Groleau, Nicolas; Frainier, Richard; Colombano, Silvano; Hazelton, Lyman; Szolovits, Peter
This paper describes portions of a novel system called MARIKA (Model Analysis and Revision of Implicit Key Assumptions) to automatically revise a model of the normal human orientation system. The revision is based on analysis of discrepancies between experimental results and computer simulations. The discrepancies are calculated from qualitative analysis of quantitative simulations. The experimental and simulated time series are first discretized in time segments. Each segment is then approximated by linear combinations of simple shapes. The domain theory and knowledge are represented as a constraint network. Incompatibilities detected during constraint propagation within the network yield both parameter and structural model alterations. Interestingly, MARIKA diagnosed a data set from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Vestibular Laboratory as abnormal though the data was tagged as normal. Published results from other laboratories confirmed the finding. These encouraging results could lead to a useful clinical vestibular tool and to a scientific discovery system for space vestibular adaptation.
American Journal of Play, 2010
Jaak Panksepp, known best for his work on animal emotions and coining the term "affective neuroscience," investigates the primary processes of brain and mind that enable and drive emotion. As an undergraduate, he briefly considered a career in electrical engineering but turned instead to psychology, which led to a 1969 University of…
Actual results of brain research show that we might have more than one system to cope with distress. The most archaic one might be the system freeze/dissociation. The second one is the system attachment/relationship/herd/support. Articles by Allan N. Schore show that the central regulation of the self, the affects, and the interpersonal relations are impaired permanently by relational traumata/attachment traumata during early childhood. Jaak Panksepp differentiates the distress systems panic versus fear. On the one side we find the cluster panic--periaqueductal gray PAG--lateral septum--gyrus cinguli--glutamate--opioids--attachment--parasympathetic autonomic nerve system--trophotorphic state--hypometabolism--freeze reaction--dissociation, on the other side the cluster fear--enemy--sympathetic autonomic nerve system--ergotrophic state--hypermetabolism--fight and flight--cognition and learning. It can be helpful for therapy strategies to differentiate these systems. PMID:14619684
Kamm, Liina; Bogdanov, Dan; Laur, Sven; Vilo, Jaak
Motivation: Increased availability of various genotyping techniques has initiated a race for finding genetic markers that can be used in diagnostics and personalized medicine. Although many genetic risk factors are known, key causes of common diseases with complex heritage patterns are still unknown. Identification of such complex traits requires a targeted study over a large collection of data. Ideally, such studies bring together data from many biobanks. However, data aggregation on such a large scale raises many privacy issues. Results: We show how to conduct such studies without violating privacy of individual donors and without leaking the data to third parties. The presented solution has provable security guarantees. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23413435
Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Robert E. Cherry; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Melissa C. Teague; Gregory M. Teske; Kurt G. Vedros; Candido Pereira; Denia Djokic
All mass streams from separations and fuel fabrication are products that must meet criteria. Those headed for disposal must meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the eventual disposal sites corresponding to their waste classification. Those headed for reuse must meet fuel or target impurity limits. A “loss” is any material that ends up where it is undesired. The various types of losses are linked in the sense that as the loss of transuranic (TRU) material into waste is reduced, often the loss or carryover of waste into TRU or uranium is increased. We have analyzed four separation options and two fuel fabrication options in a generic fuel cycle. The separation options are aqueous uranium extraction plus (UREX+1), electrochemical, Atomics International reduction oxidation separation (AIROX), and melt refining. UREX+1 and electrochemical are traditional, full separation techniques. AIROX and melt refining are taken as examples of limited separations, also known as minimum fuel treatment. The fuels are oxide and metal. To define a generic fuel cycle, a fuel recycling loop is fed from used light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel (UOX) at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup. The recycling loop uses a fast reactor with TRU conversion ratio (CR) of 0.50. Excess recovered uranium is put into storage. Only waste, not used fuel, is disposed – unless the impurities accumulate to a level so that it is impossible to make new fuel for the fast reactor. Impurities accumulate as dictated by separation removal and fission product generation. Our model approximates adjustment to fast reactor fuel stream blending of TRU and U products from incoming LWR UOX and recycling FR fuel to compensate for impurity accumulation by adjusting TRU:U ratios. Our mass flow model ignores postulated fuel impurity limits; we compare the calculated impurity values with those limits to identify elements of concern. AIROX and melt refining cannot be used to separate used LWR UOX-51 because they cannot
Barratt, Barnaby B
If progress is to be made in resolving the debate over the relevance of neuroscientific findings to psychoanalysis, a clearer distinction must be established between a narrow definition of psychoanalysis as "praxis" (the science of lived experience and its conflicts or contradictions) and a definition that focuses on metapsychology as objectivistic theory-building. The investigations of Jaak Panksepp on the "neuro-archaeology" of affective systems are reviewed as an example of how findings in neuroscience cannot be legitimately extrapolated to offer conclusions about the domain of lived experience. In this context, Freud's shifting standpoint is reviewed and, following the writings of Jean Laplanche, the significance of Freud's distinction between "drives" or libidinality, as acquired through experience, and "instincts," which are purely biological, is emphasized. It is argued that there is an unavoidable component of myth-making in any consideration of the connection between neural circuitry and the domain of psychic representations. Freud's need for a notion of drive or energy, which is required to understand the findings of free-associative method, is admittedly mythematic, but it implies a major challenge to extant philosophical doctrines of the "mind/body" question (emergentism, double-aspect monism, and neutral monism). Thus, whereas psychoanalysis as praxis is, in Freud's words, "free to follow its own requirements," the claims of metapsychology are not so unrestrained. Further debate is required on the irrelevance of a revised objectivistic theory of the "mental apparatus" to the venture of healing the fracturing of our lived experience. PMID:25871687
Heywood, Leslie L.
Recently there has been a turn toward considerations of embodiment, cognition, and context in sport studies. Many researchers have argued that the traditional focus on clinical psychology and performance enhancement within the discipline is incomplete, and now emphasize the importance of athletes’ social and familial contexts in a research paradigm that examines interconnections between movement, cognition, emotion, and the social and cultural context in which movement takes place. While it is important that the sport studies focus is being expanded to consider these interactions, I will argue that this model is still incomplete in that it is missing a fundamental variable – that of our evolutionary neurobiological roots. I will use the work of affective neuroscientists Jaak Panksepp and Stephen Porges to show that because sport so clearly activates neural systems that function at both proximate and ultimate levels of causation, it can be seen to serve fundamental needs for affective balance. A neurobiology of affect shows how the evolution of the mammalian autonomic nervous system has resulted in neurophysiological substrates for affective processes and stress responses, and has wide-ranging implications for sport studies in terms of suggesting what forms of coaching might be the most effective in what context. I propose the term cultural neuropsychology of sport as a descriptor for a model that examines the relationships between neurophysiological substrates and athletes’ social and familial contexts in terms of how these variables facilitate or fail to facilitate athletes’ neuroceptions of safety, which in turn have a direct impact on their performance. A cultural neuropsychological model of sport might thereby be seen to elaborate a relationship between proximate and ultimate mechanisms in concretely applied ways. PMID:22069389