsqueda de regiones de baja excitación en nebulosas planetarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vena Valdarenas, R. R.; Schmidt, E. O.; Volpe, M. G.; Weidmann, W.; Mudrik, A.

    2015-08-01

    We present early results from observations with narrow band filter ([NII], 6584 ) for a sample of austral planetary nebulae. The observations are being made from Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station. The observation inherent aspects will be treated in detail.

  3. 47 CFR 2.1093 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: portable devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of this chapter, and unlicensed personal communication service, unlicensed NII devices and millimeter... to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,” ANSI/IEEE...

  4. Essential gene identification and drug target prioritization in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenqi; Sillaots, Susan; Lemieux, Sebastien; Davison, John; Kauffman, Sarah; Breton, Anouk; Linteau, Annie; Xin, Chunlin; Bowman, Joel; Becker, Jeff; Jiang, Bo; Roemer, Terry

    2007-03-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne filamentous fungal pathogen in humans, causing severe and often fatal invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. Currently available antifungal drugs to treat invasive aspergillosis have limited modes of action, and few are safe and effective. To identify and prioritize antifungal drug targets, we have developed a conditional promoter replacement (CPR) strategy using the nitrogen-regulated A. fumigatus NiiA promoter (pNiiA). The gene essentiality for 35 A. fumigatus genes was directly demonstrated by this pNiiA-CPR strategy from a set of 54 genes representing broad biological functions whose orthologs are confirmed to be essential for growth in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Extending this approach, we show that the ERG11 gene family (ERG11A and ERG11B) is essential in A. fumigatus despite neither member being essential individually. In addition, we demonstrate the pNiiA-CPR strategy is suitable for in vivo phenotypic analyses, as a number of conditional mutants, including an ERG11 double mutant (erg11BDelta, pNiiA-ERG11A), failed to establish a terminal infection in an immunocompromised mouse model of systemic aspergillosis. Collectively, the pNiiA-CPR strategy enables a rapid and reliable means to directly identify, phenotypically characterize, and facilitate target-based whole cell assays to screen A. fumigatus essential genes for cognate antifungal inhibitors. PMID:17352532

  5. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  6. Electrical resistivity imaging survey to detect uncharted mine galleries in the mining district of Linares, Jaén, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-López, J.; Rey, J.; Dueñas, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Benavente, J.

    2012-02-01

    The scarcity of information about the existence of old mining shafts and galleries in urban areas is an important issue for future urban development. Electrical resistivity tomography is a non-destructive geophysical technique that can detect and characterize such subsurface cavities based on differences in the behaviour of electrical current in the void and in the embedding rock. Here we present a study in which this technique was used to determine the location of old engineered structures around the city of Linares, southern Spain, and to relate these structures to the abandoned deep mines present in the area. Eight electrical resistivity imaging profiles were performed, with a total of 22 808 measurements. Correlations between geoelectrical anomalies allow detection of the depth and the direction of several galleries, as well as the voids that result from mining extraction. Given the depth at which these structures are located (in some cases less than 5 m), they pose an important risk for future construction projects in areas of urban expansion. This technique is shown to be a useful tool for locating areas that pose important urban risks and, by extension, for the decision-making process in territorial planning, especially in areas with a history of deep mining.

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... Inerts 0.85 0 a MEV = molar exhaust volume, dry standard cubic feet per gram-mole (dscf/g-mol)...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... Inerts 0.85 0 a MEV = molar exhaust volume, dry standard cubic feet per gram-mole (dscf/g-mol)...

  9. Alcohol use as a behavioural sign of disinhibition: evidence from J.A. Gray's model of personality.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Yolanda; Aguilar, Raúl; Molinuevo, Beatriz; Torrubia, Rafael

    2007-10-01

    Based on Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, the influence of behavioural disinhibition upon alcohol consumption was studied. A sample of undergraduates answered different questionnaires related to the Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural Activation System. In relation to alcohol use, three aspects of alcohol consumption were assessed: frequency, quantity of alcohol intake and the age at first drink. From a series of correlation and regression analyses, we found that both high scores on BAS-related scales and low scores on those scales related to the BIS were jointly associated with current alcohol-taking habits. Additionally, the Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scale (BAS) was negatively correlated with, and a predictor of, the onset age of alcohol use. We conclude by proposing that research on alcohol use can benefit from this well-grounded theory of the neuropsychology of the individual differences. PMID:17407802

  10. Sequence homology requirements for transcriptional silencing of 35S transgenes and post-transcriptional silencing of nitrite reductase (trans)genes by the tobacco 271 locus.

    PubMed

    Thierry, D; Vaucheret, H

    1996-12-01

    The transgene locus of the tobacco plant 271 (271 locus) is located on a telomere and consists of multiple copies of a plasmid carrying an NptII marker gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 19S promoter and the leaf-specific nitrite reductase Nii1 cDNA cloned in the antisense orientation under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Previous analysis of gene expression in leaves has shown that this locus triggers both post-transcriptional silencing of the host leaf-specific Nii genes and transcriptional silencing of transgenes driven by the 19S or 35S promoter irrespective of their coding sequence and of their location in the genome. In this paper we show that silencing of transgenes carrying Nii1 sequences occurs irrespective of the promoter driving their expression and of their location within the genome. This phenomenon occurs in roots as well as in leaves although root Nii genes share only 84% identity with leaf-specific Nii1 sequences carried by the 271 locus. Conversely, transgenes carrying the bean Nii gene (which shares 76% identity with the tobacco Nii1 gene) escape silencing by the 271 locus. We also show that transgenes driven by the figwort mosaic virus 34S promoter (which shares 63% identity with the 35S promoter) also escape silencing by the 271 locus. Taken together, these results indicate that a high degree of sequence similarity is required between the sequences of the silencing locus and of the target (trans)genes for both transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing. PMID:9002606

  11. Communications satellites in the national and global health care information infrastructure: their role, impact, and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuzek, J. E.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    Health care services delivered from a distance, known collectively as telemedicine, are being increasingly demonstrated on various transmission media. Telemedicine activities have included diagnosis by a doctor at a remote location, emergency and disaster medical assistance, medical education, and medical informatics. The ability of communications satellites to offer communication channels and bandwidth on demand, connectivity to mobile, remote and under served regions, and global access will afford them a critical role for telemedicine applications within the National and Global Information Infrastructure (NII/GII). The importance that communications satellites will have in telemedicine applications within the NII/GII the differences in requirements for NII vs. GII, the major issues such as interoperability, confidentiality, quality, availability, and costs, and preliminary conclusions for future usability based on the review of several recent trails at national and global levels are presented.

  12. EUV studies of N2 and O2 produced by low energy electron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. D.; Mentall, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The emission spectra resulting from electron impact excitation on molecular nitrogen and oxygen in the 500-1200 A spectral region are investigated. Electron energies are from 0 to 300 eV. Numerous bands of N2 are found between 800 and 1000 A. Excitation functions are measured for the NII 916 A, the OI 879 A, and the OII 834 multiplets, and nitrogen band emission. Cross sections were measured at 200 eV for several of the band emissions plus the NI 1135 A, NI 1164 A, NI 1177 A, NII 776 A, NII 1084 A, OI 1152 A, OI 1041 A, OI 999 A, OI 989 A, OI 879 A, OII 834 A, OII 616 A, OII 555 A, OII 539 A, and OII 718 A multiplets.

  13. Large scale excitation of the ISM in NGC 1068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, J.; Bland, Jonathan; Cecil, G. N.; Tully, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers have shown that photoionization by the continuum of the hidden Seyfert I nucleus in NGC 1068 can have a significant effect on the ionization state and energetics of this disk's Interstellar Medium (ISM). Photoionization models with appropriate power law spectra can produce (NII) lambda lambda 6538, 6584/H alpha line ratios of 1.25 for ionization parameters Q approx. 10 (exp -12). However the data indicate large regions where the (NII)/H alpha ratio is 1 to 3. Since the abundances are known to be solar, there must be additional heating sources. Hardening of the incident radiation field by intervening absorption should be able to raise T sub e, thereby raising the (NII)/H alpha ratio. Heating with moderate efficiency by the intense starburst ring should also be a significant factor in raising the temperature of the ISM. The photoionization models with additional heating predict enhanced emission from other forbidden lines including (OII) lambda 3727 and (SII) lambda 6731.

  14. The role of wireless communications in the National Information Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Backof, C.A.

    1995-08-01

    We live today in a communications world of private voice and public images. The telephone provides private voice contact, while television delivers public broadcast images. With the National Information Infrastructure (NII), that communications model will expand to include private and public access to all forms of information, supporting services and products that can only be imagined. The model is however constrained to fit a wired format, even though people have come to expect wireless access. This paper explores the applications and technologies needed to extend the NII with broadband wireless access, and presents estimates of the spectrum required to achieve this extension.

  15. Kommunikation ja, aber auf welcher Basis? ZE-Diskussion. Pattern Drill (Communication, Yes, but on What Basis? ZE Discussion. Pattern Drill)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Albert

    1976-01-01

    Argues for pattern drill as an indispensable link in the learning process: presentation, explanation, practice, performance. Opponents of pattern practice are suspected of confusing goal (communication) with means (drill phase). (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  16. Expression Patterns of Three UGT Genes in Different Chemotype Safflower Lines and under MeJA Stimulus Revealed Their Potential Role in Flavonoid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dan-Dan; Liu, Fei; Tu, Yan-Hua; He, Bei-Xuan; Gao, Yue; Guo, Mei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant in China. Flavonoids are the dominant active medical compounds. UDP-glycosyltransferase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis and storage of flavonoids in safflower. In this study, 45 UGT unigenes were screened from our transcriptomic database of safflower. Among them, 27 UGT unigenes were predicted to own a complete open reading frame with various pI and Mw. The phylogenetic tree showed that CtUGT3 and CtUGT16 were classified under the UGT71 subfamily involved in metabolite process, whereas CtUGT25 has high identities with PoUGT both catalyzing the glycosylation of flavonoids and belonging to the UGT90 subfamily. cDNA microarray exhibited that the three UGT genes displayed temporal difference in two chemotype safflower lines. To functionally characterize UGT in safflower, CtUGT3, CtUGT16 and CtUGT25 were cloned and analyzed. Subcellular localization suggested that the three UGTs might be located in the cell cytoplasm and chloroplast. The expression pattern showed that the three UGTs were all suppressed in two lines responsive to methyl jasmonate induction. The co-expression relation of expression pattern and metabolite accumulation demonstrated that CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and CtUGT16 was positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in yellow line, whereas CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in white line. This study indicates that the three CtUGTs play a significant and multiple role in flavonoids biosynthesis with presenting different functional characterization in two safflower lines. PMID:27391785

  17. ABA is an essential signal for plant resistance to pathogens affecting JA biosynthesis and the activation of plant defenses in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense responses have been studied through a limited number of models that may have constrained our view of plant-pathogen interactions. Discovery of new defense mechanisms should be favored by broadening the range of pathogens under study. With this aim, Arabidopsis defense response to the ‘...

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses between a Spontaneous Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type Suggest the Functions of ABA, Sucrose and JA during Citrus Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Jian; Wang, Xing-Jian; Wu, Ju-Xun; Chen, Shan-Yan; Chen, Hong; Chai, Li-Jun; Yi, Hua-Lin

    2014-01-01

    A spontaneous late-ripening mutant of ‘Jincheng’ (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange exhibited a delay of fruit pigmentation and harvesting. In this work, we studied the processes of orange fruit ripening through the comparative analysis between the Jincheng mutant and its wild type. This study revealed that the fruit quality began to differ on 166th days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits were subjected to transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing. 13,412 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were found. Of these unigenes, 75.8% were down-regulated in the wild type, suggesting that the transcription level of wild type was lower than that of the mutant during this stage. These DEGs were mainly clustered into five pathways: metabolic pathways, plant-pathogen interaction, spliceosome, biosynthesis of plant hormones and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that are involved in abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were analyzed during the six fruit ripening stages. The results revealed the regulation mechanism of sweet orange fruit ripening metabolism in the following four aspects: First, the more mature orange fruits were, the lower the transcription levels were. Second, the expression level of PME boosted with the maturity of the citrus fruit. Therefore, the expression level of PME might represent the degree of the orange fruit ripeness. Third, the interaction of PP2C, PYR/PYL, and SnRK2 was peculiar to the orange fruit ripening process. Fourth, abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid all took part in orange fruit ripening process and might interact with each other. These findings provide an insight into the intricate process of sweet orange fruit ripening. PMID:25551568

  19. Pathology and epizootiology of Dirofilaria scapiceps (Leidy, 1886) (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Sylvilagus floridanus (J.A. Allen) and Lepus americanus erxleben.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, C M

    1984-07-01

    Dirofilaria scapiceps was found between the synovial sheath and tendons, i.e., within the tendon sheath, in the ankle region of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). In cottontail rabbits, tendons and sheaths appeared normal and all worms were adults. Only one (4%) of 24 infected rabbits contained dead worms. All female worms were gravid in rabbits killed in late winter or early spring. Microfilaremias in rabbits were high (approximately 30-100 microfilariae/60 microliter blood) and of long duration (at least 8-28 mo), and rabbits were considered normal hosts of D. scapiceps. In some snowshoe hares, tendons and sheaths also appeared normal; however, in other hares a chronic proliferative tenosynovitis, characterized by fibrinous exudate, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the intima and inflammatory cell (predominantly lymphocytes and plasma cells) infiltration of the intimal and fibrous layers of the synovial sheath led to encapsulation of worms. Dead subadult, dead adult, and live adult worms were found in the ankles of hares; 86 (46%) of 186 infected hares contained some or only dead worms. Fibrosis commonly occurred around dead worms. Dead subadults were also found in subcutaneous connective tissues over the trunk of the body. Degenerate embryos and amorphous material were observed in uteri of some female worms in hares killed in late winter or early spring. Few (1-5 microfilariae/60 microliter blood) or no microfilariae were observed in the peripheral blood of hares and microfilaremias were of short duration (less than 8 mo). Microfilariae in hares are probably trapped and destroyed in the chronic inflammatory lesions in the tendon sheaths since normal, degenerate, and calcified microfilariae were observed in the capsules around adult worms. Some microfilariae might also be destroyed in lymph nodes. Although D. scapiceps can be maintained within snowshoe hare populations, hares are considered abnormal hosts of D. scapiceps. Dirofilaria scapiceps may have spread from cottontail rabbits to snowshoe hares relatively recently. PMID:6492321

  20. Expression Patterns of Three UGT Genes in Different Chemotype Safflower Lines and under MeJA Stimulus Revealed Their Potential Role in Flavonoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dan-Dan; Liu, Fei; Tu, Yan-Hua; He, Bei-Xuan; Gao, Yue; Guo, Mei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant in China. Flavonoids are the dominant active medical compounds. UDP-glycosyltransferase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis and storage of flavonoids in safflower. In this study, 45 UGT unigenes were screened from our transcriptomic database of safflower. Among them, 27 UGT unigenes were predicted to own a complete open reading frame with various pI and Mw. The phylogenetic tree showed that CtUGT3 and CtUGT16 were classified under the UGT71 subfamily involved in metabolite process, whereas CtUGT25 has high identities with PoUGT both catalyzing the glycosylation of flavonoids and belonging to the UGT90 subfamily. cDNA microarray exhibited that the three UGT genes displayed temporal difference in two chemotype safflower lines. To functionally characterize UGT in safflower, CtUGT3, CtUGT16 and CtUGT25 were cloned and analyzed. Subcellular localization suggested that the three UGTs might be located in the cell cytoplasm and chloroplast. The expression pattern showed that the three UGTs were all suppressed in two lines responsive to methyl jasmonate induction. The co-expression relation of expression pattern and metabolite accumulation demonstrated that CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and CtUGT16 was positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in yellow line, whereas CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in white line. This study indicates that the three CtUGTs play a significant and multiple role in flavonoids biosynthesis with presenting different functional characterization in two safflower lines. PMID:27391785

  1. Hg soil pollution around a decommissioned and unrestored Chlor-alkali plant: Jodar, Jaén province, SE Spain. Incidence in other environmental compartments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Higueras, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil pollution and its consequences around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The plant was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hidrargirism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, together with the analysis of olive-tree leaves from the same area. 75 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm. and 15-30 cm), together with 75 olive tree samples, 5 water samples. Besides, two monitoring surveys for total gaseous mercury in the atmosphere were performed. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device, with GPS georreferenciation of the analysis points. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. A local reference level was calculated as GM + 2SD (where GM is the geometric mean and SD the standard deviation). With this reference level it was possible to delimitate a contaminated soil area centered on the decommissioned chlor-alkali plant. A high affinity of local olive trees to accumulate mercury from the contaminated soil was also found, with a calculated maximum mercury content of 243.5 ng g-1. This maximum level is slightly higher than tolerable level for agronomic crops. Total mercury content in the analyzed waters was slightly higher than the chronic exposure level for aquatic life. Atmospheric mercury levels registered on the study area were much lower than most restrictive levels for chronic exposure. The area of influence of the facility (in terms of mercury content in air) was restricted to distances between 100 and 200 meters, depending on meteorological conditions. Main conclusions of this research work are the following: i) The Jódar decommissioned chlor-alkali plant is still a mercury source 20 years after its cease of activities without any reclamation measures; ii) The activity of the plant has produced an important dissemination of mercury in the surrounding environment; and iii) The corresponding pollution levels, in particular in soils, may suppose a risk to the main crops of the area (olive trees).

  2. STS 127 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-127) and International Space Station (2J/A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 grab sample canisters (GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported. The toxicological assessment of 9 GSCs and 6 pairs of formaldehyde badges from the ISS is also reported. Other than a problem with traces of acrolein in the samples, the air quality was acceptable for respiration.

  3. NITROGEN DEFICIENCY INCREASES VOLICITIN-INDUCED VOLATILE EMISSION BY ALTERING ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY AND THE KINETICS OF JA ACCUMULATION IN ZEA MAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caterpillar-induced plant volatile emission and the subsequent attraction of natural enemies is facilitated by fatty acid-amino acid conjugate (FAC) elicitors, such as volicitin (N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine), present in herbivore oral secretions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that both...

  4. Kouluhallituksen jarjestysmuotokomitean I, II ja III osamietinto (Reports of the Committee on the Organization of National Board of Schools). Three Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finland.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a three volume report discussing the organization of the National Board of Schools in Finland. The central administration of education has been divided among the Ministries of Education, Agriculture, Interior, Commerce and Industry, and Social Affairs. The Ministry of…

  5. Computer program documentation modified version of the JA70 aerodynamic heating computer program H800 (MINIVER with a DISSPLA plot package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmedo, L.

    1980-01-01

    The changes, modifications, and inclusions which were adapted to the current version of the MINIVER program are discussed. Extensive modifications were made to various subroutines, and a new plot package added. This plot package is the Johnson Space Center DISSPLA Graphics System currently driven under an 1110 EXEC 8 configuration. User instructions on executing the MINIVER program are provided and the plot package is described.

  6. State-Level Mandates for Financial Literacy Education, JA Finance Park, and the Impact on Eighth-Grade Students in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the Colorado General Assembly passed legislation requiring the adoption of personal financial literacy (PFL) education standards for kindergarten through 12th-grade students. Beginning in 2014, the state plans to conduct standardized testing to determine financial literacy of 3rd- through 12th-grade students. The state did not allocate…

  7. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures using screening-level life cycle assessment to support sustainable consumer electronics (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use...

  8. Humanities and Arts on the Information Highways: A Profile. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getty Art History Information Program, Santa Monica, CA.

    A National Initiative has been formed to address the urgent need for the humanities and arts to gain a voice in the planning and development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII). This report makes a case for the importance of connecting all people with electronic access to the nation's cultural heritage, and relates the special…

  9. Combined Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Detection of a NiI•••H–N Bonding Interaction with Relevance to Electrocatalytic H2 Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kochem, Amelie; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; van Gastel, Maurice

    2015-07-13

    The [Ni(PR2NR’2)2]2+ family of complexes are exceptionally active catalysts for proton reduction to H2. In this manuscript, we explore the first protonation step of the proposed catalytic cycle by using a catalytically inactive NiI complex possessing a sterically demanding variation of the ligand. Due to the paramagnetic nature of the NiI oxidation state, the protonated NiI intermediate has been characterized through a combination of cyclic voltammetry, ENDOR, and HYSCORE spectroscopy. Both the electrochemical and spectroscopic studies indicate that the NiI complex is protonated at a pendant amine that is endo to Ni, which suggests the presence of an intramolecular NiI•••HN bonding interaction. Using density functional theory, the proton was found to hydrogen bond to three doubly-occupied, localized molecular orbitals: the 3dxz, 3dz2, and 3dyz orbitals of nickel. These studies provide the first direct experimental evidence for this critical catalytic intermediate, and implications for catalytic H2 production are discussed. Research was supported by the Max Planck Society (EPR, ENDOR, and HYSCORE spectroscopy, computational studies), and as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (electrochemistry, NMR spectroscopy). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  10. The High-Performance Computing and Communications program, the national information infrastructure and health care.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, D A; Humphreys, B L

    1995-01-01

    The High-Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program is a multiagency federal effort to advance the state of computing and communications and to provide the technologic platform on which the National Information Infrastructure (NII) can be built. The HPCC program supports the development of high-speed computers, high-speed telecommunications, related software and algorithms, education and training, and information infrastructure technology and applications. The vision of the NII is to extend access to high-performance computing and communications to virtually every U.S. citizen so that the technology can be used to improve the civil infrastructure, lifelong learning, energy management, health care, etc. Development of the NII will require resolution of complex economic and social issues, including information privacy. Health-related applications supported under the HPCC program and NII initiatives include connection of health care institutions to the Internet; enhanced access to gene sequence data; the "Visible Human" Project; and test-bed projects in telemedicine, electronic patient records, shared informatics tool development, and image systems. PMID:7614116

  11. Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S): Development and Validation of a Depression Screening Instrument for Children in Pediatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruhe, Barbara; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Pietsch, Kathrin; Baethmann, Martina; Peters, Jochen; Kellnar, Stephan; Heep, Axel; Burdach, Stefan; von Schweinitz, Dietrich; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S) for use in pediatric care. In two pediatric samples, children aged 9-12 (NI = 200; NII = 246) completed an explorative item pool (subsample I) and a revised item pool (subsample II). Diagnostic accuracy of each of the 22 items from the revised…

  12. 32 CFR 241.10 - Small business consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small business consideration. 241.10 Section 241...) § 241.10 Small business consideration. The ASD(NII)/DoD CIO on behalf of the Secretary of Defense shall: (a) Ensure that, of the assignments made each year, at least 20 percent are small business...

  13. Science with the High Elevation Antarctic Terahertz Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, M. G.; Walsh, W.; Storey, J. W. V.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Walker, C.

    2006-08-01

    The proposed High Elevation Antarctic Terahertz Telescope (HEAT) is an instrument designed for the measurement of sub-mm spectral lines over regions several square degrees in size toward the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds. By mapping as a function of Galactic position the size and mass distribution and internal velocity dispersion of interstellar clouds in the Galaxy in both atomic and molecular lines, HEAT will construct the first barometric map of the Galactic Plane. HEAT will also map the gas heating rate, the star formation rate and produce the first large scale Galactic images of the dominant cooling atomic cooling lines of carbon and nitrogen. balance, and evolution of molecular clouds in the Milky Way and distant star-forming galaxies. Since the ionisation potential of nitrogen is 14.5eV, the 1461.1319 GHz = 205.176µm line of [NII] arises from regions where hydrogen is ionised, and thus serves as an extinction-free probe of the Warm Ionised Medium (WIM). There is an observed nonlinear relationship between [CII] and [NII] emission (Bennett et al. 1994) on large scales. By observing a variety of UV-illuminated giant molecula clouds, compact and diffuse HII regions, and planetary nebulae in the 1461 GHz [NII] line at 700 times the spectral and angular resolution of satellite data, the [CII]/[NII] intensity ratio can be used as a probe to determine how much of the Galaxy's [CII] emission arises in ionised gas.

  14. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... modulation symbols, during which the average symbol envelope power is constant. (q) RLAN. Radio Local Area... between several transmission power levels in the data transmission process. (s) U-NII devices. Intentional... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National...

  15. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... modulation symbols, during which the average symbol envelope power is constant. (q) RLAN. Radio Local Area... between several transmission power levels in the data transmission process. (s) U-NII devices. Intentional... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National...

  16. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... modulation symbols, during which the average symbol envelope power is constant. (q) RLAN. Radio Local Area... between several transmission power levels in the data transmission process. (s) U-NII devices. Intentional... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National...

  17. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... symbols, during which the average symbol envelope power is constant. (q) RLAN. Radio Local Area Network... several transmission power levels in the data transmission process. (s) U-NII devices. Intentional... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National...

  18. College Psychotherapy at a Taiwanese Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-nii

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Yii-nii Lin, Professor in the Center for Teacher Education at the National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan, and prior director of the university's counseling center for a 3 year term. She has worked as a university counselling psychologist for more than 15 years when she participated in an online interview that…

  19. The Information Infrastructure: Reaching Society's Goals. A Report of the Information Infrastructure Task Force Committee on Applications and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

    Intended for public comment and discussion, this document is the second volume of papers in which the Information Infrastructure Task Force has attempted to articulate in clear terms, with sufficient detail, how improvements in the National Information Infrastructure (NII) can help meet other social goals. These are not plans to be enacted, but…

  20. Electrochemical, Spectroscopic, and Density Functional Theory Characterization of Redox Activity in Nickel-Substituted Azurin: A Model for Acetyl-CoA Synthase.

    PubMed

    Manesis, Anastasia C; Shafaat, Hannah S

    2015-08-17

    Nickel-containing enzymes are key players in global hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane cycles. Many of these enzymes rely on Ni(I) oxidation states in critical catalytic intermediates. However, due to the highly reactive nature of these species, their isolation within metalloenzymes has often proved elusive. In this report, we describe and characterize a model biological Ni(I) species that has been generated within the electron transfer protein, azurin. Replacement of the native copper cofactor with nickel is shown to preserve the redox activity of the protein. The Ni(II/I) couple is observed at -590 mV versus NHE, with an interfacial electron transfer rate of 70 s(-1). Chemical reduction of Ni(II)Az generates a stable species with strong absorption features at 350 nm and a highly anisotropic, axial EPR signal with principal g-values of 2.56 and 2.10. Density functional theory calculations provide insight into the electronic and geometric structure of the Ni(I) species, suggesting a trigonal planar coordination environment. The predicted spectroscopic features of this low-coordinate nickel site are in good agreement with the experimental data. Molecular orbital analysis suggests potential for both metal-centered and ligand-centered reactivity, highlighting the covalency of the metal-thiolate bond. Characterization of a stable Ni(I) species within a model protein has implications for understanding the mechanisms of complex enzymes, including acetyl coenzyme A synthase, and developing scaffolds for unique reactivity. PMID:26234790

  1. 20/20 Vision: The Development of a National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Telecommunications and Information Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    After the publication of the Clinton Administration's "The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action," a group of telecommunication specialists were asked to evaluate the proposals in order to broaden the policy discussion concerning the National Information Infrastructure (NII). This collection contains their visions of the nation's…

  2. Libraries and Their Role in the Information Infrastructure. Hearing on Examining the Role of Libraries in Developing America's New Information Infrastructure, before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The purpose of this congressional hearing was to determine how libraries fit into the emerging national information infrastructure (NII). Testimony and prepared statements include those from Howard F. McGinn, Director, Emporia Public Library, Emporia, Kansas; James H. Billington, Librarian of Congress, Library of Congress, Washington D.C.,…

  3. Applications drivers for data parking on the Information Superhighway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Clark E., Jr.; Foeller, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    As the cost of data storage continues to decline (currently about one-millionth of its cost four decades ago) entirely new applications areas become economically feasible. Many of these new areas involved the extraordinarily high data rates and universal connectivity soon to be provided by the National Information Infrastructure (NII). The commonly held belief is that the main driver for the NII will be entertainment applications. We believe that entertainment applications as currently touted (multi-media, 500 video channels, video-on-demand, etc.) will play an important but far from dominant role in the development of the NII and its data storage components. The most pervasively effective drivers will be medical applications such as telemedicine and remote diagnosis, education and environmental monitoring. These applications have a significant funding base and offer a clearly perceived opportunity to improve the nation's standard of living. The NII's wideband connectivity both nationwide and worldwide requires a broad spectrum of data storage devices with a wide-range of performance capabilities. These storage centers will be dispersed throughout the system. Magnetic recording devices will fill the majority of these new data storage requirements for at least the rest of this century. The storage needs of various application areas and their respective market sizes will be explored. The comparative performance of various magnetic technologies and competitive alternative storage systems will be discussed.

  4. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Channel. (m) Peak Power Spectral Density. The peak power spectral density is the maximum power spectral density, within the specified measurement bandwidth, within the U-NII device operating band. (n) Maximum... output power is the highest total transmit power occurring in any mode. (o) Power Spectral Density....

  5. Reforming telecommunications: How utilities fare on Capitol Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, S.A.

    1994-06-15

    While the traditional players in the telephone and cable industries have grabbed headlines and jockeyed for the inside track on the [open quotes]information superhighway,[close quotes] electric and gas utilities and natural gas pipelines have been quietly positioning themselves to play a strategic role in the actual construction of the [open quotes]National Information Infrastructure[close quotes] (NII).

  6. 47 CFR 15.401 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Infrastructure Devices § 15.401 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations for unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices operating in the 5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.47-5.725 GHz and 5.725-5.825 GHz bands....

  7. 47 CFR 15.401 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Infrastructure Devices § 15.401 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations for unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices operating in the 5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.47-5.725 GHz and 5.725-5.825 GHz bands....

  8. 47 CFR 15.401 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Infrastructure Devices § 15.401 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations for unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices operating in the 5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.47-5.725 GHz and 5.725-5.85 GHz bands....

  9. Distance Learning Revisited: Life-Long Learning and the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburg, Michael; Ullmer, Eldon J.

    This paper "revisits" distance learning by addressing its past achievements, its present state, and its future in the face of the rapidly converging computer and communications technologies and the goals and potential that underlie the creation of the proposed National Information Infrastructure (NII). The analysis was undertaken recognizing that…

  10. Improving Institutional Performance through IT-Enabled Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, William H.

    2005-01-01

    In its report "Innovate America," the National Innovation Initiative (NII) calls for an "innovation infrastructure" as the foundation for the nation's future productivity and competitiveness. The report notes: "Innovation generates the productivity that economists estimate has accounted for half of U.S. GDP growth over the past 50 years... It's…

  11. The Federal Government and Information Technology Standards: Building the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radack, Shirley M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the role of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII). Highlights include the standards process; voluntary standards; Open Systems Interconnection problems; Internet Protocol Suite; consortia; government's role; and network security. (16 references) (LRW)

  12. Submillimeter Astronomy Investigation of Line Specra (SAILS) - a balloon borne instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiffert, M. D.; Langer, W. D.; Lord, S. D.; Pearson, J.; McGrath, W. R.

    2000-01-01

    The Submillimeter Astronomy Investigation of Line Specra (SAILS) is a balloon-borne experiment under study for a 100 day ultra-long duration balloon mission. The experiment would survey the galactic plane with 1 arc minute angular resolution and 1 km/sec velocity resolution in the important submillimeter lines of CII, NII, and OI.

  13. The development of regulatory expectations for computer-based safety systems for the UK nuclear programme

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P. J.; Westwood, R.N; Mark, R. T.; Tapping, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has completed a review of their Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) for Nuclear Installations recently. During the period of the SAPs review in 2004-2005 the designers of future UK naval reactor plant were optioneering the control and protection systems that might be implemented. Because there was insufficient regulatory guidance available in the naval sector to support this activity the Defence Nuclear Safety Regulator (DNSR) invited the NII to collaborate with the production of a guidance document that provides clarity of regulatory expectations for the production of safety cases for computer based safety systems. A key part of producing regulatory expectations was identifying the relevant extant standards and sector guidance that reflect good practice. The three principal sources of such good practice were: IAEA Safety Guide NS-G-1.1 (Software for Computer Based Systems Important to Safety in Nuclear Power Plants), European Commission consensus document (Common Position of European Nuclear Regulators for the Licensing of Safety Critical Software for Nuclear Reactors) and IEC nuclear sector standards such as IEC60880. A common understanding has been achieved between the NII and DNSR and regulatory guidance developed which will be used by both NII and DNSR in the assessment of computer-based safety systems and in the further development of more detailed joint technical assessment guidance for both regulatory organisations. (authors)

  14. Innovation, TIDE Teachers, and the Global Economy: The Direct Ability of a TIDE Education to Create Investors and Innovators is Simply Overlooked and Underestimated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkweather, Kendall N.

    2005-01-01

    The National Innovation Initiative (NII) defines innovation as "the intersection of invention and insight, leading to the creation of social and economic value." Innovation has been fundamental in exploration, opportunity, and discovery. It is the story of how technology has advanced, is used, and powers the economic engines of a country. NII…

  15. 47 CFR 15.401 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Infrastructure Devices § 15.401 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations for unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices operating in the 5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.47-5.725 GHz and 5.725-5.825 GHz bands....

  16. 47 CFR 15.401 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Infrastructure Devices § 15.401 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations for unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices operating in the 5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.47-5.725 GHz and 5.725-5.825 GHz bands....

  17. Using the National Information Infrastructure for social science, education, and informed decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-01-07

    The United States has aggressively embarked on the challenging task of building a National Information Infrastructure (NII). This infrastructure will have many levels, extending from the building block capital stock that composes the telecommunications system to the multitude of higher tier applications hardware and software tied to this system. This ``White Paper`` presents a vision for a second and third tier national information infrastructure that focuses exclusively on the needs of social science, education, and decision making (NII-SSEDM). NII-SSEDM will provide the necessary data, information, and automated decision support and educational tools needed to help this nation solve its most pressing social problems. The proposed system has five components: `data collection systems; databases; statistical analysis and modeling tools; policy analysis and decision support tools; and materials and software specially designed for education. This paper contains: a vision statement for each component; comments on progress made on each component as of the early 1990s; and specific recommendations on how to achieve the goals described in the vision statements. The white paper also discusses how the NII-SSEDM could be used to address four major social concerns: ensuring economic prosperity; health care; reducing crime and violence; and K-12 education. Examples of near-term and mid-term goals (e.g., pre-and post Year 2000) are presented for consideration. Although the development of NII-SSEDM will require a concerted effort by government, the private sector, schools, and numerous other organizations, the success of NH-SSEDM is predicated upon the identification of an institutional ``champion`` to acquire and husband key resources and provide strong leadership and guidance.

  18. The genuine ligand of a jasmonic acid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Daoxin

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA), its metabolites, such as the methyl ester or amino acid conjugates as well as its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) are lipid-derived signals. JA, OPDA and JA-amino acid conjugates are known to function as signals in plant stress responses and development. More recently, formation of JA-amino acid conjugates and high biological activity of JA-Isoleucine (JA-Ile) were found to be essential in JA signaling. A breakthrough was the identification of JAZ proteins which interact with the F-box protein COI1 if JA-Ile is bound. This interaction leads to proteasomal degradation of JAZs being negative regulators of JA-induced transcription. Surprisingly, a distinct stereoisomer of JA-Ile, the (+)-7-iso-JA-Ile [(3R,7S) form] is most active. Coronatine, a bacterial phytotoxine with an identical stereochemistry at the cyclopentanone ring, has a similar bioactivity. This was explained by the recent identification of COI1 as the JA receptor and accords well with molecular modeling studies. Whereas over the last two decades JA was quantified to describe any JA dependent process, now we have to take into account a distinct stereoisomer of JA-Ile. Until recently a quantitative analysis of (+)-7-iso-JA-Ile was missing presumable due to its equilibration to (−)-JA-Ile. Now such an analysis was achieved. These aspects will be discussed based on our new knowledge on JA perception and signaling. PMID:20404483

  19. A survey of the ISM in early-type galaxies. I. The ionized gas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchetto, F.; Pastoriza, M.; Caon, N.; Sparks, W. B.; Giavalisco, M.; Bender, R.; Capaccioli, M.

    1996-12-01

    We present results of a CCD optical imaging survey of the ionized gas in 73 luminous elliptical and lenticular galaxies, selected from the RC3 catalog to represent a broad variety of X-ray, radio, infrared and kinematical properties. For each galaxy we have used broad-band R images and narrow-band images centered at the Hα and [NII] emission lines to derive the luminosity and distribution of the ionized gas. We found that a large fraction of E (72%) and S0 (85%) galaxies in our sample contain ionized gas. The gas morphology appears to be rather smooth for most galaxies; however ~12% of the sample galaxies show a very extended filamentary structure. According to the morphology and size of the gas distribution, the galaxies have been classified into three broad groups, named small disk (SD), regular extended (RE) and filamentary structure (F). The mean diameter of the emitting region ranges between 1 and 10kpc; the derived mass of the ionized gas ranges between 10^3^ and 10^5^ solar masses. A significant correlation between Hα+[NII] and X-ray luminosities is found for those galaxies (27% of the sample) for which we have detected ionized gas and are also listed as X-ray sources. However, there are relatively strong X-ray emitting galaxies for which we have not detected Hα+[NII] emission and objects which show emission-lines but are not listed either in the EINSTEIN or in the ROSAT databases. The distribution of datapoint and upper limits in this diagram suggests that galaxies with warm gas are also X-ray emitters, while there are X-ray emitters without measurable Hα+[NII] emission. Similar characteristics are present in the correlation between the infrared luminosity in the 12 μm band and L_Hα+[NII]_; correlations with other infrared wavelengths are weaker. A strong correlation was also found between the Hα+[NII] luminosity and the luminosity in the B band inside the region occupied by the line-emitting gas. We use these correlations to discuss the possible

  20. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    positively correlated with the carbohydrate fraction and negatively correlated with the aliphatic fraction of the soil C, while carbohydrate-C and alkyl-C increased and decreased with distance from the road, respectively. It is proposed that petroleum hydrocarbons supress soil biological activity at concentrations above 1500 mg kg-1, and that soil organic matter priming primarily affects the carbohydrate fraction of soil organic matter. It can be concluded that the abundance of solid carbohydrates (O-alkyl C) is of paramount importance for the hydrocarbon mineralization under natural conditions, compared to more recalcitrant SOM fractions (mainly aromatic and alkyl C). References Mykhailova, L., Fischer, T., Iurchenko, V. (2013) Distribution and fractional composition of petroleum hydrocarbons in roadside soils. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, vol. 2013, Article ID 938703, 6 pages, DOI 10.1155/2013/938703 Mykhailova, L., Fischer, T., Iurchenko, V. (2014) Deposition of petroleum hydrocarbons with sediment trapped in snow in roadside areas. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 22(3):237-244, DOI 10.3846/16486897.2014.889698 Nelson P.N. and Baldock J.A. (2005) Estimating the molecular composition of a diverse range of natural organic materials from solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses, 2005, Biogeochemistry (2005) 72: 1-34, DOI 10.1007/s10533-004-0076-3 Zyakun, A., Nii-Annang, S., Franke, G., Fischer, T., Buegger, F., Dilly, O. (2011) Microbial Actvity and 13C/12C Ratio as Evidence of N-Hexadecane and N-Hexadecanoic Acid Biodegradation in Agricultural and Forest Soils. Geomicrobiology Journal 28:632-647, DOI 10.1080/01490451.2010.489922

  1. Research of ceramic materials stability in thermionic converter interelectrode gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Oleg F.; Nikolaev, Yuri V.; Vybyvanets, Valeri; Agnew, Paul; Olson, David; Zavadil, Kevin R.

    1995-01-01

    Demonstration tests were conducted using a diagnostic thermionic converter (N597) designed and manufactured at NII NPO LUCH (JV INERTEK). The converter at NII NPO LUCH was a subject of comparative research on mass loss rate of two ceramic materials (aluminium oxide and scandium oxide) at constant sample temperature in various modes of the converter operation. These investigations were continued in NMERI on the modified TISA Rig. Substantial corrosion of Al2O3 was revealed after sample exposure in cesium plasma. It was also determined that Sc2O3 does not interact with cesium plasma. Sc2O3 mass loss rate in all thermionic converter operation modes does not exceed values corresponding to diffusion mode and is by several orders lower than Al2O3 mass loss rate. Based on these results the lifetime of TFE electrode spacers was evaluated.

  2. Excitation of emission lines by fluorescence and recombination in IC 418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalante, Vladimir; Morisset, Cristophe; Georgiev, Leonid

    2012-08-01

    We predict intensities of lines of CII, NI, NII, OI and OII and compare them with a deep spectroscopic survey of IC 418 to test the effect of excitation of nebular emission lines by continuum fluorescence of starlight. Our calculations use a nebular model and a synthetic spectrum of its central star to take into account excitation of the lines by continuum fluorescence and recombination. The NII spectrum is mostly produced by fluorescence due to the low excitation conditions of the nebula, but many CII and OII lines have more excitation by fluorescence than recombination. In the neutral envelope, the NI permitted lines are excited by fluorescence, and almost all the OI lines are excited by recombination. Electron excitation produces the forbidden optical lines of OI, but continuum fluorescence excites most of the NI forbidden line intensities. Lines excited by fluorescence of light below the Lyman limit thus suggest a new diagnostic to explore the photodissociation region of a nebula.

  3. GENI-DB: a database of global events for epidemic intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Nigel; Doan, Son

    2012-01-01

    Summary: We present a novel public health database (GENI-DB) in which news events on the topic of over 176 infectious diseases and chemicals affecting human and animal health are compiled from surveillance of the global online news media in 10 languages. News event frequency data were gathered systematically through the BioCaster public health surveillance system from July 2009 to the present and is available to download by the research community for purposes of analyzing trends in the global burden of infectious diseases. Database search can be conducted by year, country, disease and language. Availability: The GENI-DB is freely available via a web portal at http://born.nii.ac.jp/ Contact: collier@nii.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22383735

  4. Bipolar Outflow Offset from the Nucleus of M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roming, P. W. A.; Moody, J. W.; Hintz, M. L.; Wu, K.; Soria, R.

    2002-12-01

    Using long-slit spectra centered in wavelength about Hα , we have produced a velocity map of a 0.5' x 2' hourglass shaped object centered 38" southeast of the optical center of M33. The velocity resolution is 1.1 km/s. We have also produced electron temperature, electron density, and shock heating maps of the same region using the [NII](λ 6548), [NII](λ 6583), Hα , [SII](λ 6717), and [SII](λ 6731) lines. The data reveal that the gas is flowing away from the center of this hourglass shaped object and that the electron temperature and density of the region is relatively low. The shock heating maps indicate that very little of the gas in the region is shock heated. Using this new data and previously published UV, IR, and radio data we investigate possible scenarios that could explain this large scale, low velocity outflow.

  5. Differences in autism spectrum disorders incidence by sub-populations in Israel 1992-2009: a total population study.

    PubMed

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.49% to 0.49%, while other child disabilities in NII increased only 1.65-fold. There was a consistent increase in ASD incidence with advancing birth cohorts born 1992-2004, stabilizing among those born 2005-2009. ASD rates among Israeli Arabs were substantially lower, and increased about 10 years later than the general population. The findings suggest a role for ASD awareness, accessing of the government benefit, or the way the concept of ASD is perceived. PMID:25287899

  6. Space-based Communications Infrastructure for Developing Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infractructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  7. The Instability of Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 : A Fifty Year Old Transition Metal Silylamide Mystery.

    PubMed

    Faust, Michelle; Bryan, Aimee M; Mansikkamäki, Akseli; Vasko, Petra; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Tuononen, Heikki M; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J; Power, Philip P

    2015-10-26

    The characterization of the unstable Ni(II) bis(silylamide) Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 (1), its THF complex Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 (THF) (2), and the stable bis(pyridine) derivative trans-Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 (py)2 (3), is described. Both 1 and 2 decompose at ca. 25 °C to a tetrameric Ni(I) species, [Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }]4 (4), also obtainable from LiN(SiMe3 )2 and NiCl2 (DME). Experimental and computational data indicate that the instability of 1 is likely due to ease of reduction of Ni(II) to Ni(I) and the stabilization of 4 through dispersion forces. PMID:26332337

  8. Paramagnetic intermediates in reactions of the components of catalytic systems of the Ziegler type. Reactions of azo and azomethine complexes of Ni(II) with diethylaluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasov, Ya.A.; Ismailov, E.G.; Medzhidov, A.A.

    1988-04-01

    The intermediate paramagnetic particles, i.e., radical particles, complexes of Ni(I), and Ni/sub n/(O) aggregates, formed as a result of the reaction of azo and azomethine complexes of Ni(II) with Et/sub 2/AlCl in solvent media (toluene, THF, heptane) have been identified with the aid of ESR. The possibility of the stabilization of reactive intermediate complexes of Ni(I) by organophosphorus ligands (DPPE and TPP) has been demonstrated, and the magnetic-resonance parameters of their adducts have been determined. It has been postulated that the formation of radical particles occurs as a result of the coordination of the nitrogen atoms of the azo or azomethine ligands by the organoaluminum compound followed by splitting of the -N=N or -CH=N bonds.

  9. Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Incidence by Sub-Populations in Israel 1992-2009: A Total Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.049% to 0.49%, while other child disabilities in NII increased only 1.65-fold. There was a consistent increase in ASD incidence with advancing birth cohorts born 1992-2004, stabilizing among those born 2005-2009. ASD rates among Israeli Arabs were substantially lower, and increased about 10 years later than the general population. The findings suggest a role for ASD awareness, accessing of the government benefit, or the way the concept of ASD is perceived. PMID:25287899

  10. 17 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 45 - Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data 1 Appendix 1 to Part 45 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data ER13JA12.003 ER13JA12.004 ER13JA12.005 ER13JA12.006...

  11. 17 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 45 - Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data 1 Appendix 1 to Part 45 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data ER13JA12.003 ER13JA12.004 ER13JA12.005 ER13JA12.006...

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Nebular emission lines towards NGC3372 center (Damiani+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, F.; Bonito, R.; Magrini, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Mapelli, M.; Micela, G.; Kalari, V.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Sacco, G. G.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Worley, C.; Zaggia, S.; Zwitter, T.; Dorda, R.

    2016-04-01

    Nebular emission lines of H-alpha, [NII] 6584Å, HeI 6678Å, [SII] 6717Å, [SII] 6731Å, towards the center of Carina nebula, are modeled with two gaussians each ('blue' and 'red' components). Best-fit parameters are given in the table. Line widths include the instrumental width of the Giraffe spectrograph (7km/s). Radial velocities are heliocentric. (1 data file).

  13. Far-Infrared Line Observations of SGR A West

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Simpson, Janet P.; Rubin, Robert H.; Haas, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Using NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), we have measured lines of [SIII] 19 and 33 micrometers, [FeIII] 23 micrometers, [OIII] 52 and 88 micrometers, [NIII] 57 micrometer, and [NII] 122 and 205 micrometers arising in the unusual HII region Sgr A West at the Galactic Center. The emission is consistent with photoionization of the low density (approximately 1000/cc) cavity gas, but the N+ emission could arise predominantly in the higher density "mini-spiral" ionized streamers unresolved in our beam.

  14. Induction of the CYP2B genes by triphenyldioxane treatment in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Grigorieva, E; Soshilov, A; Surovtseva, Y; Schwartz, E L; Duzhak, T G; Gulyaeva, L F; Lyakhovich, V V

    2002-08-01

    Triphenyldioxane (TPD) is a potent phenobarbital-type (PB) inducer of the CYP2B cytochrome isoforms, the inducing effect of which is one order of magnitude higher than PB. The fact that TPD is unable to induce CYP2B genes having the proximal promoter disrupted (mouse Cyp2b10) suggests an existence of the proximal promoter-dependent mechanism of the CYP2B induction. So a TPD-dependent activation of the nuclear proteins to the binding with Barbie-box sequence (the most conservative part of the proximal promoter) was studied. In the nuclear extracts from the intact rat liver there were detected five proteins that could be activated to the Barbie-box binding by the TPD treatment in vitro (II, III, NI, NII and NIII). The first three were effected also by another PB-like inducers tested (PB and TCPOBOP), when NII and NIII complexes were formed under the influence of TPD only. It is possible that a direct activation of the NII and NIII proteins by TPD exists as (3)H-labeled TPD was detected in the composition of NII and NIII complexes. However, both of them disappeared from the nuclear extracts after the long exposure time with TPD (6 h or more). A short induction by the direct intra-liver delivery of TPD (15-30 min) led to the stabile activation of one TPD-specific protein. Apart from the activation of the Barbie-box-binding protein, the short TPD treatment caused the activation of three nuclear proteins being able to interact with the NR1 sequence of the distal promoter PBREM element. These findings suggest that TPD is really the first member of the PB-like inducers family for which a special mechanism of CYP2B induction may exist. PMID:12110287

  15. Government Information Locator Service (GILS). Draft report to the Information Infrastructure Task Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a draft report on the Government Information Locator Service (GILS) to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) task force. GILS is designed to take advantage of internetworking technology known as client-server architecture which allows information to be distributed among multiple independent information servers. Two appendices are provided -- (1) A glossary of related terminology and (2) extracts from a draft GILS profile for the use of the American National Standard Information Retrieval Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Library Applications.

  16. OSI and TCP/IP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, Lynwood P.

    1994-01-01

    The Open Systems Interconnection Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (OSI TCP/IP) and the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) are compared and described in terms of Federal internetworking. The organization and functions of the Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel (FIRP) are discussed and the panel's conclusions and recommendations with respect to the standards and implementation of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) are presented.

  17. Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Incidence by Sub-Populations in Israel 1992-2009: A Total Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.49 %…

  18. Bd +60 73 = Igr J00370+6122

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Reig, Pablo

    2004-05-01

    A classification spectrum of BD +60 73, reported to be the optical counterpart to IGR J00370+6122 (ATel #281), was taken on the night of 2003 July 7th with the 2.5-m Issac Newton telescope at La Palma. The derived spectral type is BN0.5II-III, where the composite luminosity class indicates an intermediate luminosity. The Nitrogen enhancement is moderately high, with numerous NII lines being rather stronger than corresponds to the spectral type.

  19. Remote use of distributed robotics resources to enhance technology development and insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.; McDonald, M.J.; Davies, B.R.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes Virtual Collaborative Environments (VCEs), an information architecture that enables remote sharing of mechatronic (intelligent electrochemical devices) resources. This architecture will leverage the proposed National Information Infrastructure (NII) or Information Highway to share valuable resources and reduce product-to-market cycles. Benefits of sharing mechatronic resources with VCEs are explored. An existing prototype VCE is described and experimental and illustrative results from using the prototype VCE system are discussed.

  20. Ionization of the diffuse gas in galaxies: Hot low-mass evolved stars at work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Fajardo, N.; Morisset, C.; Stasinska, G.; Binette, L.

    2011-10-01

    The Diffuse Ionized Medium (DIG) is visible through its faint optical line emission outside classical HII regions (Reynolds 1971) and turns out to be a major component of the interstellar medium in galaxies. OB stars in galaxies likely represent the main source of ionizing photons for the DIG. However, an additional source is needed to explain the increase of [NII]/Hα, [SII]/Hα with galactic height.

  1. Evaluating and minimizing noise impact due to aircraft flyover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a study on the evaluation and reduction of noise impact to a community due to aircraft landing and takeoff operations are presented. The case of multiple aircrafts flying on several trajectories, for either approach/landings or takeoffs was examined. An extremely realistic model of the flight path was developed. The annoyance criterion used was the noise impact index (NII). The algorithm was applied to Patrick Henry International Airport.

  2. Mutant Huntingtin Gene-Dose Impacts on Aggregate Deposition, DARPP32 Expression and Neuroinflammation in HdhQ150 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Young, Douglas; Mayer, Franziska; Vidotto, Nella; Schweizer, Tatjana; Berth, Ramon; Abramowski, Dorothee; Shimshek, Derya R.; van der Putten, P. Herman; Schmid, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive and fatal neurological disorder caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in exon-1 of the huntingtin gene. The encoded poly-glutamine stretch renders mutant huntingtin prone to aggregation. HdhQ150 mice genocopy a pathogenic repeat (∼150 CAGs) in the endogenous mouse huntingtin gene and model predominantly pre-manifest HD. Treating early is likely important to prevent or delay HD, and HdhQ150 mice may be useful to assess therapeutic strategies targeting pre-manifest HD. This requires appropriate markers and here we demonstrate, that pre-symptomatic HdhQ150 mice show several dramatic mutant huntingtin gene-dose dependent pathological changes including: (i) an increase of neuronal intra-nuclear inclusions (NIIs) in brain, (ii) an increase of extra-nuclear aggregates in dentate gyrus, (iii) a decrease of DARPP32 protein and (iv) an increase in glial markers of neuroinflammation, which curiously did not correlate with local neuronal mutant huntingtin inclusion-burden. HdhQ150 mice developed NIIs also in all retinal neuron cell-types, demonstrating that retinal NIIs are not specific to human exon-1 R6 HD mouse models. Taken together, the striking and robust mutant huntingtin gene-dose related changes in aggregate-load, DARPP32 levels and glial activation markers should greatly facilitate future testing of therapeutic strategies in the HdhQ150 HD mouse model. PMID:24086450

  3. Korkeakouluneuvoston mietinto I: Filosofisten ja yhteiskuntatieteellisten tiedekuntien tutkintojarjestelman uudistaminen (Report of the Advisory Council on Universities, Part I: Reform of the Examination Procedure of the Philosophic and Social Science Faculties).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finland.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a proposal made by the Advisory Council on Universities under the ministry of Education. The humanities and science departments of Finnish universities award the degrees of bachelor, master, licentiate, and doctor. This report deals with the first two. The lowest (BA or…

  4. Comment on: Lawrence, J.A., Mortimore, R.N., Stone, K.J., Busby, J.P., 2013. Sea saltwater weakening of chalk and the impact on cliff instability. Geomorphology 191, 14-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornbusch, Uwe

    2015-02-01

    This comment relates to the conclusion of the recently published paper that "This work challenges the established view by identifying the role of salt from seawater in the degradation of porous rocks in coastal environments as a third and potentially the most important mechanism leading to chalk cliff collapse." (Lawrence et al., 2013: 15). The 'established view' relates to "Traditionally, the two main factors leading to cliff collapse have been considered to be (i) waves attacking and eroding the base of the cliff […] and (ii) water weakening as the chalk becomes saturated […]." (Lawrence et al., 2013: 14). The particular aspect of the paper of making surface weakening the primary process has been picked up more widely following publication under the headlines 'Salt causes chalk cliffs to collapse' in Jarlett (2013), 'Salt makes chalk cliffs collapse' in NERC (2013) and in the web resource 'How does salt make chalk cliffs collapse?' from Leeds University (2013).

  5. Reply to comment on: Lawrence, J.A., Mortimore, R.N., Stone, K.J., and Busby, J.P., 2013. Sea saltwater weakening of chalk and the impact on cliff instability. Geomorphology 191, 14-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, James A.; Mortimore, Rory N.

    2015-02-01

    We are grateful to Dornbusch (2014) for the opportunity to clarify the role we propose for salt water weakening of the chalk and its potential importance as a mechanism contributing to cliff instability. Dornbusch's argument is based largely on a single comment "This work challenges the established view by identifying the role of salt from seawater in the degradation of porous rocks in coastal environments as a third and potentially the most important mechanism leading to chalk cliff collapse" (Lawrence et al., 2013: 15). This was not intended as a "conclusion" as suggested by Dornbusch (2014) but is rather a qualitative introductory statement highlighting the potential importance of the salt water weakening process in coastal cliff instability. The actual conclusions of the work are not challenged by Dornbusch (2014).

  6. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice. PMID:23518581

  7. Jasmonic Acid and Its Precursor 12-Oxophytodienoic Acid Control Different Aspects of Constitutive and Induced Herbivore Defenses in Tomato1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Marko; Wright, Louwrance P.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina; Schaller, Andreas; Stintzi, Annick

    2014-01-01

    The jasmonate family of growth regulators includes the isoleucine (Ile) conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA-Ile) and its biosynthetic precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) as signaling molecules. To assess the relative contribution of JA/JA-Ile and OPDA to insect resistance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we silenced the expression of OPDA reductase3 (OPR3) by RNA interference (RNAi). Consistent with a block in the biosynthetic pathway downstream of OPDA, OPR3-RNAi plants contained wild-type levels of OPDA but failed to accumulate JA or JA-Ile after wounding. JA/JA-Ile deficiency in OPR3-RNAi plants resulted in reduced trichome formation and impaired monoterpene and sesquiterpene production. The loss of these JA/JA-Ile -dependent defense traits rendered them more attractive to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta with respect to feeding and oviposition. Oviposition preference resulted from reduced levels of repellant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Feeding preference, on the other hand, was caused by increased production of cis-3-hexenal acting as a feeding stimulant for M. sexta larvae in OPR3-RNAi plants. Despite impaired constitutive defenses and increased palatability of OPR3-RNAi leaves, larval development was indistinguishable on OPR3-RNAi and wild-type plants, and was much delayed compared with development on the jasmonic acid-insensitive1 (jai1) mutant. Apparently, signaling through JAI1, the tomato ortholog of the ubiquitin ligase CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is required for defense, whereas the conversion of OPDA to JA/JA-Ile is not. Comparing the signaling activities of OPDA and JA/JA-Ile, we found that OPDA can substitute for JA/JA-Ile in the local induction of defense gene expression, but the production of JA/JA-Ile is required for a systemic response. PMID:25073705

  8. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action. PMID:27187230

  9. Closely Related NAC Transcription Factors of Tomato Differentially Regulate Stomatal Closure and Reopening during Pathogen Attack[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Du, Minmin; Zhai, Qingzhe; Deng, Lei; Li, Shuyu; Li, Hongshuang; Yan, Liuhua; Huang, Zhuo; Wang, Bao; Jiang, Hongling; Huang, Tingting; Li, Chang-Bao; Wei, Jianing; Kang, Le; Li, Jingfu; Li, Chuanyou

    2014-01-01

    To restrict pathogen entry, plants close stomata as an integral part of innate immunity. To counteract this defense, Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato produces coronatine (COR), which mimics jasmonic acid (JA), to reopen stomata for bacterial entry. It is believed that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in regulating bacteria-triggered stomatal closure and that stomatal reopening requires the JA/COR pathway, but the downstream signaling events remain unclear. We studied the stomatal immunity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and report here the distinct roles of two homologous NAC (for NAM, ATAF1,2, and CUC2) transcription factors, JA2 (for jasmonic acid2) and JA2L (for JA2-like), in regulating pathogen-triggered stomatal movement. ABA activates JA2 expression, and genetic manipulation of JA2 revealed its positive role in ABA-mediated stomatal closure. We show that JA2 exerts this effect by regulating the expression of an ABA biosynthetic gene. By contrast, JA and COR activate JA2L expression, and genetic manipulation of JA2L revealed its positive role in JA/COR-mediated stomatal reopening. We show that JA2L executes this effect by regulating the expression of genes involved in the metabolism of salicylic acid. Thus, these closely related NAC proteins differentially regulate pathogen-induced stomatal closure and reopening through distinct mechanisms. PMID:25005917

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Inactivation of the Hormone Jasmonoyl-l-Isoleucine by Multiple Members of the Cytochrome P450 94 Family in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J.; Thireault, Caitlin; Zemelis, Starla; Poudel, Arati N.; Zhang, Tong; Kitaoka, Naoki; Brandizzi, Federica; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) controls diverse aspects of plant immunity, growth, and development. The amplitude and duration of JA responses are controlled in large part by the intracellular level of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile). In contrast to detailed knowledge of the JA-Ile biosynthetic pathway, little is known about enzymes involved in JA-Ile metabolism and turnover. Cytochromes P450 (CYP) 94B3 and 94C1 were recently shown to sequentially oxidize JA-Ile to hydroxy (12OH-JA-Ile) and dicarboxy (12COOH-JA-Ile) derivatives. Here, we report that a third member (CYP94B1) of the CYP94 family also participates in oxidative turnover of JA-Ile in Arabidopsis. In vitro studies showed that recombinant CYP94B1 converts JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile and lesser amounts of 12COOH-JA-Ile. Consistent with this finding, metabolic and physiological characterization of CYP94B1 loss-of-function and overexpressing plants demonstrated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 coordinately govern the majority (>95%) of 12-hydroxylation of JA-Ile in wounded leaves. Analysis of CYP94-promoter-GUS reporter lines indicated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 serve unique and overlapping spatio-temporal roles in JA-Ile homeostasis. Subcellular localization studies showed that CYP94s involved in conversion of JA-Ile to 12COOH-JA-Ile reside on endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In vitro studies further showed that 12COOH-JA-Ile, unlike JA-Ile, fails to promote assembly of COI1-JAZ co-receptor complexes. The double loss-of-function mutant of CYP94B3 and ILL6, a JA-Ile amidohydrolase, displayed a JA profile consistent with the collaborative action of the oxidative and the hydrolytic pathways in JA-Ile turnover. Collectively, our results provide an integrated view of how multiple ER-localized CYP94 and JA amidohydrolase enzymes attenuate JA signaling during stress responses. PMID:25210037

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated inactivation of the hormone jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine by multiple members of the cytochrome P450 94 family in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Abraham J; Thireault, Caitlin; Zemelis, Starla; Poudel, Arati N; Zhang, Tong; Kitaoka, Naoki; Brandizzi, Federica; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Howe, Gregg A

    2014-10-24

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) controls diverse aspects of plant immunity, growth, and development. The amplitude and duration of JA responses are controlled in large part by the intracellular level of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). In contrast to detailed knowledge of the JA-Ile biosynthetic pathway, little is known about enzymes involved in JA-Ile metabolism and turnover. Cytochromes P450 (CYP) 94B3 and 94C1 were recently shown to sequentially oxidize JA-Ile to hydroxy (12OH-JA-Ile) and dicarboxy (12COOH-JA-Ile) derivatives. Here, we report that a third member (CYP94B1) of the CYP94 family also participates in oxidative turnover of JA-Ile in Arabidopsis. In vitro studies showed that recombinant CYP94B1 converts JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile and lesser amounts of 12COOH-JA-Ile. Consistent with this finding, metabolic and physiological characterization of CYP94B1 loss-of-function and overexpressing plants demonstrated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 coordinately govern the majority (>95%) of 12-hydroxylation of JA-Ile in wounded leaves. Analysis of CYP94-promoter-GUS reporter lines indicated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 serve unique and overlapping spatio-temporal roles in JA-Ile homeostasis. Subcellular localization studies showed that CYP94s involved in conversion of JA-Ile to 12COOH-JA-Ile reside on endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In vitro studies further showed that 12COOH-JA-Ile, unlike JA-Ile, fails to promote assembly of COI1-JAZ co-receptor complexes. The double loss-of-function mutant of CYP94B3 and ILL6, a JA-Ile amidohydrolase, displayed a JA profile consistent with the collaborative action of the oxidative and the hydrolytic pathways in JA-Ile turnover. Collectively, our results provide an integrated view of how multiple ER-localized CYP94 and JA amidohydrolase enzymes attenuate JA signaling during stress responses. PMID:25210037

  12. The rapidly evolving associations among herbivore associated elicitor-induced phytohormones in Nicotiana

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuqing; Zhou, Wenwu; Baldwin, Ian T

    2015-01-01

    In response to herbivore attack, plants perceive herbivore associated elicitors (HAE) and rapidly accumulate jasmonic acid (JA) and other phytohormones, which interact in complex ways, such as the crosstalk between JA and salicylic acid (SA). Although recent studies have shown that HAE-induced individual phytohormones can be highly specific among closely related species, it remains unclear how conserved and specific the relationships among HAE-induced phytohormones are. Here we analyzed the correlations among 4 different phytohormones, JA, JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile), SA, and abscisic acid (ABA) in 6 closely related Nicotiana species that were induced by 3 different HAEs. Our results showed that while no clear association between ABA and other phytohormones were found, the positive association between JA and JA-Ile is mostly conserved among closely related Nicotiana species. Interestingly, the association between JA and SA are highly variable and can be regulated by different HAEs. PMID:26107988

  13. Phenothiazine overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 290. Velez LI, Feng S-Y. Anticholinergics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency ... chap 150. Wittler MA, Lavonas EJ. Antipsychotics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency ...

  14. Eucalyptus oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... JT, Duvivier EH, Pollack CV. Seizure disorders. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Shih RD. Plants, mushrooms, and herbal medications. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  15. Identification of jasmonic acid and its methyl ester as gum-inducing factors in tulips.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Edyta; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify endogenous factors that induce gummosis and to show their role in gummosis in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) stems. Using procedures to detect endogenous factors that induce gum in the stem of tulips, jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) were successfully identified using gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total amounts of JA and JA-Me designated as jasmonates in tulip stems were also estimated at about 70-80 ng/g fresh weight, using deuterium-labeled jasmonates as internal standards. The application of JA and JA-Me as lanolin pastes substantially induced gums in tulip stems with ethylene production. The application of ethephon, an ethylene-generating compound, however, induced no gummosis although it slightly affected jasmonate content in tulip stems. These results strongly suggest that JA and JA-Me are endogenous factors that induce gummosis in tulip stems. PMID:15654503

  16. 78 FR 649 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... ] TD03JA13.085 ] TD03JA13.086 ] TD03JA13.087 ] TD03JA13.088 [FR Doc. 2013-00002 Filed 1-2-13; 11:15 a.m... National Institutes of Health NOTICES Meetings: Center for Scientific Review, 312-313 National Cancer... implement an alternative level of comparability payments under section 5304a of title 5, United States...

  17. Cytochrome P450 CYP94B3 mediates catabolism and inactivation of the plant hormone jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J. K.; Cooke, Thomas F.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2011-01-01

    The phytohormone jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) signals through the COI1-JAZ coreceptor complex to control key aspects of plant growth, development, and immune function. Despite detailed knowledge of the JA-Ile biosynthetic pathway, little is known about the genetic basis of JA-Ile catabolism and inactivation. Here, we report the identification of a wound- and jasmonate-responsive gene from Arabidopsis that encodes a cytochrome P450 (CYP94B3) involved in JA-Ile turnover. Metabolite analysis of wounded leaves showed that loss of CYP94B3 function in cyp94b3 mutants causes hyperaccumulation of JA-Ile and concomitant reduction in 12-hydroxy-JA-Ile (12OH-JA-Ile) content, whereas overexpression of this enzyme results in severe depletion of JA-Ile and corresponding changes in 12OH-JA-Ile levels. In vitro studies showed that heterologously expressed CYP94B3 converts JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile, and that 12OH-JA-Ile is less effective than JA-Ile in promoting the formation of COI1-JAZ receptor complexes. CYP94B3-overexpressing plants displayed phenotypes indicative of JA-Ile deficiency, including defects in male fertility, resistance to jasmonate-induced growth inhibition, and susceptibility to insect attack. Increased accumulation of JA-Ile in wounded cyp94b3 leaves was associated with enhanced expression of jasmonate-responsive genes. These results demonstrate that CYP94B3 exerts negative feedback control on JA-Ile levels and performs a key role in attenuation of jasmonate responses. PMID:21576464

  18. Selective enhancement of scopadulcic acid B production in the cultured tissues of Scoparia dulcis by methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Nkembo, Kasidimoko Marguerite; Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2005-07-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on isoprenoid production were evaluated in cultured tissues of Scoparia dulcis. It was found that MeJA suppressed the accumulation of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phytol and beta-sitosterol in the tissues. MeJA, however, remarkably enhanced the production of scopadulcic acid B (SDB), with 10 microM being optimal observed concentration for stimulation of SDB production. The maximum concentration of SDB was observed 6 d after MeJA treatment. PMID:15997134

  19. 17 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 45 - Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data 1 Appendix 1 to Part 45 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... 45—Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data ER13JA12.003 ER13JA12.004 ER13JA12.005...

  20. Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase regulates development and herbivory-induced defense response in rice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jinfeng; Li, Jiancai; Han, Xiu; Li, Ran; Wu, Jianqiang; Yu, Haixin; Hu, Lingfei; Xiao, Yutao; Lu, Jing; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites play a key role in plant defense and growth. JA carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) may be involved in plant defense and development by methylating JA to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and thus influencing the concentrations of JA and related metabolites. However, no JMT gene has been well characterized in monocotyledon defense and development at the molecular level. After we cloned a rice JMT gene, OsJMT1, whose encoding protein was localized in the cytosol, we found that the recombinant OsJMT1 protein catalyzed JA to MeJA. OsJMT1 is up-regulated in response to infestation with the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Plants in which OsJMT1 had been overexpressed (oe-JMT plants) showed reduced height and yield. These oe-JMT plants also exhibited increased MeJA levels but reduced levels of herbivore-induced JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). The oe-JMT plants were more attractive to BPH female adults but showed increased resistance to BPH nymphs, probably owing to the different responses of BPH female adults and nymphs to the changes in levels of H2 O2 and MeJA in oe-JMT plants. These results indicate that OsJMT1, by altering levels of JA and related metabolites, plays a role in regulating plant development and herbivore-induced defense responses in rice. PMID:26466818

  1. An ALMA view of the interstellar medium of the z = 4.77 lensed starburst SPT-S J213242-5802.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béthermin, M.; De Breuck, C.; Gullberg, B.; Aravena, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Chapman, S. C.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Litke, K.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Murphy, E. J.; Spilker, J. S.; Stark, A. A.; Strandet, M.; Vieira, J. D.; Weiß, A.; Welikala, N.

    2016-02-01

    We present ALMA detections of the [NII] 205 μm and CO(12-11) emission lines, and the tentative detection of [CI] - for the strongly lensed (μ = 5.7 ± 0.5) dusty, star-forming galaxy SPT-S J213242-5802.9 (hereafter SPT2132-58) at z = 4.77. The [NII] and CO(12-11) lines are detected at 11.5 and 8.5σ levels, respectively, by our band 6 observations. The [CI] line is detected at 3.2σ after a reanalysis of existing band 3 data. The [CI] luminosity implies a gas mass of (3.8 ± 1.2) × 1010M⊙, and, consequently, a very short depletion timescale of 34 ± 13 Myr and a CO luminosity to gas mass conversion factor αCO of 1.0 ± 0.3 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1. SPT2132-58 is an extreme starburst with an intrinsic star formation rate of 1100 ± 200 M⊙/yr. We find a [CII]/[NII] ratio of 26 ± 6, which is the highest ratio reported at z > 4. This suggests that SPT2132-58 hosts an evolved interstellar medium (0.5 Z⊙< Z < 1.5 Z⊙), which may be dominated by photodissociation regions. The CO(2-1) and CO(5-4) transitions have lower CO to far-infrared ratios than local and high-redshift samples, while CO(12-11) is similar to these samples, suggesting the presence of an additional very excited component or an active galactic nucleus.

  2. Mode of action uncovered for the specific reduction of methane emissions from ruminants by the small molecule 3-nitrooxypropanol.

    PubMed

    Duin, Evert C; Wagner, Tristan; Shima, Seigo; Prakash, Divya; Cronin, Bryan; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Duval, Stephane; Rümbeli, Robert; Stemmler, René T; Thauer, Rudolf Kurt; Kindermann, Maik

    2016-05-31

    Ruminants, such as cows, sheep, and goats, predominantly ferment in their rumen plant material to acetate, propionate, butyrate, CO2, and methane. Whereas the short fatty acids are absorbed and metabolized by the animals, the greenhouse gas methane escapes via eructation and breathing of the animals into the atmosphere. Along with the methane, up to 12% of the gross energy content of the feedstock is lost. Therefore, our recent report has raised interest in 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP), which when added to the feed of ruminants in milligram amounts persistently reduces enteric methane emissions from livestock without apparent negative side effects [Hristov AN, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(34):10663-10668]. We now show with the aid of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo experiments that 3-NOP specifically targets methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR). The nickel enzyme, which is only active when its Ni ion is in the +1 oxidation state, catalyzes the methane-forming step in the rumen fermentation. Molecular docking suggested that 3-NOP preferably binds into the active site of MCR in a pose that places its reducible nitrate group in electron transfer distance to Ni(I). With purified MCR, we found that 3-NOP indeed inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of its active site Ni(I). Concomitantly, the nitrate ester is reduced to nitrite, which also inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of Ni(I). Using pure cultures, 3-NOP is demonstrated to inhibit growth of methanogenic archaea at concentrations that do not affect the growth of nonmethanogenic bacteria in the rumen. PMID:27140643

  3. Polyglutamine aggregation behavior in vitro supports a recruitment mechanism of cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Berthelier, V; Yang, W; Wetzel, R

    2001-08-01

    In expanded CAG repeat diseases such as Huntington's disease, proteins containing polyglutamine (poly(Gln)) sequences with repeat lengths of about 37 residues or more are associated with development of both disease symptoms and neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). Disease physiology in animal and cellular models does not always correlate with NII formation, however, and the mechanism by which aggregate formation might lead to cytotoxicity is unknown. To help evaluate various possible mechanisms, we determined the biophysical properties of a series of simple poly(Gln) peptides. The circular dichroism spectra of poly(Gln) peptides with repeat lengths of five, 15, 28 and 44 residues are all nearly identical and are consistent with a high degree of random coil structure, suggesting that the length-dependence of disease is not related to a conformational change in the monomeric states of expanded poly(Gln) sequences. In contrast, there is a dramatic increase in both the kinetics and the thermodynamic favorability of the spontaneous formation of ordered, amyloid-like aggregates for poly(Gln) peptides with repeat lengths of greater than 37 residues. At the same time, poly(Gln) peptides with repeat lengths in the 15-20 residue range, despite their poor abilities to support spontaneous, self-nucleated aggregation, are capable of efficiently adding to an already-formed aggregate. We also find that morphologically small, finely divided aggregates are much more efficient at recruiting poly(Gln) peptides than are large aggregates, suggesting a possible explanation for why disease pathology does not always correlate with the observable NII burden. Together, these data are consistent with a model for disease pathology in which critical cellular proteins possessing poly(Gln) sequences of modest length become inactivated when they are recruited into aggregates of an expanded poly(Gln) protein. PMID:11469866

  4. Transfer and utilization of government technology assets to the private sector in the fields of health care and information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1995-10-01

    During the first Health Care Technology Policy conference last year, during health care reform, four major issues were brought up in regards to the efforts underway to develop a computer based patient record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the high performance computers and communications (HPCC), and the so-called 'patient card.' More specifically it was explained how a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public and reduce its costs. These four issues were: (1) Constructing a national information infrastructure (NII); (2) Building a computer based patient record system; (3) Bringing the collective resources of our national laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; (4) Utilizing government (e.g., DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs, and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues. This year a section of this conference entitled: 'Health Care Technology Assets of the Federal Government' addresses benefits of the technology transfer which should occur for maximizing already developed resources. This section entitled: 'Transfer and Utilization of Government Technology Assets to the Private Sector,' will look at both health care and non-health care related technologies since many areas such as information technologies (i.e. imaging, communications, archival/retrieval, systems integration, information display, multimedia, heterogeneous data bases, etc.) already exist and are part of our national labs and/or other federal agencies, i.e., ARPA. These technologies although they are not labeled under health care programs they could provide enormous value to address technical needs. An additional issue deals with both the technical

  5. Supernovae and their host galaxies - II. The relative frequencies of supernovae types in spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, A. A.; Nazaryan, T. A.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Petrosian, A. R.; Aramyan, L. S.; Kunth, D.; Mamon, G. A.; de Lapparent, V.; Bertin, E.; Gomes, J. M.; Turatto, M.

    2014-11-01

    We present an analysis of the relative frequencies of different supernova (SN) types in spirals with various morphologies and in barred or unbarred galaxies. We use a well-defined and homogeneous sample of spiral host galaxies of 692 SNe from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in different stages of galaxy-galaxy interaction and activity classes of nucleus. We propose that the underlying mechanisms shaping the number ratios of SNe types can be interpreted within the framework of interaction-induced star formation, in addition to the known relations between morphologies and stellar populations. We find a strong trend in behaviour of the NIa/NCC ratio depending on host morphology, such that early spirals include more Type Ia SNe. The NIbc/NII ratio is higher in a broad bin of early-type hosts. The NIa/NCC ratio is nearly constant when changing from normal, perturbed to interacting galaxies, then declines in merging galaxies, whereas it jumps to the highest value in post-merging/remnant galaxies. In contrast, the NIbc/NII ratio jumps to the highest value in merging galaxies and slightly declines in post-merging/remnant subsample. The interpretation is that the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies, which are strongly affected in the final stages of interaction, have an impact on the number ratios of SNe types. The NIa/NCC (NIbc/NII) ratio increases (decreases) from star-forming to active galactic nuclei (AGN) classes of galaxies. These variations are consistent with the scenario of an interaction-triggered starburst evolving into AGN during the later stages of interaction, accompanied with the change of star formation and transformation of the galaxy morphology into an earlier type.

  6. Positioning the electric utility to build information infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    In two particular respects (briefly investigated in this study from a lawyer`s perspective), electric utilities appear uniquely well-positioned to contribute to the National Information Infrastructure (NII). First of all, utilities have legal powers derived from their charters and operating authorities, confirmed in their rights-of-way, to carry out activities and functions necessary for delivering electric service. These activities and functions include building telecommunications facilities and undertaking information services that have become essential to managing electricity demand and supply. The economic value of the efficiencies made possible by telecommunications and information could be substantial. How great remains to be established, but by many estimates electric utility applications could fund a significant share of the capital costs of building the NII. Though utilities` legal powers to pursue such efficiencies through telecommunications and information appear beyond dispute, it is likely that the effort to do so will produce substantial excess capacity. Who will benefit from this excess capacity is a potentially contentious political question that demands early resolution. Will this windfall go to the utility, the customer, or no one (because of political paralysis), or will there be some equitable and practical split? A second aspect of inquiry here points to another contemporary issue of very great societal importance that could very well become the platform on which the first question can be resolved fortuitously-how to achieve universal telecommunications service. In the effort to fashion the NII that will now continue, ways and means to maximize the unique potential contribution of electric utilities to meeting important social and economic needs--in particular, universal service--merit priority attention.

  7. Nebular Line Emission in z 1 Spitzer Infrared-Luminous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, John; Papovich, C.; Finkelstein, S.; Willmer, C.; Egami, E.; Conselice, C.; Huang, J.; Koo, D.; Laird, E.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lotz, J.; Maia, M.; Marcillac, D.; Nandra, K.; Webb, T.; Weiner, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present near-infrared (IR) spectroscopic observations from the Multi-Object IR Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru telescope of a sample of 21 IR-luminous galaxies in the approximate range 1 < z < 1.5. These galaxies were selected based on their Spitzer 24-micron flux densities (S(24 micron) > 0.1 mJy) and known spectroscopic redshifts from the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). We measure rest-frame optical emission line fluxes for H-alpha and [NII], and also [OIII] and H-beta, where available. We use emission-line diagnostics to constrain the origin of the ionization in these objects: processes associated with star formation or AGN (including Seyferts and LINERs). The high-redshift galaxies in our sample have similar [NII] / H-alpha flux ratios compared to low-redshift (z 0.1) IR-luminous galaxies (Kim et al., 1995; Veilleux et al., 1995) for galaxies with implied IR luminosities of 11 < Log L(8-1000 micron) / L sol < 12. However, we find evidence that the IR-luminous galaxies in our sample with implied Log L(8-1000 micron) / L sol > 12 have lower [NII] / H-alpha ratios than low-redshift galaxies with comparable IR luminosity, implying the higher redshift IR-luminous galaxies may have a higher fraction of systems dominated by star formation. We also study the relation of our rest-frame optical emission-line diagnostics to other indicators of AGN activity, including the mid-IR colors and X-ray luminosities. In addition, we compare star-formation-rate indicators from our dust-corrected H-alpha emission line luminosities to those from the mid-to-far IR and compare these as a function of IR luminosity against the low-redshift sample.

  8. Searching for the Nearest Extragalactic Binary Black Hole: A Spectroscopic Study of NGC 4736

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Annika; Kwan, Teiler J.; Fisher, Robert Scott; Mason, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, Maoz et al. concluded that the nearby galaxy NGC 4736 (d=16 million light years) is in the late stages of a merger event. After further investigation, in 2005, Maoz et al. observed UV variability in the nuclear region of NGC 4736, revealing a second unknown source in the nucleus. Since late stage mergers are an ideal location to search for binary black holes (BBH), members of our team hypothesized that the second source could be a second black hole, making this a potential BBH system. This is important since observational evidence for their existence remains sparse, even though BBH are predicted by many theories and potentially play an important role in galaxy evolution. In January of 2008, NGC 4736 was observed with the GMOS-N instrument on Gemini North. Optical longslit spectra of the nuclear region were obtained with spatial resolution of 0.1454''/pixel and a spectral resolution of R~1700. At this resolution, the two nuclear sources are spatially resolved at a projected separation of 2.5''. As a result, we can classify the nature of the second source by looking at the optical line ratios following Ho et al. (1997). High signal-to-noise spectra of the unknown source displayed strong emission of [SII] and [NII], but an extremely weak [OIII] emission line. The unknown source has a calculated [NII]/[Hα] ratio of 1.37 and an upper limit of 0.6 for the [OIII]/[Hβ] ratio. Placing the unknown source on the BPT-NII diagram (Baldwin et al., 1981), we tentatively conclude that it is a low-luminosity second black hole potentially making NGC 4736 the nearest BBH system. The result will enable future high-spectral and spatial resolution observations of a low-luminosity system in extremely late stages of merging, which will be a significant step forward in validating models of galaxy mergers and AGN activity.

  9. Investigation by EPR and ENDOR spectroscopy of the nickel(I) form of cofactor F{sub 430} of Methanobacterium thermoautorophicum and of nickel(I) octaethylisobacteriochlorin

    SciTech Connect

    Telser, J.; Fann, Y.C.; Hoffman, B.M.; Renner, M.W.; Fajer, J.; Wang, S.; Zhang, H.; Scott, R.A.

    1997-01-29

    The terminal step in methane generation by the archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum is catalyzed by the enzyme S-methyl coenzyme M reductase (methylreductase). This enzyme contains a Ni(II) tetrapyrrole cofactor, F{sub 430}, at the active site in the resting state. A Ni(I) state (Ni{sup I}F{sub 430}) has been proposed as the active form of the cofactor. Nickel isobacteriochlorins have been used to model F{sub 430}. We have investigated both Ni{sup I}F{sub 430} and Ni{sup I}OEiBC using CW and pulsed EPR and ENDOR spectroscopy at X-band and Q-band microwave frequencies. In agreement with a previous X-band EPR and ESEEM study, at Q-band, the g tensor of Ni{sup I}F{sub 430} appears axial and {sup 1,2}H ENDOR of Ni{sup I}F{sub 430} in H{sub 2}O versus D{sub 2}O solvent shows no evidence for strongly coupled, solvent-exchangeable hydrogens, and this indicates that there is no water axially coordinated to Ni(I) in contrast to the Ni(II) resting state. Both Ni{sup I}F{sub 430} and Ni{sup I}OEiBC give {sup 14}N ENDOR signals arising from the four pyrrole nitrogen ligands to Ni(I). Previous EXAFS studies of Ni{sup I}OEiBC and Ni{sup I}F{sub 430}Me{sub 5} showed two sets of Ni(I)-N distances differing by nearly 8%, and in agreement with this, the {sup 14}N ENDOR signals for both Ni{sup I}OEiBC and Ni{sup I}F{sub 430} can be analyzed in terms of superimposed signals from two distinct types of nitrogen ligand. 86 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. The Impact of Diffuse Ionized Gas on Emission-line Ratios and Gas Metallicity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) is prevalent in star-forming galaxies. Using a sample of galaxies observed by MaNGA, we demonstrate how DIG in star-forming galaxies impact the measurements of emission line ratios, hence the gas-phase metallicity measurements and the interpretation of diagnostic diagrams. We demonstrate that emission line surface brightness (SB) is a reasonably good proxy to separate HII regions from regions dominated by diffuse ionized gas. For spatially-adjacent regions or regions at the same radius, many line ratios change systematically with emission line surface brightness, reflecting a gradual increase of dominance by DIG towards low SB. DIG could significantly bias the measurement of gas metallicity and metallicity gradient. Because DIG tend to have a higher temperature than HII regions, at fixed metallicity DIG displays lower [NII]/[OII] ratios. DIG also show lower [OIII]/[OII] ratios than HII regions, due to extended partially-ionized regions that enhance all low-ionization lines ([NII], [SII], [OII], [OI]). The contamination by DIG is responsible for a substantial portion of the scatter in metallicity measurements. At different surface brightness, line ratios and line ratio gradients can differ systematically. As DIG fraction could change with radius, it can affect the metallicity gradient measurements in systematic ways. The three commonly used strong-line metallicity indicators, R23, [NII]/[OII], O3N2, are all affected in different ways. To make robust metallicity gradient measurements, one has to properly isolate HII regions and correct for DIG contamination. In line ratio diagnostic diagrams, contamination by DIG moves HII regions towards composite or LINER-like regions.

  11. Kinetic Analysis of Competitive Electrocatalytic Pathways: New Insights into Hydrogen Production with Nickel Electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Eric S; Brown, Houston J S; Helm, Monte L

    2016-01-20

    The hydrogen production electrocatalyst Ni(P(Ph)2N(Ph)2)2(2+) (1) is capable of traversing multiple electrocatalytic pathways. When using dimethylformamidium, DMF(H)(+), the mechanism of H2 formation by 1 changes from an ECEC to an EECC mechanism as the potential approaches the Ni(I/0) couple. Two electrochemical methods, current-potential analysis and foot-of-the-wave analysis (FOWA), were performed on 1 to measure detailed kinetics of the competing ECEC and EECC pathways. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the methods using digital simulations to understand their strengths and limitations. Chemical rate constants were significantly underestimated when not accounting for electron-transfer kinetics, even when electron transfer was fast enough to afford a reversible noncatalytic wave. The EECC pathway of 1 was faster than the ECEC pathway under all conditions studied. Buffered DMF:DMF(H)(+) mixtures afforded an increase in the catalytic rate constant (k(obs)) of the EECC pathway, but k(obs) for the ECEC pathway did not change when using buffered acid. Further kinetic analysis of the ECEC path revealed that base increases the rate of isomerization from exo-protonated Ni(0) isomers to the catalytically active endo-isomers, but decreases the rate of protonation of Ni(I). FOWA did not provide accurate rate constants, but FOWA was used to estimate the reduction potential of the previously undetected exo-protonated Ni(I) intermediate. Comparison of catalytic Tafel plots for 1 under different conditions reveals substantial inaccuracies in the turnover frequency at zero overpotential when the kinetic and thermodynamic effects of the conjugate base are not accounted for properly. PMID:26692398

  12. Fibers and materials of medical application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridman, L. I.

    1993-01-01

    Efferent sorption methods of organism detoxication (by medical trend) are presented. Recently, specialists have shown their keen interest in the problem of treating exogenous and endogenous intoxications. This was stipulated by the growing production and accumulation of chemical products for industrial, agricultural, and domestic needs. To solve this problem the industrial production of carbon fibrous adsorbents was developed and implemented at NII Chimvolokno in St. Petersburg. A description of the carbon fibers is given. Also, application of modern composite materials for manufacturing compression-distraction apparatus used for setting fractured bones is described.

  13. Ternary semiconductors NiZrSn and CoZrBi with half-Heusler structure: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Gregor; Kratzer, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The ternary semiconductors NiZrSn and CoZrBi with C 1b crystal structure are introduced by calculating their basic structural, electronic, and phononic properties using density functional theory. Both the gradient-corrected PBE functional and the hybrid functional HSE06 are employed. While NiZrSn is found to be a small-band-gap semiconductor (Eg=0.46 eV in PBE and 0.60 eV in HSE06), CoZrBi has a band gap of 1.01 eV in PBE (1.34 eV in HSE06). Moreover, effective masses and deformation potentials are reported. In both materials A B C , the intrinsic point defects introduced by species A (Ni or Co) are calculated. The Co-induced defects in CoZrBi are found to have a higher formation energy compared to Ni-induced defects in NiZrSn. The interstitial Ni atom (Nii) as well as the VNiNii complex introduce defect states in the band gap, whereas the Ni vacancy (VNi) only reduces the size of the band gap. While Nii is electrically active and may act as a donor, the other two types of defects may compensate extrinsic doping. In CoZrBi, only the VCoCoi complex introduces a defect state in the band gap. Motivated by the reported use of NiZrSn for thermoelectric applications, the Seebeck coefficient of both materials, both in the p -type and the n -type regimes, is calculated. We find that CoZrBi displays a rather large thermopower of up to 500 μ V /K when p doped, whereas NiZrSn possesses its maximum thermopower in the n -type regime. The reported difficulties in achieving p -type doping in NiZrSn could be rationalized by the unintended formation of Nii2 + in conjunction with extrinsic acceptors, resulting in their compensation. Moreover, it is found that all types of defects considered, when present in concentrations as large as 3%, tend to reduce the thermopower compared to ideal bulk crystals at T =600 K. For NiZrSn, the calculated thermodynamic data suggest that additional Ni impurities could be removed by annealing, leading to precipitation of a metallic Ni2ZrSn phase.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Globulettes in the Carina nebula (Grenman+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenman, T.; Gahm, G. F.

    2014-09-01

    The optical images of the Carina complex were downloaded from the HST archive, cycle 13 and 14 programs GO-10241 and 10475 (principal investigator N. Smith) based on observations with the ACS/WFI camera, which contains two CCDs of 2048x4096 pixels glued together with a small gap in between. The pixel size corresponds to ~0.05 arcsec/pix, and the field of view is 202x202 arcsec. All images selected were exposed for 1000 s through the narrow-band filter F658N, covering the nebular emission lines of Hα and [NII]. (1 data file).

  15. Structural dynamic testing of the Engineering Test Satellite-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, K.; Mitsuma, H.; Matsushita, T.; Izumi, H.

    The Engineering Test Satellite-IV (ETS-IV) was the first large scale spacecraft developed and launched successfully in Japan on a new N-II launch vehicle. This paper presents an approach taken for the structural development of the ETS-IV. Extensive structural tests were performed to demonstrate that the ETS-IV spacecraft meets all design requirements and will survive all critical environments. Details of the static load test, vibration tests, acoustic test, and pyrotechnic shock test were described. The test results were compared with analyses and measured flight data.

  16. Highly Regioselective Indoline Synthesis under Nickel/Photoredox Dual Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Tasker, Sarah Z.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel/photoredox catalysis is used to synthesize indolines in one step from iodoacetanilides and alkenes. Very high regioselectivity for 3-substituted indoline products is obtained for both aliphatic and styrenyl olefins. Mechanistic investigations indicate that oxidation to Ni(III) is necessary to perform the difficult C–N bond-forming reductive elimination, producing a Ni(I) complex which in turn is reduced to Ni(0). This process serves to further demonstrate the utility of photoredox catalysts as controlled single electron transfer agents in multi-oxidation state nickel catalysis. PMID:26196355

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Nuclear activity in isolated galaxies (Hernandez-Ibarra+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Ibarra, F. J.; Dultzin, D.; Krongold, Y.; Del Olmo, A.; Perea, J.; Gonzalez, J.

    2014-07-01

    We used two samples of rigorously defined isolated galaxies: the photometric catalogue of isolated galaxies (CIG) by Karachentseva (1973, Cat. VII/82) and the northern isolated disc galaxies compiled by Varela et al. (2004, Cat. J/A+A/420/873). We examined all of the spectra looking if emission lines were present. Within the spectral range covered by the SDSS spectra, we searched for Hβ, [OIII] λ5007Å, [OI] λ6300Å, [NII] λλ6548, 6584Å, Hα and the two sulphur ([SII] λλ6717, 6731Å) lines. (2 data files).

  18. Esterases immobilized on aminosilane modified magnetic nanoparticles as a catalyst for biotransformation reactions.

    PubMed

    Alex, Deepthy; Mathew, Abraham; Sukumaran, Rajeev K

    2014-09-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by reacting ferrous and ferric salts in presence of aqueous ammonia. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were amino functionalized by treating with 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES) and was coupled with glutaraldehyde. A novel solvent tolerant esterase from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 was immobilized on the MNPs through covalent bonding to the glutaraldehyde. The magnetite nanoparticles had a size range of 10-100 nm, confirmed by DLS. Lipases immobilized on MNPs were evaluated for biotransformation reactions including synthesis of ethyl acetate and transesterification of vegetable oil for producing biodiesel. The MNP immobilized esterase had prolonged shelf life and there was no loss in enzyme activity. PMID:24968816

  19. Monitoring the Continuing Spectral Evolution of Nova Delphini 2013 (V339 Del) with Low Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, H. D.; Wiethoff, W. S.; Evich, A.

    2016-02-01

    The continuing spectral evolution of Nova Delphini 2013 is presented with low-resolution spectroscopy collected with a 100 line per millimeter diffraction grating. Spectra were collected on 3 July, 2014 and 14 September, 2015, +321 and +759 days after peak visible brightness on 16 August, 2013. Imaging system was mounted on an equatorially-mounted, 14-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. The continuum is no longer visible in the spectra, however, Oiii (5007 Å) and Ha (6563 Å) are prominent and Nii (5755), Hg (4340 Å) and Ciii/Niii (4640 Å) can still be discerned at +759 days.

  20. Z39.50 and GILS model. [Government Information Locator Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Eliot

    1994-01-01

    The Government Information Locator System (GILS) is a component of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) which provides electronic access to sources of publicly accessible information maintained throughout the Federal Government. GILS is an internetworking information resource that identifies other information resources, describes the information available in the referenced resources, and provides assistance in how to obtain the information either directly or through intermediaries. The GILS core content which references each Federal information system holding publicly accessible data or information is described in terms of mandatory and optional core elements.

  1. Construction ahead: What regulators should ask about the information superhighway

    SciTech Connect

    Yaquinto, G.

    1994-06-15

    The emergence of competitive access providers, alternative local transport companies, and cable television companies may present a viable alternative to the traditional monopoly of telephone companies. The participation of electric utilities could expedite implementation of the National Information Infrastructure (NII), for they already have in place communication systems that rival and sometimes exceed systems operated by commercial communications providers. State and local regulations limit the ability of some utilities to provide telecommunications, but pending federal legislation may create regulatory parity among competing companies, primarily by applying common carrier obligations to virtually all telecommunications providers.

  2. An Examination of Strong-line Metallicity Diagnostics with Direct Gas-Phase Metallicities at Higher Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Malkan, Matthew Arnold; Malhotra, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    The [OIII]λ4363 nebular emission line, which provides the most reliable determination of the gas metallicity by measuring the electron temperature of the gas, is intrinsically weak. As such, most metallicity studies at both low and high redshifts have utilized "strong-line" metallicity calibrations, such as [NII]λ6583/Hα or R23 = ([OII]+[OIII])/Hβ. However, there are growing concerns that these diagnostics may not be used for evolutionary studies due to differences in the physical conditions (e.g., density, ionization, abundance ratios) of the interstellar gas in galaxies. A clear demonstration for this concern is the offset on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagnostic diagram ([OIII]λ5007/Hβ vs. [NII]λ6583/Hα) for high-z star-forming galaxies from local star-forming galaxies.To examine this issue, we investigate the accuracy that commonly-used strong-line diagnostics can explain the direct oxygen abundances. Here, we use a sample of ~100 low-mass galaxies at z=0.07 to 1.0 with detections of the [OIII]λ4363 emission line from Keck and MMT optical spectroscopy. These galaxies are pre-selected for their strong nebular emission lines from the Subaru Deep Field and the DEEP2 Survey. Utilizing the optical emission lines, we argue that "R23" is not a reliable diagnostic and that discrepancies from [OIII]λ4363-based metallicity cannot be explained simply by higher gas densities or higher ionization parameter. We do find that the [NII]-based metallicity diagnostics of Pettini & Pagel (2004) are in agreement with [OIII]λ4363-based metallicity at z~0.5. There is, however, a sub-population (25%) where [NII]-based estimates are overestimating the oxygen metallicities. We argue that enhanced nitrogen abundances, relative to oxygen, is responsible for this significant (~0.5 dex) offset in metallicity. We present preliminary results for a revised metallicity calibration that considers the N/O abundance ratio.

  3. Corporate role in national competitiveness: smart people + good tools + information = profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-Vivas, Robert D.

    1994-03-01

    Our national competitiveness -- and the profits of many corporations managed and owned by U.S. citizens -- depend heavily on the outcome of Al Gore's efforts to `reinvent government,' and to create a National Information Infrastructure (NII). Both of these efforts depend in turn on many players, both in and out of government, but two of the players could have an especially substantive impact on how America does business as we enter the era of information warfare: the Secretary of Labor, and the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI).

  4. Monitoring the Continuing Spectral Evolution of Nova Delphini 2013 (V339 Del) with Low Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, H. D.; Wiethoff, W. S.; Evich, A.

    2016-06-01

    The continuing spectral evolution of Nova Delphini 2013 is presented with low-resolution spectroscopy collected with a 100 line per millimeter diffraction grating. Spectra were collected on 3 July, 2014 and 14 September, 2015, +321 and +759 days after peak visible brightness on 16 August, 2013. Imaging system was mounted on an equatorially-mounted, 14-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. The continuum is no longer visible in the spectra, however, Oiii (5007 Å) and Ha (6563 Å) are prominent and Nii (5755), Hg (4340 Å) and Ciii/Niii (4640 Å) can still be discerned at +759 days.

  5. Hormone crosstalk in wound stress response: wound-inducible amidohydrolases can simultaneously regulate jasmonate and auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Poudel, Arati N.; Jewell, Jeremy B.; Kitaoka, Naoki; Staswick, Paul; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Koo, Abraham J.

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) and auxin are essential hormones in plant development and stress responses. While the two govern distinct physiological processes, their signaling pathways interact at various levels. Recently, members of the Arabidopsis indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) amidohydrolase (IAH) family were reported to metabolize jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a bioactive form of JA. Here, we characterized three IAH members, ILR1, ILL6, and IAR3, for their function in JA and IAA metabolism and signaling. Expression of all three genes in leaves was up-regulated by wounding or JA, but not by IAA. Purified recombinant proteins showed overlapping but distinct substrate specificities for diverse amino acid conjugates of JA and IAA. Perturbed patterns of the endogenous JA profile in plants overexpressing or knocked-out for the three genes were consistent with ILL6 and IAR3, but not ILR1, being the JA amidohydrolases. Increased turnover of JA-Ile in the ILL6- and IAR3-overexpressing plants created symptoms of JA deficiency whereas increased free IAA by overexpression of ILR1 and IAR3 made plants hypersensitive to exogenous IAA conjugates. Surprisingly, ILL6 overexpression rendered plants highly resistant to exogenous IAA conjugates, indicating its interference with IAA conjugate hydrolysis. Fluorescent protein-tagged IAR3 and ILL6 co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum-localized JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase, CYP94B3. Together, these results demonstrate that in wounded leaves JA-inducible amidohydrolases contribute to regulate active IAA and JA-Ile levels, promoting auxin signaling while attenuating JA signaling. This mechanism represents an example of a metabolic-level crosstalk between the auxin and JA signaling pathways. PMID:26672615

  6. Cytochromes P450 CYP94C1 and CYP94B3 Catalyze Two Successive Oxidation Steps of Plant Hormone Jasmonoyl-isoleucine for Catabolic Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Heitz, Thierry; Widemann, Emilie; Lugan, Raphaël; Miesch, Laurence; Ullmann, Pascaline; Désaubry, Laurent; Holder, Emilie; Grausem, Bernard; Kandel, Sylvie; Miesch, Michel; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Pinot, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The jasmonate hormonal pathway regulates important defensive and developmental processes in plants. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) has been identified as a specific ligand binding the COI1-JAZ co-receptor to relieve repression of jasmonate responses. Two JA-Ile derivatives, 12OH-JA-Ile and 12COOH-JA-Ile, accumulate in wounded Arabidopsis leaves in a COI1- and JAR1-dependent manner and reflect catabolic turnover of the hormone. Here we report the biochemical and genetic characterization of two wound-inducible cytochromes P450, CYP94C1 and CYP94B3, that are involved in JA-Ile oxidation. Both enzymes expressed in yeast catalyze two successive oxidation steps of JA-Ile with distinct characteristics. CYP94B3 performed efficiently the initial hydroxylation of JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile, with little conversion to 12COOH-JA-Ile, whereas CYP94C1 catalyzed preferentially carboxy-derivative formation. Metabolic analysis of loss- and gain-of-function plant lines were consistent with in vitro enzymatic properties. cyp94b3 mutants were largely impaired in 12OH-JA-Ile levels upon wounding and to a lesser extent in 12COOH-JA-Ile levels. In contrast, cyp94c1 plants showed wild-type 12OH-JA-Ile accumulation but lost about 60% 12COOH-JA-Ile. cyp94b3cyp94c1 double mutants hyperaccumulated JA-Ile with near abolition of 12COOH-JA-Ile. Distinct JA-Ile oxidation patterns in different plant genotypes were correlated with specific JA-responsive transcript profiles, indicating that JA-Ile oxidation status affects signaling. Interestingly, exaggerated JA-Ile levels were associated with JAZ repressor hyperinduction but did not enhance durably defense gene induction, revealing a novel negative feedback signaling loop. Finally, interfering with CYP94 gene expression affected root growth sensitivity to exogenous jasmonic acid. These results identify CYP94B3/C1-mediated oxidation as a major catabolic route for turning over the JA-Ile hormone. PMID:22215670

  7. Triacontanol negatively modulates the jasmonic acid-stimulated proteinase inhibitors in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Ramanarayan, Krishnamurthy; Swamy, Gangadharamurthy Sivakumar

    2004-04-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA), a long chain aliphatic alcohol (C30H61OH) reverses the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) in inducing proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in tomato leaves. Porcine pancreas trypsin and Spodoptera litura gut proteinases were inhibited in the presence of leaf proteins treated with JA, and TRIA partially reverses this effect. Spodoptera litura larvae fed with tomato leaves treated with JA were reduced in body weight and TRIA is able to partially reverse this JA-induced effect. These results reflect the partial reversal effect of TRIA in down regulating the JA-induced production of proteinase inhibitors. PMID:15128037

  8. Octadecanoid-Derived Alteration of Gene Expression and the “Oxylipin Signature” in Stressed Barley Leaves. Implications for Different Signaling Pathways1

    PubMed Central

    Kramell, Robert; Miersch, Otto; Atzorn, Rainer; Parthier, Benno; Wasternack, Claus

    2000-01-01

    Stress-induced gene expression in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Salome) leaves has been correlated with temporally changing levels of octadecanoids and jasmonates, quantified by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-single ion monitoring. Application of sorbitol-induced stress led to a low and transient rise of jasmonic acid (JA), its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), and the methyl esters JAME and OPDAME, respectively, followed by a large increase in their levels. JA and JAME peaked between 12 and 16 h, about 4 h before OPDA and OPDAME. However, OPDA accumulated up to a 2.5-fold higher level than the other compounds. Dihomo-JA and 9,13-didehydro-OPDA were identified as minor components. Kinetic analyses revealed that a transient threshold of jasmonates or octadecanoids is necessary and sufficient to initiate JA-responsive gene expression. Although OPDA and OPDAME applied exogenously were metabolized to JA in considerable amounts, both of them can induce gene expression, as evidenced by those genes that did not respond to endogenously formed JA. Also, coronatine induces JA-responsive genes independently from endogenous JA. Application of deuterated JA showed that endogenous synthesis of JA is not induced by JA treatment. The data are discussed in terms of distinct signaling pathways. PMID:10806235

  9. A previously undescribed jasmonate compound in flowering Arabidopsis thaliana - The identification of cis-(+)-OPDA-Ile.

    PubMed

    Floková, Kristýna; Feussner, Kirstin; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Miersch, Otto; Mik, Václav; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Feussner, Ivo; Wasternack, Claus; Novák, Ondřej

    2016-02-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that integrate external stress stimuli with physiological responses. (+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile is the natural JA ligand of COI1, a component of a known JA receptor. The upstream JA biosynthetic precursor cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-(+)-OPDA) has been reported to act independently of COI1 as an essential signal in several stress-induced and developmental processes. Wound-induced increases in the endogenous levels of JA/JA-Ile are accompanied by two to tenfold increases in the concentration of OPDA, but its means of perception and metabolism are unknown. To screen for putative OPDA metabolites, vegetative tissues of flowering Arabidopsis thaliana were extracted with 25% aqueous methanol (v/v), purified by single-step reversed-phase polymer-based solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by high throughput mass spectrometry. This enabled the detection and quantitation of a low abundant OPDA analog of the biologically active (+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile in plant tissue samples. Levels of the newly identified compound and the related phytohormones JA, JA-Ile and cis-(+)-OPDA were monitored in wounded leaves of flowering Arabidopsis lines (Col-0 and Ws) and compared to the levels observed in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in the biosynthesis of JA (dde2-2, opr3) and JA-Ile (jar1). The observed cis-(+)-OPDA-Ile levels varied widely, raising questions concerning its role in Arabidopsis stress responses. PMID:26675361

  10. Arabidopsis WRKY57 functions as a node of convergence for jasmonic acid- and auxin-mediated signaling in jasmonic acid-induced leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanjuan; Liang, Gang; Yang, Shizhuo; Yu, Diqiu

    2014-01-01

    Leaf senescence is regulated by diverse developmental and environmental factors. Exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) can induce leaf senescence, whereas auxin suppresses this physiological process. Crosstalk between JA and auxin signaling has been well studied, but not during JA-induced leaf senescence. Here, we found that upon methyl jasmonate treatment, Arabidopsis thaliana wrky57 mutants produced typical leaf senescence symptoms, such as yellowing leaves, low chlorophyll content, and high cell death rates. Further investigation suggested that senescence-associated genes were upregulated in the wrky57 mutants. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that WRKY57 directly binds to the promoters of SENESCENCE4 and SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE12 and represses their transcription. In vivo and in vitro experiments suggested that WRKY57 interacts with JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN4/8 (JAZ4/8) and the AUX/IAA protein IAA29, repressors of the JA and auxin signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with the opposing functions of JA and auxin in JA-induced leaf senescence, JAZ4/8 and IAA29 also displayed opposite functions in JA-induced leaf senescence and competitively interacted with WRKY57. Our results suggested that the JA-induced leaf senescence process can be antagonized by auxin via WRKY57. Moreover, WRKY57 protein levels were downregulated by JA but upregulated by auxin. Therefore, as a repressor in JA-induced leaf senescence, WRKY57 is a common component of the JA- and auxin-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:24424094

  11. Root jasmonic acid synthesis and perception regulate folivore-induced shoot metabolites and increase Nicotiana attenuata resistance.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Variluska; Rothe, Eva; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    While jasmonic acid (JA) signaling is widely accepted as mediating plant resistance to herbivores, and the importance of the roots in plant defenses is recently being recognized, the role of root JA in the defense of above-ground parts remains unstudied. To restrict JA impairment to the roots, we micrografted wildtype Nicotiana attenuata shoots to the roots of transgenic plants impaired in JA signaling and evaluated ecologically relevant traits in the glasshouse and in nature. Root JA synthesis and perception are involved in regulating nicotine production in roots. Strikingly, systemic root JA regulated local leaf JA and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations, which were associated with differences in nicotine transport from roots to leaves via the transpiration stream. Root JA signaling also regulated the accumulation of other shoot metabolites; together these account for differences in resistance against a generalist, Spodoptera littoralis, and a specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. In N. attenuata's native habitat, silencing root JA synthesis increased the shoot damage inflicted by Empoasca leafhoppers, which are able to select natural jasmonate mutants. Silencing JA perception in roots also increased damage by Tupiocoris notatus. We conclude that attack from above-ground herbivores recruits root JA signaling to launch the full complement of plant defense responses. PMID:24580101

  12. Linking Jasmonic Acid to Grapevine Resistance against the Biotrophic Oomycete Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Ana; Figueiredo, Joana; Sousa Silva, Marta; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens is classically believed to be mediated through salicylic acid (SA) signaling leading to hypersensitive response followed by the establishment of Systemic Acquired Resistance. Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling has extensively been associated to the defense against necrotrophic pathogens and insects inducing the accumulation of secondary metabolites and PR proteins. Moreover, it is believed that plants infected with biotrophic fungi suppress JA-mediated responses. However, recent evidences have shown that certain biotrophic fungal species also trigger the activation of JA-mediated responses, suggesting a new role for JA in the defense against fungal biotrophs. Plasmopara viticola is a biotrophic oomycete responsible for the grapevine downy mildew, one of the most important diseases in viticulture. In this perspective, we show recent evidences of JA participation in grapevine resistance against P. viticola, outlining the hypothesis of JA involvement in the establishment of an incompatible interaction with this biotroph. We also show that in the first hours after P. viticola inoculation the levels of OPDA, JA, JA-Ile, and SA increase together with an increase of expression of genes associated to JA and SA signaling pathways. Our data suggests that, on the first hours after P. viticola inoculation, JA signaling pathway is activated and the outcomes of JA-SA interactions may be tailored in the defense response against this biotrophic pathogen. PMID:27200038

  13. OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 are jasmonyl-L-isoleucine synthases involved in wound- and pathogen-induced jasmonic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Wakuta, Shinji; Suzuki, Erika; Saburi, Wataru; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Imai, Ryozo; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2011-06-17

    The synthesis of JA-Ile was catalysed by JA-Ile synthase, which is a member of the group I GH3 family of proteins. Here, we showed evidence that OsGH3.5 (OsJAR1) and OsGH3.3 (OsJAR2) are the functional JA-Ile synthases in rice, using recombinant proteins. The expression levels of OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 were induced in response to wounding with the concomitant accumulation of JA-Ile. In contrast, only the expression of OsJAR1 was associated with the accumulation of JA-Ile after blast infection. Our data suggest that these two JA-Ile synthases are differentially involved in the activation of JA signalling in response to wounding and pathogen challenge in rice. PMID:21619871

  14. Complete genome analysis of jasmine virus T from Jasminum sambac in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yajun; Gao, Fangluan; Yang, Zhen; Wu, Zujian; Yang, Liang

    2016-07-01

    The genome of a potyvirus (isolate JaVT_FZ) recovered from jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) showing yellow ringspot symptoms in Fuzhou, China, was sequenced. JaVT_FZ is closely related to seven other potyviruses with completely sequenced genomes, with which it shares 66-70 % nucleotide and 52-56 % amino acid sequence identity. However, the coat protein (CP) gene shares 82-92 % nucleotide and 90-97 % amino acid sequence identity with those of two partially sequenced potyviruses, named jasmine potyvirus T (JaVT-jasmine) and jasmine yellow mosaic potyvirus (JaYMV-India), respectively. This suggests that JaVT_FZ, JaVT-jasmine and JaYMV-India should be regarded as members of a single potyvirus species, for which the name "Jasmine virus T" has priority. PMID:27068169

  15. Lipid production from Jerusalem artichoke by Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Wu, Siguo; Hu, Cuimin; Wang, Qian; Hua, Yanyan; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2010-06-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is a perennial herbaceous plant widely available as non-grain raw material. Microbial lipid has been suggested as a potential feedstock for large scale biodiesel production. This paper describes lipid production using JA tuber processed by oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4. Batch and fed-batch modes were tested with feeding of concentrated JA extracts or JA hydrolysates. Cultivation of R. toruloides Y4 with JA extracts gave a moderate cellular lipid content of 40% (w/w), whereas lipid titer and cellular lipid content reached 39.6 g l(-1) and 56.5% (w/w), respectively, when JA hydrolysates were fed. Our results suggested that JA tubers may be further explored as raw material for large scale microbial lipid production. PMID:20204452

  16. Fine structural analysis of the neuronal inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Helen; Atherton, Joe; Cairns, Nigel J.

    2009-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a major component of the pathological inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy, also called FTLD with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U), and motor neuron disease (MND). TDP-43 is predominantly expressed in the nucleus and regulates gene expression and splicing. In FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, neuronal inclusions present variably as cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), dystrophic neurites (DNs), and intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), leading to a fourfold neuropathological classification correlating with genotype. There have been few fine structural studies of these inclusions. Thus, we undertook an immunoelectron microscopic study of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, including sporadic and familial cases with progranulin (GRN) mutation. TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions comprised two components: granular and filamentous. Filament widths, expressed as mean (range) were: NCI, 9 nm (4–16 nm); DN, 10 nm (5–16 nm); NII, 18 nm (9–50 nm). Morphologically distinct inclusion components may reflect the process of TDP-43 aggregation and interaction with other proteins: determining these latter may contribute towards understanding the heterogeneous pathogenesis of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:18974920

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SNRs in six nearby galaxies (Leonidaki+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonidaki, I.; Boumis, P.; Zezas, A.

    2014-03-01

    Optical images were obtained with the 1.3m (f/7.7) Ritchey-Chretien telescope at the Skinakas Observatory on 2008 June 6-12 and 2009 November 16-18. A 2048x2048 ANDOR Tech CCD was used which has a 9.6x9.6arcmin2 field of view and an image scale of 0.28arcsec/pix. Apart from 2009 November 18, all the other observing nights were photometric with seeing conditions ranging from 1.3 to 2.5arcsec. The observations were performed with the narrow-band Hα+[NII], [SII] and [OIII] filters. Broad-band continuum filters in red and blue were used to subtract the continuum from the Hα+[NII], [SII] and [OIII] images, respectively. The continuum filters used for the observations are centred on line-free regions of the spectra in order to avoid strong SNR emission lines to pass. (6 data files).

  18. GMOS-IFU Spectrocopy of the CBSS CAL83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Steiner, J. E.

    2006-06-01

    The Compact Binary Supersoft X-Ray Sources (CBSS) are X-ray binaries initially discovered in the Magellanic Clouds which are copious sources of supersoft X-rays. The basic model of this class includes a massive white dwarf that suffers stable nuclear burning on its surface due to high mass transfer rates. Here we present the preliminary results of our search for nebular emission in CAL83, a CBSS in the LMC, using GMOS-IFU data obtained at the Gemini South Telescope. We found that CAL83 shows the [FeX] 6375 Å coronal line in emission. This line had never been identified in a CBSS before. This same line was observed, for instance, as the most intense one in the spectrum of the classical nova GQ Mus four years after its outburst. As in that case, this nebular emission is probably associated to hydrostatic hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf. We also found that H and HeII lines present absorption and emission components associated to bipolar jets, with velocities consistent with the escape velocity of a white dwarf. In this preliminary analysis we can not assert the presence of the [OIII], [SII] or [NII] nebular lines. We can identify an emission at the expected position of the [NII] 6548 Å line, but this emission may also be associated to a jet with velocity of -600 km/s with respect to Hα , which in fact is also observed with the same velocity near Hβ .

  19. Security Assessment Simulation Toolkit (SAST) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meitzler, Wayne D.; Ouderkirk, Steven J.; Hughes, Chad O.

    2009-11-15

    The Department of Defense Technical Support Working Group (DoD TSWG) investment in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Security Assessment Simulation Toolkit (SAST) research planted a technology seed that germinated into a suite of follow-on Research and Development (R&D) projects culminating in software that is used by multiple DoD organizations. The DoD TSWG technology transfer goal for SAST is already in progress. The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), the Defense-wide Information Assurance Program (DIAP), the Marine Corps, Office Of Naval Research (ONR) National Center For Advanced Secure Systems Research (NCASSR) and Office Of Secretary Of Defense International Exercise Program (OSD NII) are currently investing to take SAST to the next level. PNNL currently distributes the software to over 6 government organizations and 30 DoD users. For the past five DoD wide Bulwark Defender exercises, the adoption of this new technology created an expanding role for SAST. In 2009, SAST was also used in the OSD NII International Exercise and is currently scheduled for use in 2010.

  20. Spatially resolved physical conditions of molecular gas: a zoom-in from circumnuclear region of M83 to Carina nebula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ronin; Madden, Suzanne; Galliano, Frédéric; Wilson, Christine; Onaka, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko

    2015-08-01

    Since the launch of the Herschel Space Observatory, our understanding about the photo-dissociation regions (PDR) has taken a step forward. In the bandwidth of the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) of the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) on board Herschel, ten CO rotational transitions, including J=4-3 to J=13-12, and three fine structure lines, including [CI] 609, [CI] 370, and [NII] 250 micron, are covered. This presentation focuses on the physical conditions of molecular gas probed by the Herschel SPIRE/FTS.Based on the spatially resolved physical parameters derived from the CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) map and the comparisons with the dust properties and star-formation tracers, I will first present our findings at the circumnuclear region of M83, and then zoom in toward the young open cluster, Trumpler 14, in Carina nebula. I will discuss (1) the potential of using [NII] 250 and [CI] 370 micron as star-formation tracers; (2) the reliability of tracing molecular gas with CO; (3) the excitation mechanisms of warm CO; (4) the possibility of studying stellar feedback by tracing the thermal pressure of intersetllar molecular gas.

  1. An analysis of emission lines in the spectrum of P Cygni.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, N.; de Groot, M.

    1997-10-01

    Using the coude spectrograph of the NAO 2m telescope at the Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria, 9 spectra in the blue and 8 spectra in the red photographic region of P Cygni were obtained during 1990. By averaging the spectra in each set a S/N-ratio of about 45 was achieved. Comparing the lists of identifications published by Beals (1950PDAO....9....1B), de Groot (1969BAN....20..225D), Ozemre (1978PIstO.101....1O), Stahl et al. (1993A&AS...99..167S), Markova (1994A&AS..108..561M) and Markova & Zamanov (1995A&AS..114..499M), we conclude that the emission spectrum of P Cygni in our days is probably much richer and intensive than 60 years ago. A number of line parameters of the pure emission lines are measured. An estimate of the electron density and temperature in the region of [NII]-lines formation is obtained. Different velocity laws yielding similar density structures are discussed aiming to account for the results obtained on the basis of the [NII] lines. Possible mechanisms for the formation of the permitted pure emission-line spectrum are proposed.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral Atlas of P Cygni in range 4840-6760A (Markova+, 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, N.; Zamanov, R.

    1995-07-01

    Using the coude spectrograph of the NAO 2m RCC telescope at the Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria, 11 spectra in the wavelength range from 4840 to 6760A of P Cygni were obtained during the years 1981, 1983 and 1985. By averaging these spectra we achieved a S/N-ratio of about 50. Here we present a spectral atlas with complete line identifications. Apart from the lines listed by de Groot (1969) many pure bright lines are identified. Most of them are lines of FeIII with high multiplet numbers and NII. Further emission lines are those of SiII multiplets 2, 4 and 5. A new feature is SII spectrum in absorption and emission. In addition to the forbidden lines discovered by Stahl et al. (1991, 1993) three new lines, [FeII19] λ5159, [FeII18] λ5273 and [FeII34] λ5477 are identified. The presence of some [TiII9] lines as well as the red lines of [NII1] is considered as quite probable. (1 data file).

  3. Fine structural analysis of the neuronal inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Julian R; Tang, Helen; Atherton, Joe; Cairns, Nigel J

    2008-12-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a major component of the pathological inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy, also called FTLD with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U), and motor neuron disease (MND). TDP-43 is predominantly expressed in the nucleus and regulates gene expression and splicing. In FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, neuronal inclusions present variably as cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), dystrophic neurites (DNs), and intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), leading to a fourfold neuropathological classification correlating with genotype. There have been few fine structural studies of these inclusions. Thus, we undertook an immunoelectron microscopic study of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, including sporadic and familial cases with progranulin (GRN) mutation. TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions comprised two components: granular and filamentous. Filament widths, expressed as mean (range) were: NCI, 9 nm (4-16 nm); DN, 10 nm (5-16 nm); NII, 18 nm (9-50 nm). Morphologically distinct inclusion components may reflect the process of TDP-43 aggregation and interaction with other proteins: determining these latter may contribute towards understanding the heterogeneous pathogenesis of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:18974920

  4. The Long-Term Care Insurance Program in Israel: solidarity with the elderly in a changing society

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Long-Term Care Insurance Program (LTCIP) in Israel is a social security program administered by the National Insurance Institute (NII) since 1988. LTCIP focuses on home-based personal care services. Differently from most other programs under the responsibility of the NII, LTCIP benefits are in-kind benefits and are delivered via multiple for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. In recent years LTCIP has been the target of various legal amendments and numerous administrative changes. While many of these changes may have had significant effects on individuals, they have not altered the fundamental principles of the program. Thus, many of the characteristics of beneficiaries have remained quite stable over the years; other characteristics of the population of beneficiaries have changed over the years reflecting the aging of Israeli society. A central issue related to LTCIP is whether benefits are adequate to meet the needs of the growing elderly population of Israel. While the generosity of LTCIP benefits is questionable, economic and political struggles have limited the scope of changes introduced thus far. PMID:23343104

  5. Interstellar Deuterium, Nitrogen and Oxygen Towards HZ43A: Results from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, J. W.; Howk, J. C.; Andre, M.; Moos, H. W.; Oegerle, William R.; Oliveira, C.; Sembach, K. R.; Chayer, P.; Linsky, J. L.; Wood, B. E.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of interstellar absorption along the line of sight to the nearby white dwarf star HZ43A. The distance to this star is 68+/-13 pc, and the line of sight extends toward the north Galactic pole. Column densities of O(I), N(I), and N(II) were derived from spectra obtained by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), the column density of D(I) was derived from a combination of our FUSE spectra and an archival HST GARDENS spectrum, and the column density of H(I) was derived from a combination of the GARDENS spectrum and values derived from EUVE data obtained from the literature. We find the following abundance ratios (with 2 sigma uncertainties): D(I)/H(I)=(1.66+/-0.28)x10(exp -5), O(I)/H(I)=(3.63+/-0.84)x10(exp -4), and N(I)/H(I)=(3.80+/-0.74)x10(exp -5). The N(II) column density was slightly greater than that of N(I), indicating that ionization corrections are important when deriving nitrogen abundances. Other interstellar species detected along the line of sight were C(II), C(III), O(VI), Si(II), Ar(I), Mg(II) and Fe(II); an upper limit was determined for N(III). No elements other than H(I) were detected in the stellar photosphere.

  6. Deep Narrow-Band Imaging of M87: a Close Look at the Disk of Ionized Gas Fueling a Massive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Holland

    1995-07-01

    M87 provides a unique example of a 100 pc scale disk of ionized gasfueling a massive black hole (Ford et al. 1994, Harms et al. 1994).The disk shows tantalizing evidence for spiral structure and a possibleconnection to large scale, wrapped filaments. Sparks, Ford, and Kinney(1993) used observations of dust absorption in the filaments andblueshifted velocities with respect to M87 to conclude that thefilaments are an outflow from the nucleus. If the wrapped filamentsare in fact an outflow, we are witnessing the solution to anoutstanding problem in astrophysics, that of removing angular momentumfrom a disk to allow the gas to flow onto the central massive black hole.We propose to use 6 orbits to take deep, half-pixel stepped,Halpha+[Nii] on-band images to study the morphology in the disk andfilaments. The images will be one magnitude deeper than previousimages and will reach the 0.06'' diffraction limit of the telescopeat Halpha. Our goals are to use the deep, high resolution images to:1) Investigate and understand the apparent connection between thefilaments and the disk.2) Delineate the apparent spiral structure in the disk.3) Confirm the presence of faint Halpha+[Nii] emission associated withthe jet, which could be gas which has been entrained by the jet.

  7. Role of Radical Species in Salicylaldiminato Ni(II) Mediated Polymer Chain Growth: A Case Study for the Migratory Insertion Polymerization of Ethylene in the Presence of Methyl Methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Ölscher, Franz; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Monteil, Vincent; Mecking, Stefan

    2015-11-25

    To date, an inconclusive and partially contradictive picture exists on the behavior of neutral Ni(II) insertion polymerization catalysts toward methyl methacrylate (MMA). We shed light on this issue by a combination of comprehensive mechanistic NMR and EPR studies, isolation of a key Ni(I) intermediate, and pressure reactor studies with ethylene and MMA, followed by detailed polymer analysis. An interlocking mechanistic picture of an insertion and a free radical polymerization is revealed. Both polymerizations run simultaneously (25 bar ethylene, neat MMA, 70 °C); however, the chain growth cycles are independent of each other, and therefore exclusively a physical mixture of homo-PE and homo-PMMA is obtained. A Ni-C bond cleavage was excluded as a free radical source. Rather a homolytic P-C bond cleavage in the labile aryl phosphine ligand and the reaction of low-valent Ni(0/I) species with specific iodo substituted N^O (Ar-I) ligands were shown to initiate radical MMA polymerizations. Several reductive elimination decomposition pathways of catalyst precursor or active intermediates were shown to form low-valent Ni species. One of those pathways is a bimolecular reductive coupling via intermediate (N^O)Ni(I) formation. These intermediate Ni(I) species can be prevented from ultimate decomposition by capturing with organic radical sources, forming insertion polymerization active [(N^O)Ni(II)-R] species and prolonging the ethylene polymerization activity. PMID:26571229

  8. Assessing risks to adults and preschool children posed by PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during a biomass burning episode in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Tipmanee, Danai; Khumsup, Chukkapong; Kittikoon, Itthipon; Hirunyatrakul, Phoosak

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential cancer risk resulting from biomass burning, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to fine particles (PM2.5) were assessed in nine administrative northern provinces (NNP) of Thailand, before (N-I) and after (N-II) a haze episode. The average values of Σ 3,4-ring PAHs and B[a] P Equivalent concentrations in world urban cities were significantly (p<0.05) much higher than those in samples collected from northern provinces during both sampling periods. Application of diagnostic binary ratios of PAHs underlined the predominant contribution of vehicular exhaust to PM2.5-bound PAH levels in NNP areas, even in the middle of the agricultural waste burning period. The proximity of N-I and N-II values in three-dimensional (3D) principal component analysis (PCA) plots also supports this conclusion. Although the excess cancer risk in NNP areas is much lower than those of other urban area and industrialized cities, there are nevertheless some concerns relating to adverse health impacts on preschool children due to non-dietary exposure to PAHs in home environments. PMID:25506906

  9. Government Services Information Infrastructure Management

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallini, J.S.; Aiken, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Government Services Information Infrastructure (GSII) is that portion of the NII used to link Government and its services, enables virtual agency concepts, protects privacy, and supports emergency preparedness needs. The GSII is comprised of the supporting telecommunications technologies, network and information services infrastructure and the applications that use these. The GSII is an enlightened attempt by the Clinton/Gore Administration to form a virtual government crossing agency boundaries to interoperate more closely with industry and with the public to greatly improve the delivery of government services. The GSII and other private sector efforts, will have a significant impact on the design, development, and deployment of the NII, even if only through the procurement of such services. The Federal Government must adopt new mechanisms and new paradigms for the management of the GSII, including improved acquisition and operation of GSII components in order to maximize benefits. Government requirements and applications will continue to evolv. The requirements from government services and users of form affinity groups that more accurately and effectively define these common requirements, that drive the adoption and use of industry standards, and that provide a significant technology marketplace.

  10. Spectroscopic study in the visible and near infrared wavelength of an Hα-selected sample of star-forming galaxies at z = 0.84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Zamorano, J.; Cardiel, N.; Acosta Pulido, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we study the physical properties of star-forming galaxies selected in an Hα near-infrared narrow-band survey tuned for redshift z=0.84 (Villar et al. 2008, 2011). Also, we present a sample at z˜1 with mass greater than 10^{10} M_{⊙} with Hα emission. The observations were carried out with WHT/LIRIS (see Sánchez de Miguel et al. 2011, in Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VI). The rest of the data from the spectra archive of the RAINBOW Cosmological Survey database (Pérez-González et al. 2005, 2008; Barro et al. 2011ab). According to the redshift distribution of these galaxies, 65% of the galaxies are in a redshift range of 0.005. This velocity range corresponds to less than 25% of the effective volume. Which could be indicative of the presence of substructure. A total of 48 galaxies have detected Hα emission and other 12 show [NII]6584. To complete our multi-wavelength sample we found 23 galaxies with Hβ, [OIII]5007 or [OII]3727 detections. Using this photometry from ancillary data we will calculate nebular and stellar extinctions. We have calculated metallicities using the [NII]/Hα ratio and the Pettini & Pagel (2004) calibrations. The metallicity of samples are compatible with the local galaxies. We found that in all the diagnostic diagrams galaxies have similar properties to the local ones, except they are intrinsically brighter for the same equivalent width [OII]3727.

  11. The nature of the emission-line nebulae in powerful far-infrared galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armus, Lee; Heckman, Timothy M.; Miley, George K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss their program of narrow-band (H alpha + (NII)) imaging of a sample of 30 powerful far-infrared galaxies (FIRG's) chosen to have far-infrared spectral energy distributions similar to the prototype FIRG's Arp 220, NGC 3690, NGC 6240, and M82. The emission-line nebulae of these IR color-selected sample (ICSS) galaxies as a class are both impressively large (mean half light radius, r approx. 1.3 Kpc, and mean diameter, D approx. 16 Kpc) and luminous (L sub TOT approx. 10(exp 8) solar lumninosity; uncorrected for internal extinction). The mean total H alpha + (NII) luminosity of the FIRG's is comparable to that found for pairs of optically selected interacting galaxies (Bushouse, Lamb, and Werner 1988), but is a factor of approx. 5 greater than that of isolated spirals (Kennicutt and Kent 1983). Only approx. 25 percent of the nearby (z approx. less than 0.10) FIRG's have morphologies suggesting that large HII-regions contribute significantly to their emission-line appearance. The broad-band morphologies of our IR color-selected galaxies fall into three major categories. Nearly 75 percent are single galaxy systems, with the remaining FIRG's being either multiple nuclei systems, or members of interacting pairs. Since the authors saw few (10 percent) currently interacting FIRG's, yet many (80 percent) with highly distorted continuum morphologies, their IR color criteria may be preferentially selecting galaxies that have undergone highly inelastic, rapidly merging interactions.

  12. Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - III. An analysis of helium lines in spectra of 102 stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimkov, L. S.; Rostopchin, S. I.; Lambert, D. L.

    2004-06-01

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of He I lines in spectra of 102 B stars is implemented in order to derive the helium abundance He/H, the microturbulent parameter Vt and the projected rotation velocity v sini. A simultaneous determination of He/H and Vt for the stars is effected by analysing equivalent widths of the 4471- and 4922-Å lines primarily as indicators of He/H and the 4713-, 5016-, 5876- and 6678-Å lines primarily as indicators of Vt. The rotation velocities v sini are found from profiles of the same lines. It is shown that, when Vt > 7 km s-1, the Vt(He I) values determined from He I lines are systematically overestimated as compared with the Vt(OII, NII) values derived from OII and NII lines. This discrepancy is especially appreciable for hot evolved B giants with Vt(He I) = 16-23 km s-1 and may indicate a failure of classical model atmospheres to represent the strong He I lines for these stars. Two programme stars, HR 1512 and 7651, are found to be helium-weak stars. The remaining 100 stars are divided into three groups according to their masses M. The microturbulent parameter Vt(He I) is low for all stars of group A (M= 4.1-6.9 Msolar) and for all stars with the relative ages t/tMS < 0.8 of group B (M= 7.0-11.2 Msolar). Their Vt(He I) values are within the 0 to 5 km s-1 range, as a rule; the mean value is Vt= 1.7 km s-1. Only evolved giants of group B, which are close to the termination of the main-sequence (MS) evolutionary phase (t/tMS > 0.8), show Vt(He I) up to 11 km s-1. The helium abundance He/H is correlated with the relative age t/tMS in both groups; the averaged He/H enhancement during the MS phase is 26 per cent. For group C, containing the most massive stars (M= 12.4-18.8 Msolar), the Vt(He I) values display a correlation with t/tMS, varying from 4 to 23 km s-1. The He/H determination for hot evolved B giants of the group with Vt(He I) > 15 km s-1 depends on a choice between the Vt(He I) and Vt(OII, NII) scales. The mean He

  13. Linking Jasmonic Acid to Grapevine Resistance against the Biotrophic Oomycete Plasmopara viticola

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, Ana; Figueiredo, Joana; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens is classically believed to be mediated through salicylic acid (SA) signaling leading to hypersensitive response followed by the establishment of Systemic Acquired Resistance. Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling has extensively been associated to the defense against necrotrophic pathogens and insects inducing the accumulation of secondary metabolites and PR proteins. Moreover, it is believed that plants infected with biotrophic fungi suppress JA-mediated responses. However, recent evidences have shown that certain biotrophic fungal species also trigger the activation of JA-mediated responses, suggesting a new role for JA in the defense against fungal biotrophs. Plasmopara viticola is a biotrophic oomycete responsible for the grapevine downy mildew, one of the most important diseases in viticulture. In this perspective, we show recent evidences of JA participation in grapevine resistance against P. viticola, outlining the hypothesis of JA involvement in the establishment of an incompatible interaction with this biotroph. We also show that in the first hours after P. viticola inoculation the levels of OPDA, JA, JA-Ile, and SA increase together with an increase of expression of genes associated to JA and SA signaling pathways. Our data suggests that, on the first hours after P. viticola inoculation, JA signaling pathway is activated and the outcomes of JA–SA interactions may be tailored in the defense response against this biotrophic pathogen. PMID:27200038

  14. Jasmonate-Inducible Genes Are Activated in Rice by Pathogen Attack without a Concomitant Increase in Endogenous Jasmonic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, P.; Buchala, A.; Silverman, P.; Seskar, M.; Raskin, I.; Metraux, J. P.

    1997-05-01

    The possible role of the octadecanoid signaling pathway with jasmonic acid (JA) as the central component in defense-gene regulation of pathogen-attacked rice was studied. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings were treated with JA or inoculated with the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr., and gene-expression patterns were compared between the two treatments. JA application induced the accumulation of a number of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene products at the mRNA and protein levels, but pathogen attack did not enhance the levels of (-)-JA during the time required for PR gene expression. Pathogen-induced accumulation of PR1-like proteins was reduced in plants treated with tetcyclacis, a novel inhibitor of jasmonate biosynthesis. There was an additive and negative interaction between JA and an elicitor from M. grisea with respect to induction of PR1-like proteins and of an abundant JA-and wound-induced protein of 26 kD, respectively. Finally, activation of the octadecanoid signaling pathway and induction of a number of PR genes by exogenous application of JA did not confer local acquired resistance to rice. The data suggest that accumulation of nonconjugated (-)-JA is not necessary for induction of PR genes and that JA does not orchestrate localized defense responses in pathogen-attacked rice. Instead, JA appears to be embedded in a signaling network with another pathogen-induced pathway(s) and may be required at a certain minimal level for induction of some PR genes. PMID:12223690

  15. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment. PMID:22744011

  16. Enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity by methyl jasmonate and the role of calcium and abscisic acid in this process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Romera, Beatriz; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Li, Guowei; Luu, Doan-Trung; Martínez-Ballesta, Maria del Carmen; Carvajal, Micaela; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Maurel, Christophe; Aroca, Ricardo

    2014-04-01

    The role of jasmonic acid in the induction of stomatal closure is well known. However, its role in regulating root hydraulic conductivity (L) has not yet been explored. The objectives of the present research were to evaluate how JA regulates L and how calcium and abscisic acid (ABA) could be involved in such regulation. We found that exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) increased L of Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum lycopersicum and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Tomato plants defective in JA biosynthesis had lower values of L than wild-type plants, and that L was restored by addition of MeJA. The increase of L by MeJA was accompanied by an increase of the phosphorylation state of the aquaporin PIP2. We observed that MeJA addition increased the concentration of cytosolic calcium and that calcium channel blockers inhibited the rise of L caused by MeJA. Treatment with fluoridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, partially inhibited the increase of L caused by MeJA, and tomato plants defective in ABA biosynthesis increased their L after application of MeJA. It is concluded that JA enhances L and that this enhancement is linked to calcium and ABA dependent and independent signalling pathways. PMID:24131347

  17. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine coordinates metabolic networks required for anthesis and floral attractant emission in wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata).

    PubMed

    Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study. PMID:25326292

  18. Jasmonoyl-l-Isoleucine Coordinates Metabolic Networks Required for Anthesis and Floral Attractant Emission in Wild Tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata)[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T.; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study. PMID:25326292

  19. Development of marker genes for jasmonic acid signaling in shoots and roots of wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongwei; Carvalhais, Lilia Costa; Kazan, Kemal; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-05-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays key roles in a diverse array of plant development, reproduction, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of our understanding of the JA signaling pathway derives from the dicot model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, while corresponding knowledge in wheat is somewhat limited. In this study, the expression of 41 genes implicated in the JA signaling pathway has been assessed on 10 day-old bread wheat seedlings, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment using quantitative real-time PCR. The examined genes have been previously reported to be involved in JA biosynthesis and catabolism, JA perception and signaling, and pathogen defense in wheat shoots and roots. This study provides evidence to suggest that the effect of MeJA treatment is more prominent in shoots than roots of wheat seedlings, and substantial regulation of the JA pathway-dependent defense genes occurs at 72 h after MeJA treatment. Results show that the expression of 22 genes was significantly affected by MeJA treatment in wheat shoots. However, only PR1.1 and PR3 were significantly differentially expressed in wheat roots, both at 24 h post-MeJA treatment, with other genes showing large variation in their gene expression in roots. While providing marker genes on JA signaling in wheat, future work may focus on elucidating the regulatory function of JA-modulated transcription factors, some of which have well-studied potential orthologs in Arabidopsis. PMID:27115051

  20. Jasmonic acid is involved in the signaling pathway for fungal endophyte-induced volatile oil accumulation of Atractylodes lancea plantlets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized signaling molecule in plant defense responses. However, its relationships with other signal molecules in secondary metabolite production induced by endophytic fungus are largely unknown. Atractylodes lancea (Asteraceae) is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant that produces antimicrobial volatiles oils. We incubated plantlets of A. lancea with the fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12. to research how JA interacted with other signal molecules in volatile oil production. Results Fungal inoculation increased JA generation and volatile oil accumulation. To investigate whether JA is required for volatile oil production, plantlets were treated with JA inhibitors ibuprofen (IBU) and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The inhibitors suppressed both JA and volatile oil production, but fungal inoculation could still induce volatile oils. Plantlets were further treated with the nitric oxide (NO)-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), the H2O2 inhibitors diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and catalase (CAT), and the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis inhibitors paclobutrazol and 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid. With fungal inoculation, IBU did not inhibit NO production, and JA generation was significantly suppressed by cPTIO, showing that JA may act as a downstream signal of the NO pathway. Exogenous H2O2 could reverse the inhibitory effects of cPTIO on JA generation, indicating that NO mediates JA induction by the fungus through H2O2-dependent pathways. With fungal inoculation, the H2O2 scavenger DPI/CAT could inhibit JA generation, but IBU could not inhibit H2O2 production, implying that H2O2 directly mediated JA generation. Finally, JA generation was enhanced when SA production was suppressed, and vice versa. Conclusions Jasmonic acid acts as a downstream signaling molecule in NO- and H2O2-mediated volatile oil accumulation induced by endophytic fungus and has a complementary

  1. Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are essential for systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Xi, De-Hui; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Systemic resistance is induced by pathogens and confers protection against a broad range of pathogens. Recent studies have indicated that salicylic acid (SA) derivative methyl salicylate (MeSA) serves as a long-distance phloem-mobile systemic resistance signal in tobacco, Arabidopsis, and potato. However, other experiments indicate that jasmonic acid (JA) is a critical mobile signal. Here, we present evidence suggesting both MeSA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are essential for systemic resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), possibly acting as the initiating signals for systemic resistance. Foliar application of JA followed by SA triggered the strongest systemic resistance against TMV. Furthermore, we use a virus-induced gene-silencing-based genetics approach to investigate the function of JA and SA biosynthesis or signaling genes in systemic response against TMV infection. Silencing of SA or JA biosynthetic and signaling genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants increased susceptibility to TMV. Genetic experiments also proved the irreplaceable roles of MeSA and MeJA in systemic resistance response. Systemic resistance was compromised when SA methyl transferase or JA carboxyl methyltransferase, which are required for MeSA and MeJA formation, respectively, were silenced. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that JA and MeJA accumulated in phloem exudates of leaves at early stages and SA and MeSA accumulated at later stages, after TMV infection. Our data also indicated that JA and MeJA could regulate MeSA and SA production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (Me)JA and (Me)SA are required for systemic resistance response against TMV. PMID:24450774

  2. Look into my eyes: Investigating joint attention using interactive eye-tracking and fMRI in a developmental sample.

    PubMed

    Oberwelland, E; Schilbach, L; Barisic, I; Krall, S C; Vogeley, K; Fink, G R; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Konrad, K; Schulte-Rüther, M

    2016-04-15

    Joint attention, the shared attentional focus of at least two people on a third significant object, is one of the earliest steps in social development and an essential aspect of reciprocal interaction. However, the neural basis of joint attention (JA) in the course of development is completely unknown. The present study made use of an interactive eye-tracking paradigm in order to examine the developmental trajectories of JA and the influence of a familiar interaction partner during the social encounter. Our results show that across children and adolescents JA elicits a similar network of "social brain" areas as well as attention and motor control associated areas as in adults. While other-initiated JA particularly recruited visual, attention and social processing areas, self-initiated JA specifically activated areas related to social cognition, decision-making, emotions and motivational/reward processes highlighting the rewarding character of self-initiated JA. Activation was further enhanced during self-initiated JA with a familiar interaction partner. With respect to developmental effects, activation of the precuneus declined from childhood to adolescence and additionally shifted from a general involvement in JA towards a more specific involvement for self-initiated JA. Similarly, the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) was broadly involved in JA in children and more specialized for self-initiated JA in adolescents. Taken together, this study provides first-time data on the developmental trajectories of JA and the effect of a familiar interaction partner incorporating the interactive character of JA, its reciprocity and motivational aspects. PMID:26892856

  3. Salicylate-mediated suppression of jasmonate-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis is targeted downstream of the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Van der Does, Dieuwertje; De Lange, Elvira S.; Delker, Carolin; Wasternack, Claus; Van Wees, Saskia C. M.; Ritsema, Tita

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) and salicylic acid (SA) are plant hormones that play pivotal roles in the regulation of induced defenses against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores. Their signaling pathways cross-communicate providing the plant with a regulatory potential to finely tune its defense response to the attacker(s) encountered. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SA strongly antagonizes the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, resulting in the downregulation of a large set of JA-responsive genes, including the marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Induction of JA-responsive marker gene expression by different JA derivatives was equally sensitive to SA-mediated suppression. Activation of genes encoding key enzymes in the JA biosynthesis pathway, such as LOX2, AOS, AOC2, and OPR3 was also repressed by SA, suggesting that the JA biosynthesis pathway may be a target for SA-mediated antagonism. To test this, we made use of the mutant aos/dde2, which is completely blocked in its ability to produce JAs because of a mutation in the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene. Mutant aos/dde2 plants did not express the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 or VSP2 in response to infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola or the herbivorous insect Pieris rapae. Bypassing JA biosynthesis by exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) rescued this JA-responsive phenotype in aos/dde2. Application of SA suppressed MeJA-induced PDF1.2 expression to the same level in the aos/dde2 mutant as in wild-type Col-0 plants, indicating that SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression is targeted at a position downstream of the JA biosynthesis pathway. PMID:20839007

  4. Effect of jasmonic acid elicitation on the yield, chemical composition, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oil of lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Złotek, Urszula; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Szymanowska, Urszula

    2016-12-15

    The effect of elicitation with jasmonic acid (JA) on the plant yield, the production and composition of essential oils of lettuce leaf basil was evaluated. JA-elicitation slightly affected the yield of plants and significantly increased the amount of essential oils produced by basil - the highest oil yield (0.78±0.005mL/100gdw) was achieved in plants elicited with 100μM JA. The application of the tested elicitor also influenced the chemical composition of basil essential oils - 100μM JA increased the linalool, eugenol, and limonene levels, while 1μM JA caused the highest increase in the methyl eugenol content. Essential oils from JA-elicited basil (especially 1μM and 100μM) exhibited more effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential; therefore, this inducer may be a very useful biochemical tool for improving production and composition of herbal essential oils. PMID:27451148

  5. Functional diversity of jasmonates in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Shumin; Sun, Ning; Liu, Hongyun; Zhao, Yanhong; Liang, Yuling; Zhang, Liping; Han, Yuanhuai

    2015-12-01

    Phytohormone jasmonates (JA) play essential roles in plants, such as regulating development and growth, responding to environmental changes, and resisting abiotic and biotic stresses. During signaling, JA interacts, either synergistically or antagonistically, with other hormones, such as salicylic acid (SA), gibberellin (GA), ethylene (ET), auxin, brassinosteroid (BR), and abscisic acid (ABA), to regulate gene expression in regulatory networks, conferring physiological and metabolic adjustments in plants. As an important staple crop, rice is a major nutritional source for human beings and feeds one third of the world's population. Recent years have seen significant progress in the understanding of the JA pathway in rice. In this review, we summarize the diverse functions of JA, and discuss the JA interplay with other hormones, as well as light, in this economically important crop. We believe that a better understanding of the JA pathway will lead to practical biotechnological applications in rice breeding and cultivation. PMID:26054241

  6. Polarization properties of long-lived stimulated photon echo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetov, V. A.; Popov, E. N.

    2015-01-01

    The polarization properties of the long-lived stimulated photon echo formed on the transition ja → jb with the atomic levels degenerate in the projections of the angular momenta are studied theoretically. The two particular transitions ja = 1 → jb = 0 and ja = 1 → jb = 1 with degenerate ground state ja = 1 are discussed. For the transitions ja = 1 → jb = 1 the polarizations and areas of the first (‘write’) and the third (‘read’) excitation pulses are found when the echo polarization faithfully reproduces the arbitrary polarization of the weak (single-photon) second (‘information’) pulse, so that this echo scheme may implement the quantum memory for a single-photon polarization qubit, while for the transitions ja = 1 → jb = 0 it is shown, that the echo polarization differs from that of the second pulse at any conditions.

  7. Identification of the Jiles-Atherton model parameters using random and deterministic searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Moral Hernandez, Emilio; S. Muranaka, Carlos; Cardoso, José R.

    2000-01-01

    The five parameters of the Jiles-Atherton (J-A) model are identified using a simple program based on the Matlab platform which identifies the J-A parameters automatically from experimental B- H hysteresis curves of magnetic cores. This computational tool is based on adaptive adjustment of the J-A model parameters and conjugates its parametric non-linear coupled differential equations with techniques of simulated annealing.

  8. Improvements in Cd stable isotope analysis achieved through use of liquid–liquid extraction to remove organic residues from Cd separates obtained by extraction chromatography† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ja00115c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rehkämper, Mark; Kreissig, Katharina; Coles, Barry; van de Flierdt, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds released from resins that are commonly employed for trace element separations are known to have a detrimental impact on the quality of isotopic analyses by MC-ICP-MS. A recent study highlighted that such effects can be particularly problematic for Cd stable isotope measurements (M. Gault-Ringold and C. H. Stirling, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2012, 27, 449–459). In this case, the final stage of sample purification commonly applies extraction chromatography with Eichrom TRU resin, which employs particles coated with octylphenyl-N,N-di-isobutyl carbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). During chromatography, it appears that some of these compounds are eluted alongside Cd and cannot be removed by evaporation due to their high boiling points. When aliquots of the zero-ε reference material were processed through the purification procedure, refluxed in concentrated HNO3 and analyzed at minimum dilution (in 1 ml 0.1 M HNO3), they yielded Cd isotopic compositions (ε114/110Cd = 4.6 ± 3.4, 2SD, n = 4) that differed significantly from the expected value, despite the use of a double spike technique to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. This result was accompanied by a 35% reduction in instrumental sensitivity for Cd. With increasing dilution of the organic resin residue, both of these effects are reduced and they are insignificant when the eluted Cd is dissolved in ≥3 ml 0.1 M HNO3. Our results, furthermore, indicate that the isotopic artefacts are most likely related to anomalous mass bias behavior. Previous studies have shown that perchloric acid can be effective at avoiding such effects (Gault-Ringold and Stirling, 2012; K. C. Crocket, M. Lambelet, T. van de Flierdt, M. Rehkämper and L. F. Robinson, Chem. Geol., 2014, 374–375, 128–140), presumably by oxidizing the resin-derived organics, but there are numerous disadvantages to its use. Here we show that liquid–liquid extraction with n-heptane removes the organic compounds, dramatically improving quality of the Cd isotope data for samples that are analyzed at or close to minimum dilution factors. This technique is quick, simple and may be of use prior to analysis of other isotope systems where similar resins are employed. PMID:27284213

  9. IM-CRDS for the analysis of matrix-bound water isotopes: a streamlined (and updated) tool for ecohydrologists to probe small-scale variability in plants Yasuhara, S. (syasuhara@picarro.com)1,Carter, J.A. (jcarter@picarro.com)1, Dennis, K.J. (kdennis@picarro.com)1 1Picarro Inc., 3105 Patrick Henry Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to measure the isotopic composition of matrix-bound water is valuable to many facets of earth and environmental sciences. For example, ecohydrologists use stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in plant and soil water, in combination with measurements of atmospheric water vapor, surface water and precipitation, to estimate budgets of evapotranspiration. Likewise, water isotopes of oceanic water, brines and other waters with high total dissolved solids (TDS, e.g., juices) are relevant to studying large-scale oceanic circulation, small-scale mixing, groundwater contamination, the balance of evaporation to precipitation, and the provenance of food. Conventionally matrix-bound water has been extracted using cryogenic distillation, whereby water is distilled from the material in question (e.g., a leaf sample) by heating under vacuum and collecting the resultant water vapor using liquid nitrogen. The water can then be analyzed for its stable isotopic composition by a variety of methods, including isotope ratio mass spectrometry and laser techniques, such as Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). Here we present recent improvements in an alternative, and stream-lined, solution for integrated sample extraction and isotopic measurement using a Picarro Induction Module (IM) coupled to commercially-available CRDS analyzer from Picarro. This technique is also valuable for waters with high TDS, which can have detrimental effects on flash vaporization process, typically used for the introduction of water to Picarro CRDS water isotope analyzers. The IM works by inductively heating a sample held within a metal sample holder in a glass vial flushed with dry air. Tested samples include leaves, stems, twigs, calibration water, juices, and salt water. The heating process evolves water vapor which is then swept through the system at approximately 150 standard cubic centimeters per minute. The evolved water vapor passes through an activated charcoal cartridge for removal of large organics, and then through Picarro's Micro-Combustion Cartridge that acts to oxidize interfering organics to CO2 and H2O. Using an open-split, the IM is interfaced directly with a CRDS system (in this case, an L2130-i) for the measurement of δ18O and δD. Based on replicate measurements of water introduced to the system using glass filter paper, the precision of the system is better than 0.35 and 1.5 ‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. We will present improvements in system operation that have reduced systematic errors associated with (i) variable backgrounds, and (ii) exchange between the sample and the local atmosphere during sample introduction. In addition, we will present calibration data, and data demonstrating the effectiveness of the Micro-Combustion Cartridge at removing organics, which can result in spectroscopic interference. Finally, we will compare localized leaf water data against integrated whole leaf water data to demonstrate the added value of being able to sample small (approximately 5 mm diameter) areas of a leaf, and compare the results of measuring samples with high TDS on an IM and a Picarro High Precision Vaporizer.

  10. Book review of Dragonfly Genera of the New World. An Illustrated and Annotated Key to the Anisoptera. Garrison, R.W., N. Von Ellenrieder and J.A. Louton, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD. xi+368 pp. Hardback, ISBN 0-8018-8446-2

    SciTech Connect

    Cannings, R.A.

    2007-03-15

    This superb book is the most important reference on the Order Odonata to appear since the 1999 publication of Philip Corbet's monumental work on the behavior and ecology of Odonata. In the context of specimen identification and faunistics, it is the most significant contribution in decades, for it opens a new door to the most diverse and least known dragonfly fauna on Earth, that of the Neotropical Region. The book treats the genera of all the New World dragonflies, but while the Nearctic Anisoptera (at least north of the Mexican border) is extensively summarized in many taxonomic and identification manuals (e.g., Needham et al. 2000), the Neotropical fauna remains rather poorly known. Much of it still is undescribed and taxonomic syntheses are few and far between. This is partly because of its huge diversity, the remoteness of much of the region, and the relative scarcity of specimens in collections. As T. W. Donnelly (2006) noted in a recent review of this book, the New World tropics have always been a challenge to biologists in many disciplines because the region was first colonized by the Spanish and Portuguese who largely lacked the tradition of natural history studies characteristic of the British, French, Dutch and Germans in Africa, India or Southeast Asia. In South America there simply was no F. C. Fraser to write an equivalent to his three volumes on the Odonata in The Fauna of British India. Borror (1945) was an early and wonderful resource for deciphering the genera of the large family Libellulidae in the Americas. Calvert's hard-to-find contributions on the Odonata (1902-1908) in the Biologia Centrali-Americana helped students of the Central American fauna; the updated equivalent by Foerster (2001) for Mesoamerican genera is also important. But as far as syntheses and overviews, that's about all there was - until now.

  11. Synthesis of Core/Shell CuO-Zno Nanoparticles and Their Second-Harmonic Generation Performance / Kodols/Čaula Cuo-Zno Nanodaļiņu Sintēze Un To Spēja Ģenerēt Otrās Harmonikas Signālu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamanis, E.; Sledevskis, E.; Ogurcovs, A.; Gerbreders, V.; Paskevics, V.

    2015-10-01

    The present paper presents the method for obtaining core/shell CuO-ZnO nanoparticles and nanocoatings by using a commercially available vacuum coating system. Initially generated Cu-Zn core/shell nanoparticles have been oxidised with a highly reactive atomic oxygen beam. Second-harmonic generation has been observed in the obtained samples. The dependence of second- harmonic intensity on the wavelength of the exciting radiation is shown in the paper. Darbā tiek demonstrēta metode kodols/čaula CuO-ZnO nanodaļiņu un nanopārklājumu sintēzei, izmantojot komerciāli pieejamu vakuuma pārklājumu sistēmu. Sākotnēji sintezētās Cu-Zn kodolš/čaula nanodaļiņas tika oksidētas ar aktīva skābekļa plūsmu. Iegūtajos paraugos tika novērota otrās harmonikas signāla ģenerēšanās. Ir parādīta otrās harmonikas signāla intensitātes atkarība no ierosinošā starojuma viļņa garuma.

  12. The Rise and Fall of Jasmonate Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Heitz, Thierry; Smirnova, Ekaterina; Widemann, Emilie; Aubert, Yann; Pinot, Franck; Ménard, Rozenn

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) constitute a major class of plant regulators that coordinate responses to biotic and abiotic threats and important aspects of plant development. The core biosynthetic pathway converts linolenic acid released from plastid membrane lipids to the cyclopentenone cis-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) that is further reduced and shortened to jasmonic acid (JA) in peroxisomes. Abundant pools of OPDA esterified to plastid lipids also occur upon stress, mainly in the Arabidopsis genus. Long thought to be the bioactive hormone, JA only gains its pleiotropic hormonal properties upon conjugation into jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). The signaling pathway triggered when JA-Ile promotes the assembly of COI1-JAZ (Coronatine Insensitive 1-JAsmonate Zim domain) co-receptor complexes has been the focus of most recent research in the jasmonate field. In parallel, OPDA and several other JA derivatives are recognized for their separate activities and contribute to the diversity of jasmonate action in plant physiology. We summarize in this chapter the properties of different bioactive JAs and review elements known for their perception and signal transduction. Much progress has also been gained on the enzymatic processes governing JA-Ile removal. Two JA-Ile catabolic pathways, operating through ω-oxidation (cytochromes P450) or conjugate cleavage (amido hydrolases) shape signal dynamics to allow optimal control on defense. JA-Ile turnover not only participates in signal attenuation, but also impact the homeostasis of the entire JA metabolic pathway. PMID:27023244

  13. Arabidopsis CYP94B3 encodes jasmonyl-L-isoleucine 12-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Naoki; Matsubara, Takuya; Sato, Michio; Takahashi, Kosaku; Wakuta, Shinji; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hirokazu; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2011-10-01

    The hormonal action of jasmonate in plants is controlled by the precise balance between its biosynthesis and catabolism. It has been shown that jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is the bioactive form involved in the jasmonate-mediated signaling pathway. However, the catabolism of JA-Ile is poorly understood. Although a metabolite, 12-hydroxyJA-Ile, has been characterized, detailed functional studies of the compound and the enzyme that produces it have not been conducted. In this report, the kinetics of wound-induced accumulation of 12-hydroxyJA-Ile in plants were examined, and its involvement in the plant wound response is described. Candidate genes for the catabolic enzyme were narrowed down from 272 Arabidopsis Cyt P450 genes using Arabidopsis mutants. The candidate gene was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris to reveal that CYP94B3 encodes JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase. Expression analyses demonstrate that expression of CYP94B3 is induced by wounding and shows specific activity toward JA-Ile. Plants grown in medium containing JA-Ile show higher sensitivity to JA-Ile in cyp94b3 mutants than in wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that CYP94B3 plays a major regulatory role in controlling the level of JA-Ile in plants. PMID:21849397

  14. Novel players fine-tune plant trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Boter, Marta; Solano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are essential signalling molecules that co-ordinate the plant response to biotic and abiotic challenges, as well as co-ordinating several developmental processes. Huge progress has been made over the last decade in understanding the components and mechanisms that govern JA perception and signalling. The bioactive form of the hormone, (+)-7-iso-jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), is perceived by the COI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins also act as direct repressors of transcriptional activators such as MYC2. In the emerging picture of JA-Ile perception and signalling, COI1 operates as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that upon binding of JA-Ile targets JAZ repressors for degradation by the 26S proteasome, thereby derepressing transcription factors such as MYC2, which in turn activate JA-Ile-dependent transcriptional reprogramming. It is noteworthy that MYCs and different spliced variants of the JAZ proteins are involved in a negative regulatory feedback loop, which suggests a model that rapidly turns the transcriptional JA-Ile responses on and off and thereby avoids a detrimental overactivation of the pathway. This chapter highlights the most recent advances in our understanding of JA-Ile signalling, focusing on the latest repertoire of new targets of JAZ proteins to control different sets of JA-Ile-mediated responses, novel mechanisms of negative regulation of JA-Ile signalling, and hormonal cross-talk at the molecular level that ultimately determines plant adaptability and survival. PMID:26374889

  15. The Amidohydrolases IAR3 and ILL6 Contribute to Jasmonoyl-Isoleucine Hormone Turnover and Generate 12-Hydroxyjasmonic Acid Upon Wounding in Arabidopsis Leaves*

    PubMed Central

    Widemann, Emilie; Miesch, Laurence; Lugan, Raphaël; Holder, Emilie; Heinrich, Clément; Aubert, Yann; Miesch, Michel; Pinot, Franck; Heitz, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are a class of signaling compounds that mediate complex developmental and adaptative responses in plants. JAs derive from jasmonic acid (JA) through various enzymatic modifications, including conjugation to amino acids or oxidation, yielding an array of derivatives. The main hormonal signal, jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), has been found recently to undergo catabolic inactivation by cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation. We characterize here two amidohydrolases, IAR3 and ILL6, that define a second pathway for JA-Ile turnover during the wound response in Arabidopsis leaves. Biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that these two enzymes cleave the JA-Ile signal, but act also on the 12OH-JA-Ile conjugate. We also show that unexpectedly, the abundant accumulation of tuberonic acid (12OH-JA) after wounding originates partly through a sequential pathway involving (i) conjugation of JA to Ile, (ii) oxidation of the JA-Ile conjugate, and (iii) cleavage under the action of the amidohydrolases. The coordinated actions of oxidative and hydrolytic branches in the jasmonate pathway highlight novel mechanisms of JA-Ile hormone turnover and redefine the dynamic metabolic grid of jasmonate conversion in the wound response. PMID:24052260

  16. Biorefinery products from the inulin-containing crop Jerusalem artichoke.

    PubMed

    Li, Lili; Li, Li; Wang, Yipeng; Du, Yuguang; Qin, Song

    2013-04-01

    The polysaccharides in Jerusalem artichoke (JA) carry a substantial amount of energy that can be partly accessed through bioconversion into storable fuels. We review the potential for converting inulin into a variety of high value-added biorefinery products, including biofuels and biochemicals, and consider the feasibility of regarding JA as a model species of an inulin-rich crop. We discuss feedstock pretreatment, microorganisms used during fermentation, biorefinery products derived from JA, and how to enhance the economic competitiveness of JA as an energy crop. PMID:23242496

  17. Defense Priming and Jasmonates: A Role for Free Fatty Acids in Insect Elicitor-Induced Long Distance Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Cofer, Tristan; Engelberth, Marie; Engelberth, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV) prime plants against insect herbivore attack resulting in stronger and faster signaling by jasmonic acid (JA). In maize this response is specifically linked to insect elicitor (IE)-induced signaling processes, which cause JA accumulation not only around the damage site, but also in distant tissues, presumably through the activation of electrical signals. Here, we present additional data further characterizing these distal signaling events in maize. Also, we describe how exposure to GLV increases free fatty acid (fFA) levels in maize seedlings, but also in other plants, and how increased fFA levels affect IE-induced JA accumulation. Increased fFA, in particular α-linolenic acid (LnA), caused a significant increase in JA accumulation after IE treatment, while JA induced by mechanical wounding (MW) alone was not affected. We also identified treatments that significantly decreased certain fFA level including simulated wind and rain. In such treated plants, IE-induced JA accumulation was significantly reduced when compared to un-moved control plants, while MW-induced JA accumulation was not significantly affected. Since only IE-induced JA accumulation was altered by changes in the fFA composition, we conclude that changing levels of fFA affect primarily IE-induced signaling processes rather than serving as a substrate for JA. PMID:27135225

  18. Characterization of a JAZ7 activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant with increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Louise F.; Cevik, Volkan; Grant, Murray; Zhai, Bing; Jones, Jonathan D.G.; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, jasmonate (JA)-signaling plays a key role in mediating Fusarium oxysporum disease outcome. However, the roles of JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins that repress JA-signaling have not been characterized in host resistance or susceptibility to this pathogen. Here, we found most JAZ genes are induced following F. oxysporum challenge, and screening T-DNA insertion lines in Arabidopsis JAZ family members identified a highly disease-susceptible JAZ7 mutant (jaz7-1D). This mutant exhibited constitutive JAZ7 expression and conferred increased JA-sensitivity, suggesting activation of JA-signaling. Unlike jaz7 loss-of-function alleles, jaz7-1D also had enhanced JA-responsive gene expression, altered development and increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000 that also disrupts host JA-responses. We also demonstrate that JAZ7 interacts with transcription factors functioning as activators (MYC3, MYC4) or repressors (JAM1) of JA-signaling and contains a functional EAR repressor motif mediating transcriptional repression via the co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL). We propose through direct TPL recruitment, in wild-type plants JAZ7 functions as a repressor within the JA-response network and that in jaz7-1D plants, misregulated ectopic JAZ7 expression hyper-activates JA-signaling in part by disturbing finely-tuned COI1-JAZ-TPL-TF complexes. PMID:26896849

  19. Involvement of nitric oxide in the jasmonate-dependent basal defense against root-knot nematode in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Jia, Feifei; Shao, Shujun; Zhang, Huan; Li, Guiping; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense responses. However, their roles in plant defense against root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of the JA- and NO-related biosynthetic and signaling component genes were induced after RKN infection. Application of exogenous JA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) significantly decreased the number of egg masses in tomato roots after RKN infection and partially alleviated RKN-induced decreases in plant fresh weight and net photosynthetic rate. These molecules also alleviated RKN-induced increases in root electrolyte leakage and membrane peroxidation. Importantly, NO scavenger partially inhibited JA-induced RKN defense. The pharmacological inhibition of JA biosynthesis significantly increased the plants’ susceptibility to RKNs, which was effectively alleviated by SNP application, showing that NO may be involved in the JA-dependent RKN defense pathway. Furthermore, both JA and SNP induced increases in protease inhibitor 2 (PI2) gene expression after RKN infestation. Silencing of PI2 compromised both JA- and SNP-induced RKN defense responses, suggesting that the PI2 gene mediates JA- and NO-induced defense against RKNs. This work will be important for deepening the understanding of the mechanisms involved in basal defense against RKN attack in plants. PMID:25914698

  20. Defense Priming and Jasmonates: A Role for Free Fatty Acids in Insect Elicitor-Induced Long Distance Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Cofer, Tristan; Engelberth, Marie; Engelberth, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV) prime plants against insect herbivore attack resulting in stronger and faster signaling by jasmonic acid (JA). In maize this response is specifically linked to insect elicitor (IE)-induced signaling processes, which cause JA accumulation not only around the damage site, but also in distant tissues, presumably through the activation of electrical signals. Here, we present additional data further characterizing these distal signaling events in maize. Also, we describe how exposure to GLV increases free fatty acid (fFA) levels in maize seedlings, but also in other plants, and how increased fFA levels affect IE-induced JA accumulation. Increased fFA, in particular α-linolenic acid (LnA), caused a significant increase in JA accumulation after IE treatment, while JA induced by mechanical wounding (MW) alone was not affected. We also identified treatments that significantly decreased certain fFA level including simulated wind and rain. In such treated plants, IE-induced JA accumulation was significantly reduced when compared to un-moved control plants, while MW-induced JA accumulation was not significantly affected. Since only IE-induced JA accumulation was altered by changes in the fFA composition, we conclude that changing levels of fFA affect primarily IE-induced signaling processes rather than serving as a substrate for JA. PMID:27135225

  1. The Recently Identified Isoleucine Conjugate of cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Is Partially Active in cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid-Specific Gene Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Monika D; Gruber, Cornelia; Floková, Kristýna; Miersch, Otto; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Oxylipins of the jasmonate family are active as signals in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Jasmonic acid (JA), its precursor cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and the isoleucine conjugate of JA (JA-Ile) are the most prominent members. OPDA and JA-Ile have individual signalling properties in several processes and differ in their pattern of gene expression. JA-Ile, but not OPDA, is perceived by the SCFCOI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. There are, however, numerous processes and genes specifically induced by OPDA. The recently identified OPDA-Ile suggests that OPDA specific responses might be mediated upon formation of OPDA-Ile. Here, we tested OPDA-Ile-induced gene expression in wild type and JA-deficient, JA-insensitive and JA-Ile-deficient mutant background. Tests on putative conversion of OPDA-Ile during treatments revealed only negligible conversion. Expression of two OPDA-inducible genes, GRX480 and ZAT10, by OPDA-Ile could be detected in a JA-independent manner in Arabidopsis seedlings but less in flowering plants. The data suggest a bioactivity in planta of OPDA-Ile. PMID:27611078

  2. Nitric oxide is involved in methyl jasmonate-induced defense responses and secondary metabolism activities of Taxus cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian Wen; Wu, Jian Yong

    2005-06-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a methyl ester of jasmonic acid (JA), is a well-established signal molecule in plant defense responses and an effective inducer of secondary metabolite accumulation in plant cell cultures such as the valuable anticancer diterpenoid taxol (paclitaxel) in Taxus spp. This work examines the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in MeJA-induced plant defense responses and secondary metabolism in Taxus chinensis cell cultures. Exogenously supplied MeJA at 100 microM induced rapid production of NO in the Taxus cell cultures, reaching a maximum within 6 h of MeJA supply. Several other responses occurred concomitantly, including the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the increases in intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) content, lipoxygenase (LOX) and phenylalanine ammonium-lyase (PAL) activities. The MeJA-induced H2O2 production was suppressed by an NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), but enhanced by NO inhibitors, N (omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO). In contrast, the MeJA-induced MDA, LOX and PAL were all enhanced by the NO donor but suppressed by the NO inhibitors. The NO inhibitors also suppressed MeJA-induced taxol accumulation. These results are suggestive of a role for NO as a signal element for activating the MeJA-induced defense responses and secondary metabolism activities of plant cells. PMID:15829512

  3. The Arabidopsis DELLA RGA-LIKE3 Is a Direct Target of MYC2 and Modulates Jasmonate Signaling Responses[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Michael; Davière, Jean-Michel; Cheminant, Soizic; Regnault, Thomas; Baumberger, Nicolas; Heintz, Dimitri; Baltz, Rachel; Genschik, Pascal; Achard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones involved in the regulation of plant growth in response to endogenous and environmental signals. GA promotes growth by stimulating the degradation of nuclear growth–repressing DELLA proteins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DELLAs consist of a small family of five proteins that display distinct but also overlapping functions in repressing GA responses. This study reveals that DELLA RGA-LIKE3 (RGL3) protein is essential to fully enhance the jasmonate (JA)-mediated responses. We show that JA rapidly induces RGL3 expression in a CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)– and JASMONATE INSENSITIVE1 (JIN1/MYC2)–dependent manner. In addition, we demonstrate that MYC2 binds directly to RGL3 promoter. Furthermore, we show that RGL3 (like the other DELLAs) interacts with JA ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, key repressors of JA signaling. These findings suggest that JA/MYC2-dependent accumulation of RGL3 represses JAZ activity, which in turn enhances the expression of JA-responsive genes. Accordingly, we show that induction of primary JA-responsive genes is reduced in the rgl3-5 mutant and enhanced in transgenic lines overexpressing RGL3. Hence, RGL3 positively regulates JA-mediated resistance to the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea and susceptibility to the hemibiotroph Pseudomonas syringae. We propose that JA-mediated induction of RGL3 expression is of adaptive significance and might represent a recent functional diversification of the DELLAs. PMID:22892320

  4. The frequency-dependent Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malczyk, Robert; Izydorczyk, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    An extension of the Jiles-Atherton (J-A) magnetic hysteresis model is proposed in the paper. The physical J-A model has been substituted with the specially chosen mathematical Chua model. The proposed model produces identical results to those of the original J-A model for the static magnetic hysteresis loop. The new model permits the inclusion of a wide variety of additional effects observed for ferromagnetic materials without invalidating the well-known and broadly used J-A model parameters. Thus, it is possible to effectively model phenomena, whose detailed physical model would require complex mathematical calculations.

  5. Salt stress response triggers activation of the jasmonate signaling pathway leading to inhibition of cell elongation in Arabidopsis primary root.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Camilo E; Acevedo-Acevedo, Orlando; Miranda, Giovanna S; Vergara-Barros, Pablo; Holuigue, Loreto; Figueroa, Carlos R; Figueroa, Pablo M

    2016-07-01

    Salinity is a severe abiotic stress that affects irrigated croplands. Jasmonate (JA) is an essential hormone involved in plant defense against herbivory and in responses to abiotic stress. However, the relationship between the salt stress response and the JA pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana is not well understood at molecular and cellular levels. In this work we investigated the activation of JA signaling by NaCl and its effect on primary root growth. We found that JA-responsive JAZ genes were up-regulated by salt stress in a COI1-dependent manner in the roots. Using a JA-Ile sensor we demonstrated that activation of JA signaling by salt stress occurs in the meristematic zone and stele of the differentiation zone and that this activation was dependent on JAR1 and proteasome functions. Another finding is that the elongation zone (EZ) and its cortical cells were significantly longer in JA-related mutants (AOS, COI1, JAZ3 and MYC2/3/4 genes) compared with wild-type plants under salt stress, revealing the participation of the canonical JA signaling pathway. Noteworthy, osmotic stress - a component of salt stress - inhibited cell elongation in the EZ in a COI1-dependent manner. We propose that salt stress triggers activation of the JA signaling pathway followed by inhibition of cell elongation in the EZ. We have shown that salt-inhibited root growth partially involves the jasmonate signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. PMID:27217545

  6. Alternative diagnostic diagrams and the `forgotten' population of weak line galaxies in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid Fernandes, R.; Stasińska, G.; Schlickmann, M. S.; Mateus, A.; Vale Asari, N.; Schoenell, W.; Sodré, L.

    2010-04-01

    A numerous population of weak line galaxies (WLGs) is often left out of statistical studies on emission-line galaxies (ELGs) due to the absence of an adequate classification scheme, since classical diagnostic diagrams, such as [OIII]/Hβ versus [NII]/Hα (the BPT diagram), require the measurement of at least four emission lines. This paper aims to remedy this situation by transposing the usual divisory lines between star-forming (SF) galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) hosts and between Seyferts and LINERs to diagrams that are more economical in terms of line quality requirements. By doing this, we rescue from the classification limbo a substantial number of sources and modify the global census of ELGs. More specifically, (1) we use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to constitute a suitable sample of 280000 ELGs, one-third of which are WLGs. (2) Galaxies with strong emission lines are classified using the widely applied criteria of Kewley et al., Kauffmann et al. and Stasińska et al. to distinguish SF galaxies and AGN hosts and Kewley et al. to distinguish Seyferts from LINERs. (3) We transpose these classification schemes to alternative diagrams keeping [NII]/Hα as a horizontal axis, but replacing Hβ by a stronger line (Hα or [OII]), or substituting the ionization-level sensitive [OIII]/Hβ ratio with the equivalent width of Hα (WHα). Optimized equations for the transposed divisory lines are provided. (4) We show that nothing significant is lost in the translation, but that the new diagrams allow one to classify up to 50 per cent more ELGs. (5) Introducing WLGs in the census of galaxies in the local Universe increases the proportion of metal-rich SF galaxies and especially LINERs. In the course of this analysis, we were led to make the following points. (i) The Kewley et al. BPT line for galaxy classification is generally ill-used. (ii) Replacing [OIII]/Hβ by WHα in the classification introduces a change in the philosophy of the distinction

  7. A comparison of FUV dayglows measured by STSAT-1/FIMS with the AURIC model in a geomagnetic quiet condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, Hosik; Kim, Yong Ha; Hong, Jun-Seok; Lee, Joon-Chan; Choi, Yeon-Ju; Min, Kyung Wook

    2014-09-01

    The Korea scientific microsatellite, STSAT-1 (Science and Technology Satellite-1), was launched in 2003 and observed far ultraviolet (FUV) airglow from the upper atmosphere with a Far-ultraviolet IMaging Spectrograph (FIMS) at an altitude of 690 km. The FIMS consists of a dual-band imaging spectrograph of 900-1150 Å (S-band) and 1340-1715 Å (L-band). Limb scanning observations were performed only at the S-band, resulting in intensity profiles of OI 989 Å, OI 1026 Å, NII 1085 Å and NI 1134 Å emission lines near the horizon. We compare these emission intensities with those computed by using a theoretical model, the AURIC (Atmospheric Ultraviolet Radiance Integrated Code). The intensities of the OI 1026 Å, NII 1085 Å and NI 1134 Å emissions measured by using the FIMS are overall consistent with the values computed by using AURIC under the thermospheric and solar activity conditions on August 6, 1984, which is close to the FIMS's observation condition. We find that the FIMS dayglow intensity profiles match reasonably well with AURIC intensity profiles for the MSIS90 oxygen atom density profiles within factors of 0.5 and 2. However, the FIMS intensities of the OI 989 Å line are about 2 ˜ 4 times stronger than the AURIC intensities, which is expected because AURIC does not properly simulate resonance scattering of airglow and solar photons at 989 Å by atomic oxygen in the thermosphere. We also find that the maximum tangential altitudes of the oxygen bearing dayglows (OI 989 Å, OI 1026 Å) are higher than those of the nitrogen-bearing dayglows (NII 1085 Å, NI 1134 Å), which is confirmed by using AURIC model calculations. This is expected because the oxygen atoms are distributed at higher altitudes in the thermosphere than the nitrogen molecules. Validations of the qualities of both the FIMS instrument and the AURIC model indicate that AURIC should be updated with improved thermospheric models and with measured solar FUV spectra for better agreement with the

  8. Hα imaging of the Herschel Reference Survey. The star formation properties of a volume-limited, K-band-selected sample of nearby late-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Fossati, M.; Gavazzi, G.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Boissier, S.; Hughes, T. M.

    2015-07-01

    We present new Hα+[NII] imaging data of late-type galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey aimed at studying the star formation properties of a K-band-selected, volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies. The Hα+[NII] data are corrected for [NII] contamination and dust attenuation using different recipes based on the Balmer decrement and the 24 μm luminosities. We show that the Hα luminosities derived with different corrections give consistent results only whenever the uncertainty on the estimate of the Balmer decrement is σ [C(Hβ)] ≤ 0.1. We used these data to derive the star formation rate of the late-type galaxies of the sample and compare these estimates to those determined using independent monochromatic tracers (far-UV, radio continuum) or the output of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting codes. This comparison suggests that the 24 μm based dust extinction correction for the Hα data might not be universal and that it should be used with caution in all objects with a low star formation activity, where dust heating can be dominated by the old stellar population. Furthermore, because of the sudden truncation of the star formation activity of cluster galaxies occurring after their interaction with the surrounding environment, the stationarity conditions required to transform monochromatic fluxes into star formation rates might not always be satisfied in tracers other than the Hα luminosity. In a similar way, the parametrisation of the star formation history generally used in SED fitting codes might not be adequate for these recently interacting systems. We then use the derived star formation rates to study the star formation rate luminosity distribution and the typical scaling relations of the late-type galaxies of the HRS. We observe a systematic decrease of the specific star formation rate with increasing stellar mass, stellar mass surface density, and metallicity. We also observe an increase of the asymmetry and smoothness parameters measured

  9. Monoclonal antibodies identify residues 199-216 of the integrin alpha2 vWFA domain as a functionally important region within alpha2beta1.

    PubMed Central

    Tuckwell, D S; Smith, L; Korda, M; Askari, J A; Santoso, S; Barnes, M J; Farndale, R W; Humphries, M J

    2000-01-01

    Integrin alpha2beta1 is the major receptor for collagens in the human body, and the collagen-binding site on the alpha2 subunit von Willebrand factor A-type domain (vWFA domain) is now well defined. However, the biologically important conformational changes that are associated with collagen binding, and the means by which the vWFA domain is integrated into the whole integrin are not completely understood. We have raised monoclonal antibodies against recombinant alpha2 vWFA domain for use as probes of function. Three antibodies, JA202, JA215 and JA218, inhibited binding to collagen, collagen I C-propeptide and E-cadherin, demonstrating that their function is important for structurally diverse alpha2beta1 ligands. Cross-blocking studies grouped the epitopes into two clusters: (I) JA202, the inhibitory antibody, Gi9, and a non-inhibitory antibody, JA208; (II) JA215 and JA218. Both clusters were sensitive to events at the collagen binding site, as binding of Gi9, JA202, JA215 and JA218 were inhibited by collagen peptide, JA208 binding was enhanced by collagen peptide, and binding of JA202 was decreased after mutagenesis of the cation-binding residue Thr(221) to alanine. Binding of cluster I antibodies was inhibited by the anti-functional anti-beta1 antibody Mab13, and binding of Gi9 and JA218 to alpha2beta1 was inhibited by substituting Mn(2+) for Mg(2+), demonstrating that these antibodies were sensitive to changes initiated outside the vWFA domain. Mapping of epitopes showed that JA202 and Gi9 bound between residues 212-216, while JA208 bound between residues 199-216. We have therefore identified two epitope clusters with novel properties; i.e. they are intimately associated with the collagen-binding site, responsive to conformational changes at the collagen-binding site and sensitive to events initiated outside the vWFA domain. PMID:10947963

  10. Involvement of OST1 Protein Kinase and PYR/PYL/RCAR Receptors in Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis Guard Cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ye; Adachi, Yuji; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Munemasa, Shintaro; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induces stomatal closure. It has been shown that stomata of many ABA-insensitive mutants are also insensitive to MeJA, and a low amount of ABA is a prerequisite for the MeJA response. However, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between ABA and MeJA signaling remain to be elucidated. Here we studied the interplay of signaling of the two hormones in guard cells using the quadruple ABA receptor mutant pyr1 pyl1 pyl2 pyl4 and ABA-activated protein kinase mutants ost1-2 and srk2e. In the quadruple mutant, MeJA-induced stomatal closure, H2O2 production, nitric oxide (NO) production, cytosolic alkalization and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable current (ICa) activation were not impaired. At the same time, the inactivation of the inward-rectifying K(+) current was impaired. In contrast to the quadruple mutant, MeJA-induced stomatal closure, H2O2 production, NO production and cytosolic alkalization were impaired in ost1-2 and srk2e as well as in aba2-2, the ABA-deficient mutant. The activation of ICa was also impaired in srk2e. Collectively, these results indicated that OST1 was essential for MeJA-induced stomatal closure, while PYR1, PYL1, PYL2 and PYL4 ABA receptors were not sufficient factors. MeJA did not appear to activate OST1 kinase activity. This implies that OST1 mediates MeJA signaling through an undetectable level of activity or a non-enzymatic action. MeJA induced the expression of an ABA synthesis gene, NCED3, and increased ABA contents only modestly. Taken together with previous reports, this study suggests that MeJA signaling in guard cells is primed by ABA and is not brought about through the pathway mediated by PYR1, PYL1 PYL2 and PYL4. PMID:27354421

  11. Effects of Light and Wounding on Jasmonates in Rice phyAphyC Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Brendel, Rita; Svyatyna, Katharina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel; Takano, Makoto; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter; Riemann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonates (JA) are lipid-derived plant hormones. They have been shown to be important regulators of photomorphogenesis, a developmental program in plants, which is activated by light through different red and blue light sensitive photoreceptors. In rice, inhibition of coleoptile growth by light is a central event in photomorphogenesis. This growth inhibition is impaired, when jasmonate biosynthesis is knocked out. Previously, we found that JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (OsJAR1) transcripts were not induced in the phytochrome (phy) mutant phyAphyC. Therefore, in the current study we investigated the regulation of JA and its highly bioactive derivative (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), as well as the transcriptional regulation of several JA-dependent genes both in wild type and phyAphyC mutant. JA and JA-Ile levels increased in the mutant seedlings in response to blue light. However, in phyAphyC mutant leaves, which were continuously wounded, JA and JA-Ile levels were lower compared to those in the wild type. Hence, the mutation of phyA and phyC has differential effects on jasmonate levels depending on the tissue and developmental stage. Our results suggest that the contribution of JA-Ile to signaling during photomorphogenesis of rice is minor, as coleoptile phenotypes of phyAphyC mutants resemble those of jasmonate-deficient mutants despite the fact that induction by blue light leads to higher levels of JA-Ile compared to the wild type. We postulate that phyA and phyC could control the activity of specific enzymes metabolizing JA to active derivatives. PMID:27135497

  12. Concurrent changes in methyl jasmonate emission and the expression of its biosynthesis-related genes in Cymbidium ensifolium flowers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingkun; Ma, Cuiping; Yu, Rangcai; Mu, Lanling; Hou, Jia; Yu, Yunyi; Fan, Yanping

    2015-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is one of most abundant scent compounds in Cymbidium ensifolium flowers. In this study, the emission of MeJA and its regulation mechanism were investigated. Our results showed that emission of MeJA in C. ensifolium flowers was controlled developmentally and rhythmically. It occurred in a tissue-specific manner, and high MeJA emission was found in sepals and petals. A group of vital genes involved in the MeJA biosynthesis via the octadecanoid pathway were isolated from C. ensifolium flowers, including CeLOX, CeAOS, CeAOC and CeJMT. MeJA emission was at very low levels in unopened or half-opened C. ensifolium flowers and reached its maximal level between day 4 and 6 and declined from day 7 to 10 postanthesis. The expression of CeLOX, CeAOS, CeAOC and CeJMT increased from day 1 to day 6, and then declined from day 7 to 10 postanthesis, corresponding to the change in MeJA emission. Moreover, the expression of CeLOX, CeAOS, CeAOC and CeJMT oscillated in a rhythmic manner could reach the maximum level between 8:00 h and 16:00 h, which coincided with the MeJA emission. The high level of MeJA emission in sepals and petals coincided with the high transcript levels. The results suggest that MeJA emission in C. ensifolium flower might be directly regulated at the transcription levels. Moreover, the recombinant protein of CeJMT could specifically catalyze the jasmonic acid to form the corresponding ester MeJA. PMID:25214235

  13. Methyl Jasmonate- and Light-Induced Glucosinolate and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Radish Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Sun Ju; RomijUddin, Md; Park, Woo Tae; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2015-07-01

    Radish sprouts and young seedlings are considered important dietary vegetables in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the levels of glucosinolate and anthocyanin accumulation in radish seedlings in response to light and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments. MeJA facilitated the accumulation of glucosinolate and anthocyanins under light conditions. The glucosinolate and anthocyanin contents in the radish seedlings that were exposed to light after MeJA treatment were higher than those of the seedlings that were grown in the dark without MeJA. At a concentration of 100 μM, MeJA led to the greatest accumulation of the most glucosinolates under both light and dark conditions. Under light conditions, the levels of glucoraphenin, glucoerucin, and glucotropaeolin accumulation were 1.53-, 1.60-, and 1.30-fold higher, respectively, than those of the control. Remarkable accumulations of glucobrassicin were observed under light conditions (4.4-, 6.7-, and 7.8-fold higher than that of the control following the application of 100, 300, and 500 μM MeJA, respectively). The level of cyanidin in the 300 μM MeJA-treated seedlings was double of that in the control without MeJA treatment. The highest level of pelargonidin was observed after treatment with 500 μM MeJA under light conditions; this level was 1.73 times higher than that in the control. A similar trend of anthocyaninaccumulation was observed in the radish seedlings following MeJA treatment under dark conditions, but the levels of anthocyanins were considerably lower in the seedlings that were grown in the dark. Our findings suggest that light and low concentrations of MeJA enhance the accumulations of glucosinolates and anthocyanins during the development of radish seedlings. PMID:26411013

  14. Jasmonate-dependent plant defense restricts thrips performance and preference

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Jun; Kugimiya, Soichi; Narusaka, Mari; Seo, Shigemi; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Shinya; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2009-01-01

    Background The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis [Pergande]) is one of the most important insect herbivores of cultivated plants. However, no pesticide provides complete control of this species, and insecticide resistance has emerged around the world. We previously reported the important role of jasmonate (JA) in the plant's immediate response to thrips feeding by using an Arabidopsis leaf disc system. In this study, as the first step toward practical use of JA in thrips control, we analyzed the effect of JA-regulated Arabidopsis defense at the whole plant level on thrips behavior and life cycle at the population level over an extended period. We also studied the effectiveness of JA-regulated plant defense on thrips damage in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis). Results Thrips oviposited more on Arabidopsis JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants than on WT plants, and the population density of the following thrips generation increased on coi1-1 mutants. Moreover, thrips preferred coi1-1 mutants more than WT plants. Application of JA to WT plants before thrips attack decreased the thrips population. To analyze these important functions of JA in a brassica crop plant, we analyzed the expression of marker genes for JA response in B. rapa. Thrips feeding induced expression of these marker genes and significantly increased the JA content in B. rapa. Application of JA to B. rapa enhanced plant resistance to thrips, restricted oviposition, and reduced the population density of the following generation. Conclusion Our results indicate that the JA-regulated plant defense restricts thrips performance and preference, and plays an important role in the resistance of Arabidopsis and B. rapa to thrips damage. PMID:19635132

  15. Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications (IITA) Program: Annual K-12 Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Paul; Likens, William; Leon, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the K-12 workshop is to stimulate a cross pollination of inter-center activity and introduce the regional centers to curing edge K-1 activities. The format of the workshop consists of project presentations, working groups, and working group reports, all contained in a three day period. The agenda is aggressive and demanding. The K-12 Education Project is a multi-center activity managed by the Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications (IITA)/K-12 Project Office at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). this workshop is conducted in support of executing the K-12 Education element of the IITA Project The IITA/K-12 Project funds activities that use the National Information Infrastructure (NII) (e.g., the Internet) to foster reform and restructuring in mathematics, science, computing, engineering, and technical education.

  16. Evolution of In-Situ Generated Reinforcement Precipitates in Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Kar, S. K.; Catalina, A. V.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.

    2004-01-01

    Due to certain inherent advantages, in-situ production of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have received considerable attention in the recent past. ln-situ techniques typically involve a chemical reaction that results in precipitation of a ceramic reinforcement phase. The size and spatial distribution of these precipitates ultimately determine the mechanical properties of these MMCs. In this paper we will investigate the validity of using classical growth laws and analytical expressions to describe the interaction between a precipitate and a solid-liquid interface (SLI) to predict the size and spatial evolution of the in-situ generated precipitates. Measurements made on size and distribution of Tic precipitates in a Ni&I matrix will be presented to test the validity of such an approach.

  17. HST imaging of the dusty filaments and nucleus swirl in NGC4696 at the centre of the Centaurus Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, A. C.; Walker, S. A.; Russell, H. R.; Pinto, C.; Canning, R. E. A.; Salome, P.; Sanders, J. S.; Taylor, G. B.; Zweibel, E. G.; Conselice, C. J.; Combes, F.; Crawford, C. S.; Ferland, G. J.; Gallagher, J. S.; Hatch, N. A.; Johnstone, R. M.; Reynolds, CS.

    2016-06-01

    Narrow-band HST imaging has resolved the detailed internal structure of the 10 kpc diameter Hα+[NII] emission line nebulosity in NGC4696, the central galaxy in the nearby Centaurus cluster, showing that the dusty, molecular, filaments have a width of about 60pc. Optical morphology and velocity measurements indicate that the filaments are dragged out by the bubbling action of the radio source as part of the AGN feedback cycle. Using the drag force we find that the magnetic field in the filaments is in approximate pressure equipartition with the hot gas. The filamentary nature of the cold gas continues inward, swirling around and within the Bondi accretion radius of the central black hole, revealing the magnetic nature of the gas flows in massive elliptical galaxies. HST imaging resolves the magnetic, dusty, molecular filaments at the centre of the Centaurus cluster to a swirl around and within the Bondi radius.

  18. News from On-Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1997-06-01

    Now that we have found all these great things on the World Wide Web, what can we do with them? I mean legally? Never fear, again the Web comes to your rescue! The Conference on Fair Use (CONFU) Interim Report (http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/dcom/olia/confu/) summarizes the work of more than 95 organizations dedicated to establishing fair use guidelines for librarians and educators while also representing copyright owners. CONFU was initiated in 1994 as part of the national government's effort to promote the National Information Infrastructure (NII). Go to this site and look for Guidelines for Fair Use for Digital Images, Distance Learning, and Educational Multimedia. Read the special cautions about material from the Internet, special allowances for retention of projects for tenure review, and permitted uses by students for class projects.

  19. Emission of CO, CI, and CII in the spiral arms of M83 and M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, C.; Mookerjea, B.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Bayet, E.; Gerin, M.; Israel, F.; Stutzki, J.; Wouterloot, J.

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed study of photon dominated regions at several spiral arm positions and the centers of the nearby spiral galaxies M51 and M83. For this, we combine all important cooling lines: [CI] 609μm taken at the JCMT with 12CO and 13CO 1-0 and 2-1 lines taken at the IRAM 30m MRT. These transitions are combined with data taken from the literature: ISO/LWS [CII] 158μm, [OI] 63μm, 146μm, and [NII] (122μm) data (Brauher, J., et al. 2004) and mid-J CO lines from (Bayet, E., et al., Dumke, M., et al. 2003, Israel, F., Baas, F., 2002).

  20. On-Board Switching and Routing Advanced Technology Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yegenoglu, F.; Inukai, T.; Kaplan, T.; Redman, W.; Mitchell, C.

    1998-01-01

    Future satellite communications is expected to be fully integrated into National and Global Information Infrastructures (NII/GII). These infrastructures will carry multi gigabit-per-second data rates, with integral switching and routing of constituent data elements. The satellite portion of these infrastructures must, therefore, be more than pipes through the sky. The satellite portion will also be required to perform very high speed routing and switching of these data elements to enable efficient broad area coverage to many home and corporate users. The technology to achieve the on-board switching and routing must be selected and developed specifically for satellite application within the next few years. This report presents evaluation of potential technologies for on-board switching and routing applications.

  1. Reductive nitrosylation of nickel(ii) complex by nitric oxide followed by nitrous oxide release.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Deka, Hemanta; Dangat, Yuvraj B; Saha, Soumen; Gogoi, Kuldeep; Vanka, Kumar; Mondal, Biplab

    2016-06-21

    Ni(ii) complex of ligand ( = bis(2-ethyl-4-methylimidazol-5-yl)methane) in methanol solution reacts with an equivalent amount of NO resulting in a corresponding Ni(i) complex. Adding further NO equivalent affords a Ni(i)-nitrosyl intermediate with the {NiNO}(10) configuration. This nitrosyl intermediate upon subsequent reaction with additional NO results in the release of N2O and formation of a Ni(ii)-nitrito complex. Crystallographic characterization of the nitrito complex revealed a symmetric η(2)-O,O-nitrito bonding to the metal ion. This study demonstrates the reductive nitrosylation of a Ni(ii) center followed by N2O release in the presence of excess NO. PMID:27230278

  2. Lidar observation of marine mixed layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamagishi, Susumu; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Marine mixed layer is known to play an important role in the transportation of pollution exiting ship funnels. The application of a diffusion model is critically dependent upon a reliable estimate of a lid. However, the processes that form lids are not well understood, though considerable progress toward marine boundary layer has been achieved. This report describes observations of the marine mixed layer from the course Ise-wan to Nii-jima with the intention of gaining a better understanding of their structure by a shipboard lidar. These observations were made in the summer of 1991. One interesting feature of the observations was that the multiple layers of aerosols, which is rarely numerically modeled, was encountered. No attempt is yet made to present a systematic analysis of all the data collected. Instead we focus on observations that seem to be directly relevant to the structure of the mixed layer.

  3. The radical mechanism of biological methane synthesis by methyl-coenzyme M reductase.

    PubMed

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Sliwa, Dariusz; Ginovska, Bojana; Smith, Dayle; Wolf, Matthew W; Lehnert, Nicolai; Raugei, Simone; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2016-05-20

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation, is responsible for the biological production of more than 1 billion tons of methane per year. The mechanism of methane synthesis is thought to involve either methyl-nickel(III) or methyl radical/Ni(II)-thiolate intermediates. We employed transient kinetic, spectroscopic, and computational approaches to study the reaction between the active Ni(I) enzyme and substrates. Consistent with the methyl radical-based mechanism, there was no evidence for a methyl-Ni(III) species; furthermore, magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the Ni(II)-thiolate intermediate. Temperature-dependent transient kinetics also closely matched density functional theory predictions of the methyl radical mechanism. Identifying the key intermediate in methanogenesis provides fundamental insights to develop better catalysts for producing and activating an important fuel and potent greenhouse gas. PMID:27199421

  4. In-orbit operations of Japanese geostationary meteorological satellite, GMS-2, 'HIMAWARI-2'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kitahara, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Harada, M.

    1982-09-01

    The objectives of GMS-II are the same as those of its predecessor, which was launched as part of the Global Atmospheric Research Program. GMS-2 is a spin-stabilized geostationary meteorological satellite with mechanical despun antennas. The spacecraft launch weight was reduced about 15 kg from that of its predecessor to make it compatible with the N-II launch vehicle. A description is given of the post-launch mission check, which was carried out between August and September 1981. The check was made to compare the in-orbit performance of GMS-2 with ground test data, to verify that the overall system function and performance met the requirements, and to establish a data base for future performance comparisons after the orbit life.

  5. The second Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 'Himawari-2'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kitahara, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Harada, M.; Usuda, S.

    Design features and performance to date of the Japanese meteorological satellite GMS-2 are presented. The GMS-2 is configured to provide weather imagery with VISSR sensors, collect and distribute meteorological data, and monitor solar particles. GMS-2 is spin-stabilized in GEO and was launched on an N-II rocket. The spacecraft length is 3.45 m on-station, the diameter is 2.15 m, and the mass is 653 kg beginning-of-life. Ground links are maintained through despun S-band and UHF antennas. The actual mission life is 3 yr due to the limitations of the on-board hydrazine fuel supply for station-keeping. Noncritical performance anomalies have been exhibited in the telemetry gating circuitry, S-band transmitters, and the PCM telemetry data control circuitry. Back-up systems have compensated for the failures experienced thus far.

  6. The Hawaii Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (HIFI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Jonathan; Cecil, Gerald; Tully, Brent

    1990-01-01

    At Mauna Kea Observatory, researchers conducted optical, imaging spectrophotometric studies of selected active galaxies using both the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6m and University of Hawaii 2.2m telecopes (Tully, Bland and Cecil 1988). To maximize spatial resolution, researchers select galaxies independent of luminosity but known to possess interesting morphologies or high-velocity, extranuclear ionized gas (Walker 1968; Rubin and Ford 1968). They study both the large-scale patterns produced in IR-luminous, starburst systems (e.g., M82, NGC 253, NGC 6240) and those with compact, but spatially extended, circumnuclear, narrow line regions (e.g., M51, NGC 1068, NGC 4151). Current studies are restricted to the optical (SII), (NII) and (OIII) lines and the brightest Balmer recombination lines. These lines are, in principle, sufficient to constrain the dynamical structure and dominant excitation mechanism of the ionized component.

  7. A spiral-like disk of ionized gas in IC 1459: Signature of a merging collision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Norgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Jorgensen, H. E.; Hansen, L.; Dejong, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report the discovery of a large (15 kpc diameter) H alpha + (NII) emission-line disk in the elliptical galaxy IC 1459, showing weak spiral structure. The line flux peaks strongly at the nucleus and is more concentrated than the stellar continuum. The major axis of the disk of ionized gas coincides with that of the stellar body of the galaxy. The mass of the ionized gas is estimated to be approx. 1 times 10 (exp 5) solar mass, less than 1 percent of the total mass of gas present in IC 1459. The total gas mass of 4 times 10(exp 7) solar mass has been estimated from the dust mass derived from a broad-band color index image and the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data. The authors speculate that the presence of dust and gas in IC 1459 is a signature of a merger event.

  8. The discovery of optical emission from the SNR G 126.2 + 1.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, W. P.; Kirshner, R. P.; Gull, T. R.; Sawyer, D. L.; Parker, R. A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Interference filter photographs were used to identify an arc of nebulosity that is coincident with the radio contours of the galactic supernova remnant G 126.2 + 1.6. Spectrophotometry of the filament shows that the emission line spectrum matches the spectra of other galactic supernova remnants. In particular, the arc shows the usual strong SII, and NII emission lines seen in other remnants and unusually strong OII emission as seen in a few remnants. The spectrum can be adequately matched by a shock of velocity near 100 km/s in an interstellar cloud of density 3. If the SNR is at a distance of 4.5 kpc as indicated by the radio signal-D relation, then the observed pressure in the filament requires an initial energy near 4 x 10 to the 51st power (d/4.5 kpc) to the 3rd power ergs.

  9. Identifying strengths and weaknesses in the utilization of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in a nursing program.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Paula L; Botwinski, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is used in nursing to assess students' transfer of classroom and laboratory learning experiences into simulated clinical practice. OSCE is a performance-based exam in which students are observed demonstrating a multitude of clinical behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify strengths and weaknesses in the utilization of OSCE in this nursing program with 60 full-time students ages 21 to 23. An evaluation methodology was used for this study. Interviews were conducted with two groups: faculty facilitators of OSCE and standardized patients (SPs). Areas of focus were: data collection of students' performance, SP selection and training, and modification of the Nursing Interview Interaction Scale (NIIS). It was found that with appropriate SP selection and training, utilization of appropriate tools, and good data collection, OSCE can offer a valid and reliable means of testing nursing students' clinical competencies. PMID:22416539

  10. Role of Communications Satellites in the National and Global Information Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Early in 1995, the Satellite Industry Task Force (SITF) was initiated by executives of the satellite industry to define the role for communication satellites in the National and Global Information Infrastructure (NII/GII). Satellites are essential to this information network because they offer ubiquitous coverage and less time to market. SITF, which was chaired by Dr. Thomas Brackey of the Hughes Space and Communication Division, grew out of a series of workshops held during the summer of 1994 by the communication industry, NASA, and the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA). Experts were convened from 20 companies representing satellite and terrestrial network builders, operators, and users. For 8 months they worked to identify challenges for the satellite industry to play a pivotal role in the National and Global Information Infrastructure. NASA Lewis Research Center personnel helped out with technical and policy matters.

  11. A Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nanyao Y.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Appleton, P. N.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz Santos, T.; Evans, A. S.; Howell, J.; Issak, K.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Lord, S. D.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Petric, A.; Sanders, D. B.; Schulz, B.; Surace, J. A.; Van der Werf, P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe an on-going Herschel 194-671 micron spectroscopic survey of a flux-limited sample of 125 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), targeting primarily at the spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the CO rotational line emission (from J=4-3 up to J=13-12) from warm and dense molecular gas, the [NII] 205 micron line from ionized gas, and the [CI] 370 and 609 micron lines arising mainly from less dense and colder molecular gas where the CO (J=1-0) line is also strong. We present observational results for the first set of 65 sample galaxies that are more or less point sources with respect to the Herschel beams, and show statistical correlations among the shape of the CO SLED, CO line luminosities, IR dust luminosity, and whether a target is known to harbor AGN or not.

  12. Microvariability of line profiles in the spectra of OB stars: III. The supergiant ρ LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholtygin, A. F.; Fabrika, S. N.; Burlakova, T. E.; Valyavin, G. G.; Chuntonov, G. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Kang, D.; Yushkin, M. V.; Galazutdinov, G. A.

    2007-11-01

    We observed the bright supergiant ρ Leo (B1 lab) in January-February 2004 using the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Russia) and the 1.8-m telescope of the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (South Korea). 47 spectra with high time resolution (4-10 min), signal-to-noise ratios 300-1000, and spectral resolutions 45 000-60 000 were obtained. We detected variability in the HeI, SiII, SiIII, and NII line profiles, which may be due to rotational modulation of the profiles and photospheric pulsations of ρ Leo. The possible influence of the stellar magnetic field on the line-profile variations is discussed.

  13. Synthesis and structural characterization of two half-sandwich nickel(II) complexes with the scorpionate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.-F.; Zhang, X.; Sun, S.-W.; Sun, H.; Ma, H.-X.

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of two new halfsandwich mononuclear nickel(II) complexes with the scorpionate ligands, [ k 3- N, N', N''- Tp t-Bu, Me NiI] ( 1) and [ k 3- N, N', N''- Tp t-Bu, Me NiNO3] ( 2), are reported. These complexes have been fully characterized by elemental analyses and infrared spectra. Their molecular structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The nickel(II) ion of complex 1 is in a four-coordinate environment, in which the donor atoms are provided by three nitrogen atoms of a hydrotris(pyrazolyl) borate ligand and one iodide atom, while that of complex 2 is in a five-coordinate environment with three nitrogen atoms from a hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate ligand and two oxygen atoms from a nitrate ion.

  14. Dust and ionized gas in active radio elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, D. A.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present broad and narrow bandwidth imaging of three southern elliptical galaxies which have flat-spectrum active radio cores (NGC 1052, IC 1459 and NGC 6958). All three contain dust and extended low excitation optical line emission, particularly extensive in the case of NGC 1052 which has a large H alpha + (NII) luminosity. Both NGC 1052 and IC 1459 have a spiral morphology in emission-line images. All three display independent strong evidence that a merger or infall event has recently occurred, i.e., extensive and infalling HI gas in NGC 1052, a counter-rotating core in IC 1459 and Malin-Carter shells in NGC 6958. This infall event is the most likely origin for the emission-line gas and dust, and the authors are currently investigating possible excitation mechanisms (Sparks et al. 1990).

  15. AGNs with composite spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, P.; Goncalves, A. C.; Veron-Cetty, M.-P.

    1997-03-01

    The use of the Baldwin et al. (1981PASP...93....5B) or Veilleux & Osterbrock (1987ApJS...63..295V) diagnostic diagrams allows the unambiguous classification of the nuclear emission line regions of most galaxies into one of three categories: nuclear HII regions or starbursts, Seyfert 2 galaxies and Liners. However, a small fraction of them have a "transition" spectrum. We present spectral observations of 15 "transition" objects at high-dispersion (66Å/mm) around the Hα, [NII]λλ6548,6584 and/or Hβ, [OIII]λλ4959,5007 emission lines. We show that most of these spectra are composite, due to the simultaneous presence on the slit of a Seyfert nucleus and a HII region. Seyfert 2s and Liners seem to occupy relatively small and distinct volumes in the three-dimensional space λ5007/Hβ, λ6584/Hα, λ6300/Hα.

  16. PdBI high-resolution high-sensitivity imaging of a strongly lensed submillimeter source at z=5.24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, F.; Combes, F.; Krips, M.; Richard, J.; Rawle, T.; Egami, E.; Kneib, J.-P.; Schaerer, D.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Pello, R.; Clément, B.

    2014-12-01

    We have obtained Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations of HLSJ091828.6+514223 (z=5.24) at six different frequencies to cover the CO(6-5), CO(7-6), CI, H_20_{p}(2,0,2-1,1,1), [NII] and [CII] lines. The high resolution and high sensitivity of these multi-configuration observations allow us to detect the various line velocity components as well as the continuum and to resolve spatially their emission. This wealth of information is used to tackle the problem of lens and source modeling. A methodology is implemented to produce image plane maps, optimize the lens model, and finally inverse the PdBI data in the source plane. The image plane and source plane maps are constructed by fitting directly the pixels to the PdBI visibilities with the non-negative least square method. The preliminary results thus obtained are presented.

  17. Are E-test and Vitek2 good choices for tigecycline susceptibility testing when comparing broth microdilution for MDR and XDR Acinetobacter baumannii?

    PubMed

    Grandesso, Stefano; Sapino, Barbara; Amici, Gianpaolo; Mazzucato, Sandra; Solinas, Maria; Gion, Massimo

    2014-10-01

    This study reports the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 10 MDR and 74 XDR Acinetobacter bauman- nii clinical isolates from our hospital routine. We used three different methods: two automated systems (Sensititre and VITEK 2) and one standardized manual method (E-test). Since many published papers refer to in vitro tests performed by E-test, the aim of this study was to test if this method is reliable for testing tigecycline. The results obtained show that E-test significantly overestimates the MIC of the broth microdilution (reference test), thus ob- taining a significant number of major errors (resistant instead of sensitive). VITEK 2 also shows the same problem, but it is less critical. We therefore conclude that these methods do not seem to be very reliable in the performance of susceptibility testing of MDR and XDR Acinetobacter baumannii against tigecycline. PMID:25387287

  18. Morphological and spectral study of the galaxies Kaz 69 and Kaz 460

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Karapetian, E. L.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.

    2007-10-01

    Morphological and spectral studies of the galaxies Kaz 69 and Kaz 460 are reported. The observations were made on the 2.6-m telescope at the Byurakan Observatory using the VAGR multiaperture spectrograph. Isophotes of monochromatic images of the Hα, [NII] λ6584, and [SII] λ6717 lines are constructed. Densifications I and II are found to rotate with north-south oriented axes of rotation. The two densifications (“knots”) have all the kinematic and spectral properties of individual galaxies. It is assumed that Kaz 139 and the densifications I and II were ejected from the nucleus of Kaz 460 at different times, with Kaz 139 probably having been ejected first, although they may all have been ejected simultaneously with different velocities. Along with Kaz 460, these objects form a physical group of galaxies and, at the same time, are a consequence of the activity of the nucleus of Kaz 460.

  19. Spectroscopic pilot study in the near infrared of a sample of star-forming galaxies at z = 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Cardiel, N.; Barro, G.

    2011-11-01

    In this work we present the results of the spectroscopic analysis inthe near-infrared K band of a sample of 12 active star forminggalaxies at z ˜ 2. The sample was selected by using photometricredshifts, blue colors and large fluxes in the 24 μ m band ofMIPS/Spitzer. To analyze their physical properties we have computedtheir sizes, colors, stellar masses, extinctions and other parametersavailable in literature and in the "Rainbow" database. We computeHα luminosities and star formation rates for all galaxies atthat redshift. We were able to estimate metallicities from [NII]6584for a sub sample of the objects. In particular the dependence of the metallicitywith the stellar mass has been studied and compared with the results of other samples ofgalaxies at several redshifts. For a fixed mass, the metallicities ofour galaxies are compatible than those similar at the corresponding redshift, following the general trend of lower metallicities for higher redshifts.

  20. A role for jasmonates in the release of dormancy by cold stratification in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Truong, Thy T; Barrero, Jose M; Jacobsen, John V; Hocart, Charles H; Gubler, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Hydration at low temperatures, commonly referred to as cold stratification, is widely used for releasing dormancy and triggering germination in a wide range of species including wheat. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies its effect on germination has largely remained unknown. Our previous studies showed that methyl-jasmonate, a derivative of jasmonic acid (JA), promotes dormancy release in wheat. In this study, we found that cold-stimulated germination of dormant grains correlated with a transient increase in JA content and expression of JA biosynthesis genes in the dormant embryos after transfer to 20 (o)C. The induction of JA production was dependent on the extent of cold imbibition and precedes germination. Blocking JA biosynthesis with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) inhibited the cold-stimulated germination in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we have explored the relationship between JA and abscisic acid (ABA), a well-known dormancy promoter, in cold regulation of dormancy. We found an inverse relationship between JA and ABA content in dormant wheat embryos following stratification. ABA content decreased rapidly in response to stratification, and the decrease was reversed by addition of ASA. Our results indicate that the action of JA on cold-stratified grains is mediated by suppression of two key ABA biosynthesis genes, TaNCED1 and TaNCED2. PMID:27140440

  1. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (P<0.01); however, the gene expression of β-glucosidase was downregulated to a half level. In general, the aroma quality of the MeJA-treated black tea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  2. Disruption of OPR7 and OPR8 Reveals the Versatile Functions of Jasmonic Acid in Maize Development and Defense[W

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yuanxin; Christensen, Shawn; Isakeit, Tom; Engelberth, Jürgen; Meeley, Robert; Hayward, Allison; Emery, R.J. Neil; Kolomiets, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    Here, multiple functions of jasmonic acid (JA) in maize (Zea mays) are revealed by comprehensive analyses of JA-deficient mutants of the two oxo-phytodienoate reductase genes, OPR7 and OPR8. Single mutants produce wild-type levels of JA in most tissues, but the double mutant opr7 opr8 has dramatically reduced JA in all organs tested. opr7 opr8 displayed strong developmental defects, including formation of a feminized tassel, initiation of female reproductive buds at each node, and extreme elongation of ear shanks; these defects were rescued by exogenous JA. These data provide evidence that JA is required for male sex determination and suppression of female reproductive organ biogenesis. Moreover, opr7 opr8 exhibited delayed leaf senescence accompanied by reduced ethylene and abscisic acid levels and lack of anthocyanin pigmentation of brace roots. Remarkably, opr7 opr8 is nonviable in nonsterile soil and under field conditions due to extreme susceptibility to a root-rotting oomycete (Pythium spp), demonstrating that these genes are necessary for maize survival in nature. Supporting the importance of JA in insect defense, opr7 opr8 is susceptible to beet armyworm. Overall, this study provides strong genetic evidence for the global roles of JA in maize development and immunity to pathogens and insects. PMID:22523204

  3. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 1168 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 1168 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE..., App. B Appendix B to Part 1168—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC01JA91.013 EC01JA91.014...

  4. Plants on constant alert: elevated levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonate-induced transcripts in caterpillar resistant maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense responses against insect herbivores frequently depend on the biosynthesis and action of jasmonic acid (JA) and its conjugates. To better understand JA signaling pathways in maize (Zea mays L.), we have examined two maize genotypes, Mp708 and Tx601. Mp708 is resistant to feeding by le...

  5. Modelling the coevolution of joint attention and language

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Joint attention (JA) is important to many social, communicative activities, including language, and humans exhibit a considerably high level of JA compared with non-human primates. We propose a coevolutionary hypothesis to explain this degree-difference in JA: once JA started to aid linguistic comprehension, along with language evolution, communicative success (CS) during cultural transmission could enhance the levels of JA among language users. We illustrate this hypothesis via a multi-agent computational model, where JA boils down to a genetically transmitted ability to obtain non-linguistic cues aiding comprehension. The simulation results and statistical analysis show that: (i) the level of JA is correlated with the understandability of the emergent language; and (ii) CS can boost an initially low level of JA and ‘ratchet’ it up to a stable high level. This coevolutionary perspective helps explain the degree-difference in many language-related competences between humans and non-human primates, and reflects the importance of biological evolution, individual learning and cultural transmission to language evolution. PMID:22977146

  6. 75 FR 54346 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... eight (8) publications cited below. Applications Immunization to treat infectious diseases. Possible..., Ahlers JD, Kelsall BL, Earl P, Moss B, Strober W, Berzofsky JA. Mucosal immunization with HIV-1 peptide... JA. A novel functional CTL avidity/activity compartmentalization to the site of mucosal...

  7. Carcinoid Tumor: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... T., Norton, JA In: DeVita, VT Jr., Hellman, S, Rosenberg S eds. Cancer; Principles Practice of Oncology, 5th ed. ... T., Norton, JA In: DeVita, VT Jr., Hellman, S, Rosenberg S eds. Cancer; Principles Practice of Oncology, 5th ed. ...

  8. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract.

    PubMed

    Schmiesing, André; Emonet, Aurélia; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Reymond, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. PMID:26884488

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Preschool-Based Joint Attention Intervention for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaale, Anett; Smith, Lars; Sponheim, Eili

    2012-01-01

    Background: Deficits in joint attention (JA) and joint engagement (JE) represent a core problem in young children with autism as these affect language and social development. Studies of parent-mediated and specialist-mediated JA-intervention suggest that such intervention may be effective. However, there is little knowledge about the success of…

  10. Integrative Pre-Service Elementary Teacher Training: The Role of Interdisciplinary Collaborative Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiatula, Victoria Oliaku

    2015-01-01

    This primer summarizes interdisciplinary collaborative mathematics as an integrative approach to train pre-service elementary teachers to teach math utilizing Junior Achievement USA (JA) educational programs within an elementary Math Methods course. The primer provides a JA historical background/program overview, summarizes the interdisciplinary…

  11. Root and shoot gas exchange respond additively to moderate ozone and methyl jasmonate without induction of ethylene: ethylene is induced at higher O3 concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Grantz, D.A.; Vu, H.-B.

    2012-01-01

    The available literature is conflicting on the potential protection of plants against ozone (O3) injury by exogenous jasmonates, including methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Protective antagonistic interactions of O3 and MeJA have been observed in some systems and purely additive effects in others. Here it is shown that chronic exposure to low to moderate O3 concentrations (4–114 ppb; 12 h mean) and to MeJA induced additive reductions in carbon assimilation (A n) and root respiration (R r), and in calculated whole plant carbon balance. Neither this chronic O3 regime nor MeJA induced emission of ethylene (ET) from the youngest fully expanded leaves. ET emission was induced by acute 3 h pulse exposure to much higher O3 concentrations (685 ppb). ET emission was further enhanced in plants treated with MeJA. Responses of growth, allocation, photosynthesis, and respiration to moderate O3 concentrations and to MeJA appear to be independent and additive, and not associated with emission of ET. These results suggest that responses of Pima cotton to environmentally relevant O3 are not mediated by signalling pathways associated with ET and MeJA, though these pathways are inducible in this species and exhibit a synergistic O3×MeJA interaction at very high O3 concentrations. PMID:22563119

  12. Education System of John Amos Comenius and Its Implications in Modern Didactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko; Munjiza, Emerik

    2014-01-01

    The authors were particularly interested in scientific conceptions shaped and systematized in subject-teaching school system proposed by J.A. Comenius, which are still actively applied in day-to-day school practice. Within the analysed ideas of J.A. Comenius the goal and the task of this paper is to present to the pedagogic public the originality…

  13. The Licensing of Negative Sensitive Items in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsarayreh, Atef

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the licensing conditions on Negative Sensitive Items (NSIs) in Jordanian Arabic (JA). JA exhibits both types of NSIs that are discussed in the literature: Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) and Negative Concord Items (NCIs). Although these two sets of items seem to form a natural class in the sense that they show certain…

  14. Modelling the coevolution of joint attention and language.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2012-11-22

    Joint attention (JA) is important to many social, communicative activities, including language, and humans exhibit a considerably high level of JA compared with non-human primates. We propose a coevolutionary hypothesis to explain this degree-difference in JA: once JA started to aid linguistic comprehension, along with language evolution, communicative success (CS) during cultural transmission could enhance the levels of JA among language users. We illustrate this hypothesis via a multi-agent computational model, where JA boils down to a genetically transmitted ability to obtain non-linguistic cues aiding comprehension. The simulation results and statistical analysis show that: (i) the level of JA is correlated with the understandability of the emergent language; and (ii) CS can boost an initially low level of JA and 'ratchet' it up to a stable high level. This coevolutionary perspective helps explain the degree-difference in many language-related competences between humans and non-human primates, and reflects the importance of biological evolution, individual learning and cultural transmission to language evolution. PMID:22977146

  15. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  16. Fatty Acids Profile, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Elicited Callus ofThevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Pérez, Jack; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ludwi; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Luján-Hidalgo, María Celina; Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; González-Mendoza, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was analyze the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) as elicitors on fatty acids profile (FAP), phenolic compounds (PC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) in callus of Thevetia peruviana. Schenk & Hildebrandt (SH) medium, supplemented with 2 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2, 4-D) and 0.5 mg/L kinetin (KIN) was used for callus induction. The effect of JA (50, 75 and 100 μM) and ABA (10, 55 and 100 μM) on FAP, PC and AC were analyzed using a response surface design. A maximum of 2.8 mg/g of TPC was obtained with 100 plus 10 µM JA and ABA, respectively, whereas AC maximum (2.17 μg/mL) was obtained with 75 plus 100 µM JA and ABA, respectively. The FAP was affected for JA but not for ABA. JA increased cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid and decreased dodecanoic acid. Eight fatty acids were identified by GC-MS analysis and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (18:1) was the principal fatty acid reaching 76 % in treatment with 50 μM JA plus 55 μM ABA. In conclusion, JA may be used in T. peruviana callus culture for obtain oil with different fatty acids profile. PMID:26972464

  17. Protein profiling and tps23 induction in different maize lines in response to methyl jasmonate treatment and Diabrotica virgifera infestation.

    PubMed

    Capra, Emanuele; Colombi, Cinzia; De Poli, Pamela; Nocito, Fabio Francesco; Cocucci, Maurizio; Vecchietti, Alberto; Marocco, Adriano; Stile, Maria Rosaria; Rossini, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Plant responses to herbivore insects involve direct and indirect defense with the production of signal molecules including jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives (e.g. methyl jasmonate, MeJA). In maize (Zea mays), root feeding by Diabrotica virgifera larvae activates an indirect defense mechanism, through enthomopathogenic nematodes that are recruited after Terpene Synthase 23 (tps23) upregulation and (E)-β-caryophyllene root emission. In order to gain insight into the correlation between JA signaling and response to Diabrotica attack, we analyzed tps23 expression and protein profiles in maize roots in response to MeJA treatment and insect infestation. Similar to herbivore feeding, MeJA treatment was found to increase tps23 transcript accumulation, with consistent variations for both treatments in maize lines differing in (E)-β-caryophyllene production. Analysis of root protein profiles showed specific alterations leading to the identification of three proteins that were induced by MeJA treatment. We focused on a peroxidase-like protein (Px-like) showing that the corresponding transcripts accumulated in all tested lines. Results show that exogenous application of MeJA upregulates tps23 expression and specifically alters protein patterns in maize roots. Parallel effects on tps23 transcript accumulation were observed upon hormone exposure and insect infestation in different maize lines. In contrast, Px-like transcript profiling showed differences between treatments. These results support the possible involvement of MeJA in mediating the upregulation of tps23 in response to Diabrotica attack. PMID:25506768

  18. External sources in field-antifield formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Bering, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    We introduce external sources JA directly into the quantum master action W of the field-antifield formalism instead of the effective action. The external sources JA lead to a set of BRST-invariant functions WA that are in antisymplectic involution. As a byproduct, we encounter quasi-groups with open gauge algebras.

  19. Critical Role of COI1-Dependent Jasmonate Pathway in AAL toxin induced PCD in Tomato Revealed by Comparative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Koh, Jin; Liu, Lihong; Shao, Zhiyong; Liu, Haoran; Hu, Songshen; Zhu, Ning; Dufresne, Craig P; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata f.sp. Lycopersici (AAL) toxin induces programmed cell death (PCD) in susceptible tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. Jasmonate (JA) promotes AAL toxin induced PCD in a COI1 (coronatine insensitive 1, JA receptor)-dependent manner by enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this process, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis using tomato jasmonic acid insensitive1 ( jai1), the receptor mutant of JA, and its wild type (WT) after AAL toxin treatment with or without JA treatment. A total of 10367 proteins were identified in tomato leaves using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) quantitative proteomics approach. 2670 proteins were determined to be differentially expressed in response to AAL toxin and JA. Comparison between AAL toxin treated jai1 and its WT revealed the COI1-dependent JA pathway regulated proteins, including pathways related to redox response, ceramide synthesis, JA, ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Autophagy, PCD and DNA damage related proteins were also identified. Our data suggest that COI1-dependent JA pathway enhances AAL toxin induced PCD through regulating the redox status of the leaves, other phytohormone pathways and/or important PCD components. PMID:27324416

  20. Juvenile Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  1. Discovery of a novel aquaporin ZmPIP2-8 from southern corn rootworm infested maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common paradigm of infestation by chewing insects is a jasmonic acid (JA) cascade that results in the induction of JA responsive genes. However examination of several maize genes induced by Southern corn rootworm (SCR) infestation, an insect that chews into and significantly damages maize roots, ...

  2. The regulation of methyl jasmonate on hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum partly via ROS generated by NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Gong, Li; Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Ang; Gao, Tan; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the best known medicinal basidiomycetes because it produces many pharmacologically active compounds, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was previously reported to induce the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) in G. lucidum. In this study, we found that MeJA not only increased the amount of GA but also increased the distance between hyphal branches by approximately 1.2-fold. Further analysis showed that MeJA could increase the intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) content by approximately 2.2-2.7-fold. Furthermore, the hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis regulated by MeJA treatment could be abolished by ROS scavengers to a level similar to or lower than that of the control group. These results indicated that the regulation of hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis by MeJA might occur via a ROS signaling pathway. Further analysis revealed that NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays an important role in MeJA-regulated ROS generation. Importantly, our results highlight that NOX functions in signaling cross-talk between ROS and MeJA. In addition, these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify potential pathways linking ROS networks to MeJA signaling in fungi and suggest that plants and fungi share a conserved signaling-crosstalk mechanism. PMID:25512263

  3. Jasmonate-mediated induced volatiles in the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon: from gene expression to organismal interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonates, i.e., jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are signaling hormones that regulate a large number of defense responses in plants which in turn affect the plants’ interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies. Here, we investigated the effect of jasmonates on the emissio...

  4. Large-scale expression profiling and physiological characterization of jasmonic acid mediated adaptation of barley to salinity stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered moderately salt-tolerant compared to other cereals. Recent transcriptome studies on salinity stress response in barley indicated regulation of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and JA-responsive genes by salt stress. From that observation it was hypothesized t...

  5. Root response of Jerusalem artichoke genotypes to different water regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine effects of drought on selected root growth parameters and develop relationships between root parameters and tuber yield for selected Jerusalem artichoke (JA) genotypes. Three water regimes (Field capacity, 50% available water (AW) and 25% AW) and five JA...

  6. Critical Role of COI1-Dependent Jasmonate Pathway in AAL toxin induced PCD in Tomato Revealed by Comparative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Koh, Jin; Liu, Lihong; Shao, Zhiyong; Liu, Haoran; Hu, Songshen; Zhu, Ning; Dufresne, Craig P.; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata f.sp. Lycopersici (AAL) toxin induces programmed cell death (PCD) in susceptible tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. Jasmonate (JA) promotes AAL toxin induced PCD in a COI1 (coronatine insensitive 1, JA receptor)-dependent manner by enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this process, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis using tomato jasmonic acid insensitive1 ( jai1), the receptor mutant of JA, and its wild type (WT) after AAL toxin treatment with or without JA treatment. A total of 10367 proteins were identified in tomato leaves using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) quantitative proteomics approach. 2670 proteins were determined to be differentially expressed in response to AAL toxin and JA. Comparison between AAL toxin treated jai1 and its WT revealed the COI1-dependent JA pathway regulated proteins, including pathways related to redox response, ceramide synthesis, JA, ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Autophagy, PCD and DNA damage related proteins were also identified. Our data suggest that COI1-dependent JA pathway enhances AAL toxin induced PCD through regulating the redox status of the leaves, other phytohormone pathways and/or important PCD components. PMID:27324416

  7. Precursors to Social and Communication Difficulties in Infants At-Risk for Autism: Gaze Following and Attentional Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedford, Rachael; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Gliga, Teodora; Pickles, Andrew; Senju, Atsushi; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Whilst joint attention (JA) impairments in autism have been widely studied, little is known about the early development of gaze following, a precursor to establishing JA. We employed eye-tracking to record gaze following longitudinally in infants with and without a family history of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at 7 and 13 months. No group…

  8. A role for jasmonates in the release of dormancy by cold stratification in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Truong, Thy T.; Barrero, Jose M.; Jacobsen, John V.; Hocart, Charles H.; Gubler, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Hydration at low temperatures, commonly referred to as cold stratification, is widely used for releasing dormancy and triggering germination in a wide range of species including wheat. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies its effect on germination has largely remained unknown. Our previous studies showed that methyl-jasmonate, a derivative of jasmonic acid (JA), promotes dormancy release in wheat. In this study, we found that cold-stimulated germination of dormant grains correlated with a transient increase in JA content and expression of JA biosynthesis genes in the dormant embryos after transfer to 20 oC. The induction of JA production was dependent on the extent of cold imbibition and precedes germination. Blocking JA biosynthesis with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) inhibited the cold-stimulated germination in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we have explored the relationship between JA and abscisic acid (ABA), a well-known dormancy promoter, in cold regulation of dormancy. We found an inverse relationship between JA and ABA content in dormant wheat embryos following stratification. ABA content decreased rapidly in response to stratification, and the decrease was reversed by addition of ASA. Our results indicate that the action of JA on cold-stratified grains is mediated by suppression of two key ABA biosynthesis genes, TaNCED1 and TaNCED2. PMID:27140440

  9. The effects of dormancy status on the endogenous contents and biological activities of jasmonic acid, n-(jasmonoyl)-isoleucine, and tuberonic acid in potato tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of storage and dormancy progression on the endogenous contents and the growth-regulating activities of jasmonic acid (JA), jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), and tuberonic acid (TA) were determined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank) minitubers and seed tubers over several ha...

  10. Tense Use and Move Analysis in Journal Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shih-ping; Tu, Pin-ning

    2014-01-01

    There has long been a growing interest in journal article (JA) abstract writing, and this pervading interest has boosted the exigency for further research. This current study therefore aims to investigate both the various applications of verb tense and the rhetorical structure within JA abstracts. A corpus of 1,000 JAs was collected from four…

  11. Influx of extracellular Ca2+ involved in jasmonic-acid-induced elevation of [Ca2+]cyt and JR1 expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-Peng; Guo, Yi; Sun, Ying; Sun, Da-Ye; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2006-07-01

    The changes in cytosolic Ca2+ levels play important roles in the signal transduction pathways of many environmental and developmental stimuli in plants and animals. We demonstrated that the increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cells was induced by exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA). The elevation of [Ca2+]cyt was detected within 1 min after JA treatment by the fluorescence intensity using laser scanning confocal microscopy, and the elevated level of fluorescence was maintained during measuring time. With pretreatment of nifedipine (Nif), a nonpermeable L-type channel blocker, the fluorescence of [Ca2+]cyt induced by JA was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, verapamil, another L-type channel blocker, had no significant effect. Furthermore, Nif repressed JA-induced gene expression of JR1 but verapamil did not. JA-induced gene expression could be mimicked by higher concentration of extracellular Ca2+. W-7 [N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide], an antagonist of calmodulin (CaM), blocked the JA induction of JR1 expression while W-5 [N-(6-aminohexyl)-1-naphthalenesulfonamide], its inactive antagonist, had no apparent effect. These data provide the evidence that the influx of extracellular Ca2+ through Nif sensitive plasma membrane Ca2+ channel may be responsible for JA-induced elevation of [Ca2+]cyt and downstream gene expression, CaM may be also involved in JA signaling pathway. PMID:16708291

  12. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... alter the DNA in cells. The strongest risk factors for developing this form of cancer are tobacco use (including smoking or using ... SA, Weinstein JN, Treviño L, Drummond JA, Muzny DM, Wu Y, Wood LD, Hruban RH, Westra WH, Koch WM, Califano JA, Gibbs RA, ...

  13. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schmiesing, André; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. PMID:26884488

  14. Fundamental studies and development of nickel-catalyzed trifluoromethylthiolation of aryl chlorides: active catalytic species and key roles of ligand and traceless MeCN additive revealed.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guoyin; Kalvet, Indrek; Englert, Ulli; Schoenebeck, Franziska

    2015-04-01

    A catalytic protocol to convert aryl and heteroaryl chlorides to the corresponding trifluoromethyl sulfides is reported herein. It relies on a relatively inexpensive Ni(cod)2/dppf (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene; dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene) catalyst system and the readily accessible coupling reagent (Me4N)SCF3. Our computational and experimental mechanistic data are consistent with a Ni(0)/Ni(II) cycle and inconsistent with Ni(I) as the reactive species. The relevant intermediates were prepared, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and tested for their catalytic competence. This revealed that a monomeric tricoordinate Ni(I) complex is favored for dppf and Cl whose role was unambiguously assigned as being an off-cycle catalyst deactivation product. Only bidentate ligands with wide bite angles (e.g., dppf) are effective. These bulky ligands render the catalyst resting state as [(P-P)Ni(cod)]. The latter is more reactive than Ni(P-P)2, which was found to be the resting state for ligands with smaller bite angles and suffers from an initial high-energy dissociation of one ligand prior to oxidative addition, rendering the system unreactive. The key to effective catalysis is hence the presence of a labile auxiliary ligand in the catalyst resting state. For more challenging substrates, high conversions were achieved via the employment of MeCN as a traceless additive. Mechanistic data suggest that its beneficial role lies in decreasing the energetic span, therefore accelerating product formation. Finally, the methodology has been applied to synthetic targets of pharmaceutical relevance. PMID:25790253

  15. The Conditions Underpinning Extreme Star Formation in ULIRGs and LIRGs as Revealed by Herschel Far-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, Gabriel A.; Ashby, Matthew; Smith, Howard Alan; McTier, Moiya; Melendez, Marcio

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic survey of molecular and atomic line fluxes in all star-forming galaxies observed by the Herschel PACs instrument with detectable OH lines that also contain Herschel SPIRE FTS spectra, to determine how physical conditions vary as a function of star formation rate. Specifically, we measured selected CO, H2O, [CI], and [NII] integrated line fluxes in a sample of 145 star-forming galaxies covering a range of far-infrared luminosities ranging from 109 to above 1012 LSun . Thus, our sample includes typical, quiescent galaxies as well as Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) and Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs), known to be creating stars extremely rapidly. We find evidence suggesting that ULIRGs with far-infrared luminosities of LFIR> 1012 LSun require an additional heating mechanism other than UV heating from star formation, while LIRGs and less luminous star-forming galaxies may be heated primarily by their star formation. We also find that the [NII] 3P1 - 3P0 fine structure line flux and those of the CO J=5-4, CO J=7-6, and CO J=8-7 transitions are generally weaker for ULIRGs compared to LIRGs and less luminous star-forming galaxies, while we find the CO J=11-10, CO J=12-11, and CO J=13-12 transitions are generally stronger. In all these respects, ULIRGs are shown to differ significantly from other galaxies undergoing less extreme star formation. This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  16. Ultrafast Excited State Relaxation of a Metalloporphyrin Revealed by Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shelby, Megan L; Lestrange, Patrick J; Jackson, Nicholas E; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Mara, Michael W; Stickrath, Andrew B; Zhu, Diling; Lemke, Henrik T; Chollet, Matthieu; Hoffman, Brian M; Li, Xiaosong; Chen, Lin X

    2016-07-20

    Photoexcited Nickel(II) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP), like many open-shell metalloporphyrins, relaxes rapidly through multiple electronic states following an initial porphyrin-based excitation, some involving metal centered electronic configuration changes that could be harnessed catalytically before excited state relaxation. While a NiTMP excited state present at 100 ps was previously identified by X-ray transient absorption (XTA) spectroscopy at a synchrotron source as a relaxed (d,d) state, the lowest energy excited state (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 9616 and Chem. Sci., 2010, 1, 642), structural dynamics before thermalization were not resolved due to the ∼100 ps duration of the available X-ray probe pulse. Using the femtosecond (fs) X-ray pulses of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the Ni center electronic configuration from the initial excited state to the relaxed (d,d) state has been obtained via ultrafast Ni K-edge XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) on a time scale from hundreds of femtoseconds to 100 ps. This enabled the identification of a short-lived Ni(I) species aided by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. Computed electronic and nuclear structure for critical excited electronic states in the relaxation pathway characterize the dependence of the complex's geometry on the electron occupation of the 3d orbitals. Calculated XANES transitions for these excited states assign a short-lived transient signal to the spectroscopic signature of the Ni(I) species, resulting from intramolecular charge transfer on a time scale that has eluded previous synchrotron studies. These combined results enable us to examine the excited state structural dynamics of NiTMP prior to thermal relaxation and to capture intermediates of potential photocatalytic significance. PMID:27286410

  17. Identification of Hypoxia-Inducible Target Genes of Aspergillus fumigatus by Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Cellular Respiration as an Important Contributor to Hypoxic Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Kristin; Pähtz, Vera; Hillmann, Falk; Vaknin, Yakir; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Roth, Martin; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Osherov, Nir; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic, airborne pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. During the infection process, A. fumigatus is challenged by hypoxic microenvironments occurring in inflammatory, necrotic tissue. To gain further insights into the adaptation mechanism, A. fumigatus was cultivated in an oxygen-controlled chemostat under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Transcriptome analysis revealed a significant increase in transcripts associated with cell wall polysaccharide metabolism, amino acid and metal ion transport, nitrogen metabolism, and glycolysis. A concomitant reduction in transcript levels was observed with cellular trafficking and G-protein-coupled signaling. To learn more about the functional roles of hypoxia-induced transcripts, we deleted A. fumigatus genes putatively involved in reactive nitrogen species detoxification (fhpA), NAD+ regeneration (frdA and osmA), nitrogen metabolism (niaD and niiA), and respiration (rcfB). We show that the nitric oxygen (NO)-detoxifying flavohemoprotein gene fhpA is strongly induced by hypoxia independent of the nitrogen source but is dispensable for hypoxic survival. By deleting the nitrate reductase gene niaD, the nitrite reductase gene niiA, and the two fumarate reductase genes frdA and osmA, we found that alternative electron acceptors, such as nitrate and fumarate, do not have a significant impact on growth of A. fumigatus during hypoxia, but functional mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes are essential under these conditions. Inhibition studies indicated that primarily complexes III and IV play a crucial role in the hypoxic growth of A. fumigatus. PMID:25084861

  18. Light responses and morphology of bNOS-immunoreactive neurons in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Ji-Jie; Gao, Fan; Wu, Samuel M.

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by NO synthase (NOS), modulates the function of all retinal neurons and ocular blood vessels and participates in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases. To further understand the regulation of ocular NO release, we systematically studied the morphology, topography and light responses of NOS-containing amacrine cells (NOACs) in dark-adapted mouse retina. Immunohistological staining for neuronal NOS (bNOS), combined with retrograde labeling of ganglion cells (GCs) with Neurobiotin (NB, a gap junction permeable dye) and Lucifer yellow (LY, a less permeable dye), was used to identify NOACs. The light responses of ACs were recorded under whole-cell voltage clamp conditions and cell morphology was examined with a confocal microscope. We found that in dark-adapted conditions bNOS-immunoreactivity (IR) was present primarily in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. bNOS-IR somas were negative for LY, thus they were identified as ACs; nearly 6 % of the cells were labeled by NB but not by LY, indicating that they were dye-coupled with GCs. Three morphological subtypes of NOACs (NI, NII and displaced) were identified. The cell density, inter-cellular distance and the distribution of NOACs were studied in whole retinas. Light evoked depolarizing highly sensitive ON-OFF responses in NI cells and less sensitive OFF responses in NII cells. Frequent (1 to 2 Hz) or abrupt change of light-intensity evoked larger peak responses. The possibility for light to modify NO release from NOACs is discussed. PMID:20503422

  19. Spatially resolved study of the physical properties of the ionized gas in NGC 595

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relaño, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Vílchez, J. M.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2010-03-01

    We present Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) of NGC 595, one of the most luminous HII regions in M33. This type of observations allows us to study the variation of the principal emission-line ratios across the surface of the nebula. At each position of the field of view, we fit the main emission-line features of the spectrum within the spectral range of 3650-6990Å and create maps of the principal emission-line ratios for the total surface of the region. The extinction map derived from the Balmer decrement and the absorbed Hα luminosity show good spatial correlation with the 24μm emission from Spitzer. We also show here the capability of the IFS to study the existence of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, identifying the previously catalogued WR stars and detecting a new candidate towards the north of the region. The ionization structure of the region nicely follows the Hα shell morphology and is clearly related to the location of the central ionizing stars. The electron density distribution does not show strong variations within the HII region nor any trend with the Hα emission distribution. We study the behaviour within the HII region of several classical emission-line ratios proposed as metallicity calibrators: while [NII]/Hα and [NII]/[OIII] show important variations, the R23 index is substantially constant across the surface of the nebula, despite the strong variation of the ionization parameter as a function of the radial distance from the ionizing stars. These results show the reliability in using the R23 index to characterize the metallicity of HII regions even when only a fraction of the total area is covered by the observations.

  20. Perfis de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    As flutuações de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII, inicialmente propostas para explicar as discrepâncias entre os valores de temperatura obtidos por diferentes métodos, têm sido apontadas como a causa mais provável das enormes diferenças encontradas entre as abundâncias químicas medidas através de linhas excitadas colisionalmente e de linhas de recombinação. Recentemente têm sido reportadas tentativas de detecção e quantificação diretas das flutuações de temperatura eletrônica através de medidas ponto a ponto, obtidas por meio de espectroscopia de fenda longa, das razões de linhas [OIII]l4263/l5007 e [NII]l5755/l6584, principais sensores de temperatura. Neste trabalho, utilizamos o código numérico de fotoionização Cloudy para avaliar a confiabilidade desse procedimento. Concluímos que, para valores de densidade eletrônica e de temperatura efetiva da estrela ionizante típicos das regiões HII, os perfis superficiais de temperatura obtidos via medidas do sensor [OIII]l4263/l5007 são bons traçadores dos gradientes internos de temperatura eletrônica. Já os perfis de temperatura eletrônica medidos por meio da razão [NII]l5755/l6584 não reproduzem os gradientes verdadeiros de temperatura.

  1. Metabolic Engineering of the Morphology of Aspergillus oryzae by Altering Chitin Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christian; McIntyre, Mhairi; Hansen, Kim; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Morphology and α-amylase production during submerged cultivation were examined in a wild-type strain (A1560) and in strains of Aspergillus oryzae in which chitin synthase B (chsB) and chitin synthesis myosin A (csmA) have been disrupted (ChsB/G and CM101). In a flowthrough cell, the growth of submerged hyphal elements was studied online, making it possible to examine the growth kinetics of the three strains. The average tip extension rates of the CM101 and ChsB/G strains were 25 and 88% lower, respectively, than that of the wild type. The branching intensity in the CM101 strain was 25% lower than that in the wild type, whereas that in the ChsB/G strain was 188% higher. During batch cultivation, inseparable clumps were formed in the wild-type strain, while no or fewer large inseparable clumps existed in the cultivations of the ChsB/G and CM101 strains. The α-amylase productivity was not significantly different in the three strains. A strain in which the transcription of chsB could be controlled by the nitrogen source-regulated promoter niiA (NiiA1) was examined during chemostat cultivation, and it was found that the branching intensity could be regulated by regulating the promoter, signifying an important role for chsB in branching. However, the pattern of branching responded very slowly to the change in transcription, and increased branching did not affect α-amylase productivity. α-Amylase residing in the cell wall was stained by immunofluorescence, and the relationship between tip number and enzyme secretion is discussed. PMID:11916702

  2. Role of information systems in controlling costs: the electronic medical record (EMR) and the high-performance computing and communications (HPCC) efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1994-12-01

    On October 18, 1991, the IEEE-USA produced an entity statement which endorsed the vital importance of the High Performance Computer and Communications Act of 1991 (HPCC) and called for the rapid implementation of all its elements. Efforts are now underway to develop a Computer Based Patient Record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the HPCC, and the so-called `Patient Card'. Multiple legislative initiatives which address these and related information technology issues are pending in Congress. Clearly, a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public. Timely and reliable information represents a critical element in any initiative to reform the health care system as well as to protect and improve the health of every person. Appropriately used, information technologies offer a vital means of improving the quality of patient care, increasing access to universal care and lowering overall costs within a national health care program. Health care reform legislation should reflect increased budgetary support and a legal mandate for the creation of a national health care information system by: (1) constructing a National Information Infrastructure; (2) building a Computer Based Patient Record System; (3) bringing the collective resources of our National Laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; and (4) utilizing Government (e.g. DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues.

  3. Decommissioning at AWE

    SciTech Connect

    Biles, K.; Hedges, M.; Campbell, C

    2008-07-01

    AWE (A) has been at the heart of the UK Nuclear deterrent since it was established in the early 1950's. It is a nuclear licensed site and is governed by the United Kingdoms Nuclear Installation Inspectorate (NII). AWE plc on behalf of the Ministry of Defence (MOD) manages the AWE (A) site and all undertakings including decommissioning. Therefore under NII license condition 35 'Decommissioning', AWE plc is accountable to make and implement adequate arrangements for the decommissioning of any plant or process, which may affect safety. The majority of decommissioning projects currently being undertaken are to do with Hazard category 3, 4 or 5 facilities, systems or plant that have reached the end of their operational span and have undergone Post-Operational Clean-Out (POCO). They were either built for the production of fissile components, for supporting the early reactor fuels programmes or for processing facility waste arisings. They either contain redundant contaminated gloveboxes associated process areas, process plant or systems or a combination of all. In parallel with decommissioning project AWE (A) are undertaking investigation into new technologies to aid decommissioning projects; to remove the operative from hands on operations; to develop and implement modifications to existing process and techniques used. AWE (A) is currently going thorough a sustained phase of upgrading its facilities to enhance its scientific capability, with older facilities, systems and plant being replaced, making decommissioning a growth area. It is therefore important to the company to reduce these hazards progressively and safety over the coming years, making decommissioning an important feature of the overall legacy management aspects of AWE PLC's business. This paper outlines the current undertakings and progress of Nuclear decommissioning on the AWE (A) site. (authors)

  4. A Homunculus Around the Star NaSt1 {WR122}?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhan, Jon

    2012-10-01

    Eruptive mass loss during the LBV phase is the most puzzling aspect of massive stellar evolution, posing a serious limitation to theoretical models. Yet we know this is the key channel by which massive stars lose their hydrogen envelopes and become Wolf-Rayet stars. LBV eruptions also explain the phenomenon of supernova "impostors", and are the origin of luminous Type IIn supernovae. Our ignorance has partly persisted because there are so few Galactic examples for detailed study. Eta Car is only object to have recently experienced a giant eruption that is still embedded in a dense, massive, and highly CNO-processed outflow. Because of the compact size, most of what we know about Eta Car has been the result of HST observations. There is no known Galactic analog of this extremeness, so we do not know whether Eta Car represents a unusual or universal occurrence. NaSt1 {aka WR 122} is an evolved, luminous, hot star that is also embedded in a dense CNO-processed outflow. The system shares more characteristics with Eta Car than any other object known. The main difference appears to be the fact that the central star is suspected to be a hot WR, so the system could represent what Eta Car will look like after it experiences another giant eruption. Like Eta Car, NaSt1's nebula is very bright in the light of [NII]. Although it exhibits a hint of bipolarity, it is very compact {7" diameter}. Thus, ground-based imaging is unable to elucidate the object's nature. We propose a simple, narrow-band imaging experiment with HST/WFC3 to determine the precise morphology of NaSt1's [NII] nebula. The data will reveal whether NaSt1 is truly an Eta Car analog, or something entirely different.

  5. HETDEX: Probing the Chemical Evolution of the Universe with Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Hill, G. J.; Gebhardt, K.; Blanc, G.; Drory, N.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will discover 0.8 million Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) at 1.9 < z < 3.5 over 300 square degrees beginning in Fall 2012. This unprecedentedly large volume probed will allow the discovery of large samples of bright LAEs, enabling follow-up science which cannot be done for the bulk of the LAE population, as they form the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. Combining the HETDEX sample with the new generation of multi-object near-infrared (NIR) spectrographs will allow direct measurements of LAE physical properties, which are of interest as LAEs appear similar to galaxies at very high redshifts (z > 7) , and LAEs are also the likely progenitors of present-day Milky Way-like galaxies. Here we present results from the HETDEX pilot survey, which discovered 100 LAEs with a single integral field spectrograph mounted on the McDonald Observatory 2.7m telescope. We have detected rest-frame optical emission lines from five of these galaxies with the single-slit NIR spectrograph NIRSPEC on the Keck II 10m telescope. From the ratio of the upper limit on the (undetected) [NII] flux to the observed Halpha line strength, all five LAEs appear to have low metallicities (< 50% solar). The brightest LAE in our sample lies significantly below the mass-metallicity relation for continuum-selected galaxies at the same redshift. The remaining LAEs may also lie below this relation, however their fainter Halpha fluxes result in higher limits on the [NII]/Halpha flux ratio. Thus deeper integrations, requiring multi-object spectrographs (MOS) to be feasible, are necessary. The field-of-view of the next generation of MOS NIR spectrographs will be able to simultaneously observe > 10 HETDEX LAEs to a much deeper depth, providing a significant boost in our ability to probe the chemical enrichment of this enigmatic galaxy population.

  6. Red-channel (6000-8000 Å) nuclear spectra of 376 local galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Consolandi, Guido; Dotti, Massimo; Fossati, Matteo; Savorgnan, Giulia; Gualandi, Roberto; Bruni, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    We obtained long-slit optical spectra of the nuclear regions of 376 galaxies in the local Universe using the 1.5 m Cassini telescope of Bologna Observatory. Of these spectra, 164 were either never taken before by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), or given by the Nasa Extragalactic Database (NED). With these new spectra, we contribute investigating the occurrence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Nevertheless, we stress that the present sample is by no means complete, thus, it cannot be used to perform any demographic study. Following the method used in a previous work, we classify the nuclear spectra using a six bin scheme: SEY (Seyfert), sAGN (strong AGN), and wAGN (weak AGN) represent active galactic nuclei of different levels of activity; HII accounts for star-forming nuclei; RET (retired) and PAS (passive) refer to nuclei with poor or no star-formation activity. The spectral classification is performed using the ratio of λ 6584 [NII] to Hα lines and the equivalent width (EW) of Hα versus [NII] /Hα (WHAN diagnostic introduced by Cid Fernandes and collaborators) after correcting Hα for underlying absorption. The obtained spectra are made available in machine readable format via the Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center (CDS) and NED. Full Tables 3 and 4 and Fig. 4 (in FITS format) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/558/A68

  7. DFT analysis of g and 13C hyperfine coupling tensors for model Ni(I)(CO)(n)L(m) (n = 1-4, L = H2O, OH-) complexes epitomizing surface nickel(I) carbonyls.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyk, Piotr; Podolska, Katarzyna; Sojka, Zbigniew

    2008-11-27

    Relativistic calculations within the spin-orbit mean-field (SOMF) approximation, the zero-order regular approximation (ZORA), and the scalar relativistic method based on the Pauli Hamiltonian were performed for the prediction and interpretation of the electronic g tensor and (13)C hyperfine tensor for a set of model polycarbonyl nickel(I) complexes with aqua or hydroxy coligands. They exhibit extensive similarities with heterogeneous [Ni(I)(CO)(n)]-surface complexes produced upon adsorption of carbon monoxide on Ni(I) ions grafted on silica or inside the zeolite channels. Benchmark calculations showing the influence of the exchange-correlation functional on the g tensor were carried out for well-defined nickel(I) complexes of known structure. On this basis, the SOMF-B3LYP scheme was chosen for calculations of the g tensor, and the obtained results were in satisfactory agreement with literature EPR data found for the [Ni(I)(CO)(n)]/SiO(2) system. The calculated g and A((13)C) tensors allowed polycarbonyl complexes of various stereochemistries to be distinguished. The nature of the Deltag(ii) shifts was assessed in terms of the molecular orbital contributions due to the magnetic-field-induced couplings and their structure sensitivity. The noncoincidence of g and (13)C hyperfine principal axes and their orientation with respect to the molecular framework was also examined. The ability of DFT calculations to follow consistently variations of the EPR parameters induced by stereochemical changes around the Ni(I) center provides an invaluable reference for the interpretation of experimental results. PMID:18986126

  8. CYP94-mediated jasmonoyl-isoleucine hormone oxidation shapes jasmonate profiles and attenuates defence responses to Botrytis cinerea infection

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Yann; Widemann, Emilie; Miesch, Laurence; Pinot, Franck; Heitz, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea depends on jasmonate metabolism and signalling in Arabidopsis. We have presented here extensive jasmonate profiling in this pathosystem and investigated the impact of the recently reported jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) catabolic pathway mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP94) enzymes. Using a series of mutant and overexpressing (OE) plant lines, we showed that CYP94B3 and CYP94C1 are integral components of the fungus-induced jasmonate metabolic pathway and control the abundance of oxidized conjugated but also some unconjugated derivatives, such as sulfated 12-HSO4-JA. Despite causing JA-Ile overaccumulation due to impaired oxidation, CYP94 deficiency had negligible impacts on resistance, associated with enhanced JAZ repressor transcript levels. In contrast, plants overexpressing (OE) CYP94B3 or CYP94C1 were enriched in 12-OH-JA-Ile or 12-COOH-JA-Ile respectively. This shift towards oxidized JA-Ile derivatives was concomitant with strongly impaired defence gene induction and reduced disease resistance. CYP94B3-OE, but unexpectedly not CYP94C1-OE, plants displayed reduced JA-Ile levels compared with the wild type, suggesting that increased susceptibility in CYP94C1-OE plants may result from changes in the hormone oxidation ratio rather than absolute changes in JA-Ile levels. Consistently, while feeding JA-Ile to seedlings triggered strong induction of JA pathway genes, induction was largely reduced or abolished after feeding with the CYP94 products 12-OH-JA-Ile and 12-COOH-JA-Ile, respectively. This trend paralleled in vitro pull-down assays where 12-COOH-JA-Ile was unable to promote COI1–JAZ9 co-receptor assembly. Our results highlight the dual function of CYP94B3/C1 in antimicrobial defence: by controlling hormone oxidation status for signal attenuation, these enzymes also define JA-Ile as a metabolic hub directing jasmonate profile complexity. PMID:25903915

  9. Japanese apricot improves symptoms of gastrointestinal dysmotility associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Maekita, Takao; Kato, Jun; Enomoto, Shotaro; Yoshida, Takeichi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Hanamitsu, Toshiko; Inoue, Izumi; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moribata, Kosaku; Muraki, Yosuke; Shingaki, Naoki; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Ueda, Kazuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ichinose, Masao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Japanese apricot (JA) consumption on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related symptoms. METHODS: Participants included individuals living in Minabe-cho, a well-known JA-growing region, who received specific medical check-ups by the local community health service in 2010. GERD-related symptoms were examined in 1303 Japanese individuals using a validated questionnaire, the Frequency Scale for Symptoms of GERD (FSSG), which consists of 7 questions associated with acid reflux symptoms and 5 questions asking about gastrointestinal dysmotility symptoms. Each question was answered using a 4-point scale, with higher scores indicating more severe GERD-related symptoms. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their intake of dried and pickled JA: daily intake (≥ 1 JA daily) (392 subjects) and none or occasional intake (< 1 JA daily) (911 subjects). FSSG scores were compared between subjects who consumed JA daily and those who did not. Next, subjects were stratified by age, gender and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status for subanalyses. RESULTS: Those who ate JA daily were significantly older than those who did not (60.6 ± 10.5 years vs 56.0 ± 11.0 years, P < 0.001). Total FSSG scores were significantly lower in subjects with daily JA intake than in those with none or only occasional intake (2.13 ± 3.14 vs 2.70 ± 3.82, P = 0.005). In particular, subjects who consumed JA daily showed significantly improved FSSG dysmotility scores compared with subjects who did not (1.05 ± 1.58 vs 1.46 ± 2.11, P < 0.001). In contrast, the FSSG reflux score did not differ between subjects with and without daily intake of JA (1.08 ± 1.90 vs 1.24 ± 2.11, P = 0.177). Subanalysis indicated that improvement in dysmotility by JA intake was specifically observed in non-elderly (1.24 ± 1.68 vs 1.62 ± 2.22, P = 0.005) and H. pylori-negative subjects (0.99 ± 1.58 vs 1.57 ± 2.06, P < 0.001). GERD patients (total FSSG score ≥ 8) were

  10. CYP94-mediated jasmonoyl-isoleucine hormone oxidation shapes jasmonate profiles and attenuates defence responses to Botrytis cinerea infection.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Yann; Widemann, Emilie; Miesch, Laurence; Pinot, Franck; Heitz, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    Induced resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea depends on jasmonate metabolism and signalling in Arabidopsis. We have presented here extensive jasmonate profiling in this pathosystem and investigated the impact of the recently reported jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) catabolic pathway mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP94) enzymes. Using a series of mutant and overexpressing (OE) plant lines, we showed that CYP94B3 and CYP94C1 are integral components of the fungus-induced jasmonate metabolic pathway and control the abundance of oxidized conjugated but also some unconjugated derivatives, such as sulfated 12-HSO4-JA. Despite causing JA-Ile overaccumulation due to impaired oxidation, CYP94 deficiency had negligible impacts on resistance, associated with enhanced JAZ repressor transcript levels. In contrast, plants overexpressing (OE) CYP94B3 or CYP94C1 were enriched in 12-OH-JA-Ile or 12-COOH-JA-Ile respectively. This shift towards oxidized JA-Ile derivatives was concomitant with strongly impaired defence gene induction and reduced disease resistance. CYP94B3-OE, but unexpectedly not CYP94C1-OE, plants displayed reduced JA-Ile levels compared with the wild type, suggesting that increased susceptibility in CYP94C1-OE plants may result from changes in the hormone oxidation ratio rather than absolute changes in JA-Ile levels. Consistently, while feeding JA-Ile to seedlings triggered strong induction of JA pathway genes, induction was largely reduced or abolished after feeding with the CYP94 products 12-OH-JA-Ile and 12-COOH-JA-Ile, respectively. This trend paralleled in vitro pull-down assays where 12-COOH-JA-Ile was unable to promote COI1-JAZ9 co-receptor assembly. Our results highlight the dual function of CYP94B3/C1 in antimicrobial defence: by controlling hormone oxidation status for signal attenuation, these enzymes also define JA-Ile as a metabolic hub directing jasmonate profile complexity. PMID:25903915

  11. Jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine is required for the production of a flavonoid phytoalexin but not diterpenoid phytoalexins in ultraviolet-irradiated rice leaves.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Koji; Enda, Isami; Okada, Toshiki; Sato, Yumiko; Watanabe, Kohei; Sakazawa, Tomoko; Yumoto, Emi; Shibata, Kyomi; Asahina, Masashi; Iino, Moritoshi; Yokota, Takao; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2016-10-01

    Rice produces low-molecular-weight antimicrobial compounds known as phytoalexins, in response to not only pathogen attack but also abiotic stresses including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Rice phytoalexins are composed of diterpenoids and a flavonoid. Recent studies have indicated that endogenous jasmonyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is not necessarily required for the production of diterpenoid phytoalexins in blast-infected or CuCl2-treated rice leaves. However, JA-Ile is required for the accumulation of the flavonoid phytoalexin, sakuranetin. Here, we investigated the roles of JA-Ile in UV-induced phytoalexin production. We showed that UV-irradiation induces the biosynthesis of JA-Ile and its precursor jasmonic acid. We also showed that rice jasmonate biosynthesis mutants produced diterpenoid phytoalexins but not sakuranetin in response to UV, indicating that JA-Ile is required for the production of sakuranetin but not diterpenoid phytoalexins in UV-irradiated rice leaves. PMID:27240428

  12. Parameter identification of Jiles-Atherton model with nonlinear least-square method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, Péter; Iványi, Amália

    2004-01-01

    A new method to the parameter identification of the widely used scalar Jiles-Atherton (J-A) model of hysteresis is detailed in this paper. The extended J-A model is also investigated including the eddy-current and the anomalous loss terms, which are taken into account by modeling the frequency dependence of the hysteresis. The five parameters of the classical J-A model can be determined from low-frequency hysteresis measurement. At higher frequency the effect of the eddy currents is not negligible, the J-A model must be extended. The loss of the hysteresis characteristics and the coercitive field are increasing with the frequency. Nonlinear least-squares method is used for parameter fitting of classical and extended J-A model, as well. The curve fitting is executed automatically based on the initial parameters and the measured data.

  13. The extraction of ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">ΦN total cross section from ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">d(γ,pK+K-)n

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, X.; Chen, W.; Gao, H.; Hicks, K.; Kramer, K.; Laget, J. M.; Mibe, T.; Stepanyan, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Xu, W.; Adhikari, K. P.; Amaryan, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bellis, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dhamija, S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hassall, N.; Heddle, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Johnstone, J. R.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; Martinez, D.; Mayer, M.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moriya, K.; Morrison, B.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Nepali, C. S.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niroula, M. R.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Williams, M.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.

    2009-10-01

    We report on the first measurement of the differential cross section of $\\phi$-meson photoproduction for the $d(\\gamma,pK^{+}K^{-})n$ exclusive reaction channel. The experiment was performed using a \\textcolor{black}{tagged-photon} beam and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. A combined analysis using data from the $d(\\gamma,pK^{+}K^{-})n$ channel and those from a previous publication on coherent $\\phi$ production on the deuteron has been carried out to extract the $\\phi-N$ total cross section, $\\sigma_{\\phi N}$. The extracted $\\phi-N$ total cross section favors a value above 20 mb. This value is larger than the value extracted using vector-meson dominance models for $\\phi$ photoproduction on the proton.

  14. High-precision measurement of the proton elastic form factor ratio ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">μpGE/GM at low ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">Q2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, X.; Allada, K.; Armstrong, D. S.; Arrington, J.; Bertozzi, W.; Boeglin, W.; Chen, J. -P.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Choi, S.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Decowski, P.; Dutta, C.; Frullani, S.; Fuchey, E.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glister, J.; Hafidi, K.; Hahn, B.; Hansen, J. -O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Holt, R. J.; Huang, J.; Huber, G. M.; Itard, F.; de Jager, C. W.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, M.; Katich, J.; de Leo, R.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Margaziotis, D. J.; May-Tal Beck, S.; Meekins, D.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Norum, B. E.; Olson, M.; Piasetzky, E.; Pomerantz, I.; Protopopescu, D.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Ransome, R. D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reinhold, J.; Riordan, S.; Ron, G.; Saha, A.; Sarty, A. J.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E. C.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Shneor, R.; Širca, S.; Solvignon, P.; Sparveris, N. F.; Strauch, S.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, Y.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Ye, Z.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-10-06

    Here, we report a new high precision measurement of the proton elastic form factor ratio μpGE/GM for the four-momentum transfer squared Q2 = 0.3-0.7 (GeV/c)2. The measurement was performed at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in Hall A using recoil polarimetry. With the achieved ~1% total uncertainty, the new data clearly show that the deviation of the ratio μpGE/GM from unity observed in previous polarization measurements at high Q2 continues down to the lowest Q2 value of this measurement. The updated global fit that includes the new results yields in this Q2 range an electric (magnetic) form factor ~2% smaller (~1% larger) than the previous global fit. We obtain new extractions of the proton electric and magnetic radii, which are (rE2)1/2 = 0.875 ± 0.010 fm and (rM2)1/2 = 0.867 ± 0.020 fm. Moreover, the charge radius is consistent with other recent extractions based on the electron-proton interaction, including the atomic hydrogen Lamb shift measruements, which suggests a missing correction in the comparison of measurements of the proton charge radius using electron probes and the recent extraction from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift.

  15. Induced defenses change the chemical composition of pine seedlings and influence meal properties of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Lina; Fedderwitz, Frauke; Björklund, Niklas; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2016-10-01

    The defense of conifers against phytophagous insects relies to a large extent on induced chemical defenses. However, it is not clear how induced changes in chemical composition influence the meal properties of phytophagous insects (and thus damage rates). The defense can be induced experimentally with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which is a substance that is produced naturally when a plant is attacked. Here we used MeJA to investigate how the volatile contents of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tissues influence the meal properties of the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)). Phloem and needles (both weevil target tissues) from MeJA-treated and control seedlings were extracted by n-hexane and analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (2D GC-MS). The feeding of pine weevils on MeJA-treated and control seedlings were video-recorded to determine meal properties. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that phloem and needle contents of MeJA-treated seedlings had different volatile compositions compared to control seedlings. Levels of the pine weevil attractant (+)-α-pinene were particularly high in phloem of control seedlings with feeding damage. The antifeedant substance 2-phenylethanol occurred at higher levels in the phloem of MeJA-treated than in control seedlings. Accordingly, pine weevils fed slower and had shorter meals on MeJA-seedlings. The chemical compositions of phloem and needle tissues were clearly different in control seedlings but not in the MeJA-treated seedlings. Consequently, meal durations of mixed meals, i.e. both needles and phloem, were longer than phloem meals on control seedlings, while meal durations on MeJA seedlings did not differ between these meal contents. The meal duration influences the risk of girdling and plant death. Thus our results suggest a mechanism by which MeJA treatment may protect conifer seedlings against pine weevils. PMID:27417987

  16. The defensive role of volatile emission and extrafloral nectar secretion for lima bean in nature.

    PubMed

    Kost, Christian; Heil, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) features two indirect anti-herbivore defenses--emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN)--which are both inducible upon herbivore damage. In a previous field study, Lima bean benefited from the simultaneous induction of the two defenses, yet it remained unclear whether both had contributed to plant protection. Our experimental approach aimed at studying the defensive role of both indirect defenses simultaneously. Tendrils were sprayed with jasmonic acid (JA) to induce both defenses, and performance was compared to that of others that were treated with a synthetic blend of either EFN or VOCs. Confirming earlier results, JA treatment and application of the VOC mixture induced EFN secretion in treated tendrils in quantitatively similar amounts. The composition of the applied synthetic blend of EFN was adjusted to match the concentration of EFN secreted from JA- and VOC-treated tendrils. Repeated application of either enhanced the performance of several fitness-relevant plant parameters such as growth rate and flower production. Tendrils treated with JA showed a similar trend, yet some fitness-related parameters responded less to this treatment. This suggests a minor importance of any putative JA-dependent direct defense traits or higher costs of JA-elicited responses as compared to VOCS and EFN, as otherwise JA-treated tendrils should have outperformed VOC- and EFN-treated tendrils. Moreover, the beneficial effect of applying synthetic EFN alone equaled or exceeded that of VOCs and JA. Ants were by far the dominant group among the arthropods that was attracted to JA-, VOC-, or EFN-treated tendrils. The results suggest that EFN plays a more important role as an indirect defense of lima bean than VOCs or any other JA-responsive trait. PMID:18071821

  17. Far-Red Light-Mediated Seedling Development in Arabidopsis Involves FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219/JASMONATE RESISTANT 1-Dependent and -Independent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huai-Ju; Chen, Cheng-Ling; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and development is often regulated by the interaction of environmental factors such as light and various phytohormones. Arabidopsis FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219 (FIN219)/JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (JAR1) participates in phytochrome A-mediated far-red (FR) light signaling and interacts with different light signaling regulators. FIN219/JAR1 is a jasmonic acid (JA)-conjugating enzyme responsible for the formation of JA-isoleucine. However, how FIN219/JAR1 integrates FR light and JA signaling remains largely unknown. We used a microarray approach to dissect the effect of fin219 mutation on the interaction of FR light and JA signaling. The fin219-2 mutant was less sensitive than the wild type to various concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) under low and high FR light. High FR light reduced the sensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings to MeJA likely through FIN219. Intriguingly, in response to MeJA, FIN219 levels showed a negative feedback regulation. Further microarray assay revealed that FR light could regulate gene expression by FIN219-dependent or -independent pathways. The expression profiles affected in fin219-2 indicated that FIN219/JAR1 plays a critical role in the integration of multiple hormone-related signaling. In particular, FIN219 regulates a number of transcription factors (TFs), including 94 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TFs, in response to FR light and MeJA. Loss-of-function mutants of some bHLH TFs affected by FIN219 showed altered responses to MeJA in the regulation of hypocotyl and root elongation. Thus, FIN219/JAR1 is tightly regulated in response to exogenous MeJA. It also interacts with multiple plant hormones to modulate hypocotyl and root elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings likely by regulating a group of TFs. PMID:26176841

  18. Wound and insect-induced jasmonate accumulation in carnivorous Drosera capensis: two sides of the same coin.

    PubMed

    Mithöfer, A; Reichelt, M; Nakamura, Y

    2014-09-01

    Carnivorous sundew plants catch and digest insect prey for their own nutrition. The sundew species Drosera capensis shows a pronounced leaf bending reaction upon prey capture in order to form an 'outer stomach'. This formation is triggered by jasmonates, phytohormones typically involved in defence reactions against herbivory and wounding. Whether jasmonates still have this function in D. capensis in addition to mediating the leaf bending reaction was investigated here. Wounded, insect prey-fed and insect-derived oral secretion-treated leaves of D. capensis were analysed for jasmonates (jasmonic acid, JA; jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate, JA-Ile) using LC-MS/MS. Prey-induced jasmonate accumulation in D. capensis leaves was persistent, and showed high levels of JA and JA-Ile (575 and 55.7 pmol · g · FW(-1) , respectively), whereas wounding induced a transient increase of JA (maximum 500 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) and only low (3.1 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) accumulation of JA-Ile. Herbivory, mimicked with a combined treatment of wounding plus oral secretion (W+OS) obtained from Spodoptera littoralis larvae induced both JA (4000 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) and JA-Ile (25 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) accumulation, with kinetics similar to prey treatment. Only prey and W+OS, but not wounding alone or OS, induced leaf bending. The results indicate that both mechanical and chemical stimuli trigger JA and JA-Ile synthesis. Differences in kinetics and induced jasmonate levels suggest different sensing and signalling events upon injury and insect-dependent challenge. Thus, in Drosera, jasmonates are still part of the response to wounding. Jasmonates are also employed in insect-induced reactions, including responses to herbivory and carnivory. PMID:24499476

  19. Disarming the Jasmonate-Dependent Plant Defense Makes Nonhost Arabidopsis Plants Accessible to the American Serpentine Leafminer1

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Hiroshi; Tateishi, Ken; Seo, Shigemi; Kugimiya, Soichi; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Sawada, Yuji; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Yara, Kaori; Shimoda, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2013-01-01

    Here, we analyzed the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the American serpentine leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii), an important and intractable herbivore of many cultivated plants. We examined the role of the immunity-related plant hormone jasmonate (JA) in the plant response and resistance to leafminer feeding to determine whether JA affects host suitability for leafminers. The expression of marker genes for the JA-dependent plant defense was induced by leafminer feeding on Arabidopsis wild-type plants. Analyses of JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants suggested the importance of JA in the plant response to leafminer feeding. The JA content of wild-type plants significantly increased after leafminer feeding. Moreover, coi1-1 mutants showed lower feeding resistance against leafminer attack than did wild-type plants. The number of feeding scars caused by inoculated adult leafminers in JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants was higher than that in wild-type plants. In addition, adults of the following generation appeared only from coi1-1 mutants and not from wild-type plants, suggesting that the loss of the JA-dependent plant defense converted nonhost plants to accessible host plants. Interestingly, the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system may play at most a minor role in this conversion, indicating that this major antiherbivore defense of Brassica species plants probably does not have a major function in plant resistance to leafminer. Application of JA to wild-type plants before leafminer feeding enhanced feeding resistance in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium). Our results indicate that JA plays an important role in the plant response and resistance to leafminers and, in so doing, affects host plant suitability for leafminers. PMID:24022267

  20. Methyl jasmonate as an allelopathic agent: sagebrush inhibits germination of a neighboring tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Preston, Catherine A; Betts, Hazel; Baldwi, Ian T

    2002-11-01

    Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata is the dominant and defining shrub in the Great Basin Desert, with well-documented allelopathic tendencies that have generally been ascribed to its most abundantly released secondary metabolites. However, as a minor component, sagebrush releases a highly biologically active substance, methyljasmonate (MeJA), which is known to function as both a germination inhibitor and promoter in laboratory studies. Nicotiana attenuata is a tobacco species native to the Great Basin Desert and grows in newly burned juniper-sagebrush habitats for 2-3 yr following a fire. With a combination of field and laboratory studies, we examined the role of MeJA release from sagebrush by both air and water transport in inhibiting N. attenuata seed germination. We demonstrated that sagebrush interacts allelopathically with the seed bank of N. attenuata through its release of MeJA. In the field, seeds buried 0-40 cm from sagebrush plants for 4 months in net bags had significantly reduced germination compared to seeds buried similarly but protected in plastic bags. Moreover, germination on soils collected from underneath sagebrush plants was reduced by 60% compared to seeds placed on soils collected between sagebrush plants or outside of the sagebrush population. Exposure to A. tridentata seeds and seedlings did not affect N. attenuata germination, suggesting that established sagebrush plants only influence the tobacco's seed bank. In the laboratory, exposure of seeds to sagebrush emissions resulted in germination delays of up to 6 d. Exposure to volatile and aqueous MeJA also inhibited germination of N. attenuata seeds at quantities that are released naturally by sagebrush: 3.5 microg/hr and 1.12 microg/seed cup (56 ng/seed), respectively. A. tridentata seeds were significantly more resistant to MeJA, being inhibited at 336 microg MeJA (16.8 microg/seed), 300 times greater than the level of aqueous MeJA required to inhibit N. attenuata seeds. MeJA inhibited N

  1. Beneficial effects of soluble dietary Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) in the prevention of the onset of type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fructose diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wan-Ching; Jia, Huijuan; Aw, Wanping; Saito, Kenji; Hasegawa, Sumio; Kato, Hisanori

    2014-09-14

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) has the potential to attenuate lipid disturbances and insulin resistance (IR), but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we elucidated the physiological responses and mechanisms of JA intervention with a comprehensive transcriptome analysis. Wistar rats were fed a control diet, a 60 % fructose-enriched diet (FRU), or a FRU with 10 % JA (n 6-7) for 4 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test was carried out on day 21. Liver samples were collected for biochemical and global gene expression analyses (GeneChip® Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array, Affymetrix). Fructose feeding resulted in IR and hepatic TAG accumulation; dietary JA supplementation significantly improved these changes. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that the expression of malic enzyme 1 (Me1), associated with fatty acid synthesis; decorin (Dcn), related to fibrosis; and cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily a, polypeptide 2 (Cyp1a2) and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), associated with inflammation, was differentially altered by the FRU, whereas dietary JA supplementation significantly improved the expression of these genes. We established for the first time the molecular mechanisms driving the beneficial effects of JA in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We propose that 10 % JA supplementation may be beneficial for the prevention of the onset of these diseases. PMID:24968200

  2. The plastidial retrograde signal methyl erythritol cyclopyrophosphate is a regulator of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Mark; Xiao, Yanmei; Bjornson, Marta; Wang, Jin-zheng; Hicks, Derrick; de Souza, Amancio; Wang, Chang-Quan; Yang, Panyu; Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2016-01-01

    The exquisite harmony between hormones and their corresponding signaling pathways is central to prioritizing plant responses to simultaneous and/or successive environmental trepidations. The crosstalk between jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) is an established effective mechanism that optimizes and tailors plant adaptive responses. However, the underlying regulatory modules of this crosstalk are largely unknown. Global transcriptomic analyses of mutant plants (ceh1) with elevated levels of the stress-induced plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol cyclopyrophosphate (MEcPP) revealed robustly induced JA marker genes, expected to be suppressed by the presence of constitutively high SA levels in the mutant background. Analyses of a range of genotypes with varying SA and MEcPP levels established the selective role of MEcPP-mediated signal(s) in induction of JA-responsive genes in the presence of elevated SA. Metabolic profiling revealed the presence of high levels of the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), but near wild type levels of JA in the ceh1 mutant plants. Analyses of coronatine-insensitive 1 (coi1)/ceh1 double mutant plants confirmed that the MEcPP-mediated induction is JA receptor COI1 dependent, potentially through elevated OPDA. These findings identify MEcPP as a previously unrecognized central regulatory module that induces JA-responsive genes in the presence of high SA, thereby staging a multifaceted plant response within the environmental context. PMID:26733689

  3. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant’s defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis. PMID:26902148

  4. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant's defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis. PMID:26902148

  5. Water Stress Responses of Tomato Mutants Impaired in Hormone Biosynthesis Reveal Abscisic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid Interactions.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Espinoza, Valeria A; López-Climent, María F; Casaretto, José A; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the putative crosstalk between JA and ABA in Solanum lycopersicum plants in response to drought, suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2, JA-deficient) and flacca (flc, ABA-deficient) mutants together with the naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) transgenic (SA-deficient) line were used. Hormone profiling and gene expression of key enzymes in ABA, JA and SA biosynthesis were analyzed during early stages of drought. ABA accumulation was comparable in spr2 and wild type (WT) plants whereas expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1) and NCED2 was different, implying a compensation mechanism between NCED genes and an organ-specific regulation of NCED1 expression. JA levels and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) expression in flc plants suggest that ABA regulates the induction of the OPR3 gene in roots. By contrast, ABA treatment to flc plants leads to a reduction of JA and SA contents. Furthermore, different pattern of SA accumulation (and expression of isochorismate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1) was observed between WT seedlings and mutants, suggesting that SA plays an important role on the early response of tomato plants to drought and also that JA and ABA modulate its biosynthesis. Finally, hormone profiling in spr2 and NahG plants indicate a crosstalk between JA and SA that could enhance tolerance of tomato to water stress. PMID:26635826

  6. Induced resistance in groundnut by jasmonic acid and salicylic acid through alteration of trichome density and oviposition by Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Hussain, Barkat; Sharma, Hari C.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are important phytohormones involved in plant resistance against insect herbivory and pathogen infection. Application of JA and SA induces several defensive traits in plants. Here we investigated the effect of JA and SA on trichome density in five groundnut genotypes [ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271, ICG 1697 (resistant) and JL 24 (susceptible)]. The effect of JA- and SA-induced resistance on the oviposition behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera on different groundnut genotypes was also studied. Pre-treatment with JA increased numbers of trichomes in the insect-resistant genotypes, ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271, and ICG 1697. The induction was greater at 10 days after treatment. Jasmonic acid- and SA-treated plants showed a substantial effect on the oviposition behaviour of H. armigera. Jasmonic acid application and herbivory reduced the number of eggs laid by H. armigera in all the groundnut genotypes tested. However, a greater reduction was recorded on plants pre-treated with JA. More egg laying was recorded in JL 24 in all the treatments as compared to the insect-resistant genotypes. These results suggested that pre-treatment with JA increased trichome density in groundnut plants, which conferred antixenosis for oviposition by H. armigera.

  7. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth-Defense Tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Havko, Nathan E; Major, Ian T; Jewell, Jeremy B; Attaran, Elham; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA), which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span. PMID:27135227

  8. Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Thomas; André, Raphael; Wieser, Wolfgang; Pfeiffer, Tom; Huber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Joint-aperture optical coherence tomography (JA-OCT) is an angle-resolved OCT method, in which illumination from an active channel is simultaneously probed by several passive channels. JA-OCT increases the collection efficiency and effective sensitivity of the OCT system without increasing the power on the sample. Additionally, JA-OCT provides angular scattering information about the sample in a single acquisition, so the OCT imaging speed is not reduced. Thus, JA-OCT is especially suitable for ultra high speed in-vivo imaging. JA-OCT is compared to other angle-resolved techniques, and the relation between joint aperture imaging, adaptive optics, coherent and incoherent compounding is discussed. We present angle-resolved imaging of the human retina at an axial scan rate of 1.68 MHz, and demonstrate the benefits of JA-OCT: Speckle reduction, signal increase and suppression of specular and parasitic reflections. Moreover, in the future JA-OCT may allow for the reconstruction of the full Doppler vector and tissue discrimination by analysis of the angular scattering dependence. PMID:23577296

  9. Discuss on using Jiles-Atherton theory for charactering magnetic memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingxiu; Xu, Minqiang; Li, Jianwei; Ma, Songshan; Xing, Haiyan

    2012-11-01

    The characterization of magnetic memory effect is the primary task of the metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique used in quantitative evaluation, and it has been characterized by the Jiles-Atherton (J-A) model in recent papers. The feasibility of using the MMM field to characterize magnetization intensity M and the feasibility of using the J-A model in MMM detection are discussed in this paper to clarify the magnetic memory effect in the elastic stage. According to analysis with the J-A model and the results of a rotating bending fatigue experiment, the MMM field follows the law that the state approaches equilibrium under the action of cyclic stress. This is similar to what the J-A model shows, only with replacement of the global equilibrium state Man in the J-A model with the local equilibrium state M0. The expression of M0 is obtained by considering the energy balance in the process of magnetization. M0 changes with the pinning resistance, external field, and type of stress cycle. Additionally, the M0-σ curve is a loop around the Man-σ curve, which is consistent with experimental results. How the modified J-A model describes the variation in MMM field in the process of fatigue is also discussed. This paper shows that the J-A model can be used to analyze the magnetic memory effect in the process of fatigue after replacing Man with M0.

  10. Induction of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in wounded plants and elicited plant cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Parchmann, S; Gundlach, H; Mueller, M J

    1997-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is rapidly biosynthesized from alpha-linolenic acid in plants upon contact with pathogens or wounding, and triggers gene activation, leading to the synthesis of defensive secondary metabolites and proteins. Despite the recent finding that its precursor, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (PDA), is a more powerful inducer of gene activation, interest has focused so far almost exclusively on JA. A validated negative chemical ionization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method has been developed that allows the simultaneous quantification of endogenous 12-oxo-PDA and JA in plant tissues. In six out of eight plant species tested maximal levels of 12-oxo-PDA exceeded peak levels of JA by approximately 3- to 5-fold after elicitation with a yeast cell wall preparation or when plants were wounded. These experiments support the hypothesis that 12-oxo-PDA acts as the predominant jasmonate signal in most plants, whereas JA remains an active metabolite of its precursor. Furthermore, JA but not 12-oxo-PDA was shown to be secreted into the medium from cultured plant cells, suggesting that JA may also act as an intercellular signal. PMID:9390438

  11. Epidermal jasmonate perception is sufficient for all aspects of jasmonate-mediated male fertility in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Jeremy B; Browse, John

    2016-03-01

    Jasmonate (JA) signaling is essential for several environmental responses and reproductive development in many plant species. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the most obvious phenotype of JA biosynthetic and perception mutants is profound sporophytic male sterility characterized by failure of stamen filament elongation, severe delay of anther dehiscence and pollen inviability. The site of action of JA in the context of reproductive development has been discussed, but the ideas have not been tested experimentally. To this end we used targeted expression of a COI1-YFP transgene in the coi1-1 mutant background. As COI1 is an essential component of the JA co-receptor complex, the null coi1-1 mutant is male sterile due to lack of JA perception. We show that expression of COI1-YFP in the epidermis of the stamen filament and anther in coi1 mutant plants is sufficient to rescue filament elongation, anther dehiscence and pollen viability. In contrast, filament expression alone or expression in the tapetum do not restore dehiscence and pollen viability. These results demonstrate that epidermal JA perception is sufficient for anther function and pollen viability, and suggest the presence of a JA-dependent non-autonomous signal produced in the anther epidermis to synchronize both anther dehiscence and pollen maturation. PMID:26833563

  12. Water Stress Responses of Tomato Mutants Impaired in Hormone Biosynthesis Reveal Abscisic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Espinoza, Valeria A.; López-Climent, María F.; Casaretto, José A.; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the putative crosstalk between JA and ABA in Solanum lycopersicum plants in response to drought, suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2, JA-deficient) and flacca (flc, ABA-deficient) mutants together with the naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) transgenic (SA-deficient) line were used. Hormone profiling and gene expression of key enzymes in ABA, JA and SA biosynthesis were analyzed during early stages of drought. ABA accumulation was comparable in spr2 and wild type (WT) plants whereas expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1) and NCED2 was different, implying a compensation mechanism between NCED genes and an organ-specific regulation of NCED1 expression. JA levels and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) expression in flc plants suggest that ABA regulates the induction of the OPR3 gene in roots. By contrast, ABA treatment to flc plants leads to a reduction of JA and SA contents. Furthermore, different pattern of SA accumulation (and expression of isochorismate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1) was observed between WT seedlings and mutants, suggesting that SA plays an important role on the early response of tomato plants to drought and also that JA and ABA modulate its biosynthesis. Finally, hormone profiling in spr2 and NahG plants indicate a crosstalk between JA and SA that could enhance tolerance of tomato to water stress. PMID:26635826

  13. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth–Defense Tradeoffs

    PubMed Central

    Havko, Nathan E.; Major, Ian T.; Jewell, Jeremy B.; Attaran, Elham; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA), which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span. PMID:27135227

  14. Plants Know Where It Hurts: Root and Shoot Jasmonic Acid Induction Elicit Differential Responses in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Tytgat, Tom O.G.; Verhoeven, Koen J. F.; Jansen, Jeroen J.; Raaijmakers, Ciska E.; Bakx-Schotman, Tanja; McIntyre, Lauren M.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Biere, Arjen; van Dam, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivore attack by rapidly inducing defenses that are mainly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA). Due to the systemic nature of induced defenses, attack by root herbivores can also result in a shoot response and vice versa, causing interactions between above- and belowground herbivores. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions. We investigated whether plants respond differently when roots or shoots are induced. We mimicked herbivore attack by applying JA to the roots or shoots of Brassica oleracea and analyzed molecular and chemical responses in both organs. In shoots, an immediate and massive change in primary and secondary metabolism was observed. In roots, the JA-induced response was less extensive and qualitatively different from that in the shoots. Strikingly, in both roots and shoots we also observed differential responses in primary metabolism, development as well as defense specific traits depending on whether the JA induction had been below- or aboveground. We conclude that the JA response is not only tissue-specific but also dependent on the organ that was induced. Already very early in the JA signaling pathway the differential response was observed. This indicates that both organs have a different JA signaling cascade, and that the signal eliciting systemic responses contains information about the site of induction, thus providing plants with a mechanism to tailor their responses specifically to the organ that is damaged. PMID:23776489

  15. FILAMENTOUS FLOWER Is a Direct Target of JAZ3 and Modulates Responses to Jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Boter, Marta; Golz, John F; Giménez-Ibañez, Selena; Fernandez-Barbero, Gemma; Franco-Zorrilla, José M; Solano, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) plays an important role in regulating growth, development, and immunity. Activation of the JA-signaling pathway is based on the hormone-triggered ubiquitination and removal of transcriptional repressors (JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN [JAZ] proteins) by an SCF receptor complex (SCF(COI1)/JAZ). This removal allows the rapid activation of transcription factors (TFs) triggering a multitude of downstream responses. Identification of TFs bound by the JAZ proteins is essential to better understand how the JA-signaling pathway modulates and integrates different responses. In this study, we found that the JAZ3 repressor physically interacts with the YABBY (YAB) family transcription factor FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL)/YAB1. In Arabidopsis thaliana, FIL regulates developmental processes such as axial patterning and growth of lateral organs, shoot apical meristem activity, and inflorescence phyllotaxy. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated responses in loss- and gain-of-function FIL lines suggested that YABs function as transcriptional activators of JA-triggered responses. Moreover, we show that MYB75, a component of the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex regulating anthocyanin production, is a direct transcriptional target of FIL. We propose that JAZ3 interacts with YABs to attenuate their transcriptional function. Upon perception of JA signal, degradation of JAZ3 by the SCF(COI1) complex releases YABs to activate a subset of JA-regulated genes in leaves leading to anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss, and reduced bacterial defense. PMID:26530088

  16. Enhanced hyphal growth of arbuscular mycorrhizae by root exudates derived from high R/FR treated Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Maki; Yamamoto, Naoya; Miyamoto, Taro; Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2016-06-01

    Red/Far Red (R/FR) sensing positively influences the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis of both legume and nonlegume plants through jasmonic acid (JA) and strigolactone signaling. We previously reported that root exudates obtained from high R/FR-grown plants contained more strigolactone than low R/FR-grown plants. To determine whether JA and JA derivatives were secreted from roots, we investigated the expression levels of JA-responsive genes in L. japonicus Miyakojima MG20 plants treated with root exudates prepared from either high or low R/FR light-treated plants. The root exudates from high R/FR light-treated plants were found to enhance the expression levels of JA-responsive genes significantly. Moreover, exogenous JA increased AM fungal hyphal elongation as did the root exudates derived from high R/FR-grown L. japonicus plants. We conclude that increased JA accumulation and secretion into root exudates from high R/FR light-grown plants is the best explanation for increased colonization and enhanced mycorrhization under these conditions. PMID:27191935

  17. Allantoin, a stress-related purine metabolite, can activate jasmonate signaling in a MYC2-regulated and abscisic acid-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Konishi, Tomokazu; Egusa, Mayumi; Akiyoshi, Nobuhiro; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C.; Hirayama, Takashi; Kaminaka, Hironori; Shimada, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Allantoin is a metabolic intermediate of purine catabolism that often accumulates in stressed plants. Recently, we used Arabidopsis knockout mutants (aln) of ALLANTOINASE to show that this purine metabolite activates abscisic acid (ABA) production, thereby stimulating stress-related gene expression and enhancing seedling tolerance to abiotic stress. A detailed re-examination of the microarray data of an aln mutant (aln-1) confirmed the increased expression of ABA-related genes and also revealed altered expression of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) responses, probably under the control of MYC2, a master switch in the JA signaling pathway. Consistent with the transcriptome profiles, the aln-1 mutant displayed increased JA levels and enhanced responses to mechanical wounding and exogenous JA. Moreover, aln mutants demonstrated modestly increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae and Pectobacterium carotovorum, probably reflecting the antagonistic action of MYC2 on the defense against these bacterial phytopathogens. Exogenously administered allantoin elicited the expression of JA-responsive genes, including MYC2, in wild-type plants, supporting the idea that allantoin might be responsible for the observed JA-related phenotypes of aln mutants. However, mutants deficient in bioactive JA (jar1-1), insensitive to JA (myc2-3), or deficient in ABA (aba2-1 and bglu18) suppressed the effect of exogenous allantoin. The suppression was further confirmed in aln-1 jar1-1 and aln-1 bglu18 double mutants. These results indicate that allantoin can activate the MYC2-regulated JA signaling pathway through ABA production. Overall, this study suggests a possible connection of purine catabolism with stress hormone homeostasis and signaling, and highlights the potential importance of allantoin in these interactions. PMID:26931169

  18. Phenotype-dependent alteration of pathways and networks reveals a pure synergistic mechanism for compounds treating mouse cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng-qian; Li, Bing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ying-ying; Yu, Ya-nan; Zhang, Xiao-xu; Yuan, Ye; Guo, Zhi-li; Wu, Hong-li; Li, Hai-xia; Dang, Hai-xia; Guo, Shan-shan; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Our previous studies have showed that ursodeoxycholic acid (UA) and jasminoidin (JA) effectively reduce cerebral infarct volume in mice. In this study we explored the pure synergistic mechanism of these compounds in treatment of mouse cerebral ischemia, which was defined as synergistic actions specific for phenotype variations after excluding interference from ineffective compounds. Methods: Mice with focal cerebral ischemia were treated with UA, JA or a combination JA and UA (JU). Concha margaritifera (CM) was taken as ineffective compound. Cerebral infarct volume of the mice was determined, and the hippocampi were taken for microarray analysis. Particular signaling pathways and biological functions were enriched based on differentially expressed genes, and corresponding networks were constructed through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results: In phenotype analysis, UA, JA, and JU significantly reduced the ischemic infarct volume with JU being superior to UA or JA alone, while CM was ineffective. As a result, 4 pathways enriched in CM were excluded. Core pathways in the phenotype-positive groups (UA or JA) were involved in neuronal homeostasis and neuropathology. JU-contributing pathways included all UA-contributing and the majority (71.7%) of JA-contributing pathways, and 10 new core pathways whose effects included inflammatory immunity, apoptosis and nervous system development. The functions of JU group included all functions of JA group, the majority (93.1%) of UA-contributing functions, and 3 new core functions, which focused on physiological system development and function. Conclusion: The pure synergism between UA and JA underlies 10 new core pathways and 3 new core functions, which are involved in inflammation, immune responses, apoptosis and nervous system development. PMID:25960134

  19. Two guard cell mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK9 and MPK12, function in methyl jasmonate-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Khokon, Md A R; Salam, M A; Jammes, F; Ye, W; Hossain, M A; Uraji, M; Nakamura, Y; Mori, I C; Kwak, J M; Murata, Y

    2015-09-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signalling cascades share several signalling components in guard cells. We previously showed that two guard cell-preferential mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), MPK9 and MPK12, positively regulate ABA signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we examined whether these two MAP kinases function in MeJA signalling using genetic mutants for MPK9 and MPK12 combined with a pharmacological approach. MeJA induced stomatal closure in mpk9-1 and mpk12-1 single mutants as well as wild-type plants, but not in mpk9-1 mpk12-1 double mutants. Consistently, the MAPKK inhibitor PD98059 inhibited the MeJA-induced stomatal closure in wild-type plants. MeJA elicited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cytosolic alkalisation in guard cells of the mpk9-1, mpk12-1 and mpk9-1 mpk12-1 mutants, as well in wild-type plants. Furthermore, MeJA triggered elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt ) in the mpk9-1 mpk12-1 double mutant as well as wild-type plants. Activation of S-type anion channels by MeJA was impaired in mpk9-1 mpk12-1. Together, these results indicate that MPK9 and MPK12 function upstream of S-type anion channel activation and downstream of ROS production, cytosolic alkalisation and [Ca(2+)]cyt elevation in guard cell MeJA signalling, suggesting that MPK9 and MPK12 are key regulators mediating both ABA and MeJA signalling in guard cells. PMID:25703019

  20. Expression of a functional jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase is negatively correlated with strawberry fruit development.

    PubMed

    Preuß, Anja; Augustin, Christiane; Figueroa, Carlos R; Hoffmann, Thomas; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Sevilla, José F; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-09-15

    The volatile metabolite methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays an important role in intra- and interplant communication and is involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a S-adenosyl-l-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) from Fragaria vesca and Fragaria×ananassa. Biochemical assays and comprehensive transcript analyses showed that JMT has been erroneously annotated as gene fusion with a carboxyl methyltransferase (CMT) (gene15184) in the first published genome sequence of F. vesca. Recombinant FvJMT catalyzed the formation of MeJA with KM value of 22.3μM while FvCMT and the fusion protein were almost inactive. Activity of JMT with benzoic acid and salicylic acid as substrates was less than 1.5% of that with JA. Leucine at position 245, an amino acid missing in other JMT sequences is essential for activity of FvJMT. In accordance with MeJA levels, JMT transcript levels decreased steadily during strawberry fruit ripening, as did the expression levels of JA biosynthesis and regulatory genes. It appears that CMT has originated by a recent duplication of JMT and lost its enzymatic activity toward JA. In the newest version of the strawberry genome sequence (June 2014) CMT and JMT are annotated as separate genes in accordance with differential temporal and spatial expression patterns of both genes in Fragaria sp. In conclusion, MeJA, the inactive derivative of JA, is probably involved in early steps of fruit development by modulating the levels of the active plant hormone JA. PMID:25046752

  1. Jungermannenone A and B induce ROS- and cell cycle-dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan-xia; Lin, Zhao-min; Wang, Mei-juan; Dong, Yi-wen; Niu, Huan-min; Young, Charles YF; Lou, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Hui-qing

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Jungermannenone A and B (JA, JB) are new ent-kaurane diterpenoids isolated from Chinese liverwort Jungermannia fauriana, which show anti-proliferation activities in cancer cells. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anticancer action of JA and JB in PC3 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Methods: A panel of 9 human cancer cell lines was tested. Cell proliferation was assessed with a real-time cell analyzer and MTT assay. Cell apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and ROS levels were measured using cytometry. Mitochondrial damage was examined by transmission electron microscopy. DNA damage was detected with comet assay. Apoptotic, DNA damage- and cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed using Western blotting. The expression of DNA repair genes was measured with qRT-PCR. Results: Both JA and JB exerted potent anti-proliferative action against the 9 cancer cell lines, and PC3 cells were more sensitive with IC50 values of 1.34±0.09 and 4.93±0.20 μmol/L, respectively. JA (1.5 μmol/L) and JB (5 μmol/L) induced PC3 cell apoptosis, which was attenuated by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD. Furthermore, both JA and JB caused mitochondrial damage and ROS accumulation in PC3 cells, whereas vitamin C blocked the ROS accumulation and attenuated the cytotoxicity of JA and JB. Moreover, both JA and JB induced DNA damage, accompanied by downregulated DNA repair proteins Ku70/Ku80 and RDA51. JA induced marked cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, which was related to c-Myc suppression, whereas JB enforced the cell cycle blockade in the G2/M phase, which associated with activation of the JNK signaling. Conclusion: Both JA and JB induce prostate cancer apoptosis via ROS accumulation and induction of cell cycle arrest. PMID:27133304

  2. Systemic jasmonic acid modulation in mycorrhizal tomato plants and its role in induced resistance against Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Nair, A; Kolet, S P; Thulasiram, H V; Bhargava, S

    2015-05-01

    Tomato plants colonised with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum show systemic induced resistance to the foliar pathogen Alternaria alternata, as observed in interactions of other AM-colonised plants with a range of pathogens. The role of jasmonic (JA) and salicylic (SA) acid in expression of this mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) against A. alternata was studied by measuring: (i) activity of enzymes reported to be involved in their biosynthesis, namely lipoxygenase (LOX) and phenylammonia lyase (PAL); and (ii) levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and SA. Transcript abundance of some defence genes associated with JA and SA response pathways were also studied. Both LOX and PAL activity increased twofold in response to pathogen application to control plants. AM-colonised plants had three-fold higher LOX activity compared to control plants, but unlike controls, this did not increase further in response to pathogen application. Higher LOX activity in AM-colonised plants correlated with four-fold higher MeJA in leaves of AM-colonised plants compared to controls. Treatment of plants with the JA biosynthesis inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) led to 50% lower MeJA in both control and AM-colonised plants and correlated with increased susceptibility to A. alternata, suggesting a causal role for JA in expression of MIR against the pathogen. Genes involved in JA biosynthesis (OPR3) and response (COI1) showed six- and 42-fold higher expression, respectively, in leaves of AM-colonised plants compared to controls. AM-colonised plants also showed increased expression of the SA response gene PR1 and that of the wound-inducible polypeptide prosystemin. Our results suggest that the systemic increase in JA in response to AM colonisation plays a key role in expression of MIR against A. alternata. PMID:25327848

  3. Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yun-xiang; Ge, Jia-li; Huang, Ling-hui; Gao, Fei; Lv, Xi-shan; Zheng, Wei-wei; Hong, Seung-beom; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2015-08-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Regardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. All three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that accumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elicitation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA- and MeJA-mediated systemic response systems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on the MeJA-induced root GSs irrespective of the site of elicitation. However, SA showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on the MeJA-induced leaf GSs when roots and leaves are elicitated for 3 d, respectively. PMID:26238545

  4. Phosphate Deficiency Induces the Jasmonate Pathway and Enhances Resistance to Insect Herbivory1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Gaétan

    2016-01-01

    During their life cycle, plants are typically confronted by simultaneous biotic and abiotic stresses. Low inorganic phosphate (Pi) is one of the most common nutrient deficiencies limiting plant growth in natural and agricultural ecosystems, while insect herbivory accounts for major losses in plant productivity and impacts ecological and evolutionary changes in plant populations. Here, we report that plants experiencing Pi deficiency induce the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway and enhance their defense against insect herbivory. Pi-deficient Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) showed enhanced synthesis of JA and the bioactive conjugate JA-isoleucine, as well as activation of the JA signaling pathway, in both shoots and roots of wild-type plants and in shoots of the Pi-deficient mutant pho1. The kinetics of the induction of the JA signaling pathway by Pi deficiency was influenced by PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE1, the main transcription factor regulating the expression of Pi starvation-induced genes. Phenotypes of the pho1 mutant typically associated with Pi deficiency, such as high shoot anthocyanin levels and poor shoot growth, were significantly attenuated by blocking the JA biosynthesis or signaling pathway. Wounded pho1 leaves hyperaccumulated JA/JA-isoleucine in comparison with the wild type. The pho1 mutant also showed an increased resistance against the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis that was attenuated in JA biosynthesis and signaling mutants. Pi deficiency also triggered increased resistance to S. littoralis in wild-type Arabidopsis as well as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Nicotiana benthamiana, revealing that the link between Pi deficiency and enhanced herbivory resistance is conserved in a diversity of plants, including crops. PMID:27016448

  5. Phytochrome A and B Function Antagonistically to Regulate Cold Tolerance via Abscisic Acid-Dependent Jasmonate Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhixin; Li, Huizi; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Xiaojian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan

    2016-01-01

    Light signaling and phytohormones both influence plant growth, development, and stress responses; however, cross talk between these two signaling pathways in response to cold remains underexplored. Here, we report that far-red light (FR) and red light (R) perceived by phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB positively and negatively regulated cold tolerance, respectively, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which were associated with the regulation of levels of phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and transcript levels of ABA- and JA-related genes and the C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) stress signaling pathway genes. A reduction in the R/FR ratio did not alter cold tolerance, ABA and JA accumulation, and transcript levels of ABA- and JA-related genes and the CBF pathway genes in phyA mutant plants; however, those were significantly increased in wild-type and phyB plants with the reduction in the R/FR ratio. Even though low R/FR treatments did not confer cold tolerance in ABA-deficient (notabilis [not]) and JA-deficient (prosystemin-mediated responses2 [spr2]) mutants, it up-regulated ABA accumulation and signaling in the spr2 mutant, with no effect on JA levels and signaling in the not mutant. Foliar application of ABA and JA further confirmed that JA functioned downstream of ABA to activate the CBF pathway in light quality-mediated cold tolerance. It is concluded that phyA and phyB function antagonistically to regulate cold tolerance that essentially involves FR light-induced activation of phyA to induce ABA signaling and, subsequently, JA signaling, leading to an activation of the CBF pathway and a cold response in tomato plants. PMID:26527654

  6. Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation*

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Yun-xiang; Ge, Jia-li; Huang, Ling-hui; Gao, Fei; Lv, Xi-shan; Zheng, Wei-wei; Hong, Seung-beom; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Regardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. All three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that accumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elicitation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA- and MeJA-mediated systemic response systems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on the MeJA-induced root GSs irrespective of the site of elicitation. However, SA showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on the MeJA-induced leaf GSs when roots and leaves are elicitated for 3 d, respectively. PMID:26238545

  7. The Jasmonate Pathway Is a Key Player in Systemically Induced Defense against Root Knot Nematodes in Rice1[C

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Kyndt, Tina; De Vleesschauwer, David; Höfte, Monica; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2011-01-01

    Complex defense signaling pathways, controlled by different hormones, are involved in the reaction of plants to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stress factors. We studied the ability of salicylic acid, jasmonate (JA), and ethylene (ET) to induce systemic defense in rice (Oryza sativa) against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola. Exogenous ET (ethephon) and JA (methyl jasmonate) supply on the shoots induced a strong systemic defense response in the roots, exemplified by a major up-regulation of pathogenesis-related genes OsPR1a and OsPR1b, while the salicylic acid analog BTH (benzo-1,2,3-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester) was a less potent systemic defense inducer from shoot to root. Experiments with JA biosynthesis mutants and ET-insensitive transgenics showed that ET-induced defense requires an intact JA pathway, while JA-induced defense was still functional when ET signaling was impaired. Pharmacological inhibition of JA and ET biosynthesis confirmed that JA biosynthesis is needed for ET-induced systemic defense, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction data revealed that ET application onto the shoots strongly activates JA biosynthesis and signaling genes in the roots. All data provided in this study point to the JA pathway to play a pivotal role in rice defense against root knot nematodes. The expression of defense-related genes was monitored in root galls caused by M. graminicola. Different analyzed defense genes were attenuated in root galls caused by the nematode at early time points after infection. However, when the exogenous defense inducers ethephon and methyl jasmonate were supplied to the plant, the nematode was less effective in counteracting root defense pathways, hence making the plant more resistant to nematode infection. PMID:21715672

  8. Deep sequencing reveals transcriptome re-programming of Polygonum multiflorum thunb. roots to the elicitation with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongchang; Wu, Wei; Hou, Kai; Chen, Junwen; Zhao, Zhi

    2016-02-01

    The phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) has been successfully used as an effective elicitor to enhance production of stilbenoid which is induced in plants as a secondary metabolite possibly in defense against herbivores and pathogens. However, the mechanism of MeJA-mediated stilbenoid biosynthesis remains unclear. Genomic information for Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (P. multiflorum) is currently unavailable. To obtain insight into the global regulation mechanism of MeJA in the steady state of stilbene glucoside production (26 h after MeJA elicitation), especially on stilbene glucoside biosynthesis, we sequenced the transcriptomes of MeJA-treated and untreated P. multiflorum roots and obtained more than 51 million clean reads, from which 79,565 unigenes were obtained by de novo assembly. 56,972 unigenes were annotated against databases including Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG. 18,677 genes expressed differentially between untreated and treated roots. Expression level analysis indicated that a large number of genes were associated with plant-pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction, stilbenoid backbone biosynthesis, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. 15 known genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbenoid backbone were found with 7 genes showing increased transcript abundance following elicitation of MeJA. The significantly up (down)-regulated changes of 70 genes in stilbenoid biosynthesis were validated by qRT-PCR assays and PCR product sequencing. According to the expression changes and the previously proposed enzyme functions, multiple candidates for the unknown steps in stilbene glucoside biosynthesis were identified. We also found some genes putatively involved in the transcription factors. This comprehensive description of gene expression information could greatly facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MeJA-mediated stilbenoid biosynthesis in P. multiflorum roots. Our results shed new light on the global regulation

  9. The WRKY45-Dependent Signaling Pathway Is Required For Resistance against Striga hermonthica Parasitism1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Satoko; Takahashi, Akira; Seo, Mitsunori

    2015-01-01

    The root hemiparasite witchweed (Striga spp.) is a devastating agricultural pest that causes losses of up to $1 billion US annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of resistant crops is one of the cost-effective ways to address this problem. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance are not well understood. To understand molecular events upon Striga spp. infection, we conducted genome-scale RNA sequencing expression analysis using Striga hermonthica-infected rice (Oryza sativa) roots. We found that transcripts grouped under the Gene Ontology term defense response were significantly enriched in up-regulated differentially expressed genes. In particular, we found that both jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathways were induced, but the induction of the JA pathway preceded that of the SA pathway. Foliar application of JA resulted in higher resistance. The hebiba mutant plants, which lack the JA biosynthesis gene ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE, exhibited severe S. hermonthica susceptibility. The resistant phenotype was recovered by application of JA. By contrast, the SA-deficient NahG rice plants were resistant against S. hermonthica, indicating that endogenous SA is not required for resistance. However, knocking down WRKY45, a regulator of the SA/benzothiadiazole pathway, resulted in enhanced susceptibility. Interestingly, NahG plants induced the JA pathway, which was down-regulated in WRKY45-knockdown plants, linking the resistant and susceptible phenotypes to the JA pathway. Consistently, the susceptibility phenotype in the WRKY45-knockdown plants was recovered by foliar JA application. These results point to a model in which WRKY45 modulates a cross talk in resistance against S. hermonthica by positively regulating both SA/benzothiadiazole and JA pathways. PMID:26025049

  10. Salicylic Acid Suppresses Jasmonic Acid Signaling Downstream of SCFCOI1-JAZ by Targeting GCC Promoter Motifs via Transcription Factor ORA59[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Koornneef, Annemart; Van Verk, Marcel C.; Rodenburg, Nicole; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Körbes, Ana P.; Memelink, Johan; Ritsema, Tita; Van Wees, Saskia C.M.; Pieterse, Corné M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Antagonism between the defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in the modulation of the plant immune signaling network, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that suppression of the JA pathway by SA functions downstream of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Skip-Cullin-F-box complex SCFCOI1, which targets JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressor proteins (JAZs) for proteasome-mediated degradation. In addition, neither the stability nor the JA-induced degradation of JAZs was affected by SA. In silico promoter analysis of the SA/JA crosstalk transcriptome revealed that the 1-kb promoter regions of JA-responsive genes that are suppressed by SA are significantly enriched in the JA-responsive GCC-box motifs. Using GCC:GUS lines carrying four copies of the GCC-box fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene, we showed that the GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Using plants overexpressing the GCC-box binding APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors ERF1 or ORA59, we found that SA strongly reduces the accumulation of ORA59 but not that of ERF1. Collectively, these data indicate that the SA pathway inhibits JA signaling downstream of the SCFCOI1-JAZ complex by targeting GCC-box motifs in JA-responsive promoters via a negative effect on the transcriptional activator ORA59. PMID:23435661

  11. Allantoin, a stress-related purine metabolite, can activate jasmonate signaling in a MYC2-regulated and abscisic acid-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Konishi, Tomokazu; Egusa, Mayumi; Akiyoshi, Nobuhiro; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C; Hirayama, Takashi; Kaminaka, Hironori; Shimada, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    Allantoin is a metabolic intermediate of purine catabolism that often accumulates in stressed plants. Recently, we used Arabidopsis knockout mutants (aln) ofALLANTOINASEto show that this purine metabolite activates abscisic acid (ABA) production, thereby stimulating stress-related gene expression and enhancing seedling tolerance to abiotic stress. A detailed re-examination of the microarray data of analnmutant (aln-1) confirmed the increased expression of ABA-related genes and also revealed altered expression of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) responses, probably under the control of MYC2, a master switch in the JA signaling pathway. Consistent with the transcriptome profiles, thealn-1mutant displayed increased JA levels and enhanced responses to mechanical wounding and exogenous JA. Moreover,alnmutants demonstrated modestly increased susceptibility toPseudomonas syringaeandPectobacterium carotovorum, probably reflecting the antagonistic action of MYC2 on the defense against these bacterial phytopathogens. Exogenously administered allantoin elicited the expression of JA-responsive genes, includingMYC2, in wild-type plants, supporting the idea that allantoin might be responsible for the observed JA-related phenotypes ofalnmutants. However, mutants deficient in bioactive JA (jar1-1), insensitive to JA (myc2-3), or deficient in ABA (aba2-1andbglu18) suppressed the effect of exogenous allantoin. The suppression was further confirmed inaln-1 jar1-1andaln-1 bglu18double mutants. These results indicate that allantoin can activate the MYC2-regulated JA signaling pathway through ABA production. Overall, this study suggests a possible connection of purine catabolism with stress hormone homeostasis and signaling, and highlights the potential importance of allantoin in these interactions. PMID:26931169

  12. Differential cross section of ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">γnK+Σ- on bound neutrons with incident photons from 1.1 to 3.6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, S. Anefalos; Mirazita, M.; Rossi, P.; De Sanctis, E.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Stepanyan, S.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Berman, B. L.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dhamija, S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; Eugenio, P.; Fegan, S.; Forest, T. A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gavalian, G.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hassall, N.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Livingston, K.; Mayer, M.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mikhailov, K.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Moreno, B.; Moriya, K.; Morrison, B.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Perrin, Y.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salamanca, J.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Tkachenko, S.; Vernarsky, B.; Vineyard, M. F.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.

    2010-05-01

    Differential cross sections of the reaction γd → K+Σ(p) have been measured with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab using incident photons with energies between 1.1 and 3.6 GeV. This is the first complete set of strangeness photoproduction data on the neutron covering a broad angular range. At energies close to threshold and up to Eγ ~ 1.8 GeV, the shape of the angular distribution is suggestive of the presence of s -channel production mechanisms. For Eγ > 1.8 GeV, a clear forward peak appears and becomes more prominent as the photon energy increases, suggesting contributions from t-channel production mechanisms. Furthermore, these data can be used to constrain future analysis of this reaction.

  13. Thermophysical properties of ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd">U3Si2 to 1773K

    SciTech Connect

    White, Joshua Taylor; Nelson, Andrew Thomas; Dunwoody, John Tyler; Byler, David Darrin; Safarik, Douglas Joseph; McClellan, Kenneth James

    2015-05-08

    Use of U3Si2 in nuclear reactors requires accurate thermophysical property data to capture heat transfer within the core. Compilation of the limited previous research efforts focused on the most critical property, thermal conductivity, reveals extensive disagreement. Assessment of this data is challenged by the fact that the critical structural and chemical details of the material used to provide historic data is either absent or confirms the presence of significant impurity phases. This study was initiated to fabricate high purity U3Si2 to quantify the coefficient of thermal expansion, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity from room temperature to 1773 K. Here, the datasets provided in this manuscript will facilitate more detailed fuel performance modeling to assess both current and proposed reactor designs that incorporate U3Si2.

  14. Simultaneous ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd">π/2 rotation of two spin species of different gyromagnetic ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Ping -Han; Peng, Jen -Chieh

    2015-06-05

    Here, we examine the characteristics of the π/2 pulse for simultaneously rotating two spin species of different gyromagnetic ratios with the same sign. For a π/2 pulse using a rotating magnetic field, we derive an equation relating the frequency and strength of the pulse to the gyromagnetic ratios of the two particles and the strength of the constant holding field. For a π/2 pulse using a linear oscillatory magnetic field, we obtain the solutions numerically, and compare them with the solutions for the rotating π/2 pulse. Application of this analysis to the specific case of rotating neutrons and 3He atoms simultaneously with a π/2 pulse, proposed for a neutron electric dipole moment experiment, is also presented.

  15. Efficient solution of the simplified ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd">PN equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Steven P.; Evans, Thomas M.

    2014-12-23

    We show new solver strategies for the multigroup SPN equations for nuclear reactor analysis. By forming the complete matrix over space, moments, and energy a robust set of solution strategies may be applied. Moreover, power iteration, shifted power iteration, Rayleigh quotient iteration, Arnoldi's method, and a generalized Davidson method, each using algebraic and physics-based multigrid preconditioners, have been compared on C5G7 MOX test problem as well as an operational PWR model. These results show that the most ecient approach is the generalized Davidson method, that is 30-40 times faster than traditional power iteration and 6-10 times faster than Arnoldi's method.

  16. Safety and quality parameters of ready-to-cook minced pork meat products supplemented with Helianthus tuberosus L. tubers fermented by BLIS producing lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stimbirys, Arturas; Bartkiene, Elena; Siugzdaite, Jurate; Augeniene, Dovile; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Maruska, Audrius; Stankevicius, Mantas; Cizeikiene, Dalia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of additives of Jerusalem artichoke (JA), fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9, L. sakei KTU05-6, on the quality and safety parameters of ready - to cook - minced pork (RCMP). Fermented JA additives reduced pH of the meat products and decreased water holding capacity (WHC) from 2.01 till 2.93 %. Concentrations of biogenic amines in RCMP with additives of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - fermented JA were significantly lower comparing with control sample. The number of pathogenic bacteria in artificially contaminated meat samples was significantly reduced in case of LAB-fermented JA additives. The highest antimicrobial activity was obtained using P. acidilactici fermented JA additives. The amounts of microbial pathogens E. coli and Ent. faecalis, S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. were determined 3.41, 3.38, 3,96 and 4.74 log CFU/g correspondingly, whereas without LAB-fermented JA additives were 8.94, 7.75, 8.82 and 8.58 log CFU/g, correspondingly. A possibility to improve sensory properties (flavor) of RCMP using LAB fermented JA additives was investigated. The composition of volatile compounds of RCMP without additive and with LAB-fermented JA additives was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of sensory evaluation of meat products supplemented with fermented JA additives revealed specific odor, which is pleasant and acceptable for consumers might be explainable that LAB-fermented JA additives have shown considerable differences mainly due to the accumulation of volatiles such as toluene, ethylbenzene, decane, undecane, 2 methyl undecane. N-morpholinomethyl-isopropyl-sulfide, 6-undecilamine and N,N-dimethyl-1-pentadecanamine were not determined in RCMP with LAB-fermented JA additives. The results obtained show, that P. acidilactici fermented JA 5 % additive is most suitable for the RCMP processing in order to prevent microbiological spoilage, increase

  17. Multilayered Organization of Jasmonate Signalling in the Regulation of Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Debora; Chételat, Aurore; Acosta, Ivan F.; Goossens, Jonas; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Dreos, René; Alfonso, Esteban; Farmer, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical damage can strongly affect plant growth, reducing the biomass of developing organs situated at a distance from wounds. These effects, previously studied in leaves, require the activation of jasmonate (JA) signalling. Using a novel assay involving repetitive cotyledon wounding in Arabidopsis seedlings, we uncovered a function of JA in suppressing cell division and elongation in roots. Regulatory JA signalling components were then manipulated to delineate their relative impacts on root growth. The new transcription factor mutant myc2-322B was isolated. In vitro transcription assays and whole-plant approaches revealed that myc2-322B is a dosage-dependent gain-of-function mutant that can amplify JA growth responses. Moreover, myc2-322B displayed extreme hypersensitivity to JA that totally suppressed root elongation. The mutation weakly reduced root growth in undamaged plants but, when the upstream negative regulator NINJA was genetically removed, myc2-322B powerfully repressed root growth through its effects on cell division and cell elongation. Furthermore, in a JA-deficient mutant background, ninja1 myc2-322B still repressed root elongation, indicating that it is possible to generate JA-responses in the absence of JA. We show that NINJA forms a broadly expressed regulatory layer that is required to inhibit JA signalling in the apex of roots grown under basal conditions. By contrast, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 displayed cell layer-specific localisations and MYC3 and MYC4 were expressed in mutually exclusive regions. In nature, growing roots are likely subjected to constant mechanical stress during soil penetration that could lead to JA production and subsequent detrimental effects on growth. Our data reveal how distinct negative regulatory layers, including both NINJA-dependent and -independent mechanisms, restrain JA responses to allow normal root growth. Mechanistic insights from this work underline the importance of mapping JA signalling components to specific

  18. Cloning of organic solvent tolerance gene ostA that determines n-hexane tolerance level in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Aono, R; Negishi, T; Nakajima, H

    1994-01-01

    A variety of genes are involved in determining the level of organic solvent tolerance of Escherichia coli K-12. Gene ostA is one of the genes contributing to the level of organic solvent tolerance. This gene was cloned from an n-hexane-tolerant strain of E. coli, JA300. A JA300-based n-hexane-sensitive strain, OST4251, was converted to the n-hexane-tolerant phenotype by transformation with DNA containing the ostA gene derived from JA300. Thus, the cloned ostA gene complemented the n-hexane-sensitive phenotype of OST4251. Images PMID:7811102

  19. A neural network for incorporating the thermal effect on the magnetic hysteresis of the 3F3 material using the Jiles-Atherton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouicer, A.; Nouicer, E.; Feliachi, Mouloud

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with the temperature dependent modeling approach for the generation of hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic materials. The physical model is developed to study the effect of temperature on the magnetic hysteresis loop using the Jiles-Atherton (J-A) model. The thermal effects were incorporated through temperature dependent hysteresis parameters of JA model. The temperature-dependent J-A model was validated by measurements made on the ferrite material. The results of proposed model were in good agreement with the measurements.

  20. Introducing a domain flexing function in the Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljavec, Damijan; Zidarič, Bogomir

    The Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model (J-A model) exhibits a certain unphysical behavior when magnetic excitation reaches or reverses from the extremity of the hysteresis loop. Introducing a domain flexing function, coherent with the magnetic excitation level, improves accuracy of the J-A hysteresis model and at the same time prevents its unphysical behavior. Moreover, applying this function also improves representation of inner (lower excitation level) hysteresis loops. Implementation of magnetic excitation dependence in the domain flexing function adds a valuable parameter to the J-A original model on the way towards its further optimization. In the proposed hysteresis model, genetic algorithms are used in parameters optimization.

  1. Innovative Ideas in College Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Max

    1973-01-01

    Seven examples of adaptation and new developments are described: Graceland College, Manchester College, Plymouth State College, U.S. Coast Guard Academy, Colorado State College, North Carolina State University, and Brookdale Community College. (Editors/JA)

  2. The Use and Abuse of Anabolic Steroids: A Discussion for Health and Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This article reviews research on anabolic steroids, indicating that athletes are mistaken in believing that taking them will improve their physical performance. Dangerous side-effects are also discussed. (JA)

  3. Septicemia

    MedlinePlus

    Blood poisoning; Bacteremia with sepsis ... Shapiro NI, Zimmer GD, Barkin AZ. Sepsis syndromes. In: Marx, JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  4. 76 FR 38122 - Notice of Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing of an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Medical Research and Materiel Command, Attn: Command Judge Advocate, MCMR-JA, 504 Scott Street, Fort... Arwine, Patent Attorney, (301) 619-7808. For licensing issues, Dr. Paul Mele, Office of Research...

  5. 76 FR 38122 - Notice of Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing of an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    .... ADDRESSES: Commander, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Attn: Command Judge Advocate, MCMR-JA..., Office of Research and Technology Applications (ORTA), (301) 619- 6664, both at telefax (301)...

  6. 75 FR 39667 - Availability for Non-Exclusive or Partially Exclusive Licensing of a U.S. Patent Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    .... Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, ATTN: Command Judge Advocate, MCMR-JA, 504 Scott Street.... Elizabeth Arwine, Patent Attorney, (301) 619-7808. For licensing issues, Dr. Paul Mele, Office of...

  7. 75 FR 75968 - Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing of an Invention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ..., U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, ATTN: Command Judge Advocate, MCMR-JA, 504 Scott.... Elizabeth Arwine, Patent Attorney, (301) 619-7808. For licensing issues, Dr. Paul Mele, Office of...

  8. 76 FR 52322 - Notice of Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing of an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Medical Research and Materiel Command, Attn: Command Judge Advocate, MCMR-JA, 504 Scott Street, Fort... Arwine, Patent Attorney, (301) 619-7808. For licensing issues, Dr. Paul Mele, Office of Research...

  9. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 126. Strayer RJ. Acid-base disorders. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  10. Alkalosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia: PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 24. Strayer RJ. Acid-base disorders. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  11. Design and synthesis of biotin-tagged photoaffinity probes of jasmonates.

    PubMed

    Gu, Min; Yan, Jianbin; Bai, Zhiyan; Chen, Yue-Ting; Lu, Wei; Tang, Jie; Duan, Liusheng; Xie, Daoxin; Nan, Fa-Jun

    2010-05-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are a class of oxylipin compounds that play diverse roles in plant defense and development. The F-box protein coronatine insensitive 1 (COI1) plays a crucial role in the JA signaling pathway. To determine whether COI1 binds directly to jasmonates, three biotin-tagged photoaffinity probes for JAs, a jasmonic acid photoaffinity probe (PAJA), a JAIle photoaffinity probe (PAJAIle), and a coronatine photoaffinity probe (PACOR), were designed and synthesized based on analysis of JA structure-activity relationships and molecular modeling of the interaction between COI1 and JAs. Among them, PACOR exhibited the most significant biological activity in inhibiting root growth, promoting accumulation of JA-responsive proteins, and triggering COI1-JAZ1 interaction in Arabidopsis seedlings. PACOR is an effective tool for elucidating the interaction between COI1 and JA. PMID:20395151

  12. Insecticide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 146. Rhe JW. Pesticides. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  13. Model Occupational Therapy Practice Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The Model Occupational Therapy Practice Act has been assembled by the Government Affairs Department, American Occupational Therapy Association, for use as a guide for affiliate organizations concerned with developing legislation to regulate the practice of occupational therapy. (Author/JA)

  14. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 98. Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  15. Ammonium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 187. Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 98. Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  16. Steam iron cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 98. Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  17. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 98. Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  18. Clinitest tablets poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 40. Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 98. Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  19. Intestinal leiomyoma

    MedlinePlus

    Leiomyoma - intestine ... McLaughlin P, Maher MM. The duodenum and small intestine. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ... Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  20. Sickle Cell Screening: Emphasis on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Carmine; Frank, William

    1972-01-01

    This article relates the sickle cell education program, the personnel training and the screening procedures of a pilot sickle cell screening program by the Prince George's County Health Department. (JA)

  1. 21 CFR 573.760 - Poloxalene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-ionic block polymer meeting the following specifications: (1) Molecular weight range: 2,850-3,150. (2...: ER01JA93.414 (b) In feed as a surfactant for the flaking of feed grains when added to liquid...

  2. 21 CFR 573.760 - Poloxalene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-ionic block polymer meeting the following specifications: (1) Molecular weight range: 2,850-3,150. (2...: ER01JA93.414 (b) In feed as a surfactant for the flaking of feed grains when added to liquid...

  3. Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... NY: McGraw-Hill; 2004:chap 251. Lammers RL. Principles of wound management. In: Roberts JR, Hedges JR, eds. Roberts: Clinical ... 2009:chap 39. Simon BC, Hern HG. Wound management principles. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  4. The C2 Protein from the Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus Decreases Sensitivity to Jasmonates and Suppresses Jasmonate-Mediated Defences

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Díaz, Tábata; Macho, Alberto P.; Beuzón, Carmen R.; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Bejarano, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence points at a role of the plant hormones jasmonates (JAs) in determining the outcome of plant-virus interactions. Geminiviruses, small DNA viruses infecting a wide range of plant species worldwide, encode a multifunctional protein, C2, which is essential for full pathogenicity. The C2 protein has been shown to suppress the JA response, although the current view on the extent of this effect and the underlying molecular mechanisms is incomplete. In this work, we use a combination of exogenous hormone treatments, microarray analysis, and pathogen infections to analyze, in detail, the suppression of the JA response exerted by C2. Our results indicate that C2 specifically affects certain JA-induced responses, namely defence and secondary metabolism, and show that plants expressing C2 are more susceptible to pathogen attack. We propose a model in which C2 might interfere with the JA response at several levels. PMID:27135228

  5. Wilderness Savings: A New Way to Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    However unpalatable regulatory federal control of access to America's wilderness may be, the alternatives are either its eventual destruction or complete prohibition of access. This article discusses some possible regulations. (JA)

  6. Indians Learn 3 C's--Campgrounds, Culture, and Currency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, John W.

    1973-01-01

    Many American Indian groups are turning to tourism to better their social and economic conditions. This article details the training programs they needed for campground maintenance and business operations. (JA)

  7. Violence in Sport: Mirror of American Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runfola, Ross T.

    1975-01-01

    In this issue of a newsletter put out by the Center for Information on America, Washington, D.C., the author cites historical, psychological, and sociological reasons for violence in sports activities and concludes by requesting further research. (JA)

  8. Benzene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Atlanta, GA. Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 94. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  9. Kerosene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocarbons, substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  10. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in soldering fluxes are called hydrocarbons. They include: Ammonium chloride Rosin Hydrochloric acid Zinc ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ... Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  11. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  12. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  13. Diesel oil

    MedlinePlus

    Various hydrocarbons ... Empyema Many of the most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 75. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  14. Asphalt cement poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... substances in asphalt that can be harmful are: Hydrocarbons Industrial glues Industrial solvents Tar ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 91. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  15. Ulvan, a sulfated polysaccharide from green algae, activates plant immunity through the jasmonic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

  16. Jasmonate signalling in plants shapes plant-insect interaction ecology.

    PubMed

    Lortzing, Tobias; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) regulates the induction of direct and indirect defences against herbivores. By now, the biochemical pathway of JA-signalling has been well resolved, allowing the use of an interdisciplinary toolbox and spurring the mechanistic investigation of plant-insect interactions. Recent advances show that JA-mediated plant responses are involved in the competitive and trophic interactions between various organisms throughout at least four trophic levels and therefore likely shape natural communities. Moreover, JA-mediated responses can be primed or suppressed by various environmental factors that are related to herbivory or not. Yet, to integrate the complex interactions at the physiological and ecological levels into community ecology, an examination of the often onetime discoveries for general rules and new bioinformatic approaches are required. PMID:27436644

  17. Jewelry cleaners

    MedlinePlus

    Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 98. Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  18. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... relaxer/straightener products that do not use lye) Mineral oil Polyethylene glycol Sodium hydroxide (found in relaxer/ ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  19. Teaching in War-Torn Belfast: Reading, Writing, Rioting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Arturo F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation in Belfast--the divided sympathies on the part of the students, the segregation, the possible hardening of the students. Also considered are the difficulties of teachers in this war situation. (JA)

  20. Anti-rust product poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... to toxic exposures. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 75. Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls ...