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Sample records for ja ves jskelinen

  1. 47 CFR 97.525 - Accrediting VEs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... VEC must seek a broad representation of amateur operators to be VEs. No VEC may discriminate in... lack thereof) in an amateur service organization; nor on the basis of the person accepting or...

  2. 47 CFR 97.525 - Accrediting VEs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... VEC must seek a broad representation of amateur operators to be VEs. No VEC may discriminate in... lack thereof) in an amateur service organization; nor on the basis of the person accepting or...

  3. 47 CFR 97.525 - Accrediting VEs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... VEC must seek a broad representation of amateur operators to be VEs. No VEC may discriminate in... lack thereof) in an amateur service organization; nor on the basis of the person accepting or...

  4. 47 CFR 97.525 - Accrediting VEs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... VEC must seek a broad representation of amateur operators to be VEs. No VEC may discriminate in... lack thereof) in an amateur service organization; nor on the basis of the person accepting or...

  5. 47 CFR 97.525 - Accrediting VEs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... VEC must seek a broad representation of amateur operators to be VEs. No VEC may discriminate in... lack thereof) in an amateur service organization; nor on the basis of the person accepting or...

  6. VES16 Li-Ion Cell For Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, S.; Prevot, D.; Reulier, D.; Vigier, F., , Dr.

    2011-10-01

    At a period when LEO satellite market is growing, as well as mission life time requirements, Saft has designed a new Li-ion cell aiming to answer those demanding requirements. This development is conducted with the support and partnership of CNES French agency. This VES16 cell combines benefits and heritage of low capacity MPS Li-ion cells, and advantages of Nickel oxide base Li-ion chemistry of VES100-140-180 cells. After a period of cycling evaluation of the cell with slight electrochemistry differences, an optimized cell design has been frozen and is submitted to a large qualification plan, including characterisations, environmental tests, and life time demonstrations. This paper presents the main BOL characteristics and performances achieved during the qualification program, including electrical, thermal and mechanical characterisations. It will also detail the expected lifetime data, and the key results obtained on VES16 cell in LEO mission cycling configuration. A specific paragraph also includes results in GEO cycling configuration, to highlight that the cell can be also proposed on geostationary spacecraft.

  7. Functional and Structural Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Extracellular Serine Protease B, VesB*

    PubMed Central

    Gadwal, Shilpa; Korotkov, Konstantin V.; Delarosa, Jaclyn R.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Sandkvist, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The chymotrypsin subfamily A of serine proteases consists primarily of eukaryotic proteases, including only a few proteases of bacterial origin. VesB, a newly identified serine protease that is secreted by the type II secretion system in Vibrio cholerae, belongs to this subfamily. VesB is likely produced as a zymogen because sequence alignment with trypsinogen identified a putative cleavage site for activation and a catalytic triad, His-Asp-Ser. Using synthetic peptides, VesB efficiently cleaved a trypsin substrate, but not chymotrypsin and elastase substrates. The reversible serine protease inhibitor, benzamidine, inhibited VesB and served as an immobilized ligand for VesB affinity purification, further indicating its relationship with trypsin-like enzymes. Consistent with this family of serine proteases, N-terminal sequencing implied that the propeptide is removed in the secreted form of VesB. Separate mutagenesis of the activation site and catalytic serine rendered VesB inactive, confirming the importance of these features for activity, but not for secretion. Similar to trypsin but, in contrast to thrombin and other coagulation factors, Na+ did not stimulate the activity of VesB, despite containing the Tyr250 signature. The crystal structure of catalytically inactive pro-VesB revealed that the protease domain is structurally similar to trypsinogen. The C-terminal domain of VesB was found to adopt an immunoglobulin (Ig)-fold that is structurally homologous to Ig-folds of other extracellular Vibrio proteins. Possible roles of the Ig-fold domain in stability, substrate specificity, cell surface association, and type II secretion of VesB, the first bacterial multidomain trypsin-like protease with known structure, are discussed. PMID:24459146

  8. Comparison of 1-Dimensional and 2- Dimensional Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) Results in Geothermal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakmak, Olcay; Uyanık, Osman

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed in a geothermal area in Denizli-Turkey. All measures were taken in 2013 along to three months. VES measurements were taken throughout 3 profiles of parallel to each other in geothermal area. Distance of between profiles was selected as 500m. Each of the VES point lengths were taken as between 3-4km in a total of taken 90 number VES measurements. Also distance between the VES points was selected as 250m. Extensional direction of VES point of inside the same profile was designed to be suitable for two-dimensional. Measurements were evaluated as one-dimensional (1D) and after this two-dimensional (2D) then evaluation results were discussed. The geothermal reservoir depth was investigated and was tried to identify potential mechanical borehole locations depending on 1D and 2D evaluation results. Keywords: Geothermal Area, Vertical Electrical Sounding, 1D-2D resistivity results

  9. Geoelectrical characterization by joint inversion of VES/TEM in Paraná basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolozo, C. A.; Couto, M. A.; Almeida, E. R.; Porsani, J. L.; Santos, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    For many years electrical (DC) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings have been used in a great number of environmental, hydrological and mining exploration studies. The data of both methods are interpreted usually by individual 1D models resulting in many cases in ambiguous models. This can be explained by how the two different methodologies sample the subsurface. The vertical electrical sounding (VES) is good on marking very resistive structures, while the transient electromagnetic sounding (TEM) is very sensitive to map conductive structures. Another characteristic is that VES is more sensitive to shallow structures, while TEM soundings can reach deeper structures. A Matlab program for joint inversion of VES and TEM soundings, by using CRS algorithm was developed aiming explore the best of the both methods. Initially, the algorithm was tested with synthetic data and after it was used to invert experimental data from Paraná sedimentary basin. We present the results of a re-interpretation of 46 VES/TEM soundings data set acquired in Bebedouro region in São Paulo State - Brazil. The previous interpretation was based in geoelectrical models obtained by single inversion of the VES and TEM soundings. In this work we present the results with single inversion of VES and TEM sounding inverted by the Curupira Program and a new interpretation based in the joint inversion of both methodologies. The goal is increase the accuracy in determining the underground structures. As a result a new geoelectrical model of the region is obtained.

  10. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate measurement by VES Matic Cube 80 in relation to inflammation plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Helena; Muzzi, Chiara; Leoncini, Roberto; Scapellato, Carlo; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Furlani, Emiliano; Guerranti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Westergren method is considered as the reference procedure to measure Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) by the International Council for Standardization in Haematology. However, a closed automated method, VES Matic Cube 80 (DIESSE S.p.A., Siena, Italy), has been introduced as a new ESR measurement instrument. In this article, we report two different studies: first, we compared the two methods (Westergren and VES Matic Cube 80) and second, we correlated the inflammatory state of 248 patients with their ESR values. Total protein, albumin, C-reactive protein, and other inflammatory proteins were detected in each sample. The results obtained using VES Matic Cube 80 demonstrated a good correlation with those obtained using the Westergren method (Ordinary linear regression: y=0.955x-0.205, r(2) =0.816, P<0.05; Passing-Bablock regression equation: y=0.9153x-0.5763; Bland-Altman analysis: bias 1.2; limits of agreement -17.4-19.9) and with the inflammatory protein levels (CRP: r=0.554 and r=0.498 and Fibrinogen: r=0.699 and r=0.663 for Ves Matic Cube 80 and Westergren, respectively), supporting the hypothesis that VES Matic Cube 80 offers a fast and safe ESR determination, ensuring precision and a very good correlation with the reference method. PMID:21567468

  11. Development and Validation of the Vitiligo Extent Score (VES): an International Collaborative Initiative.

    PubMed

    van Geel, Nanja; Lommerts, Janny; Bekkenk, Marcel; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Eleftheriadou, Viktoria; Taïeb, Alain; Picardo, Mauro; Ezzedine, Khaled; Speeckaert, Reinhart

    2016-05-01

    The clinical assessment of vitiligo involves an estimation of the affected body surface area. The most commonly used method is the "palm of hand 1% rule" as integrated in the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index. However, this method can be challenging and time consuming. In this study, we introduce a global Vitiligo Extent Score (VES). In the first part of the study, this measurement instrument was developed and subsequently optimized during a pilot scoring session. In a subsequent stage, the inter- and intrarater reliability of the instrument were tested. Live scoring showed an excellent interrater reliability for the VES (intraclass correlation VES: 0.924 vs. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index: 0.846). Subsequent scoring on pictures was comparable with the live evaluation and demonstrated an excellent intrarater reliability. A high intraclass correlation for the VES (intraclass correlation VES: 0.923 vs. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index: 0.757) was also found in an additional subgroup of patients with extensive vitiligo. Moreover, user-friendliness and timing were scored very favorably. In conclusion, this measurement instrument allows us to monitor accurately and easily the affected body surface area in a standardized way. Moreover, our results provide evidence that the VES can be proposed as a promising tool to measure the vitiligo extent in clinical trials and in daily practice. PMID:26827762

  12. Qualification of High Specific Energy Li-Ion Cell VES180SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defer, M.; Du Peyrat, D.; Prevot, D.; Borthomieu, Y.

    2008-09-01

    In order to improve the competitiveness of future platform by reducing weight and cost of the flight batteries solutions, a high specific energy VES180SA cell has been developed and qualified jointly with ESA, CNES, Astrium and Thales in the frame of Artes8 program. This new generation of cell achieves a specific energy of 155Wh/kg in the same casing as the previous generation of VES140S/SA cells given for 115Wh/kg and takes benefit of:* Use of a Ni based G5 generation electrochemistry already implemented in mass production for industrial application.* Use of return on G4 (VES140) & G5 life tests results as well as VES140S/SA flight experience * Use of SA mechanics i.e. with jelly roll attached in order to sustain more severe mechanical environmentVES180SA cell design is the same as the existing VES140SA cell design except the electrochemistry (jelly-roll) which has evolved in order to deliver more energy. The cell casing is composed by a thin al. tube closed by two al. covers that are welded on the extremities of the tube. During the whole cell lifetime, casing is stressed by combined static loads due to internal gas pressure, in cycling jelly-roll swelling and irreversible jelly roll swelling due to ageing phenomena. In addition to that, static loads are temporarily combined to dynamic loads during the launch phase. Whereas, dynamic loads applied on VES140SA and VES180SA cells are the same, maximal internal gas pressure and jelly-roll swelling are higher in VES180SA cell due to its new electrochemistry. The maximal internal pressure of a cell can be estimated by a Saft numerical model based on pressure measurement and extrapolations. For what concern the jelly roll swelling, such a model was not available at the start of the development of the VES180SA cell. The aim of the cell development phase was therefore to optimize the design by characterizing the casing material and performing adequate tests in order to define the cell worst case mechanical loads as a

  13. Instructional Design Practices in the Design and Development of Digital Humanities Virtual Environments (DH-VEs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Valerie Hunter

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments, virtual worlds, simulations, 3D models are loaded with potential, promise, and problems. While learning in virtual settings is still being researched, instructional designers are challenged as to which instructional design practices are best suited for virtual environments (VEs). The problem is there is a lack of a conceptual…

  14. Mosquito-Borne Infections in the Aftermath of Hurricane Jeanne— Gonaïves, Haiti, 2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following Hurricane Jeanne in September 2004, surveillance for mosquito-borne diseases in Gonaïves Haiti identified three patients with malaria, two with acute dengue infections, and two with acute West Nile virus infections among 116 febrile patients. These are the first reported human West Nile vi...

  15. Cáncer de vesícula biliar—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vesícula biliar, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  16. Assessment of Diesse Ves-matic automated system for measuring erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, M; Stuart, J

    1991-01-01

    Measurement of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) using a closed tube system reduces the biohazard risk to laboratory staff. The Diesse Ves-matic system offers manual or vacuum collection of blood into plastic tubes, automated mixing of the sample, and automated reading of the end point after 20 minutes of sedimentation. This system was compared with the 1977 Westergren ESR method of the International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) and with the 1988 ICSH undiluted ESR method. Manually collected Ves-matic samples showed good agreement with ICSH values, although there was a tendency to false low results at low ESR values which may represent dilution of plasma protein with excess citrate. Vacuum collected Ves-matic samples also showed good agreement with ICSH values, although there was a tendency to false high results which may reflect a change in the blood: citrate ratio caused by loss of anticoagulant diluent or vacuum from plastic tubes during storage. The Diesse Ves-matic system incorporates several improvements over previous technology and offers a safer, quicker, and more standardised ESR. PMID:1752986

  17. Social values for ecosystem services (SolVES): Documentation and user manual, version 2.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the need for incorporating quantified and spatially explicit measures of social values into ecosystem services assessments, the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC), in collaboration with Colorado State University, developed a geographic information system (GIS) application, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES). With version 2.0 (SolVES 2.0), RMGSC has improved and extended the functionality of SolVES, which was designed to assess, map, and quantify the perceived social values of ecosystem services. Social values such as aesthetics, biodiversity, and recreation can be evaluated for various stakeholder groups as distinguished by their attitudes and preferences regarding public uses, such as motorized recreation and logging. As with the previous version, SolVES 2.0 derives a quantitative, 10-point, social-values metric, the Value Index, from a combination of spatial and nonspatial responses to public attitude and preference surveys and calculates metrics characterizing the underlying environment, such as average distance to water and dominant landcover. Additionally, SolVES 2.0 integrates Maxent maximum entropy modeling software to generate more complete social value maps and to produce robust statistical models describing the relationship between the social values maps and explanatory environmental variables. The performance of these models can be evaluated for a primary study area, as well as for similar areas where primary survey data are not available but where social value mapping could potentially be completed using value-transfer methodology. SolVES 2.0 also introduces the flexibility for users to define their own social values and public uses, model any number and type of environmental variable, and modify the spatial resolution of analysis. With these enhancements, SolVES 2.0 provides an improved public domain tool for decisionmakers and researchers to evaluate the social values of ecosystem services and to facilitate

  18. Social Values for Ecosystem Services, version 3.0 (SolVES 3.0): documentation and user manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Ben C.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic information system (GIS) tool, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES), was developed to incorporate quantified and spatially explicit measures of social values into ecosystem service assessments. SolVES 3.0 continues to extend the functionality of SolVES, which was designed to assess, map, and quantify the social values of ecosystem services. Social values—the perceived, nonmarket values the public ascribes to ecosystem services, particularly cultural services, such as aesthetics and recreation—can be evaluated for various stakeholder groups. These groups are distinguishable by their attitudes and preferences regarding public uses, such as motorized recreation and logging. As with previous versions, SolVES 3.0 derives a quantitative 10-point, social-values metric—the value index—from a combination of spatial and nonspatial responses to public value and preference surveys. The tool also calculates metrics characterizing the underlying environment, such as average distance to water and dominant landcover. SolVES 3.0 is integrated with Maxent maximum entropy modeling software to generate more complete social-value maps and offer robust statistical models describing the relationship between the value index and explanatory environmental variables. A model’s goodness of fit to a primary study area and its potential performance in transferring social values to similar areas using value-transfer methodology can be evaluated. SolVES 3.0 provides an improved public-domain tool for decision makers and researchers to evaluate the social values of ecosystem services and to facilitate discussions among diverse stakeholders regarding the tradeoffs among ecosystem services in a variety of physical and social contexts ranging from forest and rangeland to coastal and marine.

  19. Structure of recombinant Ves v 2 at 2.0 Angstrom resolution: structural analysis of an allergenic hyaluronidase from wasp venom.

    PubMed

    Skov, Lars K; Seppälä, Ulla; Coen, Jeremy J F; Crickmore, Neil; King, Te P; Monsalve, Rafael; Kastrup, Jette S; Spangfort, Michael D; Gajhede, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Wasp venom from Vespula vulgaris contains three major allergens: Ves v 1, Ves v 2 and Ves v 5. Here, the cloning, expression, biochemical characterization and crystal structure determination of the hyaluronidase Ves v 2 from family 56 of the glycoside hydrolases are reported. The allergen was expressed in Escherichia coli as an insoluble protein and refolded and purified to obtain full enzymatic activity. Three N-glycosylation sites at Asn79, Asn99 and Asn127 were identified in Ves v 2 from a natural source by enzymatic digestions combined with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The crystal structure of recombinant Ves v 2 was determined at 2.0 A resolution and reveals a central (beta/alpha)(7) core that is further stabilized by two disulfide bonds (Cys19-Cys308 and Cys185-Cys197). Based on sequence alignments and structural comparison with the honeybee allergen Api m 2, it is proposed that a conserved cavity near the active site is involved in binding of the substrate. Surface epitopes and putative glycosylation sites have been compared with those of two other major group 2 allergens from Apis mellifera (honeybee) and Dolichovespula maculata (white-faced hornet). The analysis suggests that the harboured allergic IgE-mediated cross-reactivity between Ves v 2 and the allergen from D. maculata is much higher than that between Ves v 2 and the allergen from A. mellifera. PMID:16699186

  20. Purification and structural characterisation of phospholipase A1 (Vespapase, Ves a 1) from Thai banded tiger wasp (Vespa affinis) venom.

    PubMed

    Sukprasert, Sophida; Rungsa, Prapenpuksiri; Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Incamnoi, Paroonkorn; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Daduang, Sakda

    2013-01-01

    The Thai banded tiger wasp (Vespa affinis) is one of the most dangerous vespid species in Southeast Asia, and stinging accidents involving this species still cause fatalities. In the present study, four forms of V. affinis phospholipase A(1) were identified through a proteomics approach. Two of these enzymes were purified by reverse-phase chromatography, and their biochemical properties were characterised. These enzymes, designated Ves a 1s, are not glycoproteins and exist as 33441.5 and 33474.4 Da proteins, which corresponded with the 34-kDa band observed via SDS-PAGE. The thermal stabilities of these enzymes were stronger than snake venom. Using an in vivo assay, no difference was found in the toxicities of the different isoforms. Furthermore, the toxicity of these enzymes does not appear to be correlated with their PLA(1) activity. The cDNAs of the full-length version of Ves a 1s revealed that the Ves a 1 gene consists of a 1005-bp ORF, which encodes 334 amino acid residues, and 67- and 227-bp 5' and 3' UTRs, respectively. The two isoforms are different by three nucleotide substitutions, resulting in the replacement of two amino acids. Through sequence alignment, these enzymes were classified as members of the pancreatic lipase family. The structural modelling of Ves a 1 used the rat pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (1bu8A) as a template because it has PLA(1) activity, which demonstrated that this enzyme belongs to the α/β hydrolase fold family. The Ves a 1 structure, which is composed of seven α-helixes and eleven β-strands, contains the β-strand/ɛSer/α-helix structural motif, which contains the Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly consensus sequence. The typical surface structures that play important roles in substrate selectivity (the lid domain and the β9 loop) were shortened in the Ves a 1 structure, which suggests that this enzyme may only exhibit phospholipase activity. Moreover, the observed insertion of proline into the lid domain of the Ves a 1 structure is rare

  1. An application of Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) to three national forests in Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Semmens, Darius J.; Clement, Jessica M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition that social-value information is needed to inform stakeholders and decision makers regarding trade-offs in environmental management, it too often remains absent from ecosystem service assessments. Although quantitative indicators of social values need to be explicitly accounted for in the decision-making process, they need not be monetary. Ongoing efforts to map such values demonstrate how they can also be made spatially explicit and relatable to underlying ecological information. We originally developed Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) as a tool to assess, map, and quantify nonmarket values perceived by various groups of ecosystem stakeholders. With SolVES 2.0 we have extended the functionality by integrating SolVES with Maxent maximum entropy modeling software to generate more complete social-value maps from available value and preference survey data and to produce more robust models describing the relationship between social values and ecosystems. The current study has two objectives: (1) evaluate how effectively the value index, a quantitative, nonmonetary social-value indicator calculated by SolVES, reproduces results from more common statistical methods of social-survey data analysis and (2) examine how the spatial results produced by SolVES provide additional information that could be used by managers and stakeholders to better understand more complex relationships among stakeholder values, attitudes, and preferences. To achieve these objectives, we applied SolVES to value and preference survey data collected for three national forests, the Pike and San Isabel in Colorado and the Bridger–Teton and the Shoshone in Wyoming. Value index results were generally consistent with results found through more common statistical analyses of the survey data such as frequency, discriminant function, and correlation analyses. In addition, spatial analysis of the social-value maps produced by SolVES provided information that was

  2. 78 FR 58287 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Social Values of Ecosystem Services (SolVES) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Values of Ecosystem Services (SolVES) in Marine Protected Areas for Management Decision-Making AGENCY...) and National Marine Sanctuary (NMS) managers in the Mission-Aransas NERR and the Olympic Coast NMS... practices affecting the coastal and ocean resources of the United States. Additionally, the National...

  3. Getting the Price Right: Costing and Charging Commercial Provision in Centres of Vocational Excellence (CoVEs). Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, Liz; Chadwick, Arthur; Hughes, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Centres of Vocational Excellence (CoVEs) were established in 2001, intended to be a key driver in enhancing the contribution of the further education (FE) sector to meeting skills needs. Current government policy expects employers and individuals to pay a greater share of the costs of training, particularly at Level 3, which is the CoVE priority…

  4. Cáncer de vesícula biliar—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vesícula biliar, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  5. Application of vertical electrical sounding (VES) in subsurface geological investigation for potential aquifer in Lahad Datu, Sabah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Hardianshah; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2013-11-01

    40 Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) stations were established to investigate the subsurface geology and aquifer potentials in the area of Dent Group sedimentary rock. Dent Group sedimentary rock consists of Sebahat, Ganduman and Togopi Formation with the age of Late Miocene until Pleistocene. VES technique was performed by measuring the resistivity change with depth. The resistivity measurements were conducted using ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter by using Schlumberger electrode configuration with maximum current electrode separation of 500m. Interpreted VES data in the Sebahat Formation produces three to four geo-electrical resistivity layers. Most of the geo-electrical layers show low resistivity value (1-10 Ohm-m) that indicate the formation was mainly made of clay or shale materials. VES results in the Ganduman Formation indicates that the formation dominated by layers of sandstone and mudstone mixed with siltstone layer. Generally, the Ganduman Formation gives four to five geo-electrical resistivity layers. While Togopi Formation produced 3 to 4 geo-electrical layers interpreted as sandstone for the first layer, mudstone for the second layer and followed by layer containing several block of limestone. The geo-electrical resistivity results indicate that Ganduman and Togopi Formations have the potential to become aquifer. The VES method has successfully detected the soil material layers in Ganduman and Togopi formations which were supported by the existing borehole data. Combination of sandstone and mudstone layers indicate that the Ganduman Formation possibly become semi-confined aquifer. Furthermore, the Ganduman Formation also producing artesian wells in some areas that were found at a number of production wells in the study area. Similarly, the Togopi Formation is also having dominated sandy layer that can be a potential aquifer. In addition, the limestone blocks in the Togopi Formation could also become a potential aquifer, whilst for the Sebahat Formation

  6. Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES): using GIS to include social values information in ecosystem services assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, B.C.; Semmens, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem services can be defined in various ways; simply put, they are the benefits provided by nature, which contribute to human well-being. These benefits can range from tangible products such as food and fresh water to cultural services such as recreation and esthetics. As the use of these benefits continues to increase, additional pressures are placed on the natural ecosystems providing them. This makes it all the more important when assessing possible tradeoffs among ecosystem services to consider the human attitudes and preferences that express underlying social values associated with their benefits. While some of these values can be accounted for through economic markets, other values can be more difficult to quantify, and attaching dollar amounts to them may not be very useful in all cases. Regardless of the processes or units used for quantifying such values, the ability to map them across the landscape and relate them to the ecosystem services to which they are attributed is necessary for effective assessments. To address some of the needs associated with quantifying and mapping social values for inclusion in ecosystem services assessments, scientists at the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC), in collaboration with Colorado State University, have developed a public domain tool, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES). SolVES is a geographic information system (GIS) application designed to use data from public attitude and preference surveys to assess, map, and quantify social values for ecosystem services. SolVES calculates and maps a 10-point Value Index representing the relative perceived social values of ecosystem services such as recreation and biodiversity for various groups of ecosystem stakeholders. SolVES output can also be used to identify and model relationships between social values and physical characteristics of the underlying landscape. These relationships can then be used to generate predicted Value Index maps for areas

  7. Study of the reaction π- A π+π-π- A at large statistics with VES setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachaev, I.; Dorofeev, V.; Ekimov, A.; Gotman, V.; Ivashin, A.; Kalendarev, V.; Khokhlov, Yu.; Kholodenko, M.; Konstantinov, V.; Matveev, V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Nikolaenko, V.; Plekhanov, A.; Ryabchikov, D.; Salomatin, Yu.; Sugonyaev, V.; Volkov, E.; Zaitsev, A.

    2015-12-01

    Partial wave analysis of the π- A π+π-π- system produced by 29 GeV/ cπ- beam on a beryllium target is presented. About 30 × 106 |events in the wide t'|range 0-0.8 GeV2/ c 2 are collected with upgraded VES setup. The size of the data sample is 2.5 times larger than one previously analyzed by VES. Data are analyzed using formalism of the density matrix with unlimited rank. We discuss status of the a 1(1420) a 2(1700) a 3(1875) states and a structure of exotic ρ(770)π P-wave with J PC = 1-+. Parameters of a 3(1875) are estimated as M = 1985 ± 20 MeV/ c 2, Γ = 200 ± 50 MeV/ c 2 (preliminary).

  8. Paleotopographic control of landslides in lacustrine deposits (Trièves plateau, French western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bièvre, Grégory; Kniess, Ulrich; Jongmans, Denis; Pathier, Erwan; Schwartz, Stéphane; van Westen, Cees J.; Villemin, Thierry; Zumbo, Vilma

    2011-01-01

    Paleotopography in Quaternary sedimentary environments can be an important factor that controls landslide movement. This study investigates the relation between paleotopography and landslide activity in two adjacent landslides in glaciolacustrine sediments located in the Trièves area (French western Alps). Although both are in slopes underlain by the same lacustrine deposits, the Avignonet and Harmalière landslides exhibit major differences in morphology and displacement rates. Through a combination of geological mapping, airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, aerial photographs, global positioning system (GPS), and seismic noise measurements, a three-dimensional impression was made of both landslides. The analysis reveals that the difference in kinematics between the two mass movements can be traced back to at least 50 years ago. The results show that the Harmalière slide, which failed catastrophically in 1981, is still much more active than the Avignonet landslide. The fear was that the Avignonet landslide might develop in a similar catastrophic manner, threatening a number of houses constructed on the landslide. A geophysical survey based on ambient noise measurements allowed us to map the base of the lacustrine clays, and the results indicate the presence of a N-S ridge of hard sediments (Jurassic bedrock and/or compact alluvial layers) on the eastern side of the Avignonet landslide. This ridge disappears when approaching the Harmalière landslide and makes a place to what can be interpreted as a NW-SE oriented paleovalley of the river Drac. We proposed that the ridge acts as a buttress that could mechanically prevent the Avignonet landslide from evolving as fast as the Harmalière. Furthermore, the NW-SE paleovalley located under the Harmalière landslide corresponds to the motion direction of the slide. Therefore, the different behaviour of the two landslides is partly controlled by the paleotopographic setting of Lake Trièves during the last

  9. Characterization of the groundwater aquifers at El Sadat City by joint inversion of VES and TEM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoud, Usama; Kenawy, Abeer A.; Ragab, El-Said A.; Abbas, Abbas M.; El-Kosery, Heba M.

    2014-12-01

    Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Transient ElectroMagnetic (TEM) survey have been applied for characterizing the groundwater aquifers at El Sadat industrial area. El-Sadat city is one of the most important industrial cities in Egypt. It has been constructed more than three decades ago at about 80 km northwest of Cairo along the Cairo-Alexandria desert road. Groundwater is the main source of water supplies required for domestic, municipal and industrial activities in this area due to the lack of surface water sources. So, it is important to maintain this vital resource in order to sustain the development plans of this city. In this study, VES and TEM data were identically measured at 24 stations along 3 profiles trending NE-SW with the elongation of the study area. The measuring points were arranged in a grid-like pattern with both inter-station spacing and line-line distance of about 2 km. After performing the necessary processing steps, the VES and TEM data sets were inverted individually to multi-layer models, followed by a joint inversion of both data sets. Joint inversion process has succeeded to overcome the model-equivalence problem encountered in the inversion of individual data set. Then, the joint models were used for the construction of a number of cross sections and contour maps showing the lateral and vertical distribution of the geoelectrical parameters in the subsurface medium. Interpretation of the obtained results and correlation with the available geological and hydrogeological information revealed TWO aquifer systems in the area. The shallow Pleistocene aquifer consists of sand and gravel saturated with fresh water and exhibits large thickness exceeding 200 m. The deep Pliocene aquifer is composed of clay and sand and shows low resistivity values. The water-bearing layer of the Pleistocene aquifer and the upper surface of Pliocene aquifer are continuous and no structural features have cut this continuity through the investigated area.

  10. An Investigation of Vocational Progression Pathways for Young People and Adults in Building Crafts and Hospitality CoVEs. A London Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ruth; Yarrow, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Centres of Vocational Excellence (CoVEs) deliver specialist vocational provision with a focus on increasing learner numbers at Level 3. They aim to produce skilled and appropriately qualified workers to meet the needs of the economy by enhancing the skills and careers of those already in work, the employability of new entrants to the labor …

  11. Deciphering transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer by vertical electrical sounding (VES) experiments in Northwest Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattar, Golam Shabbir; Keramat, Mumnunul; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2016-03-01

    The vertical electrical soundings (VESs) are carried out in 24 selective locations of Chapai-Nawabganj area of northwest Bangladesh to determine the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. Initially, the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity are determined from the pumping data of nearby available production wells. Afterwards, the T and K are correlated with geoelectrical resistance and the total resistivity of the aquifer. The present study deciphers the functional analogous relations of the geoelectrical resistance with the transmissivity and the total resistivity with the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer in northwest Bangladesh. It has been shown that the given equations provide reasonable values of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity where pumping test information is unavailable. It can be expected that the aquifer properties viz. transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of geologically similar area can be determined with the help of the obtained equations by conducting VES experiments.

  12. 1D and 3D inversion of VES data to outline a fresh water zone floating over saline water body at the northwestern coast of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoud, Usama; Soliman, Mamdouh; Taha, Ayman; Khozym, Ashraf; Salah, Hany

    2015-12-01

    Seawater intrusion is a widespread environmental problem in the Egyptian coastal aquifers. It affects the groundwater used in domestic and agricultural activities along these coasts. In this study, resistivity survey in the form of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) was conducted at ZAWYET EL HAWALA cultivated site, northwest coast of Egypt to outline a freshwater zone overlies the main saltwater body, and to determine the most suitable location for drilling water well for irrigation purposes. The VES data were measured at 11 stations in the studied site. After processing, the data were inverted in 1-D and 3-D schemes and the final model was presented as resistivity slices with depth. The results indicate that the effect of saltwater intrusion was observed, as low resistivity values, at 7.5 m below ground surface (bgs) at the northern part of the study area (toward the Mediterranean Sea), and extends southward with increasing depth covering the whole area at about 30 m bgs. The fresh water zone shows a minimum thickness of less than 7.5 m at the northern side and a maximum thickness of about 20 m at the southern side of the area. The proper site for drilling water well tap and the freshwater zone is the location of VES6 or VES9 with a maximum well depth of about 20 m bgs. The water withdrawal from the proposed well should be controlled not to raise the main saline water table in the well site. The main sources of the freshwater zone are the rainfall and surface runoff descending from the southern tableland. Excess rainfall and surface runoff can be avoided from direct discharge to the sea by collecting them in man-made outlined trenches and re-using the stored water in irrigation during the dry seasons.

  13. Identification, recombinant expression, and characterization of the 100 kDa high molecular weight Hymenoptera venom allergens Api m 5 and Ves v 3.

    PubMed

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Bockisch, Benjamin; Braren, Ingke; Cifuentes, Liliana; McIntyre, Mareike; Rühl, Dana; Ring, Johannes; Bredehorst, Reinhard; Ollert, Markus W; Grunwald, Thomas; Spillner, Edzard

    2010-05-01

    Insect stings can cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in venom-allergic patients. Although several compounds have already been described as venom allergens, prominent allergen candidates especially in the higher m.w. range have still remained elusive. Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing assigned a candidate gene to the most prominent putative high m.w. allergen Api m 5 (allergen C) in honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom and also allowed identification of its homologue Ves v 3 in yellow jacket (Vespula vulgaris) venom. Both proteins exhibit a pronounced sequence identity to human dipeptidyl peptidase IV or CD26. Reactivity of a human IgE mAb verified the presence of these proteins in the venoms. Both proteins were produced in insect cells and characterized for their enzymatic activity as well as their allergenic potential using sera and basophils from insect venom-allergic patients. Both Api m 5 and Ves v 3 were recognized by specific IgE of the majority of patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. Serologic IgE reactivity closely matched activation of human basophils by Api m 5 or Ves v 3, thus underlining their relevance in functional assays. With Api m 5 and Ves v 3, a new pair of homologous allergens becomes available for future clinical applications in diagnosis and therapy that may also contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms of insect venoms. Moreover, the patient IgE reactivity together with the cellular activation demonstrates for the first time the relevance of high m.w. allergens in the context of hymenoptera venom allergy. PMID:20348419

  14. Hydraulic parameters estimation by using an approach based on vertical electrical soundings (VES) in the semi-arid Khanasser valley region, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2016-05-01

    A new alternative approach based on using Vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique is proposed for computing the hydraulic conductivity K of an aquifer. The approach takes only the salinity of the groundwater into consideration. VES measurements in the locations, where available water samples exist, are required in such an approach, in order to calibrate and establish empirical relationships between transverse resistance Dar-Zarrouck TR parameter and modified transverse resistance MTR, and between MTR and transmissivity T. Those relationships are thereafter used to extrapolate the transmissivity even in the VES points where no water samples exist. This approach is tested and practiced in the Khanasser valley, Northern Syria, where the hydraulic conductivity of the Quaternary aquifer is computed. An acceptable agreement is found between the hydraulic conductivity values obtained by the proposed approach and those obtained by the pumping test which range between 0.864 and 8.64 m/day (10-5 and 10-4 m/s). The Quaternary aquifer transmissivity of the Khanasser Valley, has been characterized by using this approach and by adapting the MTR parameter. The transmissivity varies between a minimum of 79 m2/day and a maximum of 814 m2/day, with an average of 283 m2/day and a standard deviation of 145 m2/day. The easy and inexpensive approach proposed in this paper can be applied in other semi arid regions.

  15. Hydraulic parameters estimation by using an approach based on vertical electrical soundings (VES) in the semi-arid Khanasser valley region, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2016-05-01

    A new alternative approach based on using Vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique is proposed for computing the hydraulic conductivity K of an aquifer. The approach takes only the salinity of the groundwater into consideration. VES measurements in the locations, where available water samples exist, are required in such an approach, in order to calibrate and establish empirical relationships between transverse resistance Dar-Zarrouck TR parameter and modified transverse resistance MTR, and between MTR and transmissivity T. Those relationships are thereafter used to extrapolate the transmissivity even in the VES points where no water samples exist. This approach is tested and practiced in the Khanasser valley, Northern Syria, where the hydraulic conductivity of the Quaternary aquifer is computed. An acceptable agreement is found between the hydraulic conductivity values obtained by the proposed approach and those obtained by the pumping test which range between 0.864 and 8.64 m/day (10-5 and 10-4 m/s). The Quaternary aquifer transmissivity of the Khanasser Valley, has been characterized by using this approach and by adapting the MTR parameter. The transmissivity varies between a minimum of 79 m2/day and a maximum of 814 m2/day, with an average of 283 m2/day and a standard deviation of 145 m2/day. The easy and inexpensive approach proposed in this paper can be applied in other semi arid regions.

  16. Identification of saline water intrusion in part of Cauvery deltaic region, Tamil Nadu, Southern India: using GIS and VES methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Vasudevan, S.

    2016-06-01

    We use electrical resistivity data arrayed in a 2715 km2 region with 30 locations to identify the saline water intrusion zone in part of Cauvery deltaic region, offshore Eastern India. From this dataset we are able to derive information on groundwater quality, thickness of aquifer zone, structural and stratigraphic conditions relevant to groundwater conditions, and permeability of aquifer systems. A total of 30 vertical electrode soundings (VES) were carried out by Schlumberger electrode arrangement to indicate complete lithology of this region using curve matching techniques. The electrical soundings exhibited that H and HK type curves were suitable for 16 shallow locations, and QH, KQ, K, KH, QQ, and HA curves were fit for other location. Low resistivity values suggested that saline water intrusion occurred in this region. According to final GIS map, most of the region was severely affected by seawater intrusion due to the use of over-exploitation of groundwater.The deteriorated groundwater resources in this coastal region should raise environmental and health concerns.

  17. Identification of saline water intrusion in part of Cauvery deltaic region, Tamil Nadu, Southern India: using GIS and VES methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Vasudevan, S.

    2016-05-01

    We use electrical resistivity data arrayed in a 2715 km2 region with 30 locations to identify the saline water intrusion zone in part of Cauvery deltaic region, offshore Eastern India. From this dataset we are able to derive information on groundwater quality, thickness of aquifer zone, structural and stratigraphic conditions relevant to groundwater conditions, and permeability of aquifer systems. A total of 30 vertical electrode soundings (VES) were carried out by Schlumberger electrode arrangement to indicate complete lithology of this region using curve matching techniques. The electrical soundings exhibited that H and HK type curves were suitable for 16 shallow locations, and QH, KQ, K, KH, QQ, and HA curves were fit for other location. Low resistivity values suggested that saline water intrusion occurred in this region. According to final GIS map, most of the region was severely affected by seawater intrusion due to the use of over-exploitation of groundwater.The deteriorated groundwater resources in this coastal region should raise environmental and health concerns.

  18. Social values for ecosystem services (SolVES): A GIS application for assessing, mapping, and quantifying the social values of ecosystem services-Documentation and user manual, version 1.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Riegle, Jodi L.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2010-01-01

    In response to the need for incorporating quantified and spatially explicit measures of social values into ecosystem services assessments, the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center, in collaboration with Colorado State University, has developed a geographic information system application, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES). SolVES can be used to assess, map, and quantify the perceived social values of ecosystem services. SolVES derives a quantitative social values metric, the Value Index, from a combination of spatial and nonspatial responses to public attitude and preference surveys. SolVES also generates landscape metrics, such as average elevation and distance to water, calculated from spatial data layers describing the underlying physical environment. Using kernel density calculations and zonal statistics, SolVES derives and maps the 10-point Value Index and reports landscape metrics associated with each index value for social value types such as aesthetics, biodiversity, and recreation. This can be repeated for various survey subgroups as distinguished by their attitudes and preferences regarding public uses of the forests such as motorized recreation and logging for fuels reduction. The Value Index provides a basis of comparison within and among survey subgroups to consider the effect of social contexts on the valuation of ecosystem services. SolVES includes regression coefficients linking the predicted value (the Value Index) to landscape metrics. These coefficients are used to generate predicted social value maps using value transfer techniques for areas where primary survey data are not available. SolVES was developed, and will continue to be enhanced through future versions, as a public domain tool to enable decision makers and researchers to map the social values of ecosystem services and to facilitate discussions among diverse stakeholders regarding tradeoffs between different ecosystem services in a variety of physical and social contexts.

  19. Study of the reaction π–A π{sup +}π{sup –}π{sup –}A at large statistics with VES setup

    SciTech Connect

    Kachaev, I. Dorofeev, V.; Ekimov, A.; Gotman, V.; Ivashin, A.; Kalendarev, V.; Khokhlov, Yu.; Kholodenko, M.; Konstantinov, V.; Matveev, V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Nikolaenko, V.; Plekhanov, A.; Ryabchikov, D.; Salomatin, Yu.; Sugonyaev, V.; Volkov, E.; Zaitsev, A.

    2015-12-15

    Partial wave analysis of the π–A π{sup +}π{sup –}π{sup –} system produced by 29 GeV/cπ{sup –} beam on a beryllium target is presented. About 30 × 10{sup 6} vertical bar events in the wide t′ vertical bar range 0–0.8 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} are collected with upgraded VES setup. The size of the data sample is 2.5 times larger than one previously analyzed by VES. Data are analyzed using formalism of the density matrix with unlimited rank. We discuss status of the a{sub 1}(1420) a{sub 2}(1700) a{sub 3}(1875) states and a structure of exotic ρ(770)π P-wave with J{sup PC} = 1{sup -+}. Parameters of a{sub 3}(1875) are estimated as M = 1985 ± 20 MeV/c{sup 2}, Γ = 200 ± 50 MeV/c{sup 2} (preliminary)

  20. Electrical methods (VES and ERT) for identifying, mapping and monitoring different saline domains in a coastal plain region (Alt Empordà, Northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarroca, Mario; Bach, Joan; Linares, Rogelio; Pellicer, Xavier M.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryThe spatial variability through time of the degree of salinity of soils and groundwater is a major issue concerning the sustainable management of water resources. The problem is accentuated in coastal plain areas where saline bodies of different origin coexist. We present an extensive geoelectrical resistivity dataset collected in the Alt Empordà clastic coastal aquifer system (NE Spain) integrating the results of field campaigns undertaken within a period of more than two decades. The dataset is unique in the literature and comprises highly valuable information for the investigation of saline domains. The joint application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) methods allowed the identification of saline domains and monitoring their evolution through time. Geophysical data gathered during field campaigns in 1982, 2002 and 2010 were calibrated and interpreted on the basis of soil and groundwater physico-chemical analyses and hydrogeological, stratigraphic and geomorphological data. The results illustrate the potential of electrical resistivity methods at differentiating saline domains in coastal aquifer areas and at modelling their configuration and evolution. Although the VES data processing allows solving the one-dimensional resistivity structure of the subsurface, the inversion imposes a 1D layered model, thus interpretation of two-dimensional structures is subject to the interpolation between discrete measures. In contrast, ERT data offer a continuous 2D-image of the resistivity distribution, both laterally and in depth. Given that the bulk resistivity of the medium is extremely sensitive to salt content, the ERT profiles permitted identifying and determining the geometry of hyper-saline areas (characterized by resistivities of less than 5 Ω m). The study demonstrates the efficiency of the electrical methods to map subsurface conductive zones and illustrates how the accurate knowledge of the hydrogeological

  1. A spatial analysis of cultural ecosystem service valuation by regional stakeholders in Florida: a coastal application of the social values for ecosystem services (SolVES) tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, Alisa W.; Swett, Robert A.; Cole, Zachary D.

    2012-01-01

    Livelihoods and lifestyles of people throughout the world depend on essential goods and services provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. However, as societal demand increases and available ocean and coastal space diminish, better methods are needed to spatially and temporally allocate ocean and coastal activities such as shipping, energy production, tourism, and fishing. While economic valuation is an important mechanism for doing so, cultural ecosystem services often do not lend themselves to this method. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey are working collaboratively with the Florida Sea Grant College Program to map nonmonetary values of cultural ecosystem services for a pilot area (Sarasota Bay) in the Gulf of Mexico. The research seeks to close knowledge gaps about the attitudes and perceptions, or nonmonetary values, held by coastal residents toward cultural ecosystem services, and to adapt related, terrestrial-based research methods to a coastal setting. A critical goal is to integrate research results with coastal and marine spatial planning applications, thus making them relevant to coastal planners and managers in their daily efforts to sustainably manage coastal resources. Using information about the attitudes and preferences of people toward places and uses in the landscape, collected from value and preference surveys, the USGS SolVES 2.0 tool will provide quantitative models to relate social values, or perceived nonmonetary values, assigned to locations by survey respondents with the underlying environmental characteristics of those same locations. Project results will increase scientific and geographic knowledge of how Sarasota Bay residents value their area’s cultural ecosystem services.

  2. Hydrogeophysical and structural investigation using VES and TDEM data: A case study at El-Nubariya-Wadi El-Natrun area, west Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Ismael M.; El-Qady, Gad M.; ElGalladi, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The geoelectric survey includes 93 Vertical Electric Soundings (VES) and 26 TEM stations were conducted to delineate the subsurface structures and hydrogeological regime of El-Nubariya-Wadi El-Natrun area. The VESes AB/2 was varying from 1 up to 700 m in successive steps, while TEM stations were measured using coincident loop of 50 m side length. The interpretation of the geoelectrical data shows that the depth to the main aquifer ranges from 6 m at the northern part near the Nubariya city to about 90 m at the southern parts where it increases to the south and southeast directions. Generally the aquifer system in the area can be divided into Pleistocene and Pliocene aquifers. The Pleistocene aquifer is the shallower aquifer in the area and it consists almost of gravelly to clayey sand deposits. The Pliocene aquifer is the main aquifer where it is composed of sand to gravelly sand deposits. Depending on the results of the geoelectric prospecting represented by the true resistivity map, we can infer the quality of the groundwater. A brackish groundwater can be found at the northern and northeastern parts of the study area at shallow depths whereas relatively fresh water can be detected at the southern and southeastern parts around Wadi El Natrun city at deep depths. The area under consideration is affected by a group of normal faults that divided the investigated area into five main divisions, northern, eastern, western, southern and central divisions. The inferred faults from the geoelectric sections are traced and collected to construct a structure map. It is worth to mention that Wadi El Natrun and its lakes are structurally controlled by faulting systems trending NW direction.

  3. VES 490--Readings. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Bruce A.

    This manual provides information needed by students taking independent study courses (readings) in agricultural education, business education, home economics education, industrial education, or health occupations education as part of the Vocational Education Studies Program at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. The objectives of the…

  4. Design Documentation for JaWE2Openflow Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, N; Barter, R H

    2004-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has chosen CIGNEX Technologies, Inc. (CIGNEX) to design and develop the JaWE2Openflow conversion software. This document was created by CIGNEX as a project deliverable.

  5. RuBPCase activase mediates growth-defense tradeoffs: Silencing RCA redirects JA flux from JA-Ile to MeJA to attenuate induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sirsha; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary RuBPCase activase (RCA), an abundant photosynthetic protein is strongly down-regulated in response to Manduca sexta’s oral secretion (OS) in Nicotiana attenuata. RCA-silenced plants are impaired not only in photosynthetic capacity and growth, but also in jasmonic acid (JA)-isoleucine (Ile) signaling, and herbivore resistance mediated by JA-Ile dependent defense traits. These responses are consistent with a resource-based growth-defense trade-off. Since JA+Ile-supplementation of OS restored WT levels of JA-Ile, defenses and resistance to M. sexta, but OS supplemented individually with JA- or Ile did not, the JA-Ile deficiency of RCA-silenced plants could not be attributed to lower JA or Ile pools or JAR4/6 conjugating activity. Similar levels of JA-Ile derivatives after OS elicitation indicated unaltered JA-Ile turnover and lower levels of other JA-conjugates ruled out competition from other conjugation reactions. RCA-silenced plants accumulated more methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after OS elicitation, which corresponded with increased jasmonate methyltransferase (JMT) activity. RCA-silencing phenocopies JMT over-expression, wherein elevated JMT activity redirects OS-elicited JA flux towards inactive MeJA, creating a JA sink which depletes JA-Ile and its associated defense responses. Hence RCA plays an additional non-photosynthetic role in attenuating JA-mediated defenses and their associated costs potentially allowing plants to anticipate resource-based constraints on growth before they actually occur. PMID:24491116

  6. VES 496--Professional Internship. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Bruce A.

    This manual provides information needed by students serving in professional internships as part of the Vocational Education Studies Program at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Internships consist of real-world experiences in education, training support, and management occupations, such as curriculum developer, evaluator, media…

  7. VES 495--Teaching Internship. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Bruce A.

    This manual provides information needed by students taking teaching internships in agricultural education, business education, home economics education, industrial education, or health occupations education as part of the Vocational Education Studies Program at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. The first part of the manual explains the…

  8. VES 496--Professional Internship. Supervisor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Bruce A.

    This manual provides information needed by persons supervising students serving in professional internships as part of the Vocational Education Studies Program at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Internships consist of real-world experiences in education, training support, and management occupations, such as curriculum developer,…

  9. VES 495--Teaching Internship. Supervisor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Bruce A.

    This guide provides information needed by teachers supervising students' teaching internships in agricultural education, business education, home economics education, industrial education, or health occupations education as part of the Vocational Education Studies Program at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. In a reproduction of the…

  10. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its ro...

  11. Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-02-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 μmol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. PMID:24128452

  12. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity of two diastereomeric JA-Ile macrolactones.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Machado, Ricardo A R; Görls, Helmar; Baldwin, Ian T; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-06-01

    Jasmonates are phytohormones involved in a wide range of plant processes, including growth, development, senescence, and defense. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile, 2), an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA, 1), has been identified as a bioactive endogenous jasmonate. However, JA-Ile (2) analogues trigger different responses in the plant. ω-Hydroxylation of the pentenyl side chain leads to the inactive 12-OH-JA-Ile (3) acting as a “stop” signal. On the other hand, a lactone derivative of 12-OH-JA (5) (jasmine ketolactone, JKL) occurs in nature, although with no known biological function. Inspired by the chemical structure of JKL (6) and in order to further explore the potential biological activities of 12-modified JA-Ile derivatives, we synthesized two macrolactones (JA-Ile-lactones (4a) and (4b)) derived from 12-OH-JA-Ile (3). The biological activity of (4a) and (4b) was tested for their ability to elicit nicotine production, a well-known jasmonate dependent secondary metabolite. Both macrolactones showed strong biological activity, inducing nicotine accumulation to a similar extent as methyl jasmonate does in Nicotiana attenuata leaves. Surprisingly, the highest nicotine contents were found in plants treated with the JA-Ile-lactone (4b), which has (3S,7S) configuration at the cyclopentanone not known from natural jasmonates. Macrolactone (4a) is a valuable standard to explore for its occurrence in nature. PMID:25806705

  13. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  14. Maize MeJA-responsive proteins identified by high-resolution 2-DE PAGE.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuliang; Pennerman, Kayla K; Yang, Fengshan; Yin, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is well-known to induce plant defense mechanisms effective against a wide variety of insect and microbial pests. High-resolution 2-DE gel electrophoresis was used to discover changes in the leaf proteome of maize exposed to MeJA. We sequenced 62 MeJA-responsive proteins by tandem mass spectroscopy, and deposited the mass spectra and identities in the EMBL-EBI PRIDE repository under reference number PXD001793. An analysis and discussion of the identified proteins in relation to maize defense against Asian corn borer is published by Zhang et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26509185

  15. Mutations in jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine-12-hydroxylases suppress multiple JA-dependent wound responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Arati N; Zhang, Tong; Kwasniewski, Misha; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Koo, Abraham J

    2016-09-01

    Plants rapidly perceive tissue damage, such as that inflicted by insects, and activate several key defense responses. The importance of the fatty acid-derived hormone jasmonates (JA) in dictating these wound responses has been recognized for many years. However, important features pertaining to the regulation of the JA pathway are still not well understood. One key unknown is the inactivation mechanism of the JA pathway and its relationship with plant response to wounding. Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 enzymes in the CYP94 clade metabolize jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a major metabolite of JA responsible for many biological effects attributed to the JA signaling pathway; thus, CYP94s are expected to contribute to the attenuation of JA-Ile-dependent wound responses. To directly test this, we created the double and triple knock-out mutants of three CYP94 genes, CYP94B1, CYP94B3, and CYP94C1. The mutations blocked the oxidation steps and caused JA-Ile to accumulate 3-4-fold the WT levels in the wounded leaves. Surprisingly, over accumulation of JA-Ile did not lead to a stronger wound response. On the contrary, the mutants displayed a series of symptoms reminiscent of JA-Ile deficiency, including resistance to wound-induced growth inhibition, decreased anthocyanin and trichomes, and increased susceptibility to insects. The mutants, however, responded normally to exogenous JA treatments, indicating that JA perception or signaling pathways were intact. Untargeted metabolite analyses revealed >40% reduction in wound-inducible metabolites in the mutants. These observations raise questions about the current JA signaling model and point toward a more complex model perhaps involving JA derivatives and/or feedback mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:26968098

  16. Continuous Dust Formation in SNe 2010jl and 2011ja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafton, Kelsie; Clayton, Geoffrey; Andrews, Jennifer; Barlow, Michael; De Looze, Ilse

    2016-08-01

    Studies in the last 10 years of dust formation in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) have found only small amounts, ~0.001 solar masses. This is far less than the amount needed to account for the large masses of dust seen in some high redshift galaxies. However, the recent discovery of ~1 solar mass of cold dust in the ejecta of SN 1987A has has caused a complete re-evaluation of dust formation in CCSNe. It has been suggested that the CCSNe are continuously forming dust so that by the time they are about 25 years old they will have dust masses similar to SN 1987A. However, there is a wide time gap between the CCSNe that have been studied recently and SN 1987A. We plan to use the sensitivity of Spitzer to detect dust emission from CCSNe 5 or more years after explosion. Radiative transfer models will be used to estimate the dust masses. This proposal is to continue our study of two interesting SNe 2010jl and 2011ja. These observations are part of a long term study requiring multiple epochs of Spitzer observations to look for evidence of continuous dust formation. These observations will help shed light on the mystery of dust in SN 1987A.

  17. Shared binding sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins.

    PubMed

    Herrero, S; González-Cabrera, J; Tabashnik, B E; Ferré, J

    2001-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far. PMID:11722929

  18. Shared Binding Sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Salvador; González-Cabrera, Joel; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Ferré, Juan

    2001-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far. PMID:11722929

  19. Update from the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM).

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) was established in 2005 to promote the use of alternatives to animal testing in regulatory studies, thereby replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, according to the Three Rs principles. JaCVAM assesses the utility, limitations and suitability for use in regulatory studies, of test methods needed to determine the safety of chemicals and other materials. JaCVAM also organises and performs validation studies of new test methods, when necessary. In addition, JaCVAM co-operates and collaborates with similar organisations in related fields, both in Japan and internationally, which also enables JaCVAM to provide input during the establishment of guidelines for new alternative experimental methods. These activities help facilitate application and approval processes for the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, pesticides, and other products, as well as for revisions to standards for cosmetic products. In this manner, JaCVAM plays a leadership role in the introduction of new alternative experimental methods for regulatory acceptance in Japan. PMID:24512226

  20. Influence factors and gene expression patterns during MeJa-induced gummosis in peach.

    PubMed

    Li, Minji; Liu, Meiyan; Peng, Futian; Fang, Long

    2015-06-15

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in gummosis in peach. Mechanical damage, methyl jasmonate (MeJa), and ethylene can induce gummosis on peach shoots in the field. In this study, we used MeJa (2%, w/w) to induce gummosis on current-year shoots in peach on high temperature (35°C). Based on the experimental model, we studied the influence of factors on the development of peach gummosis. Our experimental results showed that high temperature could promote gummosis development induced by MeJa. Exogenous CaCl2 treatment reduced the degree of gummosis by increasing the calcium content in shoots, which is conducive to the synthesis and maintenance of the cell wall. Using digital gene expression (DGE), 3831 differentially expressed genes were identified in the MeJa treatment versus the control. By analyzing changes in gene expression associated with cell wall degradation, genes encoding pectin methylesterase (PME) and endo-polygalacturonase (PG) were found to be significantly induced, suggesting that they are key enzymes in cell wall degradation that occurs during MeJa-induced gummosis. Genes for glycosyltransferase (GT) and cellulose synthase (CS) were also significantly upregulated by MeJa. This result suggests that MeJa treatment not only promotes the degradation of polysaccharides to destroy the cell wall, but also promotes the synthesis of new polysaccharides. We also analyzed changes in gene expression associated with sugar metabolism, senescence, and defense. MeJa treatment affected the expression of genes related to sugar metabolism and promoted plant senescence. Among the defense genes, the expression pattern of phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL) suggested that PAL may play an important role in protecting against the effects of MeJa treatment. Our experimental results showed that MeJa treatment can promote the biosynthesis and signal transduction of ethylene in peach shoots; they can induce gummosis on peach shoots respectively, and there are overlaps between

  1. Using Modified J-A model in MMM detection at elastic stress stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, MingXiu; Xu, MinQiang; Li, JianWei; Xing, HaiYan

    2012-06-01

    In order to propel the development of metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique in fatigue damage detection, a modified Jiles-Atherton (J-A) model is constructed to describe MMM mechanism in elastic stress stage. The MMM phenomenon is discussed from the view of energy minimum theory and equivalent magnetic field theory, the modified J-A model is constructed based on the energy balance in the process of magnetisation and the idea of J-A model, and the new model is used to simulate magnetomechanical effect by Matlab and compare with experimental results. It is shown that the forming process of MMM field is cyclic magnetisation in the range of equivalent magnetic field and the MMM field moves irreversibly towards a local equilibrium state ? . ? is the intermediate state with some pinning before M reaches the anhysteretic magnetisation state ? . The ? curve is a loop around the ? curve, and it changes with ? , H and the type of stress cycle. The modified J-A model that is suited for MMM detection is constructed by replacing ? in J-A model with ? and changing some parameters, and it can describe magnetisation features in tension, release processes better and explain the changes in the sign of ? that have been observed in experiments more reasonably. The modified J-A model can simulate the process of MMM field to become steady and the MMM field variation at fatigue process theoretically by changing model parameters, which is confirmed by experimental results. The results of theoretical research, simulation analysis and experiment verification all indicate that the modified J-A model can be used to describe MMM mechanism in elastic stress stage and analyse MMM field changes at fatigue process.

  2. A balanced JA/ABA status may correlate with adaptation to osmotic stress in Vitis cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed; Seo, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Water-related stress is considered a major type of plant stress. Osmotic stress, in particular, represents the common part of all water-related stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved different adaptive mechanisms to cope with osmotic-related disturbances. In the current work, two grapevine cell lines that differ in their osmotic adaptability, Vitis rupestris and Vitis riparia, were investigated under mannitol-induced osmotic stress. To dissect signals that lead to adaptability from those related to sensitivity, osmotic-triggered responses with respect to jasmonic acid (JA) and its active form JA-Ile, abscisic acid (ABA), and stilbene compounds, as well as the expression of their related genes were observed. In addition, the transcript levels of the cellular homeostasis gene NHX1 were examined. The data are discussed with a hypothesis suggesting that a balance of JA and ABA status might correlate with cellular responses, either guiding cells to sensitivity or to progress toward adaptation. PMID:26277753

  3. Dermal sensitization potential of ja-2 solid propellant in guinea pigs. Report for 4 April-9 May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.M.; Brown, L.D.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-11-01

    JA-2 Solid Propellant was evaluated for its potential to produce dermal sensitization in male guinea pigs. The Buehler test, which utilizes repeated closed patch inductions with the test compound, was used for this evaluation. No evidence that JA-2 Solid Propellant induced sensitization was obtained in the study.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae UCD-JA29 Isolated from a Patient with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Alexiev, Alexandra; Coil, David A.; Jospin, Guillaume; Adams, Jason Y.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the 6,155,188-bp draft genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae UCD-JA29, isolated from blood cultures from a patient with sepsis at the University of California, Davis Medical Center in Sacramento, California, USA. PMID:27151785

  5. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:26484871

  6. Integrated metabolomic and proteomic analysis reveals systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Prasuna, M Lakshmi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch Venkata

    2015-02-01

    Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress were deciphered using metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling. Strain JA2 tolerated high concentrations of aniline (30 mM) with trace amounts of aniline being transformed to acetanilide. GC-MS metabolite profiling revealed aniline stress phenotype wherein amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, nitrogen metabolisms, and TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were modulated. Strain JA2 responded to aniline by remodeling the proteome, and cellular functions, such as signaling, transcription, translation, stress tolerance, transport and carbohydrate metabolism, were highly modulated. Key adaptive responses, such as transcription/translational changes, molecular chaperones to control protein folding, and efflux pumps implicated in solvent extrusion, were induced in response to aniline stress. Proteo-metabolomics indicated extensive rewiring of metabolism to aniline. TCA cycle and amino acid catabolism were down-regulated while gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated, leading to the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, increased saturated fatty acid ratios in membranes due to aniline stress suggest membrane adaptation. The present study thus indicates that strain JA2 employs multilayered responses: stress response, toxic compound tolerance, energy conservation, and metabolic rearrangements to aniline. PMID:25388363

  7. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:26484871

  8. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  9. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  10. Physiological Characteristics and Production of Folic Acid of Lactobacillus plantarum JA71 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, is an essential substance for maintaining the functions of the nervous system, and is also known to decrease the level of homocysteine in plasma. Homocysteine influences the lowering of the cognitive function in humans, and especially in elderly people. In order to determine the strains with a strong capacity to produce folic acid, 190 bacteria were isolated from various kinds of jeotgal and chungkuk-jang. In our test experiment, JA71 was found to contain 9.03μg/mL of folic acid after 24 h of incubation in an MRS broth. This showed that JA71 has the highest folic acid production ability compared to the other lactic acid bacteria that were isolated. JA71 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16s rDNA sequence. JA71 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of JA71 was 37℃, and the cultures took 12 h to reach pH 4.4. JA71 proved more sensitive to bacitracin when compared with fifteen different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to neomycin and vancomycin. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant of bile juice and acid, and displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus with restraint rates of 60.4%, 96.7%, and 76.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that JA71 could be an excellent strain for application to functional products. PMID:26760752

  11. Physiological Characteristics and Production of Folic Acid of Lactobacillus plantarum JA71 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Do, Jeong-Ryong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Kee-Sung; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, is an essential substance for maintaining the functions of the nervous system, and is also known to decrease the level of homocysteine in plasma. Homocysteine influences the lowering of the cognitive function in humans, and especially in elderly people. In order to determine the strains with a strong capacity to produce folic acid, 190 bacteria were isolated from various kinds of jeotgal and chungkuk-jang. In our test experiment, JA71 was found to contain 9.03μg/mL of folic acid after 24 h of incubation in an MRS broth. This showed that JA71 has the highest folic acid production ability compared to the other lactic acid bacteria that were isolated. JA71 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16s rDNA sequence. JA71 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of JA71 was 37℃, and the cultures took 12 h to reach pH 4.4. JA71 proved more sensitive to bacitracin when compared with fifteen different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to neomycin and vancomycin. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant of bile juice and acid, and displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus with restraint rates of 60.4%, 96.7%, and 76.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that JA71 could be an excellent strain for application to functional products. PMID:26760752

  12. Physiological impacts of ABA-JA interactions under water-limitation.

    PubMed

    de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Plant responses to drought stress depend on highly regulated signal transduction pathways with multiple interactions. This complex crosstalk can lead to a physiological outcome of drought avoidance or tolerance/resistance. ABA is the principal mediator of these responses due to the regulation of stomatal closure that determines plant growth and survival, but also other strategies of drought resistance such as osmotic adjustment. However, other hormones such as JA seem responsible for regulating a subset of plant responses to drought by regulating ABA biosynthesis and accumulation and ABA-dependent signalling, but also by ABA independent pathways. Here, we review recent reports of ABA-JA hormonal and molecular interactions within a physiological framework of drought tolerance. Understanding the physiological significance of this complex regulation offers opportunities to find strategies of drought tolerance that avoid unwanted side effects that limit growth and yield, and may allow biotechnological crop improvement. PMID:27299601

  13. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  14. A self-adaptive genetic algorithm to estimate JA model parameters considering minor loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-liang; Wen, Xi-shan; Lan, Lei; An, Yun-zhu; Li, Xiao-ping

    2015-01-01

    A self-adaptive genetic algorithm for estimating Jiles-Atherton (JA) magnetic hysteresis model parameters is presented. The fitness function is established based on the distances between equidistant key points of normalized hysteresis loops. Linearity function and logarithm function are both adopted to code the five parameters of JA model. Roulette wheel selection is used and the selection pressure is adjusted adaptively by deducting a proportional which depends on current generation common value. The Crossover operator is established by combining arithmetic crossover and multipoint crossover. Nonuniform mutation is improved by adjusting the mutation ratio adaptively. The algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of one kind of silicon-steel sheet's hysteresis loops, and the results are in good agreement with published data.

  15. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  16. Elevated CO2 Influences Nematode-Induced Defense Responses of Tomato Genotypes Differing in the JA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yucheng; Yin, Jin; Cao, Haifeng; Li, Chuanyou; Kang, Le; Ge, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations can affect the induced defense of plants against chewing herbivores but little is known about whether elevated CO2 can change the induced defense of plants against parasitic nematodes. This study examined the interactions between the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and three isogenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genotypes grown under ambient (390 ppm) and elevated (750 ppm) CO2 in growth chambers. In a previous study with open-top chambers in the field, we reported that elevated CO2 increased the number of nematode-induced root galls in a JA-defense-dominated genotype but not in a wild-type or JA-defense-recessive genotype. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 will favor the salicylic acid (SA)-pathway defense but repress the jasmonic acid (JA)-pathway defense of plants against plant-parasitic nematodes. Our data showed that elevated CO2 reduced the JA-pathway defense against M. incognita in the wild-type and in a genotype in which defense is dominated by the JA pathway (a JA-defense-dominated genotype) but up-regulated the SA-pathway defense in the wild type and in a JA-defense-recessive genotype (jasmonate-deficient mutant). Our results suggest that, in terms of defense genes, secondary metabolites, and volatile organic compounds, induced defense of nematode-infected plants could be affected by elevated CO2, and that CO2-induced changes of plant resistance may lead to genotype-specific responses of plants to nematodes under elevated CO2. The changes in resistance against nematodes, however, were small relative to those reported for chewing insects. PMID:21629688

  17. Rice Rab11 is required for JA-mediated defense signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Min Ji; Lee, Yun mi; Son, Young Sim; Im, Chak Han; Yi, Young Byung; Rim, Yeong Gil; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Heo, Jae Bok

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •OsRab11 interacts with OsOPR8. •OsOPR8 is localized in the cytosol and peroxisome. •OsRab11 enhances the NADPH consumption by OsOPR8. •Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsRab11 represents a pathogen-resistant phenotype. -- Abstract: Rab proteins play an essential role in regulating vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Previously, we characterized OsRab11, which in concert with OsGAP1 and OsGDI3 regulates vesicular trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane or vacuole. To further elucidate the physiological function of OsRab11 in plants, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using OsRab11 as bait. OsOPR8 was isolated and shown to interact with OsRab11. A co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed this interaction. The green fluorescent protein-OsOPR8 fusion product was targeted to the cytoplasm and peroxisomes of protoplasts from Arabidopsis thaliana. OsOPR8 exhibited NADPH-dependent reduction activity when 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CyHE) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) were supplied as possible substrates. Interestingly, NADPH oxidation by OsOPR8 was increased when wild-type OsRab11 or the constitutively active form of OsRab11 (Q78L) were included in the reaction mix, but not when the dominant negative form of OsRab11 (S28N) was included. OsRab11 was expressed broadly in plants and both OsRab11 and OsOPR8 were induced by jasmonic acid (JA) and elicitor treatments. Overexpressed OsRab11 transgenic plants showed resistance to pathogens through induced expression of JA-responsive genes. In conclusion, OsRab11 may be required for JA-mediated defense signaling by activating the reducing activity of OsOPR8.

  18. Novel JAZ co-operativity and unexpected JA dynamics underpin Arabidopsis defence responses to Pseudomonas syringae infection.

    PubMed

    de Torres Zabala, Marta; Zhai, Bing; Jayaraman, Siddharth; Eleftheriadou, Garoufalia; Winsbury, Rebecca; Yang, Ron; Truman, William; Tang, Saijung; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Grant, Murray

    2016-02-01

    Pathogens target phytohormone signalling pathways to promote disease. Plants deploy salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defences against biotrophs. Pathogens antagonize SA immunity by activating jasmonate signalling, for example Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces coronatine (COR), a jasmonic acid (JA) mimic. This study found unexpected dynamics between SA, JA and COR and co-operation between JAZ jasmonate repressor proteins during DC3000 infection. We used a systems-based approach involving targeted hormone profiling, high-temporal-resolution micro-array analysis, reverse genetics and mRNA-seq. Unexpectedly, foliar JA did not accumulate until late in the infection process and was higher in leaves challenged with COR-deficient P. syringae or in the more resistant JA receptor mutant coi1. JAZ regulation was complex and COR alone was insufficient to sustainably induce JAZs. JAZs contribute to early basal and subsequent secondary plant defence responses. We showed that JAZ5 and JAZ10 specifically co-operate to restrict COR cytotoxicity and pathogen growth through a complex transcriptional reprogramming that does not involve the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2 and related MYC3 and MYC4 previously shown to restrict pathogen growth. mRNA-seq predicts compromised SA signalling in a jaz5/10 mutant and rapid suppression of JA-related components on bacterial infection. PMID:26428397

  19. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress. PMID:25582191

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643T with Special Reference to Hopanoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tushar, L.; Sasikala, Ch.; Ramana, Ch. V.

    2014-01-01

    Hopanoids are present in vast amounts as integral components of bacteria and plants with their primary function to strengthen rigidity of the plasma membrane. To establish their roles more precisely, we conducted sequencing of the whole genome of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643T isolated from a fresh water stream of Udaipur in Himachal Pradesh, India, by using the Illumina HiSeq pair end chemistry of 2 × 100 bp platform. Determined genome showed a high degree of similarity to the genome of R. vannielii ATCC17100T and the 13.7 million reads generated a sequence of 3,649,277 bp possessing 3,611 putative genes. The genomic data were subsequently investigated with respect to genes involved in various features. The machinery required for the degradation of aromatic compounds and resistance to solvents as well as all that required for photosynthesis are present in this organism. Also, through extensive functional annotation, 18 genes involved in the biosynthesis of hopanoids are predicted, namely those responsible for the synthesis of diploptene, diplopterol, adenosylhopane, ribosylhopane, aminobacteriohopanetriol, glycosyl group containing hopanoids and unsaturated hopanoids. The hopanoid biosynthetic pathway was then inferred based on the genes identified and through experimental validation of individual hopanoid molecules. The genome data of R. udaipurense JA643T will be useful in understanding the functional features of hopanoids in this bacterium. PMID:25117430

  1. Early dust formation and a massive progenitor for SN 2011ja?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. E.; Krafton, Kelsie M.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, E.; Wesson, R.; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M.; Drass, H.

    2016-04-01

    SN 2011ja was a bright (I = -18.3) Type II supernova occurring in the nearby edge on spiral galaxy NGC 4945. Flat-topped and multipeaked H α and H β spectral emission lines appear between 64 and 84 d post-explosion, indicating interaction with a disc-like circumstellar medium inclined ˜45° from edge-on. After day 84, an increase in the H- and K-band flux along with heavy attenuation of the red wing of the emission lines are strong indications of early dust formation, likely located in the cool dense shell created between the forward shock of the SN ejecta and the reverse shock created as the ejecta plows into the existing circumstellar material. Radiative transfer modelling reveals both ≈1 × 10-5 M⊙ of pre-existing dust located ˜1016.7 cm away and up to ≈6 × 10-4 M⊙ of newly formed dust. Spectral observations after 1.5 yr reveal the possibility that the fading SN is located within a young (3-6 Myr) massive stellar cluster, which when combined with tentative 56Ni mass estimates of 0.2 M⊙ may indicate a massive (≥25 M⊙) progenitor for SN 2011ja.

  2. Banana fruit VQ motif-containing protein5 represses cold-responsive transcription factor MaWRKY26 involved in the regulation of JA biosynthetic genes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Han, Yan-Chao; Shan, Wei; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Qun-Gang; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Most harvested fruits and vegetables are stored at low temperature but many of them are highly sensitive to chilling injury. Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone associated with various stress responses, is known to reduce chilling injury in fruits. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in relation to cold response of fruits. Here, we show the involvement of a Group I WRKY transcription factor (TF) from banana fruit, MaWRKY26, in regulating JA biosynthesis. MaWRKY26 was found to be nuclear-localized with transcriptional activation property. MaWRKY26 was induced by cold stress or by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which enhances cold tolerance in banana fruit. More importantly, MaWRKY26 transactivated JA biosynthetic genes MaLOX2, MaAOS3 and MaOPR3 via binding to their promoters. Further, MaWRKY26 physically interacted with a VQ motif-containing protein MaVQ5, and the interaction attenuated MaWRKY26-induced transactivation of JA biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that MaVQ5 might act as a repressor of MaWRKY26 in activating JA biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in response to cold stress and a better understanding of the molecular aspects of chilling injury in banana fruit. PMID:27004441

  3. Banana fruit VQ motif-containing protein5 represses cold-responsive transcription factor MaWRKY26 involved in the regulation of JA biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Han, Yan-Chao; Shan, Wei; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Qun-Gang; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Most harvested fruits and vegetables are stored at low temperature but many of them are highly sensitive to chilling injury. Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone associated with various stress responses, is known to reduce chilling injury in fruits. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in relation to cold response of fruits. Here, we show the involvement of a Group I WRKY transcription factor (TF) from banana fruit, MaWRKY26, in regulating JA biosynthesis. MaWRKY26 was found to be nuclear-localized with transcriptional activation property. MaWRKY26 was induced by cold stress or by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which enhances cold tolerance in banana fruit. More importantly, MaWRKY26 transactivated JA biosynthetic genes MaLOX2, MaAOS3 and MaOPR3 via binding to their promoters. Further, MaWRKY26 physically interacted with a VQ motif-containing protein MaVQ5, and the interaction attenuated MaWRKY26-induced transactivation of JA biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that MaVQ5 might act as a repressor of MaWRKY26 in activating JA biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in response to cold stress and a better understanding of the molecular aspects of chilling injury in banana fruit. PMID:27004441

  4. HiJaK: the high-resolution J, H and K spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Hall, Zachary J.; Veyette, Mark J.

    2014-08-01

    We present the science drivers, design requirements and a preliminary design for a high-resolution, broad- bandwidth, slit-fed cross-dispersed near-infrared spectrometer for 5-meter-class telescopes. Our concept, called the High-Resolution J, H and K Spectrometer, or HiJaK, utilizes an R6 echelle in a white-pupil design to achieve high resolution in a compact configuration with a 2048 x 2048 pixel infrared detector. We present a preliminary ray-traced optical design matched to the new 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope in Happy Jack, Arizona. We also discuss mechanical and cryogenic options to house our optical design.

  5. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 Are New Targets of JAZ Repressors Negatively Regulating JA Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Sandra; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Fernández, Guillermo M.; Díez-Díaz, Monica; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; López-Vidriero, Irene; Godoy, Marta; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Van Leene, Jelle; De Jaeger, Geert; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs). Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation. PMID:24465948

  6. The interaction of an electrothermal plasma with JA2 solid propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Michael David

    Electrothermal plasmas are being studied as an ignition mechanism for solid propellants in large caliber guns. Benefits of electrothermal plasma ignition over conventional primer charge ignition include a reduction of ignition delay and delay jitter (bootstrapping) and compensation for the variable burn rate of propellants at different initial temperatures. When JA2 solid propellant is exposed to plasma radiation alone, significant decomposition results. This radiative interaction is a possible mechanism that causes the bootstrapping and temperature compensation. In addition, the effects of plasma radiation exposure have the potential to increase the propellant burn rate. To characterize this radiation interaction, PLIF imaging of NO, a JA2 decomposition product, was conducted at the propellant surface. Also, simultaneous high speed video of the propellant surface and scattering of ejected particles has been performed. During the radiation interaction scattering particles and NO appeared between 100 and 150 mus after the beginning of the discharge and propagated away from the propellant surface. This ejected material appeared in identifiable structures that are irregular in shape and distribution. This suggests that the material was ejected at semi-discrete locations on the surface rather than diffused uniformly from the surface. During the plasma firing the propellant surface changed markedly by forming irregularly shaped decomposition structures that grew in size over the course of the discharge. No correlation was observed between the structure of the ejected material and the decomposition structures formed on the propellant surface during the discharge. After the plasma discharge, the propellant continued to react, with bubbles forming on the surface up to 9 ms after the discharge finished. These bubbles are probably the largest decomposition structures in images taken of the propellant surface minutes after radiation exposure. The delayed reaction of the

  7. Children with learning disabilities in the paediatric clinic, Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mariana, A M Aina; Wong, S L

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to document the prevalence of learning disability among the children attending the Paediatric Clinic in Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban. The demographic distribution of these patients; the age of detection of the problem; the associated medical conditions and types of intervention received by these patients were documented. Patients who were between the ages of five to twelve years were included in the study. Learning disability was divided into three categories: speech and articulation problems, academic skills disorder and other categories which included developmental delay. Children with cerebral palsy were excluded from the study. Out of 1320 patients screened, 355 were found to have learning disorders. Majority were Malays, with the male to female ratio of 1.9:1. Most of the patients stayed in Seremban. The learning problem was most commonly detected at the age of 4 years and below. The commonest type of learning disorder was developmental delay, followed by academic skills disorder, speech and academic skills problems and speech disorders. Problems that were detected early were speech problems and developmental delay. Majority of the children had associated medical conditions. Most of the patients received some form of intervention but 11.3% did not attend any intervention program at all. A strategy should be formulated and implemented to help this group of children. PMID:22390107

  8. Observatio of HF noise in an intense aurora by the sounding rocket S-310JA-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Nomura, Y.

    1982-09-01

    Observation of noise in the frequency range from 0.6 to 7.6 MHz has been made in an auroral plasma up to approximately 220 km by an instrument (PWN-H) on board the S-310JA-7 sounding rocket. This rocket was launched at 1915:50 UT on March 27, 1978 from Syowa Station in Antarctica, just prior to an intense auroral substorm (magnetic H component decrease = -700 nT and 30 MHz CNA = -5 dB). The observed HF emissions are classified into three types according to their frequency ranges and spectral shape; (1) High level and narrow band signals whose frequencies are nearly equal to nf(ce) or (n + 1/2)f(ce), where n is an integer and f(ce) is the electron gyrofrequency. (2) A low level broad band emission whose upper-limiting frequency is below the local electron plasma frequency. (3) Signals at frequencies below f(ce). Excitation mechanism of these waves in the aurora is discussed.

  9. Seed Germination Ecology of Feather Lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S.

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha-1 was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies. PMID:24255700

  10. Seed germination ecology of feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes].

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha(-1) was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies. PMID:24255700

  11. Elevated CO2 Reduces the Resistance and Tolerance of Tomato Plants to Helicoverpa armigera by Suppressing the JA Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Qin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Kang, Le; Wang, Chenzhu; Li, Chuanyou; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Both resistance and tolerance, which are two strategies that plants use to limit biotic stress, are affected by the abiotic environment including atmospheric CO2 levels. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 would reduce resistance (i.e., the ability to prevent damage) but enhance tolerance (i.e., the ability to regrow and compensate for damage after the damage has occurred) of tomato plants to the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The results showed that elevated CO2 reduced resistance by decreasing the jasmonic acid (JA) level and activities of lipoxygenase, proteinase inhibitors, and polyphenol oxidase in wild-type (WT) plants infested with H. armigera. Consequently, the activities of total protease, trypsin-like enzymes, and weak and active alkaline trypsin-like enzymes increased in the midgut of H. armigera when fed on WT plants grown under elevated CO2. Unexpectedly, the tolerance of the WT to H. armigera (in terms of photosynthetic rate, activity of sucrose phosphate synthases, flower number, and plant biomass and height) was also reduced by elevated CO2. Under ambient CO2, the expression of resistance and tolerance to H. armigera was much greater in wild type than in spr2 (a JA-deficient genotype) plants, but elevated CO2 reduced these differences of the resistance and tolerance between WT and spr2 plants. The results suggest that the JA signaling pathway contributes to both plant resistance and tolerance to herbivorous insects and that by suppressing the JA signaling pathway, elevated CO2 will simultaneously reduce the resistance and tolerance of tomato plants. PMID:22829948

  12. Cyclic lipopeptide iturin A structure-dependently induces defense response in Arabidopsis plants by activating SA and JA signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Yumi; Shiraishi, Soma; Kondo, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Shoko; Aoki, Yoshinao; Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-05-15

    Iturin A is the most well studied antifungal cyclic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus species that are frequently utilized as biological control agents. Iturin A not only shows strong antifungal activity against phytopathogens but also induces defense response in plants, thereby reducing plant disease severity. Here we report the defense signaling pathways triggered by iturin A in Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)-insensitive mutants. Iturin A activated the transcription of defense genes PR1 and PDF1.2 through the SA and JA signaling pathways, respectively. The role of iturin A as an elicitor was dependent on the cyclization of the seven amino acids and/or the β-hydroxy fatty acid chain. The iturin A derivative peptide, NH2-(L-Asn)-(D-Tyr)-(D-Asn)-(L-Gln)-(L-Pro)-(D-Asn)-(L-Ser)-COOH, completely suppressed PR1 and PDF1.2 gene expression in wild Arabidopsis plants. The identification of target molecules binding to iturin A and its derivative peptide is expected to shed new light on defense response in plants through the SA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:25842204

  13. A bHLH-Type Transcription Factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1, Acts as a Repressor to Negatively Regulate Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Herde, Marco; Koo, Abraham J.K.; Moreno, Javier E.; Suzuki, Kaoru; Howe, Gregg A.; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses remain elusive. Here, we report that a basic helix-loop-helix–type transcription factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), acts as a transcriptional repressor and negatively regulates JA signaling. Gain-of-function transgenic plants expressing the chimeric repressor for JAM1 exhibited substantial reduction of JA responses, including JA-induced inhibition of root growth, accumulation of anthocyanin, and male fertility. These plants were also compromised in resistance to attack by the insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua. Conversely, jam1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced JA responsiveness, including increased resistance to insect attack. JAM1 and MYC2 competitively bind to the target sequence of MYC2, which likely provides the mechanism for negative regulation of JA signaling and suppression of MYC2 functions by JAM1. These results indicate that JAM1 negatively regulates JA signaling, thereby playing a pivotal role in fine-tuning of JA-mediated stress responses and plant growth. PMID:23673982

  14. DnaJA1/Hsp40 Is Co-Opted by Influenza A Virus To Enhance Its Viral RNA Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Mengmeng; Wei, Candong; Zhao, Lili; Wang, Jingfeng; Jia, Qiannan; Wang, Xue

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of influenza A virus is a heterotrimeric complex composed of the PB1, PB2, and PA subunits. The interplay between host factors and the three subunits of the RdRp is critical to enable viral RNA synthesis to occur in the nuclei of infected cells. In this study, we newly identified host factor DnaJA1, a member of the type I DnaJ/Hsp40 family, acting as a positive regulator for influenza virus replication. We found that DnaJA1 associates with the bPB2 and PA subunits and enhances viral RNA synthesis both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, DnaJA1 could be translocated from cytoplasm into the nucleus upon influenza virus infection. The translocation of DnaJA1 is specifically accompanied by PB1-PA nuclear import. Interestingly, we observed that the effect of DnaJA1 on viral RNA synthesis is mainly dependent on its C-terminal substrate-binding domain and not on its typical J domain, while the J domain normally mediates the Hsp70-DnaJ interaction required for regulating Hsp70 ATPase activity. Therefore, we propose that DnaJA1 is co-opted by the influenza A virus to enter the nucleus and to enhance its RNA polymerase activity in an Hsp70 cochaperone-independent manner. IMPORTANCE The interplay between host factors and influenza virus RNA polymerase plays a critical role in determining virus pathogenicity and host adaptation. In this study, we newly identified a host protein, DnaJA1/Hsp40, that is co-opted by influenza A virus RNA polymerase to enhance its viral RNA synthesis in the nuclei of infected cells. We found that DnaJA1 associates with both PB2 and PA subunits and translocates into the nucleus along with the nuclear import of the PB1-PA dimer during influenza virus replication. Interestingly, the effect of DnaJA1 is mainly dependent on its C-terminal substrate-binding domain and not on its typical J domain, which is required for its Hsp70 cochaperone function. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a member of the

  15. ABA Is an Essential Signal for Plant Resistance to Pathogens Affecting JA Biosynthesis and the Activation of Defenses in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Adie, Bruce A.T.; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Pérez-Pérez, Manuel M.; Godoy, Marta; Sánchez-Serrano, José-J.; Schmelz, Eric A.; Solano, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana defense response to the damping-off oomycete pathogen Pythium irregulare show that resistance to P. irregulare requires a multicomponent defense strategy. Penetration represents a first layer, as indicated by the susceptibility of pen2 mutants, followed by recognition, likely mediated by ERECTA receptor-like kinases. Subsequent signaling of inducible defenses is predominantly mediated by jasmonic acid (JA), with insensitive coi1 mutants showing extreme susceptibility. In contrast with the generally accepted roles of ethylene and salicylic acid cooperating with or antagonizing, respectively, JA in the activation of defenses against necrotrophs, both are required to prevent disease progression, although much less so than JA. Meta-analysis of transcriptome profiles confirmed the predominant role of JA in activation of P. irregulare–induced defenses and uncovered abscisic acid (ABA) as an important regulator of defense gene expression. Analysis of cis-regulatory sequences also revealed an unexpected overrepresentation of ABA response elements in promoters of P. irregulare–responsive genes. Subsequent infections of ABA-related and callose-deficient mutants confirmed the importance of ABA in defense, acting partly through an undescribed mechanism. The results support a model for ABA affecting JA biosynthesis in the activation of defenses against this oomycete. PMID:17513501

  16. An Arabidopsis Plasma Membrane Proton ATPase Modulates JA Signaling and Is Exploited by the Pseudomonas syringae Effector Protein AvrB for Stomatal Invasion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhaoyang; Wu, Yujiao; Yang, Yongqing; Du, Minmin; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Guo, Yan; Li, Chuanyou; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2015-07-01

    Stomata are natural openings through which many pathogenic bacteria enter plants. Successful bacterial pathogens have evolved various virulence factors to promote stomatal opening. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector protein AvrB induces stomatal opening and enhances bacterial virulence in a manner dependent on RPM1-INTERACTING4 (RIN4), which promotes stomatal opening by positively regulating the Arabidopsis plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (AHA1), which is presumed to directly regulate guard cell turgor pressure. In support of a role of AHA1 in AvrB-induced stomatal opening, AvrB enhances ATPase activity in plants. Unexpectedly, AHA1 promotes the interaction between the jasmonate (JA) receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and enhances JA signaling. JA signaling is required for optimum stomatal infection in AHA1-active plants. Similarly, AvrB also induces the COI1-JAZ9 interaction and the degradation of multiple JAZ proteins. AvrB-induced stomatal opening and virulence require the canonical JA signaling pathway, which involves the COI1 and NAC transcription factors. The findings thus point to a previously unknown pathway exploited by P. syringae that acts upstream of COI1 to regulate JA signaling and stomatal opening. PMID:26198069

  17. The Lipoxygenase Gene Family in Poplar: Identification, Classification, and Expression in Response to MeJA Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu; Chen, Xue; Yan, Hanwei; Li, Weiwei; Li, Yuan; Cai, Ronghao; Xiang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are important dioxygenases in cellular organisms. LOXs contribute to plant developmental processes and environmental responses. However, a systematic and comprehensive analysis has not been focused on the LOX gene family in poplar. Therefore, in the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the LOX gene family in poplar. Results Using bioinformatics methods, we identified a total of 20 LOX genes. These LOX genes were clustered into two subfamilies. The gene structure and motif composition of each subfamily were relatively conserved. These genes are distributed unevenly across nine chromosomes. The PtLOX gene family appears to have expanded due to high tandem and low segmental duplication events. Microarray analysis showed that a number of PtLOX genes have different expression pattern across disparate tissues and under various stress treatments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was further performed to confirm the responses to MeJA treatment of the 20 poplar LOX genes. The results show that the PtLOX genes are regulated by MeJA (Methyl jasmonate) treatment. Conclusions This study provides a systematic analysis of LOX genes in poplar. The gene family analysis reported here will be useful for conducting future functional genomics studies to uncover the roles of LOX genes in poplar growth and development. PMID:25928711

  18. A maize jasmonate Zim-domain protein, ZmJAZ14, associates with the JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaojin; Yan, Shengwei; Sun, Cheng; Li, Suzhen; Li, Jie; Xu, Miaoyun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhao, Qianqian; Li, Ye; Fan, Yunliu; Chen, Rumei; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) is an important signaling molecule involved in the regulation of many physiological and stress-related processes in plants. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins have been implicated in regulating JA signaling pathways and the cross talk between various phytohormones. Maize is not only an important cereal crop, but also a model plant for monocotyledon studies. Although many JAZ proteins have been characterized in Arabidopsis and rice, few reports have examined the function of JAZ proteins in maize. In this report, we examined the phylogenetic relationship and expression pattern of JAZ family genes in maize. In addition, a tassel and endosperm-specific JAZ gene, ZmJAZ14, was identified using microarray data analysis and real-time RT-PCR, and its expression was induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), jasmonate (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellins (GAs). ZmJAZ14 was shown to be localized in the nucleus and possessed no transcriptional activating activity, suggesting that it functions as a transcriptional regulator. We found that overexpression of ZmJAZ14 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to JA and ABA treatment, as well as PEG stress, while it promoted growth under GA stimulus. Moreover, ZmJAZ14 interacted with a subset of transcription factors in Arabidopsis, and the accumulation of several marker genes involved in JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways were altered in the overexpression lines. These results suggest that ZmJAZ14 may serve as a hub for the cross talk among the JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways. Our results can be used to further characterize the function of JAZ family proteins in maize, and the gene cloned in this study may serve as a candidate for drought tolerance and growth promotion regulation in maize. PMID:25807368

  19. An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Fernando; Yazaki, Junshi; Lee, Melissa; Takahashi, Yohei; Kim, Alice Y; Li, Zixing; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ecker, Joseph R; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that mediates abiotic stress tolerance and regulates growth and development. ABA binds to members of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family that initiate signal transduction inhibiting type 2C protein phosphatases. Although crosstalk between ABA and the hormone Jasmonic Acid (JA) has been shown, the molecular entities that mediate this interaction have yet to be fully elucidated. We report a link between ABA and JA signaling through a direct interaction of the ABA receptor PYL6 (RCAR9) with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in yeast two hybrid assays and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of ABA. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins. Furthermore, PYL6 was able to modify transcription driven by MYC2 using JAZ6 and JAZ8 DNA promoter elements in yeast one hybrid assays. Finally, pyl6 T-DNA mutant plants show an increased sensitivity to the addition of JA along with ABA in cotyledon expansion experiments. Overall, the present study identifies a direct mechanism for transcriptional modulation mediated by an ABA receptor different from the core ABA signaling pathway, and a putative mechanistic link connecting ABA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:27357749

  20. The JaICA-genox oxidative stress profile--an overview on the profiling technique in the oxidative stress assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Ochi, H; Cheng, R Z; Kantha, S S; Takeuchi, M; Ramarathnam, N

    2000-01-01

    It is widely accepted that oxidative stress (OS) is a major causative factor for many of the age-related dysfunctions and specific diseases. Since the oxidative stress state (OSS) of an individual depends on hereditary, dietary, and environmental factors, there is a large heterogeneity in the population that may be related to disease incidence and longevity. Hence there is a need to assess how well an individual is coping against OS. The Japan Institute for the Control of Aging (JaICA) and Genox have jointly developed a profiling technique to measure the "Oxidative Stress Profiles (JaICA-Genox OSP)" of individuals and laboratory test animals. The JaICA-Genox OSP consists of about 45 different assays measuring the levels of oxidative damage in lipids and nucleic acids, and the antioxidant defenses in the serum. In addition, several bio-markers for cardiovascular disease risk are also measured, and assays to measure specific age- and sex-related hormones in the serum and urine, and race elements in serum, urine, and drinking water are also undertaken. This overview discusses the designing of the JaICA-Genox OSP and its application in the testing of human subjects. PMID:11237182

  1. An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Fernando; Yazaki, Junshi; Lee, Melissa; Takahashi, Yohei; Kim, Alice Y.; Li, Zixing; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ecker, Joseph R.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that mediates abiotic stress tolerance and regulates growth and development. ABA binds to members of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family that initiate signal transduction inhibiting type 2C protein phosphatases. Although crosstalk between ABA and the hormone Jasmonic Acid (JA) has been shown, the molecular entities that mediate this interaction have yet to be fully elucidated. We report a link between ABA and JA signaling through a direct interaction of the ABA receptor PYL6 (RCAR9) with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in yeast two hybrid assays and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of ABA. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins. Furthermore, PYL6 was able to modify transcription driven by MYC2 using JAZ6 and JAZ8 DNA promoter elements in yeast one hybrid assays. Finally, pyl6 T-DNA mutant plants show an increased sensitivity to the addition of JA along with ABA in cotyledon expansion experiments. Overall, the present study identifies a direct mechanism for transcriptional modulation mediated by an ABA receptor different from the core ABA signaling pathway, and a putative mechanistic link connecting ABA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:27357749

  2. Integrated Performance of Next Generation High Data Rate Receiver and AR4JA LDPC Codec for Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Lyubarev, Mark; Nakashima, Michael A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Lee, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are the state-of-the-art in forward error correction (FEC) technology that exhibits capacity approaching performance. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has designed a family of LDPC codes that are similar in structure and therefore, leads to a single decoder implementation. The Accumulate-Repeat-by-4-Jagged- Accumulate (AR4JA) code design offers a family of codes with rates 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 and lengths 1024, 4096, 16384 information bits. Performance is less than one dB from capacity for all combinations.Integrating a stand-alone LDPC decoder with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) receiver faces additional challenges than building a single receiver-decoder unit from scratch. In this work, we outline the issues and show that these additional challenges can be over-come by simple solutions. To demonstrate that an LDPC decoder can be made to work seamlessly with a COTS receiver, we interface an AR4JA LDPC decoder developed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with a modern high data rate receiver and mea- sure the combined receiver-decoder performance. Through optimizations that include an improved frame synchronizer and different soft-symbol scaling algorithms, we show that a combined implementation loss of less than one dB is possible and therefore, most of the coding gain evidence in theory can also be obtained in practice. Our techniques can benefit any modem that utilizes an advanced FEC code.

  3. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus “Ferrovum”

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; González, Carolina; Ossandon, Francisco J.; Daniel, Rolf; Holmes, David S.; Schlömann, Michael; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus “Ferrovum” are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus “Ferrovum” is extremely scarce. Objective In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus “Ferrovum” we sequenced the genome of a “Ferrovum”-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel “Ferrovum” strain JA12. Phylogeny and Lifestyle The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct “Ferrovum” species. “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that “Ferrovum” strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively. Unique Metabolic Features The potential utilisation of urea by “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs “Ferrovum” strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin) and Acidithiobacillus

  4. Electrical resistivity tomography, VES and magnetic surveys for dam site characterization, Wukro, Northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haile, Tigistu; Atsbaha, Solomun

    2014-09-01

    Geophysical surveys involving the techniques of electrical resistivity imaging, electrical sounding and magnetics were employed to characterize the ground conditions at a proposed dam site at Hizaeti-Afras, Wukro, North Ethiopia. The techniques were utilized to map the depth to the competent formations, their relative suitability for foundation work and the presence and extent of weak zones in the subsurface. The work has mapped the different lithologic units of the subsurface and determined the depth to the basement rocks in the area. Through correlation of the inverse model resistivity sections of the imaging surveys, the geoelectric section of the sounding survey and the magnetic profile plots with available borehole lithologic logs, it is shown that the results very well supplement the geotechnical point data in addition to providing a wider coverage in mapping areas of weak ground that could otherwise be missed with widely spaced borehole information. The combined results of the survey show the proposed dam axis to be unsuitable. The power of the electrical resistivity imaging technique and its potential to map the shallow subsurface with adequate resolution are illustrated. The result is a strong suggestion that geophysical techniques can be used to assist and extrapolate borehole geotechnical data especially when large area is to be used for development of large infrastructure.

  5. Getting More Bang for the Buck: Determining the Economic Rationale of Vocational Education. A VES Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhinney, Kerry R.; Pershing, James A.

    Vocational education in the United States has come under increased scrutiny, and its proponents need the tools to convince the critics of its merits. Many economic conditions have a strong impact on vocational education, and understanding of economics is important in offering a rationale of vocational education. In a time of shrinking revenues,…

  6. The Bottom Line: Business and Education Partnerships. A VES Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Clint; Pershing, James A.

    This paper contains some impressions regarding financial incentives for business-education partnerships. The first topic is the potential for federal tax deductions. A proposed net tax credit plan that was not adopted, the principle of charitable tax deductions for corporate gifts, and an education tax break bill are discussed. The next topic is…

  7. A Capital Course: Teaching Economics in Vocational Education. A VES Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhinney, Kerry R.; Pershing, James A.

    The lack of economics literacy is a serious problem in the United States. Today, public school students are taught little if any economics and score very poorly on economics literacy tests, with the average test score being 40 percent. This absence of economic understanding hurts the economy in the following ways: (1) economically illiterate…

  8. Distance Education and Its Applications for Vocational Education. A VES Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Carthell; Pershing, James A.

    This monograph provides policy makers and administrators with an overview of distance education principles, technology, and application as they exist today. Section I discusses elements of a distance education process. General headings are personnel, hardware, and software. Section II considers the historical development of distance education and…

  9. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  10. Gene-to-metabolite network for biosynthesis of lignans in MeJA-elicited Isatis indigotica hairy root cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruibing; Li, Qing; Tan, Hexin; Chen, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Ma, Ruifang; Gao, Shouhong; Zerbe, Philipp; Chen, Wansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Root and leaf tissue of Isatis indigotica shows notable anti-viral efficacy, and are widely used as “Banlangen” and “Daqingye” in traditional Chinese medicine. The plants' pharmacological activity is attributed to phenylpropanoids, especially a group of lignan metabolites. However, the biosynthesis of lignans in I. indigotica remains opaque. This study describes the discovery and analysis of biosynthetic genes and AP2/ERF-type transcription factors involved in lignan biosynthesis in I. indigotica. MeJA treatment revealed differential expression of three genes involved in phenylpropanoid backbone biosynthesis (IiPAL, IiC4H, Ii4CL), five genes involved in lignan biosynthesis (IiCAD, IiC3H, IiCCR, IiDIR, and IiPLR), and 112 putative AP2/ERF transcription factors. In addition, four intermediates of lariciresinol biosynthesis were found to be induced. Based on these results, a canonical correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient was performed to construct gene-to-metabolite networks and identify putative key genes and rate-limiting reactions in lignan biosynthesis. Over-expression of IiC3H, identified as a key pathway gene, was used for metabolic engineering of I. indigotica hairy roots, and resulted in an increase in lariciresinol production. These findings illustrate the utility of canonical correlation analysis for the discovery and metabolic engineering of key metabolic genes in plants. PMID:26579184

  11. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J A; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Julian, V; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Carrascosa, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  12. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  13. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  14. The MeJA-inducible copper amine oxidase AtAO1 is expressed in xylem tissue and guard cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghuge, Sandip A; Carucci, Andrea; Rodrigues-Pousada, Renato A; Tisi, Alessandra; Franchi, Stefano; Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases oxidize the polyamine putrescine to 4-aminobutanal with the production of the plant signal molecule hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ammonia. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene At4g14940 (AtAO1, previously referred to as ATAO1) encodes an apoplastic copper amine oxidase expressed in lateral root cap cells and developing xylem, especially in root protoxylem and metaxylem precursors. In our recent study, we demonstrated that AtAO1 expression is strongly induced in the root vascular tissues by the wound-signal hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that the H2O2 derived by the AtAO1-driven oxidation of putrescine, mediates the MeJA–induced early protoxylem differentiation in Arabidopsis roots. H2O2 may contribute to protoxylem differentiation by signaling developmental cell death and by acting as co-substrate in peroxidase-mediated cell wall stiffening and lignin polymerization. Here, by the means of AtAO1 promoter::green fluorescent protein-β-glucuronidase (AtAO1::GFP-GUS) fusion analysis, we show that a strong AtAO1 gene expression occurs also in guard cells of leaves and flowers. The high expression levels of AtAO1 in tissues or cell types regulating water supply and water loss may suggest a role of the encoded protein in water balance homeostasis, by modulating coordinated adjustments in anatomical and functional features of xylem tissue and guard cells during acclimation to adverse environmental conditions. PMID:26241131

  15. Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

    2012-04-01

    The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a

  16. GA3 and other signal regulators (MeJA and IAA) improve xanthumin biosynthesis in different manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Li, Changfu; Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberrellin A3 (GA3) at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM) or IAA (200 µM) treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM) led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment. PMID:25157461

  17. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA. PMID:27200023

  18. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA. PMID:27200023

  19. Effects of Adding Vindoline and MeJA on Production of Vincristine and Vinblastine, and Transcription of their Biosynthetic Genes in the Cultured CMCs of Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjin; Yang, Jiazeng; Zi, Jiachen; Zhu, Jianhua; Song, Liyan; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-12-01

    Vincristine and vinblastine were found by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) in Catharanthus roseuscambial meristem cells (CMCs) jointly treated with 0.25 mM vindoline and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), suggesting that C. roseus CMCs contain a complete set of the enzymes which are in response to convert vindoline into vincristine and vinblastine. Based on the facts that the transcript levels of vindoline-biosynthetic genes (STR, SGD and D4H) were up-regulated instead of being down-regulated by adding itself to the culture, and that the transcriptional factor ORCA3 was up-regulated simultaneously, we further confirmed that the transcription of STR, SGD, D4H was manipulated by ORCA3. PMID:26882673

  20. Factors influencing the structure and spatial distribution of fishes in the headwater streams of the Jaú River in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Kemenes, A; Forsberg, B R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of spatial variation in river channels and habitats on the distribution of fish communities in the headwater streams of the Jaú River System, a blackwater tributary of the Negro River. Collections and measurements were made in 34 headwater streams during the period of November- December, 1998. Fish were captured with fish traps and hand nets along standard reaches of two meanders. Data on benthic habitat structure, stream depth and width were collected along lateral transects in each sample reach. A total of 66 fish species from 24 families were collected and classified into seven trophic guilds: allocthonous insectivore, autochthonous insectivore, general insectivore, piscivore, detritivorous planktivore, detritivorous insectivore and insectivorous piscivore. Variations in the distribution and diversity of bottom substrates were important factors influencing fish community structures in these systems. Also, variation in stream size explained the observed variability in fish communities. PMID:25627363

  1. Variability of phenotype, anthocyanin indexes, and flavonoids in accessions from a close relative of soybean, Neontonia wightii (Wright & Arn. J.A. Lackey) in the U.S. germplasm collection for potential use as a health forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A close relative of soybean, Neonotonia wightii (Wright & Arn. J.A. Lackey), is used as a ruminant feed and restores soil productivity in Brazil and Zimbabwe, respectively. Neonotonia wightii accessions were grown in a greenhouse at Griffin, Georgia, characterized for various phenotypic traits, and...

  2. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  3. Molecular characterisation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and plasmid AmpC-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers in Béjaïa, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belmahdi, Mohamed; Bakour, Sofiane; Al Bayssari, Charbel; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the molecular support of antibiotic resistance in expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy broilers in Béjaïa, northeast Algeria. A total of 61 intestinal swabs from slaughtered broilers from four regions in Béjaïa locality, Algeria, were collected between February and April 2014, from which 20 ESC-resistant E. coli strains were isolated. Escherichia coli isolates were identified by classical biochemical and MALDI-TOF methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Screening for β-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME)-encoding genes and qnr determinants was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was determined using molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that the isolates showed high rates of resistance (>90%) to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime, streptomycin, tobramycin, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Low rates of resistance were observed for kanamycin (35%), amikacin (30%), cefoxitin (20%) and cefotaxime (15%). Molecular characterisation revealed that all of the isolates expressed the blaTEM-1 gene. Fourteen of them harboured the blaSHV-12 gene, two harboured the blaCTX-M-1 gene and four isolates harboured blaCMY-2. Screening for AME-encoding genes demonstrated that all isolates contained the aadA gene. In addition, qnrA was detected as the quinolone resistance determinant in 13 isolates. MLST revealed four known sequence types (STs), including ST744, ST38, ST1011 and ST2179, as well as one new sequence type (ST5086). Here we report the first study describing the clonal diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from healthy broilers in Algeria. PMID:27530851

  4. Impact of agricultural activity and geologic controls on groundwater quality of the alluvial aquifer of the Guadalquivir River (province of Jaén, Spain): a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorite-Herrera, Miguel; Jiménez-Espinosa, Rosario

    2008-06-01

    The alluvial aquifer of the Alto Guadalquivir River is one of the most important shallow aquifers in Jaén, Spain. It is located in the central-eastern part of the province, and its groundwater resources are used mainly for crop irrigation in an agriculture-dominated area. Hydrochemical and water-quality data obtained through a 2-year sampling (2004-2006) and analysis program indicate that nitrate pollution is a serious problem affecting groundwater due to the use of nitrogen (N)-fertilizers in agriculture. During the study, 231 water samples were collected from wells and springs to determine water chemistry and the extent of nitrate pollution. The concentration of nitrate in groundwater ranged from 1.25 to 320.88 mg/l. Considerable seasonal fluctuations in groundwater quality were observed as a consequence of agricultural practices and other factors such as annual rainfall distribution and the Guadalquivir River flow regime. The chemical composition of the water is not only influenced by agricultural practices, but also by interaction with the alluvial sediments. The dissolution of evaporites accounts for part of the Na+, K+, Cl-, SO4 2-, Mg2+, and Ca2+, but other processes, such as calcite precipitation and dedolomitization, also contribute to groundwater chemistry.

  5. Comment on ``Geoeffectiveness of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections'' by N. Gopalswamy, S. Yashiro, and S. Akiyama (J. Geophys. Res. 2007, 112, doi:10.1029/2006JA012149)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolaev, Yu. I.

    2008-12-01

    Comment on paper: Gopalswamy, N., S. Yashiro, and S. Akiyama (2007), Geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A06112, doi:10.1029/2006JA012149 Gopalswamy et al. [2007] studied the geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the basis of solar observations during 1996-2005 and found that the geoeffectiveness of 229 frontside halo CMEs was 71%. Recently for observations of 305 frontside halo CMEs during 1997-2003 the geoeffectiveness was found to be 40% [Kim et al., 2005]. Complex analysis of both solar and interplanetary measurements showed that the geoeffectiveness of frontside halo CMEs is likely to be about 50% [Yermolaev et al., 2005; Yermolaev and Yermolaev, 2006]. Gopalswamy et al. [2007] did not discuss possible causes of this difference and were limited only to the general words: "The reason for the conflicting results (geoeffectiveness of CMEs ranging from 35% to more than 80%) may be attributed to the different definition of halo CMEs and geoeffectiveness." So, here we shall present our point of view on high geoeffectivenees of CME obtained in paper by Gopalswamy et al. [2007].

  6. LOW-TEMPERATURE ION TRAP STUDIES OF N{sup +}({sup 3} P{sub ja} ) + H{sub 2}(j) {yields} NH{sup +} + H

    SciTech Connect

    Zymak, I.; Hejduk, M.; Mulin, D.; Plasil, R.; Glosik, J.; Gerlich, D.

    2013-05-01

    Using a low-temperature 22-pole ion trap apparatus, detailed measurements for the title reaction have been performed between 10 K and 100 K in order to get some state specific information about this fundamental hydrogen abstraction process. The relative population of the two lowest H{sub 2} rotational states, j = 0 and 1, has been varied systematically. NH{sup +} formation is nearly thermo-neutral; however, to date, the energetics are not known with the accuracy required for low-temperature astrochemistry. Additional complications arise from the fact that, so far, there is no reliable theoretical or experimental information on how the reactivity of the N{sup +} ion depends on its fine-structure (FS) state {sup 3} P{sub ja} . Since in the present trapping experiment, thermalization of the initially hot FS population competes with hydrogen abstraction, the evaluation of the decay of N{sup +} ions over long storage times and at various He and H{sub 2} gas densities provides information on these processes. First assuming strict adiabatic behavior, a set of state specific rate coefficients is derived from the measured thermal rate coefficients. In addition, by recording the disappearance of the N{sup +} ions over several orders of magnitude, information on nonadiabatic transitions is extracted including FS-changing collisions.

  7. Java Tomography System (JaTS), a Seismic Tomography Software Using Fresnel Volumes, a Fast Marching Eikonal Solver and a Probabilistic Reconstruction Method: Conclusive Synthetic Test Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Sandrine; Grandjean, Gilles; Verly, Jacques

    Problems related to landscape management, natural hazards and civil engineering involve subsurface structures that can be delineated by geophysical imaging. Seismic tomography can accurately characterize a medium according to its velocity variations. Traditional seismic travel time tomography based on ray-tracing methods assumes that the waves frequency is infinite. Therefore, only the medium located along the ray path has an impact on the wave propagation. In subsurface tomography, the infinite frequency assumption does not hold, as targets have about the same size as the wavelength. The seismic waves propagation is affected not only by the medium along the shortest travel time path but also by the medium located in its vicinity. In this study, Fresnel volumes are used to determine the medium affecting the wave propagation given the seismic waves frequency. The choice of the travel time computation and reconstruction methods determines the overall efficiency and soundness of the tomography process. In this research, a second order Fast Marching eikonal solver is used for computing travel times. The Fast Marching Method is an original approach that propagates a monotonously expanding wave front in a medium. It is fast, reliable and easy to implement in both 2D and 3D. An innovative probabilistic approach enables the iterative reconstruction process based upon Fresnel volumes. This study compares the performances of JaTS, our java Fresnel volume tomography software to those of Sardine, a ray-tracing tomography software, over an unfavourable synthetic case.

  8. History, present status and future of sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. The Mary Béves Lecture.

    PubMed

    Mansel, R E; Khonji, N I; Clarke, D

    2000-01-01

    The word Sentinel' is defined in The Oxford English Dictionary as 'a guard, one who keeps watch or a sentry'. When translated to the concept of a tumour and its lymph node drainage, the sentinel node could be interpreted to mean the lymph node that guards or keeps watch over a tumour. The sentinel lymph node can thus be defined as the first lymph node that drains a primary tumour within the regional lymphatic basin of that tumour. We know that tumour progression in breast cancer often occurs in an orderly, progressive fashion. So in theory, if the sentinel node is tumour free then the rest of the nodes in the lymphatic basin should also be uninvolved by the tumour. PMID:10987219

  9. Answering the Demands of a New Workplace: Using Competency-Based Vocational Education To Prepare Workers. A VES Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Debra M.; Pershing, James A.

    Common elements of definitions of competency-based vocational education (CBVE) are: (1) CBVE is an instructional process; (2) students must develop competencies; (3) competency includes skill, knowledge, and attitudes; and (4) the outcome is successful job performance. Advantages of CBVE include: (1) students' awareness of what is expected of them…

  10. [Electrofulguration of refractory supraventricular paroxysmal tachycardias. (Experiences of the "Ignacio Cháves" National Institute of Cardiology].

    PubMed

    Iturralde, P; Romero, L; Colín, L; Gutiérrez, A; Rosado, J; Galván, O; de Micheli, A; González Hermosillo, J A

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report our experience with endocardial catheter ablation in the recurrent episodes of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in ten patients. All cases were referred because previous drug trials had failed to control arrhythmia. In four patients with Wolff Parkinson White syndrome, the ablation was used in the accessory pathway, in five patients in the his bundle region, and one patient in the AV perinodal region. The follow-up ranges from 4 to 15 months. We had a complete success rate of 40% and a partial success in other 40%. We did not have any complications during the procedures. PMID:2091553

  11. Cytotoxic effect of Alpinia scabra (Blume) Náves extracts on human breast and ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpinia scabra, locally known as 'Lengkuas raya’, is an aromatic, perennial and rhizomatous herb from the family Zingiberaceae. It is a wild species which grows largely on mountains at moderate elevations in Peninsular Malaysia, but it can also survive in the lowlands like in the states of Terengganu and Northern Johor. The present study reports the cytotoxic potential of A. scabra extracts from different parts of the plant. Methods The experimental approach in the present study was based on a bioassay-guided fractionation. The crude methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform and water) from different parts of A. scabra (leaves, rhizomes, roots and pseudo stems) were prepared prior to the cytotoxicity evaluation against human ovarian (SKOV-3) and hormone-dependent breast (MCF7) carcinoma cells. The identified cytotoxic extracts were then subjected to chemical investigations in order to identify the active ingredients. A normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) was used to determine the specificity for cancerous cells. The cytotoxic extracts and fractions were also subjected to morphological assessment, DNA fragmentation analysis and DAPI nuclear staining. Results The leaf (hexane and chloroform) and rhizome (chloroform) extracts showed high inhibitory effect against the tested cells. Ten fractions (LC1-LC10) were yielded after purification of the leaf chloroform extract. Fraction LC4 which showed excellent cytotoxic activity was further purified and resulted in 17 sub-fractions (VLC1-VLC17). Sub-fraction VLC9 showed excellent cytotoxicity against MCF7 and SKOV-3 cells but not toxic against normal MRC-5 cells. Meanwhile, eighteen fractions (RC1-RC18) were obtained after purification of the rhizome chloroform extract, of which fraction RC5 showed cytotoxicity against SKOV-3 cells with high selectivity index. There were marked morphological changes when observed using phase-contrast inverted microscope, DAPI nuclear staining and also DNA fragmentations in MCF7 and SKOV-3 cells after treatment with the cytotoxic extracts and fractions which were indicative of cell apoptosis. Methyl palmitate and methyl stearate were identified in the hexane leaf extract by GC-MS analysis. Conclusions The data obtained from the current study demonstrated that the cell death induced by cytotoxic extracts and fractions of A. scabra may be due to apoptosis induction which was characterized by apoptotic morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. The active ingredients in the leaf sub-fraction VLC9 and rhizome fraction RC5 may lead to valuable compounds that have the ability to kill cancer cells but not normal cells. PMID:24215354

  12. Resolving electrolayers from VES: A contribution from modeling the electrical response of a tightly constrained alluvial stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, M.; Ceresa, N.; Bersezio, R.; Giudici, M.; Inzoli, S.; Cavalli, E.

    2015-08-01

    The reliability of the hydrostratigraphic interpretation of electrostratigraphy derived from ground based, Direct Current resistivity methods is analyzed through the forward modeling of synthetically derived electrostratigraphic layering in a tightly constrained alluvial framework. To this purpose, a high-resolution stratigraphic model of the horizontally-stratified, alluvial aquifers hosted by the Quaternary regressive cycle of the Po plain in Lombardy was elaborated for a small area (1 ha) by correlation of borehole lithostratigraphic data down to 160 m below the ground surface. The stratigraphic model was used to compute 1-D synthetic electrostratigraphy based on the petrophysical relationship linking the bulk electrical resistivity of porous sediments to the coarse-to-fine litho-textural ratio and to the average pore-water electrical conductivity. A synthetic apparent resistivity curve was computed for the 1-D synthetic electrostratigraphy and for a traditional Vertical Electrical Sounding with Schlumberger array and a maximum dipole separation of 300 m. A good agreement was observed with the experimental apparent resistivity curve obtained with a Vertical Electrical Sounding collected in the study area. The comparison of the 1-D synthetic electrostratigraphy with the results obtained by inversion of the experimental data with the linear-digital filter method, under the assumption of electrically homogeneous layers and no lateral resistivity transition, was used to estimate the hydrostratigraphic resolving power of ground-based resistivity data at various depths. Stratigraphic units of different hierarchic orders can be resolved by Direct Current methods at different depths and at different sites. In this specific case study, Vertical Electrical Sounding resolution was comparable to the hierarchy of the genetic depositional systems, corresponding to the rank of the hydrostratigraphic systems.

  13. Physical and Metabolic Interactions of Pseudomonas sp. Strain JA5-B45 and Rhodococcus sp. Strain F9-D79 during Growth on Crude Oil and Effect of a Chemical Surfactant on Them

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Ward, Owen P.

    2001-01-01

    Methods to enhance crude oil biodegradation by mixed bacterial cultures, for example, (bio)surfactant addition, are complicated by the diversity of microbial populations within a given culture. The physical and metabolic interactions between Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 were examined during growth on Bow River crude oil. The effects of a nonionic chemical surfactant, Igepal CO-630 (nonylphenol ethoxylate), also were evaluated. Strain F9-D79 grew attached to the oil-water interface and produced a mycolic acid-containing capsule. Crude oil emulsification and surface activity were associated with the cellular fraction. Strain JA5-B45 grew in the aqueous phase and was unable to emulsify oil, but cell-free supernatants mediated kerosene-water emulsion formation. In coculture, stable emulsions were formed and strain JA5-B45 had an affinity for the capsule produced by strain F9-D79. Igepal CO-630 inhibited F9-D79 cells from adhering to the interface, and cells grew dispersed in the aqueous phase as 0.5-μm cocci rather than 2.5-μm rods. The surfactant increased total petroleum hydrocarbon removal by strain JA5-B45 from 4 to 22% and included both saturated compounds and aromatics. In coculture, TPH removal increased from 13 to 40% following surfactant addition. The culture pH normally increased from 7.0 to between 7.5 and 8.5, although addition of Igepal CO-630 to F9-D79 cultures resulted in a drop to pH 5.5. We suggest a dual role for the nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the coculture: (i) to improve hydrocarbon uptake by strain JA5-B45 through emulsification and (ii) to prevent strain F9-D79 from adhering to the oil-water interface, indirectly increasing hydrocarbon availability. These varied effects on hydrocarbon biodegradation could explain some of the known diversity of surfactant effects. PMID:11571196

  14. Comparative genomic analysis of single-molecule sequencing and hybrid approaches for finishing the Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1 strain DSM 10061 genome

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Nagaraju, Shilpa; Utturkar, Sagar M; De Tissera, Sashini; Segovia, Simón; Mitchell, Wayne; Land, Miriam L; Dassanayake, Asela; Köpke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium autoethanogenum strain JA1-1 (DSM 10061) is an acetogen capable of fermenting CO, CO2 and H2 (e.g. from syngas or waste gases) into biofuel ethanol and commodity chemicals such as 2,3-butanediol. A draft genome sequence consisting of 100 contigs has been published. Results A closed, high-quality genome sequence for C. autoethanogenum DSM10061 was generated using only the latest single-molecule DNA sequencing technology and without the need for manual finishing. It is assigned to the most complex genome classification based upon genome features such as repeats, prophage, nine copies of the rRNA gene operons. It has a low G + C content of 31.1%. Illumina, 454, Illumina/454 hybrid assemblies were generated and then compared to the draft and PacBio assemblies using summary statistics, CGAL, QUAST and REAPR bioinformatics tools and comparative genomic approaches. Assemblies based upon shorter read DNA technologies were confounded by the large number repeats and their size, which in the case of the rRNA gene operons were ~5 kb. CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Paloindromic Repeats) systems among biotechnologically relevant Clostridia were classified and related to plasmid content and prophages. Potential associations between plasmid content and CRISPR systems may have implications for historical industrial scale Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation failures and future large scale bacterial fermentations. While C. autoethanogenum contains an active CRISPR system, no such system is present in the closely related Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528. A common prophage inserted into the Arg-tRNA shared between the strains suggests a common ancestor. However, C. ljungdahlii contains several additional putative prophages and it has more than double the amount of prophage DNA compared to C. autoethanogenum. Other differences include important metabolic genes for central metabolism (as an additional hydrogenase and the absence of a

  15. Nicotiana attenuata MPK4 suppresses a novel JA signaling-independent defense pathway against the specialist insect Manduca sexta but is not required for the resistance to the generalist Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Baldwin, Ian T.; Wu, Jianqiang

    2014-01-01

    Summary How plants tailor their defense responses to attack from different insects remains largely unknown. Here we studied the role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), MPK4, in the resistance of a wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata to two herbivores, the specialist Manduca sexta and the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Stably transformed N. attenuata plants silenced in MPK4 (irMPK4) were generated and characterized for traits important for defense against herbivores. Only the oral secretions (OS) from M. sexta, but not the OS from S. littoralis or mechanical wounding, induced elevated levels of jasmonic acid (JA) in irMPK4 plants compared to the wild-type plants. Moreover, silencing MPK4 highly increased the resistance of N. attenuata to M. sexta in a fashion that was independent of COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1)-mediated JA signaling. Untargeted metabolomic screening identified several new MPK4-dependent putative defensive compounds against M. sexta. In contrast, silencing MPK4 did not affect the growth of the generalist insect S. littoralis, and we propose that this was due to the very low levels of fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in S. littoralis OS. Thus, MPK4 is likely to be a key signaling element that enables plants to tailor defense responses to different attackers. PMID:23672856

  16. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study. PMID:26212293

  17. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System (VES-SFE-106)

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Evans

    2006-08-15

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System located in the adjacent to the Sludge Tank Control House (CPP-648), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory, was developed to meet the interim status closure requirements for a tank system. The system to be closed includes a tank and associated ancillary equipment that were determined to have managed hazardous waste. The CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System will be "cleaned closed" in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of acheiving those standards for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System.

  18. Regulative influence of o-aminobenzoic acid on the biosynthesis of nourseothricin in cultures of Streptomyces noursei JA 3890b. IV. Bistability of metabolism and the mechanism of action of aminobenzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Gräfe, U; Bocker, H; Thrum, H

    1979-01-01

    Using the semi-continuous cultivation technique we could establish that specifically in Streptomyces noursei JA 3890b during growth on a medium supplied with D,L-alanine, NH4+, and maize starch there are two different phenotypes of the organism and stationary states of metabolism, respectively. The expression of either the metabolic state I with an enhanced capacity to oxidative deamination of alanine via the NAD+-dependent alanaine dehydrogenase or the metabolic state 2 which may be characterized by the preferred use of ammonium ions via the NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase was shown to depend strongly on the conditions of inoculum cultivation. When the amino acid permeases were derepressed by cultivating the inoculum cells on amino acid media, probably due to the defective mechanism of negative feedback control of amino acid influx in this strain an abnormously high uptake of alanine was observed that, consequently, was correlated to the enhanced oxidation of this amino acid as well as to the intensive production of ammonia within the cell. This overproduction of cellular NH4+ seems to bring about the subsequent repression of biosynthetic glutamate dehydrogenase and so on the accumulation of ammonia autocatalytically may rise up (metabolic state I). On the other hand, if the influx of alanine was kept low and the NADH oxidation was less efficient, respectively, or when there was high cellular activity of glutamate dehydrogenase the level of ammonia never did exceed the respressory limit and, accordingly, the expression of the metabolic state 2 was observed. Switching-over of metabolic flux from the state 2 towards the state 1 can be brought about either by increasing the level of nitrogen sources in the medium or by adding buffers pH greater than 7.5. In contrast, decrease of cellular level of NH4+ was shown to induce the transition of metabolic state 1 into the state 2. This can be achieved not only by limitation of nitrogen source but also by adding

  19. Personnel Management: A J/A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Recently, personnel executives and their staffs are being asked to help management solve an increasing number of human resource and business problems. Personnel management must undergo some changes if it is to achieve its full potential. (Author/AJ)

  20. Design of Current Source Dc/Dc Converter for Interfacing a 5 Kw Pem Fuel Cell / Paaugstinošā Strāvas Avota Līdzsprieguma Pārveidotāja Izstrāde 5 Kw Ūdeņraža Degvielas Elementam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreičiks, A.; Steiks, I.; Krievs, O.

    2013-08-01

    In domestic applications the low DC output voltage of a hydrogen fuel cell used as the main power supply or a backup power source has to be matched to the level and frequency of the AC voltage of utility grid. The interfacing power converter system usually consists of a DC/DC converter and an inverter. In this work, a DC/DC step-up converter stage is designed for interfacing a 5kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The losses of DC/DC conversion are estimated and, basing on the relevant analysis, the most appropriate configuration of converter modules is selected for a DC/DC converter stage of increased efficiency. The authors present the results of experimental analysis and simulation for the selected configuration of four double inductor step-up push-pull converter modules Ūdeņraža degvielas elementa invertoru sistēmas mājsaimniecības pielietojumiem parasti sastāv no līdzsprieguma paaugstināšanas un invertēšanas mezgliem. Šis raksts ir veltīts paaugstinošā līdzsprieguma pārveidotāja izstrādei 5 kW protonu apmaiņas membrānas degvielas elementam. Rakstā izpētīts divu induktoru divtaktu strāvas avota paaugstinošais līdzsprieguma pārveidotājs, aplūkojot gan datormodelēšanas, gan eksperimentālos rezultātus. Lai palielinātu DC/DC pārveidotāja efektivitāti var izmantot vairākus pārveidotāja moduļus, kam ieejas savienotas paralēli un izejās - virkne. Analīze Šajā raksta ir veikta analīze, balstoties uz kuras var izvēlieties skaitu pārveidotāj moduļu skaitu, kuri nodrošina vislabāko efektivitāti DC/DC pārveidotāja posmā. Kopējais eksperimentāli noteiktais izstrādātās degvielas elementa pārveidotāju sistēmas fizikālā modeļa lietderības koeficients ir 93%

  1. ?La Maétresse dit que je suis lent?: Représentation de l'école française dans le discours d'élèves immigrés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, Ana; Proux, Michelle B.

    1984-06-01

    The difficulties of immigrant children at school have generally been studied with the emphasis either on their deficiencies or on the schemes which they devise to enable them to adapt. The study which is presented here, however, aims at a radically different approach by viewing the problem within the theoretical framework of transculturation and by examining the way in which the pupils themselves perceive the French school system. A study is made of the outcome of 101 interviews which were conducted in their mother tongue with Spanish- or Portuguese-speaking boys and girls aged between 10 and 17 years old. On the basis of statistical analysis by computer, indices were formulated with the intention of establishing (a) the relationship between the researcher and the subject during the interview; (b) the links between the subject as an individual and his/her peer-group (`me' — `us'); (c) his/her perception of `others'; and (d) the way in which he/she relates to his/her experience (as something to be positively accepted — or to be suffered; `active' or `passive'). Keywords illustrate and underline the difficulties encountered both by pupils and by the school to grasp the idea of time norms as a cultural shaping and to perceive how relative they are.

  2. Results of the International Validation of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: Individual data for 1,2-dibromoethane, p-anisidine, and o-anthranilic acid in the 2nd step of the 4th phase Validation Study under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Takasawa, Hironao; Takashima, Rie; Narumi, Kazunori; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hattori, Akiko; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative International Validation Study of an in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), p-anisidine (ASD), and o-anthranilic acid (ANT) to investigate the effectiveness of the comet assay in detecting genotoxic carcinogens. Each of the three test chemicals was administered to 5 male Sprague-Dawley rats per group by oral gavage at 48, 24, and 3h before specimen preparation. Single cells were collected from the liver and glandular stomach at 3h after the final dosing, and the specimens prepared from these two organs were subjected to electrophoresis under alkaline conditions (pH>13). The percentage of DNA intensity in the comet tail was then assessed using an image analysis system. A micronucleus (MN) assay was also conducted using these three test chemicals with the bone marrow (BM) cells collected from the same animals simultaneously used in the comet assay, i.e., combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay. A genotoxic (Ames positive) rodent carcinogen, DBE gave a positive result in the comet assay in the present study, while a genotoxic (Ames positive) non-carcinogen, ASD and a non-genotoxic (Ames negative) non-carcinogen, ANT showed negative results in the comet assay. All three chemicals produced negative results in the BM MN assay. While the comet assay findings in the present study were consistent with those obtained from the rodent carcinogenicity studies for the three test chemicals, we consider the positive result in the comet assay for DBE to be particularly meaningful, given that this chemical produced a negative result in the BM MN assay. Therefore, the combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay is a useful method to detect genotoxic carcinogens that are undetectable with the BM MN assay alone. PMID:26212305

  3. The Potential and Uniqueness of Virtual Environments for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Leslie A.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual environments (VEs) are growing in popularity among educators and have unique potential for online learning. This paper describes the unique characteristics of VEs that make them an effective venue for online learning due to increased environmental presence. Unique characteristics of VEs include nature of visual stimuli, control of the…

  4. Treatment Plan Adherence for Your Child With JA

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the medication which controls the inflammation,” says Carol Lindsley, MD, chief of pediatric rheumatology at the ... with the medication which controls the inflammation,” says Carol Lindsley, MD, chief of pediatric rheumatology at the ...

  5. "Oya?"--O, Ja! Reading "Jugendliteratur" in the German Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffit, Gisela

    1998-01-01

    Makes a plea for reading authentic "Jugendliteratur" in the foreign-language classroom. Focuses on the reasons for inclusions of this literature, discusses some of the reasons for its omission, and offers solutions to the problems perceived. Strategies for reading whole texts are shared and applied to the reading of "Oya" by Karin Konig, Hanne…

  6. Preparation of intravenous injection nanoformulation of VESylated gemcitabine by co-assembly with TPGS and its anti-tumor activity in pancreatic tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanyun; Meng, Haijing; Du, Fang; Lu, Wei; Liu, Shiyuan; Huang, Jin; Yu, Jiahui

    2015-11-30

    Our recent publication showed that VES-dFdC nanocapsules in pure water could be obtained via the self-assembling of VES-dFdC prodrug synthesized by coupling gemcitabine (dFdC) with vitamin E succinate (VES). To prepare the intravenous injection nanoformulation, we present here a novel strategy to improve the stability and drug concentration of VES-dFdC nanoformulation in PBS or isotonic solution. Particularly, D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS), usually used as drug solubilizer and coincidentally contains the same VES moiety as VES-dFdC prodrug and PEG chain, is selected to co-assemble with VES-dFdC prodrug. The zeta potentials of all the TPGS/VES-dFdC co-assemblies were close to 0 mV, and their particle size measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) decreased from 113 to 36 nm with increasing TPGS/VES-dFdC molar ratios from 0.15 to 1.5. Stable colloidal suspensions were obtained without aggregates in PBS at 4 °C in one month or isotonic solution at 37 °C in one week, and the weight concentration of VES-dFdC prodrug increased from 7 to 17 mg/mL when the molar ratios of TPGS/VES-dFdC ranged from 0.5/1 to 1.5/1. The concentration of VES-dFdC prodrug was high enough to be used as intravenous injection nanoformulation in nude mice. Interestingly, along with the increase of TPGS/VES-dFdC molar ratios from 0.3/1 to 1.5/1, the morphology of TPGS/VES-dFdC co-assemblies changed from loose nanocapsule to compact micelle revealed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Finally, the co-assembly of TPGS/VES-dFdC (TPGS/VES-dFdC: 1/1) was selected as intravenous injection nanoformulation to evaluate the antitumor activity. Compared with native dFdC, TPGS/VES-dFdC nanoformulation with 0.2mmol/kg of dosage showed similar low toxicity in vivo, but 4.7 times high of tumor inhibition rate in nude mice with pre-established BxPC-3 tumors. PMID:26410754

  7. Vescalagin from Pink Wax Apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] Alleviates Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Ameliorates Glycemic Metabolism Abnormality in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-10

    This study investigates the ameliorative effect of vescalagin (VES) isolated from Pink wax apple fruit on hepatic insulin resistance and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemic rats. The results show that in HFD rats, VES significantly reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. VES significantly enhanced the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes while reducing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in HFD rats. Western blot assay revealed that VES reduced hepatic protein expression involved in inflammation pathways while up-regulating expression of hepatic insulin signaling-related proteins. Moreover, VES up-regulated the expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and hepatic glycolysis-related proteins while down-regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins in HFD rats. This study suggests some therapeutic potential of VES in preventing the progression of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26800576

  8. Do Challenge, Task Experience or Computer Familiarity Influence the Learning of Historical Chronology from Virtual Environments in 8-9 Year Old Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korallo, Liliya; Foreman, Nigel; Boyd-Davis, Stephen; Moar, Magnus; Coulson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Studies examined the potential use of VEs in teaching historical chronology to 127 children of primary school age (8-9 years). The use of passive fly-through VEs had been found, in an earlier study, to be disadvantageous with this age group when tested for their subsequent ability to place displayed sequential events in correct chronological…

  9. Avatars, Pedagogical Agents, and Virtual Environments: Social Learning Systems Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausburn, Lynna J.; Martens, Jon; Dotterer, Gary; Calhoun, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of literature that introduces major concepts and issues in using avatars and pedagogical agents in first- and second-person virtual environments (VEs) for learning online. In these VEs, avatars and pedagogical agents represent self and other learners/participants or serve as personal learning "guides". The…

  10. Using Immersive Virtual Environments for Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, R.; Cruz-Neira, C.

    1998-01-01

    Immersive virtual environments (VEs) technology has matured to the point where it can be utilized as a scientific and engineering problem solving tool. In particular, VEs are starting to be used to design and evaluate safety-critical systems that involve human operators, such as flight and driving simulators, complex machinery training, and emergency rescue strategies.

  11. Do Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Adhere to Social Conventions in Virtual Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Sarah; Mitchell, Peter; Leonard, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The potential for using virtual environments (VEs) in educational contexts for people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been recognized. However, very little is known about how people with ASDs interpret and understand VEs. This study aimed to investigate this directly with a group of 12 adolescents with ASDs, each individually matched…

  12. The evolutionary dynamics of variant antigen genes in Babesia reveal a history of genomic innovation underlying host–parasite interaction

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Andrew P.; Otto, Thomas D.; Darby, Alistair; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Xia, Dong; Echaide, Ignacio Eduardo; Farber, Marisa; Gahlot, Sunayna; Gamble, John; Gupta, Dinesh; Gupta, Yask; Jackson, Louise; Malandrin, Laurence; Malas, Tareq B.; Moussa, Ehab; Nair, Mridul; Reid, Adam J.; Sanders, Mandy; Sharma, Jyotsna; Tracey, Alan; Quail, Mike A.; Weir, William; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Hall, Neil; Willadsen, Peter; Lingelbach, Klaus; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Berriman, Matt; Allred, David R.; Pain, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Babesia spp. are tick-borne, intraerythrocytic hemoparasites that use antigenic variation to resist host immunity, through sequential modification of the parasite-derived variant erythrocyte surface antigen (VESA) expressed on the infected red blood cell surface. We identified the genomic processes driving antigenic diversity in genes encoding VESA (ves1) through comparative analysis within and between three Babesia species, (B. bigemina, B. divergens and B. bovis). Ves1 structure diverges rapidly after speciation, notably through the evolution of shortened forms (ves2) from 5′ ends of canonical ves1 genes. Phylogenetic analyses show that ves1 genes are transposed between loci routinely, whereas ves2 genes are not. Similarly, analysis of sequence mosaicism shows that recombination drives variation in ves1 sequences, but less so for ves2, indicating the adoption of different mechanisms for variation of the two families. Proteomic analysis of the B. bigemina PR isolate shows that two dominant VESA1 proteins are expressed in the population, whereas numerous VESA2 proteins are co-expressed, consistent with differential transcriptional regulation of each family. Hence, VESA2 proteins are abundant and previously unrecognized elements of Babesia biology, with evolutionary dynamics consistently different to those of VESA1, suggesting that their functions are distinct. PMID:24799432

  13. Matched population-based study examining the risk of type 2 diabetes in people with and without diagnosed hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Schnier, C; Wild, S; Kurdi, Z; Povey, C; Goldberg, D J; Hutchinson, S J

    2016-08-01

    Meta-analyses have found hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we examine this association within a large population-based study, according to HCV RNA status. A data-linkage approach was used to examine the excess risk of diagnosed T2DM in people diagnosed with antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) in Scotland (21 929 anti-HCV(+ves) ; involving 15 827 HCV RNA(+ves) , 3927 HCV RNA(-ves) and 2175 with unknown RNA-status) compared to that of a threefold larger general population sample matched for gender, age and postcode (65 074 anti-HCV(-ves) ). To investigate effects of ascertainment bias the following periods were studied: up to 1 year before (pre-HCV)/within 1 year of (peri-HCV)/more than 1 year post (post-HCV) the date of HCV-diagnosis. T2DM had been diagnosed in 2.9% of anti-HCV(+ves) (including 3.2% of HCV RNA(+ves) and 2.3% of HCV RNA(-ves) ) and 2.7% of anti-HCV(-ves) . A higher proportion of T2DM was diagnosed in the peri-HCV period (i.e. around the time of HCV-diagnosis) for the anti-HCV(+ves) (22%) compared to anti-HCV(-ves) (10%). In both the pre-HCV and post-HCV periods, only those anti-HCV(+ves) living in less deprived areas (13% of the cohort) were found to have a significant excess risk of T2DM compared to anti-HCV(-ves) (adjusted odds ratio in the pre-HCV period: 4.0 for females and 2.3 for males; adjusted hazard ratio in the post-HCV period: 1.5). These findings were similarly observed for both HCV RNA(+ves) (chronic) and HCV RNA(-ves) (resolved). In the largest study of T2DM among chronic HCV-infected individuals to date, there was no evidence to indicate that infection conveyed an appreciable excess risk of T2DM at the population level. PMID:26910297

  14. Vitamin E succinate-conjugated F68 micelles for mitoxantrone delivery in enhancing anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuling; Xu, Yingqi; Wu, Minghui; Fan, Lijiao; He, Chengwei; Wan, Jian-Bo; Li, Peng; Chen, Meiwan; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Mitoxantrone (MIT) is a chemotherapeutic agent with promising anticancer efficacy. In this study, Pluronic F68-vitamine E succinate (F68-VES) amphiphilic polymer micelles were developed for delivering MIT and enhancing its anticancer activity. MIT-loaded F68–VES (F68–VES/MIT) micelles were prepared via the solvent evaporation method with self-assembly under aqueous conditions. F68–VES/MIT micelles were found to be of optimal particle size with the narrow size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy images of F68–VES/MIT micelles showed homogeneous spherical shapes and smooth surfaces. F68–VES micelles had a low critical micelle concentration value of 3.311 mg/L, as well as high encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. Moreover, F68–VES/MIT micelles were stable in the presence of fetal bovine serum for 24 hours and maintained sustained drug release in vitro. Remarkably, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of F68–VES/MIT micelles was lower than that of free MIT in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells (two human breast cancer cell lines). In addition, compared with free MIT, there was an increased trend of apoptosis and cellular uptake of F68–VES/MIT micelles in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, these results indicated that F68–VES polymer micelles were able to effectively deliver MIT and largely improve its potency in cancer therapy. PMID:27471384

  15. Japan Link Center (JaLC): link management and DOI assignment for Japanese electronic scholarly contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takafumi; Tsuchiya, Eri; Kubota, Soichi; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    JST, cooperated with several national institutes, is currently developing “Japan Link Center”, which manages Japanese electronic scholarly contents (journal articles, books, dissertations etc.) in an integrated fashion using Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Japan Link Center will manage metadata and whereabouts information of the contents in the digital environment and provide domestic and international linking information, cite/cited information to activate dissemination of S&T information, furthermore, to strengthen transmission of S&T information from Japan. Japan Link Center is expected to be appointed as the 9th DOI registration agency (RA) in the world by the International DOI Foundation (IDF) this spring.

  16. JaMBES: A "New" Way of Calculating Plate Tectonic Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambord, A. I.; Smith, E. G. C.; Sutherland, R.

    2014-12-01

    Calculating the paleoposition of tectonic plates using marine geophysical data has been usually done by using the Hellinger criterion [Hellinger, 1981]. However, for the Hellinger software [Kirkwood et al., 1999] to produce stable results, we find that the input data must be abundant and spatially well distributed. Although magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data have been increasingly abundant since the 1960s, some parts of the globe remain too sparsely explored to provide enough data for the Hellinger code to provide satisfactory rotations. In this poster, we present new software to calculate the paleopositions of tectonic plates using magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data. Our method is based on the theory of plate tectonics as introduced by [Bullard et al., 1965] and [Morgan, 1968], which states that ridge segments (ie. magnetic lineations) and fracture zones are at right angles to each other. In order to test our software, we apply it to a region of the world where climatic conditions hinder the acquisition of magnetic data: the Southwest Pacific, between New Zealand and Antarctica from breakup time to chron 20 (c43Ma). Bullard, E., J. E. Everett, and A. G. Smith (1965), The fit of continents around the atlantic, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 258(1088), 41-51. Hellinger, S. J. (1981), The uncertainties of finite rotations in plate tectonics, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86(B10), 9312-9318. Kirkwood, B. H., J. Y. Royer, T. C. Chang, and R. G. Gordon (1999), Statistical tools for estimating and combining finite rotations and their uncertainties, Geophysical Journal International, 137(2), 408-428. Morgan, W. J. (1968), Rises, trenches, great faults, and crustal blocks, Journal of Geophysical Research, 73(6), 1959-1982.

  17. The Flintlock Site (8JA1763): An Unusual Underwater Deposit in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrell, Christopher E.; Scott-Ireton, Della A.; Smith, Roger C.; Levy, James; Knetsch, Joe

    2009-06-01

    In the fall of 2001, staff of the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research were led by river divers to an underwater site in the Apalachicola River containing a large concentration of prehistoric and historic artifacts lying on the riverbed. Subsequent inspection of the submerged river bank and scoured limestone river channel revealed a myriad of objects, which included iron fasteners, metal tools and implements, broken glass bottles, stone projectile points, scattered bricks and stone blocks, and other materials. Discovery of two large fragments of a wooden watercraft, a bayonet, a copper arrowhead, and flintlock gun barrels initially prompted researchers to hypothesize that the site might represent the remains of a U.S. Army boat that was attacked in 1817 by Seminole Indians while en route upriver. The episode, which caused the deaths of more than 30 soldiers and several women who were aboard the boat, led to the First Seminole War and the U.S. Army invasion of Florida. To investigate this hypothesis, a systematic survey of the riverbed was undertaken in the spring of 2002 to record underwater features and recover additional diagnostic artifacts. These activities employed side-scan sonar as well as diver visual investigations. This paper presents a case study of the value and broader significance of aggregate data where interpretation was underpinned by artefactual, historical and environmental analysis.

  18. Greener routes to organics and nanomaterials: Sustainable applications of nano-catalysts (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic activity involving alternate energy input and greener reaction medium in aqueous or under solvent-free conditions is summarized. This includes the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a variety of reactions catalyzed by basic water o...

  19. 42 CFR 488.115 - Care guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EC01JA91.132 EC01JA91.133 EC01JA91.134 EC01JA91.135 EC01JA91.136 EC01JA91.137 EC01JA91.138 EC01JA91.139... EC01JA91.180 EC01JA91.181 EC01JA91.182 EC01JA91.183 EC01JA91.184 EC01JA91.185 EC01JA91.186 EC01JA91.187 EC01JA91.188 EC01JA91.189 EC01JA91.190 EC01JA91.191 EC01JA91.192 EC01JA91.193 EC01JA91.194...

  20. 42 CFR 488.115 - Care guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EC01JA91.132 EC01JA91.133 EC01JA91.134 EC01JA91.135 EC01JA91.136 EC01JA91.137 EC01JA91.138 EC01JA91.139... EC01JA91.180 EC01JA91.181 EC01JA91.182 EC01JA91.183 EC01JA91.184 EC01JA91.185 EC01JA91.186 EC01JA91.187 EC01JA91.188 EC01JA91.189 EC01JA91.190 EC01JA91.191 EC01JA91.192 EC01JA91.193 EC01JA91.194...

  1. 42 CFR 488.115 - Care guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EC01JA91.132 EC01JA91.133 EC01JA91.134 EC01JA91.135 EC01JA91.136 EC01JA91.137 EC01JA91.138 EC01JA91.139... EC01JA91.180 EC01JA91.181 EC01JA91.182 EC01JA91.183 EC01JA91.184 EC01JA91.185 EC01JA91.186 EC01JA91.187 EC01JA91.188 EC01JA91.189 EC01JA91.190 EC01JA91.191 EC01JA91.192 EC01JA91.193 EC01JA91.194...

  2. 42 CFR 488.115 - Care guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EC01JA91.132 EC01JA91.133 EC01JA91.134 EC01JA91.135 EC01JA91.136 EC01JA91.137 EC01JA91.138 EC01JA91.139... EC01JA91.180 EC01JA91.181 EC01JA91.182 EC01JA91.183 EC01JA91.184 EC01JA91.185 EC01JA91.186 EC01JA91.187 EC01JA91.188 EC01JA91.189 EC01JA91.190 EC01JA91.191 EC01JA91.192 EC01JA91.193 EC01JA91.194...

  3. Effect of vitamin E succinate on the expression of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor in gastric cancer cells and CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, Liying; Zhang, Haijin; Xu, Peixiang; Zhang, Lijia; Zhang, Xuguang; Sun, Yanpei; Huang, Xiaoli; Wu, Kun

    2015-11-01

    Gastric malignancy, which shows poor prognosis, is one of the most frequent causes of cancer-associated deaths. Vitamin E succinate (VES) inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We explored the effect of VES on the expression of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor in gastric cancer cells and CD4(+) T cells. On one hand, VES dose-dependently regulated the expression of the TRAIL receptor in gastric cancer cells. Moreover, the activation of the TRAIL receptor, death receptor 4 (DR4), and death receptor 5 (DR5) in gastric cancer cells increased for up to 12 h. On the other hand, the expression of TRAIL protein in human CD4(+) T cells was obviously upregulated in the presence of VES. On the basis of these findings, we combined VES and human CD4(+) T cells to induce apoptosis of MKN28 human gastric cancer cells. The results showed that VES induced higher gastric cancer cell apoptosis when combined with human CD4(+) T cells than when applied alone. We conclude that VES can induce the expression of TRAIL receptor in gastric cancer cells, as well as the expression of TRAIL in CD4(+) T cells. Overall, our results provide a theoretical basis for future immunotherapy studies. PMID:26378383

  4. Simulating the dynamic interaction of a robotic arm and the Space Shuttle remote manipulator system. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., Dec. 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrahan, Steven L.; Tolson, Robert H.; Williams, Robert L., II

    1995-01-01

    Industrial robots are usually attached to a rigid base. Placing the robot on a compliant base introduces dynamic coupling between the two systems. The Vehicle Emulation System (VES) is a six DOF platform that is capable of modeling this interaction. The VES employs a force-torque sensor as the interface between robot and base. A computer simulation of the VES is presented. Each of the hardware and software components is described and Simulink is used as the programming environment. The simulation performance is compared with experimental results to validate accuracy. A second simulation which models the dynamic interaction of a robot and a flexible base acts as a comparison to the simulated motion of the VES. Results are presented that compare the simulated VES motion with the motion of the VES hardware using the same admittance model. The two computer simulations are compared to determine how well the VES is expected to emulate the desired motion. Simulation results are given for robots mounted to the end effector of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS). It is shown that for fast motions of the two robots studied, the SRMS experiences disturbances on the order of centimeters. Larger disturbances are possible if different manipulators are used.

  5. Vitamin E succinate induces apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in EC109 esophageal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Zhao, Jiaying; Hou, Liying; Yang, Lei; Wu, Kun; Zhang, Linyou

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the fourth most common gastrointestinal cancer, it generally has a poor prognosis and novel strategies are required for prevention and treatment. Vitamin E succinate (VES) is a potential chemical agent for cancer prevention and therapy as it exerts anti-tumor effects in a variety of cancers. However, the role of VES in tumorigenesis and progression of cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine the effects of VES in regulating the survival and apoptosis of human esophageal cancer cells. EC109 human esophageal cancer cells were used to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of VES. The MTT and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assays demonstrated that VES inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Furthermore, VES downregulated constitutively active basal levels of phosphorylated (p)-serine-threonine kinase AKT (AKT) and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and decreased the phosphorylation of AKT substrates Bcl-2-associated death receptor and caspase-9, in addition to mTOR effectors, ribosomal protein S6 kinase β1 and eIF4E-binding protein 1. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002 suppressed p-AKT and p-mTOR, indicating PI3K is a common upstream mediator. The apoptosis induced by VES was increased by inhibition of AKT or mTOR with their respective inhibitor in esophageal cancer cells. The results of the present study suggested that VES targeted the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Furthermore, the current study suggests that VES may be useful in a combinational therapeutic strategy employing an mTOR inhibitor. PMID:27357907

  6. Improved Redirection with Distractors: A Large-Scale-Real-Walking Locomotion Interface and its Effect on Navigation in Virtual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Tabitha C.; Fuchs, Henry; Whitton, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Users in virtual environments often find navigation more difficult than in the real world. Our new locomotion interface, Improved Redirection with Distractors (IRD), enables users to walk in larger-than-tracked space VEs without predefined waypoints. We compared IRD to the current best interface, really walking, by conducting a user study measuring navigational ability. Our results show that IRD users can really walk through VEs that are larger than the tracked space and can point to targets and complete maps of VEs no worse than when really walking. PMID:25429369

  7. Level of Immersion in Virtual Environments Impacts the Ability to Assess and Teach Social Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bugnariu, Nicoleta L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Virtual environments (VEs) may be useful for delivering social skills interventions to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Immersive VEs provide opportunities for individuals with ASD to learn and practice skills in a controlled replicable setting. However, not all VEs are delivered using the same technology, and the level of immersion differs across settings. We group studies into low-, moderate-, and high-immersion categories by examining five aspects of immersion. In doing so, we draw conclusions regarding the influence of this technical manipulation on the efficacy of VEs as a tool for assessing and teaching social skills. We also highlight ways in which future studies can advance our understanding of how manipulating aspects of immersion may impact intervention success. PMID:26919157

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... Inerts 0.85 0 a MEV = molar exhaust volume, dry standard cubic feet per gram-mole (dscf/g-mol)...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... Inerts 0.85 0 a MEV = molar exhaust volume, dry standard cubic feet per gram-mole (dscf/g-mol)...

  10. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  11. Electrical resistivity imaging survey to detect uncharted mine galleries in the mining district of Linares, Jaén, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-López, J.; Rey, J.; Dueñas, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Benavente, J.

    2012-02-01

    The scarcity of information about the existence of old mining shafts and galleries in urban areas is an important issue for future urban development. Electrical resistivity tomography is a non-destructive geophysical technique that can detect and characterize such subsurface cavities based on differences in the behaviour of electrical current in the void and in the embedding rock. Here we present a study in which this technique was used to determine the location of old engineered structures around the city of Linares, southern Spain, and to relate these structures to the abandoned deep mines present in the area. Eight electrical resistivity imaging profiles were performed, with a total of 22 808 measurements. Correlations between geoelectrical anomalies allow detection of the depth and the direction of several galleries, as well as the voids that result from mining extraction. Given the depth at which these structures are located (in some cases less than 5 m), they pose an important risk for future construction projects in areas of urban expansion. This technique is shown to be a useful tool for locating areas that pose important urban risks and, by extension, for the decision-making process in territorial planning, especially in areas with a history of deep mining.

  12. Alcohol use as a behavioural sign of disinhibition: evidence from J.A. Gray's model of personality.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Yolanda; Aguilar, Raúl; Molinuevo, Beatriz; Torrubia, Rafael

    2007-10-01

    Based on Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, the influence of behavioural disinhibition upon alcohol consumption was studied. A sample of undergraduates answered different questionnaires related to the Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural Activation System. In relation to alcohol use, three aspects of alcohol consumption were assessed: frequency, quantity of alcohol intake and the age at first drink. From a series of correlation and regression analyses, we found that both high scores on BAS-related scales and low scores on those scales related to the BIS were jointly associated with current alcohol-taking habits. Additionally, the Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scale (BAS) was negatively correlated with, and a predictor of, the onset age of alcohol use. We conclude by proposing that research on alcohol use can benefit from this well-grounded theory of the neuropsychology of the individual differences. PMID:17407802

  13. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    El cáncer de vesícula biliar es la neoplasia maligna más común en el tracto biliar. Chile presenta la tercera prevalencia más alta de cáncer de vesícula en el continente americano, siendo las mujeres chilenas de la ciudad de Valdivia las que presentan la prevalencia más alta.Los principales factores que se han asociado al cáncer de vesícula son: ser mujer, colelitiasis, obesidad, etnia, inflamación crónica, historia de enfermedades infecciones, como H. pylori y Salmonella e historia familiar de cáncer.En Chile la mortalidad por cáncer de vesícula es cercana al nivel de prevalencia. Esto se debe en parte a que el cáncer de vesícula es una enfermedad silenciosa y sin síntomas específicos en primeras instancias.Presentar obesidad y ser portador de agentes infecciosos, como Helicobacter pylori, son dos de los factores de riesgo más importantes para desarrollar cáncer de vesícula en Chile, ya que existe y una prevalencia de obesidad cercana al 30%.El objetivo de esta revisión literaria es informar y resumir los factores de riesgo de cáncer de vesícula prevalentes en Chile, para así enfocarse en la prevención y cuidado de estos, con el propósito de reducir la prevalencia de esta letal enfermedad. PMID:27019264

  14. Anti-inflammatory drug delivery from hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Sei K; Jelacic, Sandra; Maier, Ronald V; Stayton, Patrick S; Hoffman, Allan S

    2004-01-01

    Two different types of hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels were synthesized by crosslinking HA with divinyl sulfone (DVS) and poly(ethylene glycol)-divinyl sulfone (VS-PEG-VS). Vitamin E succinate (VES), an anti-inflammatory drug, and bovine serum albumin (BSA), a model of anti-inflammatory protein drugs, were loaded into the gels and their release kinetics were measured in vitro. VES and BSA released with a burst from both HA hydrogels during the first few hours, and release continued gradually for several days. The rate of release from HA-VS-PEG-VS-HA hydrogels was faster than that from HA-DVS-HA hydrogels, presumably due to the lower crosslink density in the former. The anti-inflammatory action of released VES was tested by incubating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) on HA hydrogels with and without VES in the gel. The number of cells adhering on HA hydrogels was very low compared to that on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), which might be one of the important advantages of using HA hydrogels for implant coatings or tissue engineering applications. ELISA test results showed that the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentration was very low in the supernatant of the wells containing the HA hydrogel with VES in contact with the activated macrophages compared to that without VES. This is probably the effect of the released VES reducing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha. HA hydrogels containing anti-inflammatory drugs may have potential for use in tissue engineering and also as biocompatible coatings of implants. PMID:15503629

  15. RRR-α-tocopheryl succinate induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells via the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanpei; Zhao, Yan; Hou, Liying; Zhang, Xuguang; Zhang, Zhihong; Wu, Kun

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effects of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway on the induction of apoptosis by vitamin E succinate (RRR-α-tocopheryl succinate; VES) in human gastric carcinoma cells. Human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells were treated with temperate concentrations of VES and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of NF-κB. Cell viability and apoptosis were respectively estimated by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay and the Annexin V‑FITC method. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the protein expressions of NF-κBp65 and Bcl-2 family members Bcl-2, Bax and cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The DNA-binding activity of NF-κBp65 was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was implemented to evaluate the transcription of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) genes. Apoptosis assessment showed that VES induces apoptotic cell death in human gastric carcinoma cells. In the following experiments, PDTC (100 µM) was used in cell treatment 2 h before VES. The decreased ratio of the nuclear and cytosolic NF-κBp65 protein level was induced by VES and PDTC reinforced this trend. PDTC treatment significantly enhanced the decrease of NF-κB-DNA binding activity induced by VES in human gastric SGC-7901. The decrease in protein expression of Bcl-2 as well as the increase in the protein expression of Bax were induced by VES treatment. The cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP was induced. There was no effect on the gene transcription of c-IAP-1, c-IAP-2, and x-linked IAP (XIAP) compared with the control group, whereas mRNA levels of survivin and the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) markedly decreased. Notably, pretreatment with PDTC reinforced all the above VES-induced effects. In conclusion, VES-induced apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells is accompanied by the inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway, including

  16. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial diversity in soils contaminated long-term with PAHs and heavy metals: Implications to bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Diversity, distribution and composition of bacterial community of soils contaminated long-term with both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were explored for the first time following 454 pyrosequencing. Strikingly, the complete picture of the Gram positive (+ve) and Gram negative (-ve) bacterial profile obtained in our study illustrates novel postulates that include: (1) Metal-tolerant and PAH-degrading Gram -ves belonging to the class Alphaproteobacteria persist relatively more in the real contaminated sites compared to Gram +ves, (2) Gram +ves are not always resistant to heavy metal toxicity, (3) Stenotrophomonas followed by Burkholderia and Pseudomonas are the dominant genera of PAH degraders with high metabolic activity in long-term contaminated soils, (4) Actinobacteria is the predominant group among the Gram +ves in soils contaminated with high molecular weight PAHs that co-exist with toxic heavy metals like Pb, Cu and Zn, (5) Microbial communities are nutrient-driven in natural environments and (6) Catabolically potential Gram +/-ves with diverse applicability to remediate the real contaminated sites evolve eventually in the historically-polluted soils. Thus, the most promising indigenous Gram +/-ve strains from the long-term contaminated sites with increased catabolic potential, enzymatic activity and metal tolerance need to be harnessed for mixed contaminant cleanups. PMID:27267691

  17. A multi-core CPU pipeline architecture for virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Eric; Liu, Alan; Sieck, Jennifer; Muniz, Gilbert; Bowyer, Mark; Armonda, Rocco

    2009-01-01

    Physically-based virtual environments (VEs) provide realistic interactions and behaviors for computer-based medical simulations. Limited CPU resources have traditionally forced VEs to be simplified for real-time performance. Multi-core processors greatly increase the computational capacity of computers and are quickly becoming standard. However, developing non-application specific methods to fully utilize all available CPU cores for processing VEs is difficult. The paper describes a pipeline VE architecture designed for multi-core CPU systems. The architecture enables development of VEs that leverage the computational resources of all CPU cores for VE simulation. A VE's workload is dynamically distributed across the available CPU cores. A VE can be developed once and scale efficiently with the number of cores. The described pipeline architecture makes it possible to develop complex physically-based VEs for medical simulations. Initial results for a craniotomy simulator being developed have shown super-linear and near-linear speedups when tested with up to four cores. PMID:19377102

  18. The ALIVE Project: Astronomy Learning in Immersive Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Sahami, K.; Denn, G.

    2008-06-01

    The Astronomy Learning in Immersive Virtual Environments (ALIVE) project seeks to discover learning modes and optimal teaching strategies using immersive virtual environments (VEs). VEs are computer-generated, three-dimensional environments that can be navigated to provide multiple perspectives. Immersive VEs provide the additional benefit of surrounding a viewer with the simulated reality. ALIVE evaluates the incorporation of an interactive, real-time ``virtual universe'' into formal college astronomy education. In the experiment, pre-course, post-course, and curriculum tests will be used to determine the efficacy of immersive visualizations presented in a digital planetarium versus the same visual simulations in the non-immersive setting of a normal classroom, as well as a control case using traditional classroom multimedia. To normalize for inter-instructor variability, each ALIVE instructor will teach at least one of each class in each of the three test groups.

  19. Effects of active navigation on object recognition in virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Jinsun; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Seung-Lark; Kim, Sei-Young; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Lee, Jang-Han

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the importance and efficiency of active and passive exploration on the recognition of objects in a variety of virtual environments (VEs). In this study, 54 participants were randomly allocated into one of active and passive navigation conditions. Active navigation was performed by allowing participants to self-pace and control their own navigation, but passive navigation was conducted by forced navigation. After navigating VEs, participants were asked to recognize the objects that had been in the VEs. Active navigation condition had a significantly higher percentage of hit responses (t (52) = 4.000, p < 0.01), and a significantly lower percentage of miss responses (t (52) = -3.763, p < 0.01) in object recognition than the passive condition. These results suggest that active navigation plays an important role in spatial cognition as well as providing an explanation for the efficiency of learning in a 3D-based program. PMID:17474852

  20. Circadian and ultradian extrasystole rhythms in healthy individuals at elevated versus lowland altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujanik, Stefan; Mikulecky, Miroslav

    2010-09-01

    We defined chronobiologic norms for supraventricular and ventricular single extrasystoles (SV and VE, respectively) in healthy older males in lowland areas. The study was extended to higher altitudes, where hypobaric hypoxia was expected to increase extrasystole frequency, while perhaps not changing rhythmicity. In healthy men (lowland n = 37, altitude n = 22), aged 49-72 years, mean numbers of SVs and VEs were counted over a 24-h period. Cosinor regression was used to test the 24-h rhythm and its 2nd-10th harmonics. The resulting approximating function for either extrasystole type includes its point, 95% confidence interval of the mean, and 95% tolerance for single measurement estimates. Separate hourly differences (delta) between altitude and lowland ( n = 59) were also analysed. Hourly means were significantly higher in the mountains versus lowland, by +0.8 beats/h on average for SVs, and by +0.9 beats/h for VEs. A relatively rich chronogram for VEs in mountains versus lowland exists. Delta VEs clearly display a 24-h component and its 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 7th harmonics. This results in significantly higher accumulation of VEs around 8.00 a.m., 11.00 a.m. and 3.00 p.m. in the mountains. The increase in extrasystole occurrence in the mountains is probably caused by higher hypobaric hypoxia and resulting sympathetic drive. Healthy men at elevated altitudes show circadian and several ultradian rhythms of single VEs dependent on the hypoxia level. This new methodological approach—evaluating the differences between two locations using delta values—promises to provide deeper insight into the occurrence of premature beats.

  1. A computer vision system for the recognition of trees in aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinz, Axel J.

    1991-01-01

    Increasing problems of forest damage in Central Europe set the demand for an appropriate forest damage assessment tool. The Vision Expert System (VES) is presented which is capable of finding trees in color infrared aerial photographs. Concept and architecture of VES are discussed briefly. The system is applied to a multisource test data set. The processing of this multisource data set leads to a multiple interpretation result for one scene. An integration of these results will provide a better scene description by the vision system. This is achieved by an implementation of Steven's correlation algorithm.

  2. A search for T Tauri stars and related objects: Archival photometry of candidate variables in V733 Cep field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurdana-Šepić, R.; Poljančić Beljan, I.

    Searching for T Tauri stars or related early type variables we carried out a BVRI photometric measurements of five candidates with positions within the field of the pre-main sequence object V733 Cephei (Persson's star) located in the dark cloud L1216 near to Cepheus OB3 Association: VES 946, VES 950, NSV 14333, NSV 25966 and V385 Cep. Their magnitudes are determined on the plates from Asiago Observatory historical photographic archive exposed 1971 - 1978. We provide finding charts for program stars and comparison sequence stars, magnitude estimations, magnitude mean values and BVR_cI_c light curves of program stars.

  3. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures using screening-level life cycle assessment to support sustainable consumer electronics (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use...

  4. State-Level Mandates for Financial Literacy Education, JA Finance Park, and the Impact on Eighth-Grade Students in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the Colorado General Assembly passed legislation requiring the adoption of personal financial literacy (PFL) education standards for kindergarten through 12th-grade students. Beginning in 2014, the state plans to conduct standardized testing to determine financial literacy of 3rd- through 12th-grade students. The state did not allocate…

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses between a Spontaneous Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type Suggest the Functions of ABA, Sucrose and JA during Citrus Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Jian; Wang, Xing-Jian; Wu, Ju-Xun; Chen, Shan-Yan; Chen, Hong; Chai, Li-Jun; Yi, Hua-Lin

    2014-01-01

    A spontaneous late-ripening mutant of ‘Jincheng’ (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange exhibited a delay of fruit pigmentation and harvesting. In this work, we studied the processes of orange fruit ripening through the comparative analysis between the Jincheng mutant and its wild type. This study revealed that the fruit quality began to differ on 166th days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits were subjected to transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing. 13,412 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were found. Of these unigenes, 75.8% were down-regulated in the wild type, suggesting that the transcription level of wild type was lower than that of the mutant during this stage. These DEGs were mainly clustered into five pathways: metabolic pathways, plant-pathogen interaction, spliceosome, biosynthesis of plant hormones and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that are involved in abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were analyzed during the six fruit ripening stages. The results revealed the regulation mechanism of sweet orange fruit ripening metabolism in the following four aspects: First, the more mature orange fruits were, the lower the transcription levels were. Second, the expression level of PME boosted with the maturity of the citrus fruit. Therefore, the expression level of PME might represent the degree of the orange fruit ripeness. Third, the interaction of PP2C, PYR/PYL, and SnRK2 was peculiar to the orange fruit ripening process. Fourth, abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid all took part in orange fruit ripening process and might interact with each other. These findings provide an insight into the intricate process of sweet orange fruit ripening. PMID:25551568

  6. Pathology and epizootiology of Dirofilaria scapiceps (Leidy, 1886) (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Sylvilagus floridanus (J.A. Allen) and Lepus americanus erxleben.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, C M

    1984-07-01

    Dirofilaria scapiceps was found between the synovial sheath and tendons, i.e., within the tendon sheath, in the ankle region of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). In cottontail rabbits, tendons and sheaths appeared normal and all worms were adults. Only one (4%) of 24 infected rabbits contained dead worms. All female worms were gravid in rabbits killed in late winter or early spring. Microfilaremias in rabbits were high (approximately 30-100 microfilariae/60 microliter blood) and of long duration (at least 8-28 mo), and rabbits were considered normal hosts of D. scapiceps. In some snowshoe hares, tendons and sheaths also appeared normal; however, in other hares a chronic proliferative tenosynovitis, characterized by fibrinous exudate, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the intima and inflammatory cell (predominantly lymphocytes and plasma cells) infiltration of the intimal and fibrous layers of the synovial sheath led to encapsulation of worms. Dead subadult, dead adult, and live adult worms were found in the ankles of hares; 86 (46%) of 186 infected hares contained some or only dead worms. Fibrosis commonly occurred around dead worms. Dead subadults were also found in subcutaneous connective tissues over the trunk of the body. Degenerate embryos and amorphous material were observed in uteri of some female worms in hares killed in late winter or early spring. Few (1-5 microfilariae/60 microliter blood) or no microfilariae were observed in the peripheral blood of hares and microfilaremias were of short duration (less than 8 mo). Microfilariae in hares are probably trapped and destroyed in the chronic inflammatory lesions in the tendon sheaths since normal, degenerate, and calcified microfilariae were observed in the capsules around adult worms. Some microfilariae might also be destroyed in lymph nodes. Although D. scapiceps can be maintained within snowshoe hare populations, hares are considered abnormal hosts of D. scapiceps. Dirofilaria scapiceps may have spread from cottontail rabbits to snowshoe hares relatively recently. PMID:6492321

  7. Expression Patterns of Three UGT Genes in Different Chemotype Safflower Lines and under MeJA Stimulus Revealed Their Potential Role in Flavonoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dan-Dan; Liu, Fei; Tu, Yan-Hua; He, Bei-Xuan; Gao, Yue; Guo, Mei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant in China. Flavonoids are the dominant active medical compounds. UDP-glycosyltransferase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis and storage of flavonoids in safflower. In this study, 45 UGT unigenes were screened from our transcriptomic database of safflower. Among them, 27 UGT unigenes were predicted to own a complete open reading frame with various pI and Mw. The phylogenetic tree showed that CtUGT3 and CtUGT16 were classified under the UGT71 subfamily involved in metabolite process, whereas CtUGT25 has high identities with PoUGT both catalyzing the glycosylation of flavonoids and belonging to the UGT90 subfamily. cDNA microarray exhibited that the three UGT genes displayed temporal difference in two chemotype safflower lines. To functionally characterize UGT in safflower, CtUGT3, CtUGT16 and CtUGT25 were cloned and analyzed. Subcellular localization suggested that the three UGTs might be located in the cell cytoplasm and chloroplast. The expression pattern showed that the three UGTs were all suppressed in two lines responsive to methyl jasmonate induction. The co-expression relation of expression pattern and metabolite accumulation demonstrated that CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and CtUGT16 was positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in yellow line, whereas CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in white line. This study indicates that the three CtUGTs play a significant and multiple role in flavonoids biosynthesis with presenting different functional characterization in two safflower lines. PMID:27391785

  8. Kommunikation ja, aber auf welcher Basis? ZE-Diskussion. Pattern Drill (Communication, Yes, but on What Basis? ZE Discussion. Pattern Drill)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Albert

    1976-01-01

    Argues for pattern drill as an indispensable link in the learning process: presentation, explanation, practice, performance. Opponents of pattern practice are suspected of confusing goal (communication) with means (drill phase). (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  9. Expression Patterns of Three UGT Genes in Different Chemotype Safflower Lines and under MeJA Stimulus Revealed Their Potential Role in Flavonoid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dan-Dan; Liu, Fei; Tu, Yan-Hua; He, Bei-Xuan; Gao, Yue; Guo, Mei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant in China. Flavonoids are the dominant active medical compounds. UDP-glycosyltransferase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis and storage of flavonoids in safflower. In this study, 45 UGT unigenes were screened from our transcriptomic database of safflower. Among them, 27 UGT unigenes were predicted to own a complete open reading frame with various pI and Mw. The phylogenetic tree showed that CtUGT3 and CtUGT16 were classified under the UGT71 subfamily involved in metabolite process, whereas CtUGT25 has high identities with PoUGT both catalyzing the glycosylation of flavonoids and belonging to the UGT90 subfamily. cDNA microarray exhibited that the three UGT genes displayed temporal difference in two chemotype safflower lines. To functionally characterize UGT in safflower, CtUGT3, CtUGT16 and CtUGT25 were cloned and analyzed. Subcellular localization suggested that the three UGTs might be located in the cell cytoplasm and chloroplast. The expression pattern showed that the three UGTs were all suppressed in two lines responsive to methyl jasmonate induction. The co-expression relation of expression pattern and metabolite accumulation demonstrated that CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and CtUGT16 was positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in yellow line, whereas CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in white line. This study indicates that the three CtUGTs play a significant and multiple role in flavonoids biosynthesis with presenting different functional characterization in two safflower lines. PMID:27391785

  10. ABA is an essential signal for plant resistance to pathogens affecting JA biosynthesis and the activation of plant defenses in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense responses have been studied through a limited number of models that may have constrained our view of plant-pathogen interactions. Discovery of new defense mechanisms should be favored by broadening the range of pathogens under study. With this aim, Arabidopsis defense response to the ‘...

  11. Computer program documentation modified version of the JA70 aerodynamic heating computer program H800 (MINIVER with a DISSPLA plot package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmedo, L.

    1980-01-01

    The changes, modifications, and inclusions which were adapted to the current version of the MINIVER program are discussed. Extensive modifications were made to various subroutines, and a new plot package added. This plot package is the Johnson Space Center DISSPLA Graphics System currently driven under an 1110 EXEC 8 configuration. User instructions on executing the MINIVER program are provided and the plot package is described.

  12. NITROGEN DEFICIENCY INCREASES VOLICITIN-INDUCED VOLATILE EMISSION BY ALTERING ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY AND THE KINETICS OF JA ACCUMULATION IN ZEA MAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caterpillar-induced plant volatile emission and the subsequent attraction of natural enemies is facilitated by fatty acid-amino acid conjugate (FAC) elicitors, such as volicitin (N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine), present in herbivore oral secretions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that both...

  13. Kouluhallituksen jarjestysmuotokomitean I, II ja III osamietinto (Reports of the Committee on the Organization of National Board of Schools). Three Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finland.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a three volume report discussing the organization of the National Board of Schools in Finland. The central administration of education has been divided among the Ministries of Education, Agriculture, Interior, Commerce and Industry, and Social Affairs. The Ministry of…

  14. Hg soil pollution around a decommissioned and unrestored Chlor-alkali plant: Jodar, Jaén province, SE Spain. Incidence in other environmental compartments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Higueras, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil pollution and its consequences around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The plant was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hidrargirism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, together with the analysis of olive-tree leaves from the same area. 75 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm. and 15-30 cm), together with 75 olive tree samples, 5 water samples. Besides, two monitoring surveys for total gaseous mercury in the atmosphere were performed. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device, with GPS georreferenciation of the analysis points. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. A local reference level was calculated as GM + 2SD (where GM is the geometric mean and SD the standard deviation). With this reference level it was possible to delimitate a contaminated soil area centered on the decommissioned chlor-alkali plant. A high affinity of local olive trees to accumulate mercury from the contaminated soil was also found, with a calculated maximum mercury content of 243.5 ng g-1. This maximum level is slightly higher than tolerable level for agronomic crops. Total mercury content in the analyzed waters was slightly higher than the chronic exposure level for aquatic life. Atmospheric mercury levels registered on the study area were much lower than most restrictive levels for chronic exposure. The area of influence of the facility (in terms of mercury content in air) was restricted to distances between 100 and 200 meters, depending on meteorological conditions. Main conclusions of this research work are the following: i) The Jódar decommissioned chlor-alkali plant is still a mercury source 20 years after its cease of activities without any reclamation measures; ii) The activity of the plant has produced an important dissemination of mercury in the surrounding environment; and iii) The corresponding pollution levels, in particular in soils, may suppose a risk to the main crops of the area (olive trees).

  15. STS 127 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-127) and International Space Station (2J/A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 grab sample canisters (GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported. The toxicological assessment of 9 GSCs and 6 pairs of formaldehyde badges from the ISS is also reported. Other than a problem with traces of acrolein in the samples, the air quality was acceptable for respiration.

  16. Blocking of Goal-Location Learning Based on Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Tim; Wilson, Stuart P.; Wilson, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    Using desktop, computer-simulated virtual environments (VEs), the authors conducted 5 experiments to investigate blocking of learning about a goal location based on Shape B as a consequence of preliminary training to locate that goal using Shape A. The shapes were large 2-dimensional horizontal figures on the ground. Blocking of spatial learning…

  17. Cytotoxic and Inflammatory Responses Induced by Outer Membrane Vesicle-Associated Biologically Active Proteases from Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Ayan; Tapader, Rima; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar; Ghosh, Amit; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta; Saha, Dhira Rani; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Pal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    Proteases in Vibrio cholerae have been shown to play a role in its pathogenesis. V. cholerae secretes Zn-dependent hemagglutinin protease (HAP) and calcium-dependent trypsin-like serine protease (VesC) by using the type II secretion system (TIISS). Our present studies demonstrated that these proteases are also secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and transported to human intestinal epithelial cells in an active form. OMV-associated HAP induces dose-dependent apoptosis in Int407 cells and an enterotoxic response in the mouse ileal loop (MIL) assay, whereas OMV-associated VesC showed a hemorrhagic fluid response in the MIL assay, necrosis in Int407 cells, and an increased interleukin-8 (IL-8) response in T84 cells, which were significantly reduced in OMVs from VesC mutant strain. Our results also showed that serine protease VesC plays a role in intestinal colonization of V. cholerae strains in adult mice. In conclusion, our study shows that V. cholerae OMVs secrete biologically active proteases which may play a role in cytotoxic and inflammatory responses. PMID:26930702

  18. The Effect of Desktop Illumination Realism on a User's Sense of Presence in a Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Justin

    2010-01-01

    The application of virtual reality is becoming ever more important as technology reaches new heights allowing virtual environments (VE) complete with global illumination. One successful application of virtual environments is educational interventions meant to treat individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). VEs are effective with these…

  19. Contribution of geoelectrical resistivity sounding for paleoenvironment assessment at Saft El-Henna and Tell El-Dab'a archaeological sites, eastern Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kenawy, Abeer 1Metwaly, Mohamed 2345Gemail, Khalid 1El-Raouf, Amr Abd

    2013-09-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES), a resistivity sounding technique, has been applied at two important archaeological sites in the eastern part of the Nile Delta to trace the paleoenvironment, particularly the defunct canals. Like many other archaeological sites in the Nile Delta of Egypt, these two sites have been subjected to urbanisation and agricultural invasion from the local farmers. Therefore, studying the paleoenvironment is an important task for guiding the excavation process and highlighting the importance of these two archaeological sites. The VES stations were arranged to cover the two sites, in the form of traverse profiles for tracing the subsurface sand and gravel facies that intercalated with clay deposits. The acquired VES data were processed based on the available borehole lithological information for the purpose of establishing the resistivity-depth models. Both 1D and 2D processing schemes were applied to the VES data sets to increase the confidence of the obtained results. The clay and silt deposits are characterised by low resistivity values, whereas the sand facies has a relatively high resistivity character. From the constructed cross-sections at the two sites, it was possible to define a consistent character for the clay deposits, which can be inferred as the defunct canals that supplied water to the two sites.

  20. Use of Consonant Letter Names in Beginning Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca

    1994-01-01

    The results of four experiments refute the idea that children rely heavily on their knowledge of letter names when they begin trying to spell words. Although kindergartners and first graders sometimes spelled the nonword /var/ as "vr," they were less likely to spell the nonword /ves/ as "vs" or the nonword /tib/ as "tb." (MDM)

  1. 3D Visualisation and Artistic Imagery to Enhance Interest in "Hidden Environments"--New Approaches to Soil Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilford, J.; Falconer, R. E.; Wade, R.; Scott-Brown, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to increase student interest in soil science. Accordingly a bespoke "soil atlas" was created using Java3D as an interactive 3D VE, to show soil information in the context of (and as affected by) the over-lying landscape. To display the below-ground soil characteristics, four sets…

  2. A Comparison of Assessment Methods and Raters in Product Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chia-Chen; Luh, Ding-Bang

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have attempted to use different experiences of raters to rate product creativity by adopting the Consensus Assessment Method (CAT) approach, the validity of replacing CAT with another measurement tool has not been adequately tested. This study aimed to compare raters with different levels of experience (expert ves.…

  3. The Design of Wayfinding Affordance and Its Influence on Task Performance and Perceptual Experience in Desktop Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Gil Ok

    2008-01-01

    For the past few years, virtual environments (VEs) have gained broad attention from both scholarly and practitioner communities. However, in spite of intense and widespread efforts, most VE-related research has focused on the technical aspects of applications, and the necessary theoretical framework to assess the quality of interfaces and designs…

  4. Virtual Environments and Autism: A Developmental Psychopathological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, G.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders supposedly have an affinity with information and communication technology (ICT), making it an ideally suited media for this population. Virtual environments (VEs)--both two-dimensional and immersive--represent a particular kind of ICT that might be of special benefit. Specifically, this paper discusses…

  5. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.509 Administering VE requirements. (a) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... person who holds an amateur operator license of the class specified below: (i) Amateur Extra, Advanced...

  6. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.509 Administering VE requirements. (a) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... person who holds an amateur operator license of the class specified below: (i) Amateur Extra, Advanced...

  7. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.509 Administering VE requirements. (a) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... person who holds an amateur operator license of the class specified below: (i) Amateur Extra, Advanced...

  8. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.509 Administering VE requirements. (a) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... person who holds an amateur operator license of the class specified below: (i) Amateur Extra, Advanced...

  9. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.509 Administering VE requirements. (a) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... person who holds an amateur operator license of the class specified below: (i) Amateur Extra, Advanced...

  10. Correcting Distance Estimates by Interacting With Immersive Virtual Environments: Effects of Task and Available Sensory Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, David; Richardson, Adam R.

    2008-01-01

    The tendency to underestimate egocentric distances in immersive virtual environments (VEs) is not well understood. However, previous research (A. R. Richardson & D. Waller, 2007) has demonstrated that a brief period of interaction with the VE prior to making distance judgments can effectively eliminate subsequent underestimation. Here the authors…

  11. Impact of Virtual Environments on Sensorimotor Coordination and User Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Taylor, Laura C.; Kennedy, Robert S.; Reschke, Millard F.

    2011-01-01

    One critical unresolved issue related to the safe use of virtual environments (VEs) is maladaptive sensorimotor coordination following exposure to VEs. Moving visual displays used in VEs, especially in the absence of concordant vestibular signals leads to adaptive responses during VE exposure, but maladaptive responses following return to the normal environment. In the current set of investigations, we examined the effect of HMD and dome VE displays on eye-head-hand coordination, gaze holding and postural equilibrium. Subjects (61) performed a navigation and a pick and place task. Further, we compared 30 min and 60 min exposures across 3 days (each separated by 1 day). A subset of these results will be presented. In general, we found significant decrements in all three measures following exposure to the VEs. In addition, we found that these disturbances generally recovered within 1-2 hrs and decreased across days. These findings suggest the need for post-VE monitoring of sensorimotor coordination and for developing a set of recommendations for users concerning activities that are safe to engage in following use of a VE.

  12. Acute Gastroenteritis and Recreational Water: Highest Burden Among Young US Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    OBJECT I VES : To provide summary estimates of gastroenteritis risks and illness burden associated with recreational water exposure and determine whether children have higher risks and burden.METHODS: We combined individual participant data from 13 prospective cohorts at marine a...

  13. Expression and strain variation of the novel “Small Open Reading Frame” 3 (smorf) multigene family in Babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small open reading frame (smorf) genes comprise the second largest Babesia bovis multigene family. All known 44 variant smorf genes are located in close chromosomal proximity to ves1 genes, which encode proteins that mediate cytoadhesion and contribute to immune evasion. In this study, we characte...

  14. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit... operator license grant: Elements 2 and 3. (2) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period...

  15. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit... operator license grant: Elements 2 and 3. (2) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period...

  16. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit... operator license grant: Elements 2 and 3. (2) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period...

  17. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit... Not applicable Elements 3 and 4. (2) Advanced; General; or Technician granted before March 21,...

  18. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit... operator license grant: Elements 2 and 3. (2) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period...

  19. An agent-based peer-to-peer architecture for semantic discovery of manufacturing services across virtual enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenyu; Zhang, Shuai; Cai, Ming; Jian, Wu

    2015-04-01

    With the development of virtual enterprise (VE) paradigm, the usage of serviceoriented architecture (SOA) is increasingly being considered for facilitating the integration and utilisation of distributed manufacturing resources. However, due to the heterogeneous nature among VEs, the dynamic nature of a VE and the autonomous nature of each VE member, the lack of both sophisticated coordination mechanism in the popular centralised infrastructure and semantic expressivity in the existing SOA standards make the current centralised, syntactic service discovery method undesirable. This motivates the proposed agent-based peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture for semantic discovery of manufacturing services across VEs. Multi-agent technology provides autonomous and flexible problemsolving capabilities in dynamic and adaptive VE environments. Peer-to-peer overlay provides highly scalable coupling across decentralised VEs, each of which exhibiting as a peer composed of multiple agents dealing with manufacturing services. The proposed architecture utilises a novel, efficient, two-stage search strategy - semantic peer discovery and semantic service discovery - to handle the complex searches of manufacturing services across VEs through fast peer filtering. The operation and experimental evaluation of the prototype system are presented to validate the implementation of the proposed approach.

  20. Population level impact of an imperfect prophylactic HSV-2 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Alsallaq, Ramzi A.; Schiffer, Joshua T.; Longini, Ira M.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The continuation of developing HSV-2 prophylactic vaccines requires parallel mathematical modeling to quantify the impact on the population of these vaccines. Methods Using mathematical modeling we derived three summary measures for the population impact of imperfect HSV-2 vaccines as a function of their efficacies in reducing susceptibility (VES), genital shedding (VEP), and infectivity during shedding (VEI). In addition, we studied the population level impact of vaccine intervention using representative vaccine efficacies. Results A vaccine with limited efficacy of reducing shedding frequency (VEP =10%) and infectivity (VEI =0%) would need to reduce susceptibility by 75% (VES =75%) to substantially reduce the sustainability of HSV-2 infection in a population. No reduction in susceptibility would be required to reach this target in a vaccine that decreased shedding by 75% (VES =0%, VEP =75%, VEI =0%). Mass vaccination using a vaccine with imperfect efficacies (VES =30%, VEP =75%, and VEI =0%) in Kisumu, Kenya in 2010 would decrease prevalence and incidence in 2020 by 7% and 30% respectively. For lower prevalence settings, vaccination is predicted to have a lower impact on prevalence. Conclusion A vaccine with substantially high efficacy of reducing HSV-2 shedding frequency would have a desirable impact at the population level. The vaccine’s short-term impact in a high prevalence setting in Africa would be a substantial decrease in incidence, whereas its immediate impact on prevalence would be small and would increase slowly over time. PMID:20351622

  1. Evaluation of Implementing Proofreading into the School Spelling Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caisley, Kathy

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of the "Word Master in Spelling" program. In it, students study core words on the Ves Thomas "Canadian Spelling Program." Every 6 weeks, they are given a written review test and a proofreading test based on the five units they have completed. In 1981-82, subjects were 160 children in grades K through 7 at a…

  2. Virtual Environments for Social Skills Training: Comments from Two Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Sarah; Leonard, Anne; Mitchell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has shown that computer-based tasks can motivate people with autism and encourage learning. As a computer-based medium, Virtual Environments (VEs) offer a potentially useful tool for social skills training for people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, there are some concerns over whether people with ASDs can…

  3. Communication Modes, Persuasiveness, and Decision-Making Quality: A Comparison of Audio Conferencing, Video Conferencing, and a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    Geographically dispersed teams rely on information and communication technologies (ICTs) to communicate and collaborate. Three ICTs that have received attention are audio conferencing (AC), video conferencing (VC), and, recently, 3D virtual environments (3D VEs). These ICTs offer modes of communication that differ primarily in the number and type…

  4. Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1986-09-01

    A computerized data base of LLW leaching data has been developed. Long-term tests on portland cement, bitumen and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) polymer waste forms containing simulated wastes are underway which are designed to identify and evaluate factors that accelerate leaching without changing the mechanisms.

  5. Electroencephalographic Correlates of Sensorimotor Integration and Embodiment during the Appreciation of Virtual Architectural Environments

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Tieri, Gaetano; Jelic, Andrea; De Matteis, Federico; Maglione, Anton G.; Babiloni, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there is the hope that neuroscientific findings will contribute to the improvement of building design in order to create environments which satisfy man's demands. This can be achieved through the understanding of neurophysiological correlates of architectural perception. To this aim, the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals of 12 healthy subjects were recorded during the perception of three immersive virtual reality environments (VEs). Afterwards, participants were asked to describe their experience in terms of Familiarity, Novelty, Comfort, Pleasantness, Arousal, and Presence using a rating scale from 1 to 9. These perceptual dimensions are hypothesized to influence the pattern of cerebral spectral activity, while Presence is used to assess the realism of the virtual stimulation. Hence, the collected scores were used to analyze the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the EEG for each behavioral dimension in the theta, alpha and mu bands by means of time-frequency analysis and topographic statistical maps. Analysis of Presence resulted in the activation of the frontal-midline theta, indicating the involvement of sensorimotor integration mechanisms when subjects expressed to feel more present in the VEs. Similar patterns also characterized the experience of familiar and comfortable VEs. In addition, pleasant VEs increased the theta power across visuomotor circuits and activated the alpha band in areas devoted to visuospatial exploration and processing of categorical spatial relations. Finally, the de-synchronization of the mu rhythm described the perception of pleasant and comfortable VEs, showing the involvement of left motor areas and embodied mechanisms for environment appreciation. Overall, these results show the possibility to measure EEG correlates of architectural perception involving the cerebral circuits of sensorimotor integration, spatial navigation, and embodiment. These observations can help testing architectural hypotheses in order to design

  6. Enhanced cellular uptake and intracellular drug controlled release of VESylated gemcitabine prodrug nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yanfen; Du, Fang; Xu, Yanyun; Meng, Haijing; Huang, Jin; Zhang, Xiongwen; Lu, Wei; Liu, Shiyuan; Yu, Jiahui

    2015-04-01

    Gemcitabine, 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (dFdC), is the first-line antitumor agent in the treatment of pancreatic tumors. However, it possesses certain drawbacks, such as poor biological half-life resulted from rapid metabolism and the induction of resistance, leading to its restricted therapeutic potential. With the purpose of overcoming the above drawbacks, we developed a novel VESylated gemcitabine (VES-dFdC) prodrug by coupling the N4-amino group of the pyrimidine ring of dFdC to the carboxylic group of vitamin E succinate (VES). The resulting amphiphilic compound could protect the N4-amino group of the pyrimidine ring of dFdC from being degraded by cytidine deaminase. What is more, the prodrug was able to form nanocapsules in aqueous media (similar to the structure of cytomembrane), confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Their average particle size is about 107 nm with zeta potential of -33.4 mV measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). VES-dFdC nanocapsules showed accelerated accumulative drug release profile in simulated lysosome environment (sodium acetate buffer pH 5+cathepsin B, an enzyme in lysosome), due to the easily hydrolyzed property of amide bond by cathepsin B, while rather stable in PBS (pH 7.4) or sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) without cathepsin B, indicating their enhanced intracellular drug controlled release manner. Besides, VES-dFdC prodrug nanocapsules showed enhanced cellular uptake ability, and the amount of cellular uptake of the nanocapsules by the pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 is seventy times higher than that of native gemcitabine in the first 1.5 h. Compared with free gemcitabine, VES-dFdC nanocapsules showed essentially increased growth inhibition activity against BxPC-3 cells, indicating its great potential as prodrug for pancreatic tumor therapy with improved antitumor activity. PMID:25746328

  7. Resistivity soundings and VLF profiles for siting groundwater wells in a fractured basement aquifer in the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, A. I.; Kruse, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal shortages of groundwater are common in parts of the Arabian Shield, where complex basement hydrogeology can make siting of water wells difficult. To identify optimal production well locations, six 200-400 m-long Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic traverses and ten Vertical Electrical Soundings (VESes) were run at the western edge of the Arabian Shield near At-Taif town, Saudi Arabia. Here wadi sediments overlie fractured Precambrian basement, which in turn overlies unfractured basement. The fractured basement forms the water supply aquifer. Both VLF and VES data indicate significant lateral heterogeneity in the electrical conductivity of both wadi and basement deposits over lengths scales as small as ∼100 m. VES results correlate closely with data from two wells in the study area. The change in resistivity at the wadi-to-fractured basement contact is relatively subtle, but the transition from low resistivity fractured basement to high resistivity unfractured basement is well resolved. Inferred wadi thicknesses range from 0 to 14 m; the electrically conductive fractured basement extends from wadi down to 12-32 m depth. VES data indicate the fractured basement aquifer thickens progressively to the south in this area. A production well, sited on the basis of the VES analysis, successfully yielded 70m3/day. The relationship between VLF and VES data is complex, suggesting that the terrain is heterogeneous on the scale of the different effective sampling volumes of the two methods, and/or that fracture azimuth is locally heterogeneous. Overall resistivities in this study are similar to those observed at other locations in Saudi Arabia, suggesting these methods may be widely applicable for siting of groundwater wells in the complex basement of the Arabian Shield.

  8. Electrical resistivity characterization and defect detection on a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) on an experimental site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirieix, C.; Fernández Martínez, J. L.; Riss, J.; Genelle, F.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we analyze the onsite characterization of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) that serves to ensure the impermeability of a landfill cap by DC electrical methods. The imaging of the GCL geoelectrical properties is a challenging problem because it is a very thin (between 4 and 7 mm thick) and resistive layer (from 100,000 to 2,000,000 Ω·m) depending on meteorological conditions and aging. We compare results obtained using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) using two different kinds of arrays (dipole-dipole DD and Wenner-Schlumberger) on an experimental site with engineered defects. To confirm these results and to find the real onsite GCL resistivity we have performed sampling of the posterior distribution of this parameter using vertical electrical sounding (VES) inversions. Different VES methods were extracted from ERT with DD array and converted into a Schlumberger array. As a main conclusion the dipole-dipole array provides a better resistivity resolution of the defects than the Wenner-Schlumberger array. On ERT images, the defect detection seems to be impossible if the GCL has very high resistivity, as it happened when it was put in place. Taking into account the equivalence rules, the inversions are in both cases (ERT and VES) compatible. The GCL resistivity estimated from PSO (particle swarm optimization) varies from 3.0 105 to 1.106 Ω·m depending on saturation conditions during the twenty first months of its placing. Then, the resistivity dropped to 4.104-9.104 Ω·m, indicating a probable chemical damage of the GCL due to aging. Finally the fact that the VES inversions are solved via PSO sampling allows for the detection of a very thin and resistive layer and opens the possibility of performing micro VES surveys along the landfill to detect possible GCL defects.

  9. A GIS application for assessing, mapping, and quantifying the social values of ecosystem services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Clement, Jessica M.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2011-01-01

    As human pressures on ecosystems continue to increase, research involving the effective incorporation of social values information into the context of comprehensive ecosystem services assessments is becoming more important. Including quantified, spatially explicit social value metrics in such assessments will improve the analysis of relative tradeoffs among ecosystem services. This paper describes a GIS application, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES), developed to assess, map, and quantify the perceived social values of ecosystem services by deriving a non-monetary Value Index from responses to a public attitude and preference survey. SolVES calculates and maps the Value Index for social values held by various survey subgroups, as distinguished by their attitudes regarding ecosystem use. Index values can be compared within and among survey subgroups to explore the effect of social contexts on the valuation of ecosystem services. Index values can also be correlated and regressed against landscape metrics SolVES calculates from various environmental data layers. Coefficients derived through these analyses were applied to their corresponding data layers to generate a predicted social value map. This map compared favorably with other SolVES output and led to the addition of a predictive mapping function to SolVES for value transfer to areas where survey data are unavailable. A more robust application is being developed as a public domain tool for decision makers and researchers to map social values of ecosystem services and to facilitate discussions among diverse stakeholders involving relative tradeoffs among different ecosystem services in a variety of physical and social contexts.

  10. The genuine ligand of a jasmonic acid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Daoxin

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA), its metabolites, such as the methyl ester or amino acid conjugates as well as its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) are lipid-derived signals. JA, OPDA and JA-amino acid conjugates are known to function as signals in plant stress responses and development. More recently, formation of JA-amino acid conjugates and high biological activity of JA-Isoleucine (JA-Ile) were found to be essential in JA signaling. A breakthrough was the identification of JAZ proteins which interact with the F-box protein COI1 if JA-Ile is bound. This interaction leads to proteasomal degradation of JAZs being negative regulators of JA-induced transcription. Surprisingly, a distinct stereoisomer of JA-Ile, the (+)-7-iso-JA-Ile [(3R,7S) form] is most active. Coronatine, a bacterial phytotoxine with an identical stereochemistry at the cyclopentanone ring, has a similar bioactivity. This was explained by the recent identification of COI1 as the JA receptor and accords well with molecular modeling studies. Whereas over the last two decades JA was quantified to describe any JA dependent process, now we have to take into account a distinct stereoisomer of JA-Ile. Until recently a quantitative analysis of (+)-7-iso-JA-Ile was missing presumable due to its equilibration to (−)-JA-Ile. Now such an analysis was achieved. These aspects will be discussed based on our new knowledge on JA perception and signaling. PMID:20404483

  11. Screening for Vulnerability in Older Cancer Patients: The ONCODAGE Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Soubeyran, Pierre; Bellera, Carine; Goyard, Jean; Heitz, Damien; Curé, Hervé; Rousselot, Hubert; Albrand, Gilles; Servent, Véronique; Jean, Olivier Saint; van Praagh, Isabelle; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Périn, Stéphane; Verhaeghe, Jean-Luc; Terret, Catherine; Desauw, Christophe; Girre, Véronique; Mertens, Cécile; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone; Rainfray, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    Background Geriatric Assessment is an appropriate method for identifying older cancer patients at risk of life-threatening events during therapy. Yet, it is underused in practice, mainly because it is time- and resource-consuming. This study aims to identify the best screening tool to identify older cancer patients requiring geriatric assessment by comparing the performance of two short assessment tools the G8 and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13). Patients and Methods The diagnostic accuracy of the G8 and the (VES-13) were evaluated in a prospective cohort study of 1674 cancer patients accrued before treatment in 23 health care facilities. 1435 were eligible and evaluable. Outcome measures were multidimensional geriatric assessment (MGA), sensitivity (primary), specificity, negative and positive predictive values and likelihood ratios of the G8 and VES-13, and predictive factors of 1-year survival rate. Results Patient median age was 78.2 years (70-98) with a majority of females (69.8%), various types of cancer including 53.9% breast, and 75.8% Performance Status 0-1. Impaired MGA, G8, and VES-13 were 80.2%, 68.4%, and 60.2%, respectively. Mean time to complete G8 or VES-13 was about five minutes. Reproducibility of the two questionnaires was good. G8 appeared more sensitive (76.5% versus 68.7%, P =  0.0046) whereas VES-13 was more specific (74.3% versus 64.4%, P<0.0001). Abnormal G8 score (HR = 2.72), advanced stage (HR = 3.30), male sex (HR = 2.69) and poor Performance Status (HR = 3.28) were independent prognostic factors of 1-year survival. Conclusion With good sensitivity and independent prognostic value on 1-year survival, the G8 questionnaire is currently one of the best screening tools available to identify older cancer patients requiring geriatric assessment, and we believe it should be implemented broadly in daily practice. Continuous research efforts should be pursued to refine the selection process of older cancer patients

  12. Supramolecular micellar nanoaggregates based on a novel chitosan/vitamin E succinate copolymer for paclitaxel selective delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lian, He; Sun, Jin; Yu, Yan Ping; Liu, Yan Hua; Cao, Wen; Wang, Yong Jun; Sun, Ying Hua; Wang, Si Ling; He, Zhong Gui

    2011-01-01

    Background Nowadays, many cytotoxic anticancer drugs exhibit low solubility and poor tumor selectivity, which means that the drug formulation is very important. For example, in the case of paclitaxel (PTX), Cremophor EL® (BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany) needs to be used as a solubilizer in its clinical formulation (Taxol®, Bristol-Myers Squibb, New York, NY), although it can cause serious side effects. Nanomicellar systems are promising carriers to resolve the above problems, and the polymer chosen is the key element. Methods In this study, a novel amphiphilic chitosan/vitamin E succinate (CS-VES) copolymer was successfully synthesized for self-assembling polymeric micelles. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and infrared were used to characterize the molecular structure of the copolymer. The PTX-loaded CS-VES polymeric micelles (PTX-micelles) were characterized by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Results The critical micelle concentration of CS-VES was about 12.6 μg/mL, with the degree of amino group substitution being 20.4%. PTX-micelles were prepared by a nanoprecipitation/dispersion technique without any surfactant being involved. PTX-micelles exhibited a drug loading as high as 21.37% and an encapsulation efficiency of 81.12%, with a particle size ranging from 326.3 to 380.8 nm and a zeta potential of +20 mV. In vitro release study showed a near zero-order sustained release, with 51.06%, 50.88%, and 44.35% of the PTX in the micelles being released up to 168 hours at three drug loadings of 7.52%, 14.09%, and 21.37%, respectively. The cellular uptake experiments, conducted by confocal laser scanning microscopy, showed an enhanced cellular uptake efficiency of the CS-VES micelles in MCF-7 cells compared with Taxol. The PTX-micelles exhibited a comparable but delayed cytotoxic effect compared with Taxol against MCF-7 cells, due to the sustained-release characteristics

  13. 17 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 45 - Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data 1 Appendix 1 to Part 45 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data ER13JA12.003 ER13JA12.004 ER13JA12.005 ER13JA12.006...

  14. 17 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 45 - Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data 1 Appendix 1 to Part 45 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data ER13JA12.003 ER13JA12.004 ER13JA12.005 ER13JA12.006...

  15. Assessment of geothermal energy potential by geophysical methods: Nevşehir Region, Central Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kıyak, Alper; Karavul, Can; Gülen, Levent; Pekşen, Ertan; Kılıç, A. Rıza

    2015-03-01

    In this study, geothermal potential of the Nevşehir region (Central Anatolia) was assessed by using vertical electrical sounding (VES), self-potential (SP), magnetotelluric (MT), gravity and gravity 3D Euler deconvolution structure analysis methods. Extensive volcanic activity occurred in this region from Upper Miocene to Holocene time. Due to the young volcanic activity Nevşehir region can be viewed as a potential geothermal area. We collected data from 54 VES points along 5 profiles, from 28 MT measurement points along 2 profiles (at frequency range between 320 and 0.0001 Hz), and from 4 SP profiles (total 19 km long). The obtained results based on different geophysical methods are consistent with each other. Joint interpretation of all geological and geophysical data suggests that this region has geothermal potential and an exploration well validated this assessment beyond doubt.

  16. Contribution of a combined TDEM (Time-Domain electromagnetism) and geoelectrical survey to the investigation of the coastal aquifer of Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Ravelo-Cervantes, J. I.; Lecossec, A.

    2007-12-01

    This study reports initial results of combined Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) and vertical electrical sounding (VES), geophysical characterization of the Quintana Roo coastal aquifer, with the aim of establishing effective protocols for subsequent surveys in the area, through the association of TDEM and VES. The high resistivity of the carbonate terrain, combined with the very low resistivity range of fresh-water and sea-water, are ideal to use both tools in combination. The results show that both methods used in a combination may provide a useful tool for hydrogeologial studies. In this survey we were able to identifiy a fracture 100 m x 40 m, that was correlated to fresh-water discharges in to the Puerto Morelos Reef lagoon.

  17. Why are proteins with glutamine- and asparagine-rich regions associated with protein misfolding diseases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzeiro, Leonor

    2005-12-01

    The possibility that vibrational excited states (VESs) are the drivers of protein folding and function (the VES hypothesis) is explored to explain the reason why Gln- and Asn-rich proteins are associated with degenerative diseases. The Davydov/Scott model is extended to describe energy transfer from the water solution to the protein and vice versa. Computer simulations show that, on average, Gln and Asn residues lead to an initial larger absorption of energy from the environment to the protein, something that can explain the greater structural instability of prions. The sporadic, inherited and infectious character of prion diseases is discussed in the light of the VES hypothesis. An alternative treatment for prion diseases is suggested.

  18. Geophysical investigations at Momotombo, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Cordon, U.J.; Zurflueh, E.G.

    1980-09-01

    The Momotombo geothermal field in Nicaragua was investigated in three exploration stages, using a number of geophysical techniques. Stage 1 of the investigations by Texas Instruments, Inc., (1970) located and delineated a potential geothermal field, with the dipole mapping surveys and electromagnetic soundings being most effective. Stage 2 of the investigations, performed in 1973 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), outlined the resistivity anomalies in the area west of the previously selected field; Schlumberger VES soundings and constant depth profiling (SCDP) proved most useful. During Stage 3 of the investigations, Electroconsult (ELC) performed 20 additional Schlumberger VES soundings as part of the 1975 plant feasibility studies. Results of these geophysical techniques are summarized and their effectiveness briefly discussed.

  19. Evidence for a scalar meson resonance in the {pi}{sup -}p{yields}n{omega}{phi} reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ivashin, A.; Ekimov, A.; Gouz, Yu.; Kachaev, I.; Karyukhin, A.; Konstantinov, V.; Makouski, M.; Matveev, V.; Myagkov, A.; Polyakov, B.; Ryabchikov, D.; Shalanda, N.; Soldatov, M.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solodkov, A. V.; Solovianov, O.; Sugonyaev, V.; Salomatin, Yu.; Volkov, E.; Khokhlov, Yu.

    2010-08-05

    The charge-exchange reaction {pi}{sup -}p{yields}n{omega}(780){phi}(1020) is studied with the VES setup. The ({omega}{phi}) system is observed at relatively low background. Its invariant mass distribution peaks near threshold. The two-particles partial wave analyses shows that the J{sup pc} = 0{sup ++} state dominates. This wave is compared with 0{sup ++} component in the ({omega}{omega}) system at the comparable mass, which was measured earlier.

  20. Development of a multivariable model to predict vulnerability in older American patients hospitalised with cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Susan P; Schnelle, John; Nwosu, Samuel K; Schildcrout, Jonathan; Goggins, Kathryn; Cawthon, Courtney; Mixon, Amanda S; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Kripalani, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify vulnerable cardiovascular patients in the hospital using a self-reported function-based screening tool. Participants Prospective observational cohort study of 445 individuals aged ≥65 years admitted to a university medical centre hospital within the USA with acute coronary syndrome and/or decompensated heart failure. Methods Participants completed an inperson interview during hospitalisation, which included vulnerable functional status using the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13), sociodemographic, healthcare utilisation practices and clinical patient-specific measures. A multivariable proportional odds logistic regression model examined associations between VES-13 and prior healthcare utilisation, as well as other coincident medical and psychosocial risk factors for poor outcomes in cardiovascular disease. Results Vulnerability was highly prevalent (54%) and associated with a higher number of clinic visits, emergency room visits and hospitalisations (all p<0.001). A multivariable analysis demonstrating a 1-point increase in VES-13 (vulnerability) was independently associated with being female (OR 1.55, p=0.030), diagnosis of heart failure (OR 3.11, p<0.001), prior hospitalisations (OR 1.30, p<0.001), low social support (OR 1.42, p=0.007) and depression (p<0.001). A lower VES-13 score (lower vulnerability) was associated with increased health literacy (OR 0.70, p=0.002). Conclusions Vulnerability to functional decline is highly prevalent in hospitalised older cardiovascular patients and was associated with patient risk factors for adverse outcomes and an increased use of healthcare services. PMID:26316650

  1. Integrated geophysical application to investigate groundwater potentiality of the shallow Nubian aquifer at northern Kharga, West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Abdellatif; Soliman, Mamdouh; Moussa, Salah; Massoud, Usama; ElNabi, Sami Abd; Attia, Magdy

    2016-06-01

    Continuous evaluation of groundwater aquifers in the basin of Kharga Oasis is very important. Groundwater in Kharga Oasis represents the major factor for the development plans of this area as it is the sole source for water supplies required for drinking and irrigation purposes. This study is concerned by analyzing the groundwater potentiality of the shallow aquifer at the northern part of Kharga basin by integrated application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Time domain Electromagnetic (TEM) techniques. The VES data were measured at 28 points arranged along a north-south trending line by applying Schlumberger array with a maximum current-electrode spacing (AB) of 1000 m. The TEM data were measured at 167 points arranged along 11 east-west trending lines by using a single square loop with 50 m loop-side length. The VES and TEM data have been individually inverted, where the VES models were used as initial models for TEM data inversion. The final models were used for construction of 17 geoelectrical sections and 5 contour maps describing subsurface water-bearing layers at the investigated area. Correlation of the obtained models with geologic, hydrogeologic and borehole information indicates that the shallow aquifer comprises two zones (A-up) and (B-down) separated by a highly conductive shale layer. The upper zone (A) is composed of fine to medium sand with thin clay intercalations. It exhibits low to moderate resistivities. This zone was detected at depth values ranging from 10 to 70 m below ground surface (bgs) and shows a thickness of 25-90 m. The lower zone (B) exhibits moderate to high resistivity values with expected good water quality. The upper surface of zone B was detected at 60-165 m depth.

  2. Electrical resistivity survey for groundwater investigations and shallow subsurface evaluation of the basaltic-greenstone formation of the urban Bulawayo aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchingami, Innocent; Hlatywayo, D. J.; Nel, J. M.; Chuma, C.

    Electrical resistivity surveying methods have been widely used to determine the thickness and resistivity of layered media for the purpose of assessing groundwater potential and siting boreholes in fractured unconfined aquifers. Traditionally, this has been done using one-dimensional (1D) vertical electrical sounding (VES) surveys. However, 1D VES surveys only model layered structures of the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. As such the incorporation of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has often been used to provide a more detailed interpretation of the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole location are identified. In this study, 2D electrical resistivity tomography was combined with 1D VES to produce a subsurface resistivity model for assessing the availability of groundwater in the basaltic-greenstone formation of the Matsheumhlope well field in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Low resistivity readings (<50 Ωm) towards the central region of the study area suggest a high groundwater potential, while high resistivities (>500 Ωm) around the western margin of the study area suggests a low groundwater potential. 2D electrical resistivity surveys provide a more detailed subsurface structure and may assist in identifying the configuration of possible fractures which could conduct groundwater into the shallow subsurface of study area. It is concluded that 2D electrical resistivity methods is an effective tool for assessing the availability of groundwater in the highly weathered and fractured basaltic greenstone rocks. The methods provided a more precise hydro-geophysical model for the study area compared to the traditional VES. Results from this study are useful for technical groundwater management as they clearly identified suitable borehole locations for long term groundwater prospecting.

  3. Modelling the Role of the Coronary Vasculature During External Field Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Martin J.; Boyle, Patrick M.; Plank, Gernot; Welsh, Donald G.; Vigmond, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    The exact mechanisms by which defibrillation shocks excite cardiac tissue far from both the electrodes and heart surfaces require elucidation. Bidomain theory explains this phenomena through the existence of intramural virtual electrodes (VEs), caused by discontinuities in myocardial tissue structure. In this study, we assess the modelling components essential in constructing a finite element cardiac tissue model including blood vessels from high resolution MR data and investigate the specific role played by coronary vasculature in VE formation, which currently remains largely unknown. We use a novel method for assigning histologically-based fibre architecture around intramural structures and include an experimentally-derived vessel lumen wall conductance within the model. Shock-tissue interaction in the presence of vessels was assessed through comparison with a simplified model lacking intramural structures. Results indicate that VEs form around blood vessels for shocks > 8 V/cm. The magnitude of induced polarisations is attenuated by realistic representation of fibre negotiation around vessel cavities, as well as the insulating effects of the vessel lumen wall. Furthermore, VEs formed around large sub-epicardial vessels reduce epicardial polarisation levels. In conclusion, we have found that coronary vasculature acts as an important substrate for VE formation, which may help interpretation of optical mapping data. PMID:20542762

  4. [Values of marine ecosystem services in Sanggou Bay].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao-hui; Lü, Ji-bin; Ye, Shu-feng; Zhu, Ming-yuan

    2007-11-01

    A valuation study was conducted in Sanggou Bay, a typical and intensive coastal aquaculture area in China Yellow Sea. The results showed that the total value of ecosystem services (VES) in Sanggou Bay was 6.07 x 10(8) Yen in 2003, with an average unit VES being 4.24 x 10(6) Yen x km(-2). Within the total VES, the provision services, regulation services, and culture services accounted for 51.29%, 17.34%, and 31.37%, respectively. Among the eight primary and secondary services valuated in Sanggou Bay, food provision services held the highest value (50.45%), followed by tourism and entertainment services (29.89%) and climate regulation services (9.18%). Harmful organism and disease control services have the lowest value (0.0017%). The aquaculture activities had greater contributions to the local social economy, environmental regulation, and social culture. Aquaculture activities, especially macro-algae farming, are of significance in maintaining and enhancing the ecosystem services. PMID:18260461

  5. Design and Validation of PEG-Derivatized Vitamin E Copolymer for Drug Delivery into Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanping; Liu, Qinhui; Li, Wenyao; Zhang, Ting; Li, Hanmei; Li, Rui; Chen, Lei; Pu, Shiyun; Kuang, Jiangying; Su, Zhiguang; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Jinhan

    2016-08-17

    This study examined the ability of amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) derivatives to assemble into micelles for drug delivery. Linear PEG chains were modified on one end with hydrophobic vitamin E succinate (VES), and PEG and VES were mixed in different molar ratios to make amphiphiles, which were characterized in terms of critical micelle concentration (CMC), drug loading capacity (DLC), serum stability, tumor spheroid penetration and tumor targeting in vitro and in vivo. The amphiphile PEG5K-VES6 (PAMV6), which has a wheat-like structure, showed a CMC of 3.03 × 10(-6) M, good serum stability, and tumor accumulation. The model drug, pirarubicin (THP), could be efficiently loaded into PAMV6 micelles at a DLC of 24.81%. PAMV6/THP micelles were more effective than THP solution at inducing cell apoptosis and G2/M arrest in 4T1 cells. THP-loaded PAMV6 micelles also inhibited tumor growth much more than free THP in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. PAMV6-based micellar systems show promise as nanocarriers for improved anticancer chemotherapy. PMID:27418000

  6. Identification of Karstic Caves by Utilizing Two-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uçar, Fatih; Aktürk, Özgür

    2015-04-01

    The region consisting of easily soluble rocks is generally defined as karstic terrain and it is characterized by surface collapse and small or large scale dissolution voids on rock surface. Formation and expansion of these voids may cause dangerous situation during surface/subsurface construction works. Therefore, it is important to determine the location, size and dimension of karstic caves. Geophysical investigations are very helpful in determining the boundaries of geological subsurface structures. In order to determine subsurface profile and characteristic of soil, surface geophysical methods can be successfully applied. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) is the most important methods among the convenient and commonly used methods to determine subsurface profile. By using this method, cavernous and weathered zones can be determined easily. Within the scope of this study, near surface profiles were determined by utilizing ERI at Akdeniz University Campus and Masa Dağı region located in the city of Antalya, Turkey. The results obtained from four different locations in the Akdeniz University campus compared only with Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) analyses. Since topographic cross-section is clearly seen in two different locations around Masa Dağı location, ERI results were superimposed with topography and also compared with VES. As a result, presences of subsurface cavities were determined and illustrated using 2D colorful images. Keywords: ERI, VES, Karstic terrain, Cave, Antalya

  7. Micro-scale hydrological field experiments in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minea, Gabriel; Moroşanu, Gabriela A.

    2016-02-01

    The paper (communication) presents an overview of hydrologic field experiments at micro-scale in Romania. In order to experimentally investigate micro (plot)-scale hydrological impact of soil erosion, the National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management founded Voineşti Experimental Basin (VES) in 1964 and the Aldeni Experimental Basins (AEB) in 1984. AEB and VES are located in the Curvature Subcarpathians. Experimental plots are organized in a double systems and have an area of 80 m2 (runoff plots) at AEB and 300 m2 (water balance plots) at VES. Land use of plot: first plot "grass-land" is covered with perennial grass and second plot (control) consists in "bare soil". Over the latter one, the soil is hoeing, which results in a greater development of infiltration than in the first plot. Experimental investigations at micro-scale are aimed towards determining the parameters of the water balance equation, during natural and artificial rainfalls, researching of flows and soil erosion processes on experimental plots, extrapolating relations involving runoff coefficients from a small scale to medium scale. Nowadays, the latest evolutions in data acquisition and transmission equipment are represented by sensors (such as: sensors to determinate the soil moisture content). Exploitation and dissemination of hydrologic data is accomplished by research themes/projects, year-books of basic data and papers.

  8. Alcohol and hepatocellular carcinoma: A review and a point of view

    PubMed Central

    Testino, Gianni; Leone, Silvia; Borro, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that one cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is alcohol consumption. Research in Italy and the United States concludes that the most common cause of HCC (responsible for 32% to 45% of HCC) is alcohol. It has recently been shown that a significant relationship between alcohol intake, metabolic changes, and hepatitis virus infection does exist. Alcohol may be a factor in the development of HCC via direct (genotoxic) and indirect mechanisms (cirrhosis). There is only one way of diagnosing HCC, which is early identification through surveillance, when curative treatments become possible. After stopping alcohol intake the risk of liver cancer decreases by 6% to 7% a year, and an estimated time period of 23 years is also needed. Therefore, surveillance is also important in former drinkers and, in our opinion, independently from the presence of compensated cirrhosis. In cases of very early stage (VES) and early stage with portal hypertension, liver transplantation is the optimal option; and in cases of associated disease, percutaneous ethanol injections, radiofrequency and microwave ablation are the ideal treatments. Despite the possibility of detecting microvascular invasion with HR, several studies and some randomized controlled trials revealed that overall survival and DSF rates in patients with VES HCC are much the same after ablation and HR. Therefore, ablation can be regarded as a first-line choice for patients with VES HCC. It is important to emphasize that the choice of treatment should be weighed carefully in the context of a multidisciplinary cancer team. PMID:25473148

  9. Selection of key stressors to develop virtual environments for practicing stress management skills with military personnel prior to deployment.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Baus, Oliver; Bernier, François; McCreary, Donald R

    2010-02-01

    Virtual environments (VEs) are presently being used to treat military personnel suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In an attempt to reduce the risk of PTSD, VEs may also be useful for stress management training (SMT) to practice skills under stress, but such use necessitates the development of relevant stress-inducing scenarios and storyboards. This article describes the procedures followed to select which VEs could be built for the Canadian Forces. A review and analysis of the available literature and of data collected postdeployment from 1,319 respondents on the frequency of stressors and their association with psychological injuries were pulled together to propose eight potential virtual stressors that can be used to practice SMT: seeing dead bodies or uncovering human remains; knowing someone being seriously injured or killed; receiving artillery fire; being unable to help ill or wounded civilians because of the rules of engagement; seeing destroyed homes and villages; clearing and searching homes, caves, or bunkers; receiving small-arms fire; and participating in demining operations. Information reported in this article could also be useful to document traumatic stressors experienced in theater of operations and their potential impact on psychological injuries. PMID:20528298

  10. Model calculations of the spontaneous curvature, mean and Gaussian bending constants for a thermodynamically open surfactant film.

    PubMed

    Bergström, L Magnus

    2006-01-01

    The spontaneous curvature (H(0)), mean and Gaussian bending constants (k(c) and k (c)), as defined in the well-known Helfrich expression, have been calculated from a detailed model for a thermodynamically open surfactant layer. The effect of head group cross-section area, surfactant tail length and electrolyte concentration for monovalent ionic surfactants have been investigated. Geometrical packing constraints subjected to the aggregated hydrocarbon tails and electrostatics are found to be the dominant contributions to H(0), k(c) and k (c). In addition, the transition from spherocylindrical micelles to vesicles were investigated in terms of the three parameters and the following simple expressions were derived as criteria for coexistence between micelles and vesicles H(0)=1/4 xi and N(ves)/N(mic)=exp[4 pi(k(c)+k (c))/kT], where xi is the thickness of the hydrocarbon part of the film and N(mic) and N(ves) the average aggregation numbers of micelles and vesicles, respectively. However, it is found that the ratio N(ves)/N(mic) is order of magnitudes too large for vesicles to form at all in charged single-surfactant systems where the surfactant head is of moderate size. PMID:16061239