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1

Repairing an offshore jacket structure proves cost effective  

SciTech Connect

During inclement weather in the southern North Sea, an off-shore supply boat collided with a 25-year-old gas production platform. The impact occurred just over 2 m (5.56 ft) from the lowest annual tide and was sufficient to buckle, then shear, one end of a horizontal bracing from the jacket leg and to cause further damage at a node joint. Inspection personnel performed an initial examination of the damage to the eight-leg jacket structure using rope access techniques (abseiling), which offered substantial cost saving over erecting scaffolding. A structural analysis confirmed the jacket's integrity was not impaired and loss of the horizontal bracing would not significantly affect the structure. The analysis also confirmed repair of the node weld cracks and of the sheared area on the leg should be performed as soon as practical. In the end, the repair went smoothly. The repair area was above the waterline, and the weather cooperated perfectly. The repairs were done using rope access techniques, and using austenitic electrodes reduced the possibility of HAZ hydrogen cracking. Nondestructive examination confirmed no cracking had been experienced and no other defects existed. Indeed, this methodology is considered extremely practical, cost effective and ideal for use on offshore structures--with damage close to the waterline, and with the need to execute immediate repairs.

Still, J.R.; Blackwood, V.

2000-05-01

2

Active vibration H? control of offshore steel jacket platforms using delayed feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with delayed H? control for an offshore steel jacket platforms subject to external wave force. By artificially introducing a proper time-delay into control channel, a delayed H? controller is designed to attenuate the wave-induced vibration of the offshore platform and thereby improve the control performance of the system. The problem of the controller design is transformed into a nonlinear minimization problem. It is shown through simulation results that compared with the delay-free H? control scheme, the vibration amplitudes of the offshore steel jacket platform with the delayed H? control scheme are in the same level as the ones with the delay-free H? control scheme, while the required control force by the delayed H? control scheme is much smaller than that by the delay-free H? control scheme. Compared with the feedforward and feedback optimal control scheme, both the vibration amplitudes of the offshore platform and the required control force with the delayed H? control scheme are smaller than the ones with the feedforward and feedback optimal control scheme.

Zhang, Bao-Lin; Tang, Gong-You

2013-10-01

3

Differentiating between underwater construction noise of monopile and jacket foundations for offshore windmills: a case study from the Belgian part of the North Sea.  

PubMed

Steel monopiles, jackets requiring four steel pinpiles, and gravity-based foundations were applied in offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea. This paper compares the underwater noise generated during the piling activities of steel monopiles at the Belwind wind farm (Blighbank) with that of jacket pinpiles at the C-Power project (Thorntonbank). Underwater noise was measured at various distances from the pile driving location. The underwater noise was quantified by its zero to peak sound pressure level (L(z-p)), unweighted sound exposure level (SEL), cumulative SEL, and 1/3 octave spectra. No significant differences in L(z-p) could be demonstrated (monopile L(z-p): 179-194?dB? re 1? ?Pa, jacket L(z-p): 172-189?dB? re 1? ?Pa). SEL showed no statistical difference between monopile and jacket and varied between 145 and 168?dB? re 1? ?Pa(2)s. Furthermore, near identical spectra were measured for both types of piling. Piling of the jacket pinpiles took, however, about 2.5 times the time of the monopile. When standardised to megawatt installed per foundation both types of piling scored near equally. As an illustration, the radius of major behavioural disturbance (L(p-p) = 155?dB? re 1? ?Pa) in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena was estimated by a model at 16?km for monopiles and at 8?km for jacket. PMID:23576910

Norro, Alain Michel Jules; Rumes, Bob; Degraer, Steven Johan

2013-01-01

4

Effects of small time-delays on dynamic output feedback control of offshore steel jacket structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the effect of a small time-delay on dynamic output feedback control of an offshore steel jacket structure subject to a nonlinear wave-induced force. First, a conventional dynamic output feedback controller is designed to reduce the internal oscillations of the offshore structure. It is found that the designed controller is of a larger gain in the sense of Euclidean norm, which demands a larger control force. Second, a small time-delay is introduced intentionally to design a new dynamic output feedback controller such that (i) the controller is of a small gain in the sense of Euclidean norm and (ii) the internal oscillations of the offshore structure can be dramatically reduced. It is shown through simulation results that purposefully introducing time-delays can be used to improve control performance.

Zhang, Xian-Ming; Han, Qing-Long; Han, Dongsheng

2011-08-01

5

Damage detection of offshore jacket structures using frequency domain selective measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of damage detection techniques for offshore jacket structures is vital to prevent catastrophic events. This paper applies a frequency response based method for the purpose of structural health monitoring. In efforts to fulfill this task, concept of the minimum rank perturbation theory has been utilized. The present article introduces a promising methodology to select frequency points effectively. To achieve this goal, modal strain energy ratio of each member was evaluated at different natural frequencies of structure in order to identify the sensitive frequency domain for damage detection. The proposed methodology opens up the possibility of much greater detection efficiency. In addition, the performance of the proposed method was evaluated in relation to multiple damages. The aforementioned points are illustrated using the numerical study of a two dimensional jacket platform, and the results proved to be satisfactory utilizing the proposed methodology.

Kianian, M.; Golafshani, A. A.; Ghodrati, E.

2013-06-01

6

Fire Protection Jacket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NERAC, Inc., Tolland, CT, aided Paul Monroe Engineering, Orange, CA, in the development of their PC1200 Series Fire Protection Jacket that protects the oil conduit system on an offshore drilling platform from the intense hydrocarbon fires that cause buckling and could cause structural failure of the platform. The flame-proof jacketing, which can withstand temperatures of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for four hours or more, was developed from a combination of ceramic cloth (similar to the ceramic in Space Shuttle tiles), and laminates used in space suits.

1991-01-01

7

Optimum geometry of tuned liquid column-gas damper for control of offshore jacket platform vibrations under seismic excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effectiveness of a tuned liquid column-gas damper, TLCGD, on the suppression of seismicinduced vibrations of steel jacket platforms is evaluated. TLCGD is an interesting choice in the case of jacket platforms because it is possible to use the structural elements as the horizontal column of the TLCGD. The objective here is to find the optimum geometric parameters, namely orientation and configuration of vertical columns, length ratio, and area ratio of the TLCGD, considering nonlinear damping of the TLCGD and water-structure interaction between the jacket platform and sea water. The effects of different characteristics of ground motion such as PGA and frequency content on the optimum geometry are also investigated and it is observed that these features have some influence on the optimum area ratio. Finally it is observed that pulse arrangement of ground acceleration is one of the most important parameters affecting the efficiency of a TLCGD. In other words, it is found that the TLCGD's capability to reduce the RMS responses depends only on the frequency content of the ground acceleration, but its capability to reduce the maximum responses depends on both the frequency content and the pulse arrangement of the ground acceleration.

Mousavi, Seyed Amin; Zahrai, Seyed Mehdi; Bargi, Khosrow

2012-12-01

8

Jacket, Deck, and Pipeline Installation-Lena Guyed Tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

The installation of Exxon's Lena guyed tower set two new offshore records when the longest one-piece jacket was positioned on the seafloor and eight main piles were driven to 560 feet. The overall installation of the guyed tower jacket, decks, and pipelines required a variety of offshore installation procedures and extensive project planning. To minimize the potential for damage to

E. C. Smetak; J. Lombardi; H. J. Roussel; T. C. Wozniak

1984-01-01

9

Jacketed lamp bulb envelope  

DOEpatents

A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Gaithersburg, MD); Bass, Gary K. (Mt. Airy, MD); Dolan, James T. (Frederick, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Leng, Yongzhang (Damascus, MD); Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); Roy, Robert J. (Frederick, MD); Shanks, Bruce (Gaithersburg, MD); Smith, Malcolm (Alexandria, VA); Trimble, William C. (Columbia, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD)

2001-01-01

10

Jacket Structures in the Arctic and Subarctic Seas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, jacket structures are receiving considerable attention as ice-resistant structures in comparatively deep seas, and many studies and concepts have been published in this field. To establish the method of designing multi-legged offshore str...

T. Kimura M. Tatsuta T. Sasaki H. Sugawara T. Kato

1988-01-01

11

Vacuum-jacketed transfer line installation technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rolling-type spacers in the form of steel balls retained in appropriate sleeves affixed at intervals to the exterior of the transfer line facilitate the installation of a vacuum-jacketed line. They act as standoffs to position the transfer line concentrically within the vacuum jacket line.

Bowers, W. M.

1968-01-01

12

Postexercise Cooling Rates in 2 Cooling Jackets  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Cooling jackets are a common method for removing stored heat accumulated during exercise. To date, the efficiency and practicality of different types of cooling jackets have received minimal investigation. Objective: To examine whether a cooling jacket containing a phase-change material (PC17) results in more rapid postexercise cooling than a gel cooling jacket and a no-jacket (control) condition. Design: Randomized, counterbalanced design with 3 experimental conditions. Setting: Participants exercised at 75% V?o2max workload in a hot climate chamber (temperature ?=? 35.0 ± 1.4°C, relative humidity ?=? 52 ± 4%) for 30 minutes, followed by postexercise cooling for 30 minutes in cool laboratory conditions (ambient temperature ?=? 24.9 ± 1.8°C, relative humidity ?=? 39% ± 10%). Patients or Other Participants: Twelve physically active men (age ?=? 21.3 ± 1.1 years, height ?=? 182.7 ± 7.1 cm, body mass ?=? 76.2 ± 9.5 kg, sum of 6 skinfolds ?=? 50.5 ± 6.9 mm, body surface area ?=? 1.98 ± 0.14 m2, V?o2max ?=? 49.0 ± 7.0 mL·kg?1·min?1) participated. Intervention(s): Three experimental conditions, consisting of a PC17 jacket, a gel jacket, and no jacket. Main Outcome Measure(s): Core temperature (TC), mean skin temperature (TSk), and TC cooling rate (°C/min). Results: Mean peak TC postexercise was 38.49 ± 0.42°C, 38.57 ± 0.41°C, and 38.55 ± 0.40°C for the PC17 jacket, gel jacket, and control conditions, respectively. No differences were observed in peak TC cooling rates among the PC17 jacket (0.038 ± 0.007°C/min), gel jacket (0.040 ± 0.009°C/min), and control (0.034 ± 0.010°C/min, P > .05) conditions. Between trials, no differences were calculated for mean TSk cooling. Conclusions: Similar cooling rates for all 3 conditions indicate that there is no benefit associated with wearing the PC17 or gel jacket.

Brade, Carly; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen; Polglaze, Ted

2010-01-01

13

Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket  

DOEpatents

A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

1994-01-01

14

Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket  

DOEpatents

A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

1994-09-20

15

Insulated tank jacketing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved jacketing system for storage tank structures is disclosed wherein insulated panels are attached to modular tracks mounted in horizontal courses on the outside walls of the tanks. The individual tracks are made up of modular segments secured together both by splice plates and take-up devices in an improved pretensioned fashion to provide for an efficient mounting of the

Schroter

1977-01-01

16

Regeneratively Cooled Porous Media Jacket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fluid and heat transfer theory for regenerative cooling of a rocket combustion chamber with a porous media coolant jacket is presented. This model is used to design a regeneratively cooled rocket or other high temperature engine cooling jacket. Cooling jackets comprising impermeable inner and outer walls, and porous media channels are disclosed. Also disclosed are porous media coolant jackets with additional structures designed to transfer heat directly from the inner wall to the outer wall, and structures designed to direct movement of the coolant fluid from the inner wall to the outer wall. Methods of making such jackets are also disclosed.

Mungas, Greg (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); London, Adam Pollok (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor)

2013-01-01

17

[Sunrise gold foil jacket crown].  

PubMed

This technique permits the preparation of ceramic jacket crowns made on Sunrise laminated precious metal alloy. The Sunrise foil is gold-colored, made of 99% of precious metals and is 50 microns thick. The die is prepared in order to display a moderate and regular undercut beyond the cervical limit. The margin will be underlined with a red pencil. The Sunrise foil is cut according to predetermined templates. Then the foil is applied without burnishing, according to the technique of jacket crowns on platinum foil only by finger pressure. The double folding on closure is preferably done distally or mesially. Then, the metal base is disinserted, sandblasted with 100 microns aluminum oxide, replaced on its die, and placed in a rubber casing before being placed in the isostatic press, to be subjected to a pressure of 2,000 TSI (14 kg par cm2). Sunrise's orange color reinforces rather subtetly the overall color, making these reconstructions particularly esthetic. The color of the Sunrise metal does not require, therefore a too thick opaque. Any ceramic intended to be fired on a metal base, may be used in respecting its firing protocol. Sunrise, as any other technique of this type, require a careful preparation with a shoulder that has a rounded gingivoaxial line angle. Bridges may be built on the "thimbles" crowns, fitted on Sunrise cores, the pontics being made as a ceramo-metal framework. PMID:2700672

Lecardonnel, A

1989-09-01

18

FRP jacketed concrete under uniaxial compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to develop experimental data and check the validity of existing analytical models for the behaviour of concrete members jacketed (i.e., laterally confined) with fibre-reinforced plastic (frp) materials. The test specimens consisted of 150 × 300 mm cylinders of normal weight, normal strength concrete. Specimens loaded statically under uniaxial compression were studied. Three different types

Antonio Nanni; Nick M. Bradford

1995-01-01

19

Jacks perform balancing act. [Offshore platform leveling jacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three jacket leveling systems are described in this article. These jacks are used to level and align offshore platforms in deep water and under adverse weather conditions. One of these jacks, the jacket jack, was used to successfully level 2 platforms located on the west coast in offshore wastes. The climbing jacks were recently used for leveling operations on the

R. M. Brem; D. E. Sculley

1981-01-01

20

Feedforward and feedback optimal control with memory for offshore platforms under irregular wave forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the vibration suppression of actively controlled jacket-type offshore platforms with fixed delay in the control. Based on the wave theory and Morison equation, an exosystem is designed to describe the irregular wave forces. Through a particular transformation, the original delay system is reduced into a non-delay system. Based on the reduced system, the paper develops a feedforward and feedback optimal control law with memory (FFOCLM). The memory terms in FFOCLM compensate the time-delay in control input. The feedforward term of the controller includes the information of the irregular wave forces. The feedback loop incorporates the displacement and velocity of structure into the control law. The FFOCLM is proved to be existent and unique, and able to stabilize the time-delay system. The feasibility and effectiveness of the presented control law is demonstrated by a numerical example of a jacket-type offshore structure.

Ma, H.; Tang, G.-Y.; Hu, W.

2009-12-01

21

Offshore and arctic frontiers -structures, ocean mining  

SciTech Connect

The systematic development of offshore technology is discussed. Today, this technology enables the production of approximately 14 million barrels of oil per day, or 26% of oil production worldwide. The evolution in offshore structures is examined with emphasis on jacket and jackup platforms. Challenges are explored. Microprocessors, data-base management, and artificial intelligence are mentioned as having an impact on the offshore and arctic oil industry.

Chung, J.S.

1985-05-01

22

JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION JACKET  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

100% nylon, water repellent Taslan Jacket. Taffeta mesh lined jacket and sleeves, with 2 front zip pockets. Embroidered with the JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION logo. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large. All proceeds from the sale of this item go to fund the JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION .

1900-01-01

23

Insect Repellent Jacket: Status, Value and Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lightweight net jackets were treated with N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide at the rate of 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 gm per gm of netting. Field studies indicated that the 1/4-gram treatment level would provide protection from mosquitoes for 6 weeks. The jackets provide...

R. H. Grothaus J. R. Haskins C. E. Schreck H. K. Gouck

1975-01-01

24

FRP jacketed concrete under flexure and combined flexure-compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation experimental data were developed to evaluate the behaviour of concrete members laterally confined with fibre-reinforced plastic (frp) composites. Specimens were loaded quasi-statically under cyclic flexure with and without axial compression. Two different types of frp confinement technologies (braided aramid frp tape and pre-formed glass-aramid shells) were investigated during the project. For the latter jacketing type, specimens with

Antonio Nanni; Michael S Norris

1995-01-01

25

Shorting pipeline and jacket cathodic protection systems  

SciTech Connect

The benefits of shorting pipeline and jacket cathodic protection (CP) systems for the external protection of subsea pipelines based on data from operations in the Gulf of Mexico, Persian Gulf, North Sea, and Indonesia are discussed. Shorting, as opposed to traditional electrical isolation, is cost effective because CP surveys and future retrofits are greatly simplified. Jacket CP systems can provide protection of coated pipelines for distances much greater than normally anticipated. Some simple modeling of jacket/pipeline CP systems is used to illustrate the effect of various design parameters.

Thomason, W.H. (Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)); Evans, S. (Conoco Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Rippon, I.J. (Conoco Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Maurin, A.E. III (Conoco Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States))

1993-09-01

26

Vacuum Jacket for Cryogenic Insulation, Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility is demonstrated of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials. Design and analytical studies were made on an orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were completed for the...

D. L. Barclay J. E. Bell E. W. Brogren J. W. Straayer

1975-01-01

27

Vacuum jacket for cryogenic insulation, volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility is demonstrated of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials. Design and analytical studies were made on an orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were completed for the tank assembly which included an optimized vacuum jacket and multilayered insulation system. A half-scale LH2 test model was designed and fabricated and a force\\/stiffness proof

D. L. Barclay; J. E. Bell; E. W. Brogren; J. W. Straayer

1975-01-01

28

Discharge lamp with reflective jacket  

DOEpatents

A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

2001-01-01

29

Proceedings of the 21st annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of a conference on offshore technology. Topics covered include: underwater wet welding of higher strength offshore steels; the proposed extended-reach drilling project; North Sea experience with aluminum drillpipe; and load transfer mechanism to offshore jackets during pile driving.

Not Available

1989-01-01

30

Decommissioning of Offshore Oil and Gas Installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The offshore oil and gas industry had its beginnings in the Gulf of Mexico in 1947. The first offshore development used a\\u000a multipiled steel jacket to support the topside production facilities, a design which has since been used extensively. Now\\u000a there are more than 7000 drilling and production platforms located on the Continental Shelves of 53 countries [1]. Some of

M. D. Day

31

Offshore compressor station under way  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stingray Pipeline Co.'s offshore compressor station in West Cameron Block 509 of the Gulf of Mexico will, upon completion, process over 1 billion CF\\/day of natural gas. Six 3400-hp Solar Centaur recuperated-cycle gas turbine compressors will be used in the compressor facilties, which include a jacket, cellar deck, piping deck, and compressor deck. The 88 x 165 ft station, which

Ewing

1975-01-01

32

Impact analysis of spent fuel jacket assemblies  

SciTech Connect

As part of the analyses performed in support of the reracking of the High Flux Isotope Reactor pool, it became necessary to prove the structural integrity of the spent fuel jacket assemblies subjected to gravity drop that result from postulated accidents associated with the handling of these assemblies while submerged in the pool. The spent fuel jacket assemblies are an integral part of the reracking project, and serve to house fuel assemblies. The structure integrity of the jacket assemblies from loads that result from impact from a height of 10 feet onto specified targets has been performed analytically using the computer program LS-DYNA3D. Nine attitudes of the assembly at the time of impact have been considered. Results of the analyses show that there is no failure of the assemblies as a result of the impact scenarios considered.

Aramayo, G.A.

1994-06-01

33

HUNTER 10, TRUFLO GONDOLA WEIGHTS AND JACKET. PIVOTING ARMS RAISE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HUNTER 10, TRUFLO GONDOLA WEIGHTS AND JACKET. PIVOTING ARMS RAISE THE JACKET AND WEIGHTS. A PNEUMATIC SHOVEL PUSHES THE MORE RECENTLY POURED MOLD INTO THE COOLED MOLD, FORCING THE LATTER ONTO THE VIBRATING SHAKEOUT CONVEYOR AND LEAVING A SPACE UNDER THE RAISED JACKET AND WEIGHTS FOR A FRESHLY MADE UNPOURED MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

34

A study of the development of a new type of bulb bracket for offshore structures using suitable casting steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the optimum structural design of brackets for offshore structures was carried out through the ANSYS program. We wished to propose a new type of bulb bracket made by a casting process compared with the built-up type of bracket. For a better structural design of the bracket, we can't adopt face plate but stiffener and circular type shape at the diagonal surface line. Under the new type of bulb bracket made by a casting process, it was possible to reduce the size by about 30% and the weight by about 50% compared with the face-plate type of bracket.

Kim, Tae-Won; Kang, Chung-Gil; Park, Sang-Sik

2010-06-01

35

H2 active vibration control for offshore platform subjected to wave loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore platforms are usually located in hostile environments. These platforms undergo excessive vibrations due to wave loads for both normal operating and extreme conditions. To ensure safety, the displacements of the platforms need to be limited, whereas for the comfort of people who work at the structures, accelerations also need to be restricted. This article is devoted to developing a proper procedure on applying H2 control algorithm for controlling the lateral vibration of a jacket-type offshore platform by using an active mass damper. In comparison with earlier studies, a number of improvements in problem formulation, wave force filter design, and control algorithm implementation are made. The present paper also numerically demonstrated the effectiveness of H2 active control. As expected, it significantly outperforms the corresponding passive control that uses a tuned mass damper.

Li, Hua Jun; James Hu, Sau-Lon; Jakubiak, Christopher

2003-06-01

36

Impacts of Risk and Service Type on Nearshore and Offshore Investment Location Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

• \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Offshoring of services has gained considerable attention in management circles. However, little empirical research has explored\\u000a the emerging sourcing alternative of nearshoring, despite the fact that firms situate about one out of five projects abroad\\u000a in a nearshore location as opposed to an offshore location.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a We empirically assess the impact of economic and risk factors regarding firms’ services

Eugene D. Hahn; Kraiwinee Bunyaratavej; Jonathan P. Doh

2011-01-01

37

Offshore yearbook, 1987  

SciTech Connect

This book is an annual compilation of information and articles on offshore petroleum operations. It includes an industry analysis, engineering highlights, a news review of the Western Hemisphere, and an industry outlook for 1987. It provides survey information on deepwater wells, worldwide offshore daily oil production, producing fields by country, and international offshore well count. It also contains mobile rig statistics, including rig scrappings, rig name changes, cold-stacked and for-sale units, and unit types.

Not Available

1987-01-01

38

Retrofit of Seismically Deficient RC Columns with Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) Jackets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The effectiveness of a new structural material, namely textile- reinforced mortar (TRM), was investigated experimentally in this study as a means of confining old-type reinforced concrete columns with limited capacity due to bar buckling or due to bond failure at lap splice regions. Comparisons with equal stiffness and strength fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) jackets allow for the evaluation of the

Dionysios A. Bournas; Thanasis C. Triantafillou; Catherine G. Papanicolaou

39

Seismic fragility analysis of lap-spliced reinforced concrete columns retrofitted by SMA wire jackets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to provide seismic fragility curves of reinforced concrete columns retrofitted by shape memory alloy wire jackets and thus assess the seismic performance of the columns against earthquakes, comparing them with reinforced concrete columns with lap-spliced and continuous reinforcement. For that purpose, this study first developed analytical models of the experimental results of the three types of columns, (1) lap-spliced reinforcement, (2) continuous reinforcement and (3) lap-spliced reinforcement and retrofitted by SMA wire jackets, using the OpenSEES program, which is oriented to nonlinear dynamic analysis. Then, a suite of ten recorded ground motions was used to conduct dynamic analyses of the analytical models with scaling of the peak ground acceleration from 0.1g to 1.0g in steps of 0.1g. From the static experimental tests, the column retrofitted with SMA wire jackets had a larger displacement ductility by a factor of 2.3 times that of the lap-spliced column, which was 6% larger compared with the ductility of the continuous reinforcement column. From the fragility analyses, the SMA wire jacketed column had median values of 0.162g and 0.567g for yield and collapse, respectively. For the yield damage state, the SMA wire jacketed column had a median value similar to the continuous reinforcement column. However, for the complete damage state, the SMA wire jacketed column showed a 1.33 times larger median value than the continuously reinforcement column.

Choi, Eunsoo; Park, Sun-Hee; Chung, Young-Soo; Kim, Hee Sun

2013-08-01

40

Wave slamming on offshore structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental and theoretical work on the slamming of circular cylinders is surveyed. Data are included from controlled drop tests. The influence of inclined impact and beam dynamics on the resulting stresses is calculated for a wide range of wave conditions. The statistical distributions of the estimated stresses are analyzed to provide data for the calculation of slamming loads on fixed offshore structures using simple formulas in which the slamming coefficients incorporate both the member dynamics and the sea wave statistics. Slamming coefficients and associated stress calculation methods are presented for extreme values and fatigue damage. These may also be used for slamming during jacket launching. A film of wave slam was also produced.

Miller, B. L.

1980-03-01

41

Protective riser-conductor for offshore structures  

SciTech Connect

A protective sleeve for fitting about the periphery of the leg of an offshore structure. The sleeve comprises means for carrying and enclosing a plurality of conductors. It further includes one or more inner rings; an outer jacket is fixedly spaced from the rings to define longitudinal passages within which the respective conductors are fixedly positioned. The sleeve is capable of deflecting packed ice and floating objects which represent possible sources of damage to the structure or to conductors.

Rutherford, D. A.; Albers, G. P.

1985-07-09

42

ART-based multiple neural networks for monitoring offshore platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel scheme using artificial neural networks to automate the vibration monitoring method of detecting the occurrence and location of damage in offshore jacket platforms is presented. A multiple neural network system is adopted which enables the problem to be decomposed into smaller ones, facilitating easier solution. An adaptive resonance theory (ART) neural network is used for damage diagnosis and

Lalu Mangal; V. G. Idichandy; C. Ganapathy

1996-01-01

43

Shift type and season affect adaptation of the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm in offshore oil rig workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we have shown that the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm of oil rig workers on a 2-week night shift (1800–0600 h) adapts to the shift via a phase delay. We now report the findings of a study on two offshore drill crews working a 1 week day (1200–0000 h), 1 week night (0000–1200 h) swing shift. Urine samples were collected every 2–3

R. G Barnes; M. J Forbes; J Arendt

1998-01-01

44

Effect of specimen shape on the elongation of 316LN jacket used in the ITER toroidal field coil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty-five percent of the total toroidal field (TF) coil conductors at the ITER are supplied by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The jacket section of a TF conductor is made of modified 316LN. The JAEA tested three types of tensile specimens (Japanese-Industrial-Standards-type and ASTM-type) cut from the jacket at 4.2 K. The ASTM-type specimen had a longer and wider reduced section than did the JIS-type specimen. The results of the test showed that the EL of the as-received (AR) jacket was independent of the specimen shape. However, after cold working and aging, the EL of the specimens deteriorated because of sensitization, and the EL distribution in these specimens was larger than that in the case of the AR specimens. It could be inferred that the shape of a test specimen having low ductility is the key determinant of the specimen's susceptibility to fracture.

Hamada, K.; Kawano, K.; Saito, T.; Iguchi, M.; Nakajima, H.; Teshima, O.; Matsuda, H.

2012-06-01

45

JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION JACKET (Size: X Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

100% nylon, water repellent Taslan Jacket. Taffeta mesh lined jacket and sleeves, with 2 front zip pockets. Embroidered with the JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION logo. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large. All proceeds from the sale of this item go to fund the JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION .

1900-01-01

46

JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION JACKET (Size: Medium)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

100% nylon, water repellent Taslan Jacket. Taffeta mesh lined jacket and sleeves, with 2 front zip pockets. Embroidered with the JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION logo. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large. All proceeds from the sale of this item go to fund the JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION .

1900-01-01

47

JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION JACKET (Size: Small)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

100% nylon, water repellent Taslan Jacket. Taffeta mesh lined jacket and sleeves, with 2 front zip pockets. Embroidered with the JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION logo. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large. All proceeds from the sale of this item go to fund the JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION .

1900-01-01

48

JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION JACKET (Size: Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

100% nylon, water repellent Taslan Jacket. Taffeta mesh lined jacket and sleeves, with 2 front zip pockets. Embroidered with the JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION logo. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large. All proceeds from the sale of this item go to fund the JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION .

1900-01-01

49

JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION JACKET (Size: XX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

100% nylon, water repellent Taslan Jacket. Taffeta mesh lined jacket and sleeves, with 2 front zip pockets. Embroidered with the JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION logo. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large. All proceeds from the sale of this item go to fund the JOHN GLENN CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION .

1900-01-01

50

Thermal-leak analyzer for vacuum-jacketed lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique involves coating suspected area with water-soluble black paint that gives even, infrared emission. Painted area is warmed with heat gun; an infrared scanner is used to detect cooled spot on jacket exterior. Introduction of atmospheric pressure into jacket intensifies leak jet and improves test sensitivity.

Heisman, R. M.; Iceland, W. F.; Ruppe, E. P.

1978-01-01

51

Reusable neoprene jacket protects parts for chemical milling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reusable neoprene jacket is used to prepare metal part or panel for chemical milling. Jacket covers back and upper rim of part and is sealed before the masking solution is applied to surface to be milled. This reduces amount of masking material required for milling identical parts and increases production.

1965-01-01

52

Smart Jacket Design for Neonatal Monitoring with Wearable Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically ill new born babies admitted at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are extremely tiny and vulnerable to external disturbance. Smart Jacket proposed in this paper is the vision of a wearable unobtrusive continuous monitoring system realized by body sensor networks (BSN) and wireless communication. The smart jacket aims for providing reliable health monitoring as well as a comfortable

Sibrecht Bouwstra; Wei Chen; Loe M. G. Feijs; Sidarto Bambang-oetomo

2009-01-01

53

Ported jacket for use in deformation measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

A device for allowing deformation measurement of a jacketed specimen when the specimen is loaded includes an elastomeric specimen container or jacket surrounding a specimen while the specimen is being loaded by a test apparatus. The specimen jacket wall is compressible, and the wall follows and allows deformation of the specimen. The jacket wall of compressible material is provided with at least one opening and a thin layer or shim of substantially non-compressible (metal) material which covers and seals this opening. An extensometer is then positioned with its specimen engaging contact members engaging the substantially non-compressible material to measure the deformation of the specimen when the specimen is loaded, without compressibility effects of the jacket. 9 figs.

Wagner, L.A.; Senseny, P.E.; Mellegard, K.D.; Olsberg, S.B.

1990-03-06

54

Ported jacket for use in deformation measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

A device for allowing deformation measurement of a jacketed specimen when the specimen is loaded includes an elastomeric specimen container or jacket surrounding a specimen while the specimen is being loaded by a test apparatus. The specimen jacket wall is compressible, and the wall follows and allows deformation of the specimen. The jacket wall of compressible material is provided with at least one opening and a thin layer or shim of substantially non-compressible (metal) material covers and seals this opening. An extensometer is then positioned with its specimen engaging contact members engaging the substantially non-compressible material to measure the deformation of the specimen when the specimen is loaded, without compressibility effects of the jacket.

Wagner, Leslie A. (Rapid City, SD); Senseny, Paul E. (Rapid City, SD); Mellegard, Kirby D. (Rapid City, SD); Olsberg, Steven B. (Rapid City, SD)

1990-01-01

55

Offshore industry  

SciTech Connect

Worldwide offshore mobile drilling rig activity is described with details on rig orders, construction, installation and costs, and on supply and auxiliary vessels used with offshore rigs. Tabulated data are presented on the number of offshore rigs working at sites in both the eastern and western hemispheres. In 1980 the total number of drilling units increased to 306 from 70 in 1979. (LCL)

Heil, G.

1981-04-01

56

Lightweight Vacuum Jacket for Cryogenic Insulation. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials was examined. Design and analytical studies were made on a full-scale, orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were made for the tank assembly, including an optimized vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation system. A half-scale LH2 test model was designed and fabricated, and a force/stiffness proof test was conducted on the vacuum jacket. A vacuum leak rate of .000001 atmosphere ml of helium per second was measured, approximately 1500 hours of vacuum pressure were sustained, and 29 vacuum-pressure cycles were experienced prior to failure.

Barclay, D. L.; Bell, J. E.; Brogren, E. W.; Straayer, J. W.

1975-01-01

57

Lightweight vacuum jacket for cryogenic insulation, volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials was examined. Design and analytical studies were made on a full-scale, orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were made for the tank assembly, including an optimized vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation system. A half-scale LH2 test model was designed and fabricated, and a force\\/stiffness proof

D. L. Barclay; J. E. Bell; E. W. Brogren; J. W. Straayer

1975-01-01

58

Vacuum jacket for cryogenic insulation. Volume 2. Final contractor report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility is demonstrated of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials. Design and analytical studies were made on an orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were completed for the tank assembly which included an optimized vacuum jacket and multilayered insulation system. A half-scale LH test model was designed and fabricated and a force\\/stiffness proof

D. L. Barclay; J. E. Bell; E. W. Brogren; J. W. Straayer

1975-01-01

59

Fragility curves of concrete bridges retrofitted by column jacketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Northridge earthquake inflicted various levels of damage upon a large number of Caltrans’ bridges not retrofitted by column\\u000a jacketing. In this respect, this study represents results of fragility curve development for two (2) sample bridges typical\\u000a in southern California, strengthened for seismic retrofit by means of steel jacketing of bridge columns. Monte Carlo simulation\\u000a is performed to study nonlinear

Masanobu Shinozuka; Sang-Hoon Kim; Shigeru Kushiyama; Jin-Hak Yi

2002-01-01

60

"Punk" rock can be bad for you: a case of surgical emphysema from a "punk" rocker's leather jacket  

PubMed Central

Stab wounds to the thorax are seen in the emergency department (ED) and can be caused by a variety of mechanisms. This case highlights an unusual cause of injury: a leather jacket with spikes on the back of it. This type of jacket is often worn by "punks" as a fashion statement. We report that falling onto such a jacket may result in accidental thoracic injury leading to subcutaneous emphysema. A thorough clinical assessment is mandatory to exclude underlying lung injury or pneumothorax. In patients with subcutaneous emphysema and an otherwise normal chest radiograph, an in hospital observation period of 24?hours to check for any delayed complications is adequate if the patient remains clinically stable.

Lane, N; Graudins, A

2006-01-01

61

"Punk" rock can be bad for you: a case of surgical emphysema from a "punk" rocker's leather jacket.  

PubMed

Stab wounds to the thorax are seen in the emergency department (ED) and can be caused by a variety of mechanisms. This case highlights an unusual cause of injury: a leather jacket with spikes on the back of it. This type of jacket is often worn by "punks" as a fashion statement. We report that falling onto such a jacket may result in accidental thoracic injury leading to subcutaneous emphysema. A thorough clinical assessment is mandatory to exclude underlying lung injury or pneumothorax. In patients with subcutaneous emphysema and an otherwise normal chest radiograph, an in hospital observation period of 24 hours to check for any delayed complications is adequate if the patient remains clinically stable. PMID:16714489

Lane, N; Graudins, A

2006-06-01

62

Offshore Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offshore Technology is a Web site specifically geared for the offshore oil and gas industry. The highlight of the site is the Industry Projects link, which gives information about offshore drilling projects from around the world. Sites are categorized geographically and include description of the project, information on the geology of the area, drilling history of the site, wellhead platform, pipeline information, and much more. Other links on the main page include an A to Z listing of contractors and suppliers, exhibition and conference information, and other helpful resources for the offshore drilling professional and researcher.

63

Composites in offshore technology in the next century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advisability of application of advanced composites in deep-water offshore technology is shown using risers and tendons\\u000a as examples. Numerical estimations of the parameters of multilayered metal-composite risers are obtained. Two new processes\\u000a of spatial braiding for creating the external jackets of compound tendons are considered. Advanced composites are the only\\u000a possible choice for exploitation of deposits at depths greater

Yu. M. Tarnopol'skii; V. L. Kulakov; D. D. Mungalov

1999-01-01

64

Destabilization and intracranial fragmentation of a full metal jacket bullet.  

PubMed

We report a case with an atypical entrance wound as a result of a destabilized full metal jacket bullet penetration. The destabilized bullet by an impact with the dorsal hand experiences a yawing to tumbling motion in flight. The large angle of yaw induces a larger presenting profile upon impact that contributes, associated to a rapid deceleration, to a greater mechanical force on the projectile structure and a fragmentation into core and jacket. Forensic pathologists have to be aware that the metal jacket bullet could tend to break up outside or inside the body particularly after a shooting through a target. This phenomenon induces atypical entrance wounds and atypical X-ray presentation. PMID:19733330

Farrugia, A; Raul, J S; Geraut, A; Tortel, M C; Ludes, B

2009-10-01

65

Calibration and Validation of a Spar-Type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Model using the FAST Dynamic Simulation Tool: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states.

Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

2012-11-01

66

VIEW POURING PLATFORM SHOWING MOLD POURING JACKETS AND WEIGHTS AND, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW POURING PLATFORM SHOWING MOLD POURING JACKETS AND WEIGHTS AND, IN THE FOREGROUND, SAND RETURN FROM THE SHAKEOUT ACTUATING A SIMPLE LEVER SYSTEM THAT ADDED FRESH WATER TO THE SAND IN PREPARATION FOR ITS REUSE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

67

CIS-3-Hexenyl Butyrate as an Attractant for Yellow Jackets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The insect attractants of the present invention are highly specific for yellow jackets (Vespula spp.), attracting few other insects and no beneficial species such as honey bees. These attractants are organic esters having a total of from 9 to 12 carbon at...

G. W. Eddy H. G. Davis M. Beroza T. P. McGovern

1974-01-01

68

Comparative lead emissions from conventional and jacketed ammunition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the adverse health effects associated with excessive exposure to lead in firing ranges, attempts have been made to develop ammunition which could prevent such undesirable exposure. This study provides evidence that it is possible to reduce lead exposure significantly at the source of emission with the use of copper and nylon jacketed bullets.

ALF FISCHBEIN; WILLIAM J. NICHOLSON; IRVING WEISMAN

1980-01-01

69

Comparative lead emissions from conventional and jacketed ammunition.  

PubMed

Because of the adverse health effects associated with excessive exposure to lead in firing ranges, attempts have been made to develop ammunition which could prevent such undesirable exposure. This study provides evidence that it is possible to reduce lead exposure significantly at the source of emission with the use of copper and nylon jacketed bullets. PMID:7415975

Fischbein, A; Nicholson, W J; Weisman, I

1980-07-01

70

Development of fragility curves of bridges retrofitted by column jacketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents results of fragility curve development for two (2) sample bridges typical in southern California, strengthened for seismic retrofit by means of steel jacketing of bridge columns. Monte Carlo simulation is performed to study nonlinear dynamic responses of the bridges before and after retrofit. Fragility curves in this study are represented by lognormal distribution functions with two parameters

Sang-Hoon Kim; Masanobu Shinozuka

2004-01-01

71

Red Jacket and the Decolonization of Republican Virtue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

History has not always been kind to Sagoyewatha, or, as he is more commonly known, Red Jacket. One of the most eloquent spokesmen for Native sovereignty in the early national period, Sagoyewatha was nonetheless accused by his peers of cowardice, alcoholism, and egotism. Fortunately, this picture is beginning to change. Christopher Densmore's…

Ganter, Granville

2007-01-01

72

Method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along

Anthony Constantine Thermos; Fadi Elias Rahal

2002-01-01

73

Insulating and semiconductive jackets for medium and high voltage underground power cable applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulating jackets extend cable life by retarding the ingress of water and soluble ions from the ground, minimizing cable installation damage and mitigating neutral corrosion. The physical properties of jacketing materials are discussed, along with the evolution of polyethylene jacketing compounds and the requirements of compatible red cable identification compounds.<>

GORDON GRAHAM; STEVE SZANISZLO

1995-01-01

74

Question of offshore oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following four papers were presented: the value of offshore oil; the environmental impact of offshore drilling; social benefit\\/cost analysis of offshore drilling; and the appropriate pace of offshore drilling. Commentary and response followed each presentation. (LK)

1976-01-01

75

Offshore rectenna feasbility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary study of the feasibility and cost of an offshore rectenna to serve the upper metropolitan east coast was performed. A candidate site at which to build a 5 GW rectenna was selected on the basis of proximity to load centers, avoidance of shipping lanes, sea floor terrain, and relocated conditions. Several types of support structures were selected for study based initially on the reference system rectenna concept of a wire mesh ground screen and dipoles each with its own rectifier and filter circuits. Possible secondary uses of an offshore rectenna were examined and are evaluated.

Freeman, J. W.; Hervey, D.; Glaser, P.

1980-01-01

76

Towers for Offshore Wind Turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy from wind over the oceans and convert to electric energy. The advantages of offshore wind turbines as compared to land are that offshore winds flow at higher speed than onshore winds and the more available space. In some land based settings, for better efficiency, turbines are separated as much as 10 rotor diameters from each other. In offshore applications where only two wind directions are likely to predominate, the distances between the turbines arranged in a line can be shortened to as little as two or four rotor diameters. Today, more than a dozen offshore European wind facilities with turbine ratings of 450 kw to 3.6 MW exist offshore in very shallow waters of 5 to 12 m. Compared to onshore wind turbines, offshore wind turbines are bigger and the tower height in offshore are in the range of 60 to 80 m. The water depths in oceans where offshore turbines can be located are within 30 m. However as the distance from land increases, the costs of building and maintaining the turbines and transmitting the power back to shore also increase sharply. The objective of this paper is to review the parameters of design for the maximum efficiency of offshore wind turbines and to develop types offshore towers to support the wind turbines. The methodology of design of offshore towers to support the wind turbine would be given and the environmental loads for the design of the towers would be calculated for specific cases. The marine corrosion on the towers and the methods to control the corrosion also would be briefly presented. As the wind speeds tend to increase with distance from the shore, turbines build father offshore will be able to capture more wind energy. Currently two types of towers are considered. Cylindrical tubular structures and truss type structures. But truss type structures have less weight and flexibility in design. The construction of the offshore towers to harness the wind energy is also presented. The results will include the calculation of wind and wave forces on the tower and the design details for the tower.

Kurian, V. J.; Narayanan, S. P.; Ganapathy, C.

2010-06-01

77

A fuzzy logic approach for estimation of permeability and rock type from conventional well log data: an example from the Kangan reservoir in the Iran Offshore Gas Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permeability and rock type are the most important rock properties which can be used as input parameters to build 3D petrophysical models of hydrocarbon reservoirs. These parameters are derived from core samples which may not be available for all boreholes, whereas, almost all boreholes have well log data. In this study, the importance of the fuzzy logic approach for prediction of rock type from well log responses was shown by using an example of the Vp to Vs ratio for lithology determination from crisp and fuzzy logic approaches. A fuzzy c-means clustering technique was used for rock type classification using porosity and permeability data. Then, based on the fuzzy possibility concept, an algorithm was prepared to estimate clustering derived rock types from well log data. Permeability was modelled and predicted using a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy inference system. Then a back propagation neural network was applied to verify fuzzy results for permeability modelling. For this purpose, three wells of the Iran offshore gas field were chosen for the construction of intelligent models of the reservoir, and a forth well was used as a test well to evaluate the reliability of the models. The results of this study show that fuzzy logic approach was successful for the prediction of permeability and rock types in the Iran offshore gas field.

Kadkhodaie Ilkhchi, Ali; Rezaee, Mohammadreza; Moallemi, Seyed Ali

2006-12-01

78

Method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple  

DOEpatents

A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

Thermos, Anthony Constantine (Greer, SC); Rahal, Fadi Elias (Easley, SC)

2002-01-01

79

Advanced Main Combustion Chamber structural jacket strength analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural analysis of the Advanced Main Combustion Chamber (AMCC) is presented. The AMCC is an advanced fabrication concept of the Space Shuttle Main Engine main combustion chamber (MCC). Reduced cost and fabrication time of up to 75 percent were the goals of the AMCC with cast jacket with vacuum plasma sprayed or platelet liner. Since the cast material for the AMCC is much weaker than the wrought material for the MCC, the AMCC is heavier and strength margins much lower in some areas. Proven hand solutions were used to size the manifolds cutout tee areas for combined pressure and applied loads. Detailed finite element strength analyses were used to size the manifolds, longitudinal ribs, and jacket for combined pressure and applied local loads. The design of the gimbal actuator strut attachment lugs were determined by finite element analyses and hand solutions.

Johnston, L. M.; Perkins, L. A.; Denniston, C. L.; Price, J. M.

1993-01-01

80

A thermal assessment of army wet weather jackets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine the physiological and psychophysical response to walking in simulated tropical conditions while wearing two designs of wet weather jackets (WWJ) and no WWJ. Ten Regular Army personnel walked for 60min at 5mmin?1 at 35°C, 95% relative humidity with simulated warm (22°C) rain falling. In the no WWJ condition subjects wore a

Susan Malcolm; Ross Armstrong; Michael Michaliades; Rod Green

2000-01-01

81

Emerging technology: DPX jacketed mooring lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of high modulus polyethylene (HMPE) fiber is gaining popularity in the cordage industry due to such excellent properties as high strength, low weight, fatigue resistance, and UV resistance. However, the low coefficient of friction (COF) of HMPE fiber presents a challenge when used on winches, capstans, H-bitts and other types of hardware that rely on friction for proper

J. Miller; D. Stenvers; R. Chou; J. Gilmore

2005-01-01

82

Strength analysis of CARR-CNS with crescent-shape moderator cell and helium sub-cooling jacket covering cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new type of the moderator cell was developed for the cold neutron source (CNS) of the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) which is now being constructed at the China Institute of Atomic Energy in Beijing. A crescent-shape moderator cell covered by the helium sub-cooling jacket is adopted. The structure of the moderator cell is optimized by the stress FEM analysis. A crescent-shape would help to increase the volume of the moderator cell for fitting it to the four cold neutron guide tubes, even if liquid hydrogen, not liquid deuterium, was used as a cold moderator. The helium sub-cooling jacket covering the moderator cell removes the nuclear heating of the outer shell wall of the cell. It contributes to reduce the void fraction of liquid hydrogen in the outer shell of the moderator cell. Such a type of a moderator cell is suitable for the CNS with higher nuclear heating. The cold helium gas flows down first into the helium sub-cooling jacket and then flows up to the condenser. The theory of the self-regulation suitable to the thermo-siphon type of the CNS is also applicable and validated.

Yu, Qingfeng; Feng, Quanke; Kawai, Takeshi; Shen, Feng; Yuan, Luzheng; Cheng, Liang

2005-12-01

83

Changing life jacket wearing behavior: An evaluation of two approaches.  

PubMed

In the United States during 1999-2012, about 4 per cent of adults wore life jackets while engaged in recreation on powerboats. Educational campaigns have promoted life jacket use. Mandatory use regulations target primarily children or boaters on personal watercrafts or water skiing. We describe findings from two interventions - 'Wear It California!', a targeted marketing campaign in the California Delta region and mandatory wear regulations at four US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) lakes in the state of Mississippi. Before the campaign in the Delta, adult wear was 8.5 per cent, increasing to 12.1 per cent during the first year, dipping to 9.4 per cent during the second year, and rising slightly to 10.5 per cent 3 plus years after the campaign. Before mandatory regulations at USACE lakes, adult wear was 13.7 per cent, increasing to 75.6 per cent during the first year, 70.1 per cent during the second year, and remaining high at 68.1 per cent in the third year. Policymakers should consider these findings when choosing how to increase life jacket use. PMID:24430805

Mangione, Thomas; Chow, Wendy

2014-05-01

84

Fragility curves of concrete bridges retrofitted by column jacketing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northridge earthquake inflicted various levels of damage upon a large number of Caltrans’ bridges not retrofitted by column jacketing. In this respect, this study represents results of fragility curve development for two (2) sample bridges typical in southern California, strengthened for seismic retrofit by means of steel jacketing of bridge columns. Monte Carlo simulation is performed to study nonlinear dynamic responses of the bridges before and after column retrofit. Fragility curves in this study are represented by lognormal distribution functions with two parameters and developed as a function of PGA. The sixty (60) ground acceleration time histories for the Los Angeles area developed for the Federal Emergency Management Agcncy (FEMA) SAC (SEAOC-ATC-CUREe) steel project are used for the dynamic analysis of the bridges. The improvement in the fragility with steel jacketing is quantified by comparing fragility curves of the bridge before and after column retrofit. In this first attempt to formulate the problem of fragility enhancement, the quantification is made by comparing the median values of the fragility curves before and after the retrofit. Under the hypothesis that this quantification also applies to empirical fragility curves developed on the basis of Northridge earthquake damage, the enhanced version of the empirical curves is developed for the ensuing analysis to determine the enhancement of transportation network performance due to the retrofit.

Shinozuka, Masanobu; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kushiyama, Shigeru; Yi, Jin-Hak

2002-12-01

85

Further Studies of Patients with Both Honeybee and Yellow-Jacket-Venom-Specific IgE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five sera from patients with high titers of both honeybee- and yellow-jacket-venom-specific IgE were analyzed in RAST inhibition experiments, using each venom as the coupling and inhibiting antigen. Eight sera had unique antibody activity with no cross-reactivity between yellow-jacket- and honeybee-venom-specific IgE. In 5 sera, the IgE antibody activity was directed at a major allergen in yellow jacket venom cross-reacting

Robert E. Reisman; John I. Wypych; Mary I. Lazell

1987-01-01

86

When in Rome : does Polygon need a jacket?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity asks students to decide if a tourist visiting Rome should wear a jacket if the temperature is 35 degrees Celsius. The activity is part of the FigureThis! collection of challenges that emphasize math in the real world. Students are encouraged to approach the problem by drawing a thermometer and labeling it with the freezing and boiling points of water in both the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales. The solution presents a diagram and the formula for converting Celsius to Fahrenheit. The activity includes links to related questions and additional resources online. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

2002-01-01

87

Offshore oil: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides an assessment of the current status of offshore activity with particular reference to (1) trends in offshore production, and (2) the intensity and location of exploration drilling, this being an essential precondition for any future increase in offshore crude production. The report includes in-depth profiles of those non-OPEC nationa where the chances of discovering further recoverable offshore

Manners

1980-01-01

88

Evaluation of Hybrid-III 6YO ATD Chest Jacket Shape and Position.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In previous work, belt fit on the Hybrid-III six-year-old (6YO) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was found to depend on the positioning of the chest jacket of the ATD. Moreover, differences were noted between jackets manufactured by Denton-ATD and First ...

M. P. Reed S. M. Ebert-Hamilton

2011-01-01

89

THE MAN&RSQUO;S JACKET DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY: AN IMPLEMENTATION OF C2CAD FRAMEWORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The C2CAD model served as the basis in the man’s jacket design and production. In man’s jackets, both natural and synthetic materials are commonly used for fabrics, threads, and buttons. To promote disassembly and value retention, we minimized material diversity an...

90

Compressive behavior of concrete externally confined by composite jackets. Part A: experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation concerning the compressive behavior of concrete short columns externally confined by carbon and E-glass FRP jackets. The influences of different parameters such as the confinement level, the mechanical properties of the jackets and the compressive strength of the concrete core were studied. The results show that external confinement can significantly improve

J. F. Berthet; E. Ferrier; P. Hamelin

2005-01-01

91

Noncontact Detection of Air Voids Under Glass Epoxy Jackets Using a Microwave System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass epoxy jackets are commonly used to reinforce concrete bridge collars. Air voids in the bonding materials will degrade the mechanical strength of the glass epoxy reinforced collars. In order to detect air voids between a bridge collar and a glass-epoxy jacket, a focused microwave imaging system has been designed and implemented. An algorithm for inverting the dielectric constants from

Jing Li; Ce Liu

2001-01-01

92

Stiffness and Confinement Ratios of SMA Wire Jackets for Confining Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the effects of the stiffness and confinement ratios of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets on the behavior of confined concrete. SMA wire jackets are an effective confining material to improve concrete behavior; for example, by increasing peak strength and failure strain. The stiffness and confinement ratios of fiber-reinforced polymer jackets have been extensively discussed and their effects are well known. However, assessment of the stiffness and confinement ratios of SMA wire jackets has not previously been conducted. In this study, we investigate the effects of the stiffness and confinement ratios of steel jackets, and then compare the results with those of SMA wire jackets. In general, the stiffness ratios of SMA wire jackets are relatively smaller than those of steel jackets, and most of them have lower stiffness ratios because the Young's moduli of the SMAs are relatively small. The active confining pressure of the SMA wires does not improve the lower stiffness-ratio effect since the amount of active confining pressure is not sufficiently large.

Richardson, P. L.; Lutjeharms, J. R. E.; Boebel, O.

2014-05-01

93

Vacuum jacketed composite propulsion feedlines for cryogenic launch and space vehicles, volume 1. [development of glass fiber composite for strength and protection from handling damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin metallic liners that provide leak-free service in cryogenic propulsion systems are overwrapped with a glass-fiber composite that provides strength and protection from handling damage. The resultant tube is lightweight, strong, and has a low thermal flux. The inside commodity flow line and the outside vacuum jacket were fabricated using this method. Several types of vacuum jackets were fabricated and tested at operating temperatures from 294 to 21 K (+70 to minus 423 F) and operating pressure up to 69 N/cm2 (100 psi). The primary objective of the program was to develop vacuum jacket concepts, using previously developed concepts for the inner line. All major program objectives were met resulting in a design concept that is adaptable to a wide range of aerospace vehicle requirements. Major items of development included convolution of thin metallic sections up to 46 cm (18 in.) in diameter, design and fabrication of an extremely lightweight tension membrane concept for the vacuum jacket, and analytical tools that predict the failure mode and levels.

Spond, D. E.; Laintz, D. J.; Hall, C. A.; Dulaigh, D. E.

1974-01-01

94

Protective jacket enabling decision support for workers in cold climate.  

PubMed

The cold and harsh climate in the High North represents a threat to safety and work performance. The aim of this study was to show that sensors integrated in clothing can provide information that can improve decision support for workers in cold climate without disturbing the user. Here, a wireless demonstrator consisting of a working jacket with integrated temperature, humidity and activity sensors has been developed. Preliminary results indicate that the demonstrator can provide easy accessible information about the thermal conditions at the site of the worker and local cooling effects of extremities. The demonstrator has the ability to distinguish between activity and rest, and enables implementation of more sophisticated sensor fusion algorithms to assess work load and pre-defined activities. This information can be used in an enhanced safety perspective as an improved tool to advice outdoor work control for workers in cold climate. PMID:24111230

Seeberg, Trine M; Vardoy, Astrid-Sofie B; Austad, Hanne O; Wiggen, Oystein; Stenersen, Henning S; Liverud, Anders E; Storholmen, Tore Christian B; Faerevik, Hilde

2013-01-01

95

Challenges on the Road to an Offshore HVDC Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the technical challenges for offshore HVDC grids, which is a promising alternative for grid connection of offshore windfarms. The first topic is why HVDC is necessary, and which types of converters there should be used, resulting in a clear recommendation of HVDC based on voltage source converters. There is already offshore experience with VSC HVDC and the

Erik Koldby; Mats Hyttinen

96

Comparing the cyclic behavior of concrete cylinders confined by shape memory alloy wire or steel jackets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets for concrete are distinct from conventional jackets of steel or fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) since they provide active confinement which can be easily achieved due to the shape memory effect of SMAs. This study uses NiTiNb SMA wires of 1.0 mm diameter to confine concrete cylinders with the dimensions of 300 mm × 150 mm (L × D). The NiTiNb SMAs have a relatively wider temperature hysteresis than NiTi SMAs; thus, they are more suitable for the severe temperature-variation environments to which civil structures are exposed. Steel jackets of passive confinement are also prepared in order to compare the cyclic behavior of actively and passively confined concrete cylinders. For this purpose, monotonic and cyclic compressive loading tests are conducted to obtain axial and circumferential strain. Both strains are used to estimate the volumetric strains of concrete cylinders. Plastic strains from cyclic behavior are also estimated. For the cylinders jacketed by NiTiNb SMA wires, the monotonic axial behavior differs from the envelope of cyclic behavior. The plastic strains of the actively confined concrete show a similar trend to those of passive confinement. This study proposed plastic strain models for concrete confined by SMA wire or steel jackets. For the volumetric strain, the active jackets of NiTiNb SMA wires provide more energy dissipation than the passive jacket of steel.

Park, Joonam; Choi, Eunsoo; Park, Kyoungsoo; Kim, Hong-Taek

2011-09-01

97

The indirect transfer of glass fragments to a jacket and their subsequent persistence.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to investigate a scenario sometimes encountered in casework, where a police officer has attended a scene and shortly afterwards arrested a suspect. The experiments involve the transfer of glass fragments from a surface scattered with broken glass to a hand, and then from the hand to the sleeve of a poorly retaining jacket. The persistence of the transferred fragments was studied by collecting the glass fragments as they fell off the jacket, whilst the wearer was walking on the spot. The recovery regime allowed the number and proportion of fragments picked up and transferred to the jacket from the hand to be determined, and the rate at which they were lost from the jacket to be monitored. The results show that large numbers of glass fragments can be picked up on a hand from a suitable surface. A subsequent firm grip to a poorly retaining jacket was found to transfer a significant proportion of the glass fragments from the hand to the jacket. In seven of nine tests performed, ten or more glass fragments were recovered from the jacket 60 minutes after the original contact between the hand and the broken glass. More than twenty fragments were recovered in three of these tests. Consequently, where possible and appropriate, the full circumstances of a case should be considered carefully before indirect transfer is ruled out as a possible explanation for recovered "matching" glass. This is the case even for poorly retaining clothing. PMID:23601724

Cooper, Guy

2013-06-01

98

Offshore oil exploration and exploitation  

SciTech Connect

Exploration and drilling for petroleum in the North Sea is described. There are about 30 rigs drilling in the North Sea at present. Precautions, regulations and liability in such drilling are described. In the world at the end of 1978, there were about 400 rigs of various types drilling for oil offshore. (LTN)

Not Available

1980-03-01

99

Lightweight Vacuum Jacket for Cryogenic Insulation - Appendices to Final Report. Volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility is demonstrated of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials. Design and analytical studies were made on an orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were completed for the tank assembly which included an optimized vacuum jacket and multilayered insulation system. A half-scale LH2 test model was designed and fabricated and a force/stiffness proof test was conducted on the vacuum jacket. A vacuum leak rate of 0.00001 was measured, approximately 1500 hours of vacuum pressure was sustained, and 29 vacuum pressure cycles were experienced prior to failure. For vol. 1, see N75-26192.

Barclay, D. L.; Bell, J. E.; Brogren, E. W.; Straayer, J. W.

1975-01-01

100

Evaluation of Sand Resources, Atlantic Offshore, Delaware.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithologic logs from 268 vibracores taken from the Delaware Atlantic offshore were evaluated for sediment type and compatibility with historical beach sediment textures. A model of sand resource evaluation, known as stack-unit mapping (Kempton, 1981) was ...

K. K. McKenna K. W. Ramsey

2002-01-01

101

The effect on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests made on a Curtiss D-12 engine in the Altitude Laboratory at the Bureau of Standards show the following effects on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature: 1) Friction at all altitudes is a linear function of the jacket-water temperature, decreasing with increasing temperature. 2) The brake horsepower below an altitude of about 9,000 feet decreases, and at higher altitudes increases, with jacket-water temperature. 3) The brake specific fuel consumption tends to decrease, at all altitudes, with increasing jacket-water temperature. 4) The percentage change in brake power output is roughly equal to the algebraic sum of the percentage change in volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency.

Garlock, E A; Ellis, Greer

1933-01-01

102

Dynamic Testing and Analysis of Non-Prismatic Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns Retrofitted with FRP Jackets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the development and experimental validation of seismic retrofitting of non-prismatic (flared) reinforced concrete bridge columns. Fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) jacketing was installed on the non-prismatic columns to enhance the she...

F. Martinovic M. Saiidi D. Sanders F. Gordaninejad

2001-01-01

103

Effects of feather cover and insulative jackets on metabolic rate of laying hens.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of feather cover and newly-devised insulative jackets on the heat production in Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens at 20 C. An open-circuit calorimeter was used to measure the gaseous exchange of the birds. With ad libitum feeding, birds with clipped back and breast feathers produced 6% more heat than did normally feathered hens. This difference was removed by placing jackets on the defeathered birds. The jackets also decreased the surface temperature of the feather-clipped areas, indicating an effective insulation. When the jackets were applied to naturally poor-feathered hens, fasting heat production decreased significantly, but not to the base level of that of normally feathered hens. PMID:6622359

Lee, B D; Morrison, W D; Leeson, S; Bayley, H S

1983-07-01

104

Efficiency of the Thermal Jacket on the Delivered Temperature of Prewarmed Crystalloid Intravenous Fluid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A quasi-experimental research design was used to determine the relationship between the flow rate and the delivered temperature of prewarmed crystalloid intravenous solutions when using the Thermal Jacket, an insulation device designed for intravenous flu...

D. R. Bowen

1989-01-01

105

Insect Repellent Jackets: A Protective Item for Use Against Blood-Feeding Diptera.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new insect repellent jacket constructed of polyester and cotton netting has been developed. The Naval Medical Field Research Laboratory began studying the possibility of using cool, wide-mesh netting treated with space repellents in 1965. Insect repelle...

R. H. Grothaus J. R. Haskins L. L. Bruner

1975-01-01

106

A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Jacketed Cuvette for the Spectronic 20  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construction of a simple and inexpensive water-jacketed cuvette for the Spectronic 20 is described. This cuvette is utilized to determine the activation energy of the reaction between crystal violet and hydroxide ion spectrophotomerically.

Thompson, Jonathan E.; Ting, Jason

2004-01-01

107

Skin, bone and muscle collagen extraction from the trash fish, leather jacket (Odonus niger) and their characterization.  

PubMed

Acid soluble (ASC) and pepsin soluble (PSC) collagens were extracted from the skin, bone and muscle of a trash fish, leather jacket (Odonus niger) by three different extraction methods. Method I gave 46-50% yield for ASC, Method II gave 49-58% yield for both ASC and PSC and Method III gave 64-71% yield for PSC. The addition of pepsin had increased the yield by 30-45%. The yields of collagen from skin and bone were higher than muscle. SDS-PAGE pattern revealed that skin and bone collagen as Type I collagen with a typical (?1)2?2 chains and muscle collagen as Type V collagen with a typical ?1?3?2 chains. Td values of bone and muscle collagen were high (30-32 °C) compared to skin collagen (27-28 °C). The higher imino acids (190 residues/1,000 residues) were found responsible for the higher Td values. The trash fish, leather jacket can therefore be exploited effectively for collagen as it has got good thermal properties for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. PMID:24426022

Muralidharan, Nagarajan; Jeya Shakila, Robinson; Sukumar, Durairaj; Jeyasekaran, G

2013-12-01

108

Heat-transfer phenomena in water-cooled zinc-fuming furnace jackets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the zinc slag-fuming process, zinc is removed from lead blast furnace slag by reduction with a coal-air mixture injected\\u000a into the slag through submerged tuyeres. The furnace is constructed of water-cooled jackets which freeze a slag layer and\\u000a contain the bath. This greatly reduces vessel wear caused by the violently agitated and corrosive bath. The jackets, however,\\u000a fail due

K. E. Scholey; G. G. Richards; I. V. Samarasekera

1991-01-01

109

Variable pressure insulating jackets for high-temperature batteries  

SciTech Connect

A new method is proposed for controlling the temperature of high-temperature batteries namely, varying the hydrogen pressure inside of multifoil insulation by varying the temperature of a reversible hydrogen getter. Calculations showed that the rate of heat loss through 1.5 cm of multifoil insulation between a hot-side temperature of 425[degrees]C and a cold-side temperature of 25[degrees]C could be varied between 17.6 W/m[sup 2] and 7,000 W/m[sup 2]. This change in heat transfer rate can be achieved by varying the hydrogen pressure between 1.0 Pa and 1,000 Pa, which can be done with an available hydrogen gettering alloy operating in the range of 50[degrees]C to 250[degrees]C. This approach to battery cooling requires cylindrical insulating jackets, which are best suited for bipolar batteries having round cells approximately 10 to 18 cm in diameter.

Nelson, P.A.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Malecha, R.F.

1992-01-01

110

Variable pressure insulating jackets for high-temperature batteries  

SciTech Connect

A new method is proposed for controlling the temperature of high-temperature batteries namely, varying the hydrogen pressure inside of multifoil insulation by varying the temperature of a reversible hydrogen getter. Calculations showed that the rate of heat loss through 1.5 cm of multifoil insulation between a hot-side temperature of 425{degrees}C and a cold-side temperature of 25{degrees}C could be varied between 17.6 W/m{sup 2} and 7,000 W/m{sup 2}. This change in heat transfer rate can be achieved by varying the hydrogen pressure between 1.0 Pa and 1,000 Pa, which can be done with an available hydrogen gettering alloy operating in the range of 50{degrees}C to 250{degrees}C. This approach to battery cooling requires cylindrical insulating jackets, which are best suited for bipolar batteries having round cells approximately 10 to 18 cm in diameter.

Nelson, P.A.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Malecha, R.F.

1992-12-31

111

Development Potential for California's Offshore Wind Energy Resource  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An initial analysis was performed for areas suitable for offshore wind farm development near the California coast. The siting of an offshore wind farm is limited by water depth, with shallow water being the most preferable economically. Acceptable depths for offshore wind farms were broken up into three categories, based on current and future wind turbine tower support technology; ?20 meters depth for monopile towers, ?50 meters for water jacket tripods/quadrapods, and ? 200 meters depth for deep water floating tower technology which is likely to be developed in the next 15 years. Using the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5) to predict winds aloft at high resolution (1.67 and 5 km) near the locations of interest, annual 80 meter wind speeds were found for each area. Annual 80 meter wind speeds were based on the average of January, April, July, and Octobers' 2005/2006 MM5 model data. The interannual variation is also examined. Floating buoys were used to validate the surface level winds off the California coast. Using the REpower 5M 5.0 MW, 126 meter diameter offshore wind turbine, a preliminary overall resource assessment was made for coastal California. Initial estimates show that 2-10 TWh, 9-27 TWh, and 67-293 TWh of energy could be harnessed annually using monopile, state of the art, and future turbine support technology in Northern California, the Bay Area, and Southern California respectively.

Dvorak, M. J.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Archer, C. L.

2007-12-01

112

Types of potential effects of offshore oil and gas development on marine mammals and endangered species of the northern Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean. Technical paper no. 9 (final)  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes information on the types of potential effects on marine mammals, endangered species, and rare plants which may be associated with oil and gas lease sales pending for the northern Bering Sea and arctic regions. The discussion does not imply that any specific level of impact will be sustained but rather identifies the various potential effects associated with offshore exploration, development, and production of petroleum hydrocarbon resources in the Alaska arctic regions.

Cowles, C.J.; Hansen, D.J.; Hubbard, J.D.

1981-12-01

113

New Structural-Dynamics Module for Offshore Multimember Substructures within the Wind Turbine Computer-Aided Engineering Tool FAST: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is a computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool for aero-hydro-servo-elastic analysis of land-based and offshore wind turbines. This paper discusses recent upgrades made to FAST to enable loads simulations of offshore wind turbines with fixed-bottom, multimember support structures (e.g., jackets and tripods, which are commonly used in transitional-depth waters). The main theory and strategies for the implementation of the multimember substructure dynamics module (SubDyn) within the new FAST modularization framework are introduced. SubDyn relies on two main engineering schematizations: 1) a linear frame finite-element beam (LFEB) model and 2) a dynamics system reduction via Craig-Bampton's method. A jacket support structure and an offshore system consisting of a turbine atop a jacket substructure were simulated to test the SubDyn module and to preliminarily assess results against results from a commercial finite-element code.

Song, H.; Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.

2013-08-01

114

Underwater noise from three types of offshore wind turbines: estimation of impact zones for harbor porpoises and harbor seals.  

PubMed

Underwater noise was recorded from three different types of wind turbines in Denmark and Sweden (Middelgrunden, Vindeby, and Bockstigen-Valar) during normal operation. Wind turbine noise was only measurable above ambient noise at frequencies below 500 Hz. Total sound pressure level was in the range 109-127 dB re 1 microPa rms, measured at distances between 14 and 20 m from the foundations. The 1/3-octave noise levels were compared with audiograms of harbor seals and harbor porpoises. Maximum 1/3-octave levels were in the range 106-126 dB re 1 microPa rms. Maximum range of audibility was estimated under two extreme assumptions on transmission loss (3 and 9 dB per doubling of distance, respectively). Audibility was low for harbor porpoises extending 20-70 m from the foundation, whereas audibility for harbor seals ranged from less than 100 m to several kilometers. Behavioral reactions of porpoises to the noise appear unlikely except if they are very close to the foundations. However, behavioral reactions from seals cannot be excluded up to distances of a few hundred meters. It is unlikely that the noise reaches dangerous levels at any distance from the turbines and the noise is considered incapable of masking acoustic communication by seals and porpoises. PMID:19507958

Tougaard, Jakob; Henriksen, Oluf Damsgaard; Miller, Lee A

2009-06-01

115

Offshore-plant economics bared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pace Marine Engineering Systems, Inc.'s study of the economics of 200 specific types of offshore natural-gas processing plants takes no firm position either for or against plants built on marine platforms, concluding that the return on investment varies considerably with plant size, natural-gas price, water depth, product delivery distance, and other factors. Pace does note that LNG manufacture on an

Prescott

1976-01-01

116

Seismic retroftting of RC columns with RC jackets and wing walls with different structural details  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An original reinforced concrete (RC) column and four strengthened specimens, two with RC jackets and two with wing walls, were tested in this study. The original column specimen was designed to comply with older (pre-1999) design standards so that the usual detailing deficiencies in existing school buildings in Taiwan could be simulated. Two different structural details were chosen to fabricate the full-scale specimens for each retrofitting technique. The study confirmed that either RC jacketing or the installation of wing walls with two different structural details can effectively improve the stiffness and strength of an existing column. RC jacketing shows a better improvement in energy dissipation and ductility when compared to the columns with wing walls installed. This is because the two RC jacketed columns experienced a flexural failure, while a shear failure was found in the two columns with the wing walls installed, and thus led to a drastic decrease of the maximum lateral strengths and ductility. Since many factors may affect the installation of a post-installed anchor, it is better to use standard hooks to replace post-installed anchors in some specific points when using RC jacketing or installing wing walls.

Chang, Shuenn-Yih; Chen, Ting-Wei; Tran, Ngoc-Cuong; Liao, Wen-I.

2014-06-01

117

Offshore oil drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accelerated offshore leasing plan proposed by the US government will involve huge areas containing marine biological resources of considerable economic, ecological, social, and aesthetic value. Offshore drilling and onshore refining\\/processing facilities can mar the scenic beauty of an area and gradually change seabed and water conditions, while always posing the threat of a major oil spill. Environmentalists currently disagree

Hileman

1981-01-01

118

Heat-transfer phenomena in water-cooled zinc-fuming furnace jackets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the zinc slag-fuming process, zinc is removed from lead blast furnace slag by reduction with a coal-air mixture injected into the slag through submerged tuyeres. The furnace is constructed of water-cooled jackets which freeze a slag layer and contain the bath. This greatly reduces vessel wear caused by the violently agitated and corrosive bath. The jackets, however, fail due to the formation of cracks which grow from the slag face through the working face of the jacket to the water channel. In this study, in-plant measurements and mathematical modeling of heat transfer in the jackets have been combined to elucidate the mechanism of failure. The working face of a water jacket was instrumented with thermocouples and installed in a fuming furnace at the Trail smelter of Cominco Ltd., Trail, BC. Measurements revealed the presence of large thermal transients or temperature “spikes” in the panel in the region immediately above the tuyeres. These were generally observed during charging and tapping of the furnace and are likely associated with disturbances on the surface of the bath or gas injection effects when the liquid level is low. Temperatures at the midthickness were seen to rise by as much as 180 °C above the steady-state level. Under these conditions, low-cycle fatigue may lead to crack formation and propagation. A mathematical modeling analysis of the transient freezing phenomena indicates that the temperature spikes are associated with sudden slag falloff and direct contact of molten slag on the jacket. In order to reduce slag falloff, an increased number of anchoring fins should be used in critical areas.

Scholey, K. E.; Richards, G. G.; Samarasekera, I. V.

1991-04-01

119

EVALUATION OF THE FAILURE OF A RADIOACTIVE WASTE TRANSFER LINE JACKET  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive wastes are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste is transported between tanks primarily via an underground transfer piping system. Due to the hazardous nature of the waste, the inner core stainless steel pipe is typically surrounded by a carbon steel pipe jacket, which provides secondary containment. Recently several through-wall penetrations were discovered on a segment of one of the jackets. An evaluation was performed to verify the failure mechanism and to estimate the degree of damage that occurred to the pipe segment. Failure analysis of a section of the jacket confirmed that pitting corrosion on the exterior of the pipe led to the through-wall penetration. Ultrasonic measurements on sections of the pipe were utilized to determine the remaining wall thickness in adjacent areas of the pipe. Based on these measurements, the degree of pitting and general corrosion was determined. Pit growth rate models were then developed to estimate the life expectancy of sections of the pipe that had not been excavated. The calculations estimated that the occurrence of through-wall failures in this jacket will begin to increase substantially in 12 years. Given that this pipe segment will be utilized beyond this time, short-term and long-term solutions to this failure were proposed. The short-term solutions focused on the repair or replace decisions that must be made to return the jacket to service as soon as practical. The long-term solutions focused on a broader strategy to address jacket integrity issues in the entire tank farm facility. These solutions included the evaluation of innovative remote inspection and repair techniques.

Wiersma, B; Alan03 Plummer, A; Karthik Subramanian, K; Charles Jenkins, C; William Hinz, W; A Fellinger, A

2007-04-06

120

Drag Measurements of a Protruding.50-Caliber Machine Gun with Barrel Jacket Removed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were made in 8-ft high-speed wind tunnel to determine the drag reduction possible by eliminating the barrel jacket of a protruding 50-caliber aircraft gun. It was found that the drag of a standard aircraft gun protruding into the air stream at right angles to the flow can be reduced by 23% by discarding the barrel jacket. At 300 mph and sea-level conditions, this amounts to a decrease in drag of from 83 to 64 pounds. A rough surface finish on the barrel was found to have no adverse effects on the drag of the barrel, the drag being actually less at high Mach Numbers.

Luoma, Arvo A.

1943-01-01

121

Experimental duplication of the important physical evidence of the lapel bulge of the jacket worn by Governor Connally when bullet 399 went through him.  

PubMed

By duplicating the wound to the neck of President Kennedy, which caused bullet 399 to turn sideways, and having it then hit a Connally-type rib cage with shirt and jacket, we reproduced the right-sided bulge of the jacket worn by Connally, with lapel eversion, which is so significant in frame 224. The extensive damage to his shirtfront was from the hail of rib fragments and soft tissue, exactly as described with his own shirt. Our tumbling bullet then went on to fracture a radius and be recovered intact except that it was somewhat flattened and bent and had lead extruded from the rear, as did bullet 399. Fragments of this lead were scraped off on the ragged bone-ends of some of our fractured radiuses, just as with Governor Connally's radius. It is believed that this duplication of the jacket and lapel bulge of Governor Connally, which occurred dependably, when we reproduced the circumstances at Dallas, confirmed this very important detail in this technical demonstration of the findings in the shooting of President Kennedy and Governor Connally. The bulge and the lapel eversion of the jacket worn by Governor Connally, starting in Zapruder frame 224, does indeed establish, beyond any shadow of a doubt, the exact moment when bullet 399 went through him. The right arms of both men were seen to react simultaneously, immediately thereafter. It also permits us to establish that there was plenty of time (three and one-half seconds) between the first two shots (frames 160 to 224) and even more time (five seconds) between the last two shots (frames 224 to 313), for Oswald to reload, reacquire his target (the head of President Kennedy) plus two full seconds to lock onto it. If the bullet does not traverse the neck of President Kennedy, it does not cause Governor Connally's jacket and lapel to bulge. The lapel bulge is a very important bit of actual physical evidence in establishing the fact that one bullet hit both men and that Oswald had plenty of time to hit the President, first in the neck and then in the head. These experiments confirm the mechanism of the lapel bulge and the behavior of the bullet. PMID:8167893

Lattimer, J K; Laidlaw, A; Heneghan, P; Haubner, E J

1994-05-01

122

Applications for concrete offshore  

SciTech Connect

The report collects and summarizes the various proposals for development offshore which have in common the use of concrete as the main structural material, and where possible, indicates their relative feasibility. A study encompassing such diverse schemes as offshore windmills, concrete LNG carriers, hydrocarbon production platforms and floating airports cannot be completely exhaustive on each subject, so references to sources of further information have been given wherever possible. Details of individual projects and proposals are included for Power plants, Hydrocarbon production platforms, Concrete ships, Storage systems and industrial plants, Subsea systems, Offshore islands, Coastal works and Other concrete structures.

Not Available

1982-01-01

123

Wireless E-Jacket for Multiparameter Biophysical Monitoring and Telemedicine Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widespread requirement exists for a low cost and reliable health monitor in the clinical as well as home environment. The e-jacket presented here is an example of a smart clothing system with multiple bioparameter acquisition of electrocardiogram (ECG), pulse oximetry, body motion\\/tilt and skin temperature. The battery operated circuit has an integrated graphic liquid crystal display (LCD) screen and

S. Nag; D. K. Sharma

2006-01-01

124

Protection of thermal and cryogenic insulating materials by the use of metal jacketing and mastic coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal insulation continues to increase in importance in energy conservation programs. Most thermal and cryogenic insulating materials are structurally weak and require protection from weather, fire, and physical abuse. This protection may be provided in the form of metal jacketing, mastic coatings, or a combination of both, depending upon the application and service and economic requirements. Products offering sound attenuation,

1983-01-01

125

DESIGN OF FRP JACKETS FOR SEISMIC RETROFIT OF CIRCULAR CONCRETE COLUMNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical and experimental research was conducted to develop a design procedure for seismic retrofit of existing circular concrete columns using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) jackets. The analytical research is an extension of earlier work on the development of a displacement based design procedure for column confinement. The experimental work involves full-size bridge columns tested under simulated seismic loading, consisting

G. ELNABELSY; M. SAATCIOGLU

2004-01-01

126

Offshore Pipeline Failures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview of current concerns in the regulation of offshore pipelines is presented along with tabulated summaries of pipeline failure causes, failure prevention techniques, and pipeline monitoring and early intervention techniques. A database of over 10...

R. D. Woodson

1990-01-01

127

Management of offshore wastes in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the process of finding and producing oil and gas in the offshore environment operators generate a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Some of these wastes are directly related to exploration and production activities (e.g., drilling wastes, produced water, treatment workover, and completion fluids) while other types of wastes are associated with human occupation of the offshore platforms (e.g.,

Veil

1998-01-01

128

Getting offshoring right.  

PubMed

The prospect of offshoring and outsourcing business processes has captured the imagination of CEOs everywhere. In the past five years, a rising number of companies in North America and Europe have experimented with this strategy, hoping to reduce costs and gain strategic advantage. But many businesses have had mixed results. According to several studies, half the organizations that have shifted processes offshore have failed to generate the expected financial benefits. What's more, many of them have faced employee resistance and consumer dissatisfaction. Clearly, companies have to rethink how they formulate their offshoring strategies. A three-part methodology can help. First, companies need to prioritize their processes, ranking each based on two criteria: the value it creates for customers and the degree to which the company can capture some of that value. Companies will want to keep their core (highest-priority) processes in-house and consider outsourcing their commodity (low-priority) processes; critical (moderate-priority) processes are up for debate and must be considered carefully. Second, businesses should analyze all the risks that accompany offshoring and look systematically at their critical and commodity processes in terms of operational risk (the risk that processes won't operate smoothly after being offshored) and structural risk (the risk that relationships with service providers may not work as expected). Finally, companies should determine possible locations for their offshore efforts, as well as the organizational forms--such as captive centers and joint ventures--that those efforts might take. They can do so by examining each process's operational and structural risks side by side. This article outlines the tools that will help companies choose the right processes to offshore. It also describes a new organizational structure called the extended organization, in which companies specify the quality of services they want and work alongside providers to get that quality. PMID:16334588

Aron, Ravi; Singh, Jitendra V

2005-12-01

129

Management of offshore wastes in the United States.  

SciTech Connect

During the process of finding and producing oil and gas in the offshore environment operators generate a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Some of these wastes are directly related to exploration and production activities (e.g., drilling wastes, produced water, treatment workover, and completion fluids) while other types of wastes are associated with human occupation of the offshore platforms (e.g., sanitary and domestic wastes, trash). Still other types of wastes can be considered generic industrial wastes (e.g., scrap metal and wood, wastes paints and chemicals, sand blasting residues). Finally, the offshore platforms themselves can be considered waste materials when their useful life span has been reached. Generally, offshore wastes are managed in one of three ways--onsite discharge, injection, or transportation to shore. This paper describes the regulatory requirements imposed by the government and the approaches used by offshore operators to manage and dispose of wastes in the US.

Veil, J. A.

1998-10-22

130

Current and future offshore activities in Canada  

SciTech Connect

The development of innovative exploratory drilling systems for Canada's harsh Arctic offshore areas over the past decade is described. Future activity in these areas, including possible production concepts, is also discussed. The results of the experience in Canadian waters can be applied in other Arctic areas of the world including offshore Alaska. This operating experience will serve to further advance the drilling technology and will serve as a basis for the design of Arctic offshore production and transportation systems. Artificial islands, first commenced in 1972, are still being constructed but with improved designs and equipment. A step forward has been the use of subsea berms on which concrete or steel segmented caissons have been placed. Integrated-type steel caissons have also been adapted for placement on subsea berms, one of which is half of a crude oil tanker and a second, a purpose-built steel caisson to be placed this summer.

Hnatiuk, J.

1984-05-01

131

Offshore and Arctic operations, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following topics: Design advantages of Beta Titanium 38-644 springs in outfield applications, Caissin support structure (CSS), Optimizing operations for offshore platform fabrication, Concrete strength evaluation of offshore structures.

Urquhart, R.G. (Maple Gas Corp. (US)); Tawfik, A.S. (Brown and Root USA, Inc. (US))

1991-01-01

132

Marine Pollution from Offshore Chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyses the influencing impact on the marine environment caused by the various chemical effluents from the offshore drilling and production. The offshore chemicals used at the Statfjord and Ekofisk fields on the Norwegian Continental Shelf are...

O. Bjoerseth G. Halmoe R. Romslo T. Syvertsen

1986-01-01

133

Performance enhancement of R\\/C building columns and beam–column joints through shotcrete jacketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effectiveness and suitability of shotcrete and cast-in-place concrete as means of retrofitting columns and beam–column joints in reinforced concrete frame structures, so as to improve their shear and\\/or flexural performance. Thus, the use of four-sided and two-sided reinforced shotcrete or cast-in-place concrete jackets has been investigated experimentally for the case of pre-earthquake retrofitting of columns and

Alexander-Dimitrios G. Tsonos

2010-01-01

134

Jack-up and jacket platforms: a comparison of system strength and reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a comparitive study on the structural reliability of a sample jacket and a sample jack-up. The methodology adopted is outlined and results obtained presented with emphasis on the jack-up. Findings of relevance to the jack-up community are discussed and some comments on the SNAME RP are given. An approach for improved spudcan–soil interaction modelling to be used

A. C. Morandi; P. A. Frieze; M. Birkinshaw; D. Smith; A. Dixon

1999-01-01

135

Low smoke, non-corrosive, fire retardant cable jackets based on HNBR and EVM  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the properties of the polymers HNBR and EVM which make them good candidates for use in meeting the low smoke, non-corrosive, low toxicity and fire retardant requirements for electric safety cable jackets and electric insulation. Topics of the article include density, weight, and viscosity of each polymer, mechanical proprieties of each polymer, and other results of laboratory testing of these polymers.

Meisenheimer, H.

1991-06-01

136

The Teaching Artist in New Jersey: Full Metaphor Jacket  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author relates how his friends do not understand the type of work that he does as a poetry teacher. His friends know him as someone who cheers on the Yankees voraciously with them and will roll his sleeves up and stuff three knockwurst sandwiches down his throat, trying to explain how Walt Whitman would approve of this, that…

Ward, B. J.

2005-01-01

137

Seismic Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Beam Column T-Joints in Bridge Piers with FRP Composite Jackets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis: The research described encompasses laboratory as well as in-situ testing of reinforced concrete beam-column joints and multicolumn bridge piers rehabilitated with FRP composite jackets. Fourteen RC beam-column joint tests were performed and a design equation was developed which determines the thickness of the FRP composite jacket and the orientation of the fibers for maximum effectiveness in enhancing shear capacity

C. P. Pantelides; J. Gergely

138

Reducing Exposures to Airborne Lead in a Covered, Outdoor Firing Range by Using Totally Copper-Jacketed Bullets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of reducing or eliminating airborne lead concentrations at a covered, outdoor firing range by using totally copper-jacketed ammunition. Used in the study were 38-caliber-special police revolvers, and firings were conducted with 38-caliber, totally copper-jacketed bullets. The mean lead levels in general area air samples and personal breathing zone samples were 9.53?µg\\/m and

R. K. TRIPATHI; P. C. SHERERTZ; G. C. LLEWELLYN; C. W. ARMSTRONG; S. L. RAMSEY

1990-01-01

139

Nitrogen CARS Thermometry Within the Outer Jacket of a Metal Halide Lamp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) was applied to measure axial and radial temperature profiles within the outer jacket of a 360 Watt metal halide lamp. The CARS technique was chosen for this task because its good spatial resolution, coherent signal beam, nonintrusive nature, and selectivity yields spectra with very high signal to noise ratios despite the high level of background radiation from the running lamp. We use nitrogen CARS thermometry here because the outer jacket is filled with 400 torr of nitrogen at room temperature. Rotationally resolved nitrogen CARS spectra are measured at a number of points within the metal halide lamp. A spectral simulation program is utilized to calculate spectra for gas temperatures between 500 and 1000 K. A comparison between these simulations and the measured rotationally resolved nitrogen CARS spectra allows the temperature at each point in the lamp to be accurately determined. In addition, good agreement was achieved between the measured temperature distribution and predicted axial and radial temperature profiles in the outer jacket of the metal halide lamp.

Brock, Lori R.; Adler, Helmar

1999-10-01

140

Offshore Wind Energy Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the possibility of installing offshore windmills to provide electricity and to save fuel for the United Kingdom. Favors their deployment in clusters to facilitate supervision and minimize cost. Discusses the power output and the cost involved and urges their quick development. (GA)

Musgrove, P.

1978-01-01

141

Copenhagen Offshore Wind 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planning, the special development work, and the installation of the foundations for the offshore wind parks North Hoyle in the Irish Sea and Scroby Sands in the North Sea are described. The wind parks comprise each 30 2 MW Vestas V 80 turbines. In both wind parks monopile foundations were used. They were placed in open sea in tidal

Niels-Erik Ottesen Hansen

142

The state of offshore  

SciTech Connect

In this book, the author explains the factors behind state involvement in offshore petroleum activities. From his analysis of government workings in Great Britain and Norway, he concludes that state intervention is determined by complex interactions among government officials, economic interests, and environmental pressures.

Nelson, B.F.

1991-01-01

143

Wave - Wind Offshore Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 160 MW Horns Rev offshore wind farm has provided valuable inputs for the planning of substantially larger plants. The lessons learnt include problems associated with deployment, issues concerning operation and maintenance, the need for wind forecasts and grid interaction issues. As many such installations are being planned at water depths of 10 m or so lead one to conjecture

T. Geetha; Boby George; V. Jayashankar

144

Offshore Space Center (offshore launch site)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit; an industrial area for HLLV maintenance; an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower; liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms; a power generation station, docks with an unloading area; two separate launch sites; and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

Harvey, D. G.

1980-01-01

145

Offshore Space Center (offshore launch site)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit; an industrial area for HLLV maintenance; an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower; liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms; a power generation station, docks with an unloading area; two separate launch sites; and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

Harvey, D. G.

1980-07-01

146

Offshore arctic structure  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is disclosed for minimizing the horizontal forces on an offshore arctic structure due to ice movement. The structure includes a base portion, sloped side walls and a smooth, unobstructed portion. The structure is substantially submerged in a body of water with the top portion at or near the water surface permitting floating ice sheets which strike the side walls to flex slightly upward and advance along and over the structure without substantially destroying the overall integrity of ice sheet. In this manner, the horizontal forces on the structure resulting from the ice sheet are minimized due to the elimination of a crushing failure mode of the ice sheet commonly associated with conventional offshore arctic structures.

Weiss, R.

1983-08-09

147

Arctic offshore platform  

SciTech Connect

An offshore structure is disclosed for use in drilling and producing wells in arctic regions having a conical shaped lower portion that extends above the surface of the water and a cylindrical upper section. The conical portion is provided with a controlled stiffness outer surface for withstanding the loads produced by ice striking the structure. The stiffness properties of the outer shell and flexible members are designed to distribute the load and avoid high local loads on the inner parts of the structure.

Bhula, D.N.

1984-01-24

148

Offshore finds inspire optimism  

SciTech Connect

The author reviews the oil market in Australia and the Pacific. Some of the highlights are: Australia/Pacific drilling hit 308 in 1987; about 300 seen for 1988; Offshore holds action in New Zealand, while onshore Papua makes news; Reduced taxes, relaxed foreign investment rules aid Aussie development work; Four solid solid discoveries made in Papua's Southern Highlands in 18 months; and Austrialia and New Zealand enact industry degregulation measures.

Not Available

1988-08-01

149

Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

1980-11-01

150

Stochastic Modeling Techniques for Offshore Geohazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much remains to be known about offshore phenomena, despite the potential threat they pose to coastal communities and economically-important offshore infrastructure. The scientific and engineering community has a fairly good grasp of the mechanics governing these geohazards; for instance, we can model tsunami run-ups over entire oceans, evaluate the stability of slopes, and predict the runout of a given landslide. Much of the uncertainty arising in applications of such models stems from the sparsity and error in offshore data. Such datasets are often sparse because the ocean is so large, and contain values with potentially significant measurement error because of the complexities involved in collecting data in such extreme conditions (e.g., sampling sediment under miles of water). Stochastic techniques and statistics quantify these types of uncertainty. In the first chapter of this dissertation, I apply a stochastic optimization method to a geophysical model to achieve estimates of sub-seabed gas concentrations from remotely-sourced seismic reflection data. In the second chapter, I combine geostatistics and first-order, second-moment uncertainty analysis to map the probability of slope failure along the entire U.S. Atlantic margin. My third and final chapter statistically characterizes offshore wind speeds using an unprecedented amount of data collected over the northwestern hemisphere.

Morgan, Eugene C.

151

Effect of wearing an ice cooling jacket on repeat sprint performance in warm/humid conditions  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the effect of cooling the skin with an ice jacket before and between exercise bouts (to simulate quarter and half time breaks) on prolonged repeat sprint exercise performance in warm/humid conditions. Methods: After an initial familiarisation session, seven trained male hockey players performed two testing sessions (seven days apart), comprising an 80 minute intermittent, repeat sprint cycling exercise protocol inside a climate chamber set at 30°C and 60% relative humidity. On one occasion a skin cooling procedure was implemented (in random counterbalanced order), with subjects wearing an ice cooling jacket both before (for five minutes) and in the recovery periods (2 x 5 min and 1 x 10 min) during the test. Measures of performance (work done and power output on each sprint), heart rates, blood lactate concentrations, core (rectal) and skin temperatures, sweat loss, perceived exertion, and ratings of thirst, thermal discomfort, and fatigue were obtained in both trials. Results: In the cooling condition, chest (torso) skin temperature, thermal discomfort, and rating of thirst were all significantly lower (p<0.05), but no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between conditions for measures of work done, power output, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, core or mean skin temperature, perceived exertion, sweat loss, or ratings of fatigue. However, high effect sizes indicated trends to lowered lactate concentrations, sweat loss, and mean skin temperatures in the cooling condition. Conclusions: The intermittent use of an ice cooling jacket, both before and during a repeat sprint cycling protocol in warm/humid conditions, did not improve physical performance, although the perception of thermal load was reduced. Longer periods of cooling both before and during exercise (to lower mean skin temperature by a greater degree than observed here) may be necessary to produce such a change.

Duffield, R; Dawson, B; Bishop, D; Fitzsimons, M; Lawrence, S

2003-01-01

152

Offshore wind modelling and forecast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore wind power projects are critically reliant on accurate wind resources assessment and large offshore wind farm operations require timely weather forecast. Most often, however, the offshore measurement is scarce and a conventional 6 hourly large scale weather model outputs with a typical resolution 0.5º x 0.5º is rather limited in application. The lack of measurement and the need for

Jiri Beran; Barbara Jimenez; Abha Sood

153

An analytical study and systematic monitoring procedure developed for the load-out operation of the North Rankin Jacket 'A'  

SciTech Connect

The loadout of the 22,000 tonnes North Rankin Jacket 'A' onto a floating barge was successfully accomplished in April, 1982. During the loadout the barge ballast was continually adjusted to compensate for both jacket weight transfer onto the barge and full tide variation. The preparation for the loadout and the operation itself was characterized by newly developed integrated techniques. The techniques included: the development of a barge, jacket and quayside three-dimensional computer model to check the validity of conventional and simple ballast system software. The model was also used to evaluate the control parameters of the operation in a series of analyses which determine the sensitivity of critical steps of the operation to human or equipment errors: the development and operation of an integrated control system for jacket load transfer that relates jacket position to barge level and ballast pump requirements; the development and operation of a tide-expectation computer programme and associated ballast pump time scheduling software to compensate for differences between actual water level and that determined from standard tide tables, and to minimize the effect of short-term, local tide variations that are not forecast; and the incorporation of fail-safe concepts and measures into the operation.

Ferguson, N.; Inokoshi, O.; Kitani, T.; Masuda, S.; Zarate, H.

1983-05-01

154

Dynamic behavior of offshore spar platforms under regular sea waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many innovative floating offshore structures have been proposed for cost effectiveness of oil and gas exploration and production in water depths exceeding one thousand meters in recent years. One such type of platform is the offshore floating Spar platform. The Spar platform is modelled as a rigid body with six degrees-of-freedom, connected to the sea floor by multi-component catenary mooring

A. K. Agarwal; A. K. Jain

2003-01-01

155

Offshore~WMEP - Monitoring offshore wind energy use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore wind energy use is commonly suggested to play an important role in future electricity supply. However, long-term experience with thousands of onshore wind turbines explicitly hint on possible barriers for a save, efficient, economic and user friendly supply relying on offshore wind energy. A national German programme shall on the one hand support the wind energy branch improving technology

P. Lyding; S. Faulstich; B. Hahn; D. Callies

156

Offshore abandonment heats up  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the new concerns regarding the decommissioning of offshore oil platforms which are rapidly coming of age. It reviews the history of past removal operations and the public outcry which is now causing a reevaluation of this abandonment policy. It reviews the number of platforms which are rapidly approaching maturity on a global basis. It then goes on to costs involved in such removal operations. Finally, it reviews the new platform designs which should allow a much more cost effective decommissioning process for these future rigs.

NONE

1995-08-01

157

Experimental evaluation of energy efficiency in a gas-heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas Technological Development Center (CDT de GAS) has developed a new gas-heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle as a solution for temperature-controlled cooking of pulp fruit in the Colombian traditional candy-making industry. This initiative seeks to contribute to the promotion of natural gas as a cleaner and more efficient alternative to traditional fuels such as wood and coal in the Andean countries. Prototype follows the operational and safety rules provided by international and local standards: ASTM-F1602, ASME (section VIII, division 1), and NTC-4082. This paper presents the methodology, experimental setup and results obtained during the performance tests for heating efficiency evaluation of the kettle, according to the ASTM-F1785 standard, and the estimation of measurement uncertainty according to GUM method. The heating efficiency rate for this new prototype is higher to the convectional and commercial models of gas heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle. The results showed a heating efficiency of 63.83% ± 1.66% (k=2), whereas the emission of CO and NOX in stack gases was under the regulate limits for natural gas equipment.

Manrique, V.; García, L.; Alfonso, J.

2014-06-01

158

Control experiments with yellow jacket wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) injuring cattle in Israel.  

PubMed

Injuries caused by the German yellow jacket Vespula germanica F. to dry and lactating dairy cows (Bos tourus) in 5 herds in Israel were monitored and adversely affected < or = 65% of the cows. Elimination of large alternative protein sources (placentas, sewage containing milk from the milking parlor), and prebaiting with high-quality minced meat (or fish) in adequate numbers of baiting cages around the dairy farm for several days, are necessary for successful control. Significant control was achieved after a shorter period of time when the dairy farm was surrounded by a smaller area of uncultivated land than by a larger area. At some dairy farms there were significant differences among numbers of wasps visiting the various cage sites and significant variability between baiting days. Efficient and significant control was achieved by minced meat bait containing 1.5% acephate (orthene) and 2% microencapsulated diazinon (Antikan). Wasps were totally repelled by minced meat bait containing 2.25% of a plant-derived bioinsecticide derived from Meliaceae (Ag1000). The potential of using Ag 1000 for repelling yellow jackets from teats and udders of dairy cows is discussed. PMID:9589629

Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Yeruham, I; Kolsky, O; Saran, A

1998-04-01

159

Offshore outlook: the American Arctic  

SciTech Connect

Offshore areas in the American Arctic are highlighted and the development of the area is compared with other offshore areas where the required technology is more readily available. Principal areas are shown in which new concepts are being put to practice. Canada's east coast is examined. Several technological trends are reviewed to help operators accelerate the discovery and development of arctic petroleum reserves.

Jahns, M.O.

1985-05-01

160

Offshore oil: Technology - and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling and search techniques used in the exploitation of off-shore oil reserves are discussed. An overview is given of major government policy statements regarding the use of the outer continental shelf for oil production. The risk of detrimental effects on the environment caused by oil spills from off-shore drilling or damage to benthic animals is considered.

K. O. Emery

1976-01-01

161

Offshore oil prospects improve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issues, prospects, and environmental concerns about drilling for offshore oil and gas are being seen in a different light than at any other time during the past decade. Exploration drilling on offshore locations is proceeding at a high rate, and environmental concerns, while recognized as real, appear to be a lot less worrisome than might have been predicted a decade ago. Part of the reason for the changes in levels of concern results from the close monitoring programs that have been in effect for the past few years. Paul R. Ryan of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution recently described exploration activities on Georges Bank: “We now have the results of the first year of monitoring, and, although eight wells are considered a minimal observational test, there were no biological changes in the benthic community that could be attributed to drilling activity.” (Oceanus, 26, 2, 1983). The U.S. Geological Survey studied the Georges Bank drilling activities as well. Barium from drilling muds was detected at the sites, but in decreasing concentrations at distances away from drilling rigs. There was no evidence that the discharges caused biological changes. According to Ryan: “Postdrilling concentrates of barium were found to be within the range of predilling concentrations measured at other locations on the Bank. Concentrations of other metals measured were low and characteristic of unpolluted, coarse-grained sediment in other Continental Shelf areas.”

162

Offshore production challenged  

SciTech Connect

The capability to produce oil fields from under 20,000 ft of water or below the thick and treacherous Arctic icepack are 2 of the breakthroughs that have been brought about by a quietly emerging technology. A scan of announcements by designers, contractors, operators, and manufacturers reveals that substantial research and development efforts are being undertaken to ease the task of bringing to market the energy resources trapped under presently inaccessible locations. As a result, entirely new breeds of permanent or temporary drilling/production systems are evolving, some of which could be scaled down to face still another challenge: the economic exploitation of marginal offshore fields, whose meager reserves do not justify development by conventional means. New offshore systems described include the mobile Arctic drilling system, the mobile concrete island drilling system, the base and independent deck platform, the buoyant tower, the semiflex floating station, the tension leg platform, the big buoy floating cylinder, and the Sea Plex retrievable drilling/production system.

Franco, A.

1983-10-01

163

Floating offshore structure  

SciTech Connect

A floating offshore structure which is moored at a fixed position on the sea by means of mooring hawsers and anchors connected to the ends thereof respectively for conducting a submarine excavating operation from a deck of the structure. The structure includes a moorage hull part provided with a vertical through-hole formed therein for receiving an excavating drill pipe and the mooring hawsers and a movable hull part connected to the moorage hull part so as to be rotatable within a horizontal plane. The movable hull part is constituted as a hull defining the outer wall of the floating offshore structure and connected with the moorage hull part by inserting it into a moorage hull part receiving hole formed at a position closer to the bow thereof. The movable hull part has near its water plane a horizontal section with a substantially oval shape formed by a fore draft part in a substantially circular or polygonal shape, with the moorage hull part receiving hole as a center and an after draft part taperingly projecting aft from the fore draft part.

Oshima, M.; Narita, H.; Tabuchi, H.; Yashima, N.

1985-05-28

164

An intelligent ultrasonic inspection system for flooded member detection in offshore structures.  

PubMed

An ultrasonic system for automatic underwater inspection of steel jacket offshore installation is described. It is based on the unambiguous detection of water ingress in normally sealed tubular members, thereby providing an indication of through-wall structural failure. A novel transducer design, based on a dual frequency array of 1-3 connectivity thickness drive transducers, is used to provide the required sensitivity and act also as an environmental monitor for input to an expert system, which performs automatic data analysis. Although intended primarily for operation on a remotely operated vehicle, the system may be employed satisfactorily by a driver. A series of test trials is described, and the prototype is shown to perform very well for all intended modes of operation. PMID:18263214

Hayward, G; Pearson, J; Stirling, G

1993-01-01

165

Bahrain's offshore banking center  

SciTech Connect

The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

1983-01-01

166

Reducing exposures to airborne lead in a covered, outdoor firing range by using totally copper-jacketed bullets.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of reducing or eliminating airborne lead concentrations at a covered, outdoor firing range by using totally copper-jacketed ammunition. Used in the study were 38-caliber-special police revolvers, and firings were conducted with 38-caliber, totally copper-jacketed bullets. The mean lead levels in general area air samples and personal breathing zone samples were 9.53 micrograms/m3 and 5.88 micrograms/m3, respectively, calculated as an 8-hr, time-weighted average (TWA). The mean copper levels in general area samples and personal breathing zone samples were 0.8 micrograms/m3 and 1.43 micrograms/m3, respectively. These concentrations in general area air samples and personal breathing zone samples were well below the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for occupational exposure to inorganic lead (50 micrograms/m3) and for copper (100 micrograms/m3). No significant difference was found between blood lead levels before and after firing totally copper-jacketed bullets. Based on comparison with results from a comparable study using nonjacketed lead ammunition, it was concluded that the use of totally copper-jacketed bullets significantly reduced airborne lead levels by a factor of 21 in the personal breathing zone samples and by a factor of 7.5 in the general area air samples. PMID:2301251

Tripathi, R K; Sherertz, P C; Llewellyn, G C; Armstrong, C W; Ramsey, S L

1990-01-01

167

Conceptual Model of Offshore Wind Environmental Risk Evaluation System  

SciTech Connect

In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of offshore wind energy generation projects. The development of ERES for offshore wind is closely allied to a concurrent process undertaken to examine environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy generation, although specific risk-relevant attributes will differ between the MHK and offshore wind domains. During FY10, a conceptual design of ERES for offshore wind will be developed. The offshore wind ERES mockup described in this report will provide a preview of the functionality of a fully developed risk evaluation system that will use risk assessment techniques to determine priority stressors on aquatic organisms and environments from specific technology aspects, identify key uncertainties underlying high-risk issues, compile a wide-range of data types in an innovative and flexible data organizing scheme, and inform planning and decision processes with a transparent and technically robust decision-support tool. A fully functional version of ERES for offshore wind will be developed in a subsequent phase of the project.

Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hamilton, Erin L.

2010-06-01

168

Ice interaction with offshore structures  

SciTech Connect

Oil platforms and other offshore structures being built in the arctic regions must be able to withstand icebergs, ice islands, and pack ice. This reference explain the effect ice has on offshore structures and demonstrates design and construction methods that allow such structures to survive in harsh, ice-ridden environments. It analyzes the characteristics of sea ice as well as dynamic ice forces on structures. Techniques for ice modeling and field testing facilitate the design and construction of sturdy, offshore constructions. Computer programs included.

Cammaert, A.B.; Muggeridge, D.B.

1988-01-01

169

A drilling model for young offshore Louisiana and Texas trends  

SciTech Connect

A new type of model specifically designed to aid in the planning and drilling of young offshore Louisiana and Texas wells is presented. The model is composed of functions to represent changing drilling mechanics, as well as changing drillabilities with respect to depth, area, and formation type.

Smalling, D.A.; Meyers, R.L. II

1988-06-01

170

Auditing offshore safety risk assessments  

SciTech Connect

Risk assessments submitted to support proposals for offshore operations must be audited to ensure conformance with regulating authorities' safety requirements. This paper outlines the approach adopted for auditing recent submissions to the U.K. Dept. of Energy for simultaneous drilling and production (SDP) with jackup rigs cantilevered over gas production platforms. The principles are valid for risk-assessment audits of other offshore installations.

Moss, T.R. (RM Consultants Ltd. (GB))

1990-10-01

171

Mixing offshore oil and politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the opposition of coastal states to offshore oil drilling and how this opposition is slowing the U.S. government's plans for offshore oil exploration. In 1983, it is cited that exploration of off-coastal-states drilling dropped to about 54% of what it was two years earlier, a reflection of both leasing problems and decreasing oil and natural gas prices.

1984-01-01

172

Velocity estimation from seismic data by nonlinear inversion and characterization of gas hydrate deposits offshore Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

I developed a new nonlinear inversion algorithm for estimating velocities from fully stacked reflection data and applied it to a field data set consisting of well logs from ODP Leg 170 and MCS data offshore Costa Rica. Results also include application to pre-stack seismic data responding to the presence of gas hydrates offshore Oregon. Two types of hydrate fabrics are

Chengshu Wang

2003-01-01

173

Assessment of environmental fate and effects of discharges from offshore oil and gas operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objectives of this study are to characterize and assess the fate and effects of discharges from offshore oil and gas drilling and production activities. Four specific objectives were outlined by EPA: Present overall conclusions on the fate and effects of drilling fluids and cuttings discharged to the marine environment; Describe types and quantities from offshore drilling and production;

G. Petrazzuolo; A. D. Michael; C. A. Menzie; R. H. Cole; R. G. Rolan

1985-01-01

174

Offshore pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

A complete system for removing oil from produced water and deck drain fluids in an offshore facility includes a surge settler which receives the produced water from a three-phase separator. In the surge settler, the produced water flows crosswise through a corrugated plate assembly to separate free oil and solids from the produced water. A portion of the produced water which is relatively free of solid particles (less than 50 microns) is then treated in a water washer with a portion which is relatively rich in solid particles further treated in a solids cleaner. In the water washer 90% or more oil droplets (less than 50 microns) is removed from the produced water and the relatively oil free water is then disposed by way of a skim pile. A portion of fluid from the water washer is further treated in a high efficiency skimmer. In the solids cleaner a conical corrugated plate arrangement having periodic agitation by sand cleaning eductors removes free oil from the solids rich portion of the fluid which is relatively rich in solid particles and passes a relatively oil free and solids rich portion to a skim pile for disposal. Drained fluids from exposed decks and elsewhere are supplied directly to the skim pile for oil removal prior to passage into the surrounding body of water.

Favret, U.B. Jr.

1984-01-31

175

Structure for offshore exploitation  

SciTech Connect

A structure is disclosed for use in exploiting arctic offshore areas where floating ice masses may be present. The structure is comprised of a floating hull having ice-breaking capabilities which is moored by a plurality of mooring means which extend vertically from a moonpool in the hull to the marine bottom directly under the hull. The mooring means comprises flexible lines, e.g. nylon, steel, or the like or rigid conduits, e.g. drill pipe. Means are provided within the moonpool for tensioning the mooring means to thereby draw the hull downward to a position below its normal buoyant position thereby substantially eliminating vertical heaving of the hull. When an ice mass contacts the hull, tension on the mooring means is relaxed to thereby allow the hull to rock upward against the ice thereby generating the forces necessary for the ice-breaking operation. Due to the present mooring means, the hull moves only a relatively short lateral distance in breaking an approaching ice mass. This is important in floating drilling operations. Further, if repair or replacement of a mooring means is required, this can be accomplished even when ice surrounds the hull since the mooring means are anchored directly below the hull and are easily accessible through the moonpool.

Gerwick, B.C. Jr.; Hatcher, S.J.

1984-02-28

176

Combination offshore drilling rig  

SciTech Connect

An offshore drilling rig is described for use in drilling into a formation below a body of water comprising a barge hull having a drilling slot extending inwardly from the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means for supporting the barge hull in a position above the water, a cantilever structure mounted on the barge hull and movable horizontally with respect to such barge hull, the cantilever structure being so located relative to the drilling slot as to be movable horizontally into a position in vertical alignment with the drilling slot, a derrick and drilling machinery mounted to the cantilever structure and movable into a position above the drilling slot whereby well drilling operations may be conducted through the drilling slot, the cantilever structure also being movable horizontally to a position which locates the derrick and the drilling machinery outboard of the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, whereby a drilling operations may be conducted outside of the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means mounted on the barge hull for moving the cantilever structure horizontally to different positions relative to the barge hull.

Lorenz, D.B.; Laid, J.S. II

1986-07-29

177

76 FR 11503 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...specializing in the support, by offshore supply vessels or other vessels, of offshore mineral and oil operations including geophysical...and training related to offshore exploration and construction...specializing in offshore drilling. To be eligible,...

2011-03-02

178

76 FR 39410 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...specializing in the support, by offshore supply vessels or other vessels, of offshore mineral and oil operations including geophysical...representing construction of offshore exploration and recovery...specializing in offshore drilling; and, (e) One...

2011-07-06

179

Cable Neutral Corrosion Selection and Evaluation of Semiconducting Thermoplastic Jacket Compounds for Concentric Neutral Urd Primary Cables. Phase I: Final Report, August 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a project pertaining to the selection and evaluation of semiconducting thermoplastic compounds for use as a corrosion protective overall jacket on concentric neutral underground residential distribution (URD) primary cables are presented. The p...

G. Bahder G. S. Eager R. G. Lukac G. A. Schmidt D. A. Silver

1977-01-01

180

Cleaning of a copper matte smelting slag from a water-jacket furnace by direct reduction of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cleaning experiments of a copper matte smelting slag from the water-jacket furnace was undertaken by direct reduction in a laboratory-scale electric furnace. The effects of coal-to-slag ratio, w, and the reduction time, t, were considered for two different coal\\/slag mixing procedures. In the first procedure, metallurgical coal was added to the molten slag, whereas in the second procedure, coal was

Kasonde Maweja; Tshikele Mukongo; Ilunga Mutombo

2009-01-01

181

Zinc recovery from the water-jacket furnace flue dusts by leaching and electrowinning in a SEC-CCS cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc containing flue dusts generated during a copper matte smelting process in a water-jacket furnace was leached in a zinc electrowinning return solution at 55 °C. Ninety percent of the metal was dissolved after 2 h of treatment. The leaching residues contained near 43 wt.% PbSO4.Iron was removed from leaching solutions by precipitation using a saturated lime solution at pH 3–4. The precipitate

Tshikele Mukongo; Kasonde Maweja; Bilali wa Ngalu; Ilunga Mutombo; Kabamba Tshilombo

2009-01-01

182

Synoptic measurements of episodic offshore flow events in the central mid-Atlantic Bight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sub-inertial across-shelf flows over the central mid-Atlantic Bight were examined using long-range CODAR SeaSonde type HF-radar surface velocities for the period August 2002 through February 2004. Across-shelf flow in this region was found to be episodic, with offshore flow occurring six times more often than onshore flow. Several recurring spatial patterns in offshore flow are identified, and two of these patterns emerge as statistically significant using empirical orthogonal functions. The most common type of offshore flow was a shelf-wide flow with events occurring throughout the year. The most energetic and well-defined shelf-wide flow events occurred during October through April, when the water column was less stratified. Other offshore flow patterns were more localized, with a flow at the bend or 'point' in the New Jersey coast being most common and most energetic. The offshore flow events identified here are capable of driving significant offshore transport, with more than one-third of offshore flow episodes having potential transport distances of greater than 14 km. In addition, clusters of multiple offshore flow events are shown to be capable of transporting near-surface material across much of the continental shelf.

Dzwonkowski, Brian; Lipphardt, B. L., Jr.; Kohut, Josh T.; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Garvine, Richard W.

2010-07-01

183

Neutral earthing in off-shore wind farm grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maintenance of offshore wind farms is more complicated than those onshore. The effort associated with cable repairs in terms of time and cost is much larger compared to I similar tasks in conventional distribution grids. Current and voltage stress of the grid following the most common single phase to ground fault primarily affected by the type of transformer connection

R. van de Sandt; J. Lowen; J. Paetzold; I. Erlich

2009-01-01

184

Economic geology of offshore gas hydrate accumulations and provinces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic potential of well-studied offshore gas hydrate accumulations and provinces is assessed qualitatively based on consideration of geological, technological, and economic factors. Three types of gas hydrate accumulations are suggested. Structural accumulations occur where thermogenic, bacterial, or mixed gases are rapidly transported from the subsurface petroleum system to the gas hydrate stability zone along faults, mud volcanoes, and other

Alexei V Milkov; Roger Sassen

2002-01-01

185

Stress and accidents in the offshore oil and gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is a comprehensive analysis of occupational stress and accidents among personnel working in the European offshore oil and gas industry. Identifies sources of stress and predicts stressor outcomes. Examines job dissatisfaction, mental well-being and their relation to accidents. Also explores the differences within occupational status (operator versus contractor) and type of installation (drilling rigs versus fixed production platforms).

V. J. Sutherland; C. L. Cooper

1991-01-01

186

Technical note on the strength of copper versus polymer jackets in torsion tests on halite up to 300 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When deforming soft materials in torsion, like halite aggregates at temperatures up to 300 °C, the strength of the jacket must be taken into account because the most external part of the assembly supports most of the torque. Therefore, we carried out mechanical tests on non-annealed copper jackets of 15 mm internal diameter and 0.25 mm wall thickness. The results show that this metal supported large torques up to 300 °C: ca. 18 Nm at 100 °C, 17 Nm at 200 °C and 9 Nm at 300 °C. If the purpose is to deform soft rocks, alternative materials, such as polymers, should therefore be used. At 250 MPa confining pressure and 100 °C, the strength of the tested polymers was below the detection limit of the internal load cell (1 Nm). The present results also show that, when deforming soft rock (as halite) in torsion, correction for copper strength is valid for 100 °C. At 200 and 300 °C copper became much stronger than halite, and the stress/strain curves do not represent the sum of the halite and copper strengths, thus making the correction for copper strength not possible. In contrast, testing using polymers does not need any torque corrections. The results of our testing indicate that Polyethylene (PE) and Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) are the most appropriate materials to serve as jackets for temperatures < 150 °C and < 300 °C, respectively.

Marques, F. O.; Burlini, L.; Armann, M.

2010-07-01

187

Geotechnics of Fixed Offshore Drilling Platforms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fixed offshore-structures are widely used for exploration and exploitation of undersea oil and gas resources. The object of this report is to survey the general geotechnical design principles and foundation technics of fixed offshore-structures. Additiona...

J. Toernqvist

1984-01-01

188

Discrimination of Bullet Types Using Analysis of Lead Isotopes Deposited in Gunshot Entry Wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to discriminate bullet types used in firearms, of which the victims died, the authors investigated lead isotope ratios\\u000a in gunshot entry wounds from nine lead (unjacketed) bullets, 15 semi-jacketed bullets, and 14 full-jacketed bullets by inductively\\u000a coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. It was found that the lead isotope ratio of 207\\/206 in gunshot entry wounds was the highest\\u000a with lead

Klintean Wunnapuk; Takeshi Minami; Piya Durongkadech; Setsuko Tohno; Werawan Ruangyuttikarn; Yumi Moriwake; Karnda Vichairat; Pongruk Sribanditmongkol; Yoshiyuki Tohno

2009-01-01

189

Incorporation of Multi-Member Substructure Capabilities in FAST for Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is an aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool widely used for analyzing onshore and offshore wind turbines. This paper discusses recent modifications made to FAST to enable the examination of offshore wind turbines with fixed-bottom, multi-member support structures (which are commonly used in transitional-depth waters).; This paper addresses the methods used for incorporating the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loading on multi-member structures in FAST through its hydronamic loading module, HydroDyn. Modeling of the hydrodynamic loads was accomplished through the incorporation of Morison and buoyancy loads on the support structures. Issues addressed include how to model loads at the joints of intersecting members and on tapered and tilted members of the support structure. Three example structures are modeled to test and verify the solutions generated by the modifications to HydroDyn, including a monopile, tripod, and jacket structure. Verification is achieved through comparison of the results to a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-derived solution using the commercial software tool STAR-CCM+.

Song, H.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Sewell, D.

2012-05-01

190

Scour around an offshore platform  

SciTech Connect

On the whole offshore scour has proved less of a problem than one might fear without being overly pessimistic, based on experience from other hydrotechnical works. The offshore setting, the environment as well as the structures, was simply beyond the reach to which conventional concepts and models could be safely extrapolated. The essentially empirical art of sediment engineering had to acquire a new empirical base. Today we know a lot more than we did a decade ago, however, our knowledge is still fragmentary, and we have no unifying theory yet.

Carstens, T.

1983-01-01

191

Maritime and offshore structure maintenance  

SciTech Connect

This volume provides the most up-to date material available on methods of keeping maritime installations operational. It also draws out the exceptionally valuable expertise that has been gained from servicing the major installations in the North Sea and elsewhere in the world. Subjects cover maintenance and repair including a detailed analysis of structural maintenance on specific structures. Papers include expertise in North Sea structures, corrosion protection of a North Sea platform, maintenance of ports overseas, East Africa, low maintenance concrete and maintenance of steel offshore structures. Guidelines are also included for the inspection and maintenance of marine facilities and offshore installations.

Not Available

1986-01-01

192

Offshore wind farm layout optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore wind energy technology is maturing in Europe and is poised to make a significant contribution to the U.S. energy production portfolio. Building on the knowledge the wind industry has gained to date, this dissertation investigates the influences of different site conditions on offshore wind farm micrositing---the layout of individual turbines within the boundaries of a wind farm. For offshore wind farms, these conditions include, among others, the wind and wave climates, water depths, and soil conditions at the site. An analysis tool has been developed that is capable of estimating the cost of energy (COE) from offshore wind farms. For this analysis, the COE has been divided into several modeled components: major costs (e.g. turbines, electrical interconnection, maintenance, etc.), energy production, and energy losses. By treating these component models as functions of site-dependent parameters, the analysis tool can investigate the influence of these parameters on the COE. Some parameters result in simultaneous increases of both energy and cost. In these cases, the analysis tool was used to determine the value of the parameter that yielded the lowest COE and, thus, the best balance of cost and energy. The models have been validated and generally compare favorably with existing offshore wind farm data. The analysis technique was then paired with optimization algorithms to form a tool with which to design offshore wind farm layouts for which the COE was minimized. Greedy heuristic and genetic optimization algorithms have been tuned and implemented. The use of these two algorithms in series has been shown to produce the best, most consistent solutions. The influences of site conditions on the COE have been studied further by applying the analysis and optimization tools to the initial design of a small offshore wind farm near the town of Hull, Massachusetts. The results of an initial full-site analysis and optimization were used to constrain the boundaries of the farm. A more thorough optimization highlighted the features of the area that would result in a minimized COE. The results showed reasonable layout designs and COE estimates that are consistent with existing offshore wind farms.

Elkinton, Christopher Neil

193

Offshore fares well in energy storm  

SciTech Connect

The effects of the worldwide economic slowdown on the energy industry in general, and offshore petroleum production activity, in particular is discussed. The world crude oil supply is reviewed, and the effects of the petroleum glut are evaluated for onshore and offshore activity. Offshore drilling has fared better than most of the other energy industry sectors, primarily because major operators, worldwide, still view the offshore as the prime province for large oil discoveries, particularly in the United States. (JMT)

Ball, E.R.

1982-05-01

194

Design considerations for offshore oil rig cathodic protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rational design of cathodic protection (CP) configurations for jackets is addressed in the context of large, open, complex, multi-component structures. The approach is illustrated by an impressed current CP (ICCP) design study, employing physical scale modeling for the selection of the numbers and locations of zones, anodes, and reference electrodes for a relatively simple unpainted jacket under static conditions.

D. J. Tighe-Ford; J. N. McGrath

1993-01-01

195

Handling the pressure on an offshore rig.  

PubMed

The chief instigator of offshore stress is time which in oil parlance is money, writes Patrick Whyte, an offshore medical officer. He explains that medical personnel by showing that they practice a healthy lifestyle on the offshore oil rigs can set a practical example of coping with the stressful conditions. PMID:1775283

Whyte, P

1991-11-01

196

No slack for offshore workover industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of good drilling prospects offshore, the increasing value of current hydrocarbon production and the age of many OCS wells are all serving to make workover operations offshore a highly viable industry. Offshore operators are finding it cheaper to obtain added production through workovers than exploration. Virtually every producing well becomes deficient at some time in its life span

1978-01-01

197

Eighteenth annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

These sixty papers were given at a conference on offshore technology. Topics covered include friction effects of driving piles into sea beds of various compositions, wave forces on offshore platforms, stability, materials testing of various components such as plates, legs, wellheads, pipe joints, and protection of offshore platforms against ice and collision with icebergs.

Not Available

1986-01-01

198

Advanced transmission solutions for offshore wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future offshore wind farms will have large power ratings and will be situated much further offshore than current projects. The associated costs for grid connection will be high. This paper explores alternative methods of grid connection. By creating synergies with other applications for offshore power transmission, the total costs will be lower. Such synergies include the bundling of multiple wind

W. L. Kling; R. L. Hendriks; J. H. den Boon

2008-01-01

199

OFFSHORE ARCTIC PIPELINE OIL SPILL RISK ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

While offshore arctic pipelines have been under consideration for more than 25 years, few have been built. Renewed interest in offshore arctic oil and gas has necessitated the design of pipelines capable of both overcoming the technical challenges of the arctic offshore environment and minimizing the risk to it. This paper describes a quantitative risk assessment completed by BMT Fleet

A. Dinovitzer; R. Lazor; D. Hinnah

2004-01-01

200

Measuring safety climate on offshore installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human and organizational factors affecting safety were examined on 10 offshore installations using the Offshore Safety Questionnaire. The questionnaire contained scales measuring work pressure and work clarity, job communication, safety behaviour, risk perception, satisfaction with safety measures and safety attitudes. A total of 722 UK offshore workers (33% response rate) from a range of occupations completed and returned the

Kathryn Mearns; Rhona Flin; Rachale Gordon; Mark Fleming

1998-01-01

201

Offshore wind farm siting procedures applied offshore of Block Island, Rhode Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2008, the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council (CRMC) has been leading a Rhode Island Ocean Area Management Plan (RIOSAMP) in partnership with the University of Rhode Island, resulting in an extensive multidisciplinary analysis of the Rhode Island offshore environment and its suitability for siting an offshore wind farm. As part of the RIOSAMP project, a standard siting optimization approach was first developed based on a siting index defined as the ratio of costs associated with the wind farm deployment to the available wind resource. This index, combined within a marine spatial planning approach to address ecological and societal constraints, provided an initial macro-siting tool (Spaulding et al., 2010). The multiple GIS layers required in this approach and the absence of theoretical support to optimize the resulting zoning, led to an extension of the initial optimization approach into a more comprehensive macro-siting optimization tool, integrating societal and ecological constraints into the siting tool, the Wind Farm Siting Index (WIFSI) (Grilli et al, 2012). The projects led to the definition of several favorable development areas including a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) off of Block Island, in State Waters. Deep Water Wind Inc. (DWW) plans to install and commission five 6 MW direct drive Siemens lattice jacket turbines in the REZ area, by 2014. In this thesis two major steps are accomplished to refine and expand the RIOSAMP macro-siting tool. First the macro-siting tool is expanded to include a model simulating the exclusionary zones defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations. Second a micro-siting model is developed, optimizing the relative position of each turbine within a wind farm area. The micro-siting objective is to minimize, (1) the loss in power due to the loss of wind resource in the wake of the turbines (wake "effect"), and (2) the cable costs that inter-connect the turbines and connecting the farm to the land. The REZ area is chosen as test site for the algorithm, and an optimal layout for the 5 turbines is found and discussed. Similarly the FAA tool is applied to the Block Island airport demonstrating the complexity of the FAA exclusionary area, and defining the limits of the exclusionary areas. The FAA regulation model is a geometric model in which all major (FAA) regulations within RI and the RI topography are embedded. The user specifies the dimension of the proposed turbines and an airport of interest, and a map of exclusionary zones specific to the turbine height and rules applying to the airport is generated. The model is validated for the entire state of Rhode Island. The micro-siting model finds the optimum placement of each turbine for a given number of turbines within an area. It includes the aerodynamic constraints (loss in wind speed within the wake of a turbine) associated to the deployment of arrays of turbines and the cable interconnection cost. It is combined with the technical, ecological, and social constraints used in the RIOSAMP macro-siting tool to provide a comprehensive micro-siting tool. In the optimization algorithm, a simple wake model and turbine-clustering algorithm are combined with the WIFSI in an objective function; the objective function is optimized with a genetic algorithm (GA).

O'Reilly, Christopher M.

202

FROM COAST TO OFFSHORE: SOME PROGRESS ON DEVELOPING MULTI-RESOURCE DESIGNS FOR GREAT LAKES MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

In the next generation of monitoring the condition of very large aquatic systems, we need to explore designs that integrate across multiple aquatic resource types, including coastal subsystems, nearshore, and offshore components, which together make up the total hydroscape. This ...

203

Designing “quiet” into offshore projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides some design guidance to assist in addressing and controlling underwater noise of an offshore project-be it oil rig, wind turbine, tidal power or other structure floating on the water or bottom mounted. The importance of a Plan to address and abate noise in order to achieve an underwater-radiated noise goal will be highlighted. The Plan's elements usually

R. W. Fischer

2010-01-01

204

Foundations for offshore wind turbines.  

PubMed

An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers. PMID:14667305

Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

2003-12-15

205

Geology of offshore central California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The offshore central California margin records Mesozoic and Cenozoic events attributable to continental and oceanic plate interactions. Terranes, some carried thousands of kilometers northward on the Kula and\\/or Farallon plates, were accreted to North America by late Eocene. Following accretion to North America, terranes along the margin were silvered and redistributed by strike-slip motion along the San Andreas and related

D. S. McCulloch; S. D. Lewis

1988-01-01

206

Offshore oil: Correctness of perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are

1993-01-01

207

Titanium for offshore oil drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

By reducing maintenance and improving component efficiency, titanium and its alloys can compete in cost with the less expensive metals traditionally used for offshore drilling equipment. Navy research has demonstrated successful applications for heat exchangers, valves, pumps, and chlorination systems; excellent possibilities for the future include deepwater production equipment, risers, prestressed riser connectors, fixtures, and fittings. For the main platform

D. F. Hasson; C. R. Crowe

1982-01-01

208

Service bases for offshore oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 1978, the U.S. Department of the Interior will sell leases allowing drilling for oil and gas in an area of the North Atlantic called Georges Bank, which is approximately 200 miles south east of Maine. The first onshore facilities established to support offshore drilling operations are Service Bases, which serve as the logistical link between onshore suppliers and

C. S. Colgan; J. Lindvall

1977-01-01

209

Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Rice University, Brown and Root Development Inc., and Arthur D. Little Inc. have jointly conducted a feasibility study of an offshore rectenna serving the Boston/New York area. We found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. We began by engineering the reference system rectenna to the offshore location. When we estimated costs for the resulting system we found that the cost was prohibitively high. We then searched for modifications to the design which would allow significant cost reduction. The result is a non-ground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors or yagis supported on feed wires. We find that such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane, winter storm and icing conditions for a one time cost of $5.7 billion. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. It is important to note that the east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in substantially lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

Not Available

1980-05-01

210

The carry-through of residues of maleic hydrazide from treated potatoes, following manufacture into potato crisps and 'jacket' potato crisps.  

PubMed

Potatoes, which had been treated 'in the field' with a commercial formulation of maleic hydrazide, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps on a factory production line using standard manufacturing conditions. Samples were taken at strategic points throughout the process and analysed to determine the degree of carry-through of residues. Results demonstrated that ca 56% of the maleic hydrazide residue in a potato could be carried through into the potato crisps, irrespective of which type of crisp was being manufactured. Results from a similarly constructed study investigating the fate of pesticides applied post-harvest showed that carry-through was less than 10%. This difference is explained in terms of the different modes of action of the two classes of pesticides being investigated. It is known that, as maleic hydrazide is a systemic pesticide, it will be located within the flesh of the potato tuber and is therefore likely to be protected from the various stages of the crisping process. However, the post-harvest non-systemic pesticides are applied to the exterior surface of the tuber and are therefore not likely to be protected in the same way. The results also showed that, due to the concentration effect caused by the loss of moisture during crisp manufacture, the levels of maleic hydrazide residues in crisps (on a mg/kg product basis) were approximately twice those measured in the original potatoes. PMID:9829033

Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Wilkinson, K; Reynolds, S L

1998-07-01

211

Pipelaying in artic offshore waters  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides a method and apparatus for constructing pipelines in Arctic offshore waters by a directional drilling technique, thereby minimizing exposure to ice gouging and eliminating the hazards associated with unstable permafrost. A special drilling-pipe-line construction vessel is also provided which has a conical shape with reinforced outer walls to resist ice forces, which vessel includes means to install deep underground pipeline segments and means to connect and protect the pipe ends.

Langner, C. G.

1985-11-19

212

Offshore platform structure for artic waters  

SciTech Connect

An offshore platform structure of the gravity type intended to be installed on a sea bed in artic or corresponding waters. The platform structure comprises a substructure intended to be completely submerged and supported by the sea bed when in installed position, a superstructure extending up from the substructure and up above the sea bed and a deck superstructure supported by the superstructure above the sea level. A fender is provided intended to protect the superstructure against drifting ice and icebergs, the substructure being provided with a preferably horizontal top support slab supporting the fender, the fender being movably arranged on said support slab and comprising a preferably compartmented cylindrical ring-shaped body with a large weight resting preferably freely on the substructure, intended to be arranged apart from the superstructure when in normal position.

Einstabland, T.

1984-11-27

213

Hydrodynamic Wave Loading on Offshore Structures Simulated by a Two-Phase Flow Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numerical simulation of hydrodynamic wave loading on different types of offshore structures is important to predict forces on and water motion around these structures. This paper presents a numerical study of the effects of two-phase flow on an offshore structure subject to breaking waves.\\u000aThe details of the numerical model, an improved Volume Of Fluid (iVOF) method, are presented

Rik Wemmenhove; Erwin Loots; Arthur E. P. Veldman

2006-01-01

214

1991 worldwide offshore contractors and equipment directory  

SciTech Connect

This book is the information source-book for the international offshore oil industry. Within this single convenient reference you'll find addresses, phone numbers, telex, fax and cable listings for more than 3,500 companies and their key personnel in the drilling, workover, construction, service/supply/manufacturers, geophysical, diving and transportation segments of the offshore industry. Along with this vital contact information, the authors include such pertinent data as rig specifications, ownership, an equipment index, a company index and a current survey of offshore production systems from Offshore Incorporating the Oilman.

Not Available

1991-01-01

215

78 FR 18614 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and other matters affecting the oil and gas offshore industry. These meetings are...Areas on Foreign Flag Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs); (c) Safety...Register notices that affect the offshore industry; (4) USCG Outer...

2013-03-27

216

Stress and accidents in the offshore oil and gas industry  

SciTech Connect

This book is a comprehensive analysis of occupational stress and accidents among personnel working in the European offshore oil and gas industry. Identifies sources of stress and predicts stressor outcomes. Examines job dissatisfaction, mental well-being and their relation to accidents. Also explores the differences within occupational status (operator versus contractor) and type of installation (drilling rigs versus fixed production platforms). Conclusions presented include the growing need for extensive management involvement, responsibility, and understanding in this exceptionally high environmental stress industry.

Sutherland, V.J.; Cooper, C.L.

1991-01-01

217

Characteristic features of salt tectonics offshore North Sinai, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt tectonic along offshore North Sinai was studied using seismic reflection data. The study revealed and identified various\\u000a types of salt tectonics and structures in the study area. The triggering mechanism of salt tectonics was attributed to the\\u000a pressure regime initiated from overloading sediments on the Messinian evaporites. The sediment load of 3,000 m exceeds the\\u000a critical load (more than 1,000 m)

El Sayed Ibrahim Selim; Mohamed A. Omran

218

The carry-through of residues of thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham from potatoes following manufacture into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps.  

PubMed

Potatoes, commercially treated with thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps at a crisp factory using standard manufacturing conditions. A multi-residue method based on gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was developed and used to determine pesticide residue levels in the potatoes and potato crisps. Results showed that the residues of all three pesticides were significantly reduced to less than 2% and less than 10% of the maximum theoretical residue carry-through level for potato crisps and jacket potato crisps respectively. PMID:9064247

Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Reynolds, S L

1996-01-01

219

Offshore drilling and production structure  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to an off-shore marine structure that provides an elevated support for a drilling and/or production platform. A structure comprised of three interlocking components is provided, the first component being a large foundation base installed on the sea bed; the second being a conical shaped support component which is engagable with the foundation base and which, releasably carries the third platform supporting component. In the preferred form, the platform supporting component comprises a centrally-disposed vertical column, means being provided to facilitate engagement of the column with the platform and the second component and to subsequently elevate the platform to an operating height above sea level.

Crockett, R.K.; Palmer, H.E.; Stenning, D.G.

1982-02-09

220

Experimental stress analysis in massive offshore structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immense steel and concrete platforms are being used for offshore oil production. Loads in these fixed-rigs, in floating-rig components and in production pipelines are being measured with strain gages and transducers.Certain of these offshore structures and typical testing which has been performed are discussed, including some using environmentally protected weldable strain gages.

Douglas G. Ritchie

1977-01-01

221

Electrical interconnection for offshore wind energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interconnection and transmission arrangements proposed during the Phase I Department of Energy study of offshore wind power are summarized and this is extended to examine how a 2 GW array located 20-30 km offshore would be connected and operated. The extent to which provision for security against cable damage can be justified is considered together with the philosophy which

G. E. Gardner; P. J. Franklin

1985-01-01

222

Fibre-reinforced caissons for offshore applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel caissons currently used on offshore platforms for the uplift of seawater onto platform topsides, for example, are susceptible to corrosion, and some operators have had to replace corroded caissons during service. The use of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP), in particular glass-fibre (GRP), has been explored by a number of offshore operators as an alternative to steel, principally due to

P. J. Boothby; C. D. Johnstone

1997-01-01

223

Offshore wind energy in the world context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest for the exploitation of the offshore wind energy is growing in Europe, where man land use is very high resulting in strong limitation to the installation of onshore wind farms. The today offshore operating wind power is 12 MW, with two wind farms in Denmark and one in Netherlands; it starts to be significant (0.6%) in terms of

Gaetano Gaudiosi

1996-01-01

224

Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical background briefing report is intended to assist in planning engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. The current five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore has been illustra...

W. M. Sackinger

1982-01-01

225

Judging defect severity on offshore pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the great care taken in manufacturing, installing, and protecting offshore pipelines, defects often occur and a few have caused pipeline failures. Criteria and methods for assessing the severity of pipeline defects are well known, but their application to offshore lines calls for extra considerations. Defects can arise during pipe fabrication or pipelaying; they can also result from

J. F. Kiefner; W. A. Maxey

1982-01-01

226

Exploration potential of offshore northern California basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of exploratory wells was drilled in the northern California offshore basins in the 1960s following leasing of federal tracts off northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The drilling, although encountering numerous oil shows, was considered at the time to indicate low prospectivity in an area that extended as far south as the offshore Santa Maria basin. However, subsequent major

S. B. Bachman; J. K. Crouch

1988-01-01

227

Arctic offshore drilling: a new challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arctic offshore environment provides the drilling industry with its greatest challenge yet. Problems due to sea ice, high wind, extreme cold and poor bottom soil have required the design of special structures appropriate only for arctic offshore drilling. The challenge lies not just in the obvious factors of temperature and ice, but also the basic physics of ice problems

Wetmore

1985-01-01

228

Chinese Offshore Oil Production: Hopes and Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

China started to develop its offshore oil resources in earnest in the early 1980s, when world oil price was high and projections about the potential of its offshore oil were extremely rosy. But as exploration and development efforts unfolded in the 1980s, disillusionment set in very quickly, given the mediocre amount of oil discoveries made. This article traces the development

Larry C. H. Chow; Wing-yin Lo

229

Offshore oil and gas technology assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years offshore drilling and production technology has evolved in response to the challenges of deep waters and Arctic conditions. In this paper we discuss the development of offshore drilling rigs, platforms, subsea completion systems, pipelines, and tanker loading facilities. We conclude that current technologies modified to meet site-specific requirements are capable of drilling and producing oil and gas

L. Otteman; R. Crooke; R. Shoemaker

1985-01-01

230

Underbalanced drilling benefits now available offshore  

SciTech Connect

Offshore underbalanced drilling (UBD) is a reality. Applications in older, partially depleted fields and new fields are being considered. However, low productivity reservoirs and fields with sub normal pressures causing drilling problems are currently the main targets for offshore UBD. With proper planning and the correct technique, both jointed pipe and coiled tubing UBD drilling operations have been carried out offshore with success. The main concerns for offshore UBD have been altered drilling practices and surface production system operation. These issues have been examined and equipment has been designed and tested to address them. Environmental, safety and health issues are paramount and have been studied carefully. Detailed well planning, engineering, and flow modeling have proven critical for successful offshore UBD operations. Examples are given from oil and gas fields.

Vozniak, J.P.; Cuthbertson, B.; Nessa, D.O.

1997-05-01

231

Calculation of the thermal conductivity and of the contact characteristics of rough surfaces of fuel and jackets of fuel elements of a power reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors consider the contact of rough surfaces of the fuel and the jacket of a fuel element. Since the gap is small in comparison with the radii of curvature of the contacting surfaces, we consider the contact of nominally flat surfaces. We make the following assumptions: the unevenness of the surface is modeled by spherical segments with a constant

A. S. Shcheglov; V. M. Shchavelin

1987-01-01

232

Inflammatory Role of Two Venom Components of Yellow Jackets (Vespula vulgaris): A Mast Cell Degranulating Peptide Mastoparan and Phospholipase A1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Venom sac extract of yellow jackets Vespula vulgaris was toxic in mice when injected intraperitoneally but not toxic when injected subcutaneously. Necropsy showed the toxicity to be an inflammatory response. Methods: Venom peptide and protein fractions were tested to identify the inflammatory components. The active components were tested to establish whether they might function as adjuvant for venom protein-specific

Te Piao King; Sui Yee Jim; Knut M. Wittkowski

2003-01-01

233

Ice island creation, drift, recurrences, mechanical properties, and interactions with arctic offshore oil production structures  

SciTech Connect

Research and engineering studies on first-year sea ice for over two decades has resulted in the design, construction, and operation of jacket platforms, of artificial islands, and of massive gravity structures which routinely withstand moving sea ice of thickness up to 2 meters. However, the less-common interactions between such structures and moving multiyear ice ([ge]3 meters thick), and also moving ice islands (10 to 60 meters thick) remain as the unknown and potentially most serious hazard for Arctic offshore structures. In this study, research was addressed across the complete span of remaining questions regarding such features. Ice island components, thickness distributions, scenarios and models for the interactions of massive ice features with offshore structures, all were considered. Ice island morphology and calving studies were directed at the cluster of 19 ice islands produced in a calving from the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on Ellesmere Island in 1983, and also at a calving from the Milne Ice Shelf in 1988. The statistics of ice island dynamics, on both a short-term small-scale basis and also on a long-term basis, were studied. Typical wind velocities of 5 to 7.5 meters per second led to ice island speeds of about 0.014 of the wind speed, at an angle of 20[degrees] to the right of the wind direction. Ice island samples were tested for their stress/strain characteristics. Compressive strength values ranged from 1.64 MPa at a strain rate of 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] s[sup [minus]1] to 6.75 MPa at a strain rate of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] s[sup [minus]1]. Scenarios for ice island/structure interactions were developed, and protective countermeasures such as spray ice and ice rubble barriers were suggested. Additional computer modeling of structure/ice interactions for massive ice features is recommended.

Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Li, Fucheng; Lu, Mingchi.

1991-03-01

234

Requirements for different components in cables for offshore application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The installation of offshore wind-farms and the increase in electricity trading between countries has resulted in an increased number of offshore submarine cable installations as an efficient way to solve many electricity supply issues. Although offshore cables with XLPE insulation are similar to land based cables, the offshore environment adds to the challenges of very long lengths, much more onerous

D. Wald; H. Orton; R. Svoma

2009-01-01

235

Genetic differentiation between parapatric 'nearshore' and 'offshore' populations of the bottlenose dolphin.  

PubMed Central

The existence of nearshore and offshore populations of the bottlenose dolphin has been documented throughout its range. In several cases the two regional forms have been shown to be morphologically distinct, although there is considerable overlap for most characters. The populations off the eastern coast of North America have been the subject of a long-term programme of research on their distribution and movements. In this study, we compare mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers between dolphins classified as either nearshore or offshore type. These putative populations were found to be distinct at both nuclear and mitochondrial genetic markers. Further, the level of variation among the nearshore dolphins was reduced compared with the offshore population. A broader geographical comparison suggests a shared lineage between offshore dolphins from the western North Atlantic and both offshore and nearshore dolphins from the eastern Atlantic. These results are consistent with local differentiation based on habitat or resource specialization in the western North Atlantic, and suggest differences in the character of the nearshore/offshore distinction in different parts of the world.

Hoelzel, A R; Potter, C W; Best, P B

1998-01-01

236

Offshore Wind Plant Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non-turbine costs associated with offshore turbine sizes ranging from 3 MW to 6 MW and offshore wind plant sizes ranging from 100 MW to 1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US offshore wind plants.

Saur, G.; Maples, B.; Meadows, B.; Hand, M.; Musial, W.; Elkington, C.; Clayton, J.

2012-09-01

237

Risk analysis for offshore structures and equipment  

SciTech Connect

This work describes in detail the results of research on behalf of the EEC commission by an interdisciplinary team on a new technological and methodological approach to risk assessment for the stringent safety standards required in the offshore oil and gas industries. The text describes the methods adopted by other high-risk industries, such as nuclear and aerospace, and develops an adaption of the techniques for offshore structures and equipment. The system is applied to drilling facilities, production and processing, offshore loading, inspection, maintenance and repair.

Not Available

1987-01-01

238

Judging defect severity on offshore pipelines  

SciTech Connect

In spite of the great care taken in manufacturing, installing, and protecting offshore pipelines, defects often occur and a few have caused pipeline failures. Criteria and methods for assessing the severity of pipeline defects are well known, but their application to offshore lines calls for extra considerations. Defects can arise during pipe fabrication or pipelaying; they can also result from mechanical damage, internal and external corrosion, and mud slides. An offshore operator will rarely need to apply a criterion for determining whether to repair or remove a defect; however, when such a criterion would be useful, it should be modified to take advantage of the external pressure provided by the seawater.

Kiefner, J.F.; Maxey, W.A.

1982-05-24

239

Current and future offshore activities in Canada  

SciTech Connect

The development of innovative exploratory drilling systems for Canada's harsh Arctic offshore areas over the past decade and future activity in these areas, including possible production concepts, are discussed. The results can be applied in other Arctic areas of the world, including offshore Alaska. This operating experience will advance technology and serve as a basis for the design of Arctic offshore production and transportation systems. Unique technology has been developed and successfully used in the discovery of major accumulations of hyrodcarbons. Continued technological advances are anticipated to have widespread Arctic applications in both exploratory and production operations.

Hnatiuk, J.

1987-06-01

240

Offshore turnkey drilling provides new opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Is offshore turnkey drilling a viable alternative to day rate contracts. With the recent success of several offshore turnkey wells, this contractual approach may provide some unique opportunities for the industry. But the decisions required to take on such an endeavor are not easy to make, particularly when the advantages and disadvantages for offshore turnkey drilling are compared to land turnkey drilling. With only 30 of some 27,000 offshore wells drilled under turnkey contracts, the move toward turnkey drilling hasn't been overwhelming, but more contractors and operators are looking at this approach. Basically, a turnkey contract calls for drilling a loggable hole to a predetermined depth for a fixed amount of money. Should the contractor fail to deliver a usable hole, for whatever reason, he is obligated under his contract to slide his rig over and drill another hole, at no additional cost to the client.

Moore, S.D.

1984-11-15

241

Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

1984-01-01

242

Proceedings of offshore and arctic operations, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceeding of the offshore and Arctic operations. Topics included are: Pile driving; Flexible pipes; QA/QC Requirements; Oil and gas exploitations and Off shore well-log analysis.

Tawfik, A.S. (Brown and Root Inc. (US)); Attia, F.G. (University of Houston (US))

1992-01-01

243

Civil engineering in the Arctic offshore  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the current state of practice and theory in the civil engineering aspects of offshore development in the Arctic. It also covers the emerging concepts and requirements, research and development needs, and a critique of present undergraduate programmes.

Bennett, F.L.; Machemehl, J.L.

1985-01-01

244

Expanders do payouts offshore North Sea  

SciTech Connect

Rich associated gas may be beneficially processed offshore, to yield high value condensate to be spiked into the crude, whilst still producing gas with an acceptable nett calorific value. Actual turbo expander operating experience on the Occidental Piper North Sea Platform has demonstrated that expanders are reliable offshore. This paper, describes both the process and mechanical aspects that affect the choice of an expander system for an offshore application. For a given typical rich associated gas, three process options are compared, Joule-Thompson expansion, external refrigeration and a turbo expander system. The process study illustrates that a turbo expander system is comparable for the offshore situation with the other two options. The paper also describes the mechanical features that should be incorporated into the specification of an expander for use on a platform topsides.

Barnwell, J.; Wong, W.

1984-02-01

245

Arctic offshore drilling: a new challenge  

SciTech Connect

The arctic offshore environment provides the drilling industry with its greatest challenge yet. Problems due to sea ice, high wind, extreme cold and poor bottom soil have required the design of special structures appropriate only for arctic offshore drilling. The challenge lies not just in the obvious factors of temperature and ice, but also the basic physics of ice problems are not well understood. The arctic environment and the petroleum industry are discussed.

Wetmore, S.B.

1985-11-01

246

Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Offshore wind farms tend to become bigger and far from the onshore point of connection. The developers and the system operators\\u000a are facing a number of technical, economical, and environmental challenges in transmitting the bulk power developed at these\\u000a offshore wind farms over long distances. In this Chapter, some of these issues are discussed, giving emphasis to the basic\\u000a system

Lie Xu

247

The impact of offshoring on firm competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshoring strategies, in spite of their continuous growth, have not always delivered the expected results: cost savings are\\u000a often much lower than expected, customers may be considerably upset, and relevant competences can be lost for the future.\\u000a This article looks at the impacts of offshoring on firm competitiveness, in the short and in the long term. The analysis is\\u000a based

Corrado Cerruti

2008-01-01

248

Corrosion control survey methods for offshore pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Construction, operation, and maintenance of offshore pipelines and other facilities are expensive. The consequences of an offshore corrosion failure can be devastating. For these reasons, cathodic protection (CP) has become a universally applied technique for mitigating corrosion. Marine pipelines are typically provided with CP by bracelet anodes of zinc or aluminum. Impressed current systems at platforms or onshore are also used as well as hybrid systems that use a combination of the two. In this paper survey techniques are described and evaluated.

Weldon, C.P.; Kroon, D. (Corrpro Co. Inc., North, Spring, TX (US))

1992-02-01

249

Psychosocial burden among offshore drilling platform employees.  

PubMed

Conditions of work on offshore drilling platforms are particularly hard due to extreme environmental situations created both by nature and technological processes. Oil drilling workers employed on the open sea are potentially exposed to permanently high stress. Apart from the obvious objective factors affecting drilling platform employees, a great role in the general work-related stress level is played by the working conditions and work-related psychosocial factors, defined according to Karask's concept as demands, control, and social support. A total of 184 drill platform workers were examined using objective and subjective research methods. The level of subjective stress among drilling platform workers is lower than the level of objective stress and the stress resulting from prognoses related with specificity of work in extremely hard conditions (audit). The examinations of drilling platform workers reveal a positive role of stress in psychological adaptation, being a special case of the "work ethos" and attachment to the firm. In such investigations of work-related stress on drilling platforms, which are very specific workplaces, a multi-aspect character, sociological and economic aspects, organizational culture conditions in the firm, and a tendency to conceal ailments and the stress experienced should be taken into account. It is important to apply measures referring to at least three different types of evidence (objective demands, subjective stress, health problems reported). Otherwise, the result reflecting work-related stress may not be objective and far from the truth. PMID:21154303

Leszczy?ska, Irena; Je?ewska, Maria

2010-01-01

250

Offshore oil & gas markets heating up: Gulf of Mexico rising from `Dead Sea` image; healthy Gulf, North Sea markets combine for big impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only three years ago, Gulf of Mexico drilling activity was so moribund that it was termed the Dead Sea. But the market has changed so there is now effectively 100 percent utilization in several important categories of offshore rigs, and almost every type of offshore rig is now getting higher use and better rates. What makes these changes so profound

1995-01-01

251

Variability within upper offshore facies  

SciTech Connect

Large, undisturbed cores were collected adjacent to five of the barrier islands within the southeastern Atlantic Bight. Sampling was restricted to the narrow band of contemporary sedimentation within 16 km of the beach. X-radiography analyses of sediment texture, sedimentary structures, and bioturbation reveal significant variability within the upper offshore facies of a low-energy mesotidal nearshore environment. Samples collected off southern Hilton Head and off southern Wassaw consist of bioturbated muddy fine-grained sand. The relative predominance of silt- and clay-size detritus within the cores taken north of the Savannah River inlet reflect the high quantities of suspended organic and particular sediment flushing out the inlet mouth. Cores taken south of the Savannah River inlet off southern Tybee consist of clean, medium to coarse-grained sand which is replaced by bioturbate silty fine-grained sand farther south along a transect normal to Williamson Island. Tybee Island has undergone continuous erosion during the 20th century. Samples taken from the nearshore in this area may reflect a deficit in the sediment budget or may reflect that increased tidal currents around Tybee Inlet prevent the deposition of fines. Interpretation of these cores is complicated by suspected contamination. Less than 2 km from our sampling stations is a dumping site for material dredged from the Savannah River navigational channel. Two transects each were collected in the nearshore normal to Ossabaw and St. Catherines Islands. X-radiographs of these cores depict an interplay between bioturbate texture and physical sedimentary structures.

Paulsen, M.

1986-05-01

252

Reducing Offshore Transmission Requirements by Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of combining offshore wind and wave energy into a single farm include reduced hours of zero power output and reduced interhour variability. Both advantages facil- itate grid integration of variable renewables. The power output profile of a combined farm with wind and wave is substantially dif- ferent from a 100% offshore wind energy farm or a 100% wave

Eric D. Stoutenburg; Mark Z. Jacobson

2011-01-01

253

? and fission-reactor radiation effects on the visible-range transparency of aluminum-jacketed, all-silica optical fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four aluminum-jacketed, fluorine-doped silica clad optical fibers with silica core materials fabricated by differing technologies were subjected to sequential 60Co-? ray and fission-reactor irradiations (at ?20 and 40 °C, respectively), an intervening isothermal anneal (?20 °C), and a final isochronal anneal (to 600 °C) while monitoring the radiation-induced absorption spectra in the range ?400–1000 nm. The two low-OH\\/low-chloride core fibers

David L. Griscom

1996-01-01

254

Cable neutral corrosion selection and evaluation of semiconducting thermoplastic jacket compounds for concentric neutral URD primary cables. Phase I: final report, August 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a project pertaining to the selection and evaluation of semiconducting thermoplastic compounds for use as a corrosion protective overall jacket on concentric neutral underground residential distribution (URD) primary cables are presented. The project consisted of compound screening and a six-month accelerated aging test program of full size 15kV cables. Eleven semiconducting thermoplastic compounds received from six compound manufacturers

G. Bahder; G. S. Eager; R. G. Lukac; G. A. Schmidt; D. A. Silver

1977-01-01

255

Inconsistency in 9 mm bullets: correlation of jacket thickness to post-impact geometry measured with non-destructive X-ray computed tomography.  

PubMed

Fundamental to any ballistic armour standard is the reference projectile to be defeated. Typically, for certification purposes, a consistent and symmetrical bullet geometry is assumed, however variations in bullet jacket dimensions can have far reaching consequences. Traditionally, characteristics and internal dimensions have been analysed by physically sectioning bullets--an approach which is of restricted scope and which precludes subsequent ballistic assessment. The use of a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) method has been demonstrated and validated (Kumar et al., 2011 [15]); the authors now apply this technique to correlate bullet impact response with jacket thickness variations. A set of 20 bullets (9 mm DM11) were selected for comparison and an image-based analysis method was employed to map jacket thickness and determine the centre of gravity of each specimen. Both intra- and inter-bullet variations were investigated, with thickness variations of the order of 200 ?m commonly found along the length of all bullets and angular variations of up to 50 ?m in some. The bullets were subsequently impacted against a rigid flat plate under controlled conditions (observed on a high-speed video camera) and the resulting deformed projectiles were re-analysed. The results of the experiments demonstrate a marked difference in ballistic performance between bullets from different manufacturers and an asymmetric thinning of the jacket is observed in regions of pre-impact weakness. The conclusions are relevant for future soft armour standards and provide important quantitative data for numerical model correlation and development. The implications of the findings of the work on the reliability and repeatability of the industry standard V50 ballistic test are also discussed. PMID:24378310

Thornby, John; Landheer, Dirk; Williams, Tim; Barnes-Warden, Jane; Fenne, Paul; Norman, Daniel; Attridge, Alex; Williams, Mark A

2014-01-01

256

Old Issues in a New Jacket: Power and Validation in the Context of Mixture Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Von Davier et al. (this issue) describe two analyses that aim at determining whether the constructs measured with a number of observed items are categorical or continuous in nature. The issue of types versus traits has a long history and is relevant in many areas of behavioral research, including personality research, as emphasized by von Davier…

Lubke, Gitta

2012-01-01

257

An Objective Assessment Scale for "Come-to-Sit" Using a Specifically Designed Jacket in Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare an objective assessment scale for "come-to-sit" in stroke patients with the previously established subjective assessment scales of "performance-based assessment" and the "ability for basic movement scale". Method A specifically designed jacket was used to determine the objective degree of assistance needed for patients to perform the task. While patients were sitting up, the investigator evaluated the amount of assistance needed in a fully dependent state (A) and with maximal effort (B). Using this measure, we obtained an objective scale, {(A-B)/A} ×100. In addition, patients were tested in two starting positions: hemiplegic-side lying and sound-side lying. We then compared the objective scale with subjective scales and other parameters related to functional outcomes. Results For both starting positions, the objective assessment scale showed high correlation with the previously established subjective scales (p<0.01). Only the hemiplegic-side lying-to-sit objective scale showed a significant correlation with the parameters used to assess functional outcomes (p<0.05). In terms of Brunnstrom stages, only the leg stage showed a significant correlation with the objective "come-to-sit" scale (p<0.01). Conclusion The objective scale was comparable to established subjective assessment scales when used by an expert. The hemiplegic-side lying-to-sit maneuver had a high correlation with patient's functional recovery. Specifically, balance and lower extremity function appear to be important factors in the "come-to-sit" activity.

Lee, Jun Ho; Jung, Han Young; Lee, Jae Woo; Joa, Kyung Lim; Kim, Jae Hong; Kim, Myung Jong; Hur, Do Hang; Jang, Eun Ju

2012-01-01

258

Some effects of injection advance angle, engine-jacket temperature, and speed on combustion in a compression-ignition engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical indicator and a high-speed motion-picture camera capable of operating at the rate of 2,000 frames per second were used to record simultaneously the pressure development and the flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. Tests were made at engine speeds of 570 and 1,500 r.p.m. The engine-jacket temperature was varied from 100 degrees to 300 degrees F. And the injection advance angle from 13 degrees after top center to 120 degrees before top center. The results show that the course of the combustion is largely controlled by the temperature and pressure of the air in the chamber from the time the fuel is injected until the time at which combustion starts and by the ignition lag. The conclusion is presented that in a compression-ignition engine with a quiescent combustion chamber the ignition lag should be the longest that can be used without excessive rates of pressure rise; any further shortening of the ignition lag decreased the effective combustion of the engine.

Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

1936-01-01

259

Numerical Study Of The Effects Of Preloading, Axial Loading And Concrete Shrinkage On Reinforced Concrete Elements Strengthened By Concrete Layers And Jackets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the technique of seismic strengthening existing reinforced concrete columns and beams using additional concrete layers and jackets is examined. The finite element method and the finite element program ATENA is used in this investigation. When a reinforced jacket or layer is being constructed around a column it is already preloaded due to existing service loads. This effect has been examined for different values of the axial load normalized to the strengthened column. The techniques of strengthening with a concrete jacket or a reinforced concrete layer on the compressive side of the column are examined. Another phenomenon that is examined in this study is the shrinkage of the new concrete of an additional layer used to strengthen an existing member. For this investigation, a simply supported beam with an additional reinforced concrete layer on the tensile side is examined. The results demonstrate that the effect of preloading is important when a reinforced concrete layer is being used with shear connectors between the old and the new reinforcement. It was also found that the shrinkage of the new concrete reduces the strength of the strengthened beam and induces an initial sliding between the old and the new concrete.

Lampropoulos, A. P.; Dritsos, S. E.

2008-07-01

260

Numerical Study Of The Effects Of Preloading, Axial Loading And Concrete Shrinkage On Reinforced Concrete Elements Strengthened By Concrete Layers And Jackets  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the technique of seismic strengthening existing reinforced concrete columns and beams using additional concrete layers and jackets is examined. The finite element method and the finite element program ATENA is used in this investigation. When a reinforced jacket or layer is being constructed around a column it is already preloaded due to existing service loads. This effect has been examined for different values of the axial load normalized to the strengthened column. The techniques of strengthening with a concrete jacket or a reinforced concrete layer on the compressive side of the column are examined. Another phenomenon that is examined in this study is the shrinkage of the new concrete of an additional layer used to strengthen an existing member. For this investigation, a simply supported beam with an additional reinforced concrete layer on the tensile side is examined. The results demonstrate that the effect of preloading is important when a reinforced concrete layer is being used with shear connectors between the old and the new reinforcement. It was also found that the shrinkage of the new concrete reduces the strength of the strengthened beam and induces an initial sliding between the old and the new concrete.

Lampropoulos, A. P. [Civil Engineer, M.Sc., Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Dritsos, S. E. [Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras, 26500, Patras (Greece)

2008-07-08

261

10 CFR 150.7 - Persons in offshore waters not exempt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Persons in offshore waters not exempt. 150.7 Section 150...IN AGREEMENT STATES AND IN OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Continued Commission Regulatory Authority in Offshore Waters § 150.7 Persons in offshore...

2014-01-01

262

Offshore oil gas trends in ROVs tooling  

SciTech Connect

The ROVs that operate in today's offshore environment bear little or no resemblance to those which first began supporting the oil and gas work requirements less than 15 years ago. In that short span of time, an explosion of subsea technology has occurred, rendering older equipment obsolete and expanding subsea remote intervention capabilities beyond the horizon of intervention tasks originally envisioned. Today's offshore work ROVs employ the latest in robotics, fiver optics, acoustics, video, and computer technologies, and routinely achieve better than 90 percent operational availability. Leading offshore ROV operations companies have demonstrated less than 1 percent down-time over thousands of hours of operation. As the offshore oil and gas market evolves, the ever-expanding capabilities of the work ROV plays a major role in shaping the operational concepts employed in subsea oil and gas field exploration, development, and production. This paper explores the capabilities of available ROV systems in use offshore today, the economic trends driving ROV technology development, and the new trends in the employment of ROVs and their associated sensors and tooling systems.

Jacobson, J.R. (Perry Tritech Inc., Jupiter, FL (United States))

1994-04-01

263

Trophic connections in Lake Superior Part I: the offshore fish community  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detailed diet linkages within the offshore (> 80 m bathymetric depth) food web of Lake Superior are currently not well identified. We used analyses of fish stomach contents to create an empirically based food web model of the Lake Superior offshore fish community. Stomachs were collected seasonally (spring, summer, and fall) from nine offshore locations in 2005, using bottom and midwater trawls. In total, 2643 stomachs representing 12 fish species were examined. The predominant fish species collected were deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii), siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet), kiyi (Coregonus kiyi), and cisco (Coregonus artedi). Mysis diluviana was the most common prey item, indicating that changes in Mysis abundance could have a profound impact on the entire offshore food web. Mysis was the primary diet item of deepwater sculpin (? 53% by mass) and kiyi (? 96% by mass) regardless of depth or season. The invasive Bythotrephes was an important diet component of the pelagic cisco in summer and fall. Deepwater sculpin were the primary diet item of siscowet (? 52% by mass), with coregonines appearing in the diet of larger (> 400 mm) siscowet. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant seasonal or site-specific differences in diets of deepwater sculpin, cisco, or kiyi. Site was the primary structuring factor in siscowet diets. Generally, in Lake Superior, the diet items of the dominant offshore species did not appear to be in danger from those types of major ecological shifts occurring in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes.

Gamble, A. E.; Hrabik, T. R.; Stockwell, J. D.; Yule, D. L.

2011-01-01

264

Salt deformation history and postsalt structural trends, offshore southern Gabon, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt deformation in offshore southern Gabon is represented by mobilization of an Aptian salt layer in reaction to Tertiary clastic progradation. Seismic mapping of salt bodies and associated faulting has resulted in increased understanding of the types and distribution of these salt bodies, their associated faulting patterns, and some aspects of their origin. Away from the Tertiary depocenter, the growth

L. M. Liro; R. Coen

1996-01-01

265

Offshore oil service contracts new incentive schemes to promote drilling efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged creativity in designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. In particular for oil service contracts, since those companies have the most direct control of drilling efficiency. A large variety of contract types are in use, including within the individual oil company. This article describes and analyses the compensation formats utilised in offshore oil

Petter Osmundsen; Terje Sørenes; Anders Toft

2010-01-01

266

Fire-resistant pump protects offshore platform  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on strict safety regulations for North Sea platforms which required the development of a disaster-resistant enclosure for a diesel-driven fire pump. Offshore oil and gas platforms have an excellent safety record for facilities that handle large volumes of volatile hydrocarbons. One major reason for this record is the attention paid to safety at these facilities where a small fire can quickly turn into a major disaster. In a recent project, Noise Control Technology Corp., Dallas, Texas, designed, manufactured and supplied an A60-rated fire pump enclosure for a North Sea platform. The A60 rating of enclosures or rooms is primarily an offshore standard of the International Maritime Organization and intended as a safety mandate for ships, offshore rigs, platforms and other marine installations.

Not Available

1992-10-01

267

Strengthening America's Energy Security with Offshore Wind (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the current state of the offshore wind industry in the United States and the offshore wind research and development activities conducted the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program.

Not Available

2012-02-01

268

46 CFR 131.320 - Safety orientation for offshore workers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Safety orientation for offshore workers. 131.320 Section 131.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...VESSELS OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 131.320 Safety orientation for offshore...

2013-10-01

269

Flexible liner safeguards environment during offshore workover  

SciTech Connect

A Total-containment liner was installed on the upper deck of a Louisiana offshore platform in West Cameron 593A, by Unocal Exploration Corp. The liner will help protect the environment during workover operations. Unocal's major environmental concern was the oilbased packer fluid used in the wells. Even though the platform workover rig, Hercules; Rig 11, was equipped with containment equipment which met federal regulations, Unocal wanted a secondary containment device to further guarantee that an accidental spill would not occur, according to Clyde Landry, Unocal's district production manager for the west offshore district, Louisiana region.

Not Available

1991-06-10

270

Regional method to assess offshore slope stability.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The slope stability of some offshore environments can be evaluated by using only conventional acoustic profiling and short-core sampling, followed by laboratory consolidation and strength testing. The test results are synthesized by using normalized-parameter techniques. The normalized data are then used to calculate the critical earthquake acceleration factors or the wave heights needed to initiate failure. These process-related parameters provide a quantitative measure of the relative stability for locations from which short cores were obtained. The method is most applicable to offshore environments of gentle relief and simple subsurface structure and is not considered a substitute for subsequent site-specific analysis. -from ASCE Publications Information

Lee, H. J.; Edwards, B. D.

1986-01-01

271

The Stability of Offshore Outsourcing Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

• \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Offshore outsourcing of administrative and technical services has become a mainstream business practice. Increasing commoditization\\u000a of business services and growing client experience with outsourcing have created a range of competitive service delivery options\\u000a for client firms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Yet, data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN) suggests that, despite increasing market options and growing client expectations\\u000a related to service quality

Stephan Manning; Arie Y. Lewin; Marc Schuerch

2011-01-01

272

Exotic invertebrate species on offshore oil platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: We report the presence,of 3 exotic invertebrate,species,inhabiting,offshore,oil and gas platforms on the Pacific offshore continental shelf (POeS) of central and southern California, USA. These exotic species,occur in high cover or density and may,negatively,affect populations,of native species on the platforms. Conspicuous,exotic species,(the bryozoan,Watersipora ?subtorquata and the anemone,Diadumene,sp.) were detected on 2 of 7 platforms,surveyed. An inconspicuous,exotic spe­ cies (the amphipod,Caprella

Henry M. Page; J Enifer E. Dugan; Carolynn S. Culver; JC Hoesterey

2006-01-01

273

Geochemical Characterization of Offshore Western Niger Delta Source Rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geochemical characterization of rock samples obtained from three offshore fields, MJ, MF, and ML, was carried out. Offshore oil and onshore oil samples were also studied for correlation. The gas chromatographic data showed that the three offshore fields studied exhibited different and unique geochemical signatures. Most rock samples from the MJ field have moderate thermal maturity; n-alkane and their

A. Akinlua; N. Torto

2010-01-01

274

Seabed instability simplified model and application in offshore wind turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The offshore wind power is increasingly developed, it is essential to study the design technology of the offshore wind turbine foundation, which is crucial to reduce the construction cost of the offshore wind farm. In the design of marine pile foundations, the evaluation of wave-induced seabed stability is quite significant. Based on the mechanical properties of seabed, this article firstly

Zhang Yong-li; Li Jie

2009-01-01

275

Human and organization factors: engineering operating safety into offshore structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

History indicates clearly that the safety of offshore structures is determined primarily by the humans and organizations responsible for these structures during their design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. If the safety of offshore structures is to be preserved and improved, then attention of engineers should focus on to how to improve the reliability of the offshore structure ‘system,’ including

Robert G. Bea

1998-01-01

276

Review of offshore wind turbine failures and fault prognostic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind electricity is a highly promoted energy source all around the world. The number of offshore wind farms, increases gradually because of the high capability of power generation. However, the cost of manufacturing, logistics, installation, grid control and maintenance of offshore wind turbine is high. According to the Condition Monitoring of Offshore Wind Turbine (CONMOW) report of Energy Research Centre

Bill Chun Piu Lau; Eden Wai Man Ma; Michael Pecht

2012-01-01

277

Detection of wind wakes offshore from satellite SAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is presented on the mapping of ocean wind fields for detection of wind wakes downstream of an offshore wind farm. The study is based on ERS-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) scenes obtained in 2003 over Horns Reef in the North Sea. A large offshore wind farm (80 wind turbines) is located 14-20 km offshore of Denmark on this

M. B. Christiansen; C. B. Hasager

2004-01-01

278

Offshore Wind Farm Layout Optimization (OWFLO) Project: Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimizing the layout of an offshore wind farm presents a significant engineering challenge. Most of the optimization literature to date has focused on land-based wind farms, rather than on offshore farms. Typically, energy production is the metric by which a candidate layout is evaluated. The Offshore Wind Farm Layout Optimization (OWFLO) project instead uses the levelized production cost as the

Christopher N. Elkinton; James F. Manwell; Jon G. McGowan

279

OFFSHORE WIND FARM LAYOUT OPTIMIZATION (OWFLO) PROJECT: AN INTRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimizing the layout of an offshore wind farm presents a significant engineering challenge. Most of the optimization literature to date has focused on land-based wind farms, rather than on offshore farms. The conventional method used to lay out a wind farm combines a turbine cost model and a wake model in conjunction with an optimization routine. In offshore environments, however,

C. N. Elkinton; J. F. Manwell; J. G. McGowan

280

Visual impact assessment of offshore wind farms and prior experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy planners have shifted their attention towards offshore wind power generation and the decision is supported by the public in general, which in the literature has a positive attitude towards offshore wind generation. However, globally only a few offshore wind farms are operating. As more wind farms start operating and more people become experienced with especially the visual impacts from

Jacob Ladenburg

2009-01-01

281

Are offshore power plants realistic. [Alternative to nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore fossil-fueled electric power plants offer a positive alternative to nuclear proliferation, a viable technology for providing electricity to coastal cities. Such plants combine new technology from the offshore oil industry with efficient power generation techniques, are cheaper than nuclear plants, and could burn coal or solid waste or a mixture of both. Offshore power plants could utilize ocean water

Adler

1976-01-01

282

A case study of national culture and offshoring services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Prior surveys have shown that national culture is a leading cause of problems in offshoring services. The research question posed in this paper centers on how and through what specific decisions national culture affects operational implementation in offshore facilities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A particular US service process offshored to Barbados and the Dominican Republic is studied. Ethnographic worker observations

Richard Metters

2008-01-01

283

International Offshore Students' Perceptions of Virtual Office Hours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The main aim of this study is to gauge international offshore students' perceptions of virtual office hours (VOH) to consult with their offshore unit coordinators in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This paper employs a quantitative and qualitative approach where data was sourced from three offshore campuses over a 12-month period…

Wdowik, Steven; Michael, Kathy

2013-01-01

284

United States Offshore Wind Resource Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of the offshore wind resource will be necessary if the United States is to meet the goal of having 20% of its electricity generated by wind power because many of the electrical load centers in the country are located along the coastlines. The United States Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has supported an ongoing project to assess the wind resource for the offshore regions of the contiguous United States including the Great Lakes. Final offshore maps with a horizontal resolution of 200 meters (m) have been completed for Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, northern New England, and the Great Lakes. The ocean wind resource maps extend from the coastline to 50 nautical miles (nm) offshore. The Great Lake maps show the resource for all of the individual lakes. These maps depict the wind resource at 50 m above the water as classes of wind power density. Class 1 represents the lowest available wind resource, while Class 7 is the highest resource. Areas with Class 5 and higher wind resource can be economical for offshore project development. As offshore wind turbine technology improves, areas with Class 4 and higher resource should become economically viable. The wind resource maps are generated using output from a modified numerical weather prediction model combined with a wind flow model. The preliminary modeling is performed by AWS Truewind under subcontract to NREL. The preliminary model estimates are sent to NREL to be validated. NREL validates the preliminary estimates by comparing 50 m model data to available measurements that are extrapolated to 50 m. The validation results are used to modify the preliminary map and produce the final resource map. The sources of offshore wind measurement data include buoys, automated stations, lighthouses, and satellite- derived ocean wind speed data. The wind electric potential is represented as Megawatts (MW) of potential installed capacity and is based on the square kilometers (sq. km) of Class 5 and higher wind resource found in a specific region. NREL uses a factor of 5 MW of installed capacity per sq. km of "windy water" for its raw electric potential calculations. NREL uses Geographic Information System data to break down the offshore wind potential by state, water depth, and distance from shore. The wind potential estimates are based on the updated maps, and on previous offshore resource information for regions where new maps are not available. The estimates are updated as new maps are completed. For example, the updated Texas offshore map shows almost 3000 sq. km of Class 5 resource within 10 nm of shore and nearly 2000 sq. km of Class 5 resource or 10,000 MW of potential installed capacity in water depths of less than 30 m. NREL plans to develop exclusion criteria to further refine the offshore wind potential

Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.

2008-12-01

285

Cleaning of a copper matte smelting slag from a water-jacket furnace by direct reduction of heavy metals.  

PubMed

Cleaning experiments of a copper matte smelting slag from the water-jacket furnace was undertaken by direct reduction in a laboratory-scale electric furnace. The effects of coal-to-slag ratio, w, and the reduction time, t, were considered for two different coal/slag mixing procedures. In the first procedure, metallurgical coal was added to the molten slag, whereas in the second procedure, coal was premixed with the solid slag before charging into the furnace. The recovery of heavy metals (Cu, Co), and the fuming of Pb and Zn were investigated. Contamination of the metal phase by iron and the acidity index of the final slag were analysed as these may impede the economical viability of the process. The lower w value of 2.56% yielded a recovery rate of less than 60% for copper and less than 50% for cobalt, and around 70% for zinc. However, increasing w to 5% allowed the recovery of 70-90% for Cu, Co and Zn simultaneously after 30-60 min reduction of the molten slag. After reduction, the cleaned slags contained only small amounts of copper and cobalt (<0.4 wt%). Fuming of lead and zinc was efficient as the %Pb of the residual slag dropped to levels lower than 0.04% after 30 min of reduction. Ninety percent of the lead was removed from the initial slag and collected in the dusts. The zinc content of the cleaned slags quickly dropped to between 1 and 3 wt% from the initial 8.2% after 30 min reduction for w value of 5 and after 60 min reduction for w value of 2.56. The dusts contained about 60% Zn and 10% Pb. Recovery of lead from fuming of the slag was higher than 90% in all the experimental conditions considered in this study. PMID:18848396

Maweja, Kasonde; Mukongo, Tshikele; Mutombo, Ilunga

2009-05-30

286

Ice island creation, drift, recurrences, mechanical properties, and interactions with arctic offshore oil production structures. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research and engineering studies on first-year sea ice for over two decades has resulted in the design, construction, and operation of jacket platforms, of artificial islands, and of massive gravity structures which routinely withstand moving sea ice of thickness up to 2 meters. However, the less-common interactions between such structures and moving multiyear ice ({ge}3 meters thick), and also moving ice islands (10 to 60 meters thick) remain as the unknown and potentially most serious hazard for Arctic offshore structures. In this study, research was addressed across the complete span of remaining questions regarding such features. Ice island components, thickness distributions, scenarios and models for the interactions of massive ice features with offshore structures, all were considered. Ice island morphology and calving studies were directed at the cluster of 19 ice islands produced in a calving from the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on Ellesmere Island in 1983, and also at a calving from the Milne Ice Shelf in 1988. The statistics of ice island dynamics, on both a short-term small-scale basis and also on a long-term basis, were studied. Typical wind velocities of 5 to 7.5 meters per second led to ice island speeds of about 0.014 of the wind speed, at an angle of 20{degrees} to the right of the wind direction. Ice island samples were tested for their stress/strain characteristics. Compressive strength values ranged from 1.64 MPa at a strain rate of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s{sup {minus}1} to 6.75 MPa at a strain rate of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}. Scenarios for ice island/structure interactions were developed, and protective countermeasures such as spray ice and ice rubble barriers were suggested. Additional computer modeling of structure/ice interactions for massive ice features is recommended.

Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Li, Fucheng; Lu, Mingchi

1991-03-01

287

Cut drydocking costs for offshore rigs  

SciTech Connect

Heavy-lift transport vessels (HLVs) can provide an economic alternative to the conventional shipyard approach of drydocking mobile offshore rigs for regulatory body inspections and/or repairs. Contractors now can drydock rigs in areas of the world where conventional drydocks are unavailable. This article discusses pros and cons of conventional shipyard drydocking and the HLV approach.

Albaugh, E.K.

1985-07-01

288

Offshore-platform decommissioning perceptions change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil and gas industry has seen a change in the perceptions about decommissioning offshore facilities. Now, decommissioning projects are being planned ahead of actual field development, and new concepts derived during decommissioning often are used to provide feedback for new development projects. The current trends and concepts applicable to decommissioning can be summarized as: advanced planning; engineered solutions; research

Twachtman

1997-01-01

289

Response actions at offshore hazardous waste sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scores of U.S. offshore continental hazardous wastes sites, including radioactive, bulk industrial chemical, unexploded ordnance, and chemical weapons, as well as sunken vessels containing hazardous cargo have gone uninvestigated as to their potential impact on the marine ecosystem. Only one site investigated, the “Santa Clara I”, with advanced technologies resulted in a successful response action not requiring further attention. Other

J. Lindsay; H. Karl; P. McGillivary; P. Vogt; R. Halls; I. MacDonald; B. Coles

1998-01-01

290

Harmonic modelling of offshore wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of extensive cable networks and wind turbine converters has been identified as a potential cause of resonances. A modelling approach for a doubly fed induction generator and a full power converter fed generator for harmonic penetration studies is developed and discussed. An example offshore wind farm is then studied in the simulation package IPSA using the detailed wind

R. King; J. B. Ekanayake

2010-01-01

291

A New Architecture for Offshore Wind Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore wind farms using HVDC links can be positioned a large distance from shore, opening up new opportunities for wind generation. Conventional approaches using 60 Hz generators and transformers are not appropriate in such applications, as they are heavy and result in expensive and complex installation and maintenance issues. This paper proposes an alternative architecture for such wind farms, using

Anish Prasai; Jung-Sik Yim; Deepak Divan; Ashish Bendre; Seung-Ki Sul

2008-01-01

292

A new architecture for offshore wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore wind farms using HVDC links can be positioned a large distance from shore, opening up new opportunities for wind generation. Conventional approaches using 60 hertz generators and transformers are not appropriate in such applications, as they are heavy and result in expensive and complex installation and maintenance issues. This paper proposes an alternative architecture for such wind farms, using

Anish Prasai; A. Bendre; Jung-Sik Yim; Seung-Ki Sul; D. Divan; Frank Kreikebaum

2007-01-01

293

Offshore Investments by Colleges Draw Scrutiny  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Billions of dollars in untaxed, offshore investments by college endowments could be subject to taxation under a proposal being considered by the leaders of the U.S. Senate Finance Committee. The proposed change, which targets hedge funds, a popular investing strategy for many colleges, would affect the largest college endowments, including those…

Fain, Paul; Wolverton, Brad

2007-01-01

294

Spar buoy escape system for offshore platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An offshore platform is shown in position over the seabed. An escape chamber in the form of a spar buoy is mounted on a platform and extends from the platform above the surface of the water to below the surface. A cable also extends between the buoy and an anchor located on the seabed remotely from the platform. When the

Connelly

1985-01-01

295

Tephrochronology offshore Ischia Island, Tyrrhenian sea, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the analytical results of a tephrochronological study carried out on 12 gravity cores collected offshore southern Ischia island down to a maximum depth of 1238 m. The more distal site (core C1071) is located few kilometers to the west of the \\

Donatella Insinga; Roberto Sulpizio; Giovanni de Alteriis; Simona Morabito; Vincenzo Morra; Mario Sprovieri; Claudia di Benedetto; Carmine Lubritto; Giovanni Zanchetta

2010-01-01

296

Offshore Essaouira basin: Geology and hydrocarbon potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study area lies in the offshore extension of the onshore Essaouria basin. The Mesozoic development of the Essaouira margin was largely controlled by Late Triassic to Mid-Jurassic rifting and subsequent opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, continental margin. Diapiric salt structure

H. Jabour; A. Ait Salem

1991-01-01

297

Offshore Corrosion Protection of Wind Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing development of offshore Wind Farms brings with it a new level of corrosion problems due to the aggressive marine surroundings. However, this problem has been in existence for almost 40 years with the Oil & Gas production industry which has worked hard to produce satisfactory solutions to these problems. A number of expensive failures in the Oil and

James Thick

298

Probability distributions for offshore wind speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In planning offshore wind farms, short-term wind speeds play a central role in estimating various engineering parameters, such as power output, extreme wind load, and fatigue load. Lacking wind speed time series of sufficient length, the probability distribution of wind speed serves as the primary substitute for data when estimating design parameters. It is common practice to model short-term wind

Eugene C. Morgan; Matthew Lackner; Richard M. Vogel; Laurie G. Baise

2011-01-01

299

Primary, Physical Impacts of Offshore Petroleum Developments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These studies on the initial physical effects of offshore oil development respond to the need for information on potential petroleum production from the Atlantic and Gulf of Alaskan continental shelves. In the first section of this report, a range of hypo...

1974-01-01

300

Mobile offshore structure for arctic exploratory drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An offshore exploratory drilling floatable structure ballastable to rest on a sea floor but to extend above water level when so supported and adapted to withstand arctic ice loads, comprising a substantially vertical wall capable of withstanding arctic ice loads; a structural load bearing bottom rigidly connected to a lower portion of the wall; and a floatable vertically displaceable load

D. R. Hale; J. A. Orndorff Jr; W. A. Owen

1985-01-01

301

Risk analysis for Arctic offshore operations  

SciTech Connect

Offshore exploration for hydrocarbons is being conducted in the near-shore regions of the Beaufort Sea. This activity is expected to be intensified and expanded into the deeper portions of the Beaufort, as well as into the Chukchi Sea. The ice conditions in the Beaufort Sea are very variable, particularly in the deeper water regions. This variability greatly influences the probability of success or failure of an offshore operation. For example, a summer exploratory program conducted from a floating drilling unit may require a period of 60 to 100 days on station. The success of such a program depends on: (a) the time when the winter ice conditions deteriorate sufficiently for the drilling unit to move on station; (b) the number of summer invasions by the arctic ice pack, forcing the drilling unit to abandon station; (c) the rate at which first-year ice grows to the ice thickness limit of the supporting icebreakers; and (d) the extent of arctic pack expansion during the fall and early winter. In general, the ice conditions are so variable that, even with good planning, the change of failure of an offshore operation will not be negligible. Contingency planning for such events is therefore necessary. This paper presents a risk analysis procedure which can greatly benefit the planning of an offshore operation. A floating drilling program and a towing and installation operation for a fixed structure are considered to illustrate the procedure.

Slomski, S.; Vivatrat, V.

1986-04-01

302

New York Offshore Airport Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an offshore airport for the New York metropolitan region. The study included analyses of a series of major tasks and subtasks which affect airport planning including air t...

1972-01-01

303

New York Offshore Airport Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an offshore airport for the New York metropolitan region. The study included analyses of a series of major tasks and substasks which affect airport planning including air ...

L. Lerner M. A. Graham

1973-01-01

304

Reliability model of large offshore wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

For investors of wind farms projects, it is indispensable to get reliable prognosis of the expected energy produced per year, taking into account technical failures and the stochastic characteristic of the wind. This applies especially for offshore wind farms with higher installation costs and difficult maintenance conditions. The repair of components located on sea may take many days or even

E. Spahic; A. Underbrink; V. Buchert; J. Hanson; I. Jeromin; G. Balzer

2009-01-01

305

Sea loads on ships and offshore structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book introduces the theory of the structural loading on ships and offshore structures caused by wind, waves and currents, and goes on to describe the applications of this theory in terms of real structures. The main topics described are linear-wave induced motions, loads on floating structures, numerical methods for ascertaining wave induced motions and loads, viscous wave loads and

O. M. Faltinsen

1990-01-01

306

Human Rights, Academic Freedom, and Offshore Academics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the carnage wrought on higher education by the Great Recession, evidence persists that the sector is still host to a speculator psychology. One example is the unabated stampede to set up branches and programs overseas. Colleges have many reasons to go offshore: (1) to reduce costs; (2) to build their "brands" in "emerging markets"; and (3)…

Ross, Andrew

2011-01-01

307

Protecting the Sable Offshore Energy Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project to develop one of the largest remaining known natural gas deposits in North America currently is underway in the Atlantic waters of Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is a $3 billion venture to develop six major natural gas fields that lie 10 to 40 km north of the edge of the Scotian Shelf in waters 20

Cederquist

1999-01-01

308

3 MW class offshore wind turbine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the design and development of a 3MW class offshore wind turbine (WinDS3000). The design has been carried out by considering high reliability, availability, maintainability and serviceability (RAMS) for the wind class TC Ia. An integrated drive train design, which has an innovative three stage gearbox, has been introduced to minimize nacelle weight of the wind turbine and

Jiwoong Park; Jeongil Kim; Youngho Shin; Jeonghoon Lee

2010-01-01

309

Canada's first offshore oil: what now  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada's eastern offshore is not only a big exploration theater, but geologically it is among the most promising in the world. A major find here, especially in the S. parts nearest markets, will have greater impact on the world petroleum scene than on equal find almost anywhere else. Mobil Oil Canada has completed what promises to be a commercial oil

Heise

1971-01-01

310

Protective shroud for offshore oil wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention provides means and methods for servicing offshore oil wells under routine and emergency conditions. Thus, a protective shroud surrounding the well site and provided with pumping means can be used to recover spilled oil, store oil, extinguish blowouts and fires, and protect rigs, platforms and personnel. A hollow shroud structure, preferably of circular cross section surrounding an oil

A. O. Johnson; D. Personette

1981-01-01

311

CHOOSING OFFSHORE PIPELINE ROUTES: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the environmental and fisheries problems associated with offshore pipelines. The report focuses on how these problems can be addressed during the pipeline planning and route selection process. Geologic hazards are highlighted as the major factors related to p...

312

Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems  

SciTech Connect

Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

Ling, Hao [The University of Texas at Austin] [The University of Texas at Austin; Hamilton, Mark F. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories] [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Bhalla, Rajan [Science Applications International Corporation] [Science Applications International Corporation; Brown, Walter E. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories] [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Hay, Todd A. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories] [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Whitelonis, Nicholas J. [The University of Texas at Austin] [The University of Texas at Austin; Yang, Shang-Te [The University of Texas at Austin] [The University of Texas at Austin; Naqvi, Aale R. [The University of Texas at Austin] [The University of Texas at Austin

2013-09-30

313

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention using a Full Metal Jacket with Drug-eluting Stents: Major Adverse Cardiac Events at One Year  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for long coronary lesions is unclear; furthermore, concerns have been raised about its safety. Objectives To evaluate the predictors of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) associated with PCI using a full metal jacket (FMJ), defined as overlapping drug-eluting stents (DES) measuring > 60 mm in length, for very long lesions. Methods We enrolled 136 consecutive patients with long coronary lesions requiring FMJ in our single-center registry. The primary endpoint included the combined occurrence of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target vessel revascularization (TVR). Demographic, clinical, angiographic, and procedural variables were evaluated using stepwise Cox regression analysis to determine independent predictors of outcome. Results The mean length of stent per lesion was 73.2 ± 12.3 mm and the mean reference vessel diameter was 2.9 ± 0.6 mm. Angiographic success was 96.3%. Freedom from MACE was 94.9% at 30 days and 85.3% at one year. At the one-year follow-up, the all-cause mortality rate was 3.7% (1.5% cardiac deaths), the MI rate was 3.7%, and the incidence of definite or probable stent thrombosis (ST) was 2.9%. Female gender [hazard ratio (HR), 4.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.81-10.66; p = 0.001) and non-right coronary artery PCI (HR, 3.49; 95%CI, 1.42-8.59; p = 0,006) were independent predictors of MACE at one year. Freedom from adverse events at one year was higher in patients with stable angina who underwent PCI (HR, 0.33; 95%CI, 0.13-0.80; p = 0.014). Conclusions PCI using FMJ with DES for very long lesions was efficacious but associated with a high rate of ST at the one-year follow-up. However, the rate of cardiac mortality, nonprocedure-related MI, and MACE was relatively low. Target coronary vessel PCI, clinical presentation, and female gender are new contemporary clinical factors that appear to have adverse effects on the outcome of PCI using FMJ for long lesions.

Cale, Rita; Teles, Rui Campante; Almeida, Manuel; do Rosario, Ingrid; Sousa, Pedro Jeronimo; Brito, Joao; Raposo, Luis; Goncalves, Pedro de Araujo; Gabriel, Henrique Mesquita; Mendes, Miguel

2013-01-01

314

Survey of SCADA System Technology and Reliability in the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry A Final Report to Dept. of the Interior, MMS TA&R Program Program SOL 1435-01-99RP3995  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report concerns the use of commercial Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems in the offshore oil and natural gas production industry. This report consists of three major parts: • Current state of SCADA technology • Reliability assessment of current SCADA technology • Recommended MMS policy changes for operators that use SCADA systems The major types of offshore facilities

Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; Shari Dunn-Norman

315

EPA issues offshore air pollution regulations  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the Environmental Protection Agency has issued regulations equalizing offshore air pollution rules with onshore standards except in the Gulf of Mexico. The rules hold platforms and drilling rigs within 25 miles of states' seaward boundaries to the same state, local, and federal requirements as if they were located in the corresponding onshore areas. If EPA finds state regulations are adequate, it will delegate to the coastal state the implementation and enforcement authority for the OCS rules. Air emissions sources more than 25 miles offshore will be subject only to federal requirements. EPA said within 2 years the rules will result in significant benefits to certain onshore areas currently violating smog standards.

Not Available

1992-08-31

316

Offshore desulfurization unit permits gas lift operations  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the installation of a desulfurization unit for the Tchibouela oil field, offshore Congo, which allowed produced low-pressure associated gas containing CO{sub 2} to be kept for gas lift operations while, for safety reasons, the large volume of H{sub 2}S at low pressure was removed prior to compression. Since October 1989, the world's first offshore amine sweetening unit has worked satisfactorily and continues to prove that it is an attractive production alternative. For desulfurization, a selective methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) process, developed by Elf Aquitaine, was chosen because it was the only process that met the required specifications at a low pressure of 3.5 bar (51 psi).

Cabes, A.; Elgue, J.; Tournier-Lasserve, J. (Societe Nationale Elf Aquitaine Paris (FR))

1992-01-13

317

New technology emphasizes international offshore effort  

SciTech Connect

While the offshore industry is focusing its major development efforts on the deeper waters of the US Gulf, West Africa and Brazil, technology has not stood still in the world`s many other established and frontier offshore development areas. These selected items drawn from contributions by UK companies and a major joint-venture development in Eastern Canada emphasize this effort. Included here are: (1) announcement of a major six-field, 3 Tcf gas development off Nova Scotia`s Sable Island and award of two drilling contracts; (2) a comprehensive study of mobile production units in the UK by Smith Rea Energy Analysts; (3) four applications of an option to high-pressure swivels on an FPSO with multiple subsea inlet lines; (4) a contract to supply a DC bus drive for 17 ESPs on Texaco`s Captain field; and (5) review of an environmental study of the Falkland Islands in preparation for exploration activity.

NONE

1997-07-01

318

Floating ice platforms: offshore oil exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploratory drilling offshore in the Canadian Arctic Islands in water depths of 200-1300 ft from floating platforms of thickened ice has proven very successful, reports Fenco Consultants Ltd. Designs based on elastic-plate theory have produced strong platforms that behaved much as predicted. In designing the platforms, Fenco used reduced-modulus concepts to estimate creep effects and long-term deflections, making possible the

D. M. Masterson; H. R. Kivisild

1980-01-01

319

Rig utilization rises as offshore drilling recovers  

SciTech Connect

The world offshore drilling outlook for 1984 is one of cautious optimism. There are bright spots, particularly in the U.S. Gulf Coast, where huge amounts of new federal acreage became available to drillers in 1983 and 1984. Figures from the May and August 1983 federal Gulf of Mexico sales are shown. Many new discoveries, including those in Matagorda Island and in Eugene Island Block 315, continue to enhance the outlook.

Brundage, H.T.

1984-02-01

320

Arctic and offshore research: Technology status report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the state of technology relative to the production of oil and gas in the Arctic. It discusses the technical issues that warrant investigation, and focuses on the current Department of Energy supported activities. Major accomplishments during the last year include the following: The Arctic and Offshore Research Information System (AORIS) was planned with industry survey recommendations incorporated. It contains a directory of 85 Arctic databases, a bibliographic component of over 7,000 citations, and a data component of about 300 data sets on sea ice characteristics. Seven position, pressure, and temperature buoys were deployed on ice islands (up to 3 by 6 miles in size) drifting off Ellesmere Island. Ice island movement, as much as 340 miles southwest of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf during the last 4 years, represents a potential hazard to Arctic offshore structures in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. The redesigned Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System (SEMS II) was deployed near Shell's Ellen-Elly platforms, about 10 miles offshore of Long Beach, California. The SEMS monitored the July 1986 southern California earthquakes. This was the first time earthquakes were simultaneouslly monitored by sensors located on land, aboard offshore platforms, and beneath the seafloor. Sea spray ice bond shear strength to various structural and protective coatings has been determined. The polyethylene coating demonstrated the most potential for rapid shedding of spray ice by gravity loading. Measurements of temperatures and salinities were completed as part of a pilot test to (1) detect seasonal conditions at the water-seabed interface, and (2) determine how they influence permafrost growth in the coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea. The temperatures and computed freezing point data suggest that seasonal seabed freezing can occur most of the winter. 13 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1988-01-01

321

Mobile offshore structure for arctic exploratory drilling  

SciTech Connect

An offshore exploratory drilling floatable structure ballastable to rest on a sea floor but to extend above water level when so supported and adapted to withstand arctic ice loads, comprising a substantially vertical wall capable of withstanding arctic ice loads; a structural load bearing bottom rigidly connected to a lower portion of the wall; and a floatable vertically displaceable load bearing structural deck inside the wall.

Hale, D. R.; Orndorff Jr., J. A.; Owen, W. A.

1985-04-23

322

CATHODIC PROTECTION RETROFIT OF AN OFFSHORE PIPELINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathodic protection (CP) anodes and corrosion coating on two offshore pipelines were damaged during deep water installation. In-situ methods for deep-water inspection and repair of the pipelines` CP and coating systems were developed and used. High-pressure natural gas Pipeline. A design was 5.6 miles of 8.625 in. OD by 0.406 in. W.T. API SL, Grade X-42, seamless line pipe. Pipeline

Robert Winters; Alan Holk

1997-01-01

323

Self-contained offshore platform  

SciTech Connect

A self-contained jack up type drilling and production platform structure comprising a flotatable barge-like hull with support legs which can be jacked up and down to lower and raise the hull with respect to the surface of the sea. A removeable drilling module rests on top of the hull and extends over an opening therein between two of the support legs. Production equipment is arranged in the hull and communicates with the opening. Moveable conductor supports extend between the legs of the platform and serve to brace the drill string and production conduit conductors.

Evans, D.L.

1980-10-14

324

The potential for SAGBO cracking in a Nb{sub 3}Sn wind-and-react solenoid using a CICC with Incoloy 908 jacket and glass fabric insulation  

SciTech Connect

The 45-T Hybrid Magnet System being constructed for the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) in collaboration with the Francis Bitter National Laboratory is composed of a resistive insert and superconducting outsert. Two of the outsert solenoids use Nb{sub 3}Sn and will be wound with cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) using the wind-and-react technique. A candidate for the jacket material is Incoloy 908, but an obstacle to this choice is its sensitivity to Stress Accelerated Grain Boundary Oxidation (SAGBO). The conditions for SAGBO--residual stress, elevated temperature, and exposure to oxygen (even in extremely low levels)--are difficult to avoid in coils fabricated by the wind-and-react process. The glass fabric insulation, applied during winding, is at high temperature, both a source of oxygen (primarily in the form of absorbed water vapor) and, being highly compacted by the winding, an impediment to its removal. In attempt to solve this problem NHMFL has developed a pre-baking procedure in vacuum at 730 C, to be applied to the glass fabric before to insulate the coil. In order to test the efficiency of pre-baking and to check the existence of possible other features that also lead to SAGBO, a dummy coil, wound with a CIC conductor jacketed with Incoloy 908, has been manufactured. The coil has been heat treated in very high purity helium atmosphere. The results are reported.

Bonito-Oliva, A. [Ansaldo Energia, Genova (Italy)] [Ansaldo Energia, Genova (Italy); Kenney, S.; Schneider-Muntau, H.J.; Summers, L. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States)] [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

1996-07-01

325

ROLL CLADDING URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM AND URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM-NIOBIUM ALLOYS WITH ZIRCALOY2 FOR PLATE-TYPE FUEL ELEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clad plate-type fuel elements containing U--5 wt.% Zr--1.5 wt.% Nb alloy ; cores integrally clad on all surfaces with Zircaloy-2 were developed for the ; Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR). These plates were prepared by roll ; bonding assembled components inside steel jackets at 850 deg C with 50% reduction ; in thickness to effect sound diffusion bonds at all

C. H. Bean; R. E. Macherey; J. R. Lindgren

1958-01-01

326

26th Annual offshore technology conference: 1994 Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This conference represents the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest with this volume containing papers relative to design of offshore platforms and marine riser systems. Papers deal with design, installation, fabrication, transport systems, mooring devices, repair methods, and development of satellite production facilities. Case histories on various offshore oil and gas fills are discussed along with economics of some applications and designs.

Not Available

1994-01-01

327

RBI for fixed, mobile, and floating offshore platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk-Based Inspection is an established tool for assessment and life extension for fixed platform jackets, mobile jack-up platforms, and floaters such as tension leg platforms, spars, semisubmersibles, and ship-shaped hulls. The key concept is the detection and elimination of flaws which could progress to structural failure before the next inspection maintenance cycle. This paper will review decades of practical experience

Peter Marshall; Larry Goldberg

2009-01-01

328

Offshore oil & gas markets heating up: Gulf of Mexico rising from `Dead Sea` image; healthy Gulf, North Sea markets combine for big impact  

SciTech Connect

Only three years ago, Gulf of Mexico drilling activity was so moribund that it was termed the Dead Sea. But the market has changed so there is now effectively 100 percent utilization in several important categories of offshore rigs, and almost every type of offshore rig is now getting higher use and better rates. What makes these changes so profound is that few industry participants saw this tightness developing, and almost no one predicted that it would occur so soon. Even the largest offshore contractors were pleasantly surprised as they watched their key drilling markets tighten so uickly after many years of vast oversupply. Today, while neither the Gulf of Mexico nor the North Sea could be described as booming, they are not falling apart either. The combination of both markets merely being normal at the same time has made a big impact on the worldwide supply and demand for offshore drilling. The need for steady and increasing offshore oil and gas production has never been so high. The technology now in place is allowing the development of offshore areas deemed almost impossible less than a decade ago. Also, the vast excess supply of offshore equipment is gone for many forms of drilling, and the need for steadily higher dayrates is real and will merely increase over time.

Simmons, M.R.

1995-09-01

329

33 CFR 147.T08-849 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Safety Zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DEEPWATER HORIZON Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit...ZONES § 147.T08-849 DEEPWATER HORIZON Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit...zone. This area surrounds the DEEPWATER HORIZON, a Mobile Offshore...

2010-07-01

330

40 CFR 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facilities...Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facilities...owner or operator of an offshore oil drilling, production, or workover...

2010-07-01

331

40 CFR 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facilities...Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facilities...owner or operator of an offshore oil drilling, production, or workover...

2009-07-01

332

33 CFR 165.1156 - Safety Zone; Offshore Marine Terminal, El Segundo, CA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Safety Zone; Offshore Marine Terminal, El Segundo, CA. 165.1156...1156 Safety Zone; Offshore Marine Terminal, El Segundo, CA. (a) Location...authorized to use the offshore marine terminal for loading or...

2010-07-01

333

Arctic and offshore research. Technology status report  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Arctic and Offshore Research (AOR) effort is designed to meet the needs for a centralized, high-quality, Arctic energy-related data base and for long-term, high-risk research. The ultimate purpose of the DOE effort is to promote extensive private use of the evolving AOR technology data base in order to accelerate development of Arctic oil and gas resources. In assessing the Arctic energy-related research needs as delineated in this report, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), with the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology, developed the following activities: AOR Energy-Related Technology Data Base Development; AOR Seminars and Workshops; Arctic and Offshore Energy Research Coordination; Sea Ice Research; Seafloor/Soils Research; and Subice Systems Development. The DOE AOR effort was initiated in FY 1983, the early development activities were performed in January and February 1983, and the effort evolved to its present form by the conclusion of FY 1984. The current activities have included determining the Arctic bibliographic data base and initiating most pieces of the research described above (except multiyear ice properties and pipeline research). Some of the FY 1984 major accomplishments are: four to five ice islands 1 to 2 miles in length drifting off the Ellesmere ice shelves north of Ellesmere Island were aerially surveyed. A report was completed on the location of the ice shelf edge, breakup, and regrowth of the Ellesmere ice shelves over the past two decades. Ice-ridging shear zone studies have shown that the 6- to 10-feet high shoals usually under the shear zone are not totally destroyed from ice gouging from one year to the next, but that the ice gouging may be instrumental in initiating and maintaining the shoals, which may protect Arctic offshore structures. Airborne radar sensing techniques were used to determine the electromagnetic properties of sea ice and physical properties.

Not Available

1984-10-01

334

Technology for developing marginal offshore oilfields  

SciTech Connect

It has been estimated that approximately 800 marginal offshore oilfields exist worldwide. Therefore, marginal field technology will represent a major factor in the future of oil and gas developments. This review covers this very broad topic. The basic technology and its current applications are examined, future systems are assessed and operational and cost data from existing marginal field development schemes are presented. CONTENTS: Preface. Chapter 1: The Challenge of Marginal Fields. 1.1 What is a Marginal Field. 1.2 Offshore Oil Technology-An Historical Perspective. Chapter 2: Elements of a Marginal Field Development Scheme. 2.1 Production Supports. 2.2 Risers. 2.3 Subsea Equipment. 2.4 Storage. 2.5 Offshore Loading Systems. 2.6 Processing Facilities. Chapter 3: Existing Marginal Field Technology. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Jack-Up Systems. 3.3 Semi-Submersible Systems. 3.4 Monohull Based Systems. 3.5 Other Relevant Systems. Chapter 4: Current and Future Marginal Field Development Concepts. 4.1 Concepts Based on the Use of a Semi-Submersible. 4.2 Concepts Based on the Use of a Tanker Production Support. 4.3 Concepts Based on the Use of a Jack-up Production Support. 4.4 Concepts Based on Articulated Towers. 4.5 Concepts for Deepwater. 4.6 Extended Well Production Testing. Chapter 5: Construction and Operating History of North Sea Floating Production Systems. 5.1 The Argyll Experience. 5.2 The Buchan Experience. Chapter 6: Marginal Field Economics and Costs. 6.1 Cost Parameters: Their Relative Importance and Sensitivity. 6.2 Cost Elements for Marginal Field Production Systems. Bibliography. Appendix 1: Conversion Factors. Appendix 2: Glossary of Terms. Index.

Fee, D.A.; O'Dea, J.

1986-01-01

335

EPA moves to control offshore emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that except for most of the Gulf Coast, the Environmental Protection Agency proposes to hold all U.S. offshore rigs and platforms within about 28 miles from shore to the same standards as onshore facilities. EPA estimated compliance will cost the oil industry $2.2 million/year for all sources on the Outer Continental Shelf. The rule, the first EPA has proposed to control air pollution from OCS operations, covers drilling and production off Alaska, the Pacific coast states, the Atlantic coast states, and the Florida Gulf Coast. It does not affect OCS areas off Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.

Not Available

1991-12-09

336

High-alloy materials for offshore applications  

SciTech Connect

High-alloy materials possessing good corrosion resistance in hot, sour brines are being seriously considered for offshore applications. These alloys are available in a wide range of strength levels which can be attained by the methods of cold working or precipitation hardening. Results of testing INCONEL alloys 625 and 718 and INCOLOY alloys 825 and 925 for resistance to general corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) are presented. This paper also contrasts the range of mechanical properties available in precipitation-hardened materials with properties of cold-worked alloys.

Lemke, T.F.; Harris, J.A.

1983-05-01

337

Spar buoy escape system for offshore platforms  

SciTech Connect

An offshore platform is shown in position over the seabed. An escape chamber in the form of a spar buoy is mounted on a platform and extends from the platform above the surface of the water to below the surface. A cable also extends between the buoy and an anchor located on the seabed remotely from the platform. When the buoy is released from its platform mount and cable winched from the buoy, the buoy is pulled over the anchor to float safely during adverse weather conditions.

Connelly, R. F.

1985-07-09

338

Flow line riser for offshore structure  

SciTech Connect

Riser for an offshore marine platform which includes facilities to receive, treat, and/or store hydrocarbon fluid from a plurality of dispersed submerged wells. The riser includes means to accommodate a plurality of conduits between the platform deck and the floor of the body of water. As a rigid, or non-rigid conduit is pulled downwardly through the riser, it engages a deflecting shoe. The latter deflects the pulled conduit into a direction away from the platform and along the ocean floor, whereby it can readily engage a pipeline, or attach to one of the dispersed wells.

Knowles, J. P.; Mitchell, S. D.; Wheeler, S.

1985-05-28

339

Cathodic protection retrofit of an offshore pipeline  

SciTech Connect

Cathodic protection (CP) anodes and corrosion coating on two offshore pipelines were damaged during deep water installation. In-situ methods for deep-water inspection and repair of the pipelines` CP and coating systems were developed and used. High-pressure natural gas Pipeline. A design was 5.6 miles of 8.625 in. OD by 0.406 in. W.T. API SL, Grade X-42, seamless line pipe. Pipeline B design was 0.3 miles of similar specification pipe. Both pipelines were mill-coated with 14 mil of fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) corrosion coating. Girth welds were field-coated with FBE.

Winters, R.H.; Holk, A.C. [Tenneco Energy, Houston, TX (United States)

1997-09-01

340

46 CFR 108.520 - Type of survival craft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Type of survival craft. 108.520 Section 108.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.520 Type of survival...

2013-10-01

341

Hydraulics in oil drilling from offshore mobile platforms  

SciTech Connect

Because of the requirement for rapid operation of subsea safety equipment when drilling from offshore mobile platforms, special hydraulic equipment is required. This paper discusses the features of hydraulic control systems used for operation of subsea blowout preventer equipment from offshore floating drilling rigs. Special features of the hydraulic equipment are discussed along with specific requirements which influence component designs and performance evaluations.

Benson, P.R.

1982-11-01

342

Oil rigs and offshore sport fishing in Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental effects of Louisiana's offshore oil platforms are discussed with regard to an increase in sport-fishing. The effects upon fish populations, species diversity, underwater habitats, and food chains from the offshore platforms are obtained from several summaries of studies undertaken between 1970-1979. (DS)

R. Dugas; V. Guillory; M. Fischer

1979-01-01

343

Oil rigs and offshore sport fishing in Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty years ago, offshore sport fishing in Louisiana was almost nonexistent. Offshore oil drilling platforms are the primary cause of the present increase in sport fishing in this area. Algae and other organisms forming the first step in the food chain cluster around the subsurface structures of the rigs, attracting fish that seek food and shelter. Major game species frequenting

R. Dugas; V. Guillory; M. Fischer

2009-01-01

344

Computational methods. [Calculation of dynamic loading to offshore platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

With regard to the computational methods for hydrodynamic forces, first identification of marine hydrodynamics in offshore technology is discussed. Then general computational methods, the state of the arts and uncertainty on flow problems in offshore technology in which developed, developing and undeveloped problems are categorized and future works follow. Marine hydrodynamics consists of water surface and underwater fluid dynamics. Marine

Maeda

1993-01-01

345

Advances in offshore oil and gas pipeline technology  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the problems involved in the offshore transport of petroleum and natural gas. Topics considered include geotechnical considerations, pipeline lay-stress analysis, pipeline reeling, buckling, pipeline trenching by ploughing, the automated connection of offshore pipelines, concrete coatings, cathodic protection, spanning problems, inspection, emergency repair, safety, reliability, pressure effects, marine risers, and single point mooring systems.

delaMare, R.F.

1985-01-01

346

New Horizons for Offshore Wind Energy: Shifting Paradigms and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The placing of wind turbines offshore is likely to lead to developments of the technology as far-reaching as those which turned the crude onshore machines of the early 1980s into the elegant giants of today. This article discusses the acute need of development of offshore wind energy converting systems. The development of different design techniques and the economics of these

T. S. BHATTI; D. P. KOTHARI

2005-01-01

347

Map of Offshore Wind Energy Activity in North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map, from the North American Offshore Wind Project shows a Google map of all locations considered for having offshore wind energy. The location markers also provide information as to which projects are operational, proposed, suspended, or that have notable activity.

Project, North A.

348

International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy Under IEA Annex XXIII  

SciTech Connect

This paper defines the purpose of IEA Annex XXIII, the International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy. This international collaboration through the International Energy Agency (IEA) is an efficient forum from which to advance the technical and environmental experiences collected from existing offshore wind energy projects, as well as the research necessary to advance future technology for deep-water wind energy technology.

Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Lemming, J.

2005-11-01

349

Lost in migration: offshore need not mean outsourced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too often large corporations assume that migrating operations offshore requires outsourcing them to another company. Global outsourcing is not always a better alternative to going it alone offshore or teaming up with a partner overseas. On the contrary, companies that set up their own operations in low-cost regions increasingly generate returns comparable to or higher than companies that outsource. What’s

Simeon Preston

2004-01-01

350

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCED WATER AT SOME OFFSHORE OIL PLATFORMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of produced water treatment was briefly studied in offshore oil and gas extraction operations in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and the Gulf of Mexico. Three offshore oil extraction facilities were examined in the Cook Inlet production field, and seven platforms were studi...

351

Organisational factors, safety attitudes and workload among offshore oil personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to show how job stress, physical working conditions, commitment and involvement in safety work, and attitudes towards safety and accident prevention work among employees on offshore petroleum platforms have changed from 1990 to 1994. In 1990 a self-completion questionnaire survey was carried out among personnel on offshore oil installations in the Norwegian part of

T Rundmo; H Hestad; P Ulleberg

1998-01-01

352

Conventional Generation for Balancing 6 GW Offshore Wind Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dutch government has set the objective of 6 GW installed offshore wind power capacity by 2020. Due to the variability and unpredictability of wind power production, this amount of offshore wind power can be foreseen to have large consequences for power system balancing in the Netherlands. Notably, Dutch wind power is subject to program responsibility like any other energy

B. C. Ummels; M. Gibescu; W. L. Kling; G. C. Paap

353

Offshore Oil: Environmental Impacts on Land and Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a counter position to that provided in SE 512 127 in which the author emphasizes that there are too many problems yet to be solved (related to offshore oil development) to proceed with full-scale development of offshore oil drilling. (PEB)

Baldwin, Pamela L.

1974-01-01

354

Using semantics to facilitate data integration of offshore wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation and maintenance play an important role in extracting power from the wind, especially, in offshore wind energy where wind farms are located far off the shore and under harsh weather conditions. Improved operation and maintenance is likely to reduce costs as well as hazard exposure of the employees. Implementation of advanced information technology is thus crucial for operating offshore

Trinh Hoang Nguyen; Andreas Prinz

2012-01-01

355

Transmission expansion issues for offshore wind farms integration in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the major issues concerning the expansion of the European transmission system for the connection and for the integration of offshore wind farms. These issues are basically related to: i) the connection solutions for offshore wind farms (infrastructures at sea), ii) the reinforcement of the onshore transmission system for accommodating the power produced by the

Paola Bresesti; Wil L. Kling; Riccardo Vailati

2008-01-01

356

Assessment of off-shore wind farms in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of attention is being paid to wind energy due to the focus on renewable energy. Malaysia is situated in the equatorial region and its climate is governed by the monsoons. Wind resource in Malaysia varies from one location to another. Wind speed is better offshore compared to onshore, so more contribution by offshore wind powers in terms of

S. Mekhilef; D. Chandrasegaran

2011-01-01

357

Globalisation and the continuing appeal of offshore finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1990s Offshore Finance Centres (OFCs) have been engaged in ongoing dialogue with multilateral organisations and supranational institutions such as the EU and OECD. This is directed at improving transparency and implementing exchange of information agreements with countries that believe their tax revenues are undermined by offshore products and services. International pressure was initially perceived as a threat

Gregory Rawlings

358

Offshore wind farm with a series multiterminal CSI HVDC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated design of an offshore wind farm and an interconnection circuit based on a series multiterminal HVDC link with current source inverters (CSI). The transmission converters are used to achieve variable speed operation for a group of generators, and this enables use of very simple generators. The series converter connection eliminates offshore transformers. The paper discusses

Dragan Jovcic

2008-01-01

359

Research on pitch control of floating offshore wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article mainly focuses on individual pitch control of floating offshore wind turbines. Regarding to the power and movement control of offshore wind turbines, we apply experts PID control to the design of controller. In order to verify the feasibility of controller, simulation experiments have been run on FAST. The result shows individual pitch control technique can effectively reduce pitching

Hongche Guo; Xiaoping Lu; Tianyu Qiu

2012-01-01

360

Integration of large offshore wind farms into the power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tins paper deals with the integration of large offshore wind farms into the power system. Some main technical issues with regard to the connection of offshore wind farms, such as the HVDC and HVAC transmission systems, the general impact of large scale wind power on the power system operation, and the grid code requirement for wind farms, are reviewed and

H. Guo; K. Rudion; Z. A. Styczynski

2011-01-01

361

ESTIMATING COSTS OF OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE OF OFFSHORE WIND FARMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The contribution of the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs of offshore wind farms to the cost of electricity generation is relatively large. The O&M effort in the wind farm is therefore one of the issues to optimise. ECN de- velops the 'Operations and Maintenance Cost Estimator'. This tool can assist owners and operators of offshore wind farms to better

P. J. Eecen; H. Braam; L. W. M. M. Rademakers; T. S. Obdam

2007-01-01

362

The concept of self-maintained offshore wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objective of on-going research on the concept of self-maintained offshore wind turbines is to develop a design methodology to increase the availability for offshore wind farms, by means of an intelligent maintenance system capable of responding to faults by reconfiguring the system or subsystems, without increasing service visits, economics, or complexity. The design methodology explained in the paper

E. Echavarria; T. Tomiyama; G. J. W. van Bussel

363

Offshore oil and gas development planning model incorporating risk analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research describes the formulation of an Offshore Development Planning Model which can evaluate numerous alternative methods of developing an offshore discovery. A decision tree approach is employed to organize the sequence of interrelated decisions involved in the drilling, production and transport of oil and gas. Each path through the decision tree represents a particular development plan or alternative. A

Faecke

1982-01-01

364

26th Annual offshore technology conference: 1994 Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This conference is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. This conference is divided into four volumes with this volume containing conference papers relative to offshore drilling and well completion information. Papers also deal with construction specifications for marine risers and pipelines, along with any relevant installation and performance information.

Not Available

1994-01-01

365

Offshore oil and gas: global resource knowledge and technological change  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that the contribution of technological change to the offshore oil and gas industry's progress is under-researched. As a prelude this theme, the changing geography of known offshore oil and gas resources is reviewed. Significant, and largely technologically dependent, developments are identified in terms of the industry's global spread, its extension into deep and ultradeep waters and its

David Pinder

2001-01-01

366

The potential role of offshore standby/rescue ships  

SciTech Connect

The loss of the drilling rig ''Sea Gem'' in 1966, in which thirteen people died, was perhaps the first occasion when a major accident connected with offshore explorations and production in the UK Sector of the North Sea resulted in multiple deaths. Since then, loss of life among offshore workers, either through major accidents or individuals falling overboard, has continued to occur throughout the various operational areas worldwide. One method of increasing the survival chances of maritime casualties associated with offshore installations is to ensure that a designated rescue vessel is always available to attempt a rescue. At present in the UK, Regulation 10 of the Offshore Installations (Emergency Producures) Regulations 1976, lays down that a standby vessel should be present within five miles of every manned offshore installation, ready to give assistance in an emergency, able to accommodate the entire crew of the installation, and provide aid for them all.

McDonald, H.G.

1985-01-01

367

Offshore technology: Doing more with fewer $$$  

SciTech Connect

The past 12 months could not be mistaken for the golden age of offshore technology. No stupendous projects were launched, the Arctic, always good for world-class engineering feats, collapsed, and the hottest project in the Lower 48-Placid's Green Canyon development-may be stillborn. Yet, there are positive elements in the picture. Manufacturers seem to have recaptured a sense of reality about customer needs that was lacking during those halcyon days of yore when the problem with RandD budgets was figuring out how to spend the money faster. Now the emphasis is on practical and cost-effective solutions to real problems. The Hydril subsea diverter, if it works even remotely as well as the specs indicate, should save lives and rigs, not to mention lawsuits and litigation. Cameron's new tubular connector, which cold-forges pipe connections, could go a logn way toward replacing welders, divers and large workboats. Other noteworthy developments include the increased transfer of electronics into the offshore environment. In a joint effort with Sonardyne, APT developed a system of long-term reservoir monitoring that could add new precision to reservoir management. A global positioning system from Norway refines Navstar satellite signals to yield a positional accuracy of 33 ft.

Dempsey, P.; Abraham, K.S.

1987-04-01

368

Modernized controls improve offshore Abu Dhabi operations  

SciTech Connect

Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co. (ADMA-OPCO) is investing in automation technologies to optimize safety, productivity, and environmental compliance. In the Umm Shaif offshore field in Abu Dhabi, it commissioned a new distribution control system, the Bailey INFI90 Open system from Elsag Bailey Process Automation. The Umm Shaif field produces both crude oil and natural gas. Although the Arabian Gulf waters are relatively shallow and lack severe storms, Elsag Bailey describes the operating challenges as the intense heat (approaching 120 F during the summer) and salty humidity. Added to these are the isolation, safety, and environmental concerns associated with any offshore facility. Faced with aging control systems, ADMA-OPCO began modernizing the systems in 1990. The new systems will provide real-time process management of information for the operators. As part of the modernization program, the Bailey systems were installed on-board both the Umm Shaif and Zakum platforms, and at nearby Das Island, where oil and gas from the two fields are processed.

NONE

1998-11-16

369

SKS Splitting offshore California from ALBACORE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and evolution of the Pacific-North America plate boundary offshore Southern California is of great geodynamical interest. For better understanding, the Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment (ALBACORE) was initiated. ALBACORE is a network of 24 broadband and 10 short-period ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) deployed across the southwestern region of the Pacific-North American plate boundary. Other than at scattered island stations present seismic array data ends at the coastline due to the difficulty of measurements further to sea. The experiment is intended to study many aspects of the Pacific-North American plate boundary. In this study we calculate SKS splitting parameters in an effort to measure the anisotropy of the region. The first step involved determining the orientations of each seismometer due to twisting during deployment. P wave arrivals are used and waveforms of each OBS are compared to nearby island stations of the California Seismic Network. The horizontal waveforms from the OBS's are rotated until the rotated components achieved maximum correlation with North and East components at a nearby station. The rotation angle is further constrained by particle motion. Once orientations are established, we calculate SKS splitting parameters by minimizing energy in the transverse component.

Ramsay, J.; Davis, P. M.; Kohler, M. D.

2012-12-01

370

Seismic stratigraphy of the offshore Nile delta  

SciTech Connect

The seismic stratigraphy of the offshore Nile delta has been established using a 10,000-km Merlin reprocessed regional seismic database. This paper focuses on the Neogene interval in which three major seismic super sequences have been recognized. The oldest (super sequence A) is a thick sheet unit of middle Miocene age composed of marine shales and sandstones, affected in places by shale diapirism. The upper super sequence, of Pliocene age (C), is characterized by progradation complicated by both slumping and faulting. These sediments represent deposits from the present Nile delta system, a relatively recent event. Between super sequences A and C lies a thin upper Miocene - lowermost Pliocene unit (super sequence B). This unit can be divided into three sequences, the upper and lower of which (Abu Madi and Oawasim Formations, respectively) are characterized by widespread channeling. The intermediate Messinian sequence, commonly evaporitic, may also be associated with channeling episodes. Potential hydrocarbon plays exist in all three super sequences, and varied trapping mechanisms may be invoked. Dip closures are associated with both rollover on listric normal faults and shale diapirism. Stratigraphic trap potential involves both truncation of C beneath B, occasionally associated with severe angular unconformity, and super sequence B channeling. The Abu Madi channel-fill sand bodies form the primary exploration target. Despite only 12 offshore wells drilled, there have already been gas discoveries (Abu Qir field, Naf-1 well) which, together with recent changes in Egyptian hydrocarbon legislation, make this region an attractive exploration province.

Kilenyi, T.; Trayner, P.; Doherty, M.; Jamieson, G.

1988-08-01

371

Gladden Pull-Apart Basin, offshore Belize  

SciTech Connect

The junction of the American and Caribbean plates in Belize has created a complex structural setting for oil and gas exploration. Recent seismic offshore Belize has been used to identify three structural provinces, from west to east: a shallow thrust zone, a narrow upthrown wrench faulted zone and a deeper extensional basin, named the Gladden Pull-Apart Basin. Hydrocarbon leakage from recent fault movement appears to have depleted the shallow structures to the west, but the pull-apart basin has a thick sequence of low-frequency clay-dominated sealing rocks with the potential to preserve hydrocarbon accumulations in Cretaceous carbonate banks. These buried carbonate are of the same age and depositional environment of Mexico's Golden Lane/Tabasco Reforma carbonate banks which are world class giant fields. The Belize and Mexican carbonate banks are within the same Cretaceous depositional basin, the Peten Basin. Seismic interpretations in offshore Belize have been integrated with gravity and magnetic surveys. This provides additional support for the deep extensional basin. The location of the thick Cretaceous carbonate banks is better interpreted with the integration of these three geophysical tools. Airborne geochemical surveys were used to detect the presence of oil seeps on the east and west basin margins.

Morrice, S. (BNR Ltd., Denver, CO (United States))

1993-02-01

372

STRESS CORROSION OF TYPE 304 STAINLESS STEEL IN SIMULATED SUPERHEAT REACTOR ENVIRONMENTS. I. Informal AEC Research and Develoment Report 568-TIO-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel jacket failure that occurred in May 1961 in the Type 304 ; stainless steel clad fuel element exposed in the Vallecitos Boiling Water Reactor ; superheated steam loop (SADE) was attributed to chloride stress corrosion ; cracking. In order to better understand the failure, a test program was carried ; out to try to reproduce the rapid stress

G. G. Gaul; W. L. Pearl; M. Siegler

1962-01-01

373

Job stress, mental health, and accidents among offshore workers in the oil and gas extraction industries.  

PubMed

Psychosocial and occupational stressors among 194 male employees on drilling rig and production platform installations in the United Kingdom and Dutch sectors of the North Sea were studied. Mental well-being and job satisfaction were also assessed, with attention to the incidence of accidents offshore. This occupational group were found to be much less satisfied with their jobs than their onshore counterparts. Although overall mental well-being compared favorably with that of the general population, levels of anxiety were significantly higher. Multivariate analysis showed "relationships at work and at home" to be a strong predictor of both job dissatisfaction and mental ill-health. Type A coronary-prone behavior was also found to be a significant predictor of reduced mental well-being and increased accident rates offshore. PMID:3819891

Cooper, C L; Sutherland, V J

1987-02-01

374

Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Administrative and political boundaries and offshore sand resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Geospatial Characteristics Geopdf of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, military areas, marine protected areas, cultural resources, locations of submerged cables, and shipping routes. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in the administrative and political boundaries of Florida's coastal and offshore region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will find that they have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers.

Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

375

Quantifying the hurricane catastrophe risk to offshore wind power.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that over 50 GW of offshore wind power will be required for the United States to generate 20% of its electricity from wind. Developers are actively planning offshore wind farms along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts and several leases have been signed for offshore sites. These planned projects are in areas that are sometimes struck by hurricanes. We present a method to estimate the catastrophe risk to offshore wind power using simulated hurricanes. Using this method, we estimate the fraction of offshore wind power simultaneously offline and the cumulative damage in a region. In Texas, the most vulnerable region we studied, 10% of offshore wind power could be offline simultaneously because of hurricane damage with a 100-year return period and 6% could be destroyed in any 10-year period. We also estimate the risks to single wind farms in four representative locations; we find the risks are significant but lower than those estimated in previously published results. Much of the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines can be mitigated by designing turbines for higher maximum wind speeds, ensuring that turbine nacelles can turn quickly to track the wind direction even when grid power is lost, and building in areas with lower risk. PMID:23763387

Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Apt, Jay

2013-12-01

376

Reusable offshore platform with skirt piles  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a reusable apparatus for securing a skirt pile to a platform. It comprises a skirt pile sleeve secured to the leg of an offshore platform, the sleeve having upper and lower end openings sized and configured to accept a skirt pile therethrough; an insert positioned within the sleeve and extending beyond both the end openings of the sleeve, the insert located intermediate the sleeve and the skirt pile; first connecting means for securing the sleeve to the insert, the first connecting means comprising upper and lower shims securing the insert to the sleeve, the shims being positioned around the perimeter of the upper and lower end openings whereby bending and axial forces are directly transferred from the sleeve to the insert via the upper and lower shims; and second connecting means for securing the insert to the pile whereby bending and axial forces are directly transferred from the insert to the pile.

Gray, D.W.

1991-07-02

377

Elsam: Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Danish energy producing company Elsam is currently building "the world's largest offshore wind farm" in the North Sea. 80 turbines were erected over summer 2002, which was when the project began. The Horns Rev project is part of a long term plan for Denmark to reduce carbon dioxide emissions 50 percent by 2030. A monthly newsletter is published online with all of the developments and milestones accomplished. There is substantial material on the wind farm's construction. The specifications of the turbines are quite impressive. Analysis of wind speeds, water conditions, and other location specific data conveys the complexity of the design process. A description of the various stages of construction is also very interesting.

378

Environmental load uncertainties for offshore structures  

SciTech Connect

A methodology for assessing the effect of different sources of uncertainty on the calculation of load effect on offshore structures is presented. A consistent classification of uncertainties was adopted and used as a basis to develop models to estimate the effect of different uncertainties on specified design loads. It is shown that distribution parameter uncertainties arising from limitations on the quantity of statistical data are not likely to have a significant effect on design loads. By contrast, model uncertainties can greatly increase the design loads, and the increase is sensitive to the probabilistic models used to describe model error. The methodology and results can be used by design engineers to take model uncertainties into account in estimating specified loads. They also form the basis for developing and calibrating a new information-sensitive code format.

Nessim, M.A.; Hong, H.P. [Centre for Engineering Research Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Jordaan, I.J. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

1995-11-01

379

Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with minimal water influx. The reservoir units contain ca 80% of the original oil-in-place in Meren field. Detailed studies have been undertaken to evaluate the performances of the 7 reservoirs with a view to developing a secondary recovery plan which has been brought into reality. Injection was to start in mid-1982 but was delayed until mid-1983. The effect of the delay and the changing of injector locations on recovery and cost is discussed.

Adetoba, L.A.

1984-04-01

380

Offshoring manufacturing: Implications for engineering jobs and education: A survey and case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

One result of globalization is the rapid growth of offshoring, i.e., the outsourcing of functions and jobs to offshore locations. In the USA, offshoring has progressed to the point where it already affects everyday lives, from the cars we drive (of which a large portion of the work and components are outsourced) to computers (which are typically manufactured offshore and

Bopaya Bidanda; Ozlem Arisoy; Larry J. Shuman

2006-01-01

381

Economic Integration, IT Intensity and the Aggregate Economic Impacts of IT Services Offshoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the economic contributions of offshore IT outsourcing (or IT offshoring for short) by using an extended Cobb-Douglas production function, and a panel data set from 20 OECD countries over the 2000 to 2006 period. Our analysis indicates that IT offshoring has made a positive and significant contribution to national productivity. Previous research on IT offshoring has relied

Yen-Chun Chou; Robert J. Kauffman

2010-01-01

382

Meteorological aspects of offshore wind energy: Observations from the Vindeby wind farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vindeby monitoring project has been established to provide information on the world's first offshore wind farm at Vindeby, Denmark. Over the course of the project, different aspects of offshore meteorology which are relevant to offshore wind energy production will be examined in addition to turbine loading and behaviour in offshore conditions. Here, the simplest aspects of coastal meteorology are

R. J. Barthelmie; M. S. Courtney; J. Højstrup; S. E. Larsen

1996-01-01

383

OFFSHORING OF APPLICATION SERVICES IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY - A TRANSACTION COST ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaining economic benefits from substantially lower labor costs has been reported as a major reason for information systems (IS) offshoring. However, many offshoring projects have failed to achieve expected cost savings, indicating that labor cost savings are offset by additional costs that arise in offshoring projects in certain situations. While previous research on IS offshoring has mostly focused on management

Jens Dibbern; Jessica K. Winkler

384

The key technology of offshore wind farm and its new development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews characteristics and the developing state of abroad offshore wind farm briefly, and the key technology related to offshore wind farm. The optimization configuration and assessment of abroad offshore wind farm, and rational distribution assess, offshore wind farm electric transmission technology, system insert with operating, wind farm MES and wind turbine base, etc., are studied to put forward

Wang Zhixin; Jiang Chuanwen; Ai Qian; Wang Chengmin

2009-01-01

385

Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards  

SciTech Connect

This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

2014-01-01

386

BOSS '94: Behaviour of offshore structures. Volume 1. Geotechnics  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 Conference on the Behavior of Offshore Structures (BOSS) is concerned with the design, construction, and installation of structures used for the development of offshore oil and gas fields. Boss '94 continues the tradition with technical sessions presenting more than 100 state-of-the-art technical papers. Volume I of the proceedings contains 22 papers on the geotechnics of offshore platform construction. A separate abstract and indexing have been prepared for each of the papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Chryssostomidis, C.; Triantafyllou, M.S.; Whittle, A.J.; Hoo Fatt, M.S. (eds.)

1994-01-01

387

Overlap in offshore habitat use by double-crested cormorants and boaters in western Lake Erie  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and boats of 2 length classes (a?? 8 m and > 8 m) were counted from a boat along 31 established strip transects in western Lake Erie from 24 April to 1 September 2000. Each transect included only one of the following habitats: (1) offshore of a breeding island or roosting/loafing area for cormorants ('refuge'), (2) reefs or shoals, (3) open water, or (4) offshore of an island shoreline that had evidence of development by humans. Foraging cormorants were recorded most often offshore of refuges and least often on open water. There was no difference between the numbers of foraging cormorants/kmA? recorded offshore of developed shorelines and on reefs and shoals. More than half of all boats recorded were on transects that were within 1 km of developed shorelines. Among those transects > 1 km from developed shorelines, there were no differences among the habitats for the number of boats of either length class. The respective ranks of the 31 transect means of the number of cormorants/kmA? and the numbers of boats/kmA? in either length class were uncorrelated. The results suggest that (1) cormorants select foraging habitats based mainly on shoreline type, distance from shoreline, and depth, and (2) the amount of boat traffic is influenced by proximity to port and trip objectives, including sport angling and recreational boating. Although there is overlap in habitat use by cormorants and humans, this overlap is not complete. The perception of cormorants as a threat to fish populations may in part be due to this overlap.

Stapanian, Martin A.; Bur, Michael T.

2002-01-01

388

14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFTRIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, TACKLE BOX, RESTROOMS ON 3RD TEE - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

389

Effects of offshore petroleum operations on cold water marine mammals  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a review of the available literature concerning the acoustic, nonacoustic, and cumulative effects of offshore petroleum operations on marine mammals. Species inhabiting Alaskan waters are emphasized, but the world literature on related species and topics is considered.

Not Available

1989-01-01

390

Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in Offshore Oil and Gas Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stainless steels, copper/nickel and titanium alloys are frequently used in offshore and gas systems. Alloying elements are added to metals to improve workability, electrical properties and corrosion resistance. Alloying elements also alter the formation, ...

B. Little P. Wagner

1993-01-01

391

77 FR 26562 - Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Dynamic Positioning Guidance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Dynamic Positioning Guidance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...regarding a draft policy letter on Dynamic Positioning (DP) Systems, Emergency Disconnect...report ``Recommendations for Dynamic Positioning System Design and Engineering,...

2012-05-04

392

Feasibility of Leak Detection in Process Plant on Offshore Installations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this work was to investigate the use of acoustic methods of leak detection for application on process systems and pipework offshore. Existing gas leak detection systems, based on catalytic bead detectors (pellistors) do not give adequate ...

1981-01-01

393

49 CFR 191.27 - Filing offshore pipeline condition reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Filing offshore pipeline condition reports. 191.27 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2013-10-01

394

49 CFR 195.57 - Filing offshore pipeline condition reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Filing offshore pipeline condition reports. 195.57 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2013-10-01

395

Lower 48's Only Superport: LOOP (Louisiana's Offshore Oil Port).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Historical aspects, constraints, and the operation of Louisiana's Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) are discussed. The facility is described as well as onshore storage and handling facilities and pipelines servicing LOOP. Similarities between LOOP and the Trans Al...

E. B. Brossard

1984-01-01

396

International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy Under IEA Annex XXIII.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper defines the purpose of IEA Annex XXIII, the International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy. This international collaboration through the International Energy Agency (IEA) is an efficient forum from which to advance the technical and enviro...

W. Musial S. Butterfield J. Lemming

2005-01-01

397

Money Laundering: Regulatory Oversight of Offshore Private Banking Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report responds to your August 26, 1997, request that we review U.S. regulatory oversight of private banking activitivies involving offshore jurisdictions. You expressed concern that high profile money laundering cases have generally involved the use...

1998-01-01

398

Operation and Control of HVDC-Connected Offshore Wind Farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents operation and control strategies of an offshore wind farm interconnected to a high-voltage dc (HVDC) system. The offshore wind farm composed of variable speed wind turbines driving permanent magnet synchronous generators is considered in this study, based on dc-bus concept. The HVDC transmission system based on a three-level neutral point clamped voltage source converter (VSC) is used

S. M. Muyeen; Rion Takahashi; Junji Tamura

2010-01-01

399

Evaluation of offshore stocking of Lake Trout in Lake Ontario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoration stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush has occurred in Lake Ontario since 1973. In U.S. waters, fish stocked through 1990 survived well and built a large adult population. Survival of yearlings stocked from shore declined during 1990–1995, and adult numbers fell during 1998–2005. Offshore stocking of lake trout was initiated in the late 1990s in response to its successful mitigation of predation losses to double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and the results of earlier studies that suggested it would enhance survival in some cases. The current study was designed to test the relative effectiveness of three stocking methods at a time when poststocking survival for lake trout was quite low and losses due to fish predators was a suspected factor. The stocking methods tested during 2000–2002 included May offshore, May onshore, and June onshore. Visual observations during nearshore stockings and hydroacoustic observations of offshore stockings indicated that release methods were not a direct cause of fish mortality. Experimental stockings were replicated for 3 years at one site in the southwest and for 2 years at one site in the southeast. Offshore releases used a landing craft to transport hatchery trucks from 3 to 6 km offshore out to 55–60-m-deep water. For the southwest site, offshore stocking significantly enhanced poststocking survival. Among the three methods, survival ratios were 1.74 : 1.00 : 1.02 (May offshore : May onshore : June onshore). Although not statistically significant owing to the small samples, the trends were similar for the southeast site, with survival ratios of 1.67 : 1.00 : 0.72. Consistent trends across years and sites indicated that offshore stocking of yearling lake trout during 2000–2002 provided nearly a twofold enhancement in survival; however, this increase does not appear to be great enough to achieve the 12-fold enhancement necessary to return population abundance to restoration targets.

Lantry, B. F.; O'Gorman, R.; Strang, T. G.; Lantry, J. R.; Connerton, M. J.; Schanger, T.

2011-01-01

400

Offshore and inshore wave energy assessment: Asturias (N Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The offshore and inshore wave energy resource in Asturias (N Spain) is studied using wave buoy data and a hindcast dataset spanning 44 years (1958–2001). Offshore average wave power and annual wave energy values are found to exceed 30 kW\\/m and 250 MWh\\/m, respectively, at 7 of the 11 study sites. This substantial resource is characterised in terms of the sea states

G. Iglesias; R. Carballo

2010-01-01

401

Offshore data base shows decline in rig accidents  

SciTech Connect

Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) has compiled statistical figures on offshore accidents for risk, safety, and reliability studies. IFP calls this data base Platform. It provides a body of essential data for accidents concerning both mobile and stationary offshore drilling rigs. Historical accident data bases are a basic implement for risk assessment of safety and reliability. IFP has built this data base with all available information from 950 actual listings.

Bertrand, A.; Escoffier, L. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Maimaison (FR))

1991-09-16

402

Shear effects in shakedown analysis of offshore structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a formulation for shakedown analysis of elastic-plastic offshore structures under cyclic wave loading is presented.\\u000a In this formulation, a fast numerical solution method is used, suitable for the Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis of large\\u000a offshore structures on which shear effects in addition to bending and axial effects are taken into account. The Morison equation\\u000a is adopted

M. J. Fadaee; H. Saffari; R. Tabatabaei

2008-01-01

403

Offshore oil & gas: Deep waters dominate in 1997  

SciTech Connect

Deep water exploration and field development dominate the energy market as 1997 begins. All indicators point that a turnaround in the oil and gas industry is in full swing. Strong market fundamentals are in place: the worldwide offshore mobile rig fleet is approaching full utilization of marketed rigs, which has tightened the supply/demand balance and boosted day rates for all types of drilling units. The exploration and production niche is in its healthiest shape in more than 15 years with a growth spurt in progress. The excess rig supply has disappeared and some market observers believe the present supply of deep water rigs needs to triple just to meet demand in the Gulf of Mexico market alone. There is evidence that some energy companies are delaying drilling programs because suitable rigs simply are not available. Floating rigs generally are working longer-term contracts with some units under contract until late in the decade. Analysts forecast a heated market over the next 12 to 18 months. Gas prices are expected to remain strong through 1997 and crude prices should hold steady.

Pagano, S.S. [ed.] [Offshore International Newsletter, Houston, TX (United States)

1997-01-01

404

Geology and hydrocarbon potential of offshore Indus Basin, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The Indus offshore basin, located in the south of the Karachi trough and Thar slope, between Murray Ridge and the Indian border (23 to 25/sup 0/N lat.; 66 to 68/sup 0/E long.) has been investigated geologically from the point of view of hydrocarbon potential. Nine wells were drilled in the area: two onshore wells (Karachi 1,2), three wells near the Karachi shore (Dabbo creek, Patiani Creek, and Korangi Creek), one well on the offshore platform (Karachi South A-1), and three wells in offshore depressions (Indus Marine A-1, B-1, and C-1). No oil or gas deposit was discovered, but gas shows and traces were recorded. However, considering the large area (7,700 mi/sup 2/; 20,000 km/sup 2/) the number of wells drilled represents an insufficient effort of exploration and drilling. Tectonically, the Indus offshore basin can be divided into three units: (1) an ofshore depression on the west, between Murray Ridge and the hinge line; (2) the offshore Karachi trough platform in the middle between the hinge and the Karachi shoreline; and (3) offshore Thar slope platform or Indus River deltaic area on the east. The hinge-line zone and the outer margin of the carbonate platform, where there is a possibility of reef buildups, seem to be potential areas for hydrocarbons, and further investigation and drilling for suitable structural traps should be pursued.

Shuaib, S.M.

1982-07-01

405

Offshore passive soil vapor survey at a contaminated coastal site  

SciTech Connect

A high-resolution passive soil vapor survey was recently conducted at a coastal military base in southern California where a chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbon plume threatens San Diego Bay. An existing sampling grid was extended offshore the entire length of the contaminated site. PETREX sampling tubes were emplaced conventionally onshore and were emplaced offshore in sandy bay-bottom sediments by divers working in 3 to 17 m (10 to 55 ft) of water. Results of mass spectrometric analysis of passive vapor samples were consistent with submarine ground water discharge measurements made previously with seepage meters, yet also produced one unexpected result: evidence of in situ degradation. Tetrachloroethene (PCE), widespread onshore, was not detected offshore. Trichloroethene (TCE), the primary contaminant onshore, was detected in only three points offshore. Dichloroethene (DCE), present only at trace levels onshore, was the dominant constituent measured in the offshore plume. Results were confirmed by laboratory analyses of sediment samples. The study demonstrated the utility of extending the passive soil vapor technique offshore in up to 17 m (55 ft) of sea water in a heavily trafficked waterway with a strong tidal current.

Anderson, M. [Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., Pasadena, CA (United States); Church, G. [Transglobal Environmental Geochemistry, Burbank, CA (United States)

1998-06-01

406

Dynamically coupled 3D pollutant dispersion model for assessing produced water discharges in the Canadian offshore area.  

PubMed

Produced water is the contaminated water that is brought to the surface in the process of recovering oil and gas. On the basis of discharge volume, this type of contaminated water is the largest contributor to the offshore waste stream. Modeling studies of large amounts of wastewater discharge into offshore areas have helped in the understanding of pollutant dispersion behaviors in marine environments and in further evaluating the potential environmental effects resulting from produced water discharges. This study presents an integrated three-dimensional (3D) approach for the simulation of produced water discharges in offshore areas. Specifically, an explicit second-order finite difference method was used to model the far-field pollutant dispersion behavior, and this method was coupled with the jet-plume model JETLAG with an extension of the 3D cross-flow conditions to simulate the near-field mixing processes. A dynamic coupling technique with full consideration of the interaction between the discharged fluids and receiving waters was employed in the model. A case study was conducted on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada. The field validation of the modeling results was conducted for both the near-field and far-field dispersion processes, and the modeling results were in good agreement with the field observations. This study provides an integrated system tool for the simulation of complex transport processes in offshore areas, and the results from such modeling systems can be further used for the risk assessment analysis of the surface water environment. PMID:23268698

Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhi; Lee, Kenneth

2013-02-01

407

Massive sediment bypassing on the lower shoreface offshore of a wide tidal inlet - Cat Island Pass, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric and shoreline surveys along the Louisiana coast west of the Mississippi River mouth detected a large area of deposition in water depths of 2.0-8.5 m offshore of a 9-km- wide tidal inlet, the Cat Island Pass/Wine Island Pass system. A 59.9 ?? 106 m3 sandy deposit formed from the 1930s-1980s, spanning 27 km in the alongshore direction, delineating the transport pathway for sediment bypassing offshore of the inlet on the shoreface. Bypassing connected the shorefaces of two barrier island systems, the Isles Dernieres and the Bayou Lafourche. The processes responsible for formation of this deposit are not well understood, but sediment-transport modeling suggests that sediment is transported primarily by wind-driven coastal currents during large storms and hurricanes. Deposition appears to be related to changes in shoreline orientation, closing of transport pathways into a large bay to the east and the presence of tidal inlets. This newly documented type of bypassing, an offshore bypassing of the inlet system, naturally nourished the immediate downdrift area, the eastern Isles Dernieres, where shoreface and shoreline erosion rates are about half of pre-bypassing rates. Erosion rates remained the same farther downdrift, where bypassing has not yet reached. As this offshore bypassing continues, the destruction of the Isles Dernieres will be slowed.

Jaffe, B. E.; List, J. H.; Sallenger, Jr. , A. H.

1997-01-01

408

No jacket required--new fungal lineage defies dress code: recently described zoosporic fungi lack a cell wall during trophic phase.  

PubMed

Analyses of environmental DNAs have provided tantalizing evidence for "rozellida" or "cryptomycota", a clade of mostly undescribed and deeply diverging aquatic fungi. Here, we put cryptomycota into perspective through consideration of Rozella, the only clade member growing in culture. This is timely on account of the publication in Nature of the first images of uncultured cryptomycota from environmental filtrates, where molecular probes revealed non-motile cyst-like structures and motile spores, all lacking typical fungal chitinous cell walls. Current studies of Rozella can complement these fragmentary observations from environmental samples. Rozella has a fungal-specific chitin synthase and its resting sporangia have walls that appear to contain chitin. Cryptomycota, including Rozella, lack a cell wall when absorbing food but like some other fungi, they may have lost their "dinner jacket" through convergence. Rather than evolutionary intermediates, the cryptomycota may be strange, divergent fungi that evolved from an ancestor with a nearly complete suite of classical fungal-specific characters. PMID:22131166

James, Timothy Y; Berbee, Mary L

2012-02-01

409

Evaluation of the vapor-protection capabilities of the jacket/trouser interface on the regulation ground-crew chemical defense ensemble. Interim report, 15 Nov-15 Dec 88  

SciTech Connect

The ground-crew chemical defense ensemble (CDE) has deficiencies in its ability to prevent chemical warfare (CW) simulant vapors from leaking past the outer charcoal layer in the abdominal region when personnel wearing this CDE perform exercise in a simulant CW agent vapor. The purpose of this study was to determine the site and amount of vapor penetration. A charcoal-fabric cummerbund was used as an experimental tool to prevent vapor from leaking through the jacket/trouser interface. Test subjects, wearing the ground-crew CDE with and without cummerbund, performed exercises in a CW simulant vapor (methyl salicylate). While subjects were exposed to the simulant vapor, vapor concentrations were measured under the CDE jacket in the abdominal region. After removing the CDE in a vapor-free area, subjects entered sealed offgassing booths where simulant vapor levels were continuously measured. Subjects wearing a cummerbund had 80% lower abdominal vapor concentrations and 33% lower maximum offgassing booth concentrations than subjects that did not wear a cummerbund. The source of the vapor penetration is along the jacket/ trouser interface of the ground crew CDE.

Scott, W.R.; Pointer, B.W.

1990-12-01

410

Offshore maintenance reduces cost and downtime  

SciTech Connect

Maintenance is the single activity offshore that can have the most impact on productivity, safety, and downtime. Unfortunately, unless it is well organized, maintenance may be carried out according to unchanging and often unnecessary routines. Overly rigid maintenance procedures, that are viewed by crews as ''makework'' assignments, are not conducive to quality or to failure-proof operation of key rig systems. An alternate system of maintenance, which Keydril has adopted on all its rigs, is designed to circumvent the problems of crew attitude and at the same time provide an effective preventive program that simply and efficiently manages all of the rig's operational requirements. The program consists of detailed maintenance and test procedures which are based on frequency analyses of the operating profiles of each piece of machinery. Keydril calls the program an Engineered Approach to Maintenance. The heart of the engineered approach system is a color-coded visual display of maintenance requirement cards (T-cards). These cards assign and describe specific tasks according to an analysis of the operating history of the unit itself and analyses of similar equipment on other company rigs. The second part of the engineered system is the use of high-technology testing methods that can remotely analyze various operating parameters and give early warning of equipment wear prior to failure. The equipment on board Keydril's rigs must be used, and rig personnel have to know that it will always work at satisfactory performance levels. The engineered approach to maintenance provides that assurance.

Danahy, J.W.

1983-08-01

411

AORIS. Arctic & Offshore Technical Data System  

SciTech Connect

AORIS is a computerized information system to assist the technology and planning community in the development of Arctic oil and gas resources. In general, AORIS is geographically dependent and, where possible, site specific. The main topics are sea ice, geotechnology, oceanography, meteorology, and Arctic engineering, as they relate to such offshore oil and gas activities as exploration, production, storage, and transportation. AORIS consists of a directory component that identifies 85 Arctic energy-related databases and tells how to access them; a bibliographic/management information system or bibliographic component containing over 8,000 references and abstracts on Arctic energy-related research; and a scientific and engineering information system, or data component, containing over 800 data sets, in both tabular and graphical formats, on sea ice characteristics taken from the bibliographic citations. AORIS also contains much of the so-called grey literature, i.e., data and/or locations of Arctic data collected, but never published. The three components are linked so the user may easily move from one component to another. A generic information system is provided to allow users to create their own information systems. The generic programs have the same query and updating features as AORIS, except that there is no directory component.

Pastoria, G.A. [USDOE, Morgantown Energy Tech. Ctr., WV (United States)

1990-05-01

412

Analyzing, solving offshore seawater injection problems  

SciTech Connect

Changes in seawater treatment, necessary cleaning of injection lines, and modifying well completion practices have reduced injection well plugging on pressure maintenance projects operated by Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co., (Adma-Opco) in Zakum and Umm Shaif fields, offshore Abu Dhabi, in the Arabian Gulf. Plugging was caused primarily by iron sulfide and corrosion products that were displaced down hole after being formed in the water distribution system. These materials, in turn, resulted from O/sub 2/ inadvertently entering the injection system where it combined with corrosive H/sub 2/S generated by sulfate-reducing bacteria. The problem was further compounded by debris peeling from the interior of well tubulars, a high solids content of brine used to complete injectors, and slime formation in injection pipe lines. Acidizing wells proved a quick method for partially restoring injectivity, but a continuing concerted effort is being made to achieve more permanent results by eliminating the O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S, which are at the root of the difficulty.

Al-Rubale, J.S.; Muhsin, A.A.; Shaker, H.A.; Washash, I.

1988-01-01

413

Probability Distributions for Offshore Wind Speeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In planning offshore wind farms, short-term wind speeds play a central role in estimating various engineering parameters, such as power output, design load, fatigue load, etc. Lacking wind speed data at a specific site, the probability distribution of wind speed serves as the primary substitute for such measurements during parameter estimation. It is common practice to model wind speeds with the Weibull distribution, but recent literature suggests that many other distributions may perform better. Such studies are often limited in either the time-span or geographic scope of their datasets. Using 10-minute average wind speed time series ranging from 1 month to 20 years in duration collected from 178 buoys around North America, we show that the widely-accepted Weibull distribution provides a poor fit to the distribution of wind speeds when compared with other models. For example several other distributions, including the bimodal Weibull, Kappa and Wakeby models, fit the data remarkably well, yielding values significantly closer to 1 than the Weibull and many other distributions. Additionally, we show that the Kappa and Wakeby predict average wind turbine power output better than other distributions, including the bimodal Weibull. Our results show that more complicated models than the two-parameter Weibull are needed to capture the complex behavior of wind, and that using such models leads to improved engineering decisions.

Morgan, E. C.; Lackner, M.; Vogel, R. M.; Baise, L. G.

2009-12-01

414

Offshore oil and gas pipeline technology  

SciTech Connect

This volume is a ''total-systems'' approach to offshore pipeline design, operation, and maintenance. The volume comprises 17 contributed sections reviewing the most important developments in the field over the last few years. The contributors are all internationally recognized experts, and the papers present a broad yet complete review of all aspects of pipeline integrity. Although each topic is treated in depth, the work has been edited with both beginning engineers and experts in mind. Contents include: Deepwater soil analysis for pipelines. The buckling of submarine pipelines. Pipelines lay-stress analysis. Advances in submarine pipeline trenching by ploughing. The remove connection of submarine pipelines. Controlling the internal corrosion of pipelines. Controlling the external corrosion of pipelines using cathodic protection. Pipeline stability and spanning. Pipeline span detection, assessment and correction. Recent developments in pipeline inspection by side-scan sonar. Pipeline safety analysis. Pipeline reliability. A case in pipeline design. Riser design. The operation of gaslines at high pressure. Single point mooring systems-an alternative to pipelines.

Mare, R.F.

1985-01-01

415

U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development agencies, to assist in identifying policies with low effort and high impact (Chapter 3). Section 3.3 provides specific policy examples that have been demonstrated to be effective in removing barriers to development. (c) Current and potential domestic suppliers in the offshore wind market, in evaluating areas of opportunity and understanding requirements for participation (Chapter 4). Section 4.4 provides a step-by-step description of the qualification process that suppliers looking to sell components into a future U.S. offshore wind market will need to follow.

Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc.

2013-02-22

416

Fluid additive and specialized PDC bits improve ROP in offshore applications  

SciTech Connect

Improving drilling rates of penetration (ROP) has always been a concern of operators in the oil and gas industry. This concern is increasingly prevalent as costs associated with drilling in challenging offshore environments continue to rise, which increases the impact of ROP improvements on overall project economics. Factors such as drilling fluid, bit design, hydraulics, weight on bit, rotary speed and bit balling affect a well`s overall ROP. This article focuses on two of the factors: drilling fluid type and bit selection.

Jones, T.A.

1997-02-01

417

Geological characterization of selected offshore sand resources on the OCS, offshore Alabama, for beach nourishment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most Alabama Gulf and estuarine shoreline is undergoing long-term erosion; threatened shorelines will need programs of replenishment and maintenance if they are to be even temporarily stabilized. Highest priority beach replenishment areas include eastern Dauphin Island; west of Perdido Pass; and west of the inlet at Little Lagoon. There are no appropriate local onshore sand sources available for any such large scale program. Sediments in the Federal waters of the EEZ were evaluated for possible sources of sand for beach nourishment. Six lithofacies were delineated based on sediment characterization, spatial framework, and environment of deposition; of these, two (Clean Sands and Graded Shelly Sands) were deemed to have highest potential as beach nourishment sources. Five offshore target areas were delineated as potential sand sources. Criteria included sand aesthetics, estimated sand volume, and sand distributions. Preliminary environmental analyses included impacts of offshore sand dredging on shelf circulation; on economic activities; and on local benthic biota. Dredging may not significantly alter background wave regimes; however, data are insufficient to model effects of major storms on a modified shelf morphology. Dredging would avoid areas of current economic activity. There would like be little long-term impact on benthic biota in the target areas. Additional work will be required to confirm or refute these preliminary findings.

Davies, David, J.; Parker, Steven, J.; Smith, W. Everett

1993-01-01

418

Sensitivity Analysis of Offshore Wind Cost of Energy (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

No matter the source, offshore wind energy plant cost estimates are significantly higher than for land-based projects. For instance, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) review on the 2010 cost of wind energy found baseline cost estimates for onshore wind energy systems to be 71 dollars per megawatt-hour ($/MWh), versus 225 $/MWh for offshore systems. There are many ways that innovation can be used to reduce the high costs of offshore wind energy. However, the use of such innovation impacts the cost of energy because of the highly coupled nature of the system. For example, the deployment of multimegawatt turbines can reduce the number of turbines, thereby reducing the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with vessel acquisition and use. On the other hand, larger turbines may require more specialized vessels and infrastructure to perform the same operations, which could result in higher costs. To better understand the full impact of a design decision on offshore wind energy system performance and cost, a system analysis approach is needed. In 2011-2012, NREL began development of a wind energy systems engineering software tool to support offshore wind energy system analysis. The tool combines engineering and cost models to represent an entire offshore wind energy plant and to perform system cost sensitivity analysis and optimization. Initial results were collected by applying the tool to conduct a sensitivity analysis on a baseline offshore wind energy system using 5-MW and 6-MW NREL reference turbines. Results included information on rotor diameter, hub height, power rating, and maximum allowable tip speeds.

Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Damiami, R.; Hand, M.; Meadows, R.; Musial, W.; Moriarty, P.; Veers, P.

2012-10-01

419

30 CFR 585.116 - Requests for information on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry. 585.116 Section...OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING...on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry. (a)...

2012-07-01

420

30 CFR 285.116 - Requests for information on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry. 285.116 Section...OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING...on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry. (a) The...

2011-07-01

421

46 CFR 126.530 - Alternative annual inspection for offshore supply vessels less than 400 gross tons in foreign ports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Alternative annual inspection for offshore supply vessels less than 400 gross tons in foreign ports...SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Annual...Alternative annual inspection for offshore supply vessels less than 400 gross tons in foreign...

2013-10-01

422

76 FR 22130 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore New Jersey-Call for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore New Jersey--Call for Information and Nominations...on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore New Jersey...Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) offshore New Jersey. Although this announcement is...

2011-04-20

423

Sanaga Sud field - Offshore Cameroon, west Africa  

SciTech Connect

The Sanaga Sud field, offshore Cameroon, is located just northwest of the coastal town of Kribi in the northern part of the Douala basin. The discovery well, Sanaga Sud A-1, was drilled in 1979 to test an apparent horst block that contained a prominent horizontal seismic amplitude. The Douala basin is one of a series of passive margin basins located along the coastline of central and southern Africa, and formed during the rifting of Africa and South America during the Early Cretaceous. Drilling results showed that the amplitude was a gas/water contact. Two appraisal wells, SSA-2 and SSA-3, were drilled in 1981. All three wells tested gas and condensate. Total recoverable hydrocarbons for the field are estimated to be approximately 1 tcf of gas. The trap in this field is composed of tilted and rotated fault blocks composed of interbedded Aptian to Albian sandstones, siltstones, and shales. The fault blocks were truncated by erosion (breakup unconformity) and later buried by a considerable thickness of onlapping Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary shale. The late Albian erosional unconformity forms the top of the trap over most of the field. Geochemical studies indicate a Lower Cretaceous source for the hydrocarbons. The gross pay thickness averages 250 m with an average porosity of 23% and an average permeability of 142 md. Reservoir lithologies range from well-sorted, massive sandstones to poorly sorted fine sandstones and siltstones containing shaly laminations that are carbonaceous and micaceous. The field is located predominantly in Block PH-38, but part of the field is in the Londji concession. Mobil Producing Cameroon, Inc., is the operator of PH-38 and Total Exploration and Production Cameroon is the operator of the Londji concession.

Pauken, R.J. (Mobil New Exploration Ventures Co., Dallas, TX (USA))

1990-09-01

424

Building the Hibernia: Newfoundland's huge offshore platform  

SciTech Connect

It seems most of the world is cooperating in the construction of one of the largest offshore oil platforms ever built. Steels are coming into Newfoundland, where final assembly is being conducted, from Belgium, Italy, Germany; stainless steels from Sweden; and titanium from the US. Welding electrodes are being shipped in from Montreal, from Holland, even from Cleveland. The objective is to tap the 615 million barrels (bbl) of oil that lie in the Hibernia field on the Grand Banks, some 195 miles (315 km) east southeast of St. John's, Newfoundland. Actual welding is going on in numerous locations. Although the platform is a concrete base structure, 37,000 metric tons of structural steel is being welded in order to complete the topsides assembly. In charge of all construction work is the Hibernia Management and Development Co., Ltd. (HMDC), an operating company formed by the four owner companies. The topsides segment of the Hibernia platform is divided into five major modules. It consists of five super modules and seven topside-mounted structures (TMS). One super module is being built in Bull Arm in Newfoundland. The process module and the living quarters module are being built by Hyundai Heavy Industries, South Korea, while the mud and utility modules are being fabricated by Belleli, s.p.a., Italy. The five super modules and the seven TMS will be brought together in Newfoundland where they will be welded together. All seven of the topside-mounted structures are being fabricated in Newfoundland. The assembled topsides will be towed to the site where they will be mated to the gravity base structure (GBS).

Irving, B.

1994-10-01

425

Structural Configuration of Mahanadi Offshore Basin, India: An Aeromagnetic Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeromagnetic data collected over the Offshore Mahanadi Basin along the Eastern margin of India display high amplitude magnetic anomalies. The presence of a Cretaceous volcanic sequence masks the seismic response from the underlying basement and results in poor quality seismic data. In this study spectral analysis of the aeromagnetic data collected over this part of the Offshore Mahanadi Basin was carried out. Results of this analysis indicate the presence of a high density, highvelocity (6.45 km/s) mafic layer within the crystalline basement varying from 4-6 km depth. This intra-basement layer seems to have been affected by a number of lineaments, which have played a role in the evolution of the Mahanadi Offshore Basin. The western part of the offshore basin is affected by the volcanism related to the 85°E Ridge, whereas the intense anomaly band (900 nT) offshore Puri, Konark and Paradip is interpreted as a combined effect of crystalline Precambrian basement overlain (i) by Cretaceous volcanic rocks of variable thickness (25-860 m) and (ii) by a mafic layer within the basement.

Nayak, Goutam Kumar; Rao, Ch. Rama

426

Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.  

PubMed

The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers. PMID:14564877

Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

2001-12-01

427

Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that if the United States is to generate 20% of its electricity from wind, over 50 GW will be required from shallow offshore turbines. Hurricanes are a potential risk to these turbines. Turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons, but no offshore wind turbines have yet been built in the United States. We present a probabilistic model to estimate the number of turbines that would be destroyed by hurricanes in an offshore wind farm. We apply this model to estimate the risk to offshore wind farms in four representative locations in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal waters of the United States. In the most vulnerable areas now being actively considered by developers, nearly half the turbines in a farm are likely to be destroyed in a 20-y period. Reasonable mitigation measures--increasing the design reference wind load, ensuring that the nacelle can be turned into rapidly changing winds, and building most wind plants in the areas with lower risk--can greatly enhance the probability that offshore wind can help to meet the United States' electricity needs. PMID:22331894

Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Grossmann, Iris; Apt, Jay

2012-02-28

428

Detection of wind wakes offshore from satellite SAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is presented on the mapping of ocean wind fields for detection of wind wakes downstream of an offshore wind farm. The study is based on ERS-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) scenes obtained in 2003 over Horns Reef in the North Sea. A large offshore wind farm (80 wind turbines) is located 14-20 km offshore of Denmark on this submerged reef. Meteorological observations are available from an offshore mast; wind speed is measured at four heights up to 62 m and wind direction is measured at 60 m. Maps of wind speed are generated from geophysical model functions (CMOD-4, CMOD-IFR2) with a resolution of 400 m by 400 m using wind direction obtained from in-situ measurements as model input. The wind maps display zones of reduced mean wind speed downstream of the wind farm compared to upwind conditions. The reduction is approximately 10 % immediately behind the wind farm and the wake effect is vanishing over distances in the order of 10 km downstream. This is consistent with wake model predictions. Satellite SAR provides a good estimate of the propagation of wind wakes. Information on how structures affect the local wind climate is useful for wind energy purposes, particularly for siting of future offshore wind farms.

Christiansen, M. B.; Hasager, C. B.

429

Comparing offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite SAR and wake model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore winds can be observed from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In the FP7 EERA DTOC project, the European Energy Research Alliance project on Design Tools for Offshore Wind Farm Clusters, there is focus on mid- to far-field wind farm wakes. The more wind farms are constructed nearby other wind farms, the more is the potential loss in annual energy production in all neighboring wind farms due to wind farm cluster effects. It is of course dependent upon the prevailing wind directions and wind speed levels, the distance between the wind farms, the wind turbine sizes and spacing. Some knowledge is available within wind farm arrays and in the near-field from various investigations. There are 58 offshore wind farms in the Northern European seas grid connected and in operation. Several of those are spaced near each other. There are several twin wind farms in operation including Nysted-1 and Rødsand-2 in the Baltic Sea, and Horns Rev 1 and Horns Rev 2, Egmond aan Zee and Prinses Amalia, and Thompton 1 and Thompton 2 all in the North Sea. There are ambitious plans of constructing numerous wind farms - great clusters of offshore wind farms. Current investigation of offshore wind farms includes mapping from high-resolution satellite SAR of several of the offshore wind farms in operation in the North Sea. Around 20 images with wind farm wake cases have been retrieved and processed. The data are from the Canadian RADARSAT-1/-2 satellites. These observe in microwave C-band and have been used for ocean surface wind retrieval during several years. The satellite wind maps are valid at 10 m above sea level. The wakes are identified in the raw images as darker areas downwind of the wind farms. In the SAR-based wind maps the wake deficit is found as areas of lower winds downwind of the wind farms compared to parallel undisturbed flow in the flow direction. The wind direction is clearly visible from lee effects and wind streaks in the images. The wind farm wake cases are modeled by various types of wake models. In the EERA DTOC project the model suite consists of engineering models (Ainslie, DWM, GLC, PARK, WASP/NOJ), simplified CFD models (FUGA, FarmFlow), full CFD models (CRES-flowNS, RANS), mesoscale model (SKIRON, WRF) and coupled meso-scale and microscale models. The comparison analysis between the satellite wind wake and model results will be presented and discussed. It is first time a comprehensive analysis is performed on this subject. The topic gains increasing importance because there is a growing need to precisely model also mid- and far-field wind farms wakes for development and planning of offshore wind farm clusters.

Bay Hasager, Charlotte

2014-05-01

430

Influence of ambient air temperature on the cooling/heating load of a single cell protein jacketed fermenter operating on cheese whey under continuous conditions.  

PubMed

The heat generated by mixing and lactose metabolism, during the continuous production of single cell protein from cheese whey lactose using a jacketed fermenter with running cooling water, was calculated using a heat balance equation. The technique quantified the heat produced in and lost from the fermentation unit. Most of the heat generated by mixing in the cell-free system (97.47%) was lost with exhaust gas, while a very small amount (2.53%) was lost through the fermenter lid, wall, and bottom. The heat generated by mixing was significant (26.31% of the total heat generated in the fermentation system with an active yeast population present) and, therefore, cannot be ignored in heat balance calculations. About 19.71% of the total heat generated in the reactor was lost through the coolant at an ambient temperature of 22 +/- 0.5 degrees C, showing the need for a cooling system. A yeast population size of 986 million cells/mL and a lactose removal efficiency of 95.6% were observed. About 72.5% and 27.5% of the lactose consumed were used for growth and respiration, respectively. A yield of 0.66 g of cells/g of lactose was achieved. The heat released by unit biomass was 7.05 kJ/g of cells. The results showed the significant impact of ambient air temperature on the cooling load. The heat to be removed from the medium by the cooling system varied from 3.46 to 281.56 kJ/h when the temperature increased from 16 to 30 degrees C. A heating system is needed to maintain the medium temperature at 34 degrees C when the ambient air temperature is below 16 degrees C. PMID:12153303

Ghaly, A E; Mahmoud, N S

2002-01-01

431

Where the offshore search for oil and gas is headed  

SciTech Connect

This overview of the world's potential offshore oil and gas frontiers points out that although solutions to technical and political problems have opened up some promising areas for exploration, many key frontier basins have yet to be explored by modern technology. Long-standing disputes between bordering countries over offshore rights have deterred exploration activities in the Malvinas basin off Argentina and in the Gulf of Venezuela. Political problems have also slowed activity in the US Atlantic offshore, where Mesozoic reef trends may be related to Mexico's large oil fields. In Canada's Labrador Sea and Grand Banks, the problems are largely operational because of the inclement weather and threatening icebergs. The thick sediments off northern Norway remain untapped due to the deep water, Arctic conditions, and boundary disputes with the USSR. The main areas of active exploration are the Gulf of Thailand-Penyu-Natuna basin in Southeast Asia and Ireland's Porcupine Bight basin.

King, R.E.

1980-10-01

432

Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A., II

2003-01-01

433

Conventional measurement data: good enough for offshore meteorology?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of marine boundary layer properties is an fundamental task of energy meteorology. The determination of atmospheric stability and momentum fluxes out of measurement data is, for example, important for the validation of mesoscale models such as WRF and COSMO, but also for the validation of microscale models like PALM large eddy simulations. From them, major conclusions are drawn for the design of wind turbines and the layout design of entire offshore wind farms with 20 to more than 100 turbines. Up to now, high-resolution measurements of the vertical wind are usually carried out with sonic anemometers, which are known to provide simultaneously (sound-) temperature signals. Recent investigations of data from different met masts in the North Sea have revealed errors now, which can be corrected only partially. A method will be shown for visualization of a sonic anemometers influence on the mean vertical wind speed and how it can be adjusted. Another sonic anemometer dysfunction, the striking, not by meteorology explainable underestimation of vertical wind events for lots of fine wind direction segments can only be demonstrated so far, but not explained or actually corrected. The quality of sonic anemometer measurements of mean temperatures is proved to be poor to mediocre - depending on the type of the device. Furthermore, there is no evidence about the quality of the high-frequency temperature fluctuation measurements, simply because comparative measurements are missing. Temperature measurements with sonic anemometers under controlled laboratory conditions and comparisons with other fast temperature measurements techniques must be performed in order to gain more certainty on this issue. Temperature difference sensors are producing data in agreement with theory. Such a sensor is already installed on a North Sea met mast. Some new temperature difference sensor results will be presented. New methods, especially for high-frequency and high-quality measurements of vertical wind speeds, have to be developed in the very near future for serving the high and increasing needs of modelers.

Schmidt, Michael; Tambke, Jens; Steinfeld, Gerald; Heinemann, Detlev

2014-05-01

434

Federal offshore statistics: 1992. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenues as of December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, enacted in 1953 and amended several times, charges the Secretary of the Interior with the responsibility for administering and managing mineral exploration and development of the outer continental shelf, as well as for conserving its natural resources. This report documents the following: Federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; Federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from Federal offshore leases; disbursement of Federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. 11 figs., 83 tabs.

Francois, D.K.

1993-12-31

435

33 CFR 165.1156 - Safety Zone; Offshore Marine Terminal, El Segundo, CA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Safety Zone; Offshore Marine Terminal, El Segundo, CA. 165.1156 Section 165.1156 Navigation and Navigable...1156 Safety Zone; Offshore Marine Terminal, El Segundo, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of...

2013-07-01

436

Safety and Offshore Oil: Background Papers of the Committee on Assessment of Safety of OCS Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: A Public Perspective of Ensuring the Adequacy of OCS Safety, An Industry Perspective on the Regulation of Oil and Gas Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf, The International Regime for Offshore Safety, Insurance in the Offshore Oil Industry...

1981-01-01

437

Federal offshore statistics: 1995 - leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides data on federal offshore operations for 1995. Information is included for leasing activities, development, petroleum and natural gas production, sales and royalties, revenue from federal offshore leasing, disbursement of federal reven...

R. A. Gaechter

1997-01-01

438

Offshore Tax Evasion: IRS Has Collected Billions of Dollars, but May be Missing Continued Evasion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tax evasion by individuals with unreported offshore financial accounts was estimated by one IRS commissioner to be several tens of billions of dollars, but no precise figure exists. IRS has operated four offshore programs since 2003 that offered incentive...

2013-01-01

439

Safety and Health in the Construction of Fixed Offshore Installations in the Petroleum Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A meeting convened by the ILO (International Labor Office) on safety problems in the offshore petroleum industry recommended the preparation of a code of practice setting out standards for safety and health during the construction of fixed offshore instal...

1981-01-01

440

46 CFR 131.310 - List of crew members and offshore workers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false List of crew members and offshore workers. 131.310 Section 131.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...VESSELS OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 131.310 List of crew members and offshore...

2013-10-01

441

Proceedings of the eighth international conference on offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering. 1989  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Topics covered include: CAD application in offshore structure fabrication; A force control system for robotic manipulators; and intersections for trimmed surface patches.

Patrikalakis, N.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Chung, J.S. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (USA)); Morgan, M.J. (Industrial Systems, Woodinville, WA (US))

1989-01-01

442

Cost and Potential of Offshore Wind Energy on the Dutch Part of the North Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the growing attention for offshore wind energy seen today there is a need for a sophisticated, quantitative investigation of the opportunities for offshore wind energy. The Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (ECN) has therefore developed a com...

H. J. T. Kooijman M. de Noord C. Volkers L. A. H. Machielse P. J. Eecen J. T. G. Pierik S. A. Herman F. Hagg

2001-01-01

443

75 FR 65309 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore...root cause of the BP Deepwater Horizon explosion, fire...investigation into the Macondo well blowout....

2010-10-22

444

75 FR 39518 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling; Correction AGENCY: Office...12 and 13, 2010, of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, (75 FR 37783)....

2010-07-09

445

33 CFR 100.720 - Annual Suncoast Offshore Grand Prix; Gulf of Mexico, Sarasota, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Annual Suncoast Offshore Grand Prix; Gulf of Mexico, Sarasota, FL. 100.720 Section 100.720...100.720 Annual Suncoast Offshore Grand Prix; Gulf of Mexico, Sarasota, FL. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area...

2013-07-01

446

33 CFR 100.719 - Annual Suncoast Offshore Challenge; Gulf of Mexico, Sarasota, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Annual Suncoast Offshore Challenge; Gulf of Mexico, Sarasota, FL. 100.719 Section 100.719... § 100.719 Annual Suncoast Offshore Challenge; Gulf of Mexico, Sarasota, FL. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area...

2013-07-01

447

40 CFR 435.10 - Applicability; description of the offshore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Offshore Subcategory § 435...description of the offshore subcategory...field exploration, drilling, well production...treatment in the oil and gas industry...territorial seas (âoffshoreâ) as defined...

2013-07-01

448

78 FR 34879 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Atlantic City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atlantic City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY...recurring marine event, held on the Atlantic Ocean, offshore of Atlantic City...vessel traffic in a portion of the Atlantic Ocean near Atlantic City, New...

2013-06-11

449

Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery  

SciTech Connect

The technical background briefing report is the first step in the preparation of a plan for engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. A five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore is presented, which also shows the projected dates of the lease sale for each area. The estimated peak production rates for these areas are given. There is considerable uncertainty for all these production estimates, since no exploratory drilling has yet taken place. A flow chart is presented which relates the special Arctic factors, such as ice and permafrost, to the normal petroleum production sequence. Some highlights from the chart and from the technical review are: (1) in many Arctic offshore locations the movement of sea ice causes major lateral forces on offshore structures, which are much greater than wave forces; (2) spray ice buildup on structures, ships and aircraft will be considerable, and must be prevented or accommodated with special designs; (3) the time available for summer exploratory drilling, and for deployment of permanent production structures, is limited by the return of the pack ice. This time may be extended by ice-breaking vessels in some cases; (4) during production, icebreaking workboats will service the offshore platforms in most areas throughout the year; (5) transportation of petroleum by icebreaking tankers from offshore tanker loading points is a highly probable situation, except in the Alaskan Beaufort; and (6) Arctic pipelines must contend with permafrost, making instrumentation necessary to detect subtle changes of the pipe before rupture occurs.

Sackinger, W. M.

1980-08-01

450

Offshore Renewable Energy R&D (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the offshore renewable energy R&D efforts at NREL's NWTC. As the United States increases its efforts to tap the domestic energy sources needed to diversify its energy portfolio and secure its energy supply, more attention is being focused on the rich renewable resources located offshore. Offshore renewable energy sources include offshore wind, waves, tidal currents, ocean and river currents, and ocean thermal gradients. According to a report published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in 2010,1 U.S. offshore wind resources have a gross potential generating capacity four times greater than the nation's present electric capacity, and the Electric Power Research Institute estimates that the nation's ocean energy resources could ultimately supply at least 10% of its electric supply. For more than 30 years, NREL has advanced the science of renewable energy while building the capabilities to guide rapid deployment of commercial applications. Since 1993, NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) has been the nation's premier wind energy research facility, specializing in the advancement of wind technologies that range in size from a kilowatt to several megawatts. For more than 8 years, the NWTC has been an international leader in the field of offshore floating wind system analysis. Today, researchers at the NWTC are taking their decades of experience and extensive capabilities and applying them to help industry develop cost-effective hydrokinetic systems that convert the kinetic energy in water to provide power for our nation's heavily populated coastal regions. The center's capabilities and experience cover a wide spectrum of wind and water energy engineering disciplines, including atmospheric and ocean fluid mechanics, aerodynamics; aeroacoustics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics, control systems, electrical systems, and testing.

Not Available

2011-10-01

451

An oceanic plateau subduction offshore Eastern Java  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The area offshore Java represents one of a few places globally where the early stage of subduction of an oceanic plateau is observed. We study the little investigated Roo Rise oceanic plateau on the Indian plate, subducting beneath Eurasia.Our study area is located south of eastern Java and covers the edge of the Roo Rise plateau, the Java trench and the entire forearc section. For the first time the detailed deep structure of the Roo Rise is studied, subduction of which has a significant effect on the forearc dynamics and evolution and the increase of the geohazards risks. The tsunamogenic earthquakes of 1994 and 2006 are associated with the oceanic plateau edge been subducted. We present integrated results of a refraction/wide-angle reflection tomography, gravity modeling, and multichannel reflection seismic imaging using data acquired in 2006 along a corridor centered around 113°E and composed of a 340 km long N-S profile and a 130 km long E-W oriented profile. The composite structural models reveal the previously unresolved deep geometry of the collision zone and the structure of the oceanic plateau. The crustal thickness of the Roo Rise plateau is ranging from 18 to 12 km. The structure of the upper crust of the incoming oceanic plate shows the extreme degree of fracturing in its top section, and is associated with a plate bending. The forearc Moho has a depth range from 16 to 20 km. The gravity modeling requires a sharp crustal thickness increase below Java. Within our profiles we do not recover any direct evidence for the presence of the bathymetric features on the oceanic plate currently present below the accretionary prism, responsible for the tsunamogenic earthquake triggering. However vertical variations of the forearc basement edge are observed on the trench-parallel profile, which opens a discussion on the origin of such basement undulations, together with a localized patchy uplift character of the forearc high.The complex geometry of the backstop suggests two models for the structural formation within this segment of the margin. The subducting plateau is affecting the stress field within the accretionary complex and the backstop edge, which favors the initiation of large, potentially tsunamogenic earthquakes such as the 1994 Mw=7.8 tsunamogenic event.

Shulgin, A.; Kopp, H.; Mueller, C.; Planert, L.; Lueschen, E.; Flueh, E. R.; Djajadihardja, Y.

2010-12-01

452

Offshore rig outlook may improve in 3-5 years  

SciTech Connect

Continued weakness in oil and gas prices and depressed levels of capital expenditures by oil companies have kept and real trend from developing in the supply and demand for mobile offshore drilling rigs. In fact, some forecasters around 1983 who saw substantial market improvement by the middle of this decade may have missed the future by 8 - 10 years. However, an analysis of the current supply situation for offshore rigs and the implications of dayrates from the analysis will provide some perspective of the future.

Wagner, R.D. Jr.

1989-05-01

453

A parametric study of an offshore concrete pile under combined loading conditions using finite element method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore piles are commonly used as foundation elements of various offshore structures, especially large structures such as Tension Leg Platforms (TLP). The stress distribution within such a large structure is a dominant factor in the design procedure of an offshore pile. To provide a more accurate and effective design, a finite element model is employed herein to determine the stresses

J. A. Eicher; H. Guan; D. S. Jeng

454

Recreational behavior of onshore and offshore oil industry employees in Newfoundland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the results of surveys of oil industry employees in Newfoundland, Canada, working both onshore and offshore on rigs and supply boats. The surveys reveal the different recreational behavior of respondents compared to local residents, and the unique and restricted environments in which they live and work while offshore. The analysis covers the leisure time activities both offshore

Richard W. Butler; David C. Smith

1986-01-01

455

75 FR 20371 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel LEBOUEF TIDE  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the Offshore Supply Vessel LEBOUEF TIDE AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...for the offshore supply vessel LEBOUEF TIDE as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c...for the offshore supply vessel LEBOUEF TIDE. The horizontal distance between the...

2010-04-19

456

Proceedings of the 6th international offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering symposium, Vol. 4  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on offshore platforms. Topics considered at the conference included spray ice islands, arctic structures and operations, arctic thermal and permafrost engineering, ice properties, offshore drilling, foundations, offshore exploration, crude oil storage facilities, thermosyphons, heat transfer, concretes, wave forces, and soil mechanics.

Lunardini, V.J.; Sinha, N.K.; Wang, Y.S.; Goff, R.D.

1987-01-01

457

33 CFR 334.905 - Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California; Fallbrook restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.905 Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California...offshore of Camp Pendleton in the Pacific Ocean, San Diego County, California. The...

2013-07-01

458

A novel method for estimating offshore wind fields using synthetic aperture radar and meteorological model data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides a promising method for offshore wind field estimation, particularly in the context of important for offshore wind farm development. This paper introduces an iterative maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) method for combining meteorological model output with synthetic aperture radar for offshore wind field estimation. The MAP approach is demonstrated for 40 ENVISAT ASAR scenes collected for

I. D. Cameron; I. H. Woodhouse; N. Walker

2007-01-01

459

75 FR 12560 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel BUMBLE BEE  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel BUMBLE BEE AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...issued for the offshore supply vessel BUMBLE BEE as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c...issued for the offshore supply vessel BUMBLE BEE, O.N. 1218416. Full compliance...

2010-03-16

460

AN INTERNATIONAL DESIGN STANDARD FOR OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES: IEC 61400-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is clear that the safety and integrity of offshore wind turbines will be considerably improved through the availability and use of relevant and reliable design standards. Although national certification rules and standards for offshore wind turbines have been published in Germany and Denmark, there is an evident need for an international standard for offshore wind turbines. This need has

D. C. Quarton

461

On the possibility of using site data for offshore wind turbine design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, quite a lot of offshore wind farms have sprung up all over Europe. There has been a lot of research on deciphering the offshore wind conditions to understand if they are any different from onshore conditions. However, the design of offshore turbine for the rotor nacelle assembly is still the same as that for the onshore

Ameya Sathe

2007-01-01

462

Development of LiDAR measurements for the German offshore test site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces the content of the recently started joint research project 'Development of LiDAR measurements for the German Offshore Test Site' which has the objective to support other research projects at the German offshore test site 'alpha ventus'. The project has started before the erection of the offshore wind farm and one aim is to give recommendations concerning LiDAR

A. Rettenmeier; M. Kühn; M. Wächter; S. Rahm; H. Mellinghoff; B. Siegmeier; L. Reeder

2008-01-01

463

Offshoring technology innovation: A case study of rare-earth technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many US firms are improving their individual competitiveness by offshoring manufacturing operations, services and, increasingly, knowledge work. Although research to date has maintained that these practices are beneficial to the offshoring firm and national economies, by reducing costs and expanding markets, little is known about the longer term effect of offshoring on the rate of innovation of home economies. This

Brian J. Fifarek; Francisco M. Veloso; Cliff I. Davidson

2008-01-01

464

Synthetic Aperture Radar for Offshore Wind Resource Assessment and Wind Farm Development in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UK has an abundant offshore wind resource with offshore wind set to grow rapidly over the coming years. Optimisation of energy production is of the utmost importance given the high installation and maintenance costs of offshore turbines; accurate estimates of wind speed characteristics are critical during the planning process. While operational assessment methods which rely upon in-situ observations or

Iain Cameron; Parivash Lumsdon; Nick Walker; Iain Woodhouse

2006-01-01

465

Project GOSAP (PP-USA.1): Gulf offshore satellite applications project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gulf offshore satellite applications project (GOSAP) was carried out in order to determine how best to use remote sensing technology to address offshore problems and operations faced by marine engineering organizations. The potentials of satellite-based offshore exploration, ocean engineering and environmental applications using combined satellite and airborne measurements are investigated. The applications include the detection of oil slicks.

Biegert, E. K.; Baker, R. N.; Sailor, R. V.; Shaudt, K. E.; MacDonald, I. R.; Tapley, B.; Shum, C. K.; Amos, J.; Berry, J. L.; Hess, J.

1996-01-01

466

75 FR 17755 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel GULF TIGER  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel GULF TIGER AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...issued for the offshore supply vessel GULF TIGER as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c...issued for the h offshore supply vessel GULF TIGER. Full compliance with 72 COLREGS and...

2010-04-07

467

Jackup converts to construction unit for surf operations. [Offshore drilling units  

SciTech Connect

Jackup drilling units which can be quickly converted to install platform jackets and lay pipe can reduce the costs of development in shallow-water surf zones. Two such units, built for Keydril of Houston, are currently working in surf zones off West Africa. Construction features are described.

Not Available

1983-11-01

468

Britain's R and DD takes great strides in offshore technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UK's fortuitous offshore oil and gas reserves have generated a considerable volume of research and development to grapple with the many problems of its extraction. This effort gives Britain a head start in gaining valuable expertise in deep-and rough-water oil production, rig, and platform technology. Within the UK, there are 3 areas of research and development and the differences

Attfield

1976-01-01

469

Offshore drilling and oil recovery: keys to half a century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological and structural developments in offshore drilling and oil recovery during the past 50 yr are reviewed. The earliest steps into the open sea were pier and pile-supported rigs built off the California and Louisiana coasts in the 1920s and 1930s, respectively. Jackup rigs were designed to lift the rig above storm wave level, and currently 53% of the world's

Kastrop

1979-01-01

470

Routing helicopters for crew exchanges on off-shore locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a vehicle routing problem with split demands, namely the problem of determining a flight schedule for helicopters to off-shore platform locations for exchanging crew people employed on these platforms. The problem is formulated as an LP model and solved by means of a column-generation technique including solving TSP problems. Since the final solution needs to be

Gerard Sierksma; Gert A. Tijssen

1998-01-01

471

A hierarchical control architecture for mobile offshore bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hierarchical architecture for mobile offshore bases (MOB) control is presented. By a control architecture we mean a specific way of organizing the motion control and navigation functions performed by the MOB. It is convenient to organize the functions into hierarchical layers. This way, a complex design problem is partitioned into a number of more manageable subproblems that are addressed

Anouck Girard; J. Karl Hedrick; João Tasso de Figueiredo Borges de Sousa

2000-01-01

472

Offshore Oil Drilling: Buying Energy Independence or Buying Time?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the issues and concerns about offshore oil drilling in the United States. The demand for energy is going up, not down, and for a long time, even as alternative sources of energy are developed, more oil will be needed. The strongest argument against drilling is that it could distract the country from the pursuit of…

Baird, Stephen L.

2008-01-01

473

Stress response of offshore structures by equivalent polynomial expansion techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper concerns an investigation of the effects of nonlinearity of drag loading on offshore structures excited by 2D wave fields, where the nonlinear term in the Morison equation is replaced by an equivalent cubic expansion. The equivalent cubic expan...

G. Sigurdsson S. R. K. Nielsen

1990-01-01

474

Geology of the Douala basin, offshore Cameroon, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Douala basin is predominantly an offshore basin extending from the Cameroon volcanic line in the north to the Corisco arch in the south near the Equatorial Guinea-Gabon border. The basin lies wholly within the territorial borders of Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. The Douala basin is one of a series of divergent margin basins occurring along the southwest African coastline

R. J. Pauken; J. M. Thompson; J. R. Schumann; J. C. Cooke

1991-01-01

475

Measurement and Reduction of Offshore Wind Turbine Construction Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Both operation and construction of offshore wind turbines induce underwater noise. While it is not yet clear if operating noise affects the behavior of marine animals, construction noise is considered crucial. Common foun- dation techniques require to drive steel tubes up to 30 m into the seabed. In general, hydraulic pile hammers are used for this purpose. During the

Externer Artikel

476

Cyclic loading of shallow offshore foundations on sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant challenge currently in geotechnical engineering is the accurate modelling, both physical and theoretical, of cyclic loading. This is particularly important when considering the design of structures for the offshore environment, where much of the loading on the foundations is derived from the periodic wave action on the structure. An acc urate understanding of how the foundation performs under

B. W. Byrne; G. T. Houlsby; C. M. Martin

477

DESIGN OF MONOPILE FOUNDATIONS FOR OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foundation of offshore wind energy plants plays an important role in the stability of these structures. One foundation concept which can be used in this field is the monopile concept. Here the foundation consists of one large-diameter pile (up to 8.0 m). Common design practice, e. g. according to API regulations, does not cover horizontally loaded piles of such

MARTIN ACHMUS; KHALID ABDEL-RAHMAN

478

Electrical Collection and Transmission Systems for Offshore Wind Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrical systems needed for offshore wind farms to collect power from wind turbines and transmit it to shore will be a significant cost element of these systems. This paper describes the development of a simplified model of the cost and performance ...

J. Green A. Bowen L. J. Fingersh Y. Wan

2007-01-01

479

Control and Design of DC Grids for Offshore Wind Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the interest in offshore wind farms has been increased significantly. Besides the huge amount of space available, they have the advantage of an increased and more constant wind speed, leading to a higher and more constant production of power. Although, a lot of mechanical problems for constructing these farms have been solved during the past decade, the electrification is

Christoph Meyer; Markus Hoing; Anders Peterson; Rik W. De Doncker

2007-01-01

480

Worker Health and Safety on Offshore Wind Farms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In April 2011, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) had just received the results of a study by the Marine Board of the National Research Council (NRC) focusing on the structural safety of offshore wind turbines (see...

2013-01-01

481

Implementation of offshore wind farm & The challenges related to it  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind is the fastest growing renewable energy source. The vast majority of wind power is generated from onshore wind farms. Their growth is however limited by the lack of inexpensive land near major population centers and the visual pollution caused by large wind turbines. Wind energy generated from offshore wind farms is the next frontier. In this paper we suggested

Zamshed Iqbal Chowdhury; M. Shahiduzzaman

2009-01-01

482

Transnational Higher Education: Offshore Campuses in the Middle East  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper maps the landscape of transnational higher education in the Middle East, focusing in particular on the recent expansion of satellite, branch, and offshore educational institutions and programs that foreign institutions have set up in the region. Of the estimated 100 branch campuses currently operating worldwide, over one-third are in…

Miller-Idriss, Cynthia; Hanauer, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

483

Onshore-offshore coastal lithofacies of Polis basin, NW Cyprus  

SciTech Connect

The Polis basin, northwest Cyprus, is located between the Akamas Peninsula and the main Troodos ophiolite massif. The basin contains sediments of Miocene-Holocene age and allows detailed study of a range of onshore-offshore coastal lithofacies which represent potential reservoirs. Coastal sediments of Messinian age characterized by algal mats and fluvial channel fill are found in the basin. Following very late Miocene rifting and Pliocene transgression, steep, narrow, faulted coastlines were produced, and several coastal facies were generated. These include coastal alluvial fans, offshore reefs, and tectonically generated cliff deposits as olistolith blocks. The steep, faulted coastline generated fan-delta deposits in early Pliocene time, superseded during late Pliocene regression by carbonate fan deltas. Offshore coastal lithofacies include storm-generated deposits, consisting of rip-up clasts and hummocky cross-stratification in sand-silt sequences, and mass-flow and channelized conglomerates and debris flows in this tectonically active basin. Shoreline sands are dominated by long-shore drift which generated longitudinal sandbars and offshore gravel bars. Pleistocene-age deposits show several suites of coastal deposits, formed in response to oscillations in Pleistocene sea level. These include beach deposits demonstrating beach-crest and planar bimodal back-beach deposits, together with coastal lagoons transected by cross-bedded fluvial conglomerate deposits. In addition, lowstands produced large channelized braided fluvial deposits which formed part of a broad coastal plain. Certain Pleistocene channels are deformed by continuing synsedimentary tectonic activity.

Ward, L.C. (Univ. of Edinburgh (Scotland))

1988-08-01

484

The maturation of the Russian offshore software industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the decade of the 1990s, India leapt ahead of all other competitors for offshore programming business, giving the impression that Russia had not lived up to its potential. This paper uses case studies of firms and clients and available literature to investigate what Russia has achieved so far, what bottlenecks and hindrances have prevented it from going further, and

Stephen Hawk; William McHenry

2005-01-01

485

Using airborne and satellite SAR for wake mapping offshore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore wind energy is progressing rapidly around Europe. One of the latest initiatives is the installation of multiple wind farms in clusters to share cables and maintenance costs and to fully exploit premium wind resource sites. For siting of multiple nearby wind farms, the wind turbine wake effect must be considered. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an imaging remote sensing

Merete B. Christiansen; Charlotte B. Hasager

2006-01-01

486

RCS and radar propagation near offshore wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wind farm impact on marine radars has not been widely reported. Some past publications have touched on the subject but there has been no accurate model in place to readily examine the effects of different farm geometries, tower shapes and turbine sizes. This paper discusses the radar propagation modeling near offshore wind farms including the methods used to model

Laith S Rashid; Anthony K Brown

2007-01-01

487

Current automation environment of PETROBRAS offshore production units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper aims to show the evolution of automation in PETROBRAS' off-shore production units during the last decade. It also displays the currently used standard architecture, describing the main aspects of each sub-system which is part of the entire auto...

C. H. W. Moura F. M. R. Mendes J. A. P. Silva Filho P. Loureiro

1996-01-01

488

Offshore finfish mariculture in the Strait of Juan de Fuca  

SciTech Connect

Finfish mariculture has existed in the U.S. Pacific Northwest for over thirty years, but for the past 15 years most effort has focused on culture of Atlantic salmon in protected, inshore cage sites. The Strait of Juan de Fuca (the "Strait") is a large area with relatively sparce shoreline development and several apparent advantages for mariculture using offshore technology.

Rensel, Jack; Kiefer, Dale; Forster, John R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Evans, Nathan R.

2007-10-07

489

Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

Bui, Minh Q.

2011-01-01

490

78 FR 63233 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in the DNV Conference space. The November 14th full...in the DNV Conference space. When arriving, please...directions to the Conference space. For information on...or in support of the exploration of offshore mineral and...Voluntary Standards on the Outer Continental...

2013-10-23

491

Mobile Offshore Base (MOB) Science and Technology Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the Science and Technology Program conducted by the Office of Naval Research to investigate the feasibility and cost of a Mobile Offshore Base (MOB). A MOB is envisioned as a self-propelled, floating platform, comprised of one or mo...

2000-01-01

492

Grid power integration technologies for offshore ocean wave energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the advanced electric technologies for grid power integration of different offshore wave energy conversion devices are presented. The electrical connection configurations for integrating the electric power of the multi wave energy conversion devices such as the Oscillating Water Column, Pelamis, the Wave Point Absorbers and the Wave Dragon are developed by employing the most efficient low cost

Tarek Ahmed; Katsumi Nishida; Mutsuo Nakaoka

2010-01-01

493

Nitrogen cycling in the offshore waters of the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to measure directly the rates of several of the processes responsible for the production and utilization of nitrogenous nutrients, and to use these rates and other data to generate an annual nitrogen budget for the Black Sea. Water column samples and experimentation with 15N labeled nutrients in the offshore waters of the Black Sea

James J. McCarthy; Aysen Yilmaz; Yesim Coban-Yildiz; John L. Nevins

2007-01-01

494

Concept for Improved Crane Performance in Offshore Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The joint Army/Navy Marine Corps Off-Shore Discharge of containership I and II (OSDOC I and II) Test/Evaluation exercises were conducted in 1970 and 1972, respectively, in order to explore through test and evaluation various techniques for unloading conta...

D. Dillon L. Bonde

1976-01-01

495

Constrained non-linear waves for offshore wind turbine design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancements have been made in the modelling of extreme wave loading in the offshore environment. We give an overview of wave models used at present, and their relative merits. We describe a method for embedding existing non-linear solutions for large, regular wave kinematics into linear, irregular seas. Although similar methods have been used before, the new technique is shown to

P J Rainey; T R Camp

2007-01-01

496

Optimizing the NW off-shore wind turbine design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a solution to address one of the requirements identified in the US Northwest 6th Power Plan, specifically, meeting an increase in the forecasted Pacific Northwest demand with renewable generation. A model is presented which evaluates one source of renewable generation, off-shore wind energy. The model analyzes different wind turbine design characteristics, assigns significance to potential synergistic effects

Tugrul U. Daim; Elvan Bayraktaroglu; Judith Estep; Dong Joon Lim; Jubin Upadhyay; Jiting Yang

497

Spud bushing system for mobile offshore arctic drilling structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a mobile offshore structure, a spud bushing system is described for transmission of lateral loads between the structure and a spud penetrated into the sea floor while permitting relative vertical movement between the structure and spud. The system consists of: a bushing seat fixed in the structure; a bushing operative when seated in the bushing seat to support laterally

R. A. Jr. Scharnell; R. F. Mast

1986-01-01

498

SIMULATION OF OFFSHORE WIND TURBINE RESPONSE FOR EXTREME LIMIT STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

When interest is in estimating long-term design loads for an offshore wind turbine using simulation, statistical extrapolation is the method of choice. While the method itself is rather well-established, simulation effort can be intractable if uncertainty in predicted extreme loads and efficiency in the selected extrapolation procedure are not specifically addressed. Our aim in this study is to address these

P. Agarwal; L. Manuel

2007-01-01

499

The wind speed profile at offshore wind farm sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first large offshore wind farms are in the planning phase in several countries in Europe. Their economic viability depends on the favourable wind conditions compared to sites on land. The higher energy yield has to compensate the additional installation and maintenance cost. For project planning and siting a reliable prediction of the wind resource is therefore crucial. For turbine

Bernhard Lange; S. E. Larsen; Jørgen Højstrup; Rebecca Barthelmie

2003-01-01

500

ESTIMATING COSTS OF OPERATION & MAINTENANCE FOR OFFSHORE WIND FARMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of offshore wind farms contribute significantly to the energy generation costs. Reliable estimates of these costs are required during planning and operation of the wind farm at several stages. Such estimates however have a large spread and are uncertain. ECN is developing the O&M Cost Estimator (OMCE) with which owners and operators of

Tom Obdam; Luc Rademakers; Henk Braam; Peter Eecen

2008-01-01