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1

Program analyzes offshore platform jacket template  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major computer analyses of steel offshore jacket templates sometimes suggest that certain structural tubular members are overstressed; however, the process of checking the bending and axial stresses by hand is tedious and time-consuming. TEL has thus prepared programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41C calculator that speedily perform such stress checks using the formulas of API RP2A, Section 2.5.2. The programs take

Cazeau

1980-01-01

2

Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Jacket Type Offshore Platforms through Incremental Dynamic Analysis considering Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of great interest in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) is the accurate estimation of the seismic performance of structures. A performance prediction and evaluation procedure is based on nonlinear dynamics and reliability theory. In this method, a full integration over the three key stochastic models is as follow: ground motion hazard curve, nonlinear dynamic displacement demand, and displacement capacity. Further, both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties are evaluated and carried through the analysis. In this paper, jacket and soil-pile system have been modeled using Finite Element program (OpenSees) and the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) are performed to investigate nonlinear behavior of offshore platforms. The system demand is determined by performing time history response analyses of the jacket under a suite of FEMA/SAC uniform hazard ground motions. The system capacity in terms of the drift ratio against incipient collapse is generally difficult to predict since the structural response goes into nonlinear range before collapse. All the analyses are performed in two directions and the results are compared with each others. The confidence level of a jacket in each direction for a given hazard level is calculated using the procedure described.

Asgarian, Behrouz; Shokrgozar, Hamed R.; Talarposhti, Ali Shakeri

2008-07-01

3

Program analyzes offshore platform jacket template  

SciTech Connect

Major computer analyses of steel offshore jacket templates sometimes suggest that certain structural tubular members are overstressed; however, the process of checking the bending and axial stresses by hand is tedious and time-consuming. TEL has thus prepared programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41C calculator that speedily perform such stress checks using the formulas of API RP2A, Section 2.5.2. The programs take advantage of the calculator's two major features - the alphanumeric peripheral printer and the prompting capability of the liquid crystal display (also alphanumeric). TEL has drawn up calculation forms to ensure that the computations performed by different engineers are uniform in method and presentation.

Cazeau, L.

1980-12-22

4

Studies on structural monitoring of offshore jacket platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a series of analytical and physical model studies conducted to develop an online monitoring system for offshore platforms. An actual offshore jacket platform situated in a water depth of 88m was selected for the study. A detailed 3D finite element analysis of the platform involving free and forced vibration revealed that there were dynamic characteristics of the platform which could be used to identify the structural damages in the structure. Having established the feasibility of the method, further work was carried out on a physical model of the platform. Dynamic characteristics of the model were determined by spectral analysis of the response data, simulating various changes including compete and partial damages on individuals elements of the model. Simultaneously work was also initiated to apply the result of the physical model tests for interpreting the causes of the changes in the dynamic characteristics using ANN trained with the database created through experiments and analysis. The final outcome of these comprehensive studies was a scheme for integrity monitoring of jacket type of fixed offshore platforms using vibration characteristics of the structure.

Idichandy, V. G.; Mangal, Lalu

2001-06-01

5

Studies on structural monitoring of offshore jacket platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a series of analytical and physical model studies conducted to develop an online monitoring system for offshore platforms. An actual offshore jacket platform situated in a water depth of 88m was selected for the study. A detailed 3D finite element analysis of the platform involving free and forced vibration revealed that there were dynamic characteristics of the

V. G. Idichandy; Lalu Mangal

2001-01-01

6

Pitting corrosion on weld joints of offshore structure jackets  

SciTech Connect

During underwater inspection, pitting corrosion was observed on weld joints of offshore structure jackets. A detailed investigation was carried out to find the cause of the pitting. Pitting and galvanic corrosion studies and cathodic protection experiments were carried out in synthetic seawater and in 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Field exposure studies also were carried out. Remedial measures are described.

Anto, P.F.

2000-04-01

7

Repairing an offshore jacket structure proves cost effective  

SciTech Connect

During inclement weather in the southern North Sea, an off-shore supply boat collided with a 25-year-old gas production platform. The impact occurred just over 2 m (5.56 ft) from the lowest annual tide and was sufficient to buckle, then shear, one end of a horizontal bracing from the jacket leg and to cause further damage at a node joint. Inspection personnel performed an initial examination of the damage to the eight-leg jacket structure using rope access techniques (abseiling), which offered substantial cost saving over erecting scaffolding. A structural analysis confirmed the jacket's integrity was not impaired and loss of the horizontal bracing would not significantly affect the structure. The analysis also confirmed repair of the node weld cracks and of the sheared area on the leg should be performed as soon as practical. In the end, the repair went smoothly. The repair area was above the waterline, and the weather cooperated perfectly. The repairs were done using rope access techniques, and using austenitic electrodes reduced the possibility of HAZ hydrogen cracking. Nondestructive examination confirmed no cracking had been experienced and no other defects existed. Indeed, this methodology is considered extremely practical, cost effective and ideal for use on offshore structures--with damage close to the waterline, and with the need to execute immediate repairs.

Still, J.R.; Blackwood, V.

2000-05-01

8

Halo jacket in odontoid fractures type II and III  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of odontoid fractures remains controversial. The late results of 14 patients with Anderson D'Alonzo type II and III treated with halo jacket from 1995 to 1999 are presented. The fractures were reduced under image intensifier and stabilized by halo jacket. The immobilization period was 12 weeks. After 1 year, the fracture was roentgenologically consolidated in 12 out of

Radko Komadina; Drago Brilej; Miloš Kosanovi?; Miodrag Vlaovi?

2003-01-01

9

Active vibration H? control of offshore steel jacket platforms using delayed feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with delayed H? control for an offshore steel jacket platforms subject to external wave force. By artificially introducing a proper time-delay into control channel, a delayed H? controller is designed to attenuate the wave-induced vibration of the offshore platform and thereby improve the control performance of the system. The problem of the controller design is transformed into a nonlinear minimization problem. It is shown through simulation results that compared with the delay-free H? control scheme, the vibration amplitudes of the offshore steel jacket platform with the delayed H? control scheme are in the same level as the ones with the delay-free H? control scheme, while the required control force by the delayed H? control scheme is much smaller than that by the delay-free H? control scheme. Compared with the feedforward and feedback optimal control scheme, both the vibration amplitudes of the offshore platform and the required control force with the delayed H? control scheme are smaller than the ones with the feedforward and feedback optimal control scheme.

Zhang, Bao-Lin; Tang, Gong-You

2013-10-01

10

A non-destructive crack detection method for steel jacket offshore platforms based on global and local responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crack detection method for steel jacket offshore platforms based on global (displacement) and local (strain) responses is presented in this paper. One side panel of an idealized three-dimensional space frame structure was used in the numerical analysis; substructuring technique in finite element method was utilized as the numerical analysis procedure. Isoparametric thin shell elements, with reduced Gaussian integration, were

Rabiul Alam; A. S. J. Swamidas

2002-01-01

11

Halo jacket in odontoid fractures type II and III.  

PubMed

The treatment of odontoid fractures remains controversial. The late results of 14 patients with Anderson D'Alonzo type II and III treated with halo jacket from 1995 to 1999 are presented. The fractures were reduced under image intensifier and stabilized by halo jacket. The immobilization period was 12 weeks. After 1 year, the fracture was roentgenologically consolidated in 12 out of 14 patients (85.7%), and all the patients were without neurological deficit. Nine patients (64.3%) were without subjective complaints, five had a reduced range of motion. Painful motion appeared in four patients (28.6%), and cervical stiffness was noted in five (35.7%). We recommend halo jacket for the treatment of most type II and III odontoid fractures which are unstable or displaced 6 mm and more, except for patients with tetraplegia. Fractures with minimal displacement and without neurological deficit were treated conservatively with rigid collars. In our institution, internal fixation was performed in selected cases. The presence of neurological deficit and the anatomic properties of the fracture site crucially influence the choice of treatment. PMID:12721682

Komadina, Radko; Brilej, Drago; Kosanovi?, Milos; Vlaovi?, Miodrag

2003-03-20

12

CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY  

DOEpatents

Reactor faul elements of the elongated cylindrical type which are jacketed in a corrosion resistant material are described. Each feel element is comprised of a plurality of jacketed cylinders of fissionable material in end to end abutting relationship, the jackets being welded together at their adjoining ends to retain the individual segments together and seat the interior of the jackets.

Brugmann, E.W.

1958-08-26

13

The heat transfer characteristics of the jacket-type radial heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, rapid mathematical model to calculate the non-steady-state startup process of the jacket-type radial heat pipe is presented in this paper. The model is based on the special structure and using conditions of the jacket-type radial heat pipe, the vapor temperature in heat pipe only changes over time. The startup performance of the heat pipe with variation input heat flux and the filling rate is analyzed. The results manifest that the filling rate increased will reduce the maximum operating temperature of the heat pipe and shorten the startup time of the heat pipe. With the increase of input heat flux, the operating temperature increases and the time to reach the steady state of the heat pipe is added. The total thermal resistance of heat pipe decreases with the increase of the input heat flux and filling rate. The variation of the local convective heat transfer coefficient and the maximum temperature of the water are investigated with different cooling water inlet conditions.

Jiao, Yonggang; Xia, Guodong; Wang, Dan

2013-07-01

14

Optimum geometry of tuned liquid column-gas damper for control of offshore jacket platform vibrations under seismic excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effectiveness of a tuned liquid column-gas damper, TLCGD, on the suppression of seismicinduced vibrations of steel jacket platforms is evaluated. TLCGD is an interesting choice in the case of jacket platforms because it is possible to use the structural elements as the horizontal column of the TLCGD. The objective here is to find the optimum geometric parameters, namely orientation and configuration of vertical columns, length ratio, and area ratio of the TLCGD, considering nonlinear damping of the TLCGD and water-structure interaction between the jacket platform and sea water. The effects of different characteristics of ground motion such as PGA and frequency content on the optimum geometry are also investigated and it is observed that these features have some influence on the optimum area ratio. Finally it is observed that pulse arrangement of ground acceleration is one of the most important parameters affecting the efficiency of a TLCGD. In other words, it is found that the TLCGD's capability to reduce the RMS responses depends only on the frequency content of the ground acceleration, but its capability to reduce the maximum responses depends on both the frequency content and the pulse arrangement of the ground acceleration.

Mousavi, Seyed Amin; Zahrai, Seyed Mehdi; Bargi, Khosrow

2012-12-01

15

CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY  

DOEpatents

Jacketed metal bodies of the type used as fuel elements for nuclear reactors, which contain an internal elongated body of fissionable material jacketed in a corrosion resistant metal are described. The ends of the internal bodies are provided with screw threads having a tapered outer end. The jacket material overlaps the ends and extends into the tapered section of the screw threaded opening. Screw caps with a mating tapered section are screwed into the ends of the body to compress the jacket material in the tapered sections to provtde an effective seal against corrosive gases and liquids.

Brugmann, E.W.

1958-08-26

16

Jacketed lamp bulb envelope  

DOEpatents

A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Gaithersburg, MD); Bass, Gary K. (Mt. Airy, MD); Dolan, James T. (Frederick, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Leng, Yongzhang (Damascus, MD); Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); Roy, Robert J. (Frederick, MD); Shanks, Bruce (Gaithersburg, MD); Smith, Malcolm (Alexandria, VA); Trimble, William C. (Columbia, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD)

2001-01-01

17

CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY  

DOEpatents

S>Metal jacketed metallic bodies of the type used as feel elements fer nuclear reactors are presented. The fuel element is comprised of a plurality of jacketed cylindrical bodies joined in end to end abutting relationship. The abutting ends of the internal fissionable bodies are provided with a mating screw and thread means for joining the two together. The jacket material is of a corrosion resistant metal and overlaps the abutting ends of the internal bodies, thereby effectively sealing these bodies from contact with exteral reactive gases and liquids.

Brugmann, E.W.

1958-08-26

18

WELDED JACKETED URANIUM BODY  

DOEpatents

A fuel element is presented for a neutronic reactor and is comprised of a uranium body, a non-fissionable jacket surrounding sald body, thu jacket including a portion sealed by a weld, and an inclusion in said sealed jacket at said weld of a fiux having a low neutron capture cross-section. The flux is provided by combining chlorine gas and hydrogen in the intense heat of-the arc, in a "Heliarc" welding muthod, to form dry hydrochloric acid gas.

Gurinsky, D.H.

1958-08-26

19

AIB Offshore Wind Power. Study of the Construction of Offshore Wind Power Units of Naesudden Type.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the request of the National Energy Board AIB - Allmaenna Ingenjoersbyraan AB has made a study of the construction of offshore wind power plant. The underlying assumptions are that the wind turbine system shall be of the type delivered by KaMeWa to Naes...

R. Hardell R. Werner

1984-01-01

20

Postexercise Cooling Rates in 2 Cooling Jackets  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Cooling jackets are a common method for removing stored heat accumulated during exercise. To date, the efficiency and practicality of different types of cooling jackets have received minimal investigation. Objective: To examine whether a cooling jacket containing a phase-change material (PC17) results in more rapid postexercise cooling than a gel cooling jacket and a no-jacket (control) condition. Design: Randomized, counterbalanced design with 3 experimental conditions. Setting: Participants exercised at 75% V?o2max workload in a hot climate chamber (temperature ?=? 35.0 ± 1.4°C, relative humidity ?=? 52 ± 4%) for 30 minutes, followed by postexercise cooling for 30 minutes in cool laboratory conditions (ambient temperature ?=? 24.9 ± 1.8°C, relative humidity ?=? 39% ± 10%). Patients or Other Participants: Twelve physically active men (age ?=? 21.3 ± 1.1 years, height ?=? 182.7 ± 7.1 cm, body mass ?=? 76.2 ± 9.5 kg, sum of 6 skinfolds ?=? 50.5 ± 6.9 mm, body surface area ?=? 1.98 ± 0.14 m2, V?o2max ?=? 49.0 ± 7.0 mL·kg?1·min?1) participated. Intervention(s): Three experimental conditions, consisting of a PC17 jacket, a gel jacket, and no jacket. Main Outcome Measure(s): Core temperature (TC), mean skin temperature (TSk), and TC cooling rate (°C/min). Results: Mean peak TC postexercise was 38.49 ± 0.42°C, 38.57 ± 0.41°C, and 38.55 ± 0.40°C for the PC17 jacket, gel jacket, and control conditions, respectively. No differences were observed in peak TC cooling rates among the PC17 jacket (0.038 ± 0.007°C/min), gel jacket (0.040 ± 0.009°C/min), and control (0.034 ± 0.010°C/min, P > .05) conditions. Between trials, no differences were calculated for mean TSk cooling. Conclusions: Similar cooling rates for all 3 conditions indicate that there is no benefit associated with wearing the PC17 or gel jacket.

Brade, Carly; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen; Polglaze, Ted

2010-01-01

21

Side launch of the Lena guyed tower jacket  

SciTech Connect

The launch of the 27,000-ton Lena jacket was a critical and challenging aspect of the Lena Guyed Tower installation. The Lena jacket was the longest one-piece jacket ever launched, and is the industry's first side launch of a major offshore structure. Although the side launch offered advantages over a conventional end launch, this technique presented unique problems that required extensive analysis and innovative solutions. In addition to requiring significant launch barge modifications, the side launch increased the potential for jacket skewing relative to the barge due to differential friction and caused higher-than normal slamming loads due to high entry velocities. This paper discusses the challenges that were faced and the solutions that were developed. Computer analyses and scale model launch tests are also discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the jacket skewing solution which utilized a special release system similar to that used in the Space Shuttle Program.

Flood, J.K.; Danaczko, M.A.; Greiner, W.L.; Pichini, P.G.

1984-05-01

22

Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket  

DOEpatents

A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

1994-01-01

23

Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket  

DOEpatents

A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

1994-09-20

24

JACKETED URANIUM SLUG  

DOEpatents

Fuel elements for nuclear reactors are described. Eacb fuel element is comprised of a solid cylindrical slug containing fissionable material enclosed within a fluid tight jacket of neutron permeable material such as aluminum. The jacket is provided with a flexible end cap and with a sealing member having a substantially fluid-tight fit within the jacket in tight abutment with the end cap and the end of the slug. A fluid passage is provided between the end of the slug and the cap whereby leakage fiuid is principally directed to the end of the slug. In this manner, any reaction between the fissionable material and fiuid which may take place occurs more rapidly at the end of the slug than along the sides between the slug and the jacket, thereby causing longitudinal expansion of the fuel element prior to radial expansion. The longitudinal expansion can be readily detected and the fuel element removed from the coolant tube before radial expansion causes it to become jammed in the tube.

Ohlinger, L.A.; Cooper, C.M.

1958-10-01

25

Wlan Jacket Mounted Antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel antenna mounted on a textile jacket is presented which arises from previous research work on metal button structures for wearable antennas. The antenna has the dimensions of metallic buttons used in denim clothing. The dimensions have been reduced compared to previously reported designs and this is achieved using dielectric material between two parallel metal plates and a displaced

B. Sanz-Izquierdo; J. C. Batchelor

2007-01-01

26

Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Jacket Type Offshore Platforms through Incremental Dynamic Analysis considering Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of great interest in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) is the accurate estimation of the seismic performance of structures. A performance prediction and evaluation procedure is based on nonlinear dynamics and reliability theory. In this method, a full integration over the three key stochastic models is as follow: ground motion hazard curve, nonlinear dynamic displacement demand, and displacement capacity. Further, both

Behrouz Asgarian; Hamed R. Shokrgozar; Ali Shakeri Talarposhti

2008-01-01

27

Construction of Large Offshore Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The engineering and construction of offshore structures, such as steel jackets, mobile drilling rigs, and artificial islands, are one of the main fields of NKK's activities in large steel structures. The paper, describes NKK's contribution in the fields, ...

K. Tsuruta K. Azuma O. Inokoshi T. Naksume H. Ito

1985-01-01

28

FRP jacketed concrete under uniaxial compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to develop experimental data and check the validity of existing analytical models for the behaviour of concrete members jacketed (i.e., laterally confined) with fibre-reinforced plastic (frp) materials. The test specimens consisted of 150 × 300 mm cylinders of normal weight, normal strength concrete. Specimens loaded statically under uniaxial compression were studied. Three different types

Antonio Nanni; Nick M. Bradford

1995-01-01

29

46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each person carried on...

2012-10-01

30

46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each person carried on...

2011-10-01

31

Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the Southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s-1 offshore gradient wind, from 10 km to 40 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes, respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the eastern coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high gradient wind speed (>15 m s-1) conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature during the sea breeze season do not significantly affect the circulation, suggesting that a thermal contrast is only needed as a precondition to the development of the sea breeze. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be considered in order to improve the accuracy of assessments of the offshore wind energy climate.

Steele, C. J.; Dorling, S. R.; von Glasow, R.; Bacon, J.

2012-06-01

32

Vapor cooled internal combustion engine coolant jacket  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a cooling system for a device having a structure subject to heating: 1.) a coolant jacket formed above the heated structure and into which coolant is introduced in liquid form and permitted to boil; 2.) a manifold in fluid communication with the coolant jacket for receiving the vapor generated within the coolant jacket by the boiling of

Hirano

1986-01-01

33

Wave-PV hybrid generation system carried in the offshore floating type wave power device \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has been engaged in research and development of ocean-wave energy extraction technology for many years now. In particular, work began in 1987 an offshore floating type wave power device called \\

H. Osawa; T. Miyazaki

2004-01-01

34

METHOD OF JACKETING URANIUM BODIES  

DOEpatents

An improved process is presented for providing uranium slugs with thin walled aluminum jackets. Since aluminum has a slightiy higher coefficient of thermal expansion than does uraaium, both uranium slugs and aluminum cans are heated to an elevated temperature of about 180 C, and the slug are inserted in the cans at that temperature. During the subsequent cooling of the assembly, the aluminum contracts more than does the uranium and a tight shrink fit is thus assured.

Maloney, J.O.; Haines, E.B.; Tepe, J.B.

1958-08-26

35

Node Joint Fabrication in Fixed Offshore Production Platforms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extended life expectancy of the present generation of fixed offshore platforms depends upon the integrity of the nodal regions of the fabricated steel jacket and this has led to stringent material, fabrication and inspection standards in these critica...

J. G. Garland P. R. Kirkwood J. R. Still

1975-01-01

36

OMAE 1993: Proceedings. Volume 1: Offshore technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This represents volume 1 of a 5 volume series of offshore technology conference proceedings. This particular paper section deals with information relative to wave forces and energy; hydrodynamic forces and their computation methods; fluid-structure interaction; motions of floating offshore and ship structures;risers, moorings, and cables; design of offshore structures and structural mechanics; and re-assessment of jacket structures. This conference was

S. K. Chakrabarti; C. Aage; Hissaki Maeda; A. N. Williams; D. Morrison

1993-01-01

37

46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on oceans, coastwise...a) of this section, life jacket lights are not required for life jackets on: (1) Ferries; and (2)...

2010-10-01

38

46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise...a) of this section, life jacket lights are not required for life jackets on: (1) Ferries; and (2)...

2009-10-01

39

46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise...a) of this section, life jacket lights are not required for life jackets on: (1) Ferries; and (2)...

2010-10-01

40

46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on oceans, coastwise...a) of this section, life jacket lights are not required for life jackets on: (1) Ferries; and (2)...

2009-10-01

41

46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping...Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on...Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in accordance with §...

2012-10-01

42

46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping...Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on...Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in accordance with Subpart...

2012-10-01

43

46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping...Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on...Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in accordance with §...

2011-10-01

44

46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122...Emergencies § 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing...crew and passengers. (b) Life jacket placards must be posted in each...

2009-10-01

45

46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185...Emergencies § 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing...surface aboard the vessel, the life jacket placards need not be posted but...

2009-10-01

46

46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122...Emergencies § 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing...crew and passengers. (b) Life jacket placards must be posted in each...

2010-10-01

47

46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185...Emergencies § 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing...surface aboard the vessel, the life jacket placards need not be posted but...

2010-10-01

48

Shorting pipeline and jacket cathodic protection systems  

SciTech Connect

The benefits of shorting pipeline and jacket cathodic protection (CP) systems for the external protection of subsea pipelines based on data from operations in the Gulf of Mexico, Persian Gulf, North Sea, and Indonesia are discussed. Shorting, as opposed to traditional electrical isolation, is cost effective because CP surveys and future retrofits are greatly simplified. Jacket CP systems can provide protection of coated pipelines for distances much greater than normally anticipated. Some simple modeling of jacket/pipeline CP systems is used to illustrate the effect of various design parameters.

Thomason, W.H. (Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)); Evans, S. (Conoco Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Rippon, I.J. (Conoco Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Maurin, A.E. III (Conoco Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States))

1993-09-01

49

Discharge lamp with reflective jacket  

DOEpatents

A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

2001-01-01

50

OMAE 1995 -- Proceedings of the 14. international conference on offshore mechanics and arctic engineering. Volume 1, Part B: Offshore technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This conference proceeding represents the second part of the volume of papers related to offshore technology as it relates to design of offshore structures, jacket and floating structures, tension leg platforms, mooring systems, risers, and cables. It also contains papers relating to structural and geotechnical mechanics. Separate abstracts were prepared for 48 papers in this report for inclusion in the

S. K. Chakrabarti; O. T. Gudmestad; C. Sparks; D. G. Morrison

1995-01-01

51

OMAE 1995 -- Proceedings of the 14. international conference on offshore mechanics and arctic engineering. Volume 1, Part B: Offshore technology  

SciTech Connect

This conference proceeding represents the second part of the volume of papers related to offshore technology as it relates to design of offshore structures, jacket and floating structures, tension leg platforms, mooring systems, risers, and cables. It also contains papers relating to structural and geotechnical mechanics. Separate abstracts were prepared for 48 papers in this report for inclusion in the information retrieval system.

Chakrabarti, S.K. [ed.] [Chicago Bridge and Iron Technical Services, Plainfield, IL (United States); Gudmestad, O.T. [ed.] [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway); Sparks, C. [ed.] [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Morrison, D.G. [ed.] [Shell E and P Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

52

Response of fixed offshore platforms to wave and current loading including soil–structure interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixed offshore platforms supported by pile foundations are required to resist dynamic lateral loading due to wave forces. The response of a jacket offshore tower is affected by the flexibility and nonlinear behaviour of the supporting piles. For offshore towers supported by clusters of piles, the response to environmental loads is strongly affected by the pile–soil–pile interaction. In the present

Yasser E. Mostafa; M. Hesham El Naggar

2004-01-01

53

Decommissioning of Offshore Oil and Gas Installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The offshore oil and gas industry had its beginnings in the Gulf of Mexico in 1947. The first offshore development used a\\u000a multipiled steel jacket to support the topside production facilities, a design which has since been used extensively. Now\\u000a there are more than 7000 drilling and production platforms located on the Continental Shelves of 53 countries [1]. Some of

M. D. Day

54

Large Scale Service Loading Fatigue Testing with Particular Reference to Offshore Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A range of tests on welded steel tubular joints, as used in offshore jacket platforms, and parallel work on simpler cruciform welded joints are described. Testing in a seawater environment and the effect of various random loading stress histories appropri...

K. J. Marsh

1980-01-01

55

Earthquake-resistant jacket installed off California  

SciTech Connect

In June 1984, Shell's Eureka platform jacket was loaded out aboard Heerema's 600 x 150-ft H-109 barge and began a 2-wk tow-out and installation phase in 700-ft water in the southern portion of the Beta field, approx. 9 miles off Huntington Beach, Calif. The jacket has 2 distinctions: it is the largest single-piece jacket yet constructed in California, and it is the first built in California with pre-installed curved conductors designed to precisely control angle and direction of wells to be drilled into the reservoir. The jacket is designed to withstand a 100-yr storm and meets API second-level criteria for earthquake survival for the category 2 earthquakes that can be expected in the Beta field. The 720 x 280 x 180-ft, 21,000-ton jacket's largest tubulars are 6 ft in diameter and have a 3.75-in. wall thickness. The structure is pinned to the seabed by twenty-four 5-ft-diameter piles driven 200 to 300 ft into the seabed through skirt pile sleeves.

Not Available

1984-01-01

56

IT Offshoring and American Labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an overview of the offshoring of information technology (IT), especially software and IT-enabled services, and its impacts on American labor. Topics include the history of offshoring politics in the United States, differences in attitudes between politicians and economists in their attitudes about the severity of the offshoring “problem,” national differences in types of offshoring providers, technological and

William Aspray

2010-01-01

57

Porcelain Jacket Crown, Pt 1, The Matrix.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Depicts the various laboratory steps involved in the fabrication of a porcelain jacket crown. The die must have a non-undercut apron on the root section for a distance of several millimeters apical to the margin. The matrix is fabricated for dead soft pla...

1994-01-01

58

Porcelain Jacket Crown, Pt 1, The Matrix.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Depicts the various laboratory steps involved in the fabrication of a porcelain jacket crown. The die must have a non-undercut apron on the root section for a distance of several millimeters apical to the margin. the matrix is fabricated for dead soft pla...

1994-01-01

59

Designer Jackets: Wrap Yourselves in Art Appreciation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an art project that incorporates art history in which high school students create a still-life drawing of one jacket in four styles. Explains that the first drawing should be in the style of the student, while the other three should be in the styles of three well-known artists. Includes a list of artists. (CMK)|

Buck, Susan

2001-01-01

60

46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets....

2010-10-01

61

69kV High-Pressure Oil-Filled Pipe-Type Submarine Lines to Offshore Drilling Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual 69-kV high-pressure oil-filled pipe-type cable system was recently installed by the Southern California Edison Company, Los Angeles, Calif., to serve four offshore oil drilling islands in Long Beach Harbor. Each line is capable of carrying the entire load with parallel line out of service. A submarine pipeline was severed and repaired. Cable pulls, believed to be the longest

William Torok

1969-01-01

62

Offshore yearbook, 1987  

SciTech Connect

This book is an annual compilation of information and articles on offshore petroleum operations. It includes an industry analysis, engineering highlights, a news review of the Western Hemisphere, and an industry outlook for 1987. It provides survey information on deepwater wells, worldwide offshore daily oil production, producing fields by country, and international offshore well count. It also contains mobile rig statistics, including rig scrappings, rig name changes, cold-stacked and for-sale units, and unit types.

Not Available

1987-01-01

63

Smart Sensors and Integrated Shm System for Offshore Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology, which is synthesis of advanced sensor technology, data processing, damage diagnosis and condition assessment techniques, is now shaping for the safety and cost-effective managements for infrastructures. Some advanced sensors and their integrated SHM system for monitoring CB32A offshore jacket platform structures is reported in this paper. Fiber Bragg Optic Sensors for strains, Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)

Zhongdong Duan; Jinping Ou; Zhi Zhou; Xuefeng Zhao

64

Protective riser-conductor for offshore structures  

SciTech Connect

A protective sleeve for fitting about the periphery of the leg of an offshore structure. The sleeve comprises means for carrying and enclosing a plurality of conductors. It further includes one or more inner rings; an outer jacket is fixedly spaced from the rings to define longitudinal passages within which the respective conductors are fixedly positioned. The sleeve is capable of deflecting packed ice and floating objects which represent possible sources of damage to the structure or to conductors.

Rutherford, D. A.; Albers, G. P.

1985-07-09

65

Factory-jacketed insulation wraps pipes against corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Insulated from harsh environments and fluctuating temperatures, outdoor pipelines can flow freely and efficiently. But pipe insulation is only as good as its jacketing is corrosion-proof. The non-metal, snap-on jacketing described here in two case histories offers superior corrosion resistance for a moderate price.

Not Available

1984-07-01

66

Ported jacket for use in deformation measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

A device for allowing deformation measurement of a jacketed specimen when the specimen is loaded includes an elastomeric specimen container or jacket surrounding a specimen while the specimen is being loaded by a test apparatus. The specimen jacket wall is compressible, and the wall follows and allows deformation of the specimen. The jacket wall of compressible material is provided with at least one opening and a thin layer or shim of substantially non-compressible (metal) material which covers and seals this opening. An extensometer is then positioned with its specimen engaging contact members engaging the substantially non-compressible material to measure the deformation of the specimen when the specimen is loaded, without compressibility effects of the jacket. 9 figs.

Wagner, L.A.; Senseny, P.E.; Mellegard, K.D.; Olsberg, S.B.

1990-03-06

67

Influence of the "squeeze jacket" on lung function in young infants.  

PubMed

The possible influence of the "squeeze jacket" on measurements of lung function in young infants was examined in 29 infants. In 19 infants, a comparison was made between jacket off and jacket on with the arms held inside the jacket. With the jacket on (arms inside), we found a significant reduction in thoracic gas volume (TGV). Passive compliance of the respiratory system (Crs) was also significantly decreased, while the resistance of the respiratory system (Rrs) was significantly increased. An additional 10 infants were studied comparing jacket off with jacket on (arms outside) and jacket on (arms inside). TGV was significantly less with the jacket on (arms inside) compared to jacket off and jacket on (arms outside), while Rrs and mouth pressure at end-inspiratory occlusion (Pm) were significantly increased. There was no difference between jacket off and jacket on (arms outside). These observations suggest that the squeeze jacket with the arms held at the infant's side inside the jacket exerts a restricting effect on chest and abdominal wall movement and leads to errors in the measurements. To avoid these potential errors, measurements should be made without the jacket on or with the arms held outside the jacket. PMID:2981026

Steinbrugger, B; Lanigan, A; Raven, J M; Olinsky, A

1988-11-01

68

Porcelain Jacket Crown, Pt 2, Porcelain Build-Up.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Describes the proper manipulation of the various materials used in building-up a porcelain jacket crown. Emphasizes proper condensation by blotting, tapping, vibration, and drying. Firing and cooling are demonstrated. Shows blending of the dentin and enam...

1994-01-01

69

Jacketing of Optical Fibers with Ordered Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermotropic liquid crystal polyesters (LCPs), based on improved polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and para-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), are investigated as a secondary jacketing material for enclosing optical fibers. Because of shear- and deformation-induced molecular orientations produced during extrusion, the newly developed LCPs exhibit low thermal expansion coefficients and high Young's moduli. As a result, the LCP-jacketed optical fibers show small loss increases

Fumio Yamamoto

1987-01-01

70

Modal parameters for structural integrity monitoring of fixed offshore platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most commonly used offshore oil-production platforms, the jacket structures, because of their long service in a very hostile\\u000a environment, require periodic inspection for structural integrity. Present-day diver inspection is highly uneconomical and\\u000a has certain inherent limitations. To overcome these limitations, it has been proposed to use an instrumented monitoring system\\u000a based on the dynamic response of the platform. Several

V. G. Idichandy; C. Ganapathy

1990-01-01

71

Composites in offshore technology in the next century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advisability of application of advanced composites in deep-water offshore technology is shown using risers and tendons\\u000a as examples. Numerical estimations of the parameters of multilayered metal-composite risers are obtained. Two new processes\\u000a of spatial braiding for creating the external jackets of compound tendons are considered. Advanced composites are the only\\u000a possible choice for exploitation of deposits at depths greater

Yu. M. Tarnopol'skii; V. L. Kulakov; D. D. Mungalov

1999-01-01

72

Destabilization and intracranial fragmentation of a full metal jacket bullet.  

PubMed

We report a case with an atypical entrance wound as a result of a destabilized full metal jacket bullet penetration. The destabilized bullet by an impact with the dorsal hand experiences a yawing to tumbling motion in flight. The large angle of yaw induces a larger presenting profile upon impact that contributes, associated to a rapid deceleration, to a greater mechanical force on the projectile structure and a fragmentation into core and jacket. Forensic pathologists have to be aware that the metal jacket bullet could tend to break up outside or inside the body particularly after a shooting through a target. This phenomenon induces atypical entrance wounds and atypical X-ray presentation. PMID:19733330

Farrugia, A; Raul, J S; Geraut, A; Tortel, M C; Ludes, B

2009-02-18

73

World offshore  

SciTech Connect

An update for offshore operations in the Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, Brazil, Australia, and Argentina is presented. The points of discussion are exploration targets, production figures, governmental controls, and drilling programs. There is some discussion of land leases.

Redden, J.

1984-07-20

74

Seismic retrofit of square reinforced concrete piers by ferrocement jacketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was conducted to strengthen shear deficient reinforced concrete columns using ferrocement jacketing. Three scale model specimens, identical to the actual bridge piers, were tested. One of the piers was tested under as-built condition while the other two were strengthened with layers of wire mesh before being tested. All the specimens were subjected to a simulated seismic loading

P. Rathish Kumar; Toshiyuki Oshima; Shuichi Mikami; Tomoyuki Yamazaki

2005-01-01

75

Wearable Sensor Badge and Sensor Jacket for Context Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of sensors to wearable computers allows them to adapt their functions to more suit the activities and situation of their wearers. Here a wearable sensor badge is described constructed from (hard) electronic components, which can sense perambulatory activities for context-awareness. A wearable sensor jacket is described that uses advanced knitting techniques to form (soft) fabric stretch sensors positioned

Jonny Farringdon; Andrew J. Moore; Nancy Tilbury; James Church; Pieter D. Biemond

1999-01-01

76

Experiments with jacketed rods of high fineness ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cylinders of high fineness ratio can show severe integrity and stability problems during acceleration and free-flight phase. The paper describes a method to overcome these problems by adding an envelope to the slender cylinder thereby augmenting the stiffness under flexure. Theoretical considerations treat the pros and cons of jackets with different Young's moduli while looking at various parameters such as

H. F. Lehr; E. Wollman; G. Koerber

1995-01-01

77

Red Jacket and the Decolonization of Republican Virtue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|History has not always been kind to Sagoyewatha, or, as he is more commonly known, Red Jacket. One of the most eloquent spokesmen for Native sovereignty in the early national period, Sagoyewatha was nonetheless accused by his peers of cowardice, alcoholism, and egotism. Fortunately, this picture is beginning to change. Christopher Densmore's…

Ganter, Granville

2007-01-01

78

Towers for Offshore Wind Turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy from wind over the oceans and convert to electric energy. The advantages of offshore wind turbines as compared to land are that offshore winds flow at higher speed than onshore winds and the more available space. In some land based settings, for better efficiency, turbines are separated as much as 10 rotor diameters from each other. In offshore applications where only two wind directions are likely to predominate, the distances between the turbines arranged in a line can be shortened to as little as two or four rotor diameters. Today, more than a dozen offshore European wind facilities with turbine ratings of 450 kw to 3.6 MW exist offshore in very shallow waters of 5 to 12 m. Compared to onshore wind turbines, offshore wind turbines are bigger and the tower height in offshore are in the range of 60 to 80 m. The water depths in oceans where offshore turbines can be located are within 30 m. However as the distance from land increases, the costs of building and maintaining the turbines and transmitting the power back to shore also increase sharply. The objective of this paper is to review the parameters of design for the maximum efficiency of offshore wind turbines and to develop types offshore towers to support the wind turbines. The methodology of design of offshore towers to support the wind turbine would be given and the environmental loads for the design of the towers would be calculated for specific cases. The marine corrosion on the towers and the methods to control the corrosion also would be briefly presented. As the wind speeds tend to increase with distance from the shore, turbines build father offshore will be able to capture more wind energy. Currently two types of towers are considered. Cylindrical tubular structures and truss type structures. But truss type structures have less weight and flexibility in design. The construction of the offshore towers to harness the wind energy is also presented. The results will include the calculation of wind and wave forces on the tower and the design details for the tower.

Kurian, V. J.; Narayanan, S. P.; Ganapathy, C.

2010-06-01

79

Electric field detection with a piezoelectric polymer-jacketed single-mode optical fiber.  

PubMed

The detection of electric fields with a piezoelectric polymer-jacketed single-mode optical fiber is proposed. The polymer-jacketed fiber is incorporated as the sensing arm of a Mach-Zehnder fiber-optic interferometer. Calculations are presented for the fractional phase change/unit electric field strength of monochromatic light propagating in a poly(vinylidene fluoride)-jacketed fiber as a function of jacket radius. A minimum detectable field strength of 6.0 microV/m is estimated for a 1-km length of jacketed fiber. PMID:20401044

Desouza, P D; Mermelstein, M D

1982-12-01

80

A comparison of the Minerva and halo jackets for stabilization of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

The motion at each intervertebral level permitted by the halo jacket and the thermoplastic Minerva body jacket was compared in 10 ambulatory patients with an unstable cervical spine. The thermoplastic Minerva body jacket is a new lightweight modification of a Minerva jacket which is fabricated from Polyform (a splinting material made of a polyester polycaprolactone) and Polycushion (a closed-cell foam for padding). Each patient served as his/her own control. The average movement from flexion to extension at each intervertebral level was significantly less in the thermoplastic Minerva body jacket (2.3 degrees +/- 1.7 degrees) than in the halo jacket (3.7 degrees +/- 3.1 degrees) (p less than 0.0025). This difference is attributable to the "snaking phenomenon" encountered with halo jacket immobilization and should be taken into account when considering an external splint for an unstable cervical spine. The thermoplastic Minerva body jacket also offered a substantial improvement in comfort for the patient over that experienced in the halo jacket. The apparent advantage with respect to stability and comfort of the thermoplastic Minerva body jacket over the halo jacket suggests that the former device is the orthosis of choice for ambulatory stabilization of most patients with an unstable posttraumatic cervical spine injury. PMID:2915248

Benzel, E C; Hadden, T A; Saulsbery, C M

1989-03-01

81

Method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple  

DOEpatents

A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

Thermos, Anthony Constantine (Greer, SC); Rahal, Fadi Elias (Easley, SC)

2002-01-01

82

Progress in Production and Qualification of Stainless Steel Jacket Material for the Conductor of the ITER Central Solenoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

When energized, the ITER Central Solenoid coils experience large pulsed electromagnetic forces that the conductor jacket itself must withstand. The conductor jacket consists of circle-in-square extruded and drawn austenitic stainless steel pipes. The qualification of the production of stainless steel jacket material was carried out on jackets manufactured in both a very low carbon AISI 316LN grade and a high

Stefano Sgobba; Jean-Michel Dalin; Paul Libeyre; Dawid Jaroslaw Marcinek; Arman Nyilas

2012-01-01

83

Multiple inspection modelling for decision making and management of jacket offshore platforms: effect of False Alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insertion of inspection results into decision scheme is still a challenge for structural analysis. Methods are generally named Risk Based Inspection. They aimed to provide aid tools to operators of marine structures which have to ensure that structural integrity is maintained at a sufficient level during in- service life or in case of reassessment. The objective is a global optimization

Franck SCHOEFS; Alexandre CLEMENT

84

Smarter offshoring.  

PubMed

During the past 15 years, companies have flocked to a handful of cities in India and Eastern Europe for offshore service functions. As a result, the most popular sites are now overheating: Demand for young professionals is outstripping supply, wages and turnover are soaring, and overburdened infrastructure systems are struggling to serve the explosive growth. The happy news is that the tight labor markets in the well-known hot spots are the exceptions, not the rule. Many attractive alternatives are emerging around the world. According to a McKinsey Global Institute study, more than 90% of the vast and rapidly growing pool of university-educated people suitable for work in multinationals are located outside the current hot spot cities. For instance, Morocco is now home to offshore centers for French and Spanish companies requiring fluent speakers of their home languages. Neighboring Tunisia has used its modern infrastructure, business-friendly regulations, and stable, low-cost workforce to attract companies such as Siemens and Wanadoo. Vietnam offers university graduates who have strong mathematics skills; speak French, English, German, or Russian; and do not demand high wages. The problems facing the hot spots, coupled with the emergence of many more countries able and willing to provide offshore services, mean that picking a site has become more complicated. In choosing a location, companies will have to focus less on low wages and much more on other ways that candidate cities can fulfill their business needs. They will have to be much more rigorous in articulating precisely what they require from an offshore location. That means evaluating their unique needs on a range of dimensions and understanding how alternative locations can meet those needs for the foreseeable future. PMID:16770896

Farrell, Diana

2006-06-01

85

Judging a movie by its cover: A content analysis of sexual portrayals on video rental jackets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content analysis of video rental jackets was conducted to examine the prevalence and nature of sexual portrayals. While\\u000a sexuality in the general photo themes and written descriptions (teasers) on the jackets was relatively uncommon, attractive\\u000a characters and characters in sexy clothing and with skin exposed were more frequently observed. Female characters on the jackets\\u000a were more likely than male

Mary Beth Oliver; Omotayo Banjo; Jinhee Kim

2003-01-01

86

Modeling & dynamic studies of heat transfer cooling of liquid in half-coil jackets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The half-coil jacketed vessels find an extensive use in the chemical process industries for the process heating and cooling. The experimental studies of cooling of liquid using half-coil jacket is reported in the present work. The experiments are carried out for flow of coolant through half-coil jacket under both laminar and turbulent flow conditions. Correlations have been developed for the

M. T. Dhotre; Z. V. P. Murthy; N. S Jayakumar

2006-01-01

87

When in Rome : does Polygon need a jacket?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity asks students to decide if a tourist visiting Rome should wear a jacket if the temperature is 35 degrees Celsius. The activity is part of the FigureThis! collection of challenges that emphasize math in the real world. Students are encouraged to approach the problem by drawing a thermometer and labeling it with the freezing and boiling points of water in both the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales. The solution presents a diagram and the formula for converting Celsius to Fahrenheit. The activity includes links to related questions and additional resources online. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

2002-01-01

88

Bubbles and jackets: new scaling bounds in topological group field theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a reformulation of topological group field theories in 3 and 4 dimensions in terms of variables associated to vertices, in 3d, and edges, in 4d, to obtain new scaling bounds for their Feynman amplitudes. In both 3 and 4 dimensions, we obtain a bubble bound proving the suppression of singular topologies with respect to the first terms in the perturbative expansion (in the cut-off). We also prove a new, stronger jacket bound than the one currently available in the literature. We expect these results to be relevant for other tensorial field theories of this type, as well as for group field theory models for 4d quantum gravity.

Carrozza, Sylvain; Oriti, Daniele

2012-06-01

89

46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...jackets and must not be substituted for the approved life jackets required to be worn during drills and emergencies. (b) Wearable marine buoyant devices that include âski vests,â âboating vests,â and âfishing vests,â approved in accordance...

2010-10-01

90

Effect of process design on the open-loop behavior of a jacketed exothermic CSTR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of research in the chemical engineering literature on steady-state multiplicity analysis, nonlinear dynamics, and chemical process control has been based on the (now) classic two-state continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model. One assumption of this model is that the cooling jacket temperature dynamics are negligible, hence the cooling jacket temperature is the manipulated input for feedback control

Louis P. Russo; B. Wayne Bequette

1996-01-01

91

Impact of process design on the multiplicity behavior of a jacketed exothermic CSTR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the previous research on exothermic reactor operation has been based on the classic two-statecontinuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model. An implicit assumption of this model is that the coolingjacket temperature dynamics are negligible. In this case the cooling jacket temperature is the manipulatedinput (instead of the cooling jacket flowrate) for feedback control of reactor temperature. We show thatthe

Louis P. Russo; B. Wayne Bequette

1995-01-01

92

Thermal stresses in tightly jacketed double-coated optical fibers at low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal stresses in tightly jacketed double-coated optical fibers at low temperature have been analyzed by the thermoelastic approach. The lateral pressure and normal stresses in the glass fiber, primary coating, secondary coating, and jacket have been derived. The thermal stresses in the optical fibers are affected by the temperature difference, material properties of polymeric coatings, and their thicknesses. It

Sham-Tsong Shiue

1994-01-01

93

Evaluation of Hybrid-III 6YO ATD Chest Jacket Shape and Position.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In previous work, belt fit on the Hybrid-III six-year-old (6YO) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was found to depend on the positioning of the chest jacket of the ATD. Moreover, differences were noted between jackets manufactured by Denton-ATD and First ...

M. P. Reed S. M. Ebert-Hamilton

2011-01-01

94

High-level GPU computing with jacket for MATLAB and C/C++  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a software platform for the rapid development of general purpose GPU (GPGPU) computing applications within the MATLAB computing environment, C, and C++: Jacket. Jacket provides thousands of GPU-tuned function syntaxes within MATLAB, C, and C++, including linear algebra, convolutions, reductions, and FFTs as well as signal, image, statistics, and graphics libraries. Additionally, Jacket includes a compiler that translates MATLAB and C++ code to CUDA PTX assembly and OpenGL shaders on demand at runtime. A facility is also included to compile a domain specific version of the MATLAB language to CUDA assembly at build time. Jacket includes the first parallel GPU FOR-loop construction and the first profiler for comparative analysis of CPU and GPU execution times. Jacket provides full GPU compute capability on CUDA hardware and limited, image processing focused compute on OpenGL/ES (2.0 and up) devices for mobile and embedded applications.

Pryor, Gallagher; Lucey, Brett; Maddipatla, Sandeep; McClanahan, Chris; Melonakos, John; Venugopalakrishnan, Vishwanath; Patel, Krunal; Yalamanchili, Pavan; Malcolm, James

2011-05-01

95

Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…

Kash, Don E.

1983-01-01

96

Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…

Kash, Don E.

1983-01-01

97

Offshore Outsourcing: Risks, Challenges, and Potential Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

While offshore outsourcing is associated with several benefits, these ventures also pose many risks. In this paper, through an in-depth review, we develop a type 1 analysis theory about the various risks involved in offshore outsourcing projects, the challenges faced by managers in these collaboration initiatives, and solutions that may aid in overcoming those challenges. This paper contributes to both

Tejaswini Herath; Rajiv Kishore

2009-01-01

98

An overview of offshore wind electric energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review offshore wind energy for generating electricity at off-shore sites. In particular, we survey the impacts of offshore wind integration into the grid, various types of generators and their dynamic modeling, fault ride-through techniques used to improve generator and grid integration performance, the aggregated wind turbines modeling and finally highlight some stability and control issues.

Hamed H. Aly; M. E. El-Hawary

2010-01-01

99

Integrated natural gas engine cooling jacket vapor compressor program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique, alternative cogeneration system was designed that provides an industrial or commercial energy user with high pressure steam and electricity directly from a packaged cogeneration system. The Integrated Gas Engine Vapor Compression System concept includes an engine-generator set and a twin screw compressor that are mechanically integrated with the engine. The gas-fueled engine is ebulliently cooled, thus, allowing its water jacket heat to be recovered in the form of low-pressure steam. The steam is then compressed by the steam compressor to higher pressure, and when combined with the high pressure steam generated in the engine's exhaust gas boiler, it provides the end user with a more usable thermal energy source. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

Dibella, F. A.

1990-08-01

100

Fatigue failure paths for offshore platform inspection  

SciTech Connect

A closed- form, reliability-based procedure is developed to identify fatigue failure paths of offshore structures and assess the notional probability of system failure through these paths. The procedure utilizes the Miners rule node fatigue failure reliability model developed by Wirsching. Effects of load redistribution following the fatigue failure of a node on the time to failure of remaining unfailed nodes is taken into consideration. Primary fatigue failure paths are identified through use of a branch and bound procedure. The components that fall in these paths are relatively critical to platform integrity. A platform inspection, therefore, needs to be planned around these components, as the failure of these would ultimately lead to system failure. The use of the procedure is demonstrated by application to a plane frame representation of a fixed shallow-water offshore jacket. The procedure is general in nature and neither imposes any restrictions in terms of uniform strengths of members nor requires loads to a specific pattern or be shared equally among members.

Karsan, D.I. (Marine Tech. Section, Conoco Inc., Houston, TX (US)); Kumar, A. (Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (US))

1990-06-01

101

A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Jacketed Cuvette for the Spectronic 20  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The construction of a simple and inexpensive water-jacketed cuvette for the Spectronic 20 is described. This cuvette is utilized to determine the activation energy of the reaction between crystal violet and hydroxide ion spectrophotomerically.|

Thompson, Jonathan E.; Ting, Jason

2004-01-01

102

A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Jacketed Cuvette for the Spectronic 20  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construction of a simple and inexpensive water-jacketed cuvette for the Spectronic 20 is described. This cuvette is utilized to determine the activation energy of the reaction between crystal violet and hydroxide ion spectrophotomerically.

Thompson, Jonathan E.; Ting, Jason

2004-01-01

103

High-modulus low-linear-expansion-coefficient loose-jacket optical fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical fibers loosely jacketed with high-modulus low-linear-expansion-coefficient polymers have been proposed, and the mechanical, thermal, and optical properties have been investigated. The loose-jacket tube is made of highly oriented polyoxymethylene (POM), which is produced by tensile-drawing the isotropic POM tube with dielectric heating. The oriented POM exhibits Young's moduli 20-40 GPa and linear expansion coefficients of the order of10^{-5}-10^{-6}degC-1. Owing

Fumio Yamamoto; Yoshito Shuto; Hiroki Itoh; Shinzo Yamakawa

1984-01-01

104

The thermoplastic Minerva body jacket: a clinical comparison with other cervical spine splinting techniques.  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis of the efficacy of a variety of external stabilization techniques used in 155 cases of unstable cervical spine injuries is presented. The movement at each intervertebral level was evaluated during thermoplastic Minerva body jacket stabilization in 18 additional patients. Many currently available approaches to external stabilization of the cervical spine were, thus, assessed. Thermoplastic Minerva body jacket stabilization offered superior segmental immobilization compared with published data for the halo. It is concluded that some unstable injuries to the high cervical spine might best be treated with a halo device, whereas mid to low cervical injuries and the remaining upper cervical spine injuries appear to be optimally treated with a Minerva jacket. Lesser injuries may be treated with a variety of available orthoses. The thermoplastic Minerva body jacket offers a superior limitation of intervertebral movement compared with other commonly used braces, including the halo jacket, for most cervical spine injuries. The technique of application of the thermoplastic Minerva body jacket is reviewed. PMID:1520990

Benzel, E C; Larson, S J; Kerk, J J; Millington, P J; Novak, S M; Falkner, R H; Wenninger, W J

1992-09-01

105

Underwater noise from three types of offshore wind turbines: estimation of impact zones for harbor porpoises and harbor seals.  

PubMed

Underwater noise was recorded from three different types of wind turbines in Denmark and Sweden (Middelgrunden, Vindeby, and Bockstigen-Valar) during normal operation. Wind turbine noise was only measurable above ambient noise at frequencies below 500 Hz. Total sound pressure level was in the range 109-127 dB re 1 microPa rms, measured at distances between 14 and 20 m from the foundations. The 1/3-octave noise levels were compared with audiograms of harbor seals and harbor porpoises. Maximum 1/3-octave levels were in the range 106-126 dB re 1 microPa rms. Maximum range of audibility was estimated under two extreme assumptions on transmission loss (3 and 9 dB per doubling of distance, respectively). Audibility was low for harbor porpoises extending 20-70 m from the foundation, whereas audibility for harbor seals ranged from less than 100 m to several kilometers. Behavioral reactions of porpoises to the noise appear unlikely except if they are very close to the foundations. However, behavioral reactions from seals cannot be excluded up to distances of a few hundred meters. It is unlikely that the noise reaches dangerous levels at any distance from the turbines and the noise is considered incapable of masking acoustic communication by seals and porpoises. PMID:19507958

Tougaard, Jakob; Henriksen, Oluf Damsgaard; Miller, Lee A

2009-06-01

106

Classification of offshore mass movements  

SciTech Connect

More than 100 offshore mass-movement deposits have been studied in Holocene and Pleistocene sediments. The processes can be divided into three main types: slides/slumps, plastic flows, and turbidity currents, of which 13 main varieties have been recognized. The three types are differentiated mainly by motion, architecture, and shape of failure surface. For slides, the morphology of deposits can usually be linked to a process, but for plastic flows and turbidity currents, information about the motion is mainly provided by the sedimentary record. A static classification based on these features is given, and is related to a dynamic classification system to try to underline the morphological transformation of an offshore event from initiation to deposition.

Mulder, T. [Inst. Francais de Recherches pour l`Exploitation de la Mer, Plouzane (France). Dept. de Geosciences Marines]|[Ecole Nationale Superieure de Geologie, Vandeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Lab. de Geomecanique; Cochonat, P. [Inst. Francais de Recherches pour l`Exploitation de la Mer, Plouzane (France). Dept. de Geosciences Marines

1996-01-01

107

EVALUATION OF THE FAILURE OF A RADIOACTIVE WASTE TRANSFER LINE JACKET  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive wastes are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste is transported between tanks primarily via an underground transfer piping system. Due to the hazardous nature of the waste, the inner core stainless steel pipe is typically surrounded by a carbon steel pipe jacket, which provides secondary containment. Recently several through-wall penetrations were discovered on a segment of one of the jackets. An evaluation was performed to verify the failure mechanism and to estimate the degree of damage that occurred to the pipe segment. Failure analysis of a section of the jacket confirmed that pitting corrosion on the exterior of the pipe led to the through-wall penetration. Ultrasonic measurements on sections of the pipe were utilized to determine the remaining wall thickness in adjacent areas of the pipe. Based on these measurements, the degree of pitting and general corrosion was determined. Pit growth rate models were then developed to estimate the life expectancy of sections of the pipe that had not been excavated. The calculations estimated that the occurrence of through-wall failures in this jacket will begin to increase substantially in 12 years. Given that this pipe segment will be utilized beyond this time, short-term and long-term solutions to this failure were proposed. The short-term solutions focused on the repair or replace decisions that must be made to return the jacket to service as soon as practical. The long-term solutions focused on a broader strategy to address jacket integrity issues in the entire tank farm facility. These solutions included the evaluation of innovative remote inspection and repair techniques.

Wiersma, B; Alan03 Plummer, A; Karthik Subramanian, K; Charles Jenkins, C; William Hinz, W; A Fellinger, A

2007-04-06

108

Offshore wind energy prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In last two years offshore wind energy is becoming a focal point of national and non national organizations particularly after the limitations of fossil fuel consumption, adopted by many developed countries after Kyoto conference at the end of 1997 on global climate change. North Europe is particularly interested in offshore for the limited land areas still available, due to the

Gaetano Gaudiosi

1999-01-01

109

Session: Offshore wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This session at the Wind Energy and Birds\\/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine

Jette Gaarde; Bonnie Ram

2004-01-01

110

Offshore oil: an overview  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an assessment of the current status of offshore activity with particular reference to (1) trends in offshore production, and (2) the intensity and location of exploration drilling, this being an essential precondition for any future increase in offshore crude production. The report includes in-depth profiles of those non-OPEC nationa where the chances of discovering further recoverable offshore reserves appear highest. The underlying concern is to identify those nations that are on the offshore frontier. It is these nations that must resolve in an appropriate and timely manner the particular policy issues that arise in the course of offshore oil exploration and production. These issues include (1) the development of appropriate, risk-free offshore technologies, and (2) balancing of conflicting and competing demands for land (recreational use, wetland preservation, siting of infrastructure and energy-related facilities) in the coastal zone. In these respects, the exploitation of offshore oil and gas poses a unique form of challenge.

Manners, I.R.

1980-06-01

111

Pricing offshore wind power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We

Andrew C. Levitt; Willett Kempton; Aaron P. Smith; Walt Musial; Jeremy Firestone

2011-01-01

112

Experimental duplication of the important physical evidence of the lapel bulge of the jacket worn by Governor Connally when bullet 399 went through him.  

PubMed

By duplicating the wound to the neck of President Kennedy, which caused bullet 399 to turn sideways, and having it then hit a Connally-type rib cage with shirt and jacket, we reproduced the right-sided bulge of the jacket worn by Connally, with lapel eversion, which is so significant in frame 224. The extensive damage to his shirtfront was from the hail of rib fragments and soft tissue, exactly as described with his own shirt. Our tumbling bullet then went on to fracture a radius and be recovered intact except that it was somewhat flattened and bent and had lead extruded from the rear, as did bullet 399. Fragments of this lead were scraped off on the ragged bone-ends of some of our fractured radiuses, just as with Governor Connally's radius. It is believed that this duplication of the jacket and lapel bulge of Governor Connally, which occurred dependably, when we reproduced the circumstances at Dallas, confirmed this very important detail in this technical demonstration of the findings in the shooting of President Kennedy and Governor Connally. The bulge and the lapel eversion of the jacket worn by Governor Connally, starting in Zapruder frame 224, does indeed establish, beyond any shadow of a doubt, the exact moment when bullet 399 went through him. The right arms of both men were seen to react simultaneously, immediately thereafter. It also permits us to establish that there was plenty of time (three and one-half seconds) between the first two shots (frames 160 to 224) and even more time (five seconds) between the last two shots (frames 224 to 313), for Oswald to reload, reacquire his target (the head of President Kennedy) plus two full seconds to lock onto it. If the bullet does not traverse the neck of President Kennedy, it does not cause Governor Connally's jacket and lapel to bulge. The lapel bulge is a very important bit of actual physical evidence in establishing the fact that one bullet hit both men and that Oswald had plenty of time to hit the President, first in the neck and then in the head. These experiments confirm the mechanism of the lapel bulge and the behavior of the bullet. PMID:8167893

Lattimer, J K; Laidlaw, A; Heneghan, P; Haubner, E J

1994-05-01

113

Design of tightly jacketed double-coated optical fibers to minimize mechanical strip forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal design of tightly jacketed double-coated optical fibers to minimize the mechanical strip force is investigated. The stripper is assumed to consist of two hinged arms and paired blades with semicircular bore. It is found that the strip force is a function of the bore radius of the stripper. The optimal bore radius of the stripper is equal to

Sham-Tsong Shiue

1997-01-01

114

Operability of chemical reactors: multiplicity behavior of a jacketed styrene polymerization reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady-state multiplicity analysis is used to study the operability of a jacketed exothermic styrene polymerization CSTR. The global multiplicity behavior is characterized in terms of an initiator decomposition Damkohler number and the dimensionless heat of reaction. Low and high-temperature infeasibility regions are shown to occur under certain design conditions. The approach developed is based on using a combination of analytical

Louis P. Russo; B. Wayne Bequette

1998-01-01

115

Drop-n-Play: A new device interface for iPod jackets  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a decade of research on smart textiles, numerous e-textile products such as iPod jackets have reached the market. However, they seem to be unpopular due to lack of convenience. This paper presents a new device interface called Drop-n-Play that connects portable devices with smart textiles using an intuitive and convenient method.

Hyung Sun Lee; Il-Yeon Cho

2010-01-01

116

Corrosion of aluminum jackets on aboveground heat-distribution systems. Final technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe corrosion of aluminum sheet used as a protective jacket on aboveground heat distribution systems has occurred at several military installations. This study was conducted to determine the cause of this corrosion and to recommend revisions to guide specifications on the design, selection, and construction on insulation systems on aboveground systems. Used and virgin materials were tested to determine the

K. E. Cooper; E. G. Segan

1986-01-01

117

Recombinant phospholipase A1 (Ves v 1) from yellow jacket venom for improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity  

PubMed Central

Background Hymenoptera venoms are known to cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Proper diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivities. Although non-glycosylated marker allergens would facilitate the identification of the culprit venom, the major allergen phospholipase A1 (Ves v 1) from yellow jacket venom (YJV) remained unavailable so far. Methods Expression of Ves v 1 as wild type and enzymatically inactivated mutant and Ves v 5 in insect cells yielded soluble proteins that were purified via affinity chromatography. Functionality of the recombinant allergens was assessed by enzymatic and biophysical analyses as well as basophil activation tests. Diagnostic relevance was addressed by ELISA-based analyses of sera of YJV-sensitized patients. Results Both major allergens Ves v 1 and Ves v 5 could be produced in insect cells in secreted soluble form. The recombinant proteins exhibited their particular biochemical and functional characteristics and were capable for activation of human basophils. Assessment of IgE reactivity of sera of YJV-sensitized and double-sensitized patients emphasised the relevance of Ves v 1 in hymenoptera venom allergy. In contrast to the use of singular molecules the combined use of both molecules enabled a reliable assignment of sensitisation to YJV for more than 90% of double-sensitised patients. Conclusions The recombinant availability of Ves v 1 from yellow jacket venom will contribute to a more detailed understanding of the molecular and allergological mechanisms of insect venoms and may provide a valuable tool for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in hymenoptera venom allergy.

2010-01-01

118

Development of a controlled bending application method for investigating Nb3Sn jacketed strands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) R&D programme part concerning the Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor of the Toroidal Field coils, a dedicated programme of action was launched within the European Fusion Technology Programme, designed to improve the investigation of the impact of bending strain on recently developed industrially advanced Nb3Sn strands. In order to ensure that the ITER TF coils experience relevant mechanical conditions, the Nb3Sn strands were jacketed inside a 0.2 mm thick stainless steel tube, simulating the mechanical influence of the jacket on the cable strands. In this paper we will describe in detail the four candidate methods that were investigated for imposing a pure controlled bending strain on the jacketed strands. A common feature of these methods is that they study the reaction of the strand on a heat treatment mandrel and transfer it onto a test mandrel with a different diameter. In practice, the imposed bending strain is limited to 0.5%. Two solutions are considered: a reduction or an increase in diameter of the mandrel. Also, two options are possible for the jacket removal at strand ends for connection to the current leads: before or after the heat treatment. The four options are tested to provide an area of investigation that is as large as possible. Specific support together with tool design and manufacture will be presented. A general comparison of all options as regards specified criteria is also carried out in order to precisely define an action process of the bending application method developed. We find finally that the best approach is the method in which the radius is increased and the stainless steel jacket is removed before heat treatment.

Zani, L.; Cloez, H.; Tena, M.; Della Corte, A.; Muzzi, L.; Di Zenobio, A.

2005-12-01

119

Offshore Pipeline Failures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview of current concerns in the regulation of offshore pipelines is presented along with tabulated summaries of pipeline failure causes, failure prevention techniques, and pipeline monitoring and early intervention techniques. A database of over 10...

R. D. Woodson

1990-01-01

120

CONFERENCE REPORT: Engineering offshore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Report on 3rd international offshore mechanics and arctic engineering symposium (part of Energy sources technology conference and exhibition), ASME and others, 12-16 February 1984 in New Orleans, USA.

Tony Blakeborough

1984-01-01

121

Session: Offshore wind  

SciTech Connect

This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

2004-09-01

122

Proceedings of the ninth international conference on offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The Offshore Technology Symposium covers the following subjects: ocean waves, hydrodynamic forces, nonlinear hydrodynamics, fluid structure interaction, motions of floating structures, compliant structures, risers/moorings/cables, structural mechanics/analysis, design methods of structures, prototype structures, and computer technology/expert systems. The session on ocean waves includes numerical simulation, irregular and hurricane waves, laboratory data on nonlinear wave groups, and measurement techniques, as well as offshore field data. There are numerous papers on hydrodynamics and nonlinear hydrodynamics. They include analytical, numerical, and experimental research on fixed and moving offshore structures. The sessions of the fluid structure interaction and motions of floating structures mainly deal with the dynamics of floating offshore structures. These papers are followed by compliant structures and risers and mooring lines. There is one session on structural mechanics dealing with structural member loading effect and structure/soil interaction problems. Design methods of different offshore structures including jackets, concrete platforms, and articulated and guyed towers have been included. Also, several prototype structures have been discussed here. Finally, the session on computer technology includes such topics as automation, computer modeling, and expert systems.

Chakrabarti, S.K. (Chicago Bridge and Iron Technical Services Co., Plainfield, IL (United States)); Maeda, H. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)); Aage, C. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (DN)); Nielsen, F.G. (Norsk Hydro Research Centre, Bergen (NO))

1990-01-01

123

Management of offshore wastes in the United States.  

SciTech Connect

During the process of finding and producing oil and gas in the offshore environment operators generate a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Some of these wastes are directly related to exploration and production activities (e.g., drilling wastes, produced water, treatment workover, and completion fluids) while other types of wastes are associated with human occupation of the offshore platforms (e.g., sanitary and domestic wastes, trash). Still other types of wastes can be considered generic industrial wastes (e.g., scrap metal and wood, wastes paints and chemicals, sand blasting residues). Finally, the offshore platforms themselves can be considered waste materials when their useful life span has been reached. Generally, offshore wastes are managed in one of three ways--onsite discharge, injection, or transportation to shore. This paper describes the regulatory requirements imposed by the government and the approaches used by offshore operators to manage and dispose of wastes in the US.

Veil, J. A.

1998-10-22

124

Getting offshoring right.  

PubMed

The prospect of offshoring and outsourcing business processes has captured the imagination of CEOs everywhere. In the past five years, a rising number of companies in North America and Europe have experimented with this strategy, hoping to reduce costs and gain strategic advantage. But many businesses have had mixed results. According to several studies, half the organizations that have shifted processes offshore have failed to generate the expected financial benefits. What's more, many of them have faced employee resistance and consumer dissatisfaction. Clearly, companies have to rethink how they formulate their offshoring strategies. A three-part methodology can help. First, companies need to prioritize their processes, ranking each based on two criteria: the value it creates for customers and the degree to which the company can capture some of that value. Companies will want to keep their core (highest-priority) processes in-house and consider outsourcing their commodity (low-priority) processes; critical (moderate-priority) processes are up for debate and must be considered carefully. Second, businesses should analyze all the risks that accompany offshoring and look systematically at their critical and commodity processes in terms of operational risk (the risk that processes won't operate smoothly after being offshored) and structural risk (the risk that relationships with service providers may not work as expected). Finally, companies should determine possible locations for their offshore efforts, as well as the organizational forms--such as captive centers and joint ventures--that those efforts might take. They can do so by examining each process's operational and structural risks side by side. This article outlines the tools that will help companies choose the right processes to offshore. It also describes a new organizational structure called the extended organization, in which companies specify the quality of services they want and work alongside providers to get that quality. PMID:16334588

Aron, Ravi; Singh, Jitendra V

2005-12-01

125

Processing Bachaquero and offshore California crudes  

SciTech Connect

The need to refine heavy crudes such as Venezuela's Bachaquero and California's offshore crude oils has encouraged several refiners to revamp existing facilities and to add new residual oil processing capabilities. This paper addresses some of the design and operating factors to be considered when processing these types of crudes. It also presents a summary of licensor data for upgrading vacuum residue from Bachaquero crude. Additionally, the paper describes some of the projects designed for processing Bachaquero crude and how similar processing can apply to some of the offshore California crudes which are similar to Bachaquero.

Jones, W.T.; Meers, S.W.; McClanahan, D.E.; Mitchem, C.

1986-01-01

126

Marine Pollution from Offshore Chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyses the influencing impact on the marine environment caused by the various chemical effluents from the offshore drilling and production. The offshore chemicals used at the Statfjord and Ekofisk fields on the Norwegian Continental Shelf are...

O. Bjoerseth G. Halmoe R. Romslo T. Syvertsen

1986-01-01

127

Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

2006-02-01

128

Offshore and Arctic operations, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains the following topics: Design advantages of Beta Titanium 38-644 springs in outfield applications, Caissin support structure (CSS), Optimizing operations for offshore platform fabrication, Concrete strength evaluation of offshore structures.

R. G. Urquhart; A. S. Tawfik

1991-01-01

129

Improved Offshore Recovery. Pt. 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This section of the proceedings contains five papers covering: Improving recoveries from offshore chalk reservoirs; Improved recovery from thin oil sands, Part I Frigg field; Part II Troll field; Part III Balder field; Improved offshore recovery-state of ...

1984-01-01

130

Insulations and Jackets for Control and Power Cables in Thermal Reactor Nuclear Generating Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permanent change in the physical strengths, rate of oxidation, dielectric loss, and electrical stability in 40-psig (142??C) steam and dielectric strength are reported for 13 elastomer-based insulation-jacket combinations after irradiation up to 108 rad in air at 5 ??105 rad\\/h from a cobalt 60 source. Threshold of damage for each property, overall threshold of damage, and highest dose rate

Robert Blodgett; Robert Fisher

1969-01-01

131

Drilling and producing offshore  

SciTech Connect

Hall and his team of authors share technically detailed state-of-the-art designs, equipment and techniques, focusing on fixed-platform operations. This book provides explicit data on offshore equipment and procedures. Contents: Development drilling structures -- template, concrete gravity, and other platforms; Development drilling systems -- through-the-leg drilling, floating drilling, tension-leg platform drilling, template utilization, and mud-line casing suspension and casing support systems; Completion systems -- platform completions, through-the-leg completions, tension-leg completions, multiwell subsea completions, and subsea satellite completion systems; Production control -- wellhead control systems and subsea production control systems; Offshore oil-field diving operations and equipment -- commercial diving, history of diving, international offshore oil-field diving, physiological constraints in diving, diving capabilities and equipment, future trends.

Hall, R.S.

1983-01-01

132

The Teaching Artist in New Jersey: Full Metaphor Jacket  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author relates how his friends do not understand the type of work that he does as a poetry teacher. His friends know him as someone who cheers on the Yankees voraciously with them and will roll his sleeves up and stuff three knockwurst sandwiches down his throat, trying to explain how Walt Whitman would approve of this, that…

Ward, B. J.

2005-01-01

133

A combined numerical and theoretical study on the penetration of a jacketed rod into semi-infinite targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined numerical and theoretical study is conducted herein on the penetration of semi-infinite targets by jacketed rods with different rj0\\/rc0 ratios where rj0 and rc0 are the radii of the jacket and the core, respectively. The numerical results show that for smaller rj0\\/rc0 ratios the u–v relationship changes only a little compared to that of unitary long rod penetrator

H. M. Wen; Y. He; B. Lan

2011-01-01

134

Reducing Exposures to Airborne Lead in a Covered, Outdoor Firing Range by Using Totally Copper-Jacketed Bullets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of reducing or eliminating airborne lead concentrations at a covered, outdoor firing range by using totally copper-jacketed ammunition. Used in the study were 38-caliber-special police revolvers, and firings were conducted with 38-caliber, totally copper-jacketed bullets. The mean lead levels in general area air samples and personal breathing zone samples were 9.53?µg\\/m and

R. K. TRIPATHI; P. C. SHERERTZ; G. C. LLEWELLYN; C. W. ARMSTRONG; S. L. RAMSEY

1990-01-01

135

Differences in the Element Contents Between Gunshot Entry Wounds with Full-jacketed Bullet and Lead Bullet  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate characteristics of gunshot residues in gunshot entry wounds with full-jacketed and lead bullets, element contents\\u000a in entry gunshot wounds and control skins were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES).\\u000a It was found that a high content of Fe and Zn was deposited in the gunshot entry wounds with full-jacketed bullet, whereas\\u000a a high content of Pb

Klintean Wunnapuk; Piya Durongkadech; Takeshi Minami; Werawan Ruangyuttikarn; Setsuko Tohno; Karnda Vichairat; Cho Azuma; Pongruk Sribanditmongkol; Yoshiyuki Tohno

2007-01-01

136

California offshore LNG port feasible  

Microsoft Academic Search

An offshore facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been declared technologically and economically feasible by the California Coastal Commission, which is also charged with selecting the best onshore site. The Commission chose an offshore site in Ventura County on the basis of its remoteness and fewer potential environmental impacts. An offshore LNG terminal is estimated to cost in the

Murnane

1978-01-01

137

Offshore platform cathodic protection retrofits  

SciTech Connect

Cathodic protection (CP) is the primary technique used for underwater corrosion control on the majority of offshore steel structures. Offshore platforms are often kept in service far beyond their original design life. Refurbishment of the CP system is required when adequate protection can no longer be maintained. Various offshore platform CP retrofit designs are discussed.

Turnipseed, S.P. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

1996-10-01

138

Industry tackles offshore decommissioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of issues still remain unresolved concerning the oil and gas industry`s plans for decommissioning offshore production equipment, especially in deeper waters. Some options preferred by the industry are: deepwater disposal; creation of artificial reefs; and partial removal to more than 85 ft of water depth and leaving the remaining structure in place. The complicating factor for these scenarios

Moritis

1997-01-01

139

Offshore world petroleum frontiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential to find the large oil and gas fields of the future lies in the offshore frontiers. Exploration for petroleum in the coming decades must be concentrated on discovering commercial supplies of the hydrocarbons that lie untapped in these areas. New and better uses of geology, geophysics, petroleum engineering, and technology must be employed in all aspects of exploration,

Halbouty

1983-01-01

140

Offshore balancing revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Through the Looking Glass” contributors reveal that U.S. hegemony is a double?edged sword. As the debate about future U.S. grand strategy unfolds after September 11, offshore balancing should become the successor strategy to primacy.

Christopher Layne

2002-01-01

141

Pyramidal offshore structure  

SciTech Connect

Tethered or bottom-ballasted offshore platforms preferably have a pyramidal configuration. Struts connect the apexes of a polyhedron configuration to form a triangle defining each face. The pyramidal configuration can be ballasted to the bottom in relatively shallow water. A hexahedron configuration can be tethered in deep water with tension members and flotation members.

Grimsley, R.L.; Gawel, L.J.

1984-03-20

142

Combination offshore drilling rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

An offshore drilling rig is described for use in drilling into a formation below a body of water comprising a barge hull having a drilling slot extending inwardly from the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means for supporting the barge hull in a position above the water, a cantilever structure mounted on the barge hull and movable horizontally with

D. B. Lorenz; J. S. II Laid

1986-01-01

143

Offshore space center (offshore launch site)  

SciTech Connect

Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit, an industrial area for HLLV maintenance, an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms, a power generation station, docks with an unloading area, two separate launch sites, and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

Harvey, D.G.

1980-07-01

144

Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy) of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus?Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors). Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature) and new material data (with strain rate effect) obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass) with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

Giglio, M.; Gilioli, A.; Manes, A.; Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.

2012-08-01

145

Offshore arctic structure  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is disclosed for minimizing the horizontal forces on an offshore arctic structure due to ice movement. The structure includes a base portion, sloped side walls and a smooth, unobstructed portion. The structure is substantially submerged in a body of water with the top portion at or near the water surface permitting floating ice sheets which strike the side walls to flex slightly upward and advance along and over the structure without substantially destroying the overall integrity of ice sheet. In this manner, the horizontal forces on the structure resulting from the ice sheet are minimized due to the elimination of a crushing failure mode of the ice sheet commonly associated with conventional offshore arctic structures.

Weiss, R.

1983-08-09

146

Arctic offshore platform  

SciTech Connect

An offshore structure is disclosed for use in drilling and producing wells in arctic regions having a conical shaped lower portion that extends above the surface of the water and a cylindrical upper section. The conical portion is provided with a controlled stiffness outer surface for withstanding the loads produced by ice striking the structure. The stiffness properties of the outer shell and flexible members are designed to distribute the load and avoid high local loads on the inner parts of the structure.

Bhula, D.N.

1984-01-24

147

Offshore finds inspire optimism  

SciTech Connect

The author reviews the oil market in Australia and the Pacific. Some of the highlights are: Australia/Pacific drilling hit 308 in 1987; about 300 seen for 1988; Offshore holds action in New Zealand, while onshore Papua makes news; Reduced taxes, relaxed foreign investment rules aid Aussie development work; Four solid solid discoveries made in Papua's Southern Highlands in 18 months; and Austrialia and New Zealand enact industry degregulation measures.

Not Available

1988-08-01

148

Chevron sets offshore records  

SciTech Connect

Chevron U.S.A. overcame numerous logistical and engineering problems to drill its offshore wildcat in Destin Dome Block 422. Besides being an operational success, the resulting well established two drilling records: The deepest well ever drilled from a floating drilling rig. The longest and heaviest string of casing run from a floating vessel. Chevron drilled the well to a total depth of 22,222 ft, which surpassed the previous offshore record well depth of 21,872 ft, drilled on Georges Bank offshore New England in 1977. A record 19,260-ft tapered string of 9 5/8- and 10-in. casing was run and landed in the well. Indicator weight of the casing string was 1,050,000 lb. The Block 422 wildcat - located 64 miles southwest of Panama City, Fla., in 674 ft of water - was drilled to evaluate Chevron acreage in one of the few remaining frontier areas in the Gulf of Mexico. Chevron drilled the well, which remains a tight hole, to determine if the area is geologically similar to Mobile Bay to the west.

Moore, S.D.

1986-05-01

149

Cost control for offshore structures  

SciTech Connect

Design overruns and late delivery of material and equipment are frequently the main causes of delays and cost increases in engineering projects. The impact on cost and time is likely to be particularly critical in the case of offshore projects which are affected by narrow weather windows. The structures may comprise varying types of platforms to be used as centers for drilling, production, living quarters, storage, mooring and loading, also sub-sea completions of wellheads and pipelines. Starting construction work on time is of prime importance for the success of the project. However, venturing into the construction phase without proper appraisal and definition of the work scope, and on the basis of a guarantee of cost reimbursement, has frequently proved to be the road to disaster.

Lo Cascio, E.

1981-12-01

150

Dynamic behavior of offshore spar platforms under regular sea waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many innovative floating offshore structures have been proposed for cost effectiveness of oil and gas exploration and production in water depths exceeding one thousand meters in recent years. One such type of platform is the offshore floating Spar platform. The Spar platform is modelled as a rigid body with six degrees-of-freedom, connected to the sea floor by multi-component catenary mooring

A. K. Agarwal; A. K. Jain

2003-01-01

151

Offshore Petroleum Discharge System (OPDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the requirement to provide large quantities of petroleum products for forces ashore, from tankers offshore without port facilities, the Naval Sea Systems Command has developed and demonstrated the Offshore Petroleum Discharge System (OPDS). OPDS is capable of delivering 1.2 million gallons of product per day from a tanker moored four miles offshore. The system is largely off-the-shelf

J. Exell

1987-01-01

152

California offshore enters new era  

SciTech Connect

California's offshore industry offers the prospect of the discovery and development of giant oil fields. Two offshore fields, Hondo in the Santa Barbara Channel and the Beta field in San Pedro Bay, have helped push the state's production to an all-time high, and the upcoming output from additional OCS fields should keep this progress going steady. Signs point to the development of significant oil reserves in the offshore area extending northward from Point Conception through the offshore portion of the Santa Maria basin. Chevron USA has hinted big oil finds. Additional exploration is expected in the Monterey formation. (DP)

Rintoul, B.

1982-02-01

153

Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Bent-Core Mesogen-Jacketed Liquid Crystalline Polymers  

SciTech Connect

We report the design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymers with bent-core liquid crystals (BCLCs). For the first time, BCLC mesogens were directly side-attached to the polymer backbone and bent-core mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymers (BMJLCPs) were achieved. Both three-ring and five-ring mesogens were employed. The n-alkoxy substituent lengths for the three-ring and five-ring BMJLCPs were controlled as n = 1-5 and n = 6-16, respectively. Various characterization techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and polarized light microscopy were used to study their mesomorphic phase behavior. The monomers of five-ring BMJLCPs with relatively long tails showed mesophase behavior. Columnar liquid crystalline phase was observed in both three-ring and five-ring BMJLCPs. Columnar rectangular ({phi}{sub R}) phase was observed in the three-ring system. In the five-ring BMJLCPs, relatively short-tail homologues possess {phi}{sub R} phase, while columnar hexagonal phase was observed in the long-tail samples. The differences in the phase structures were attributed to the 'softness' of the macromolecular BMJLCP column surface.

Chen,X.; Tenneti, K.; Li, C.; Bai, Y.; Zhou, R.; Wan, X.; Fan, X.; Zhou, Q.

2006-01-01

154

Offshore~WMEP - Monitoring offshore wind energy use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore wind energy use is commonly suggested to play an important role in future electricity supply. However, long-term experience with thousands of onshore wind turbines explicitly hint on possible barriers for a save, efficient, economic and user friendly supply relying on offshore wind energy. A national German programme shall on the one hand support the wind energy branch improving technology

P. Lyding; S. Faulstich; B. Hahn; D. Callies

155

ZDRAVLJENJE ZLOMOV ZOBA DRUGEGA VRATNEGA VRETENCA Z OPORNIM JOPI?EM Z OBRO?EM ODONTOID FRACTURES TREATED WITH HALO-JACKET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Treatment of odontoid fractures re- mains controversial. Methods. Late results of 10 patients treated with Halo-jacket from 1995-97 are presented. The displacement bigger than 6 mm was reduced under image intensifier and stabilized by Halo-jacket for 8-12 weeks.

Radko Komadina; Drago Brilej; Radoslav Rusek

156

Offshore outlook: the American Arctic  

SciTech Connect

Offshore areas in the American Arctic are highlighted and the development of the area is compared with other offshore areas where the required technology is more readily available. Principal areas are shown in which new concepts are being put to practice. Canada's east coast is examined. Several technological trends are reviewed to help operators accelerate the discovery and development of arctic petroleum reserves.

Jahns, M.O.

1985-05-01

157

Offshoring”: How big an issue?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spurred by the political debate in the US and several high-profile corporate moves, “offshoring” has become a lively topic of discussion. This paper by Grant Colquhoun, Keith Edmonds and David Goodger tries to put recent developments in context and argues that “offshoring” should be seen as part of a long-standing and largely beneficial trend of international specialisation. In the short

Grant Colquhoun; Keith Edmonds; David Goodger

2004-01-01

158

Overview of Offshore Wind Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 10 years, offshore wind energy has become a major focus of European wind energy research and deployment. Although current technology has been based mainly on land-based wind turbine designs, more turbines are being designed specifically for offshore applications. New standards have been developed to address the unique design environment imposed by loading from both turbulent wind acting

W. Musial; J. Jonkman

159

California offshore enters new era  

Microsoft Academic Search

California's offshore industry offers the prospect of the discovery and development of giant oil fields. Two offshore fields, Hondo in the Santa Barbara Channel and the Beta field in San Pedro Bay, have helped push the state's production to an all-time high, and the upcoming output from additional OCS fields should keep this progress going steady. Signs point to the

Rintoul

1982-01-01

160

Offshore platform structual accessment system  

SciTech Connect

A system for assessing the structural integrity of offshore drilling platforms employs structural moment detector and associated electronics, microprocessor and software, which monitors the condition of the offshore platform structure and continuously provides useful information concerning the effects of external forces on the structure and its remaining life.

Scott, D.R.; Rhoades, T.S.

1984-02-28

161

Offshore platform structual accessment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for assessing the structural integrity of offshore drilling platforms employs structural moment detector and associated electronics, microprocessor and software, which monitors the condition of the offshore platform structure and continuously provides useful information concerning the effects of external forces on the structure and its remaining life.

D. R. Scott; T. S. Rhoades

1984-01-01

162

Offshore Drilling From Ice Platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method successfully developed for drilling offshore from a floating ice platform. This method has allowed exploration wells to be drilled economically in the Canadian Arctic islands without years of waiting for sophisticated offshore drilling vessels to be developed, financed, and built to operate in the severe ice conditions prevalent in the area.

G. L. Hood; H. J. Strain; D. J. Baudais

1976-01-01

163

Experiments on an offshore platform model by FBG sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical fiber sensors show superior potential for structural health monitoring of civil structures to ensure their structural integrity, durability and reliability. Apparent advantages of applying fiber optic sensors to a marine structure include fiber optic sensors" immunity of electromagnetic interference and electrical hazard when used near metallic elements over a long distance. The strains and accelerations of the newly proposed model of a single post jacket offshore platform were monitored by fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. These FBG sensors were attached to the legs and the top of the platform model in parallel with electric strain gauges or traditional piezoelectric accelerometers, respectively. Experiments were conducted under a variety of loading conditions, including underwater base earthquake simulation dynamic tests and static loading tests. Underwater seismic shaking table was utilized to provide the appropriate excitations. The natural frequencies measured by the FBG accelerometer agree well with those measured by piezo-electrical accelerometers. The monitoring network shows the availability of applying different fiber optic sensors in long-distance structural health monitoring with frequency multiplexing technology. Finally, the existing problems of packaging, strain transferring ratio between the bare fiber and the host structure on which the fiber embedded, and installation and protection of fiber optic sensors are emphasized.

Li, Dongsheng; Li, Hongnan; Ren, Liang; Sun, Li; Zhou, Jing

2004-07-01

164

[Study of strengthening and stress distribution of porcelain jacket crowns constructed with twin foil technique. 2nd report].  

PubMed

McLean and Sced have reported (J Dent Res, 56: 1067-1069, 1977) a procedure for a reinforcement of the porcelain jacket crown, which improved the resistance to a fracture as a result of inhibiting the propagation of cracks into brittle materials, so called the twin foil technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical application of this technique. The FEM analysis revealed that the same magnitude of surface tensile stress and no difference of the stress pattern were observed between porcelain jacket crowns constructed with a conventional and the twin foil technique. As the internal tensile stress concentrated in a platinum matrix of the twin foil technique, the stress distribution in a core layer reduced to about 20-35% compared to that of the conventional technique. This is explained by the mechanical and chemical bonds between a platinum matrix and a core porcelain and also by extreme high young's ratio of platinum. We can assume the similar finding from the fractography of the conventional porcelain jacket crown. But contrary above results, no significant differences of the strength were observed in both the presence and the absence of a platinum matrix in the fracture test. From the fact describe above, we may conclude that the tin coated platinum matrix contributes slightly to the strengthening of the porcelain jacket crown. PMID:2489566

Ukon, S; Matsuura, T; Ogata, T; Akagi, K; Matsuura, T; Inoue, Y

1989-04-01

165

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Kentucky: Farmer Strangled by Jacket Caught on Exposed Auger Shaft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 44-year-old farmer was killed when his jacket became entangled on the protruding metal shaft of a feed bin auger. The victim was atop the feed bin, trying to unclog feed from the auger by beating on the tin cylinder through which the feed passed into th...

1996-01-01

166

Minimization of low-temperature microbending losses in initially curved tightly jacketed double-coated optical fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally induced microbending losses in initially curved tightly jacketed double-coated optical fibres at low temperature are investigated. The initial deflections are described by a more general formula. The deflections in an initially curved fibre increase gradually with increasing thermally induced compressive axial force, and result in an increase of microbending loss. In order to minimize such a microbending loss, the

Sham-Tsong Shiue

1996-01-01

167

Method for Bonding a Polyurethane Molding Composition to a Cable Jacket of an Olefin/Ester Interpolymer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A room temperature curing polyurethane composition is bonded to the surface of cables having jackets of an olefin/ester interpolymer to provide a water resistant seal thereabout by first exposing the surface of a length of cable to an alkali metal hydroxi...

T. S. Ramotowski

1992-01-01

168

Types of Potential Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development on Marine Mammals and Endangered Species of the Northern Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes information on the types of potential effects on marine mammals, endangered species, and rare plants which may be associated with oil and gas lease sales pending for the northern Bering Sea and arctic regions. The discussion does not...

C. J. Cowles D. J. Hansen J. D. Hubbard

1981-01-01

169

Condition monitoring methods applied to degradation of chlorosulfonated polyethylene cable jacketing materials.  

SciTech Connect

Three promising polymer material condition monitoring (CM) methods were applied to eight commercial chlorosulfonated polyethylene cable jacket materials aged under both elevated temperature and high-energy radiation conditions. The CM methods examined, cross-sectional modulus profiling, solvent uptake and NMR T{sub 2} relaxation time measurements of solvent-swelled samples, are closely related since they are all strongly influenced by the changes in overall crosslink density of the materials. Each approach was found to correlate well with ultimate tensile elongation measurements, the most widely used method for following degradation of elastomeric materials. In addition approximately universal failure criteria were found to be applicable for the modulus profiling and solvent uptake measurements, independent of the CSPE material examined and its degradation environment. For an arbitrarily assumed elongation 'failure' criterion of 50% absolute, the CSPE materials typically reached 'failure' when the modulus increased to {approx}35 MPa and the uptake factor in p-xylene decreased to {approx}1.6.

Assink, Roger Alan; Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Bernstein, Robert; Celina, Mathias Christopher

2005-05-01

170

Understanding organizational capabilities for effective offshoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current competitive environment, the question is no longer whether or not to go offshore, but in determining what should be offshored and how it should be offshored, while keeping the value proposition for the organization as a whole coherent. The decision to offshore work to locations such as India and China may often be initially driven by the

Petra Edoff; Jayakanth Srinivasan

2011-01-01

171

Computational evaluation of dialysis fluid flow in dialyzers with variously designed jackets.  

PubMed

Dialyzer performance strongly depends on the flow of blood and dialysis fluid as well as membrane performance. It is necessary, particularly to optimize dialysis fluid flow, to develop a highly efficient dialyzer. The objective of the present study is to evaluate by computational analysis the effects of dialyzer jacket baffle structure, taper angle, and taper length on dialysis fluid flow. We modeled 10 dialyzers of varying baffle angles (0, 30, 120, 240, and 360 degrees ) with and without tapers. We also modeled 30 dialyzers of varying taper lengths (0, 12.5, 25.0, and 50.0 mm) and angles (0, 2, 4, and 6 degrees ) based on technical data of APS-SA dialyzers having varying surface areas of 0.8, 1.5, and 2.5 m(2) (Rexeed). Dialysis fluid flow velocity was calculated by the finite element method. The taper part was divided into 10 sections of varying fluid resistances. A pressure of 0 Pa was set at the dialysis fluid outlet, and a dialysis fluid flow rate of 500 mL/min at the dialysis fluid inlet. Water was used as the dialysis fluid in the computational analysis. Results for dialysis fluid flow velocity of the modeled dialyzers indicate that taper design and a fully surrounded baffle are important in making the dialysis fluid flow into a hollow-fiber bundle easily and uniformly. However, dialysis fluid flow channeling occurred particularly at the outflowing part with dialyzers having larger taper lengths and angles. Optimum design of dialysis jacket structure is essential to optimizing dialysis fluid flow and to increasing dialyzer performance. PMID:19473145

Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro; Matsuda, Masato; Hirano, Ayaka; Takizawa, Natsuo; Iwashima, Shigeto; Yakushiji, Taiji; Fukuda, Makoto; Miyasaka, Takehiro; Sakai, Kiyotaka

2009-06-01

172

Evaluation of dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membranes to achieve high dialysis performance.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the optimum dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membrane, both of which are indispensable factors for achieving high dialysis performance, by clarifying the relationship between the dialysis performance and the flow of dialysate and blood in a hollow-fiber dialyzer. We evaluated the clearance, dialysate, and blood flow for four commercially available hollow-fiber dialyzers, namely, the APS-15S, APS-15SA, TS-1.6UL, and CX-1.6U. To evaluate dialysate and blood flow, we measured the residence-time distribution of dialysate and blood flow of these dialyzers by the pulse-response method. We also determined the clearances of urea, creatinine, vitamin B(12), and lysozyme to evaluate the dialysis performance of these dialyzers. While the baffle and taper structures allow effective supply of dialysate into the dialyzer jacket, the hollow-fiber shape, inner diameter, and packing density significantly influence the dialysate flow. In dialyzers with long taper-holding slits, the slit area is a key design parameter for achieving optimum dialysate flow. Similarly, the blood flow is significantly influenced by the structure of the inflowing and outflowing blood ports at the header of a dialyzer, and the shape and inner diameter of the hollow fibers. Hollow fibers with smaller inner diameters cause an increase in blood pressure, which causes blood to enter the hollow fibers more easily. The hollow-fiber shape hardly affects the blood flow. While improved dialysate and blood flow cause higher clearance of low molecular-weight substances, higher membrane area and pure-water permeability accelerate internal filtration, thereby causing an increase in the clearance of large molecular-weight substances. PMID:21272255

Hirano, Ayaka; Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro; Matsuda, Masato; Ogawa, Takehito; Yakushiji, Taiji; Miyasaka, Takehiro; Sakai, Kiyotaka

2010-10-25

173

[Reinforcement of cores on porcelain jacket crowns. Influence of alumina powder properties on the cores].  

PubMed

Various alumina particles were investigated for use as core reinforcement to strengthen aluminous-porcelain jacket crowns. The alumina particles were either spherical or nonspherical and were between 5.3 microns and 60 microns in size. Initially comparisons were made among such properties as particle-size distribution, apparent density, specific surface area, and flow. Then each alumina powder was mixed with feldspar at rates of from 10wt% to 70wt% at increments of 10wt%. Formed into columns, the powder was fired at 1350 degrees C for 5 minutes. The resulting feldspar-alumina composites were compared for shrinkage then cut and prepared into disc specimens. The disc-rupture test was employed to measure composite strengths. A scanning electron microscope was employed to observe alumina particles and composite cross sections. Results 1. Spherical alumina (average particle size 5.4 microns), spherical alumina (average particle size 28.9 microns), and nonspherical alumina (average particle size 58.0 microns) were higher in apparent density and flow rate but lower in specific surface area. 2. Feldspar-alumina composites shrank approximately 30%; shrinkage of 15-20% occurred only in composites involving spherical alumina (average particle size 5.4 microns). 3. Composites of feldspar and spherical alumina were observed to be stronger than those of feldspar and nonspherical alumina. Composites containing 50-60wt% (especially when the alumina particle size was 5.4 microns) were the sturdiest. 4. Increasing the amount of alumina proportionally increased composite strength. In composites containing nonspherical alumina, volume amount and strength were not always proportional. 5. Microscopic examination of composite cross sections showed uniform dispersion of spherical alumina but no dispersion of nonspherical alumina. In conclusion, spherical alumina (especially when average particle size is 5.4 microns) demonstrated the best powder properties as a reinforcing core material and therefore is most suitable for reinforcing the core of the porcelain jacket crown. PMID:2699675

Yamamoto, H

1989-04-01

174

[The method of esthetic crown restoration with composite resin jacket crown in primary molars].  

PubMed

The term "esthetics" has recently been also used in the dental field, and a field called esthetic dentistry is increasingly being noted. The number of not only adult but also pediatric patients who visit for treatment aiming at esthetic recovery is being increased. Inpedodontics, composite resin of the coronal color is generally used in the restoration of deciduous incisors. However, the method using metal crowns for the deciduous teeth is used for the deciduous molars at present. We applied a composite resin jacket crown to the deciduous molar in a way similar to that of esthetic crown restoration for the anterior teeth. The surgical procedure before crown preparation varied slightly according to the presence or absence of pulpal treatment of vital teeth and with non-vital teeth, but the application was performed as follows: 1) Desensitization of pulp, pulpal treatment and core construction. 2) Preparation of crown. 3) Selection, trial set and occlusal equilibration of a metal crown for the deciduous tooth. 4) Precision impression with a silicone impression material. 5) Removal of the metal crown for the deciduous tooth from the impression material. 6) Making of an under-cut to the abutment tooth on the buccal lingual side. 7) Filling of the impression with chemical polymerization resin. 8) Application of pressure in the oral cavity. 9) Adjustment of edge and crown forms. Thus, the preparation method for the composite resin jacket crown was relatively simple. Since this surgery, the patient has been followed up for 1 year and 6 months, and no specifically troublesome points have been observed clinically. The patient and her parents are satisfied with the results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2134806

Doi, K; Shibui, N; Suda, M; Uehara, M; Karibe, H; Kondou, K

1990-10-01

175

A drilling model for young offshore Louisiana and Texas trends  

SciTech Connect

A new type of model specifically designed to aid in the planning and drilling of young offshore Louisiana and Texas wells is presented. The model is composed of functions to represent changing drilling mechanics, as well as changing drillabilities with respect to depth, area, and formation type.

Smalling, D.A.; Meyers, R.L. II

1988-06-01

176

Ice interaction with offshore structures  

SciTech Connect

Oil platforms and other offshore structures being built in the arctic regions must be able to withstand icebergs, ice islands, and pack ice. This reference explain the effect ice has on offshore structures and demonstrates design and construction methods that allow such structures to survive in harsh, ice-ridden environments. It analyzes the characteristics of sea ice as well as dynamic ice forces on structures. Techniques for ice modeling and field testing facilitate the design and construction of sturdy, offshore constructions. Computer programs included.

Cammaert, A.B.; Muggeridge, D.B.

1988-01-01

177

Offshore filtration testing and analysis of seawater for oil-field injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high rate media-type filter developed for water injection applications has been tested on a 400 BWPD (barrels of water per day) pilot plant to gather data on water quality achievable on equipment practical for offshore oil production installations. This work has been spread over 13 offshore locations around the world in seven different seas that represent a wide variety

J. B. Cappi; H. R. Blagden

1981-01-01

178

Home-Host Country Distance and Governance Choices in Service Offshoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the effect of home-host country distance on the choice of governance mode in the offshoring of services. Using a Transaction Cost Economics approach, we look at the comparative costs of the hierarchical and contractual models to show that different dimensions of distance (geographic, cultural and institutional), because they generate different types of uncertainties, impact offshore governance choices

Julien Gooris; Carine Peeters

2012-01-01

179

Offshore industry executives meet  

SciTech Connect

The future of the Gulf of Mexico is tied to the overall future of oil/gas on the international market as it relates to the US. Conquering this last frontier, possibly only through development of technology, was one of the themes covered in the 21st Annual Meeting of the National Ocean Industries Association held in early April, 1993 in Washington, D.C. Oil is the major source for foreign exchange but there are major uncertainties in predicting the future. The swing (imports vs. exports) is two million barrels per day. The big oil users (heavy industry) have reduced consumption. The last big uncertainty is the environmental policies of the West. Development of resources in the Gulf was the third record year in a row in 1992. The potential for hydrocarbon discoveries is significant, a substantial number of new fields have been made and significant discoveries are likely to continue. More than 100 trillion cubic feet of natural gas lies undiscovered offshore - 35% of undiscovered domestic resources. The oil potential exceeds nine billion barrels, more than any other basin except Alaska.

Burns, R.F.

1993-05-01

180

Offshore well support miniplatform  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a protective well support system installed on an offshore well having an upstanding conductor pipe extending above the seabed, the system comprising: (a) an upstanding conductor clamp (adapts to encircle the conductor pipe) formed by two upstanding facing members supported by a bottom engaging frame; (b) the frame including frame members joined together defining a substantially horizontal rectangular support frame for engaging the seabed; (c) angularly extending brace members secured at one end to the conductor clamp and at the other end to the frame; (d) the conductor clamp attaches to the frame and extending upright to enable the conductor clamp to fasten about the conductor pipe; (e) a boat landing mounts about the conductor pipe, the boat landing formed by at least two sectional components fixedly secured to semicircular clamp members adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for mounting the boat landing components; and (f) well platform means supported on bracket means adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for removably securing the well platform means.

Blandford, J.W.

1987-07-14

181

46 CFR 126.170 - Carriage of offshore workers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Carriage of offshore workers. 126.170 Section 126...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION... General § 126.170 Carriage of offshore workers. (a) Offshore...

2009-10-01

182

Synoptic measurements of episodic offshore flow events in the central mid-Atlantic Bight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sub-inertial across-shelf flows over the central mid-Atlantic Bight were examined using long-range CODAR SeaSonde type HF-radar surface velocities for the period August 2002 through February 2004. Across-shelf flow in this region was found to be episodic, with offshore flow occurring six times more often than onshore flow. Several recurring spatial patterns in offshore flow are identified, and two of these patterns emerge as statistically significant using empirical orthogonal functions. The most common type of offshore flow was a shelf-wide flow with events occurring throughout the year. The most energetic and well-defined shelf-wide flow events occurred during October through April, when the water column was less stratified. Other offshore flow patterns were more localized, with a flow at the bend or 'point' in the New Jersey coast being most common and most energetic. The offshore flow events identified here are capable of driving significant offshore transport, with more than one-third of offshore flow episodes having potential transport distances of greater than 14 km. In addition, clusters of multiple offshore flow events are shown to be capable of transporting near-surface material across much of the continental shelf.

Dzwonkowski, Brian; Lipphardt, B. L., Jr.; Kohut, Josh T.; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Garvine, Richard W.

2010-07-01

183

COMPARATIVE COST STUDY OF PROCESSING STAINLESS STEEL-JACKETED UOâ FUEL: MECHANICAL SHEAR-LEACH VS SULFEX-CORE DISSOLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics of mechanical shear-leach and Sulfex decladding-core ; dissolution head end treatments for processing typical tubular bundles of ; stainless steel-jacketed UOâ nuclear fuels were compared. A 2.66 metric ; ton U\\/day head end portion of a plant was designed for each process and capital ; and operating costs were developed. For plants of this size and larger, ;

J. B. Adams; A. M. Benis; C. D. Watson

1962-01-01

184

Skin, bone and muscle collagen extraction from the trash fish, leather jacket ( Odonus niger ) and their characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid soluble (ASC) and pepsin soluble (PSC) collagens were extracted from the skin, bone and muscle of a trash fish, leather\\u000a jacket (Odonus niger) by three different extraction methods. Method I gave 46–50% yield for ASC, Method II gave 49–58% yield\\u000a for both ASC and PSC and Method III gave 64–71% yield for PSC. The addition of pepsin had increased

Nagarajan Muralidharan; Robinson Jeya Shakila; Durairaj Sukumar; G. Jeyasekaran

185

Offshore Wind Resource Assessment Based on Mesoscale Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology for assessing regional offshore wind energy development potential using mesoscale modeling for wind fields has been developed. Recommendations are made on selecting the best mesoscale modeling domain resolution, as well as choosing the best data for model initial and boundary conditions, based on a sensitivity study using the Penn State/NCAR MM5 mesoscale model near California coast validated with offshore buoy wind data and coastal meteorological stations. Annual wind speed averages are developed by modeling four seasonal months to reduce total computational time, as well as to allow study of the innterannual variability. Four seasonal months of 2005, 2006, and 2007 were compared to using a complete modeled year for 2007 to calculate how the overall energy answer changed. Results from summer 2006 MM5 simulations show the average 10 m wind speed to be calculated within one percent when using three months of data (Jun, Jul, Aug) versus using July alone. Siting restrictions were developed based on bathymetry depth limits for offshore turbine tower support structures with economic and structural limitations for monopiles, multi-leg, and future floating tower support types corresponding to 30, 70, and 200 m depth respectively. Other exclusionary entities such as shipping lanes and avarian flyways were also considered as exclusion zones inside of areas amenable for offshore wind energy farms. A method to validate the modeled wind fields though error calculations against offshore buoy wind data, as well as onshore coastal meteorological towers is presented.

Dvorak, M. J.; Jacobson, M. Z.

2008-12-01

186

OrthoJacket: an active FES-hybrid orthosis for the paralysed upper extremity.  

PubMed

The loss of the grasp function in cervical spinal cord injured (SCI) patients leads to life-long dependency on caregivers and to a tremendous decrease of the quality of life. This article introduces the novel non-invasive modular hybrid neuro-orthosis OrthoJacket for the restoration of the restricted or completely lost hand and arm functions in high tetraplegic SCI individuals. The primary goal of the wearable orthosis is to improve the paralysed upper extremity function and, thus, to enhance a patient's independence in activities of daily living. The system combines the advantage of orthotics in mechanically stabilising joints together with the possibilities of functional electrical stimulation for activation of paralysed muscles. In patients with limited capacity, for force generation, flexible fluidic actuators are used to support the movement. Thus, the system is not only intended for functional restoration but also for training. Several sensor systems together with an intelligent signal processing allow for automatic adaptation to the anatomical and neurological individualities of SCI patients. The integration of novel user interfaces based on residual muscle activities and detection of movement intentions by real-time data mining methods will enable the user to autonomously control the system in a natural and cooperative way. PMID:21210758

Schill, Oliver; Wiegand, Roland; Schmitz, Bastian; Matthies, Richard; Eck, Ute; Pylatiuk, Christian; Reischl, Markus; Schulz, Stefan; Rupp, Rüdiger

2011-01-07

187

In use replaceable bearing for offshore mooring terminal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heavy-duty slowly pivoting shaft and bearing system for an offshore mooring terminal, of a type which includes a heavy-duty shaft with opposite ends that are each rotatably mounted on a radial bearing assembly, wherein bearings at each of the assemblies can be removed while the shaft continues to be rotatably supported to permit its uninterrupted use. Each bearing assembly

1984-01-01

188

Off-Shore Wind Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is presented concerning the offshore wind power availability in the Baltic Sea; and economics, specifications, and environmental considerations for large offshore wind power plants. (ERA citation 06:004734)

R. Hardell C. Olsson L. Ljung

1979-01-01

189

Geotechnics of Fixed Offshore Drilling Platforms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fixed offshore-structures are widely used for exploration and exploitation of undersea oil and gas resources. The object of this report is to survey the general geotechnical design principles and foundation technics of fixed offshore-structures. Additiona...

J. Toernqvist

1984-01-01

190

Incorporation of Multi-Member Substructure Capabilities in FAST for Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is an aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool widely used for analyzing onshore and offshore wind turbines. This paper discusses recent modifications made to FAST to enable the examination of offshore wind turbines with fixed-bottom, multi-member support structures (which are commonly used in transitional-depth waters).; This paper addresses the methods used for incorporating the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loading on multi-member structures in FAST through its hydronamic loading module, HydroDyn. Modeling of the hydrodynamic loads was accomplished through the incorporation of Morison and buoyancy loads on the support structures. Issues addressed include how to model loads at the joints of intersecting members and on tapered and tilted members of the support structure. Three example structures are modeled to test and verify the solutions generated by the modifications to HydroDyn, including a monopile, tripod, and jacket structure. Verification is achieved through comparison of the results to a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-derived solution using the commercial software tool STAR-CCM+.

Song, H.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Sewell, D.

2012-05-01

191

Discrimination of Bullet Types Using Analysis of Lead Isotopes Deposited in Gunshot Entry Wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to discriminate bullet types used in firearms, of which the victims died, the authors investigated lead isotope ratios\\u000a in gunshot entry wounds from nine lead (unjacketed) bullets, 15 semi-jacketed bullets, and 14 full-jacketed bullets by inductively\\u000a coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. It was found that the lead isotope ratio of 207\\/206 in gunshot entry wounds was the highest\\u000a with lead

Klintean Wunnapuk; Takeshi Minami; Piya Durongkadech; Setsuko Tohno; Werawan Ruangyuttikarn; Yumi Moriwake; Karnda Vichairat; Pongruk Sribanditmongkol; Yoshiyuki Tohno

2009-01-01

192

Maritime and offshore structure maintenance  

SciTech Connect

This volume provides the most up-to date material available on methods of keeping maritime installations operational. It also draws out the exceptionally valuable expertise that has been gained from servicing the major installations in the North Sea and elsewhere in the world. Subjects cover maintenance and repair including a detailed analysis of structural maintenance on specific structures. Papers include expertise in North Sea structures, corrosion protection of a North Sea platform, maintenance of ports overseas, East Africa, low maintenance concrete and maintenance of steel offshore structures. Guidelines are also included for the inspection and maintenance of marine facilities and offshore installations.

Not Available

1986-01-01

193

Climate and offshore energy resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conference discussed the relationship of climate to the world's offshore energy resources. The conference focused upon such areas as the impact of oil resources upon the economies of developed and developing countries, the importance of providing climatic data in sufficient time to meet users' needs, and the hazards and financial burdens associated with the development of offshore oil reserves. One of the important achievements of the confidence was the establishment of better communications between the users of environmental data and those charged with producing predictions.

Twitchell, P. F.

1980-12-01

194

Eighteenth annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

These sixty papers were given at a conference on offshore technology. Topics covered include friction effects of driving piles into sea beds of various compositions, wave forces on offshore platforms, stability, materials testing of various components such as plates, legs, wellheads, pipe joints, and protection of offshore platforms against ice and collision with icebergs.

Not Available

1986-01-01

195

Offshoring in the New Global Political Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? This essay challenges claims by economists and management scholars that ‘offshoring’ is simply another form of trade with mutual benefits. I argue that reducing wages through offshoring leads to wealth creation for shareholders but not necessarily for countries and employees, and that many displaced workers have difficulty ‘trading up’ to higher skilled jobs. Offshoring is a new phenomenon that

David L. Levy

2005-01-01

196

OFFSHORE ARCTIC PIPELINE OIL SPILL RISK ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

While offshore arctic pipelines have been under consideration for more than 25 years, few have been built. Renewed interest in offshore arctic oil and gas has necessitated the design of pipelines capable of both overcoming the technical challenges of the arctic offshore environment and minimizing the risk to it. This paper describes a quantitative risk assessment completed by BMT Fleet

A. Dinovitzer; R. Lazor; D. Hinnah

2004-01-01

197

Offshore QRA and the ALARP principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion is presented of the use of QRA within a requirement, of the UK offshore safety case regime, to demonstrate that risks from offshore major accidents are ALARP. General considerations are given to uncertainties in failure and incident data, assumptions and consequence methodologies within the analysis element of offshore QRA. The validity of risk results arising from the analysis

Stan Schofield

1998-01-01

198

OMAE 1994. Volume 1: Offshore technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is volume 1 of a 5 part proceedings from the 13th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Volume 1 deals with Offshore Technology and includes information on ocean waves and energy; hydrodynamic forces; fluid-structure interactions; offshore engineering and design; risers, moorings, and cables, compliant towers; and computational hydrodynamics. The proceedings contain 49 papers covering these topics related

S. K. Chakrabarti; D. Morrison; A. N. Williams; R. C. Ertekin; Hisaaki Maeda; M. S. Pantazopoulos

1994-01-01

199

Measuring safety climate on offshore installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human and organizational factors affecting safety were examined on 10 offshore installations using the Offshore Safety Questionnaire. The questionnaire contained scales measuring work pressure and work clarity, job communication, safety behaviour, risk perception, satisfaction with safety measures and safety attitudes. A total of 722 UK offshore workers (33% response rate) from a range of occupations completed and returned the

Kathryn Mearns; Rhona Flin; Rachale Gordon; Mark Fleming

1998-01-01

200

Efficiency Evaluation for Offshore Wind Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The offshore wind farm with large capacity and long distance to shore has attracted more and more attention as a promising option in the near future. The large-scale offshore wind farm may be designed with very different configurations, which may cause very different cost, efficiency and reliability. This paper presents different possible configurations for a real offshore wind farm in

Zheng Li; Menghua Zhao; Zhe Chen

2006-01-01

201

Advanced transmission solutions for offshore wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future offshore wind farms will have large power ratings and will be situated much further offshore than current projects. The associated costs for grid connection will be high. This paper explores alternative methods of grid connection. By creating synergies with other applications for offshore power transmission, the total costs will be lower. Such synergies include the bundling of multiple wind

W. L. Kling; R. L. Hendriks; J. H. den Boon

2008-01-01

202

Reliability Issues of Offshore Wind Farm Topology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main development trend of wind power generation system is large offshore wind farms with grid connection. Due to extraordinarily high investment, many technical issues yet to be solved and limited experience, the risk of building offshore wind power generation system is always very high. The study presented in this paper takes a view of the effect of offshore wind

Xu Liu; Syed Islam

2008-01-01

203

Here are methods for sizing offshore pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sizing an offshore, multiphase pipeline requires basically the same procedures as for onshore lines, complicating factors for offshore pipes include riser inclination angles, temperature differentials, and generally higher heat transfer rates. For a typical offshore pipeline system, SSI uses the Beggs and Brill pressure drop and holdup correlations to illustrate the design procedure, taking into account thermal resistances of

Hein

1983-01-01

204

FROM COAST TO OFFSHORE: SOME PROGRESS ON DEVELOPING MULTI-RESOURCE DESIGNS FOR GREAT LAKES MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

In the next generation of monitoring the condition of very large aquatic systems, we need to explore designs that integrate across multiple aquatic resource types, including coastal subsystems, nearshore, and offshore components, which together make up the total hydroscape. This ...

205

Offshore hydrodynamics. [Engineering design and research needs for offshore facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the author presents several applied as well as fundamental research problems related to the future needs of the offshore engineering. The paper starts out with a detailed discussion of the current uncertainties and constraints. Then, specific research issues on environmental input conditions, on the role of computational fluid dynamics, and on damping and dynamic response are presented.

Sarpkaya

1993-01-01

206

Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Rice University, Brown and Root Development Inc., and Arthur D. Little Inc. have jointly conducted a feasibility study of an offshore rectenna serving the Boston/New York area. We found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. We began by engineering the reference system rectenna to the offshore location. When we estimated costs for the resulting system we found that the cost was prohibitively high. We then searched for modifications to the design which would allow significant cost reduction. The result is a non-ground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors or yagis supported on feed wires. We find that such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane, winter storm and icing conditions for a one time cost of $5.7 billion. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. It is important to note that the east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in substantially lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

Not Available

1980-05-01

207

Towers for Offshore Wind Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy

V. J. Kurian; S. P. Narayanan; C. Ganapathy

2010-01-01

208

Offshore well test platform system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an offshore well test platform system positionable above one or more underwater wells. It comprises: a submergible buoy to be restrained below the surface of the water and above one or more underwater wells; a platform structure connectable to the buoy and having an upper portion extending above the surface of the water when connected to the

H. Chiu; D. K. Nelsen

1990-01-01

209

Re-Regulating Offshore Finance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores global efforts to regulate offshore finance in the wake of international concern about the effects of so-called harmful tax competition, as well as money laundering and terrorist financing (the latter a relatively new category since September 11, 2001). In the mid-1990s, a number of multilateral organizations, from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to the

B. Maurer

2008-01-01

210

Designing “quiet” into offshore projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides some design guidance to assist in addressing and controlling underwater noise of an offshore project-be it oil rig, wind turbine, tidal power or other structure floating on the water or bottom mounted. The importance of a Plan to address and abate noise in order to achieve an underwater-radiated noise goal will be highlighted. The Plan's elements usually

R. W. Fischer

2010-01-01

211

Method for servicing offshore well  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of servicing a cased offshore well having a subsea blowout preventer stack and a riser extending from said stack to an above-water work area, said blowout preventer stack including sealing rams. It comprises: running a sealing nipple, which is open at its lower end and closed at its upper end except for a wireline packing

C. W. Sauer; M. P. Stockinger; L. K. Moran

1990-01-01

212

The Safety of Offshore Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crude oil exploitation equipment requires a special sustaining metallic structure. In Romania, a country with a long tradition in crude oil exploitation, the height of the drilling equipment rises from 40 to 100 m. In the case of offshore exploitations, the sustaining structure has to be built on a marine platform, which can be fixed or mobile. Although the

Ludovic KOPENETZ

213

Offshore oil: Correctness of perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are

1993-01-01

214

Offshore Moorings: An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The listing was originally intended as a list of relevant literature for the use by students in the Offshore Moorings Course at Delft University of Technology. Rapid development in the field of mooring design is going on continually. One of the most obvio...

W. W. Massie

1991-01-01

215

Riser for an offshore platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

A riser having a 90° bend at its lower end is installed at an offshore platform by mounting the riser within casing with a horizontal leg from the 90° bend extending through a hole in the wall of the casing and lowering the casing through guide funnels extending inwardly from the framework of the platform. The guides have openings in

R. Jr

1977-01-01

216

Transfer terminal for offshore production  

SciTech Connect

A mooring station and transfer terminal for offshore hydrocarbon production is provided, comprising a coaxial riser linking underwater production and safety manifolds to surface lines. An underwater connector and quick release means are provided to facilitate rapid connection and disconnection of the riser pipes.

Arnaudeau, M.

1983-02-01

217

A statistical review of the risk associated with offshore support vessel\\/platform encounters in UK waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety performance on the UK Continental Shelf is normally considered to be of a high standard, although there are still many incidents and accidents. This paper discusses some of the initial findings in an offshore support vessel safety research project. Following a brief review study of the uses of various types of existing offshore support vessels, a comprehensive statistical failure

How Sing Sii; Jin Wang; Tom Ruxton

2003-01-01

218

Two offshore Australian crudes assayed  

SciTech Connect

Two light, sweet crudes from offshore Australia have been assayed. Gippsland crude, also called Bass Strait, is produced off the coast of Victoria, in southeastern Australia. The 47 API, 0.09% sulfur crude was analyzed in mid-1993. Skua, a 42 API, 0.06 wt % sulfur crude, is produced in the Timor Sea. Data are given on the whole crude and fractions for both deposits. Both chemical and physical properties are listed.

Rhodes, A.K.

1994-05-09

219

Offshore storage and loading system  

SciTech Connect

An offshore loading system is described which was designed for the Statfjord oil field in the North Sea. The system consists of a gravity-base concrete structure supporting a steel deck, an articulated single-point mooring buoy and a pipeline connecting the two. The platform accommodates a group of oil wells, including production, gas injection and water injection. The buoy is designed for maximum safety and maximum capability of accepting tankers in heavy seas.

Flloyd, C.W.

1981-01-01

220

Titanium in offshore oil production  

SciTech Connect

Titanium once thought to be a material used exclusively in aerospace applications, is now a candidate for use in offshore oil production where strength, weight, corrosion resistance, long life expectancy, and ease of fabrication are important. The family of titanium alloys has grown to the extent that there are now materials available to fill many of the needs of this demanding industry. 15 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Forney, C.E. [Sandvik Special Metals Corp., Kennewick, WA (United States)

1995-10-01

221

Mass Wasting Processes - Offshore Sumatra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquakes are a commonly cited mechanism for triggering submarine landslides that have the potential to generate locally\\u000a damaging tsunamis. With measured runups of over 35 metres in northern Sumatra from the December 26th 2004 tsunami source,\\u000a these runups might be expected to be due, in part, to local submarine landslides. Mapping of the convergent margin offshore\\u000a of Sumatra using swath

D. R. TAPPIN; L. McNeil; T. Henstock; D. Mosher

222

Offshore oil: Correctness of perspective  

SciTech Connect

Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are determined to move forward. The depressed price of oil does not encourage development but recently gas prices in the US have increased, making offshore gas development more feasible. Perhaps most significant is development and application of new technology and more intense management to make sure it works. The offshore oil companies and support industries have made significant technological advances, expending over and above the dollars paid in taxes, lease fees, and royalties. The ocean industries harbor a great reservoir of high technology knowledge. They have demonstrated the ability to successfully meet a vast array of challenges in exploring for, drilling, and producing oil and gas in extreme conditions. These facts beg the question as to the rational basis of each and every regulation and the ban on drilling.

Burns, R.F.

1993-05-01

223

Centrifuge modeling of an offshore water-intake project under ice loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheet pile is a potential structural type for an offshore water-intake project for a thermal power plant in China because of its advantages of low cost and easy construction. However, the soil in offshore areas is under-consolidated and has a high water content. Therefore its bearing capacity is low, and the safety of water-intake structures under various loads is of

Liming Hu; Min Zhao; Jialiu Pu

2010-01-01

224

Hydrodynamic Wave Loading on Offshore Structures Simulated by a Two-Phase Flow Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numerical simulation of hydrodynamic wave loading on different types of offshore structures is important to predict forces on and water motion around these structures. This paper presents a numerical study of the effects of two-phase flow on an offshore structure subject to breaking waves.\\u000aThe details of the numerical model, an improved Volume Of Fluid (iVOF) method, are presented

Rik Wemmenhove; Erwin Loots; Arthur E. P. Veldman

2006-01-01

225

Survey of the uses of radioactive materials in Louisiana's offshore waters  

SciTech Connect

As a result of a contract agreement with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the State of Louisiana, and in particular, the Louisiana Nuclear Energy Division (LNED), conducted a survey of the use of radioactive materials in Louisiana's offshore waters. Offshore waters are here defined as that area of land and water on and above the United States' Outer Continental Shelf. The objectives of the survey were fourfold: (1) identification of those licensees using radioactive materials offshore Louisiana; (2) identification of work locations where radioactive materials are being used; (3) a description of the types of work performed; and (4) performance of at least three site visits to offshore locations where radioactive materials are being used. By telephone survey, LNED attempted to contact those licensees thought to be using radioactive materials offshore. Of the 69 licensees reached by telephone, 43, or 61%, indicated they have current offshore activities. The results of the telephone survey, conducted in May-June, 1983, are presented in detail in this report. To meet objective four of the survey, three visits were made to offshore rigs and platforms, two involving industrial radiography and one involving well-logging. Also included in this report are summaries of these visits and a description of previous work done by LNED concerning radiation safety on lay barges. 15 figures, 3 tables.

Bennett, J.J.; Hook, S.E.; Palazzo, R.J.; Price, D.S.; Wascom, R.L.

1985-02-01

226

Time to Success in Offshoring Business Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

• \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This paper contributes to the emerging debate about offshoring of support functions in international business research. We\\u000a analyze the success of offshoring activities and focus on the time a firm takes to achieve its expected cost savings and its\\u000a targeted service level.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a We hypothesize that firm-specific offshoring experience, publicly available knowledge on offshoring, path dependencies, cultural\\u000a distances, and

Thomas Hutzschenreuter; Arie Y. Lewin; Stephan Dresel

2011-01-01

227

47 CFR 22.1007 - Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems. 22.1007...CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1007 Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems. The...

2009-10-01

228

47 CFR 22.1007 - Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems. 22.1007...CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1007 Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems. The...

2010-10-01

229

Deposition model of a Miocene barred wave- and storm-dominated shoreface and shelf, southeastern Malay basin, offshore west Malaysia  

SciTech Connect

The J sandstone is an important hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir in the southeastern part of the Malay basin. The lower and upper members of the J sandstone are composed of shoreface and offshore sediments. The shoreface sequence contains depositional structures characteristic of a barred wave- and storm-dominated shoreface. Each shoreface sequence is laterally associated with a series of stacked offshore bars. Offshore bars can be subdivided into proximal and distal types. Two types of proximal offshore bars have been identified: (1) proximal bars formed largely above fair-weather wave base (inner proximal bars), and (2) proximal bars formed below fair-weather wave base (outer proximal bars). The inner proximal bars are closely associated with the shoreface sequence and are similar to the middle and lower shoreface. The presence of poorly sorted, polymodal, very fine to very coarse-grained sandstone beneath well-sorted crestal sandstones of inner proximal bars suggests that these offshore bars may have been deposited rapidly by storms. The crests of the inner proximal offshore bars were subsequently reworked by fair-weather processes, and the crests of the outer proximal and distal offshore bars were reworked by waning storm currents and oscillatory waves. Thick marine shales overlying offshore bars contain isolated sheet sandstones. Each sheet sandstone exhibits features that may be characteristic of distal storm shelf deposits. 15 figures, 2 tables.

Ramli, N.

1986-01-01

230

Offshore drilling and production structure  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to an off-shore marine structure that provides an elevated support for a drilling and/or production platform. A structure comprised of three interlocking components is provided, the first component being a large foundation base installed on the sea bed; the second being a conical shaped support component which is engagable with the foundation base and which, releasably carries the third platform supporting component. In the preferred form, the platform supporting component comprises a centrally-disposed vertical column, means being provided to facilitate engagement of the column with the platform and the second component and to subsequently elevate the platform to an operating height above sea level.

Crockett, R.K.; Palmer, H.E.; Stenning, D.G.

1982-02-09

231

Bundled pipe speeds offshore laying  

SciTech Connect

Technology which allows pipelines to be installed in bundles is expediting pipelay operations in the North Sea. This paper reports how the piggyback system was recently used on 60 km of North Sea gas pipelines for three major projects. For 7 years the practice of installing two or more pipelines in one operation has become an established practice for North Sea offshore oil and gas projects. The technique, commonly referred to as a piggyback operation, reduces installation costs, improves operation reliability, and cuts maintenance time.

Brockbank, J. (Avon Industrial Polymers Ltd., Melksham, Wiltshire (GB))

1990-05-07

232

Safety factor requirements for the offshore industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maintenance of structural integrity is a significant consideration in the safety management of offshore installations. Installations operating in the North Sea are primarily of welded construction and are subjected to severe environmental conditions, which induce significant fatigue loads. Thus, offshore installations are designed to resist structural failure from fatigue and extreme loading as well as other failure mechanisms, e.g.,

A. Stacey; J. V. Sharp

2007-01-01

233

Off-Shoring: How Big Is It.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Off-Shoring: How Big Is It, is the second of three Academy Panel reports providing a comprehensive review of services off-shoring. This report presents the results of the Panels research using publicly available industry-level data and confidential, firm-...

2006-01-01

234

Offshore investment funds: monsters in emerging markets?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative to onshore funds, offshore funds are subject to less taxes and regulation. So they may trade more aggressively and do so in ways that could destabilize the emerging markets. We study the behavior of the offshore funds in Korea and compare them with the onshore funds. Evidence suggests that they do trade more frequently. However, they do not engage

Woochan Kim; Shang-Jin Wei

2002-01-01

235

Offshore information systems outsourcing: strategies and scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of an ongoing research study into offshore information technology and systems outsourcing. Fieldwork was conducted in India and the United Kingdom to identify different strategies and scenarios. Based on the premise that offshore outsourcing poses greater risks than using suppliers from the home country, the research develops a risk assessment matrix comprising four scenarios: body

Naureen Khan; Wendy L. Currie; Vishanth Weerakkody

2003-01-01

236

New production ideas solve old problems offshore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant new developments that will play an important role in future production of offshore gas and oil were discussed or introduced at the 1973 Offshore Technology Conference recently held in Houston: (1) how SEAL is progressing with development of subsea completion systems; (2) how Amoco installed the first North Sea jackup production platform; (3) what is available in concrete platforms;

1973-01-01

237

Offshore oil and gas technology assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years offshore drilling and production technology has evolved in response to the challenges of deep waters and Arctic conditions. In this paper we discuss the development of offshore drilling rigs, platforms, subsea completion systems, pipelines, and tanker loading facilities. We conclude that current technologies modified to meet site-specific requirements are capable of drilling and producing oil and gas

L. Otteman; R. Crooke; R. Shoemaker

1985-01-01

238

Seepage in Vietnam — onshore and offshore examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon seepages in Vietnam are generally linked to migration from Tertiary source rocks, and seeps are present both onshore and offshore.Residual oil can be observed at outcrop in breached traps within Tertiary sections and in exhumed ‘buried hill’ traps in pre-Tertiary rocks in the onshore Hanoi Basin. There is active oil seepage on the western margin of the offshore Phu

J. J. Traynor; Chris Sladen

1997-01-01

239

Federal offshore statistics: leasing - exploration - production - revenue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal Offshore Statistics is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the Federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969

Essertier

1984-01-01

240

Liquid-cooled engine of the vertical shaft type  

SciTech Connect

A liquid-cooled engine is described of the vertical shaft type including a radiator and a row of left and right side cylinders arranged in the V-shape as viewed from the above. A cooling water jacket of each of the left and right side cylinders are connected to each other at the highest end of cooling water jackets at the sides of cylinder heads of each of the cylinders through a communicating passage. A thermostat chamber is provided at the highest end of one of the cooling water jackets in the cylinder heads which is located lower than the other cylinder head. The communicating passage is at its one end connected to the thermostat chamber.

Tamba, S.; Hitomi, M.; Noboru, F.; Kobe, M.

1987-07-21

241

Dynamic interactions between floating ice and offshore structures  

SciTech Connect

The interactions between an offshore structure and floating ice are investigated. Attention is directed to the case where ice fails by crushing at the face of the structure. A formulation suitable for investigating the dynamic response of platform systems with surrounding floating ice sheets or ice features is developed and applied. Material properties of freshwater- and sea-ice relevant to the problem are first reviewed and summarized. Korzhavin's crushing formula, which is the basis of the proposed analytical model, is then studied in detail. The review discusses plasticity theory, yield criteria for ice, strain rate, the contact factor and the shape factor. Three types of problems are studied in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the formulation and to gain some insights into the physical phenomena: 1) the impact of large ice floes against fixed gravity-type offshore drilling platforms; 2) the response of slender stuctures subjected to continuous crushing by a uniform ice sheet; and 3) the earthquake response of an offshore structure in the presence of floating ice. Under the assumed conditions, the ice is found to have a favorable effect.

Croteau, P.

1983-01-01

242

Offshore propagation of coastal precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on the seaward propagation of coastal precipitation with or without mountainous terrain nearby. Offshore of India, diurnal propagation of precipitation is observed in the Bay of Bengal. On the eastern side of the Bay a diurnal but non-propagating signal is observed near the west coast of Burma. This asymmetry suggests that the propagating mechanism is inertio-gravity waves. Perturbations generated by the diurnal heating over the coastal mountains of India propagate offshore, amplify in the upwind direction and dissipate in the downwind direction owing to critical level consideration. A linear model is applied to study these gravity waves. Analytical analysis is performed for various heating depths, mountain widths, stability, Coriolis effect, background mean wind, and friction. We assess how these affect the amplitude, dissipation, initiation phase, and propagation speed of the diurnal disturbance. The propagation of precipitation triggered by land/sea breeze, are distinguishable from a mountain-plain circulation. For mountain breeze, convection from mountain heating starts earlier; propagates slower; and damps faster than that of the land breeze. For mountains near the coast, the slower propagation and stronger earlier convection are due to the combination of two dynamical mechanisms. The propagation of precipitation is initially triggered by mountain breeze near the coastal mountain. Over the open ocean, the dominant signal propagates as that of the land breeze but with stronger convection.

Li, Yanping; Carbone, Rit

2013-04-01

243

Ice island creation, drift, recurrences, mechanical properties, and interactions with arctic offshore oil production structures  

SciTech Connect

Research and engineering studies on first-year sea ice for over two decades has resulted in the design, construction, and operation of jacket platforms, of artificial islands, and of massive gravity structures which routinely withstand moving sea ice of thickness up to 2 meters. However, the less-common interactions between such structures and moving multiyear ice ([ge]3 meters thick), and also moving ice islands (10 to 60 meters thick) remain as the unknown and potentially most serious hazard for Arctic offshore structures. In this study, research was addressed across the complete span of remaining questions regarding such features. Ice island components, thickness distributions, scenarios and models for the interactions of massive ice features with offshore structures, all were considered. Ice island morphology and calving studies were directed at the cluster of 19 ice islands produced in a calving from the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on Ellesmere Island in 1983, and also at a calving from the Milne Ice Shelf in 1988. The statistics of ice island dynamics, on both a short-term small-scale basis and also on a long-term basis, were studied. Typical wind velocities of 5 to 7.5 meters per second led to ice island speeds of about 0.014 of the wind speed, at an angle of 20[degrees] to the right of the wind direction. Ice island samples were tested for their stress/strain characteristics. Compressive strength values ranged from 1.64 MPa at a strain rate of 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] s[sup [minus]1] to 6.75 MPa at a strain rate of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] s[sup [minus]1]. Scenarios for ice island/structure interactions were developed, and protective countermeasures such as spray ice and ice rubble barriers were suggested. Additional computer modeling of structure/ice interactions for massive ice features is recommended.

Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Li, Fucheng; Lu, Mingchi.

1991-03-01

244

Novel Type of Aluminum-Alloy Jacketed ${\\\\rm Nb}_{3}{\\\\rm Sn}$ Superconductors Manufactured by Friction Stir Welding Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

New process to compose a reacted ${\\\\rm Nb}_{3}{\\\\rm Sn}$ superconducting cable with aluminum-alloys has been developed by using friction stir welding (FSW) technique. The FSW joining process, which takes place in the solid phase below the melting point of the materials, has considerable advantages such as a high strength of welding zone and much lower distortion due to both small

Masahiro Sugimoto; Hitoshi Shimizu; Hirokazu Tsubouchi; Toshiya Okada; Toshirou Sakai; Toshio Ushiyama; Kazuya Takahata; Hitoshi Tamura; Toshiyuki Mito

2012-01-01

245

Offshore drilling, construction: Fortunes tied to stable gas prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significantly improved US natural gas prices fueled an upswing in offshore drilling in the Gulf of Mexico in late 1992. Stabilized gas prices will be necessary to support both the off-shore drilling and construction markets in 1993 and beyond. The article discusses both these segments in detail: offshore drilling and offshore construction.

S. S. Pagano; T. Marsh

1993-01-01

246

An Economic Evaluation Method of Offshore Drilling Platform Overhaul Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable and efficient operation of offshore drilling platform is the prerequisite that enable success of offshore petroleum exploration and development activities. Offshore drilling platforms are often required periodical overhaul to restore its operational capacity after long time use in the marine environment. However, not all offshore drilling platform overhaul projects are economically feasible. In order to determine the economic

Luo Dong-kun; Dai You-jin

2009-01-01

247

Offshore well test platform system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an offshore well test platform system positionable above one or more underwater wells. It comprises: a submergible buoy to be restrained below the surface of the water and above one or more underwater wells; a platform structure connectable to the buoy and having an upper portion extending above the surface of the water when connected to the buoy in an installed condition; a well test platform deck connected to the upper portion of the platformed structure; flexible riser means extendable between the one or more underwater wells and the platform deck for providing passage therethrough for well test or workover operations; and restraining means for connecting the submerged buoy to subsea anchors. The restraining means consists of equally spaced, laterally extending tensioned anchoring means having a single intersection of mooring forces at or above the platform deck.

Chiu, H.; Nelsen, D.K.

1990-03-06

248

Corrosion prevention for offshore platforms  

SciTech Connect

Offshore oil and gas platforms are subjected to hostile, corrosive, marine environments and require continuous preventive maintenance to ensure prolonged and safe operation. Corrosion is identified as it occurs: above water, in the splash zone, and subsea. Coating systems, surface preparation, application, and maintenance are discussed for abovewater corrosion prevention. The advantages and limitations of added metal for corrosion allowance, corrosion-resistant cladding, and coatings are discussed for splash-zone corrosion prevention. Major emphasis is on the use of cathodic protection (CP) to prevent subsea corrosion. Included in the discussion are the advantages and limitations of sacrificial-anode and impressed-current CP systems for use with steel and reinforced concrete structures. Subsea monitoring and the effects of platform CP on well casings are also discussed.

Schremp, F.W.

1984-04-01

249

SINTEF focuses on offshore needs  

SciTech Connect

The design of a new two-phase flow laboratory in Norway is discussed. The laboratory, the largest of its kind in the world, is experimenting with the possiblity of transporting both crude oil and natural gas simultaneously through the same pipeline - eliminating the need for offshore separation equipment. The near full scale test unit is arranged as a closed loop and consists of a 400-meter horizontal section of 8 in. diameter pipe terminating in a vertical riser 50 meters high. At the top of the riser, the two-phase flow enters a separator, where oil and gas are separated and returned through separate pipelines to the starting point of the test pipe.

Not Available

1984-05-01

250

Offshore medicine: Medical care of employees in the offshore oil industry  

SciTech Connect

This book is specifically designed to help the doctor who has to provide medical care for the expanding offshore oil industry. It describes the pattern of work offshore and the medical problems which it generates. The special features of offshore medical care are described along with the training of medics, the design of hospital facilities, and the provision of back-up services to cope with them. These are special chapters on diving, hygiene, and catering, dentistry, and legal aspects.

Cox, R.A.F.

1987-01-01

251

Offshore sand resources for coastal erosion control in Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

An inventory of existing geophysical data supplemented by more than 15,000 km of high-resolution seismic profiles and 400 vibracores collected cooperatively by the Louisiana Geological Survey and US Geological Survey since 1981 indicates that a wide range of aggregate minerals occurs on the continental shelf in a variety of depositional settings. The distribution of these deposits is controlled by the geometry of the preexisting fluvial and deltaic channel systems and the stratigraphic signature of the Holocene Transgression across these features. The geology of coastal and offshore Louisiana is tied to the depositional history of the Mississippi River. Offshore of the delta plain, five types of aggregate sources can be identified: inner shelf shoals, submerged barrier islands, tidal inlets, distributary channels, and barrier platforms. This paper describes the geology of offshore Louisiana, the available geophysical data sets, and the distribution of aggregate mineral resources. On the continental shelf of the Mississippi River delta plain, two extensive seismic survey grids have been developed by the Louisiana Geological Survey and US Geological Survey. The most prospective resources found are the huge sand bodies of Ship Shoal and associated distributaries, Cat Island Pass tidal channels and associated tidal deltas, and Barataria Pass/Grand Terre tidal channels and associated tidal deltas. East of the mouth of the Mississippi River are the Chandeleur Islands, where LGS identified seven major sand resource targets, truncated barrier-spit and tidal inlet deposits, submerged beach ridges, and distributaries associated with abandoned St. Bernard delta complexes. Abundant sand resources can be found in offshore Louisiana. Many of the sand bodies contain heavy minerals, but their concentration and distribution is unknown. Other potential sand resources not yet adequately explored include Sabine Bank, the Outer Shoal, and the St. Bernard shoal.

Ramsey, K.E.; Penland, S.; McBride, R.A. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA)); Suter, J.R. (Exxon Production Research, Houston, TX (USA)); Williams, J. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

1990-09-01

252

Stochastic Analysis of Offshore Tower Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general theory is developed for evaluating the response of offshore structures in deep water subjected to random wave forces or earthquakes. The analytical approach to this stochastic, fluid elasticity problem takes into account the non-linearities aris...

A. K. Malhotra J. Penzien

1969-01-01

253

Nonlinear Seismic Response of Articulated Offshore Tower.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The seismic response of articulated offshore tower has been investigated by the spectral analysis method which is based on the principle of random vibration, where seismic excitation is assumed to be a broadband stationary process. The nonlinear dynamic e...

N. Islam S. Ahmad

2002-01-01

254

Ultimate Strength Analysis of Framed Offshore Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An efficient method is presented for analysis of the non-linear behavior of offshore structures up to ultimate strength. The algorithm is based on the idealizied structural unit method. Geometrical and material nonlinearities are accounted for by applying...

J. E. van Aanhold

1985-01-01

255

31 CFR 544.406 - Offshore transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 544.406 Offshore transactions. The...

2013-07-01

256

31 CFR 541.406 - Offshore transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 541.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 541.201 on...

2013-07-01

257

Off-Shoring: What Are Its Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shifting business operations to off-shore locations and its impact on Americas workforce and economy are central features in the policy debate over globalization. Especially important is the impact on the nations high technologyservicesindustries, especia...

2007-01-01

258

Engineering Challenges for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of this paper is to survey the technical challenges that must be overcome to develop deepwater offshore wind energy technologies and to provide a framework from which the first-order economics can be assessed.

Butterfield, S.; Musial, W.; Jonkman, J.; Sclavounos, P.

2007-09-01

259

31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 548.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 548.201 on...

2010-07-01

260

EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.  

PubMed

The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

Mallard, A S

1991-10-01

261

31 CFR 595.407 - Offshore transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 595.407 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions contained in §...

2013-07-01

262

31 CFR 546.406 - Offshore transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 546.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 546.201 on...

2013-07-01

263

Arctic offshore drilling: a new challenge  

SciTech Connect

The arctic offshore environment provides the drilling industry with its greatest challenge yet. Problems due to sea ice, high wind, extreme cold and poor bottom soil have required the design of special structures appropriate only for arctic offshore drilling. The challenge lies not just in the obvious factors of temperature and ice, but also the basic physics of ice problems are not well understood. The arctic environment and the petroleum industry are discussed.

Wetmore, S.B.

1985-11-01

264

Corrosion control survey methods for offshore pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Construction, operation, and maintenance of offshore pipelines and other facilities are expensive. The consequences of an offshore corrosion failure can be devastating. For these reasons, cathodic protection (CP) has become a universally applied technique for mitigating corrosion. Marine pipelines are typically provided with CP by bracelet anodes of zinc or aluminum. Impressed current systems at platforms or onshore are also used as well as hybrid systems that use a combination of the two. In this paper survey techniques are described and evaluated.

Weldon, C.P.; Kroon, D. (Corrpro Co. Inc., North, Spring, TX (US))

1992-02-01

265

Psychosocial burden among offshore drilling platform employees.  

PubMed

Conditions of work on offshore drilling platforms are particularly hard due to extreme environmental situations created both by nature and technological processes. Oil drilling workers employed on the open sea are potentially exposed to permanently high stress. Apart from the obvious objective factors affecting drilling platform employees, a great role in the general work-related stress level is played by the working conditions and work-related psychosocial factors, defined according to Karask's concept as demands, control, and social support. A total of 184 drill platform workers were examined using objective and subjective research methods. The level of subjective stress among drilling platform workers is lower than the level of objective stress and the stress resulting from prognoses related with specificity of work in extremely hard conditions (audit). The examinations of drilling platform workers reveal a positive role of stress in psychological adaptation, being a special case of the "work ethos" and attachment to the firm. In such investigations of work-related stress on drilling platforms, which are very specific workplaces, a multi-aspect character, sociological and economic aspects, organizational culture conditions in the firm, and a tendency to conceal ailments and the stress experienced should be taken into account. It is important to apply measures referring to at least three different types of evidence (objective demands, subjective stress, health problems reported). Otherwise, the result reflecting work-related stress may not be objective and far from the truth. PMID:21154303

Leszczy?ska, Irena; Je?ewska, Maria

2010-01-01

266

Arctic and offshore research: Technology status report  

SciTech Connect

DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Technical Coordination in coordination with the Office of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology are performing the following activities in Arctic and Offshore Research (AOR): AOR Energy-Related Technology Data Base Development: AOR Seminars and Workshops; Arctic and Offshore Energy Research Coordination; and Arctic and Offshore Research. This research includes: analysis of ice island generation, and prediction of drift paths; field and laboratory determination of the engineering properties of multiyear ice, and the interaction of sea ice with offshore structures; investigation of the effects of ice accretion on offshore structures; measurements of seismic acceleration and velocity for analyzing vibration in and stability of offshore structures; analysis of ice gouging in deep water (150 to 210 feet) in the Artic Ocean, and numerical simulation modeling of the gouging process; analysis of the location and origin of the ice-ridging shear zone; analysis of sea-ice thickness using airborne-radar sensing techniques; and improvement of permafrost detection techniques, analysis of permafrost characteristics, and how temperature and salinity influence seabed freezing. DOE AOR was initiated in the fall of 1982. Current activities include developing the Arctic energy-related technology data base and initiating most of the research described above (except multiyear ice properties, pipeline research, and subice systems development). 12 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

267

Arctic and offshore research. Technology status report  

SciTech Connect

DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology are performing the following activities in Arctic and Offshore Research (AOR): (1) AOR Energy-Related Technology Data Base Development; (2) AOR seminars and workshops; (3) Arctic and Offshore Energy Research Coordination; (4) Arctic and Offshore Research which includes analysis of ice island generation, and prediction of drift paths; field and laboratory determination of (1) the engineering properties of multiyear ice, and (2) the interaction of multiyear ice with offshore structures; analysis of ice gouging in deep water (150 to 210 feet) in the Arctic Ocean, and numerical simulation modeling of the gouging process; analysis of the location and origin of the ice-ridging shear zone; analysis of sea-ice thickness using airborne radar sensing techniques; improvement of permafrost detection techniques, and analysis of permafrost characteristics; investigation of the effects of ice accretion and corrosion on offshore structures; measurements of seismic acceleration and velocity for analyzing vibration in and stability of off-shore structures; detection of oil spills that occur below the Arctic ice pack; analysis of the effects of frost heave and corrosion on pipelines; (5) Advanced Recovery Technologies; and (6) Subice Systems Development. Current activities include determining the Arctic bibliographic data base and initiating most of the research described above (except multiyear ice properties, pipeline research, and subice systems development). 10 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1985-10-01

268

Oblique Collision of the Leeward Antilles, Offshore Venezuela: Linking Onshore and Offshore Data from BOLIVAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinematic history of the Leeward Antilles (offshore Venezuela) can be characterized with the integration of onshore outcrop data and offshore seismic reflection data. Deformation structures and seismic interpretation show that oblique convergence and wrench tectonics have controlled the diachronous deformation identified along the Caribbean - South America plate boundary. Field studies of structural features in outcrop indicate one generation

A. G. Beardsley; H. G. Avé Lallemant; A. Levander; S. A. Clark

2006-01-01

269

Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD): Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the European Concerted Action on Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD) is to speed up the responsible deployment of offshore wind energy in the EU by early identification and possibly to remove not explicitly technical barriers: legal, administrative, policy, environmental and grid infrastructure planning issues. The COD is carried out by eight sea- bordering member states, represented by

Achim Woyte; Helen Snodin; Paul Gardner; Ruud de Bruijne

270

Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) for IEA Wind Task 23 Offshore Wind Technology and Deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports, Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). Subtask 1 discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. Subtask 2 included here, is the

J. Jonkman; W. Musial

2010-01-01

271

Old Issues in a New Jacket: Power and Validation in the Context of Mixture Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Von Davier et al. (this issue) describe two analyses that aim at determining whether the constructs measured with a number of observed items are categorical or continuous in nature. The issue of types versus traits has a long history and is relevant in many areas of behavioral research, including personality research, as emphasized by von Davier…

Lubke, Gitta

2012-01-01

272

Marginal field (early production): options for offshore loading  

SciTech Connect

This work describes some of the various schemes that have been utilized since the early 1970s and which are available now for direct tanker loading from offshore oil fields to allow economic production from marginal fields and/or to allow revenues to be obtained at an earlier date than would be possible using conventional development. Particular emphasis is given to the types of single point mooring systems that have been accepted by the oil industry as viable elements in the overall production scheme.

Gruy, R.H.; Kiely, W.L.

1983-01-01

273

Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX) provides a relational stratigraphic database for the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and Svalbard. Both regional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy are being substantially updated, following guidelines laid out in the International Stratigraphic Guide. The main body of information developed is available as a petroleum consortium (oracle-style) database, and the new lithostratigraphic definitions as a public domain (paper) document. NORLEX is presented as a browsing website via the internet at http://www.nhm.uio.no/norlex. Seismic cross-sections, core photographs, well logs, field outcrops, microfossil occurrences and other vital attributes are relationally cross-linked. In addition, there are menus for instantly finding updated formation and member tops or microfossil events in all wells, plus a map contouring routine for unit thicknesses and depths. Several new initiatives will expand data and user coverage: 1. Overhaul of Mesozoic stratigraphy, especially Triassic and Cretaceous, in the Barents Sea. 2. Coverage of East Greenland 3. Linkage to UK and Belgium and The Netherlands surface and subsurface stratigraphy 4. Creation of a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework for specific regions. 5. A national microfossil atlas to support zonations 6. Tight linkage to the basin datapacks in TimeScaleCreator Pro, as developed for Australia, New Zealand, Brasil, Gulf of Mexico, Canada and Russia. NORLEX may thus evolve to become STRATLEX, covering many basin regions.

Gradstein, Felix M.; Hammer, Oyvind; Brunstad, Harald; Charnock, Mike; Hellem, Terje; Sigve Lervik, Kjell; Anthonissen, Erik

2010-05-01

274

Method for servicing offshore well  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of servicing a cased offshore well having a subsea blowout preventer stack and a riser extending from said stack to an above-water work area, said blowout preventer stack including sealing rams. It comprises: running a sealing nipple, which is open at its lower end and closed at its upper end except for a wireline packing means and which has a wireline extending through said wireline packing means, from said work area down through said riser into said blowout preventer stack to a position adjacent said sealing rams. The wireline being attached to a cement bond logging tool extending below said sealing nipple; closing said sealing rams about said sealing nipple and pressurizing said well below said blowout preventer stack to a level sufficient to eliminate any microannulus between the casing of said well and cement surrounding said casing by application of fluid pressure to said well from a pressure line extending from said work area; operating said cement bond logging tool in said well; opening said sealing rams; and removing said sealing nipple and cement bond logging tool from said blowout preventer stack and riser.

Sauer, C.W.; Stockinger, M.P.; Moran, L.K.

1990-03-06

275

The challenge and prevention of epidemics: experience from offshore petroleum installations and its extrapolation to ships.  

PubMed

The risk of epidemics represents an important challenge in offshore petroleum activities. All personnel are needed for regular operations, and the outbreak of an epidemic will soon affect the operations. The economical consequences can be vast. The risk of an epidemic is raised due to the closeness of living and catering offshore combined with frequent changes of personnel who travel offshore from many nations. The article is based on the experience gained by the author during 22 years as a senior medical officer in a Norwegian oil company. Some endemics and epidemics are described. None of these resulted in the shutdown of production, but they still represented a major challenge to the company and to the medical staff in particular. The transfer value from experience offshore to ships is obvious but there are differences. Risk analysis and quality assurance systems play an important part in the prevention and limitation of epidemics offshore. The infrastructure of the food supply chain as well as education and training of personnel are key elements. Campaigns on different hygiene topics that address all personnel are launched at regular intervals. Contingency plans must be established and be ready for use in case of a threatening epidemic. Identification of the type and source of the infection or food poisoning, isolation of the infected personnel, safe evacuation of patients, and the establishment of other necessary barriers for reduction of spread of infection are necessary to control an outbreak of an epidemic. PMID:22544502

Ulven, Arne Johan

2011-01-01

276

Offshore oil gas trends in ROVs tooling  

SciTech Connect

The ROVs that operate in today's offshore environment bear little or no resemblance to those which first began supporting the oil and gas work requirements less than 15 years ago. In that short span of time, an explosion of subsea technology has occurred, rendering older equipment obsolete and expanding subsea remote intervention capabilities beyond the horizon of intervention tasks originally envisioned. Today's offshore work ROVs employ the latest in robotics, fiver optics, acoustics, video, and computer technologies, and routinely achieve better than 90 percent operational availability. Leading offshore ROV operations companies have demonstrated less than 1 percent down-time over thousands of hours of operation. As the offshore oil and gas market evolves, the ever-expanding capabilities of the work ROV plays a major role in shaping the operational concepts employed in subsea oil and gas field exploration, development, and production. This paper explores the capabilities of available ROV systems in use offshore today, the economic trends driving ROV technology development, and the new trends in the employment of ROVs and their associated sensors and tooling systems.

Jacobson, J.R. (Perry Tritech Inc., Jupiter, FL (United States))

1994-04-01

277

A Study of Efficiency in a Reduced Matrix Converter for Offshore Wind Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced matrix converter (RMC) is a convenient topology for offshore wind farm due to its potential to reduce the size and weight of the converter, to improve the reliability by removing the electrolytic capacitor, and to increase the efficiency inherent to less stages of conversion. Moreover, it is a very flexible topology which permits different types of operation with a

Alejandro Garcés; Marta Molinas

2012-01-01

278

A diversified portfolio: joint management of non-renewable and renewable resources offshore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most resource models and resource policies address non-renewable and renewable resources separately for optimal management. A stochastic control model is developed that includes ecological and economic uncertainty for jointly managing both types of natural resources. The model is applied to analyze options for offshore oil platforms with data from California. Model components include fisheries benefits, maintenance and extraction costs, decommissioning

Linda Fernandez

2005-01-01

279

Pacific offshore record of plinian arc volcanism in Central America: 2. Tephra volumes and erupted masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment gravity cores collected from the Pacific seafloor offshore Central America contain numerous distal ash layers from plinian-type eruptions at the Central American Volcanic Arc dating back to more than 200 ka. In part 1 of this contribution we have correlated many of those ash layers between cores and with 26 tephras on land. The marine ash layers cover areas

S. Kutterolf; A. Freundt; W. Peréz

2008-01-01

280

47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements for offshore stations. 22.1037 Section...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...requirements for offshore stations. Applications for...would be caused to any base or mobile station using the...

2012-10-01

281

78 FR 18618 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the exploration of offshore mineral and energy resources insofar as they relate to matters...the exploration of offshore mineral and energy resources insofar as they relate to...national origin, political affiliation, sexual orientation, gender identity,...

2013-03-27

282

Offshoring of Services: An Overview of the Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Much attention has focused on the 'offshoring' of services to lower-wage locations abroad. Offshoring generally refers to an organization's purchase of goods or services from abroad that were previously produced domestically. Extensive public debate has a...

2005-01-01

283

Federal offshore statistics: leasing - exploration - production - revenue  

SciTech Connect

Federal Offshore Statistics is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the Federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Statistics are presented under the following topics: (1) highlights, (2) leasing, (3) exploration and development, (4) production and revenue, (5) federal offshore production by ranking operator, 1983, (6) reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources, and (7) oil pollution in the world's oceans.

Essertier, E.P. (comp.)

1984-01-01

284

Oil and gas exploration, offshore southern California  

SciTech Connect

Four local Tertiary basins comprise the regional Pacific Basin south of Point Conception: the San Diego trough and the offshore Los Angeles, Outer Banks, and Ventura-Santa Barbara Channel Basins. The San Diego trough has not been tested by deep wells. The offshore Los Angeles Basin produces oil and gas from Neogene sandstones in giant oil fields which extend on shore. The Outer Banks Basin is primarily a late cretaceous and Eocene-Oligocene basin which does not extend on shore; 6 test wells have been drilled since the 1975 sale, but no discoveries have been announced. The offshore Ventura-Santa Barbara Channel Basin produces oil and gas from Pliocene, Miocene, Oligocene, and Eocene sandstones and from fractured Monterey chert and siliceous shale of Miocene age; major future reserves are expected to be found in these reservoirs. 13 references.

Wallis, W.S.

1981-01-01

285

Offshore windmills and the effects of electromagnetic fields on fish.  

PubMed

With the large scale developments of offshore windpower the number of underwater electric cables is increasing with various technologies applied. A wind farm is associated with different types of cables used for intraturbine, array-to-transformer, and transformer-to-shore transmissions. As the electric currents in submarine cables induce electromagnetic fields there is a concern of how they may influence fishes. Studies have shown that there are fish species that are magneto-sensitive using geomagnetic field information for the purpose of orientation. This implies that if the geomagnetic field is locally altered it could influence spatial patterns in fish. There are also physiological aspects to consider, especially for species that are less inclined to move as the exposure could be persistent in a particular area. Even though studies have shown that magnetic fields could affect fish, there is at present limited evidence that fish are influenced by the electromagnetic fields that underwater cables from windmills generate. Studies on European eel in the Baltic Sea have indicated some minor effects. In this article we give an overview on the type of submarine cables that are used for electric transmissions in the sea. We also describe the character of the magnetic fields they induce. The effects of magnetic fields on fish are reviewed and how this may relate to the cables used for offshore wind power is discussed. PMID:18240676

Ohman, Marcus C; Sigray, Peter; Westerberg, Håkan

2007-12-01

286

Cleaning of a copper matte smelting slag from a water-jacket furnace by direct reduction of heavy metals.  

PubMed

Cleaning experiments of a copper matte smelting slag from the water-jacket furnace was undertaken by direct reduction in a laboratory-scale electric furnace. The effects of coal-to-slag ratio, w, and the reduction time, t, were considered for two different coal/slag mixing procedures. In the first procedure, metallurgical coal was added to the molten slag, whereas in the second procedure, coal was premixed with the solid slag before charging into the furnace. The recovery of heavy metals (Cu, Co), and the fuming of Pb and Zn were investigated. Contamination of the metal phase by iron and the acidity index of the final slag were analysed as these may impede the economical viability of the process. The lower w value of 2.56% yielded a recovery rate of less than 60% for copper and less than 50% for cobalt, and around 70% for zinc. However, increasing w to 5% allowed the recovery of 70-90% for Cu, Co and Zn simultaneously after 30-60 min reduction of the molten slag. After reduction, the cleaned slags contained only small amounts of copper and cobalt (<0.4 wt%). Fuming of lead and zinc was efficient as the %Pb of the residual slag dropped to levels lower than 0.04% after 30 min of reduction. Ninety percent of the lead was removed from the initial slag and collected in the dusts. The zinc content of the cleaned slags quickly dropped to between 1 and 3 wt% from the initial 8.2% after 30 min reduction for w value of 5 and after 60 min reduction for w value of 2.56. The dusts contained about 60% Zn and 10% Pb. Recovery of lead from fuming of the slag was higher than 90% in all the experimental conditions considered in this study. PMID:18848396

Maweja, Kasonde; Mukongo, Tshikele; Mutombo, Ilunga

2008-09-07

287

The Stability of Offshore Outsourcing Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

• \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Offshore outsourcing of administrative and technical services has become a mainstream business practice. Increasing commoditization\\u000a of business services and growing client experience with outsourcing have created a range of competitive service delivery options\\u000a for client firms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Yet, data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN) suggests that, despite increasing market options and growing client expectations\\u000a related to service quality

Stephan Manning; Arie Y. Lewin; Marc Schuerch

2011-01-01

288

Offshore structure incorporating a conductor deflecting system  

SciTech Connect

An offshore structure that is supported above the water's surface by at least one substantially vertically disposed leg which extends to the ocean floor. The structure is adapted to accommodate a vertical member or riser conductor having a deflector segment capable of engaging one or more fluid carrying conduits or risers which are lowered therethrough. The deflector segment is positioned to engage a lowering riser end so that the riser will be urged outwardly and away from the base of the structure. The riser or risers can thus be readily connected to subsea pipelines which terminate adjacent to the foot of the offshore structure.

Mott, G. E.

1985-05-28

289

Fouling of Offshore Structures in China-a Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofouling on ships' hulls and other man-made structures is a major economic and technical problem around the world. In recent decades, the development and growth of the offshore oil and gas industry has led to increased interest in, and studies on marine fouling in offshore regions. This paper reviews the effects of marine fouling on offshore structures, the development of

Tao Yan; Wen Xia Yan

2003-01-01

290

Offshore wind resource estimation using wave buoy data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the coming decade installed offshore wind capacity is expected to expand rapidly. This will be both technically and economically challenging. Precise wind resource assessment is one of the more imminent challenges. It is more difficult to assess wind power offshore than onshore due to the paucity of representative wind speed data. Offshore site-specific data is less accessible and is

Aoife M. Foley; Cathal Kerlin; Paul G. Leahy

2012-01-01

291

Successful Method of Fracturing in Offshore Oil Fields in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracturing technology has been applied very rarely in offshore oil fields in China. Compared with on land, fracturing in offshore oil fields has its own features. Firstly, the cost of operation and fracturing treatment is higher, so a higher ratio of success and effect is required. Secondly, deviated wells and horizontal wells, which are common in offshore oil fields, increase

Q. Meng; S. Zhang; X. Huang; B. Chen; S. Tian

2010-01-01

292

International Offshore Students' Perceptions of Virtual Office Hours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The main aim of this study is to gauge international offshore students' perceptions of virtual office hours (VOH) to consult with their offshore unit coordinators in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This paper employs a quantitative and qualitative approach where data was sourced from three offshore campuses over a 12-month period…

Wdowik, Steven; Michael, Kathy

2013-01-01

293

Are offshore power plants realistic. [Alternative to nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore fossil-fueled electric power plants offer a positive alternative to nuclear proliferation, a viable technology for providing electricity to coastal cities. Such plants combine new technology from the offshore oil industry with efficient power generation techniques, are cheaper than nuclear plants, and could burn coal or solid waste or a mixture of both. Offshore power plants could utilize ocean water

Adler

1976-01-01

294

Offshore wind energy systems for the U.K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the more important factors affecting the design of offshore wind energy systems are discussed. It is shown that power densities in offshore winds are attractively high, of the order of 300 kW\\/linear meter (perpendicular to the wind direction). The economics of offshore operation strongly favors the use of large wind turbines (about 100 m diameter) and a low

P. J. Musgrove

1979-01-01

295

POWER - A METHODOLOGY FOR PREDICTING OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY RESOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate estimate of the long-term wind speed is essential to site an offshore wind farm effectively. Unfortunately measured wind speed data at potential offshore wind farm sites are currently sparse. A major European Commission funded project called 'Predicting Offshore Wind Energy Resources\\

G M Watson; J A Halliday; J P Palutikof; T Holt; R J Barthelmie; J P Coelingh; L Folkerts; G F M Wiegerinck; E J van Zuylen; J W Cleijne; G C S Hommel

296

Share Restrictions, Liquidity Premium and Offshore Hedge Funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines liquidity premium focusing on the difference between offshore and onshore hedge funds. Due to tax provisions and regulatory concerns, offshore and onshore hedge funds have different legal structures, which lead to differences in share restrictions such as a lockup provision. We find that offshore investors collect higher illiquidity premium when their investment has the same level of

Bing Liang

297

Development Potential for California's Offshore Wind Energy Resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initial analysis was performed for areas suitable for offshore wind farm development near the California coast. The siting of an offshore wind farm is limited by water depth, with shallow water being the most preferable economically. Acceptable depths for offshore wind farms were broken up into three categories, based on current and future wind turbine tower support technology; <=20

M. J. Dvorak; M. Z. Jacobson; C. L. Archer

2007-01-01

298

76 FR 70350 - West Oahu Offshore Security Zone  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The West Oahu Offshore Zone does not include...aircraft and support personnel, or other personnel...National Technology Transfer and Advancement...T14-1048 West Oahu Offshore Security Zone...The West Oahu Offshore Zone does not include...e) Enforcement personnel. The U.S....

2011-11-14

299

International Offshore Students' Perceptions of Virtual Office Hours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The main aim of this study is to gauge international offshore students' perceptions of virtual office hours (VOH) to consult with their offshore unit coordinators in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This paper employs a quantitative and qualitative approach where data was sourced from three offshore campuses over a 12-month period…

Wdowik, Steven; Michael, Kathy

2013-01-01

300

TRANSMISSION OPTIONS FOR OFFSHORE WIND FARMS IN THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

While offshore wind farms have been installed in Europe for over a decade, developers in the United States are only beginning to look toward the offshore resource. This paper provides an introduction to transmission issues for offshore wind farms in North America, aimed towards non-electrical engineers in the windpower industry. Topics include cable terminology and installation, and factors involved in

Sally D. Wright; Anthony L. Rogers; James F. Manwell

301

Offshore Wind Farm Layout Optimization (OWFLO) Project: Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimizing the layout of an offshore wind farm presents a significant engineering challenge. Most of the optimization literature to date has focused on land-based wind farms, rather than on offshore farms. Typically, energy production is the metric by which a candidate layout is evaluated. The Offshore Wind Farm Layout Optimization (OWFLO) project instead uses the levelized production cost as the

Christopher N. Elkinton; James F. Manwell; Jon G. McGowan

302

Technical and economic aspects of a floating offshore wind farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the conceptual design for FLOAT – an offshore floating wind turbine – is described in this paper. This design represents a marriage of the wind power and offshore oil and gas technology. The objective of the FLOAT project is to develop a floating wind turbine system enabling the economic generation of electricity from wind power in offshore locations,

K. C Tong

1998-01-01

303

OFFSHORE WIND FARM LAYOUT OPTIMIZATION (OWFLO) PROJECT: AN INTRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimizing the layout of an offshore wind farm presents a significant engineering challenge. Most of the optimization literature to date has focused on land-based wind farms, rather than on offshore farms. The conventional method used to lay out a wind farm combines a turbine cost model and a wake model in conjunction with an optimization routine. In offshore environments, however,

C. N. Elkinton; J. F. Manwell; J. G. McGowan

304

Visual impact assessment of offshore wind farms and prior experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy planners have shifted their attention towards offshore wind power generation and the decision is supported by the public in general, which in the literature has a positive attitude towards offshore wind generation. However, globally only a few offshore wind farms are operating. As more wind farms start operating and more people become experienced with especially the visual impacts from

Jacob Ladenburg

2009-01-01

305

A fuzzy approach to the lectotype optimization of offshore platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lectotype optimization of offshore platforms is of particular importance in the concept design process. Lectotype optimization involves multiple objectives with uncertainty and so is a problem of multiple attribute decision making. To date, there have been few published works on this topic in the context of offshore engineering. This paper develops a framework and methodology for evaluation of offshore platform

S. Chen; G. Fu

2003-01-01

306

Boundary Spanning in Offshored Information Systems Development Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent growth in offshore outsourcing of information systems (IS) services is accompanied by managing the offshore projects successfully. Much of the project failures can be attributed to geographic and organizational boundaries which create differences in culture, language, work patterns, and decision making processes among the offshore project…

Krishnan, Poornima

2010-01-01

307

Boundary Spanning in Offshored Information Systems Development Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent growth in offshore outsourcing of information systems (IS) services is accompanied by managing the offshore projects successfully. Much of the project failures can be attributed to geographic and organizational boundaries which create differences in culture, language, work patterns, and decision making processes among the offshore project…

Krishnan, Poornima

2010-01-01

308

Proceedings of the nineteenth annual offshore technology conference. Vol. 2  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on offshore platforms. Topics considered at the conference included ice forces, multi-leg structures, subsea completions, computer graphics, algorithms, positioning, tanker ships, wave forces, moorings, stability, leaks in submarine pipelines, damping, offshore drilling, nonlinear dynamic analysis of hybrid riser systems, fatigue life analysis, offshore microprocessors, materials testing, corrosion, and terminal facilities.

Not Available

1987-01-01

309

TAX AVOIDANCE FOR RESIDENT BUSINESS BY ESTABLISHING OFFSHORE COMPANIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until nowadays, a wide spectrum of offshore services satisfying various business needs has been developed. The offshore industry has turned into a global business, and reached all corners of the world, covering about a half of the world’s financial transactions. The offshore companies are a solution for everyone who is planning new activity and are interested in business development and

Marilena CIOBANASU; Iustin PRIESCU; Anca Mirela POSTOLE; Elena Mihaela ILIESCU

310

Use of coatings to supplement cathodic protection of offshore structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experience has demonstrated the synergism between cathodic protection and organic coatings for providing long term corrosion protection to submerged offshore structures. This concept of coated steel with cathodic protection (CP) has been used by offshore oil producers to achieve weight and cost savings on offshore structures. For structures in deepwater, the weight savings are significant. Also, in areas where

W. H. Thomason; S. E. Pape; S. Evans

1987-01-01

311

Types of potential effects of offshore oil and gas development on marine mammals and endangered species of the northern Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean. Technical paper no. 9 (final)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report summarizes information on the types of potential effects on marine mammals, endangered species, and rare plants which may be associated with oil and gas lease sales pending for the northern Bering Sea and arctic regions. The discussion does not imply that any specific level of impact will be sustained but rather identifies the various potential effects associated with

C. J. Cowles; D. J. Hansen; J. D. Hubbard

1981-01-01

312

Ice island creation, drift, recurrences, mechanical properties, and interactions with arctic offshore oil production structures. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research and engineering studies on first-year sea ice for over two decades has resulted in the design, construction, and operation of jacket platforms, of artificial islands, and of massive gravity structures which routinely withstand moving sea ice of thickness up to 2 meters. However, the less-common interactions between such structures and moving multiyear ice ({ge}3 meters thick), and also moving ice islands (10 to 60 meters thick) remain as the unknown and potentially most serious hazard for Arctic offshore structures. In this study, research was addressed across the complete span of remaining questions regarding such features. Ice island components, thickness distributions, scenarios and models for the interactions of massive ice features with offshore structures, all were considered. Ice island morphology and calving studies were directed at the cluster of 19 ice islands produced in a calving from the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on Ellesmere Island in 1983, and also at a calving from the Milne Ice Shelf in 1988. The statistics of ice island dynamics, on both a short-term small-scale basis and also on a long-term basis, were studied. Typical wind velocities of 5 to 7.5 meters per second led to ice island speeds of about 0.014 of the wind speed, at an angle of 20{degrees} to the right of the wind direction. Ice island samples were tested for their stress/strain characteristics. Compressive strength values ranged from 1.64 MPa at a strain rate of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s{sup {minus}1} to 6.75 MPa at a strain rate of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}. Scenarios for ice island/structure interactions were developed, and protective countermeasures such as spray ice and ice rubble barriers were suggested. Additional computer modeling of structure/ice interactions for massive ice features is recommended.

Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Li, Fucheng; Lu, Mingchi

1991-03-01

313

United States Offshore Wind Resource Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of the offshore wind resource will be necessary if the United States is to meet the goal of having 20% of its electricity generated by wind power because many of the electrical load centers in the country are located along the coastlines. The United States Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has supported an ongoing project to assess the wind resource for the offshore regions of the contiguous United States including the Great Lakes. Final offshore maps with a horizontal resolution of 200 meters (m) have been completed for Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, northern New England, and the Great Lakes. The ocean wind resource maps extend from the coastline to 50 nautical miles (nm) offshore. The Great Lake maps show the resource for all of the individual lakes. These maps depict the wind resource at 50 m above the water as classes of wind power density. Class 1 represents the lowest available wind resource, while Class 7 is the highest resource. Areas with Class 5 and higher wind resource can be economical for offshore project development. As offshore wind turbine technology improves, areas with Class 4 and higher resource should become economically viable. The wind resource maps are generated using output from a modified numerical weather prediction model combined with a wind flow model. The preliminary modeling is performed by AWS Truewind under subcontract to NREL. The preliminary model estimates are sent to NREL to be validated. NREL validates the preliminary estimates by comparing 50 m model data to available measurements that are extrapolated to 50 m. The validation results are used to modify the preliminary map and produce the final resource map. The sources of offshore wind measurement data include buoys, automated stations, lighthouses, and satellite- derived ocean wind speed data. The wind electric potential is represented as Megawatts (MW) of potential installed capacity and is based on the square kilometers (sq. km) of Class 5 and higher wind resource found in a specific region. NREL uses a factor of 5 MW of installed capacity per sq. km of "windy water" for its raw electric potential calculations. NREL uses Geographic Information System data to break down the offshore wind potential by state, water depth, and distance from shore. The wind potential estimates are based on the updated maps, and on previous offshore resource information for regions where new maps are not available. The estimates are updated as new maps are completed. For example, the updated Texas offshore map shows almost 3000 sq. km of Class 5 resource within 10 nm of shore and nearly 2000 sq. km of Class 5 resource or 10,000 MW of potential installed capacity in water depths of less than 30 m. NREL plans to develop exclusion criteria to further refine the offshore wind potential

Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.

2008-12-01

314

Risk analysis for Arctic offshore operations  

SciTech Connect

Offshore exploration for hydrocarbons is being conducted in the near-shore regions of the Beaufort Sea. This activity is expected to be intensified and expanded into the deeper portions of the Beaufort, as well as into the Chukchi Sea. The ice conditions in the Beaufort Sea are very variable, particularly in the deeper water regions. This variability greatly influences the probability of success or failure of an offshore operation. For example, a summer exploratory program conducted from a floating drilling unit may require a period of 60 to 100 days on station. The success of such a program depends on: (a) the time when the winter ice conditions deteriorate sufficiently for the drilling unit to move on station; (b) the number of summer invasions by the arctic ice pack, forcing the drilling unit to abandon station; (c) the rate at which first-year ice grows to the ice thickness limit of the supporting icebreakers; and (d) the extent of arctic pack expansion during the fall and early winter. In general, the ice conditions are so variable that, even with good planning, the change of failure of an offshore operation will not be negligible. Contingency planning for such events is therefore necessary. This paper presents a risk analysis procedure which can greatly benefit the planning of an offshore operation. A floating drilling program and a towing and installation operation for a fixed structure are considered to illustrate the procedure.

Slomski, S.; Vivatrat, V.

1986-04-01

315

Apparatus for producing oil and gas offshore  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for producing oil or gas from an offshore oil or gas well using a production platform near or above sea-level which is laterally and vertically displaceable by the sea and wind and which permits well workover from the production platform, comprising: (a) the following elements of a Christmas tree located at about the seafloor: a first

Tam

1978-01-01

316

Embedded knowledge and offshore software development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore software development scenarios may include groups with domain specific knowledge who collaborate internationally across multiple local contexts. A key challenge in the understanding and also practice of such distributed work is concerned with the issue of knowledge, and how it can be effectively managed. In this paper, we develop a conceptual scheme based on theories associated with embedded knowledge.

Brian Nicholson; Sundeep Sahay

2004-01-01

317

Petroleum geology framework, West Coast offshore region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The west coast offshore region of western Canada is a large, relatively- unexplored frontier hydrocarbon province. It includes Queen Charlotte (QC) and Georgia basins on the continental shelf inboard of Queen Charlotte Islands and Vancouver Island, and Tofino and Winona basins on the continental shelf and slope west of Vancouver Island (Fig. 1). A number of exploration wells drilled on

James W. Haggart; James R. Dietrich; Henry V. Lyatsky

318

Offshore and underground power plants 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unconroversial plant sites for generating electric power by any means are becoming increasingly scarce. Both nuclear and fossil fuel plants require nearness to large quantities of cooling water and to load centers. The following topics are discussed: underground pumped storage; underground power plants; floating shallow water nuclear plants; floating deepwater nuclear plants; seabed and island nuclear plants; offshore coal fired

Noyes

1977-01-01

319

Off-Shoring: An Elusive Phenomenon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first of several reports by an Academy Panel formed to assess off-shoring, including the adequacy of current data and their usefulness in ascertaining its extent and economic effects. The Panel finds that the use of multiple terms to describe ...

2006-01-01

320

Accord near for offshore California oil shipments  

SciTech Connect

There are faint glimmers of hope again for offshore California operators. After more than a decade of often bitter strife over offshore oil and gas development and transportation issues, state officials and oil producers may be moving toward compromise solutions. One such solution may be forthcoming on offshore development. But the real change came with the turnabout of the California Coastal Commission (CCC), which last month approved a permit for interim tankering of crude from Point Arguello oil field in the Santa Barbara Channel to Los Angeles. The dispute over how to ship offshore California crude to market has dragged on since before Point Arguelo development plans were unveiled. The project's status has become a flashpoint in the U.S. debate over resource use and environmental concerns. The controversy flared anew in the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez tanker spill off Alaska, when CCC voided a Santa Barbara County permit for interim tankering, a move project operator Chevron Corp. linked to the Exxon Valdez accident. Faced with litigation, the state's economic devastation, and acrimonious debate over transporting California crude, Gov. Pete Wilson and other agencies approved the CCC permit. But there's a catch: A permanent pipeline must be built to handle full production within 3 years. The paper discusses permit concerns, the turnaround decision, the anger of environmental groups, and pipeline proposals.

Not Available

1993-02-15

321

Offshore Essaouira basin: Geology and hydrocarbon potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study area lies in the offshore extension of the onshore Essaouria basin. The Mesozoic development of the Essaouira margin was largely controlled by Late Triassic to Mid-Jurassic rifting and subsequent opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, continental margin. Diapiric salt structure

H. Jabour; A. Ait Salem

1991-01-01

322

Energy technologies for offshore frontier areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disappointing exploration results in Arctic and deepwater areas have prompted the Department of the Interior to lower their estimates of economically recoverable oil and gas resources in the U.S. offshore. Exploration and development of these resources is financially risky because of the costly high-technology systems and large investments needed to operate in frontier areas. If the country is to meet

J. Curlin; P. Johnson; C. Stevens; W. Westermeyer; D. Kevin; N. Harllee; C. Dybas

1985-01-01

323

Optimal routing offshore helicopter using Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This With the discovery of oil in the Pre-Salt layer, in oceanic regions of Brazil, it is aroused the need to improve technological devices of analysis, to ensure the sustainability of the system of fuel production in the country. From there we conjecture about the problem of air traffic control of offshore helicopters, which give logistical support to oil platforms

Allan Motta; Roberta Vieira; Joao Soletti

2011-01-01

324

Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of

1996-01-01

325

Offshore Benin, a classic passive margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore Benin comprises a narrow east-west continental shelf, some 30 km wide. A sharp shelf break running parallel to the coast borders the shelf, whereupon water depths rapidly increase to over 7000 ft. The area lies within the Dahomey Embayment, one of a series of Cretaceous and younger basins lining the coast of Africa that owe their inception to the

1991-01-01

326

Federal offshore statistics: leasing, exploration, production, revenue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until

Essertier

1984-01-01

327

Deep water riser system for offshore drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A buoyant riser system for use in a deep water offshore drilling environment is anchored by a system of compliant guys below the active weather zone of the sea. A controllably buoyant housing of the system is submerged at a depth that is readily accessible to divers and includes a blow-out preventer (BOP) from which a suspended sub-riser leads to

1984-01-01

328

Innovative Offshore Engineering In The Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum exploration in the past few years has been carried out in increasingly hostile environments; in the frigid northern tundra; in deep offshore waters and now in the ice infested seas in Arctic and sub-Arctic areas. In order to explore for oil in these hostile areas, in a cost effective manner, innovative solutions have been sought and implemented, such as

P. Noble

1983-01-01

329

Unique wellhead solves offshore cementing problems  

SciTech Connect

A special subsea wellhead assembly that allows 2stage cementing (from both top and bottom) in weak, unconsolidated seabed sediments has been used successfully from a semi-submersible rig offshore Malta. Presented here is a description of the system and a discussion of operational considerations used to set and cement 20 and 16-in. surface casing strings.

Not Available

1985-02-01

330

Sea loads on ships and offshore structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book introduces the theory of the structural loading on ships and offshore structures caused by wind, waves and currents, and goes on to describe the applications of this theory in terms of real structures. The main topics described are linear-wave induced motions, loads on floating structures, numerical methods for ascertaining wave induced motions and loads, viscous wave loads and

O. M. Faltinsen

1990-01-01

331

Economic Optimization of Offshore Wind Farms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, a recently developed cost model is extended and applied on site and design analyses as well as global design optimizations. The model provides a cost analysis for offshore wind farms from 14 to 120 MW installed power. With restrictions, it...

T. Pauling

1996-01-01

332

Reliability model of large offshore wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

For investors of wind farms projects, it is indispensable to get reliable prognosis of the expected energy produced per year, taking into account technical failures and the stochastic characteristic of the wind. This applies especially for offshore wind farms with higher installation costs and difficult maintenance conditions. The repair of components located on sea may take many days or even

E. Spahic; A. Underbrink; V. Buchert; J. Hanson; I. Jeromin; G. Balzer

2009-01-01

333

A New Architecture for Offshore Wind Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore wind farms using HVDC links can be positioned a large distance from shore, opening up new opportunities for wind generation. Conventional approaches using 60 Hz generators and transformers are not appropriate in such applications, as they are heavy and result in expensive and complex installation and maintenance issues. This paper proposes an alternative architecture for such wind farms, using

Anish Prasai; Jung-Sik Yim; Deepak Divan; Ashish Bendre; Seung-Ki Sul

2008-01-01

334

Experimental study of an offshore platform.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of an analysis of the ambient response data collected from a Venezuelan near-shore offshore platform constructed in 1992. Recording of the data have been constantly done during the period from May 1993 to July 1994. Using...

P. H. Kirkegaard J. C. Asmussen P. Andersen R. Brinker

1994-01-01

335

Damage detection in an offshore structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structural integrity of a multi-pile offshore platform is investigated by using a vibration based damage detection scheme. Changes in structural integrity are assumed to be reflected in the modal parameters estimated form only output data using an Aut...

R. Brincker P. H. Kirkegaard P. Andersen M. E. Martinez

1994-01-01

336

Fatigue failure paths for offshore platform inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed- form, reliability-based procedure is developed to identify fatigue failure paths of offshore structures and assess the notional probability of system failure through these paths. The procedure utilizes the Miners rule node fatigue failure reliability model developed by Wirsching. Effects of load redistribution following the fatigue failure of a node on the time to failure of remaining unfailed nodes

Demir I. Karsan; Ashok Kumar

1990-01-01

337

Integrating Offshore Wind and Wave Resource Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to review the sources of wind and wave information, the methodologies to assess offshore wind and wave energy resources, and the more relevant results at the European level as a first step to integration of the evaluation of both resources. In situ and remote sensed wind and wave data (using satellite based sensors) are

M. T. Pontes; R. Barthelmie; G. Giebel; P. Costa; A. Sood

338

Offshore production riser with flexible connector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central pipe riser support structure is connected to an underwater offshore base member by means of a gimbal joint. Vertical flow lines run parallel to the central riser and are supported by support means connected thereto. The lowermost support of each flow line is formed by a guide sleeve allowing at most a 3° deviation between the central axis

E. C. Blomsma; P. T. Holtslag

1981-01-01

339

Flow line riser for offshore structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riser for an offshore marine platform which includes facilities to receive, treat, and\\/or store hydrocarbon fluid from a plurality of dispersed submerged wells. The riser includes means to accommodate a plurality of conduits between the platform deck and the floor of the body of water. As a rigid, or non-rigid conduit is pulled downwardly through the riser, it engages a

J. P. Knowles; S. D. Mitchell; S. Wheeler

1985-01-01

340

Human Rights, Academic Freedom, and Offshore Academics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the carnage wrought on higher education by the Great Recession, evidence persists that the sector is still host to a speculator psychology. One example is the unabated stampede to set up branches and programs overseas. Colleges have many reasons to go offshore: (1) to reduce costs; (2) to build their "brands" in "emerging markets"; and (3)…

Ross, Andrew

2011-01-01

341

Human Rights, Academic Freedom, and Offshore Academics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the carnage wrought on higher education by the Great Recession, evidence persists that the sector is still host to a speculator psychology. One example is the unabated stampede to set up branches and programs overseas. Colleges have many reasons to go offshore: (1) to reduce costs; (2) to build their "brands" in "emerging markets"; and…

Ross, Andrew

2011-01-01

342

Wave Models for Offshore Wind Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the design of wind turbines—onshore or offshore—the prediction of extreme loads as- sociated with a target (long) return period requires statistical extrapolation from available loads data. The data required for such extrapolation are obtained by stochastic time- domain simulation of the inflow turbulence and of the turbine response. Prediction of accurate loads depends on assumptions made in the simulation

Puneet Agarwal; Lance Manuely

2008-01-01

343

Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with

Adetoba

1984-01-01

344

Offshore accidents and effects on their performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine accidents are some of the risk sources on human life at sea and also make the founded budget to be sank to the deep. In order to prevent these damages and losses, it is necessary to do a proper understanding of these accidents. Offshore systems as of the main parts of ocean structures and their accidents are considered here

H. Sayyaadi; P. Hemati

2004-01-01

345

Status and challenges for offshore wind energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide demand for renewable energy is increasing rapidly because of the climate problem, and also because oil resources are limited. Wind energy appears as a clean and good solution to cope with a great part of this energy demand. As space is becoming scarce for the installation of onshore wind turbines, offshore wind energy becomes a good alternative. Renewable electricity

Rennian Li; Xin Wang

2011-01-01

346

Writing of Bragg gratings through the polymer jacket of low-loss As2S3 fibers using femtosecond pulses at 800 nm.  

PubMed

Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) were written through the polymer jacket of low-loss single mode As(2)S(3) chalcogenide fibers by using femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm and a phase-mask. Peak reflectivity in excess of 99% was obtained at 3440 nm after 5 min of exposure. The resulting FBG maintained a peak reflectivity of 90% after 64 min of thermal annealing at 100 °C. This demonstration paves the way to the development of all-fiber mid-infrared laser sources. PMID:23041897

Bernier, M; El-Amraoui, M; Couillard, J F; Messaddeq, Y; Vallée, R

2012-09-15

347

Managing offshore wind developments in the United States: Legal, environmental and social considerations using a case study in Nantucket Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore wind power is a rapidly emerging form of energy generation that is now being proposed in the United States (US). This type of renewable energy intends to provide many types of benefits, including reduced dependency on fossil fuels, improved air quality, and a hedge against volatile price fluctuations in electricity markets. However, the US has not yet addressed some

Christine Santora; Nicole Hade; Jackie Odell

2004-01-01

348

[How Straight the Jacket?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The educational system is wracked by three crises: the crisis of efficiency and support; the crisis of relevance and control; and the crisis of race and class. Concerning the first, budgeteers and law makers will soon want answers about the efficiency of the present distribution of educational tasks and levels, new programs, and the use of new…

Ward, F. Champion

349

Mechanical properties at high strain-rate of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations are now an actual option in order to try to reproduce and understand the mechanical response in components subjected to extreme loading conditions, like in a ballistic impact. A correct materials calibration is therefore necessary in order to extract the materials parameters. In this work the simple and widely used Johnson-Cook model was used to analyse the experimental data obtained for the characterization of the bullet materials. The bullet under investigation is a full metal jacket ball, with a lead-antimony alloy core and a brass jacket. The experimental tests cover a wide range in strain-rate, starting from quasi-static tests up to high dynamic tests performed on a standard Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar setup. In general, there is a great lack in strain-rate sensitivity and failure data. Pure lead is very soft and ductile, so antimony is used to give greater hardness and strength. The results of this study show a significant strain-rate influence for this alloy that can be associated with the presence of the lead-antimony phases and their structures. Also in case of the brass the results showed significant strain-rate sensitivity in the material response.

Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.; Fichera, C.; Manes, A.; Giglio, M.

2012-08-01

350

Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Italy is the first European and world's fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

Armani, F. B.; Paltrinieri, D.

2013-06-01

351

Offshore technology has a tremendous future  

SciTech Connect

Proven offshore technology has the capability to produce oil and gas through the world's continental shelves, on the continental slopes, and toward the abyssal plains. As with all other economic endeavors, there will eventually be a point of diminishing returns in producing offshore hydrocarbons. But just where or when this point will be reached is not now known, nor is it likely to be known soon. A basic fact of oceanographic research is that oil shows have been found in deep ocean basins, such as at Challenger Knoll in the Sigsbee Deep in the central Gulf of Mexico, and elsewhere. At least 240 billion barrels of recoverable oil are considered to exist in the world's continental shelves. Exploratory drilling combined with engineering and oceanographic research, continually broaden horizons and potential in this respect.

Brundage, H.T.

1984-05-01

352

Response of wave excited offshore platforms  

SciTech Connect

A study of the resultants of inertia and drag force components induced by waves on offshore structures is made, and the relations between these resultants and the corresponding modal forces that govern the structural response are examined. The information and concepts reported elucidate the main factors that control such forces. Using the deep-water approximation of linear wave theory and the Morison equation, it is shown that the inertia and drag components of the modal forces can be expressed in terms of the sea surface kinematics. This treatment of the wave excitations advances the understanding of their characteristics and contributes to forming a basis for efficient, reliable evaluations of the response of wave- excited offshore platforms.

Chang, Shih-Jung [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hahn, G.D. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1995-09-01

353

Platforms will handle sour streams offshore India  

SciTech Connect

The recently installed Panna facilities, offshore the west coast of India, are designed to produce 50,000 b/d of highly paraffinic, sour oil, 180 MM-scfd of sour gas, and 100,000 bw/d. The field lies in about 154 ft of water. Enron Oil and Gas India Ltd. is operator. Enercon Engineering Inc., Houston, provided detailed design, procurement, and inspection services for the development that includes installation of six platforms and 22 pipelines.

NONE

1997-07-21

354

Analytical approximations for offshore pipelaying problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract The geometrically non-linear slender bar equation is solved for a number of problems involv- ing suspended pipelines, related to the off-shore gas- and oil-pipe laying. The problems concern the use of a lay-barge with stinger, and the process of abandoning and recovery of a pipe. The usually stiff equation requires for a completely numerical solution considerable computer power,

S. W. Rienstra

1987-01-01

355

Arctic and offshore research: Technology status report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the state of technology relative to the production of oil and gas in the Arctic. It discusses the technical issues that warrant investigation, and focuses on the current Department of Energy supported activities. Major accomplishments during the last year include the following: The Arctic and Offshore Research Information System (AORIS) was planned with industry survey recommendations incorporated. It contains a directory of 85 Arctic databases, a bibliographic component of over 7,000 citations, and a data component of about 300 data sets on sea ice characteristics. Seven position, pressure, and temperature buoys were deployed on ice islands (up to 3 by 6 miles in size) drifting off Ellesmere Island. Ice island movement, as much as 340 miles southwest of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf during the last 4 years, represents a potential hazard to Arctic offshore structures in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. The redesigned Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System (SEMS II) was deployed near Shell's Ellen-Elly platforms, about 10 miles offshore of Long Beach, California. The SEMS monitored the July 1986 southern California earthquakes. This was the first time earthquakes were simultaneouslly monitored by sensors located on land, aboard offshore platforms, and beneath the seafloor. Sea spray ice bond shear strength to various structural and protective coatings has been determined. The polyethylene coating demonstrated the most potential for rapid shedding of spray ice by gravity loading. Measurements of temperatures and salinities were completed as part of a pilot test to (1) detect seasonal conditions at the water-seabed interface, and (2) determine how they influence permafrost growth in the coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea. The temperatures and computed freezing point data suggest that seasonal seabed freezing can occur most of the winter. 13 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1988-01-01

356

Offshore production riser with flexible connector  

SciTech Connect

A central pipe riser support structure is connected to an underwater offshore base member by means of a gimbal joint. Vertical flow lines run parallel to the central riser and are supported by support means connected thereto. The lowermost support of each flow line is formed by a guide sleeve allowing at most a 3/sup 0/ deviation between the central axis of the guide sleeve and the central axis of the flow line.

Blomsma, E.C.; Holtslag, P.T.

1981-06-16

357

Offshore installation of ocean outfalls diffuser assemblies  

SciTech Connect

The Sydney Water Board commissioned the design and construction of three subsea ocean outfalls to handle the sewage disposal needs of the area for the next 100 years. The outfalls consist of three underground tunnels, extending up to 3 miles (5 km) offshore, that connect with 93 riser shafts capped with diffuser heads and supported by caissons. This paper discusses the methods and equipment used to install those ocean outfalls.

Arnold, M.S.; Tait, S.A.

1990-06-01

358

Improved thermoplastic materials for offshore flexible pipes  

SciTech Connect

Long-term aging tests representative of field operating conditions have been conducted on various thermoplastic materials proposed for the inner tube of flexible pipes for offshore drilling and production applications. In particular, experimental data are provided about the changes of the mechanical properties of selected thermoplastic materials owing to optimized formulation when the pipes are exposed over time to crude oil in the presence of gas and water.

Dawans, F.; Jarrin, J.; Hardy, J.

1988-08-01

359

Offshore Essaouira basin: Geology and hydrocarbon potential  

SciTech Connect

The study area lies in the offshore extension of the onshore Essaouria basin. The Mesozoic development of the Essaouira margin was largely controlled by Late Triassic to Mid-Jurassic rifting and subsequent opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, continental margin. Diapiric salt structure recognized on seismic defines a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic salt basin in the offshore area initiated during early rifting. Subsidence and sea-level rise during Jurassic resulted in carbonate platform development. This was followed during Cretaceous and Tertiary time by the deposition of a prograding siliciclastic system. Only three wells have been drilled in this basin. Although drilled on poorly defined prospects, these wells encountered gas and oil shows. Fairly extensive seismic coverage of good quality data is now available. A study based on an integrated approach involving seismic facies definition and mapping, correlation with well data, identification of the principal control on sedimentation, and basin modeling in conjunction with source rock prediction and maturity modeling has been carried out. Results have shown that hydrocarbon potential in the offshore Essaouira basin has not yet been substantiated by drilling. Attractive structural and stratigraphic prospects exist in the shelf, shelf edge, and the slope, and await confirmation by drilling.

Jabour, H.; Ait Salem, A. (ONAREP, Rabat (Morocco))

1991-03-01

360

Protecting the Sable Offshore Energy Project  

SciTech Connect

A project to develop one of the largest remaining known natural gas deposits in North America currently is underway in the Atlantic waters of Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is a $3 billion venture to develop six major natural gas fields that lie 10 to 40 km north of the edge of the Scotian Shelf in waters 20 to 40 m deep. The project involves constructing and installing offshore platforms, drilling up to 30 wells, building onshore gas process facilities, laying 402 km (250 miles) of subsea pipeline, and providing comprehensive corrosion prevention. SOEP will produce natural gas and condensate, to be separated and processed at the Goldboro Gas Plant (Nova Scotia, Canada) into market-quality gas. The gas will then be carried by the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline, a $1.7 billion, 1,051-km (653-mile) underground transmission pipeline, from Goldboro to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and into the US through Maine and New Hampshire before interconnecting with the North American pipeline grid near Dracut, Massachusetts. The paper describes production, building the offshore products on platform, and corrosion concerns.

Cederquist, S.C.

1999-08-01

361

New concepts for mooring offshore structures  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the work carried out on behalf of the UK Department of Energy into mooring concepts for the permanent mooring of large floating structures in hostile environments. In particular the mooring of structures for the conversion of wave energy for power generation in the North Atlantic Ocean. The size of the structures envisaged are not particularly large compared with offshore structures, or ships, however unlike offshore structures the wave energy convertors are designed for a high degree of interaction and response to the wave motion and therefore experience high mooring forces. But in one particular installation, a total of 1400 devices are required over a 144 km distance in order to provide a 2 GW output. However, for others it is more likely to be between 150 and 300 devices covering a proportionately smaller sea area. The mooring concepts which have been conceived for wave energy devices are novel in that they lie beyond current mooring practice; nevertheless, they may well be applied to offshore oil and gas production rigs in the future, so that permanent floating structures could be considered in preference to fixed structures, providing more cost-effective options for operating in deeper water and bringing current marginal fields into production.

Elliot, G.; Johnston, A.G.

1983-05-01

362

In use replaceable bearing for offshore mooring terminal  

SciTech Connect

A heavy-duty slowly pivoting shaft and bearing system for an offshore mooring terminal, of a type which includes a heavy-duty shaft with opposite ends that are each rotatably mounted on a radial bearing assembly, wherein bearings at each of the assemblies can be removed while the shaft continues to be rotatably supported to permit its uninterrupted use. Each bearing assembly includes a housing arm with a hole that receives an end of the shaft, a main bearing lying near the outer end of the hole to permit its replacement by sliding it off an extreme end of the shaft, and an auxiliary bearing lying at the inner end of the hole near the middle of the shaft. The auxiliary bearing is formed in a plurality of segments that each extend by less than a half circle around the shaft, to permit the segments to be individually placed about the shaft and forced between the housing arm and shaft.

Tang, P. H.

1984-09-18

363

How ARCO drills high-angle wells offshore Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

As described in Part 1, Atlantic Richfield Indonesia, Inc. (ARII) drilled 28 high-angle wells between early 1986 and October 1990, in its Offshore North West Java contract area. Drilling techniques for these wells were detailed, including descriptions of the bottom-hole assemblies, casing and mud programs, hole cleaning and logging. This concluding article of the two-part series discusses ARII's completion methods for the 28 wells.A key cost saving feature of the completions was use of a predrilled 7-in. production liner in the long horizontal sections, instead of a cemented and perforated liner. This type of completion was possible because the principal target zone is a highly compacted limestone. Described here are perforation wash tool operations and installation of electric submersible pumps. Production performance is analyzed to explain high-angle well advantages over vertical wells in Bima field. Application of production logging tools with a coiled tubing system are overviewed.

Tjondrodiputro, B.; Eddyarso, H.; Jones, K. (Atlantic Richfield Indonesia, Inc., Jakarta (Indonesia))

1993-04-01

364

ROLL CLADDING URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM AND URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM-NIOBIUM ALLOYS WITH ZIRCALOY2 FOR PLATE-TYPE FUEL ELEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clad plate-type fuel elements containing U--5 wt.% Zr--1.5 wt.% Nb alloy ; cores integrally clad on all surfaces with Zircaloy-2 were developed for the ; Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR). These plates were prepared by roll ; bonding assembled components inside steel jackets at 850 deg C with 50% reduction ; in thickness to effect sound diffusion bonds at all

C. H. Bean; R. E. Macherey; J. R. Lindgren

1958-01-01

365

A US Client's learning from outsourcing IT work offshore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on 45 interviews and significant documentation, we explore the offshore outsourcing experiences of a US-based biotechnology\\u000a company. This company offshore outsourced 21 IT projects to six suppliers in India. Senior managers and the official documents\\u000a from the Program Management Office consistently reported that offshore outsourcing was successful in reducing the company’s\\u000a IT costs. But interviews with knowledgeable participants actually

Joseph W. Rottman; Mary C. Lacity

2008-01-01

366

Proceedings - annual offshore technology conference, 13th, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The four volumes contain 183 papers presented at the meeting, all of which are indexed separately. Among the subjects covered are floating structure response, fatigue considerations in offshore systems, structural analysis and design, wave forces and hydroelastic response, offshore pipelines, ocean mining, tension leg platforms, oil terminals, geophysical data processing, seafloor surveying and mapping, subsea production systems, wind forces, towage of offshore structures, foundation performance, mooring and anchoring, and others.

Anon

1981-01-01

367

26th Annual offshore technology conference: 1994 Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This conference represents the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest with this volume containing papers relative to design of offshore platforms and marine riser systems. Papers deal with design, installation, fabrication, transport systems, mooring devices, repair methods, and development of satellite production facilities. Case histories on various offshore oil and gas fills are discussed along with economics of some applications and designs.

Not Available

1994-01-01

368

An examination of consumer sentiment toward offshored services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research identifies and analyzes the underlying elements and consequences of consumer sentiment toward offshored services.\\u000a This is accomplished by initially conceptualizing consumer sentiment toward offshored services, then developing and validating\\u000a a multi-dimensional scale (OFFSERVSENT) to measure the construct. This research determines that consumer sentiment toward\\u000a offshored services is instrumental in explaining consumers’ commitment to and global attitudes toward firms

Shawn T. Thelen; Boonghee Yoo; Vincent P. Magnini

2011-01-01

369

33 CFR 155.240 - Damage stability information for oil tankers and offshore oil barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Damage stability information for oil tankers and offshore oil barges. 155.240... Damage stability information for oil tankers and offshore oil barges. (a) Owners or operators of oil tankers and offshore oil barges shall...

2013-07-01

370

75 FR 12771 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel CALLAIS PROVIDER  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel CALLAIS PROVIDER AGENCY: Coast...Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel CALLAIS PROVIDER as required by...89, has been issues for the offshore supply vessel CALLAIS PROVIDER. The...

2010-03-17

371

75 FR 39956 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel CALLAIS SEARCHER  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel CALLAIS SEARCHER AGENCY: Coast...Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel CALLAIS SEARCHER as required by...89, has been issued for the offshore supply vessel CALLAIS SEARCHER, O.N....

2010-07-13

372

33 CFR 147.T08-849 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Safety Zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DEEPWATER HORIZON Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit...ZONES § 147.T08-849 DEEPWATER HORIZON Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit...zone. This area surrounds the DEEPWATER HORIZON, a Mobile Offshore...

2010-07-01

373

33 CFR 100.728 - Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg...100.728 Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg...All vessel traffic, not involved in the Hurricane Offshore Classic, entering...

2010-07-01

374

75 FR 13644 - TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port License...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET...port, the Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET...operated floating LNG transfer and regasification unit...pipelines to four existing offshore pipelines (Dauphin...facilitate movement of personnel, equipment,...

2010-03-22

375

33 CFR 100.728 - Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg...100.728 Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg...All vessel traffic, not involved in the Hurricane Offshore Classic, entering...

2013-07-01

376

Bullhead acidizing succeeds offshore California  

SciTech Connect

High acid-injection rates, within the friction dominant region, proved successful in stimulating oil wells completed in a naturally fractured reservoir. The bullhead technique was effective without any chemical or mechanical diversion. Chevron U.S.A. Production Co.'s Santa Clara field produces through wells on Platform Grace, in 318 ft of water. After repeated unsuccessful attempts to stimulate these wells, three basic types of formation damage were discovered: Drilling mud invasion; Solids precipitation; and Emulsion blocks. Accurate identification of the damage, in 1989, led to the first successful stimulation response 9 years after the first completion. One of the keys to successfully acidizing the Monterey is to treat the damaged zones with the stimulation fluids. The paper describes the three formation damages mechanisms, and treatment design including surfactants, acid volumes, retarding and sequestering, and wettability restoration. Acid placement, fluid dynamics, and results are also discussed.

Juprasert, M.S. (Chevron U.S.A. Production Co., Bakersfield, CA (United States))

1994-04-11

377

Offshore Installations and Their Relevance to the Coast Guard through the Next Twenty-Five Years. Volume II. Detailed Forecasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This three-volume study forecasts the universe of offshore installations (OSI) in waters proximate to U.S. territory out the year 2005, and assesses the impact of the growth in numbers and types of these installation on the Coast Guard. Volume II present ...

K. W. Simmons W. J. Burton C. W. Williams

1980-01-01

378

Offshore Installations and Their Relevance to the Coast Guard through the Next Twenty-Five Years. Volume III. Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This three-volume study forecasts the universe of offshore installations (OSI) in waters proximate to U.S. territory out the year 2005, and assesses the impact of the growth in numbers and types of these installation on the Coast Guard. Volume III contain...

K. W. Simmons W. J. Burton C. W. Williams

1980-01-01

379

The Zakum Telesystem: An Application of Large-Scale SCADA Systems to a Major Offshore Oil Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various types of supervisory-control and data-acquisition (SCADA) systems are in use in oil fields around the world, assisting field personnel in maintaining safe and profitable operations. The Upper Zakum field, one of the largest offshore fields, requires a far more extensive SCADA system with higher levels of distribution than generally needed. This paper outlines the environment and extent of the

Jamel Kahoul

1990-01-01

380

Seismic no-data zone, offshore Mississippi delta: depositional controls on geotechnical properties, velocity structure, and seismic attenuation  

SciTech Connect

Seismic acquisition problems plague exploration and production offshore the Mississippi delta. Geologic and geotechnical analyses of 300-ft borings and 20-ft piston cores, combined with subbottom acoustic measurements, help identify and predict the locations, types, and magnitudes of anomalous seismic zones. This knowledge is used to design acquisition and processing techniques to circumvent the seismic problems.

May, J.A.; Meeder, C.A.; Tinkle, A.R.; Wener, K.R.

1986-09-01

381

Formation of elevated refractive layers in the oceanic boundary layer by modification of land air flowing offshore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usual picture of the development of temperature and humidity boundary layers in a land air mass that moves offshore is shown to be very wrong under one type of Foehn condition in southern California, and it is probable that similar conditions can prevail in widespread areas around the globe, notably the Mediterranean Sea and the monsoonal regions of the

Earl E. Gossard

1982-01-01

382

A Taxonomy of Sourcing Strategic Types for MNCs Operating in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a taxonomic study of sourcing strategy types and their relationships to subsidiary profitability. Using the taxonomic approach, this study identifies five sourcing strategy types based on the decision rules of direction and volume of sourcing activities, namely market access, offshore platform, offshore manufacturing, local sourcing, and complex sourcing. We validated these sourcing types by linking them to

Masaaki Kotabe; Hongxin Zhao

2002-01-01

383

Survey report of offshore wind conditions in prospect of offshore wind energy conversion systems in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy is viewed as a promising new energy resource in its pure, clean, and inexhaustible nature. Because of less disturbed, stable and strong wind conditions, coastal areas are considered to be suitable for constructing wind energy systems. Moreover, it is said that offshore wind conditions are better than inshore wind conditions for power generation. However, actual measured reports of

K. Nishi; S. Shiraishi; M. Hamano; Y. Umeki; H. Kume

2004-01-01

384

BIO-OFFSHORE: Grootschalige teelt van zeewieren in combinatie met offshore windparken in de Noordzee  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the technological feasibility of seaweed cultivation in the North Sea in combination with offshore wind parks and harvesting and conversion of seaweed biomass to renewable energy carriers and chemicals. The study also identifies stakeholders and participants for technology development and the ecological and societal conditions to fit in large-scale seaweed cultivation in the marine environment, existing marine

E. H. Reith; E. P. Deurwaarder; K. Hemmes; A. P. W. M. Curvers; P. Kamermans; W. A. Brandenburg; G. Lettings

2005-01-01

385

Arctic and offshore research. Technology status report  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Arctic and Offshore Research (AOR) effort is designed to meet the needs for a centralized, high-quality, Arctic energy-related data base and for long-term, high-risk research. The ultimate purpose of the DOE effort is to promote extensive private use of the evolving AOR technology data base in order to accelerate development of Arctic oil and gas resources. In assessing the Arctic energy-related research needs as delineated in this report, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), with the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology, developed the following activities: AOR Energy-Related Technology Data Base Development; AOR Seminars and Workshops; Arctic and Offshore Energy Research Coordination; Sea Ice Research; Seafloor/Soils Research; and Subice Systems Development. The DOE AOR effort was initiated in FY 1983, the early development activities were performed in January and February 1983, and the effort evolved to its present form by the conclusion of FY 1984. The current activities have included determining the Arctic bibliographic data base and initiating most pieces of the research described above (except multiyear ice properties and pipeline research). Some of the FY 1984 major accomplishments are: four to five ice islands 1 to 2 miles in length drifting off the Ellesmere ice shelves north of Ellesmere Island were aerially surveyed. A report was completed on the location of the ice shelf edge, breakup, and regrowth of the Ellesmere ice shelves over the past two decades. Ice-ridging shear zone studies have shown that the 6- to 10-feet high shoals usually under the shear zone are not totally destroyed from ice gouging from one year to the next, but that the ice gouging may be instrumental in initiating and maintaining the shoals, which may protect Arctic offshore structures. Airborne radar sensing techniques were used to determine the electromagnetic properties of sea ice and physical properties.

Not Available

1984-10-01

386

Offshore Benin, a classic passive margin  

SciTech Connect

Offshore Benin comprises a narrow east-west continental shelf, some 30 km wide. A sharp shelf break running parallel to the coast borders the shelf, whereupon water depths rapidly increase to over 7000 ft. The area lies within the Dahomey Embayment, one of a series of Cretaceous and younger basins lining the coast of Africa that owe their inception to the Late Mesozoic break-up of the Gondwanaland Continent. The basin extends some 100 km inland, but sedimentary section is thin onshore compared to a maximum of 20,000 ft of sediment offshore. Initial sedimentation in this basin was of Neocomian alluvial and lacustrine clastics. These were deposited in east-west-trending narrow half-grabens associated with the initial break up of the South American and African continents. They are covered unconformably by more extensive Albian and Cenomanian transgressive clastics and shallow marine Turonian sandstones which are the main reservoir at Seme, Benin's only oilfield. The Senonian section offshore comprises passive margin deep sea clastic sediments prograding southwards. Very large proximal deep sea channels up to 2500 ft thick are developed in this interval. These channels are associated with excellent petroleum source rocks, averaging 4-5% oil-prone organic carbon, and form the main exploration target in the area when configured in a trap morphology. Seismic data quality is excellent in the region allowing detailed examination of the relationships between the rifted section and later units. In addition, these data illustrate clearly both internal and external morphology of the Senonian proximal deep sea channels.

Mathalone, J.M.P. (International Petroleum Ltd., Dubai (United Arab Emirates))

1991-03-01

387

Offshore drilling and production. [Arctic regions  

SciTech Connect

An offshore well drilling and/or production operation which is carried out on top of a layer of ice which extends over unfrozen water. A ring of thermal insulation is formed on top of the ice around the area of the drilling and/or production operation so that the ice thickness under the ring is thinner than the ice adjacent the ring thereby forming an annular depression in the underside of the ice. The depression will capture and hold any hydrocarbons or other fugitive materials that may escape under the ice in the area of the drilling and/or production operation.

Gefvert, L.V.

1981-01-20

388

Offshore installation and maintenance of submersible pumps  

SciTech Connect

Pertamina/IIAPCO operates a large offshore production complex in the Southeast Sumatra Contract Area of Indonesia. The use of submersible centrifugal electric pumps both for artificial lift and for pipeline transfer of produced fluids has played an important role in the success enjoyed by this contract area during its 10-year producing life. This paper describes the conditions and considerations contributing to the initial selection and eventual standardized use of these pumps by the company. Also included are a discussion of operational experience gained and a summary of the submersible pumps' performance record.

Verdina, G.G.

1983-01-01

389

Spar buoy escape system for offshore platforms  

SciTech Connect

An offshore platform is shown in position over the seabed. An escape chamber in the form of a spar buoy is mounted on a platform and extends from the platform above the surface of the water to below the surface. A cable also extends between the buoy and an anchor located on the seabed remotely from the platform. When the buoy is released from its platform mount and cable winched from the buoy, the buoy is pulled over the anchor to float safely during adverse weather conditions.

Connelly, R. F.

1985-07-09

390

Offshore petroleum exploration: capabilities and constraints. [Monograph  

SciTech Connect

Interviews with exploration company officials and industry and Department of Interior professionals as well as published materials were used to see how efficiently the oil and gas industries have handled outer continental shelf (OCS) leasing prior to 1981 and whether the Reagan administration's plans to accelerate the leasing program are likely to prove effective. The results of four scenarios indicate that capital, technology, equipment, and personnel constraints to offshore exploration will cripple the five-year program because the industry lacks this capability. Ignoring these constraints will misplace capital, risk human and environmental damage, and fail to meet national goals. 19 references, 7 figures, 19 tables. (DCK)

Tinney, R.

1981-01-01

391

Calculator program helps set offshore design criteria  

SciTech Connect

Describes a new program for the Hewlett-Packard HP 41C (or HP-41C) hand-held programmable calculator which predicts the design criteria for building offshore facilities. Points out that the ''wind and wave'' (WIWA) program can quickly provide the calculations necessary for proper design involving wind forces, wave forces, and stress acting on the hydrostatic pressure case of a submerged system. Presents a flow diagram of the program and the program listing. Explains the equations used as the basis of the program.

Tran, V.B.

1983-01-10

392

Deep water riser system for offshore drilling  

SciTech Connect

A buoyant riser system for use in a deep water offshore drilling environment is anchored by a system of compliant guys below the active weather zone of the sea. A controllably buoyant housing of the system is submerged at a depth that is readily accessible to divers and includes a blow-out preventer (BOP) from which a suspended sub-riser leads to a well bore to which the sub-riser is coupled. Above the housing, a riser suspended from a floating drill rig is coupled to the BOP thereby communicating the drill rig directly with the well bore for drilling and well completion operations.

Potts, H.L.

1984-05-15

393

Using semantics to facilitate data integration of offshore wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation and maintenance play an important role in extracting power from the wind, especially, in offshore wind energy where wind farms are located far off the shore and under harsh weather conditions. Improved operation and maintenance is likely to reduce costs as well as hazard exposure of the employees. Implementation of advanced information technology is thus crucial for operating offshore

Trinh Hoang Nguyen; Andreas Prinz

2012-01-01

394

Effect of seabed instability on fixed offshore platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storms, hurricanes, and earthquakes may cause seabed instability, especially if the seabed is weak. The seabed instability, manifested in movement of soil layers, exerts lateral forces that may cause large stresses in offshore foundations. The induced stresses may compromise the stability of the foundation and supported structure. The effect of seabed instability on a fixed offshore structure is examined in

Yasser E. Mostafa; M. Hesham El Naggar

2006-01-01

395

Future for Offshore Wind Energy in the United States: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, the offshore wind energy potential in the United States was ignored because vast onshore wind resources have the potential to fulfill the electrical energy needs for the entire country. However, the challenge of transmitting the electricity to the large load centers may limit wind grid penetration for land-based turbines. Offshore wind turbines can generate power much closer to

W. Musial; S. Butterfield

2004-01-01

396

A Risk Assessment Model for Offshoring Using CMMI Quantitative Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk analysis and assessment obviously provides valuable insights to offshoring projects to identify and evaluate the magnitude of risks associated with the activities and the work products being considered. In offshoring software industry, successful execution of risk analysis drastically relies on strong software process skills and management skills to resolve the differences in cultures, languages, time zones, and development which

Morakot Choetkiertikul; Thanwadee Sunetnanta

2010-01-01

397

The Future of Offshore Wind Power is Built Onshore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The investment costs for the offshore wind farms are 30 to 100 % higher than onshore. High installation costs, weather constraints and environmental issues all add uncertainty to the viability of investments. Several new innova- tive installation methods have been suggested. Hollming Mechanical Engineering Division has a long tradition as a supplier for the offshore and shipbuilding industries. In

Esa Holttinen; Jarmo Huttunen; Ilari Silvola; Aleksi Lumijärvi

398

Gains from Offshoring. Evidence from U.S. Microdata.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We construct a new linked data set with over one thousand offshoring events by matching Trade Adjustment Assistance program petition data to micro-data from the U.S. Census Bureau. We exploit this data to assess how offshoring impacts domestic firm-level ...

J. Park J. Sivadasan R. Monarch

2013-01-01

399

OCD: The Offshore and Coastal Dispersion Model. Volume 2. Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Offshore and Coastal Dispersion (OCD) Model has been developed to simulate the effect of offshore emissions from point, area, or line sources on the air quality of coastal regions. The OCD model was adapted from the EPA guideline model MPTER (EPA, 198...

D. C. DiCristofaro S. R. Hanna

1989-01-01

400

Offshore Heavy Oil in Campos Basin: The Petrobras Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper was selected for presentation by an OTC Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Offshore Technology Conference and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Offshore Technology

A. C. Capeleiro Pinto; C. C. M. Branco; J. S. de Matos; P. M. Vieira; S. da Silva Guedes; C. Pedroso Jr; A. C. Decnop Coelho; M. M. Ceciliano

2003-01-01

401

Curricular and marketing responses to offshoring of information technology services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of offshore outsourcing of information technology services demands both curricular and marketing responses from providers of information technology education. The high level of skill possessed by offshore providers of information technology services at lower cost than domestic (American) providers compels a serious re-examination of the outcomes of contemporary information technology education. Expected (and already apparent) decline in enrollment

Thomas I. M. Ho

2004-01-01

402

Proceedings - annual offshore technology conference, 13th, 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four volumes contain 183 papers presented at the meeting, all of which are indexed separately. Among the subjects covered are floating structure response, fatigue considerations in offshore systems, structural analysis and design, wave forces and hydroelastic response, offshore pipelines, ocean mining, tension leg platforms, oil terminals, geophysical data processing, seafloor surveying and mapping, subsea production systems, wind forces, towage

Anon

1981-01-01

403

International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy Under IEA Annex XXIII  

SciTech Connect

This paper defines the purpose of IEA Annex XXIII, the International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy. This international collaboration through the International Energy Agency (IEA) is an efficient forum from which to advance the technical and environmental experiences collected from existing offshore wind energy projects, as well as the research necessary to advance future technology for deep-water wind energy technology.

Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Lemming, J.

2005-11-01

404

Anchoring systems for marine renewable energies offshore platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present no specific methodologies have been developed for the design of the anchoring systems of offshore moored platforms, individual and in farm configuration, for obtaining renewable energy. This paper presents a R&D project whose objective is to cover this lack of knowledge. The scope of the project involves several areas of scientific expertise such as Soil Mechanics, Hydrodynamics, Offshore

R. Rodriguez; I. Gorrochategui; C. Vidal; R. Guanche; J. Canizal; J. A. Fraguela; V. Diaz

2011-01-01

405

SINGLE POINT MOORINGS: OPTIONS FOR OFFSHORE LOADING, STORAGE AND PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the concept of offshore tanker loading has been around for many years, it was not until the early 1970's that the idea of employing a Single Point Mooring (SPM) terminal as an integral part of an offshore production facility achieved wide industry acceptance. In this application, the SPM provides both a permanent (or semi-permanent) mooring for the tanker and

R. H. Gruy; W. L. Kiely

1984-01-01

406

Wind Resource Mapping for United States Offshore Areas: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is producing validated wind resource maps for priority offshore regions of the United States. This report describes the methodology used to validate the maps and to build a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) database to classify the offshore wind resource by state, water depth, distance from shore, and administrative unit.

Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.

2006-06-01

407

Proceedings of the nineteenth annual offshore technology conference. Vol. 3  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on offshore platforms. Topics considered at the conference included grouted pile-sleeve connections, tanker ships, mooring systems, offshore drilling, drill pipes, subsea control valves, thermal insulation coatings, submarine pipeline stability, computerized simulation, hydrodynamics, pipe-soil interactions, wellhead performance, marine risers, directional drilling, vibration monitoring, welding, economics, tension leg platforms, and storage facilities.

Not Available

1987-01-01

408

Aspects of Relevance in Offshore Wind Farm Reliability Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide increase of installed wind power capacity demands the inclusion of wind farm (WF) models into power system reliability assessment. This paper looks at this issue from available literature, and presents a list of factors that highly influence offshore WF generation. An example of sequential Monte Carlo simulation applied to an offshore WF is described using a new synthetic

Nicola Barberis Negra; O. Holmstrom; Birgitte Bak-Jensen; Poul Sorensen

2007-01-01

409

Cost-efficient foundation structures for large offshore wind farms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the results of the development of a cost-efficient foundation for large (1.5 MW) offshore wind farms at water depth of 5 to 11 m. Previously, medium sized wind turbines (500 kW) in Denmark have been installed offshore at water depths o...

C. Birch C. Gormsen S. Lyngesen J. Rasmussen H. Juhl

1997-01-01

410

MIDDELGRUNDEN 40 MW OFFSHORE WIND FARM DENMARK - LESSONS LEARNED  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the model for public involvement, based on experience from offshore projects in Den- mark and factors affecting the method of installation, the skills and resources required and the experience in shallow waters with strict requirements for environmental consideration when establishing an offshore wind farm. The paper is based on the experience gained during the establishment of the

Hans Christian Sørensen; Lars Kjeld Hansen; Jens H. Mølgaard Larsen

411

Offshore wind farms - VSC-based HVDC connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to significantly higher and more constant wind speeds and the shortage of suitable sites for wind turbines on the land, offshore wind farms are becoming very attractive. The connection of the large offshore wind farms is possible with HVAC, classical HVDC and voltage source converter (VSC- based) HVDC technology. In this paper their main features will be given. From

E. Spahic; G. Balzer

2005-01-01

412

Offshore wind farm with a series multiterminal CSI HVDC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated design of an offshore wind farm and an interconnection circuit based on a series multiterminal HVDC link with current source inverters (CSI). The transmission converters are used to achieve variable speed operation for a group of generators, and this enables use of very simple generators. The series converter connection eliminates offshore transformers. The paper discusses

Dragan Jovcic

2008-01-01

413

Experiences from Middelgrunden 40 MW Offshore Wind Farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 ABSTRACT: The paper describes the experiences from Middelgrunden Offshore Wind Farm. Middelgrunden was established on a natural reef with 3 to 8 metres water depth, 3.5km outside Copenhagen harbour, in the autumn of 2000. The offshore wind farm consists of twenty 2 MW turbines from Bonus Energy, now Siemens Windpower, and is owned 50% by Energi E2 and 50%

Jens H. M. Larsen; Hans Christian Soerensen; Erik Christiansen; Stefan Naef

414

Optimising the Design of Offshore Wind Farm Collection Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind turbines have reached a stage of maturity such that their use in offshore applications is becoming common. A principal objective of the offshore wind farm developer is to implement the wind farm to give the lowest cost of energy over the lifetime of the project, thus ensuring the greatest return on investment. Economic performance of the turbines is paramount,

P. D. Hopewell; F. Castro-Sayas; D. I. Bailey

2006-01-01

415

Development of fast wireless detection system for fixed offshore platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore platforms' security is concerned since in 1950s and 1960s, and in the early 1980s some important specifications and standards are built, and all these provide technical basis of fixed platform design, construction, installation and evaluation. With the condition that more and more platforms are in serving over age, the research about the evaluation and detection technology of offshore platform

Zhigang Li; Yan Yu; Dong Jiao; Jie Wang; Zhirui Li; Jinping Ou

2011-01-01

416

Offshore spawning by the portunid crab Scylla serrata (Crustacea: Decapoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The portunid crabScylla serrata (Forskål) is shown to migrate offshore to spawn. Records of 447S. serrata caught as bycatch by trawlers in the tropical waters of northern Australia were analysed with respect to area, depth, distance offshore and month of capture as well as the sex and size of the crabs and whether the females were ovigerous. The crabs were

B. J. Hill

1994-01-01

417

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCED WATER AT SOME OFFSHORE OIL PLATFORMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of produced water treatment was briefly studied in offshore oil and gas extraction operations in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and the Gulf of Mexico. Three offshore oil extraction facilities were examined in the Cook Inlet production field, and seven platforms were studi...

418

U.K. offshore safety regime raises new challenges  

SciTech Connect

In November 1995, UK operators completed implementation of the offshore safety case regime, which resulted from Lord Cullen`s inquiry into the Piper Alpha explosion of 1988. Since then a number of significant milestones have been achieved, but there are continuing challenges both for the operators of offshore installations and the regulator, the Offshore Safety Division (OSD) of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Recommendations from Lord Cullen`s report on the Piper Alpha disaster were far-reaching and included proposals for an extensive legislative review. They included a requirement for the submission and acceptance of a safety case document for each offshore installation, in advance of operations and underpinning goal-setting regulations covering arrangements for prevention and mitigation of fire and explosion, emergency response, offshore management, and design and construction, and for verification of integrity. The paper discusses safety cases, benefits and costs, work in progress, challenges, appraisal, and compliance.

Baily, M. [Health and Safety Executive, Liverpool (United Kingdom). Offshore Safety Div.

1996-08-19

419

Job stress, mental health, and accidents among offshore workers in the oil and gas extraction industries.  

PubMed

Psychosocial and occupational stressors among 194 male employees on drilling rig and production platform installations in the United Kingdom and Dutch sectors of the North Sea were studied. Mental well-being and job satisfaction were also assessed, with attention to the incidence of accidents offshore. This occupational group were found to be much less satisfied with their jobs than their onshore counterparts. Although overall mental well-being compared favorably with that of the general population, levels of anxiety were significantly higher. Multivariate analysis showed "relationships at work and at home" to be a strong predictor of both job dissatisfaction and mental ill-health. Type A coronary-prone behavior was also found to be a significant predictor of reduced mental well-being and increased accident rates offshore. PMID:3819891

Cooper, C L; Sutherland, V J

1987-02-01

420

Three years' experience with the offshore self-boring pressuremeter ''PAM''  

SciTech Connect

The Offshore Self-Boring Pressuremeter (PAM) has been developed by the Institut Francais du Petrole for geotechnical investigations in water depths up to 1000 meters. The PAM was first presented at the 1981 OTC. It mainly consists of a seabed frame from which a self-boring pressuremeter probe is operated. To date, the PAM has totaled nearly 450 meters of borehole depth and more than 200 pressuremeter tests. Investigations have been performed in a wide variety of soil types. The latest deepwater campaign was carried out successfully in the Mediterranean at a water depth of 625 meters. Extensive geotechnical information is obtained from a PAM boring operation. The use of the pressuremeter method for offshore investigations and foundation designing should open up very interesting prospects.

Brucy, F.; Fay, J.B.; LeTirant, P.

1984-05-01

421

Proceedings of the 15. international conference on offshore mechanics and arctic engineering -- OMAE 1996. Volume 1, Part B: Offshore technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 49 papers contained in Part B of Volume 1 are arranged under the following topical sections: Computational hydrodynamics; Floating and moored systems; Ocean energy technology; Hydrodynamic design of offshore structures; Design and operation of offshore structures; and Risers and cables. Most of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

S. K. Chakrabarti; M. T. Pontes; Hisaaki Maeda; J. Falzarano; P. Schofield; D. Morrison

1996-01-01

422

Arctic and Offshore Research Information System (AORIS)  

SciTech Connect

The unique Arctic environment effects significant technological and economic barriers to developing the Alaskan oil and gas resource. Therefore, the US DOE has established a computerized information system to assist the technology and planning community in the development of Arctic oil and gas resources. This report/manual describes the Arctic and Offshore Research Information System (AORIS), how it was developed, and how it can be used. The AORIS has an on-line thesaurus and other personal computer, user-friendly aids to assist in querying the AORIS. There are three principal components: a directory component that serves as a ROADMAP to 85 Arctic databases containing Arctic energy-related information and how to access them; a BIBLIOgraphic component containing over 8,000 references and abstracts on energy-related research (sea ice, ice gouging, seafloor soils, subsea permafrost, seismic activity, and offshore structures); and a DATA component containing over 800 data sets, extracted from the cited material in the BIBLIO component, in both tabular and graphical formats, on sea ice characteristics and ice-structure interaction. AORIS also contains a significant amount of the so-called grey literature, i.e., data and/or locations of Arctic data collected but never published. The AORIS, its operational software, and users' manual are contained on Compact Disk -- Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM) media. The AORIS is available through the Energy Science and Technology Software Center, P.O. Box 1020, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-1020.

Not Available

1990-03-01

423

Seismic stratigraphy of the offshore Nile delta  

SciTech Connect

The seismic stratigraphy of the offshore Nile delta has been established using a 10,000-km Merlin reprocessed regional seismic database. This paper focuses on the Neogene interval in which three major seismic super sequences have been recognized. The oldest (super sequence A) is a thick sheet unit of middle Miocene age composed of marine shales and sandstones, affected in places by shale diapirism. The upper super sequence, of Pliocene age (C), is characterized by progradation complicated by both slumping and faulting. These sediments represent deposits from the present Nile delta system, a relatively recent event. Between super sequences A and C lies a thin upper Miocene - lowermost Pliocene unit (super sequence B). This unit can be divided into three sequences, the upper and lower of which (Abu Madi and Oawasim Formations, respectively) are characterized by widespread channeling. The intermediate Messinian sequence, commonly evaporitic, may also be associated with channeling episodes. Potential hydrocarbon plays exist in all three super sequences, and varied trapping mechanisms may be invoked. Dip closures are associated with both rollover on listric normal faults and shale diapirism. Stratigraphic trap potential involves both truncation of C beneath B, occasionally associated with severe angular unconformity, and super sequence B channeling. The Abu Madi channel-fill sand bodies form the primary exploration target. Despite only 12 offshore wells drilled, there have already been gas discoveries (Abu Qir field, Naf-1 well) which, together with recent changes in Egyptian hydrocarbon legislation, make this region an attractive exploration province.

Kilenyi, T.; Trayner, P.; Doherty, M.; Jamieson, G.

1988-08-01

424

Federal offshore statistics: leasing, exploration, production, revenue  

SciTech Connect

This publication is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Some of the highlights are: of the 329.5 million acres offered for leasing, 37.1 million acres were actually leased; total revenues for the 1954 to 1983 period were $68,173,112,563 and for 1983 $9,161,435,540; a total of 22,095 wells were drilled in federal waters and 10,145 wells were drilled in state waters; from 1954 through 1983, federal offshore areas produced 6.4 billion barrels of oil and condensate, and 62.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas; in 1983 alone production was 340.7 million barrels of oil and condensate, and 3.9 trillion cubic feet of gas; and for the second straight year, no oil was lost in 1983 as a result of blowouts in federal waters. 8 figures, 66 tables.

Essertier, E.P. (comp.)

1984-09-01

425

STRESS CORROSION OF TYPE 304 STAINLESS STEEL IN SIMULATED SUPERHEAT REACTOR ENVIRONMENTS. I. Informal AEC Research and Develoment Report 568-TIO-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel jacket failure that occurred in May 1961 in the Type 304 ; stainless steel clad fuel element exposed in the Vallecitos Boiling Water Reactor ; superheated steam loop (SADE) was attributed to chloride stress corrosion ; cracking. In order to better understand the failure, a test program was carried ; out to try to reproduce the rapid stress

G. G. Gaul; W. L. Pearl; M. Siegler

1962-01-01

426

Proceedings of the fifth international offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering (OMAE) symposium. Volume 4  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a symposium on offshore platforms. Topics considered at the symposium included climates, Arctic regions, hydrate formation, the buckling of heated oil pipelines in frozen ground, icebergs, concretes, air cushion vehicles, mobile offshore drilling units, tanker ships, ice-induced dynamic loads, adfreeze forces on offshore platforms, and multiyear ice floe collision with a massive offshore structure.

Lunardini, V.J.; Wang, Y.S.; Ayorinde, O.A.; Sodhi, D.V.

1986-01-01

427

Risk perception by offshore workers on UK oil and gas platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the first investigation of risk perception by workers on offshore oil and gas installations on the UK Continental Shelf, following changes in offshore safety legislation in the wake of the Piper Alpha disaster in 1988. The Offshore Safety Case regulations (Health and Safety Executive, 1992, A Guide to the Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations) put the onus

Rhona Flin; Kathryn Mearns; Rachael Gordon; Mark Fleming

1996-01-01

428

IT offshoring in the professional media (1999-2003): a social representations analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The offshore outsourcing of information technology services has been called an 'irreversible megatrend.' Management decisions regarding IT offshoring have major impacts on companies, their IT departments and IT professionals. The dislocation of IT jobs to countries such as India and China has also become a concern as offshore outsourcing continues to ramp up. Management decision-making concerning IT offshoring takes place

Suzanne D. Pawlowski; Ivan N. Nenov

2004-01-01

429

Offshoring and the global distribution of work: Implications for task interdependence theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent Offshoring Research Network (ORN) global survey of offshoring shows that since 2004 management concerns about operational issues on achieving the benefits of offshoring have increased significantly. In this paper we examine inter-task interdependence, a key operational determinant of inter-site interaction and communications in offshoring. We analyze existing theories of interdependence to examine the extent to which they provide

Kuldeep Kumar; Paul C van Fenema; Mary Ann von Glinow

2009-01-01

430

Offshoring manufacturing: Implications for engineering jobs and education: A survey and case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

One result of globalization is the rapid growth of offshoring, i.e., the outsourcing of functions and jobs to offshore locations. In the USA, offshoring has progressed to the point where it already affects everyday lives, from the cars we drive (of which a large portion of the work and components are outsourced) to computers (which are typically manufactured offshore and

Bopaya Bidanda; Ozlem Arisoy; Larry J. Shuman

2006-01-01

431

OFFSHORING OF APPLICATION SERVICES IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY - A TRANSACTION COST ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaining economic benefits from substantially lower labor costs has been reported as a major reason for information systems (IS) offshoring. However, many offshoring projects have failed to achieve expected cost savings, indicating that labor cost savings are offset by additional costs that arise in offshoring projects in certain situations. While previous research on IS offshoring has mostly focused on management

Jens Dibbern; Jessica K. Winkler

432

The key technology of offshore wind farm and its new development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews characteristics and the developing state of abroad offshore wind farm briefly, and the key technology related to offshore wind farm. The optimization configuration and assessment of abroad offshore wind farm, and rational distribution assess, offshore wind farm electric transmission technology, system insert with operating, wind farm MES and wind turbine base, etc., are studied to put forward

Wang Zhixin; Jiang Chuanwen; Ai Qian; Wang Chengmin

2009-01-01

433

Meteorological aspects of offshore wind energy: Observations from the Vindeby wind farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vindeby monitoring project has been established to provide information on the world's first offshore wind farm at Vindeby, Denmark. Over the course of the project, different aspects of offshore meteorology which are relevant to offshore wind energy production will be examined in addition to turbine loading and behaviour in offshore conditions. Here, the simplest aspects of coastal meteorology are

R. J. Barthelmie; M. S. Courtney; J. Højstrup; S. E. Larsen

1996-01-01

434

The application of ultrasonic phased array technology to offshore platform structures inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aimed at the practical requirement of tubular joints weld inspection of offshore platform structures of Shengli oil field, the ultrasonic phased array inspection arithmetic for offshore platform structures is proposed. The integrated design of ultrasonic phased array inspection imaging system for offshore platform structures is completed, the ultrasonic phased array inspection imaging system for offshore platform structure is integrated on

Shan Baohua; Wang Hua; Duan Zhongdong; Ou Jinping

2007-01-01

435

Offshore asphaltene and wax deposition: Problems/solutions  

SciTech Connect

Many production facilities around the world suffer from either asphaltene or wax deposition. Such problems seriously threaten economic production from many offshore reservoirs due to the high cost of remedial measures. Offshore facilities are especially susceptible to such deposition for a number of reasons. This article presents ideas and methodologies on how to predict, diagnose, prevent, or mitigate problems caused by organic deposition in offshore production facilities. In one facility where these ideas were put to use, despite the debilitating magnitude of the problems, the field has been produced for more than 14 years with minimum environmental impact. Principal conclusions developed are discussed in this paper.

Leontaritis, K.J. [Kosta Oil Field Technologies, Inc., Stafford, TX (United States)]|[AsphWax, Inc., Sugar Land, TX (United States)

1996-05-01

436

Use of coatings to supplement cathodic protection of offshore structures  

SciTech Connect

Field experience has demonstrated the synergism between cathodic protection and organic coatings for providing long term corrosion protection to submerged offshore structures. This concept of coated steel with cathodic protection (CP) has been used by offshore oil producers to achieve weight and cost savings on offshore structures. For structures in deepwater, the weight savings are significant. Also, in areas where cathodic protection design requirements are not well established, the coating/CP system offers special advantages. Conoco's experience with coating/CP systems in the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea is presented along with planned future use of this corrosion control system.

Thomason, W.H.; Pape, S.E.; Evans, S.

1987-01-01

437

Statoil's offshore submerged turret loading system  

SciTech Connect

Statoil, the Norwegian state oil company, and Marine Consulting Group (MCG), with support from Norwegian research institutes, are jointly developing a new offshore shuttle tanker loading concept called the Submerged Turret Loading (STL) system. The STL comprises a spread-moored buoy and export line riser configured such that, when not in use, the buoy remains submerged. For shuttle tanker loading, the vessel moves over the buoy and pulls it into a compartment in the bottom of its hull. Mooring loads are then transferred into the vessel's hull; and the export riser is connected to the shuttle's tankage within the chamber, below waterline. Principal features of the innovative new system that allows operations in seastates well beyond present-system limits, increases safety and reduces pollution potential are outlined here.

Brevik, K. (Statoil (Norway)); Smedal, S. (Marine Consulting Group (United States))

1993-01-01

438

Environmental load uncertainties for offshore structures  

SciTech Connect

A methodology for assessing the effect of different sources of uncertainty on the calculation of load effect on offshore structures is presented. A consistent classification of uncertainties was adopted and used as a basis to develop models to estimate the effect of different uncertainties on specified design loads. It is shown that distribution parameter uncertainties arising from limitations on the quantity of statistical data are not likely to have a significant effect on design loads. By contrast, model uncertainties can greatly increase the design loads, and the increase is sensitive to the probabilistic models used to describe model error. The methodology and results can be used by design engineers to take model uncertainties into account in estimating specified loads. They also form the basis for developing and calibrating a new information-sensitive code format.

Nessim, M.A.; Hong, H.P. [Centre for Engineering Research Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Jordaan, I.J. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

1995-11-01

439

Storage of carbon dioxide in offshore sediments.  

PubMed

The battle to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prevent the most dangerous consequences of climate change will be waged across multiple fronts, including efforts to increase energy efficiency; efforts to deploy nonfossil fuel sources, including renewable and nuclear energy; and investment in adaptation to reduce the impacts of the climate change that will occur regardless of the actions we take. But with more than 80% of the world's energy coming from fossil fuel, winning the battle also requires capturing CO2 from large stationary sources and storing that CO2 in geologic repositories. Offshore geological repositories have received relatively little attention as potential CO2 storage sites, despite their having a number of important advantages over onshore sites, and should be considered more closely. PMID:19779191

Schrag, Daniel P

2009-09-25

440

Pile assembly for an offshore structure  

SciTech Connect

A pile assembly adapted for use in supporting a compliant offshore structure is described having vertical support legs extending from the ocean floor to a work deck proximate the ocean surface. The pile assembly comprises elongate, substantially vertical lower piles set into the ocean floor; elongate, substantially vertical upper piles having opposed upper and lower end portions. The lower end portion of each of the upper piles are laterally adjacent and fixedly secured to the upper end of at least one of the lower piles; means for securing the upper end portion of each of the upper piles to a corresponding one of the vertical support legs; and means for maintaining a fixed spacing between the lower ends of the upper piles.

Finn, L.D.; Steele, K.M.

1987-09-29

441

Greenland unveils terms for offshore licenses  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Greenland has spelled out terms for its first round of offshore licensing. The action off western Greenland could lead to the first oil and gas exploration there since an unsuccessful campaign in the 1970s. The Mineral Resources Administration (MRA) for Greenland pegged exploration license terms on 133 blocks, all south of the 66th parallel, at 10 years with options for 2 year extensions to a maximum of 6 more years. The license can cover as many as six blocks. In the first 3 year period companies will have only a seismic obligation of 1,588 km per six blocks. For the second 3 year period there will be a one well obligation and one well in each subsequent 2 year periods.

Not Available

1992-04-20

442

Personnel evacuation apparatus for an offshore platform  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for evacuating personnel from an offshore platform in all weather conditions to a position on the ocean surface a safe distance from the platform the apparatus comprising: a boat launching ramp; flotation means; boat means adapted to be supported and launched by the ramp; means for releasably securing the boat means within the ramp means adjacent the entry end; means for releasing the latch means to permit the flotation means to move the launching ramp from its stowed position to a deployed position; and means for releasing the boat securing means, thereby permitting the boat means to slide down the ramp and be launched from the exit end of the ramp onto the surface of the ocean a safe distance from the platform.

Hunter, A.F.

1987-04-28

443

Beyond offshoring: assess your company's global potential.  

PubMed

In the past few years, companies have become aware that they can slash costs by offshoring: moving jobs to lower-wage locations. But this practice is just the tip of the iceberg in terms of how globalization can transform industries, according to research by the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI). The institute's yearlong study suggests that by streamlining their production processes and supply chains globally, rather than just nationally or regionally, companies can lower their costs-as we've seen in the consumer-electronics and PC industries. Companies can save as much as 70% of their total costs through globalization--50% from offshoring, 5% from training and business-task redesign, and 15% from process improvements. But they don't have to stop there. The cost reductions make it possible to lower prices and expand into new markets, attracting whole new classes of customers. To date, however, few businesses have recognized the full scope of performance improvements that globalization makes possible, much less developed sound strategies for capturing those opportunities. In this article, Diana Farrell, director of MGI, offers a step-by-step approach to doing both things. Among her suggestions: Assess where your industry falls along the globalization spectrum, because not all sectors of the economy face the same challenges and opportunities at the same time. Also, pay attention to production, regulatory, and organizational barriers to globalization. If any of these can be changed, size up the cost-saving (and revenue-generating) opportunities that will emerge for your company as a result of those changes. Farrell also defines the five stages of globalization-market entry, product specialization, value chain disaggregation, value chain reengineering, and the creation of new markets-and notes the different levers for cutting costs and creating value that companies can use in each phase. PMID:15605568

Farrell, Diana

2004-12-01

444

Time Dependent Fluid Occurrence Offshore Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time Dependent Fluid Occurrence Offshore Taiwan Liwen Chenab, Wu-Cheng Chia, Char-Shine Liuc (mma@earth.sinica.edu.tw)(wchi@gate.sinica.edu.tw) ; aInstitute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan bInstitute of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan ; cInstitute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Earthquake-induced groundwater flows have been observed recently. Such fluid flow might temporarily change the temperature field in the crust. Here we used seismically detected gas hydrate under seafloor to study the temperature fields at a few hundred meters subbottom depth before, and after the 2006 Henchuan earthquake (Mw7.0). We used the hydrate-related bottom-simulating-reflector (BSR) in seismic profiles to study the effects of gas/fluid migration on the BSR attributes. We have conducted two seismic experiments before and after the earthquake across the same transects near the hypocenter of the earthquake using similar air gun arrays and streamers. By analyzing this unique dataset, we found enhanced BSR reflectivity in average after the earthquake (~0.03), but the Sea-floor reflectivity is very similar (~0.5). We also found changed amplitudes versus offset (AVO) in the dataset (the gradient of reflection coefficient versus the angles was ~-0.34). We interpret these results as a consequence of earthquake-induced gas and fluid migration, bringing the gases underneath the BSR, thus the enhanced reflection coefficients. Next we will explore new methods to use the BSR as a flow meter. Using time-dependent seismic attribute analyses across transects before and after a large earthquake, we found strong evidences of earthquake-related fluid migrations and possibly associated temperature perturbations. This is among the first studies to document such feature in the offshore region.

Chen, L.

2010-12-01

445

Motion performance and mooring system of a floating offshore wind turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of offshore wind farms was originally carried out in shallow water areas with fixed (seabed mounted) structures. However, countries with limited shallow water areas require innovative floating platforms to deploy wind turbines offshore in order to harness wind energy to generate electricity in deep seas. The performances of motion and mooring system dynamics are vital to designing a cost effective and durable floating platform. This paper describes a numerical model to simulate dynamic behavior of a new semi-submersible type floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) system. The wind turbine was modeled as a wind block with a certain thrust coefficient, and the hydrodynamics and mooring system dynamics of the platform were calculated by SESAM software. The effect of change in environmental conditions on the dynamic response of the system under wave and wind loading was examined. The results indicate that the semi-submersible concept has excellent performance and SESAM could be an effective tool for floating wind turbine design and analysis.

Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Haitao

2012-09-01

446

Analysis of Acoustic Wave and Current Data Offshore of Mytle Beach, South Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two bottom boundary layer (BBL) instrument frames have been deployed on the shoreface and inner-shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina offshore of Myrtle Beach as part of a South Carolina Sea Grant funded project to measure sediment transport over two hardbottom habitats. The inshore instrument frame is located on an extensive hardbottom surface 850 meters offshore. The second instrumented frame is secured to a hardbottom surface on the inner-shelf at a distance of approximately 2.5 km offshore. The nearshore BBL observing system is composed of a downward-looking RDI/ Teledyne 1200 kHz Pulse-Coherent Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, an upward-looking Nortek Acoustic Wave and Current Profiler (AWAC), and an Aquatec Acoustic Backscatter Sensor. As part of this larger study, the wave and current data from the AWAC have been analyzed. Long-term continuous time series data include wave height, wave period, directional wave spectra, and the magnitude and direction of currents in the water column. Within the data set are several wave events, including several frontal passages and Tropical Storm Hanna which hit the Myrtle Beach area in early September. Wave data have been correlated with meteorological data, and a comparison of shoreface wave characteristics during each type of event are presented.

Fall, K. A.; Wren, A.

2008-12-01

447

Overlap in offshore habitat use by double-crested cormorants and boaters in western Lake Erie  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and boats of 2 length classes (a?? 8 m and > 8 m) were counted from a boat along 31 established strip transects in western Lake Erie from 24 April to 1 September 2000. Each transect included only one of the following habitats: (1) offshore of a breeding island or roosting/loafing area for cormorants ('refuge'), (2) reefs or shoals, (3) open water, or (4) offshore of an island shoreline that had evidence of development by humans. Foraging cormorants were recorded most often offshore of refuges and least often on open water. There was no difference between the numbers of foraging cormorants/kmA? recorded offshore of developed shorelines and on reefs and shoals. More than half of all boats recorded were on transects that were within 1 km of developed shorelines. Among those transects > 1 km from developed shorelines, there were no differences among the habitats for the number of boats of either length class. The respective ranks of the 31 transect means of the number of cormorants/kmA? and the numbers of boats/kmA? in either length class were uncorrelated. The results suggest that (1) cormorants select foraging habitats based mainly on shoreline type, distance from shoreline, and depth, and (2) the amount of boat traffic is influenced by proximity to port and trip objectives, including sport angling and recreational boating. Although there is overlap in habitat use by cormorants and humans, this overlap is not complete. The perception of cormorants as a threat to fish populations may in part be due to this overlap.

Stapanian, Martin A.; Bur, Michael T.

2002-01-01

448

63 FR 42699 - Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...30 CFR Parts 250 and 253 RIN 1010-AC33 Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...establishes new requirements for demonstrating oil spill financial responsibility (OSFR) for removal costs and damages caused by oil discharges and substantial threats of...

1998-08-11

449

OFFSHORE PLATFORM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY: FEASIBILITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a program conducted to evaluate the technical and environmental feasibility of using a proposed offshore platform incineration facility in the destruction of hazardous wastes and for incineration research....

450

Fluid-Structure Interaction Effects for Offshore Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comprehensive analyses are made of the differences in the responses of simple models of offshore structures computed by the standard and extended versions of Morison's equation for the hydrodynamic forces, and of the effects and relative importance of the...

A. S. Veletsos A. M. Prasad G. Hahn

1986-01-01

451

Effect of Outstanding and Offshoring on BLS Productivity Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent discussions about the extent of outsourcing and offshoring in the American economy have raised questions about their possible impact on productivity measures. In order to understand the impact, it is necessary to understand the construction of prod...

2004-01-01

452

Evaluating the Impact of Offshoring on US National Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The term 'offshoring' refers to the practice of a domestic company employing the services of foreign workers located in foreign countries to fulfill some portion of the company's labor requirements. The practice connotes talent redistribution amid the bro...

C. Holbert

2011-01-01

453

Production of Methane Using Offshore Wind Energy. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work accomplished during a program to investigate the feasibility of converting wind energy to methane gas is described. The basic approach consists of using off-shore winds to drive generators which supply electricity to electrolysis cells. Electroly...

R. B. Young A. F. Tiedemann L. G. Marianowski E. H. Camara

1975-01-01

454

78 FR 18614 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Introduction of new Task Statements: (a) Life Saving and Fire Fighting Voluntary Standards on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); (b) Electrical...affect the offshore industry; (4) USCG Outer Continental Shelf National Center of...

2013-03-27

455

Feasibility of Leak Detection in Process Plant on Offshore Installations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this work was to investigate the use of acoustic methods of leak detection for application on process systems and pipework offshore. Existing gas leak detection systems, based on catalytic bead detectors (pellistors) do not give adequate ...

1981-01-01

456

Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal Framework, November 14, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of offshore oil, gas, and other mineral resources in the United States is impacted by a number of interrelated legal regimes, including international, federal, and state laws. International law provides a framework for establishing nationa...

A. Vann

2008-01-01

457

Development of Decision Analysis Specifically for Arctic Offshore Drilling Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The theory and development of decision analysis for alternatives with risks is discussed. A procedure for decision analysis is then developed, by taking advantage of utility and probability theory, and applying this process to Arctic offshore drilling isl...

D. M. Balk

1985-01-01

458

12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER AND 2ND TEE (CENTER), REFUGE BAY (RIGHT) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

459

14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFTRIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, TACKLE BOX, RESTROOMS ON 3RD TEE - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

460

Variable Frequency Operations of an Offshore Wind Power Plant with HVDC-VSC: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated. Based on DOE study, wind power generation may reach 330 GW by 2030 at the level of penetration of 20% of the total energy production. From this amount of wind power, 54 GW of wind power will be generated at offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore wind power plants requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmission requires submarine cable, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission. Otherwise, if the power is transmitted via alternating current, the reactive power generated by the cable capacitance may cause an excessive over voltage in the middle of the transmission distance which requires unnecessary oversized cable voltage breakdown capability. The use of HVDC is usually required for transmission distance longer than 50 kilometers of submarine cables to be economical. The use of HVDC brings another advantage; it is capable of operating at variable frequency. The inland substation will be operated to 60 Hz synched with the grid, the offshore substation can be operated at variable frequency, thus allowing the wind power plant to be operated at constant Volt/Hz. In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated.

Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.

2011-12-01

461

Financialisation and the dynamics of offshoring in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imports are linked to higher cost mark-ups and firm profits, and the gains from such non-competitive imports—the result of offshoring—are increasingly associated with the reinvestment of these higher profits. Our regression analysis of 35 US manufacturing and service industries over the period 1998–2006 supports aggregate and firm-level studies showing that offshoring is associated with a higher share of corporate profit

William Milberg; Deborah Winkler

2010-01-01

462

Offshore port service concepts: classification and economic feasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most prevalent among the approaches to address the ever increasing demands for port capacity are the construction of new berths,\\u000a installation of faster cranes and optimization of existing resources. A less common approach is to employ offshore port service\\u000a concepts. Here, we endeavor to provide a complete survey of such nontraditional offshore service concepts and demonstrate\\u000a that all, except a

Jonghoe Kim; James R. Morrison

463

Evaluation of offshore stocking of Lake Trout in Lake Ontario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoration stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush has occurred in Lake Ontario since 1973. In U.S. waters, fish stocked through 1990 survived well and built a large adult population. Survival of yearlings stocked from shore declined during 1990–1995, and adult numbers fell during 1998–2005. Offshore stocking of lake trout was initiated in the late 1990s in response to its successful mitigation of predation losses to double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and the results of earlier studies that suggested it would enhance survival in some cases. The current study was designed to test the relative effectiveness of three stocking methods at a time when poststocking survival for lake trout was quite low and losses due to fish predators was a suspected factor. The stocking methods tested during 2000–2002 included May offshore, May onshore, and June onshore. Visual observations during nearshore stockings and hydroacoustic observations of offshore stockings indicated that release methods were not a direct cause of fish mortality. Experimental stockings were replicated for 3 years at one site in the southwest and for 2 years at one site in the southeast. Offshore releases used a landing craft to transport hatchery trucks from 3 to 6 km offshore out to 55–60-m-deep water. For the southwest site, offshore stocking significantly enhanced poststocking survival. Among the three methods, survival ratios were 1.74 : 1.00 : 1.02 (May offshore : May onshore : June onshore). Although not statistically significant owing to the small samples, the trends were similar for the southeast site, with survival ratios of 1.67 : 1.00 : 0.72. Consistent trends across years and sites indicated that offshore stocking of yearling lake trout during 2000–2002 provided nearly a twofold enhancement in survival; however, this increase does not appear to be great enough to achieve the 12-fold enhancement necessary to return population abundance to restoration targets.

Lantry, B. F.; O'Gorman, R.; Strang, T. G.; Lantry, J. R.; Connerton, M. J.; Schanger, T.

2011-01-01

464

Offshore Wind Resource Potential of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore wind resources have the potential to be a significant domestic energy source. Many coastal areas have large electricity demand but have limited access to high-quality, land-based wind resource. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a baseline offshore wind resource database that incorporates physical parameters that impact development. These characteristics include wind power class, water

D. Heimiller; S. Haymes; M. Schwartz; W. Musial

2007-01-01

465

Bodyshopping versus offshoring among Indian software and information technology firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of offshore outsourcing of information systems have presented little evidence on developing country software\\u000a and information technology (IT) industries. This study probes how Indian software and IT suppliers trade off work in India\\u000a versus bodyshopping of employees. Worldwide clients view these practices as full offshoring versus on-shore temporary hiring\\u000a from an Indian firm, but these practices are probed from

Sumit K. MajumdarKenneth; Kenneth L. Simons; Ashok Nag

2011-01-01

466

Offshore data base shows decline in rig accidents  

SciTech Connect

Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) has compiled statistical figures on offshore accidents for risk, safety, and reliability studies. IFP calls this data base Platform. It provides a body of essential data for accidents concerning both mobile and stationary offshore drilling rigs. Historical accident data bases are a basic implement for risk assessment of safety and reliability. IFP has built this data base with all available information from 950 actual listings.

Bertrand, A.; Escoffier, L. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Maimaison (FR))

1991-09-16

467

Geology and hydrocarbon potential of offshore Indus Basin, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The Indus offshore basin, located in the south of the Karachi trough and Thar slope, between Murray Ridge and the Indian border (23 to 25/sup 0/N lat.; 66 to 68/sup 0/E long.) has been investigated geologically from the point of view of hydrocarbon potential. Nine wells were drilled in the area: two onshore wells (Karachi 1,2), three wells near the Karachi shore (Dabbo creek, Patiani Creek, and Korangi Creek), one well on the offshore platform (Karachi South A-1), and three wells in offshore depressions (Indus Marine A-1, B-1, and C-1). No oil or gas deposit was discovered, but gas shows and traces were recorded. However, considering the large area (7,700 mi/sup 2/; 20,000 km/sup 2/) the number of wells drilled represents an insufficient effort of exploration and drilling. Tectonically, the Indus offshore basin can be divided into three units: (1) an ofshore depression on the west, between Murray Ridge and the hinge line; (2) the offshore Karachi trough platform in the middle between the hinge and the Karachi shoreline; and (3) offshore Thar slope platform or Indus River deltaic area on the east. The hinge-line zone and the outer margin of the carbonate platform, where there is a possibility of reef buildups, seem to be potential areas for hydrocarbons, and further investigation and drilling for suitable structural traps should be pursued.

Shuaib, S.M.

1982-07-01

468

Massive sediment bypassing on the lower shoreface offshore of a wide tidal inlet - Cat Island Pass, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric and shoreline surveys along the Louisiana coast west of the Mississippi River mouth detected a large area of deposition in water depths of 2.0-8.5 m offshore of a 9-km- wide tidal inlet, the Cat Island Pass/Wine Island Pass system. A 59.9 ?? 106 m3 sandy deposit formed from the 1930s-1980s, spanning 27 km in the alongshore direction, delineating the transport pathway for sediment bypassing offshore of the inlet on the shoreface. Bypassing connected the shorefaces of two barrier island systems, the Isles Dernieres and the Bayou Lafourche. The processes responsible for formation of this deposit are not well understood, but sediment-transport modeling suggests that sediment is transported primarily by wind-driven coastal currents during large storms and hurricanes. Deposition appears to be related to changes in shoreline orientation, closing of transport pathways into a large bay to the east and the presence of tidal inlets. This newly documented type of bypassing, an offshore bypassing of the inlet system, naturally nourished the immediate downdrift area, the eastern Isles Dernieres, where shoreface and shoreline erosion rates are about half of pre-bypassing rates. Erosion rates remained the same farther downdrift, where bypassing has not yet reached. As this offshore bypassing continues, the destruction of the Isles Dernieres will be slowed.

Jaffe, B. E.; List, J. H.; Sallenger, Jr. , A. H.

1997-01-01

469

Dynamically coupled 3D pollutant dispersion model for assessing produced water discharges in the Canadian offshore area.  

PubMed

Produced water is the contaminated water that is brought to the surface in the process of recovering oil and gas. On the basis of discharge volume, this type of contaminated water is the largest contributor to the offshore waste stream. Modeling studies of large amounts of wastewater discharge into offshore areas have helped in the understanding of pollutant dispersion behaviors in marine environments and in further evaluating the potential environmental effects resulting from produced water discharges. This study presents an integrated three-dimensional (3D) approach for the simulation of produced water discharges in offshore areas. Specifically, an explicit second-order finite difference method was used to model the far-field pollutant dispersion behavior, and this method was coupled with the jet-plume model JETLAG with an extension of the 3D cross-flow conditions to simulate the near-field mixing processes. A dynamic coupling technique with full consideration of the interaction between the discharged fluids and receiving waters was employed in the model. A case study was conducted on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada. The field validation of the modeling results was conducted for both the near-field and far-field dispersion processes, and the modeling results were in good agreement with the field observations. This study provides an integrated system tool for the simulation of complex transport processes in offshore areas, and the results from such modeling systems can be further used for the risk assessment analysis of the surface water environment. PMID:23268698

Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhi; Lee, Kenneth

2013-01-11

470

Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the northeastern offshore Venezuela, the pre-Tertiary basement consists of a deeply subducted accretionary complex of a Cretaceous island arc system that formed far to the west of its present location. The internal structure of this basement consists of metamorphic nappes that involve passive margin sequences, as well as oceanic (ophiolitic) elements. The Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore is dominated by Paleogene (Middle Eocene-Oligocene) extension and Neogene transtension, interrupted by Oligocene to Middle Miocene inversions. The Paleogene extension is mainly an arc-normal extension associated with a retreating subduction boundary. It is limited to the La Tortuga and the La Blanquilla Basins and the southeastern Margarita and Caracolito subbasins. All of these basins are farther north of and not directly tied to the El Pilar fault system. On a reconstruction, these Paleogene extensional systems were located to the north of the present day Maracaibo Basin. By early Miocene the leading edge of the now overall transpressional system had migrated to a position to the north of the Ensenada de Barcelona. This relative to South America eastward migration is responsible for the Margarita strike-slip fault and the major inversions that began during the Oligocene and lasted into the Middle Miocene. The Bocono-El Pilar-Casanay-Warm Springs and the La Tortuga-Coche-North Coast fault systems are exclusively Neogene with major transtension occurring during the Late Miocene to Recent and act independently from the earlier Paleogene extensional system. They are responsible for the large Neogene transtensional basins of the area: the Cariaco trough, the Northern Tuy-Cariaco and the Paria sub-basins, and the Gulf of Paria Basin. This latest phase is characterized by strain-partitioning into strike slip faults, a transtensional northern domain and a transpressional southern domain that is responsible for the decollement tectonics and/or inversions of the Serrania del Interior and its associated Monagas foreland structures. Part of the latest (Middle Miocene to Recent) phase is the formation of a large arch that corresponds to the Margarita-Testigos-Grenada zone which perhaps was subject to mild lithospheric compression during the Plio-Pleistocene.

Ysaccis B., Raul

1998-12-01

471

Oblique Collision of the Leeward Antilles, Offshore Venezuela: Linking Onshore and Offshore Data from BOLIVAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinematic history of the Leeward Antilles (offshore Venezuela) can be characterized with the integration of onshore outcrop data and offshore seismic reflection data. Deformation structures and seismic interpretation show that oblique convergence and wrench tectonics have controlled the diachronous deformation identified along the Caribbean - South America plate boundary. Field studies of structural features in outcrop indicate one generation of ductile deformation (D1) structures and three generations of brittle deformation (F1 - F3) structures. The earliest deformation (D1/F1) began ~ 110 Ma with oblique convergence between the Caribbean plate and South American plate. The second generation of deformation (F2) structures initiated in the Eocene with the extensive development of strike-slip fault systems along the diffuse plate boundary and the onset of wrench tectonics within a large-scale releasing bend. The most recent deformation (F3) has been observed in the west since the Miocene where continued dextral strike-slip motion has led to the development of a major restraining bend between the Caribbean plate transform fault and the Oca - San Sebastian - El Pilar fault system. Deformation since the late Cretaceous has been accompanied by a total of 135° clockwise rotation. Interpretation of 2D marine reflection data indicates similar onshore and offshore deformation trends. Seismic lines that approximately parallel the coastline (NW-SE striking) show syndepositional normal faulting during F1/F2 and thrust faulting associated with F3. On seismic lines striking NNE-SSW, we interpret inversion of F2 normal faults with recent F3 deformation. We also observe both normal and thrust faults related to F3. The thick sequence of recent basin sedimentation (Miocene - Recent), interpreted from the seismic data, supports the ongoing uplift and erosion of the islands; as suggested by fluid inclusion analysis. Overall, there appears to be a strong correlation between onshore micro- and mesoscopic deformational structures and offshore macro-scale structural features seen in the reflection data. The agreement of features supports our regional deformation and rotation model along the Caribbean - South America obliquely convergent plate boundary.

Beardsley, A. G.; Avé Lallemant, H. G.; Levander, A.; Clark, S. A.

2006-12-01

472

Gas lift systems make ideal offshore workers  

SciTech Connect

With a low initial installation cost and small footprint, gas lift systems are well suited for offshore installations where compressed gas is usually already available. These systems are used on multiple and slimhole completions and handle sandy conditions well. They are also used to kick off wells that will flow naturally once the heavier completion fluids leave the production string. Gas lift itself is a mature workaday technology. Measurement and control of gas flow is an area of intense development in gas lift technology. One new control method involves production of multiple completions through a single wellbore. Typically, gas lift valves are opened and closed through tubing pressure. But downhole measurement technology does not yet yield information good enough for stable gas lift control of multiple completions. Gas lift is proving to be a useful AL technique in conjunction with electric submersible pumps (ESP). Located above the ESP pump, the gas lift can reduce the head and allow greater flow. This is helpful when small casing restricts the size of the downhole ESP pump. Wells can usually be produced by the gas lift alone in case of ESP failure, or by replacing the ESP where schedules, high repair costs or low prices rule out repair.

NONE

1999-05-01

473

Reservoir development in Miocene carbonates, Central Luconia Province, offshore Sarawak  

SciTech Connect

The broad platform of the central Luconia province of offshore Sarawak is characterized by extensive development of Miocene carbonates. Their distribution was controlled by paleostructures that formed earlier during Oligocene-middle Miocene faulting. Platform-type buildings formed on fault-bounded regional highs, whereas pinnacle types formed in basinal areas. Relief of the pinnacles was controlled by fault reactivation of the structures during deposition, and some buildups in structurally stable areas ceased to develop because they could not keep pace with rising sea levels. Seismic, well-log, and rock data of several buildups from different stratigraphic levels (Cycles III-VI) were integrated in formulating a model for reservoir development in the Luconia carbonates. Depositional and diagenetic cycles due to eustatic sea level changes exerted strong influence on the internal architecture of the buildups. Cycling depositional patterns, represented by alternating layers with good and poor porosities, include small-scale units (<3 m thick) recognized in cores and reservoir-scale successions (>63 m thick) identifiable in well logs and seismic data. Cycle V carbonates, for instance, consist of three Tortonian-Messinian depositional sequences. Two layers of dolomite formed in all buildups, each contemporaneous with a period of emergence. The Messinian diagenetic cycle, related to the 5.5 Ma sea level lowstand, partially overprinted the Tortonian diagenetic cycle that occurred during the 6.3 Ma lowstand. Superposition of these diagenetic cycles, with leaching, chalkification, and dolomitization, is responsible for a complex pore geometry in the carbonate reservoirs. This model can be applied to map the reservoir units in the carbonate buildups within the entire basin.

Ali, M.Y. (Petronas Research and Scientific Services, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia))

1994-07-01

474

Single Point Moorings: Options for offshore loading, storage and process  

SciTech Connect

While the concept of offshore tanker loading has been around for many years, it was not until the early 1970's that the idea of employing a Single Point Mooring (SPM) terminal as an integral part of an offshore production facility achieved wide industry acceptance. In this application, the SPM provides both a permanent (or semi-permanent) mooring for the tanker and a means for transporting oil from the seafloor to the tanker. The SPM thus eliminates the requirement for a pipeline from the offshore field to the shore which often significantly reduces the overall project cost and may allow development of marginal fields which have insufficient recoverable reserves to justify a pipeline system. A second economic consideration in the election to use offshore loading is that it makes it possible to ship crude and receive income as soon as oil is available for a relatively small investment and in a relatively short time frame. Thus, production from initial wells can be generating cash flow while the the drilling program continues with delineation of the reservoir. Even if the economics can support the cost of a pipeline, an offshore loading system ensures income during the sometimes lengthy design and construction period and is often retained subsequent to pipeline completion as a backup system in the event of pipeline outage. Selection of an offshore loading scenario obviously will often require indepth analysis of many economic considerations. However, the fact that viable concepts for offshore loading are available is of prime importance and offers a much greater flexibility to the operator in his planning than previously existed.

Gruy, R.H.; Kiely, W.L.

1984-02-01

475

30 CFR 250.224 - What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use must accompany...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles...ep) § 250.224 What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles...the EP? The following information on the support vessels, offshore...

2010-07-01

476

30 CFR 250.257 - What information on the support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use must...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What information on the support vessels, offshore vehicles... § 250.257 What information on the support vessels, offshore vehicles...DOCD? The following information on the support vessels, offshore...

2010-07-01

477

30 CFR 250.224 - What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use must accompany...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles...ep) § 250.224 What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles...the EP? The following information on the support vessels, offshore...

2009-07-01

478

46 CFR 127.280 - Construction and arrangement of quarters for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers. 127.280 Section 127...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS...for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers. (a) The following...

2009-10-01

479

46 CFR 127.280 - Construction and arrangement of quarters for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers. 127.280 Section 127...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS...for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers. (a) The following...

2010-10-01

480

30 CFR 250.257 - What information on the support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use must...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What information on the support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...What information on the support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will...

2009-07-01

481

30 CFR 585.116 - Requests for information on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry. 585.116 Section...OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING...on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry. (a)...

2013-07-01

482

Geological characterization of selected offshore sand resources on the OCS, offshore Alabama, for beach nourishment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most Alabama Gulf and estuarine shoreline is undergoing long-term erosion; threatened shorelines will need programs of replenishment and maintenance if they are to be even temporarily stabilized. Highest priority beach replenishment areas include eastern Dauphin Island; west of Perdido Pass; and west of the inlet at Little Lagoon. There are no appropriate local onshore sand sources available for any such large scale program. Sediments in the Federal waters of the EEZ were evaluated for possible sources of sand for beach nourishment. Six lithofacies were delineated based on sediment characterization, spatial framework, and environment of deposition; of these, two (Clean Sands and Graded Shelly Sands) were deemed to have highest potential as beach nourishment sources. Five offshore target areas were delineated as potential sand sources. Criteria included sand aesthetics, estimated sand volume, and sand distributions. Preliminary environmental analyses included impacts of offshore sand dredging on shelf circulation; on economic activities; and on local benthic biota. Dredging may not significantly alter background wave regimes; however, data are insufficient to model effects of major storms on a modified shelf morphology. Dredging would avoid areas of current economic activity. There would like be little long-term impact on benthic biota in the target areas. Additional work will be required to confirm or refute these preliminary findings.

Davies, David, J.; Parker, Steven, J.; Smith, W. Everett

1993-01-01

483

Future for Offshore Wind Energy in the United States: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, the offshore wind energy potential in the United States was ignored because vast onshore wind resources have the potential to fulfill the electrical energy needs for the entire country. However, the challenge of transmitting the electricity to the large load centers may limit wind grid penetration for land-based turbines. Offshore wind turbines can generate power much closer to higher value coastal load centers. Reduced transmission constraints, steadier and more energetic winds, and recent European success, have made offshore wind energy more attractive for the United States. However, U.S. waters are generally deeper than those on the European coast, and will require new technology. This paper presents an overview of U.S. coastal resources, explores promising deepwater wind technology, and predicts long-term cost-of-energy (COE) trends. COE estimates are based on generic 5-MW wind turbines in a hypothetical 500-MW wind power plant. Technology improvements and volume production are expected to lower costs to meet the U.S. Department of Energy target range of $0.06/kWh for deployment of deepwater offshore wind turbines by 2015, and $0.05/kWh by 2012 for shallow water. Offshore wind systems can diversify the U.S. electric energy supply and provide a new market for wind energy that is complementary to onshore development.

Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.

2004-06-01

484

Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.  

PubMed

The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers. PMID:14564877

Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

2001-12-01

485

Building the Hibernia: Newfoundland's huge offshore platform  

SciTech Connect

It seems most of the world is cooperating in the construction of one of the largest offshore oil platforms ever built. Steels are coming into Newfoundland, where final assembly is being conducted, from Belgium, Italy, Germany; stainless steels from Sweden; and titanium from the US. Welding electrodes are being shipped in from Montreal, from Holland, even from Cleveland. The objective is to tap the 615 million barrels (bbl) of oil that lie in the Hibernia field on the Grand Banks, some 195 miles (315 km) east southeast of St. John's, Newfoundland. Actual welding is going on in numerous locations. Although the platform is a concrete base structure, 37,000 metric tons of structural steel is being welded in order to complete the topsides assembly. In charge of all construction work is the Hibernia Management and Development Co., Ltd. (HMDC), an operating company formed by the four owner companies. The topsides segment of the Hibernia platform is divided into five major modules. It consists of five super modules and seven topside-mounted structures (TMS). One super module is being built in Bull Arm in Newfoundland. The process module and the living quarters module are being built by Hyundai Heavy Industries, South Korea, while the mud and utility modules are being fabricated by Belleli, s.p.a., Italy. The five super modules and the seven TMS will be brought together in Newfoundland where they will be welded together. All seven of the topside-mounted structures are being fabricated in Newfoundland. The assembled topsides will be towed to the site where they will be mated to the gravity base structure (GBS).

Irving, B.

1994-10-01

486

Defense Contracting: Recent Law Has Impacted Contractor Use of Offshore Subsidiaries to Avoid Certain Payroll Taxes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many federal contractors establish offshore subsidiaries to take advantage of labor and market conditions. GAO has found that they also use offshore subsidiaries to reduce their U.S. tax burdens. In 2008, Congress passed the Heroes Earnings Assistance and...

2010-01-01

487

33 CFR 100.915 - St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters...915 St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. (a) Regulated Area . A regulated area is established...

2013-07-01

488

Cost and Potential of Offshore Wind Energy on the Dutch Part of the North Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the growing attention for offshore wind energy seen today there is a need for a sophisticated, quantitative investigation of the opportunities for offshore wind energy. The Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (ECN) has therefore developed a com...

H. J. T. Kooijman M. de Noord C. Volkers L. A. H. Machielse P. J. Eecen J. T. G. Pierik S. A. Herman F. Hagg

2001-01-01

489

Offshoring: U.S. Semiconductor and Software Industries Increasingly Produce in China and India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Much attention has focused on offshoring of information technology (IT) services overseas. 'Offshoring' of services generally refers to an organization's purchase from other countries of services such as software programming that it previously produced or...

2006-01-01

490

Proceedings of the eighth international conference on offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering. 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Topics covered include: CAD application in offshore structure fabrication; A force control system for robotic manipulators; and intersections for trimmed surface patches.

N. M. Patrikalakis; J. S. Chung; M. J. Morgan

1989-01-01

491

Proceedings of the seventh international conference on offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings collect papers given at a conference on offshore engineering. Topics include: fracture mechanics, vibration testing, wave energy converters, ocean thermal energy converters, underwater pipelines, offshore platforms, and design and installation of permanent mooring systems for tankers.

Chung, J.S.; Sparks, C.P.; Brekke, J.N.; Clukey, E.C.; Penney, T.R.

1988-01-01

492

33 CFR 334.905 - Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California; Fallbrook restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California; Fallbrook restricted area. 334...Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California; Fallbrook restricted area. (a...the Pacific Ocean, San Diego County, California. The center of the restricted area...

2013-07-01

493

Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides a summary of a 236-page NREL report that provides a broad understanding of today's offshore wind industry, the offshore wind resource, and the associated technology challenges, economics, permitting procedures, and potential risks a...

B. Ram W. Musial

2010-01-01

494

Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Executive Summary  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a summary of a 236-page NREL report that provides a broad understanding of today's offshore wind industry, the offshore wind resource, and the associated technology challenges, economics, permitting procedures, and potential risks and benefits.

Musial, W.; Ram, B.

2010-09-01

495

Breton Offshore Activities Data System (BOADS) (software on CD-ROM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The BOADS (Breton Offshore Activities Data System) software assists users in completing monthly surveys covering emissions-related activities that are associated with offshore facilities. BOADS queries the user regarding emissions-related operating data, ...

1999-01-01

496

Interior Should Continue Use of Higher Royalty Rates for Offshore Oil and Gas Leases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report highlights Interior's experiences in using higher royalty rates for offshore leases, State government experiences with higher royalties, the practices of a number of foreign governments in establishing offshore oil and gas royalties, and the vi...

1982-01-01

497

Where the offshore search for oil and gas is headed  

SciTech Connect

This overview of the world's potential offshore oil and gas frontiers points out that although solutions to technical and political problems have opened up some promising areas for exploration, many key frontier basins have yet to be explored by modern technology. Long-standing disputes between bordering countries over offshore rights have deterred exploration activities in the Malvinas basin off Argentina and in the Gulf of Venezuela. Political problems have also slowed activity in the US Atlantic offshore, where Mesozoic reef trends may be related to Mexico's large oil fields. In Canada's Labrador Sea and Grand Banks, the problems are largely operational because of the inclement weather and threatening icebergs. The thick sediments off northern Norway remain untapped due to the deep water, Arctic conditions, and boundary disputes with the USSR. The main areas of active exploration are the Gulf of Thailand-Penyu-Natuna basin in Southeast Asia and Ireland's Porcupine Bight basin.

King, R.E.

1980-10-01

498

OCD: The offshore and coastal dispersion model. Volume 2. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The Offshore and Coastal Dispersion (OCD) Model has been developed to simulate the effect of offshore emissions from point, area, or line sources on the air quality of coastal regions. The OCD model was adapted from the EPA guideline model MPTER (EPA, 1980). Modifications were made to incorporate overwater plume transport and dispersion as well as changes that occur as the plume crosses the shoreline. This is a revised OCD model, the fourth version to date. The volume is an appendices for the OCD documentation, included are three appendices: Appendix A the OCD computer program, Appendix B an Analysis Post-processor, Appendix C Offshore Meteorological data Collection Instrumentation, also included are general References.

DiCristofaro, D.C.; Hanna, S.R.

1989-11-01

499

Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A., II

2003-01-01

500

Acoustic emission of offshore structures, attenuation - noise - crack monitoring  

SciTech Connect

No NDT crack detection methods have up to now proved to be the method which can overrule the others. We shall probably in the future in the offshore industry see a combination of various structure monitoring systems, remotely operated vehicles (ROV) with NDT-equipment and also the use of divers. The author believes that in some 5 - 10 years ROVs will perform much of the routine inspection, and mobile monitoring instrumentation will be concentrated to some hot spot areas, already detected defects or any repairs. The main areas for AE are monitoring of pressure vessels and fibre reinforced plastics. For application on offshore structures some fullscale trials have been performed (with practical problems) as well as some laboratory studies. Norwegian institutions seem to have a leading role today in the research of offshore applications. Norsk Hydro participated in a signature analysis project at Sintef/Veritas some years ago.

Lovaas, S.

1985-01-01