Science.gov

Sample records for jacket type offshore

  1. Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Jacket Type Offshore Platforms through Incremental Dynamic Analysis considering Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Asgarian, Behrouz; Shokrgozar, Hamed R.; Talarposhti, Ali Shakeri

    2008-07-08

    Of great interest in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) is the accurate estimation of the seismic performance of structures. A performance prediction and evaluation procedure is based on nonlinear dynamics and reliability theory. In this method, a full integration over the three key stochastic models is as follow: ground motion hazard curve, nonlinear dynamic displacement demand, and displacement capacity. Further, both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties are evaluated and carried through the analysis.In this paper, jacket and soil-pile system have been modeled using Finite Element program (OpenSees) and the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) are performed to investigate nonlinear behavior of offshore platforms. The system demand is determined by performing time history response analyses of the jacket under a suite of FEMA/SAC uniform hazard ground motions. The system capacity in terms of the drift ratio against incipient collapse is generally difficult to predict since the structural response goes into nonlinear range before collapse. All the analyses are performed in two directions and the results are compared with each others. The confidence level of a jacket in each direction for a given hazard level is calculated using the procedure described.

  2. A simplified method in comparison with comprehensive interaction incremental dynamic analysis to assess seismic performance of jacket-type offshore platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolfaghari, M. R.; Ajamy, A.; Asgarian, B.

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of seismic reassessment procedures in oil platform codes is to determine the reliability of a platform under extreme earthquake loading. Therefore, in this paper, a simplified method is proposed to assess seismic performance of existing jacket-type offshore platforms (JTOP) in regions ranging from near-elastic to global collapse. The simplified method curve exploits well agreement between static pushover (SPO) curve and the entire summarized interaction incremental dynamic analysis (CI-IDA) curve of the platform. Although the CI-IDA method offers better understanding and better modelling of the phenomenon, it is a time-consuming and challenging task. To overcome the challenges, the simplified procedure, a fast and accurate approach, is introduced based on SPO analysis. Then, an existing JTOP in the Persian Gulf is presented to illustrate the procedure, and finally a comparison is made between the simplified method and CI-IDA results. The simplified method is very informative and practical for current engineering purposes. It is able to predict seismic performance elasticity to global dynamic instability with reasonable accuracy and little computational effort.

  3. Repairing an offshore jacket structure proves cost effective

    SciTech Connect

    Still, J.R.; Blackwood, V.

    2000-05-01

    During inclement weather in the southern North Sea, an off-shore supply boat collided with a 25-year-old gas production platform. The impact occurred just over 2 m (5.56 ft) from the lowest annual tide and was sufficient to buckle, then shear, one end of a horizontal bracing from the jacket leg and to cause further damage at a node joint. Inspection personnel performed an initial examination of the damage to the eight-leg jacket structure using rope access techniques (abseiling), which offered substantial cost saving over erecting scaffolding. A structural analysis confirmed the jacket's integrity was not impaired and loss of the horizontal bracing would not significantly affect the structure. The analysis also confirmed repair of the node weld cracks and of the sheared area on the leg should be performed as soon as practical. In the end, the repair went smoothly. The repair area was above the waterline, and the weather cooperated perfectly. The repairs were done using rope access techniques, and using austenitic electrodes reduced the possibility of HAZ hydrogen cracking. Nondestructive examination confirmed no cracking had been experienced and no other defects existed. Indeed, this methodology is considered extremely practical, cost effective and ideal for use on offshore structures--with damage close to the waterline, and with the need to execute immediate repairs.

  4. Damage detection accuracy as a function of model uncertainty in offshore jacket platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.T.; Stubbs, N.

    1995-12-31

    The impact of model uncertainty on the accuracy of a nondestructive damage detection technique when applied to an offshore jacket platform is assessed. First, a nondestructive algorithm to locate and size damage from a few mode shapes of structures is outlined. Next, numerical damage localization and severity estimation exercises are performed for an example of an offshore jacket platform. Finally, the accuracy of damage localization and severity estimation results in the numerical example is assessed as a function of model uncertainties for the structure.

  5. A robust damage detection method developed for offshore jacket platforms using modified artificial immune system algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojtahedi, A.; Lotfollahi Yaghin, M. A.; Hassanzadeh, Y.; Abbasidoust, F.; Ettefagh, M. M.; Aminfar, M. H.

    2012-09-01

    Steel jacket-type platforms are the common kind of the offshore structures and health monitoring is an important issue in their safety assessment. In the present study, a new damage detection method is adopted for this kind of structures and inspected experimentally by use of a laboratory model. The method is investigated for developing the robust damage detection technique which is less sensitive to both measurement and analytical model uncertainties. For this purpose, incorporation of the artificial immune system with weighted attributes (AISWA) method into finite element (FE) model updating is proposed and compared with other methods for exploring its effectiveness in damage identification. Based on mimicking immune recognition, noise simulation and attributes weighting, the method offers important advantages and has high success rates. Therefore, it is proposed as a suitable method for the detection of the failures in the large civil engineering structures with complicated structural geometry, such as the considered case study.

  6. Risk of foundation failure of offshore jacket piles

    SciTech Connect

    Horsnell, M.R.; Toolan, F.E.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses the application of reliability theory to offshore foundation piles. The theoretical risk of failure for piles is computed for a range of realistic soil and loading conditions. The reliability analyses are updated in the light of long term field experience and the results used to comment on reassessment procedures for foundations. It is concluded that, if standard design procedures are followed, the outcome is likely to be that, generally, piles in sand are more at risk of failure than piles in clay, and piles governed by the dead load condition more at risk than those for which the extreme environmental load governs.

  7. Differentiating between underwater construction noise of monopile and jacket foundations for offshore windmills: a case study from the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Norro, Alain Michel Jules; Rumes, Bob; Degraer, Steven Johan

    2013-01-01

    Steel monopiles, jackets requiring four steel pinpiles, and gravity-based foundations were applied in offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea. This paper compares the underwater noise generated during the piling activities of steel monopiles at the Belwind wind farm (Blighbank) with that of jacket pinpiles at the C-Power project (Thorntonbank). Underwater noise was measured at various distances from the pile driving location. The underwater noise was quantified by its zero to peak sound pressure level (L(z-p)), unweighted sound exposure level (SEL), cumulative SEL, and 1/3 octave spectra. No significant differences in L(z-p) could be demonstrated (monopile L(z-p): 179-194?dB? re 1? ?Pa, jacket L(z-p): 172-189?dB? re 1? ?Pa). SEL showed no statistical difference between monopile and jacket and varied between 145 and 168?dB? re 1? ?Pa(2)s. Furthermore, near identical spectra were measured for both types of piling. Piling of the jacket pinpiles took, however, about 2.5 times the time of the monopile. When standardised to megawatt installed per foundation both types of piling scored near equally. As an illustration, the radius of major behavioural disturbance (L(p-p) = 155?dB? re 1? ?Pa) in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena was estimated by a model at 16?km for monopiles and at 8?km for jacket. PMID:23576910

  8. Network-based modelling and active control for offshore steel jacket platform with TMD mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bao-Lin; Han, Qing-Long

    2014-12-01

    The network-based modelling and active control for an offshore steel jacket platform with an active tuned mass damper mechanism is investigated. A network-based dynamic model of the offshore platform is first established. A network-based state feedback control scheme is developed. Under this scheme, the corresponding closed-loop system is modelled by a system with an artificial interval time-varying delay. Then, a delay-dependent stability criterion for the corresponding closed-loop system is derived. Based on this stability criterion, a sufficient condition on the existence of the network-based controller is obtained. It is found through simulation results that (i) both the oscillation amplitudes of the offshore platform and the required control force under the network-based state feedback controller are smaller than those under the nonlinear controller and the dynamic output feedback controller; (ii) the oscillation amplitudes of the offshore steel jacket platform under the network-based feedback controller are almost the same as the ones under the integral sliding mode controller, while the required control force by the former is smaller than the one by the latter.

  9. Grouting of offshore jackets to distribute forces among the anchoring piles

    SciTech Connect

    Weidler, J.B.

    1981-06-16

    An offshore jacket is provided which comprises a plurality of main hollow pile sleeves and a plurality of secondary hollow pile sleeves of shorter height than the main sleeves and connected thereto by framing. A plurality of main piles and secondary piles are disposed within the main sleeves and secondary sleeves, respectively, and project downwardly therebeyond into the seabed. The main and secondary piles are connected to their respective main and secondary sleeves by grout disposed within an annulus between the sleeve and the pile, so that the pile resists axial forces. The grout within the secondary piles extends to the seabed. The grout within at least some of the main sleeves terminates above the seabed to decrease the axial spring value of the associated piles and thereby increase the proportion of the axial forces which are borne by the secondary piles. Also provided is an offshore jacket which does not employ secondary sleeves and piles; the lower level of grout within some of the sleeves is disposed above the level of grout within others of the sleeves located closer to a central axis of the jacket to decrease the axial spring values of the former piles and thereby more uniformly distribute the axial forces among the piles.

  10. Differentiating between Underwater Construction Noise of Monopile and Jacket Foundations for Offshore Windmills: A Case Study from the Belgian Part of the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Norro, Alain Michel Jules; Rumes, Bob; Degraer, Steven Johan

    2013-01-01

    Steel monopiles, jackets requiring four steel pinpiles, and gravity-based foundations were applied in offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea. This paper compares the underwater noise generated during the piling activities of steel monopiles at the Belwind wind farm (Blighbank) with that of jacket pinpiles at the C-Power project (Thorntonbank). Underwater noise was measured at various distances from the pile driving location. The underwater noise was quantified by its zero to peak sound pressure level (Lz−p), unweighted sound exposure level (SEL), cumulative SEL, and 1/3 octave spectra. No significant differences in Lz−p could be demonstrated (monopile Lz−p: 179–194 dB re 1 μPa, jacket Lz−p: 172–189 dB re 1 μPa). SEL showed no statistical difference between monopile and jacket and varied between 145 and 168 dB re 1 μPa2s. Furthermore, near identical spectra were measured for both types of piling. Piling of the jacket pinpiles took, however, about 2.5 times the time of the monopile. When standardised to megawatt installed per foundation both types of piling scored near equally. As an illustration, the radius of major behavioural disturbance (Lp−p = 155 dB re 1 μPa) in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena was estimated by a model at 16 km for monopiles and at 8 km for jacket. PMID:23576910

  11. Lateral stability of piles in ungrouted jacket legs

    SciTech Connect

    Flick, L.D.; Green, D.J.

    1983-05-01

    The lateral stability of a pile within an ungrouted jacket leg of a template type offshore platform is investigated analytically and experimentally. The results suggest that significant increases in stability related allowable stresses may often be permissible.

  12. CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY

    DOEpatents

    Brugmann, E.W.

    1958-08-26

    Reactor faul elements of the elongated cylindrical type which are jacketed in a corrosion resistant material are described. Each feel element is comprised of a plurality of jacketed cylinders of fissionable material in end to end abutting relationship, the jackets being welded together at their adjoining ends to retain the individual segments together and seat the interior of the jackets.

  13. Investigation on cutting stability of jacket in decommissioning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mei-qiu; Duan, Meng-lan; Huang, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Jacket cutting operation is one of the most complicated and highest risk operations in the process of decommissioning offshore piled platform, the security and stability of which must be assured. In this paper, the current research on offshore structure removal and jacket cutting is introduced, on the basis of which the types of load along with the load calculation method are determined. The main influences on the stability of a jacket in cutting are analyzed. The experiment test plan is drawn by using orthogonal testing method, and the formula of critical load during the cutting procedure is deduced by differential evolution algorithm. To verify the method and results of this paper, an offshore piled platform to be decommissioned in the South China Sea is taken for an example, and the detailed schedule for jacket cutting is made with the three-dimensional finite element model of the jacket established. The natural frequency, stress, strain and stability of the jacket during cutting process are calculated, which indicates that the results of finite element analysis agree well with that of the deduced formula. The result provides the scientific reference for guaranteeing the safety of jacket in cutting operation.

  14. Optimisation and evaluation of pre-design models for offshore wind turbines with jacket support structures and their influence on integrated load simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafhirt, S.; Kaufer, D.; Cheng, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years many advanced load simulation tools, allowing an aero-servo-hydroelastic analyses of an entire offshore wind turbine, have been developed and verified. Nowadays, even an offshore wind turbine with a complex support structure such as a jacket can be analysed. However, the computational effort rises significantly with an increasing level of details. This counts especially for offshore wind turbines with lattice support structures, since those models do naturally have a higher number of nodes and elements than simpler monopile structures. During the design process multiple load simulations are demanded to obtain an optimal solution. In the view of pre-design tasks it is crucial to apply load simulations which keep the simulation quality and the computational effort in balance. The paper will introduce a reference wind turbine model consisting of the REpower5M wind turbine and a jacket support structure with a high level of detail. In total twelve variations of this reference model are derived and presented. Main focus is to simplify the models of the support structure and the foundation. The reference model and the simplified models are simulated with the coupled simulation tool Flex5-Poseidon and analysed regarding frequencies, fatigue loads, and ultimate loads. A model has been found which reaches an adequate increase of simulation speed while holding the results in an acceptable range compared to the reference results.

  15. Fire Protection Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NERAC, Inc., Tolland, CT, aided Paul Monroe Engineering, Orange, CA, in the development of their PC1200 Series Fire Protection Jacket that protects the oil conduit system on an offshore drilling platform from the intense hydrocarbon fires that cause buckling and could cause structural failure of the platform. The flame-proof jacketing, which can withstand temperatures of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for four hours or more, was developed from a combination of ceramic cloth (similar to the ceramic in Space Shuttle tiles), and laminates used in space suits.

  16. CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY

    DOEpatents

    Brugmann, E.W.

    1958-08-26

    Jacketed metal bodies of the type used as fuel elements for nuclear reactors, which contain an internal elongated body of fissionable material jacketed in a corrosion resistant metal are described. The ends of the internal bodies are provided with screw threads having a tapered outer end. The jacket material overlaps the ends and extends into the tapered section of the screw threaded opening. Screw caps with a mating tapered section are screwed into the ends of the body to compress the jacket material in the tapered sections to provtde an effective seal against corrosive gases and liquids.

  17. JACKETING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.

    1959-07-14

    The bonding to uranium of sheathing of iron or cobalt, or nickel, or alloys thereof is described. The bonding is accomplished by electro-depositing both surfaces to be joined with a coating of silver and amalgamating or alloying the silver layer with mercury or indium. Then the silver alloy is homogenized by exerting pressure on an assembly of the uranium core and the metal jacket, reducing the area of assembly and heating the assembly to homogenize by diffusion.

  18. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  19. CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY

    DOEpatents

    Brugmann, E.W.

    1958-08-26

    S>Metal jacketed metallic bodies of the type used as feel elements fer nuclear reactors are presented. The fuel element is comprised of a plurality of jacketed cylindrical bodies joined in end to end abutting relationship. The abutting ends of the internal fissionable bodies are provided with a mating screw and thread means for joining the two together. The jacket material is of a corrosion resistant metal and overlaps the abutting ends of the internal bodies, thereby effectively sealing these bodies from contact with exteral reactive gases and liquids.

  20. JACKETED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1958-12-01

    A fuel element is described for fast reactors comprised of a core of uranium metal containing material and a jacket around the core, the jacket consisting of from 2.5 to 15 percent of titanium, from 1 to 5 percent of niobium, and from 80 to 96.5 percent of vanadium.

  1. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  2. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  3. Regeneratively Cooled Porous Media Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Greg (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); London, Adam Pollok (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The fluid and heat transfer theory for regenerative cooling of a rocket combustion chamber with a porous media coolant jacket is presented. This model is used to design a regeneratively cooled rocket or other high temperature engine cooling jacket. Cooling jackets comprising impermeable inner and outer walls, and porous media channels are disclosed. Also disclosed are porous media coolant jackets with additional structures designed to transfer heat directly from the inner wall to the outer wall, and structures designed to direct movement of the coolant fluid from the inner wall to the outer wall. Methods of making such jackets are also disclosed.

  4. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  5. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  6. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  7. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  8. METHOD OF JACKETING A FISSIONABLE BODY

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1960-02-16

    A method for jacketing fuel elements is described. A fissionablc body ts fitted into a steel jacket, and a steel rimmed closure disk is inserted into the open end of the jacket. The jacket is then drawn through a die, aind the rim of the disk is welded to the jacket to form an impervious seal.

  9. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  10. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  11. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  12. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... than the lower size limit of the adult life jackets provided to meet this section, except that: (1... persons of 1,195 millimeters (47 inches) in height or weighing 20.4 kilograms (45 pounds)) are carried...

  13. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each person... provide a life jacket for each person being carried that is smaller than the lower size limit of the adult... (47 inches) in height or weighing 20.4 kilograms (45 pounds)) are carried on board, a minimum of...

  14. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  15. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, C. J.; Dorling, S. R.; von Glasow, R.; Bacon, J.

    2012-06-01

    The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the Southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s-1 offshore gradient wind, from 10 km to 40 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes, respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the eastern coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high gradient wind speed (>15 m s-1) conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature during the sea breeze season do not significantly affect the circulation, suggesting that a thermal contrast is only needed as a precondition to the development of the sea breeze. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be considered in order to improve the accuracy of assessments of the offshore wind energy climate.

  16. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, C. J.; Dorling, S. R.; von Glasow, R.; Bacon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s-1 offshore gradient wind, from 0 km to 21 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the opposite coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high along-shore gradient wind speed (>15 m s-1) conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature and initializing vertical thermodynamic profile do not significantly alter the resulting circulation, though the strengths of the simulated sea breezes are modulated if the effective land-sea thermal contrast is altered. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be considered in order to improve the accuracy of both assessments of the offshore wind energy climate and forecasts of wind energy output.

  17. Plating Patches On Heat-Exchanger Jackets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loureiro, Henry; Kubik, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Permanent repairs made without welding. Technique used to repair nickel-alloy nozzle jacket of Space Shuttle main engine. Applicable to other metal heat-exchanger jackets with similar configurations. Does not require welding, brazing, soldering, or other operations involving high temperatures and consequent damage to surrounding areas. Portion of jacket around damaged area removed by grinding and polishing out to edges adjacent to tube/jacket braze bonds. Spaces between tubes filled with wax preventing contamination of spaces during subsequent plating.

  18. Tympanic temperature and heart rate changes in firefighters during treadmill runs performed with different fireproof jackets.

    PubMed

    Ftaiti, F; Duflot, J C; Nicol, C; Grlot, L

    2001-04-15

    Six well-trained firefighters performed six treadmill runs at 70% of the velocity at VO2max (Maximal aerobic velocity MAV = 13.2+/-0.3 km h(-1)). A recovery time of 1 week was allowed between trials. The first session was performed by subjects wearing only shorts (i.e. no fire jacket, J0). A similar protocol was applied subsequently to test the physiological effects associated with the wearing of one of five different fire jackets: one leather (J1) and four textile-type jackets: VTN with membrane (J2), VTN without membrane (J3), Vidal with Kermel HTA (Haute Teneur en Aramide i.e. high density in Aramide) (J4); and Rolland with Kermel HTA (J5). All sessions were performed in a randomized order and in laboratory conditions. Exercise with the fireproof jackets resulted in higher tympanic temperature (Tty), heart rate (HR) and body mass loss (BML) changes compared to J0 (p<0.001). The magnitudes of these changes depended on the type of the jacket. Exercise in the leather jacket (J1) resulted in the highest Tty and HR, which differed significantly from values in all other conditions (p<0.001). The exercise-induced increases in Tty wearing jackets J3 and J5 were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those observed with jackets J2 and J4. In conclusion, textile jackets induced less HR and Tty stresses than the leather one. The magnitude of the physiological responses induced by textile jackets were correlated to jacket weight. J2 and J4 jackets were more effective in limiting hyperthermia and any potential detrimental effect on the exercise capacity. PMID:11345493

  19. The Seismic Reliability of Offshore Structures Based on Nonlinear Time History Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, Mahmood; Karimiyani, Somayyeh; Ghafooripour, Amin; Jabbarzadeh, Mohammad Javad

    2008-07-08

    Regarding the past earthquakes damages to offshore structures, as vital structures in the oil and gas industries, it is important that their seismic design is performed by very high reliability. Accepting the Nonlinear Time History Analyses (NLTHA) as the most reliable seismic analysis method, in this paper an offshore platform of jacket type with the height of 304 feet, having a deck of 96 feet by 94 feet, and weighing 290 million pounds has been studied. At first, some Push-Over Analyses (POA) have been preformed to recognize the more critical members of the jacket, based on the range of their plastic deformations. Then NLTHA have been performed by using the 3-components accelerograms of 100 earthquakes, covering a wide range of frequency content, and normalized to three Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) levels of 0.3 g, 0.65 g, and 1.0 g. By using the results of NLTHA the damage and rupture probabilities of critical member have been studied to assess the reliability of the jacket structure. Regarding that different structural members of the jacket have different effects on the stability of the platform, an 'importance factor' has been considered for each critical member based on its location and orientation in the structure, and then the reliability of the whole structure has been obtained by combining the reliability of the critical members, each having its specific importance factor.

  20. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  1. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  2. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  3. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  4. 46 CFR 117.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 117.75 Section 117.75 Shipping COAST... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on an oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life jacket light approved in...

  5. Jacket zoning in reactor scale-up

    SciTech Connect

    Steve, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    A batch reactor outfitted with a partial-pipe jacket usually has one jacket inlet and one jacket outlet for the passage of the non-isothermal heating or cooling medium. Such an arrangement--called the single-zone jacket--allows the heating or cooling medium to make contact with the entire heat-transfer area in one pass. It has been determined, however, that heat transfer performance of a batch reactor system equipped with a partial-pipe jacket can be improved with multiple zoning. By dividing a jacket into two or more zones, the heat transfer is improved without suffering a corresponding increase in jacket pressure drop. Multiple zoning also shortens the required length of jacket pipe. Each zone receives the same flow as needed in a single-zone jacket to maintain the same outside film coefficient, but at a lower pressure drop. Zoning affects the heat loads and the time required when completing a temperature adjustment step in both existing reactors and their scaled-up version. The paper discusses modeling the reactors, temperature-adjusting time, calculation of five degrees of zoning, the outlet temperature of a scaled-up reactor, and the affect of scale-up on the time.

  6. METHOD OF JACKETING FISSIONABLE MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Foster, L.M.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement is presented in the jacketing of a metal body accomplished by electroplating upon that portion of the metal container to be protected from the bonding material a niatcrial such as Cr which is impermeable to the bonding material. After the bonding operation the electroplate is removed and the metal container surfuce, unimpaired, may be welded to a cap which effects a closure. Generally in such an operation the metal body is U, the metal container is Al and the bonding material is a Zn alloy.

  7. Results from large scale ultimate strength tests of K-braced jacket frame structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bolt, H.M.

    1995-12-01

    Phase 2 of the JIP Frames Project included four large scale collapse tests of K-braced frames in which both gap and overlap K joints were the critical components. The results are presented in this paper. The local failure modes differed from typical isolated component tests, yet were representative of structural damage observed following Hurricane Andrew. The frame test results therefore provide important insight to the ultimate response of offshore jacket structures.

  8. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient places distributed...

  9. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient...

  10. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient places distributed...

  11. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient places distributed...

  12. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient...

  13. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient...

  14. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient places distributed...

  15. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life...

  16. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient...

  17. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping... Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient places distributed...

  18. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each life jacket carried on a vessel on oceans, coastwise, or Great Lakes route, must have a life...

  19. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets. (a) General. Unless otherwise stated in this section, life jackets must be stored in convenient...

  20. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  1. Spectral fatigue analysis of shallow water jacket platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, N.W.M.; Feng, Q.; Schofield, P.; Kirkwood, M.G.; Turner, T.

    1995-12-31

    The spectral analysis approach is a very elegant and computationally efficient method of analyzing the fatigue life of offshore jacket platforms. The primary limitation of the approach is that it assumes linearity of both the structural system and the wave loading mechanism. The approach is now widely used for the analysis of deepwater, dynamically responsive platforms where non-linearities are usually not serious. The new approach provides a better method for choosing the appropriate height of each so called base wave case. This paper presents the results obtained using this new approach, as well as comparative results obtained using the deterministic, spectral and time domain approaches applied with a representative sea state. The results show that the deterministic-spectral method has a considerable amount of potential, especially for new design work where weight savings and/or increased confidence levels may be achieved.

  2. The shielding capacity of the standard military flak jacket against ballistic injury to the kidney.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, K J; Frazier, H A; Clark, M A; Christenson, P J; Keyes, B T; Josselson, A

    1988-03-01

    An animal model was designed to evaluate the ability of the standard military flak jacket to protect the kidneys from direct ballistic trauma. Yorkshire swine were anesthetized and their flanks were protected by flak jackets. Ballistic insults ranging from a low-velocity handgun to a high-velocity rifle were evaluated. The results demonstrate that a flak jacket provides adequate protection against low- and mid-velocity projectiles since none of the animals from this group had evidence of internal trauma and because only minor superficial surgical attention would have been required. Survivability in each case was considered to be excellent. The flak jacket failed to provide any protection against several types of high-velocity bullets. These weapons caused severe internal injury to the genitourinary system as well as to other major organ systems. Survival would have been unlikely. PMID:3373158

  3. OMAE 1995 -- Proceedings of the 14. international conference on offshore mechanics and arctic engineering. Volume 1, Part B: Offshore technology

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, S.K.; Gudmestad, O.T.; Sparks, C.; Morrison, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    This conference proceeding represents the second part of the volume of papers related to offshore technology as it relates to design of offshore structures, jacket and floating structures, tension leg platforms, mooring systems, risers, and cables. It also contains papers relating to structural and geotechnical mechanics. Separate abstracts were prepared for 48 papers in this report for inclusion in the information retrieval system.

  4. Proceedings of the 21st annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of a conference on offshore technology. Topics covered include: underwater wet welding of higher strength offshore steels; the proposed extended-reach drilling project; North Sea experience with aluminum drillpipe; and load transfer mechanism to offshore jackets during pile driving.

  5. Offshore medicine.

    PubMed

    Baker, D

    2001-03-01

    Offshore life can be refreshing for medics who are looking for a little change of pace; however, it is not for everyone. Working offshore can be the easiest or most boring job you'll ever have. It takes a specific type of medic to fit this mold. So, if you are considering a career in the offshore field, take all of the above into consideration. You are not just making a change in jobs, but a change in lifestyle. Once you become accustomed to this lifestyle, it will be hard to go back to the everyday hustle and bustle of the streets. For more information about working offshore, contact Acadian Contract Services at 800/259-333, or visit www.acadian.com. PMID:11258303

  6. Impact analysis of spent fuel jacket assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Aramayo, G.A.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the analyses performed in support of the reracking of the High Flux Isotope Reactor pool, it became necessary to prove the structural integrity of the spent fuel jacket assemblies subjected to gravity drop that result from postulated accidents associated with the handling of these assemblies while submerged in the pool. The spent fuel jacket assemblies are an integral part of the reracking project, and serve to house fuel assemblies. The structure integrity of the jacket assemblies from loads that result from impact from a height of 10 feet onto specified targets has been performed analytically using the computer program LS-DYNA3D. Nine attitudes of the assembly at the time of impact have been considered. Results of the analyses show that there is no failure of the assemblies as a result of the impact scenarios considered.

  7. Splice connector with internal heat transfer jacket

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Frank A.; Mayer, Robert W.

    1977-01-01

    A heat transfer jacket is placed over the terminal portions of the conductors of a pair of high voltage cables which are connected in a splice connection wherein a housing surrounds the connected conductor portions, the heat transfer jacket extending longitudinally between the confronting ends of a pair of adaptor sleeves placed upon the insulation of the cables to engage and locate the adaptor sleeves relative to one another, and laterally between the conductors and the housing to provide a path of relatively high thermal conductivity between the connected conductor portions and the housing.

  8. The suction mooring, a new type of offshore single point mooring

    SciTech Connect

    Korsgaard, J.; Hutter, L.

    1995-12-01

    Existing systems for mooring offshore oil production vessels of the ship type only permit the mooring or tying up of the vessel in quite low wave conditions. Virtually all existing systems do not permit the vessel to moor in wave conditions exceeding H{sub s} = 4.5 m. The wait for the waves to subside following the storm causes additional production losses due to the oil field being shut in. A newly developed mooring system, the suction mooring, promises to overcome this problem by permitting the mooring of the vessels in wave heights to at least H{sub s} = 8 m. The principle of the mooring consists of using the hydrostatic pressure available at the keel of the vessel to press a mooring buoy onto the bottom and holding the vessel by the resulting friction. The action of the mooring buoy is similar to that of a suction cup. The pressure above the buoy is lowered and maintained low by means of pumps aboard the vessel. This paper reports on model tests carried out to prove the feasibility of conducting the mooring operations in high waves. Three different configurations of the mooring buoy were tested. For two of the configurations it was found that the mooring process could be carried out safely in all wave heights tested i.e. up to H{sub s} = 7.7 m. The impact upon offshore operations of this capability was investigated by performing Monte Carlo simulations on a hypothetical oil field in the center North Sea and in the northern North Sea. An actual center North Sea wave record was used in the simulations. The suction mooring system was compared to two other high performance mooring systems. The results show that weather related oil field shut-ins are reduced an order of magnitude by application of the suction mooring compared to the other systems simulated.

  9. HUNTER 10, TRUFLO GONDOLA WEIGHTS AND JACKET. PIVOTING ARMS RAISE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HUNTER 10, TRUFLO GONDOLA WEIGHTS AND JACKET. PIVOTING ARMS RAISE THE JACKET AND WEIGHTS. A PNEUMATIC SHOVEL PUSHES THE MORE RECENTLY POURED MOLD INTO THE COOLED MOLD, FORCING THE LATTER ONTO THE VIBRATING SHAKEOUT CONVEYOR AND LEAVING A SPACE UNDER THE RAISED JACKET AND WEIGHTS FOR A FRESHLY MADE UNPOURED MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  10. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57... Protection Surface Only 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger from falling into water. Underground Only...

  11. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57... Protection Surface Only 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger from falling into water. Underground Only...

  12. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56... 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger from falling into water....

  13. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56... 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger from falling into water....

  14. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56... 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger from falling into water....

  15. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57... Protection Surface Only 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger from falling into water. Underground Only...

  16. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  17. 46 CFR 185.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 185.508 Section 185.508... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies 185.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist,...

  18. 46 CFR 185.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 185.508 Section 185.508... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies 185.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist,...

  19. 46 CFR 185.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 185.508 Section 185.508... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies 185.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist,...

  20. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  1. 46 CFR 122.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 122.508 Section 122.508... Preparations for Emergencies 122.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist, including, but not limited to:...

  2. 46 CFR 122.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 122.508 Section 122.508... Preparations for Emergencies 122.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist, including, but not limited to:...

  3. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  4. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  5. 46 CFR 122.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 122.508 Section 122.508... Preparations for Emergencies 122.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist, including, but not limited to:...

  6. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  7. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  8. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  9. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  10. 46 CFR 185.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 185.516 Section 185.516 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous...

  11. 46 CFR 185.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 185.508 Section 185.508... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist,...

  12. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  13. 46 CFR 122.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 122.508 Section 122.508... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist, including, but not limited to:...

  14. 46 CFR 122.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 122.508 Section 122.508... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist, including, but not limited to:...

  15. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  16. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  17. 46 CFR 185.508 - Wearing of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wearing of life jackets. 185.508 Section 185.508... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.508 Wearing of life jackets. (a) The master of a vessel shall require passengers to don life jackets when possible hazardous conditions exist,...

  18. 46 CFR 122.516 - Life jacket placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jacket placards. 122.516 Section 122.516 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.516 Life jacket placards. (a) Placards containing instructions for the donning and use of the life jackets aboard the vessel must be posted in conspicuous places that are regularly...

  19. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  20. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each... light approved in accordance with § 161.012 in subchapter Q of this chapter, or other standard...

  1. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each... light approved in accordance with § 161.012 in subchapter Q of this chapter, or other standard...

  2. 46 CFR 180.75 - Life jacket lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jacket lights. 180.75 Section 180.75 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.75 Life jacket lights. (a) Each... light approved in accordance with § 161.012 in subchapter Q of this chapter, or other standard...

  3. Jacketed cryogenic piping is stress relieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Jacketed design of piping used to transfer cryogenic fluids, relieves severe stresses associated with the temperature gradients that occur during transfer cycles and ambient periods. The inner /transfer/ pipe is preloaded in such a way that stress relief takes place automatically as cycling occurs.

  4. Vacuum-jacketed hydrofluoric acid solution calorimeter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.

    1965-01-01

    A vacuum-jacketed metal calorimeter for determining heats of solution in aqueous HF was constructed. The reaction vessel was made of copper and was heavily gold plated. The calorimeter has a cooling constant of 0.6 cal-deg -1-min-1, approximately 1/4 that of the air-jacketed calorimeters most commonly used with HF. It reaches equilibrium within 10 min after turning off the heater current. Measurements of the heat of solution of reagent grade KCl(-100 mesh dried 2 h at 200??C) at a mole ratio of 1 KCl to 200 H2O gave ??H = 4198??11 cal at 25??C. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  5. Tensile test of SS 316LN jacket with different conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jinggang; Dai, Chao; Liao, Guojun; Wu, Yu; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng; wang, Kun; Shen, Xiaogang; Tu, Zhengpin; Ji, Hui

    2014-11-01

    316LN stainless steel is selected as a material for Toroidal-field (TF) conductor jacket of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). When energized, the ITER TF coils experience large pulsed electromagnetic forces that the conductor jacket itself must withstand. The conductor will be compacted, spooled and aged at approximately 650 C during manufacture. Therefore, the sample jackets were prepared under compaction, stretching and annealing to simulate the manufacturing process and operation of TF coils. The present Chinese TF jacket has good performance under standard conditions. In order to investigate more mechanical properties of 316LN jacket, the different cold working and annealing were applied to the raw materials. The samples were measured at 4.2 K, 77 K and 300 K. Youngs modulus, yield strength (0.2% offset), elongation at failure and SEM images are reported. There is no big deviation among different conditions. The test results show that Chinese TF jacket has good performance.

  6. Protective riser-conductor for offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D. A.; Albers, G. P.

    1985-07-09

    A protective sleeve for fitting about the periphery of the leg of an offshore structure. The sleeve comprises means for carrying and enclosing a plurality of conductors. It further includes one or more inner rings; an outer jacket is fixedly spaced from the rings to define longitudinal passages within which the respective conductors are fixedly positioned. The sleeve is capable of deflecting packed ice and floating objects which represent possible sources of damage to the structure or to conductors.

  7. Reusable neoprene jacket protects parts for chemical milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Reusable neoprene jacket is used to prepare metal part or panel for chemical milling. Jacket covers back and upper rim of part and is sealed before the masking solution is applied to surface to be milled. This reduces amount of masking material required for milling identical parts and increases production.

  8. Offshore yearbook, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book is an annual compilation of information and articles on offshore petroleum operations. It includes an industry analysis, engineering highlights, a news review of the Western Hemisphere, and an industry outlook for 1987. It provides survey information on deepwater wells, worldwide offshore daily oil production, producing fields by country, and international offshore well count. It also contains mobile rig statistics, including rig scrappings, rig name changes, cold-stacked and for-sale units, and unit types.

  9. Ported jacket for use in deformation measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Leslie A. (Rapid City, SD); Senseny, Paul E. (Rapid City, SD); Mellegard, Kirby D. (Rapid City, SD); Olsberg, Steven B. (Rapid City, SD)

    1990-01-01

    A device for allowing deformation measurement of a jacketed specimen when the specimen is loaded includes an elastomeric specimen container or jacket surrounding a specimen while the specimen is being loaded by a test apparatus. The specimen jacket wall is compressible, and the wall follows and allows deformation of the specimen. The jacket wall of compressible material is provided with at least one opening and a thin layer or shim of substantially non-compressible (metal) material covers and seals this opening. An extensometer is then positioned with its specimen engaging contact members engaging the substantially non-compressible material to measure the deformation of the specimen when the specimen is loaded, without compressibility effects of the jacket.

  10. Ported jacket for use in deformation measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.A.; Senseny, P.E.; Mellegard, K.D.; Olsberg, S.B.

    1990-03-06

    A device for allowing deformation measurement of a jacketed specimen when the specimen is loaded includes an elastomeric specimen container or jacket surrounding a specimen while the specimen is being loaded by a test apparatus. The specimen jacket wall is compressible, and the wall follows and allows deformation of the specimen. The jacket wall of compressible material is provided with at least one opening and a thin layer or shim of substantially non-compressible (metal) material which covers and seals this opening. An extensometer is then positioned with its specimen engaging contact members engaging the substantially non-compressible material to measure the deformation of the specimen when the specimen is loaded, without compressibility effects of the jacket. 9 figs.

  11. BARRIERS TO LIFE JACKET USE AMONG ADULT RECREATIONAL BOATERS

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Quan, Linda; Ebel, Beth E.; Bennett, Elizabeth E.; Mueller, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify barriers to life jacket use. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Nine public boat ramps in western Washington State, USA, August-November, 2008. Participants 675 adult boaters (>18 years) on motor boats <26 feet long. Main outcome Low or no life jacket use (050% of time) versus high life jacket use (51100% of time). Results Low/no life jacket use (0%50% of time) was associated with longer boat length (per foot, risk ratio [RR] 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.021.05), alcohol use (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.011.20), perception of life jackets as uncomfortable (RR 1.29, 95%CI 1.091.52), perceived greater level of swimming ability (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.031.53 for expert swimmer), and possibly with lack of confidence that a life jacket may save one from drowning (RR 1.13, 95%CI 0.961.32). Low life jacket use was less likely when a child was onboard (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.790.99), or if the respondent had taken a boating safety class (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.871.01). Conclusions Life jacket use may increase with more comfortable devices, such as inflatable life jackets, and with increased awareness of their efficacy in preventing drowning. Boater education classes may be associated with increased life jacket use among adults. PMID:24686261

  12. Requirements for construction of offshore concrete platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmestad, O.T.; Pollard, N.

    1994-12-31

    For development of offshore fields, the operator must select production concepts. As several options like subsea templates, floating production and storage concepts, semisubmersibles and steel platforms etc. are available, this paper will review the specifics of one of the possible concepts, the concrete platform. The application of offshore concrete platforms is gaining renewed interest world wide. Several operators are presently carrying out comparisons between offshore concrete structures and jacket support structures. This evaluation includes considerations related to constructability incorporating studies of potential construction sites, and infrastructures as well as availability of materials. This paper summarizes requirements for carrying out an offshore concrete platform construction project and will be useful to those interested in concrete projects.

  13. Lightweight Vacuum Jacket for Cryogenic Insulation. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, D. L.; Bell, J. E.; Brogren, E. W.; Straayer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials was examined. Design and analytical studies were made on a full-scale, orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were made for the tank assembly, including an optimized vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation system. A half-scale LH2 test model was designed and fabricated, and a force/stiffness proof test was conducted on the vacuum jacket. A vacuum leak rate of .000001 atmosphere ml of helium per second was measured, approximately 1500 hours of vacuum pressure were sustained, and 29 vacuum-pressure cycles were experienced prior to failure.

  14. Dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine during normal state and emergency shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhi-qiang; Li, Liang; Wang, Jin; Hu, Qiu-hao; Shen, Ma-cheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper addresses joint wind-wave induced dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) under normal states and fault event conditions. The analysis in this paper is conducted in time domain, using an aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation code-FAST. Owing to the unique viscous features of the reference system, the original viscous damping model implemented in FAST is replaced with a quadratic one to gain an accurate capture of viscous effects. Simulation cases involve free-decay motion in still water, steady motions in the presence of regular waves and wind as well as dynamic response in operational sea states with and without wind. Simulations also include the cases for transient responses induced by fast blade pitching after emergency shutdown. The features of platform motions, local structural loads and a typical mooring line tension force under a variety of excitations are obtained and investigated.

  15. Optical fiber magnetic field sensors with ceramic magnetostrictive jackets.

    PubMed

    Sedlar, M; Paulicka, I; Sayer, M

    1996-09-20

    Optical fibers coated by magnetostrictive ceramic films were tested with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in an open-loop mode. The sensors exhibited excellent linearity and good sensitivity. The response of ceramic-jacketed fibers was not affected by small dc fluctuations that are due to the linear behavior of tested ceramic coatings in low magnetic fields. Tested ceramic materials included magnetite, ?-Fe(2) O(3), nickel ferrite, and cobalt-doped nickel ferrite (NCF2) jackets. The latter showed the best performance. A minimum detectable field of 3.2 10(-3) A/m for optical fiber jacketed with 2-?m-thick and 1-m-long NCF2 material has been achieved. The capability of detecting magnetic fields as low as 2.6 10(-7) A/m with a 10-?m-thick cobalt-doped nickel ferrite jacket is proposed. PMID:21127528

  16. "Punk" rock can be bad for you: a case of surgical emphysema from a "punk" rocker's leather jacket.

    PubMed

    Lane, N; Graudins, A

    2006-06-01

    Stab wounds to the thorax are seen in the emergency department (ED) and can be caused by a variety of mechanisms. This case highlights an unusual cause of injury: a leather jacket with spikes on the back of it. This type of jacket is often worn by "punks" as a fashion statement. We report that falling onto such a jacket may result in accidental thoracic injury leading to subcutaneous emphysema. A thorough clinical assessment is mandatory to exclude underlying lung injury or pneumothorax. In patients with subcutaneous emphysema and an otherwise normal chest radiograph, an in hospital observation period of 24 hours to check for any delayed complications is adequate if the patient remains clinically stable. PMID:16714489

  17. Turbulator for a liner cooling jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, Kevin L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A turbulator for a liner cooling jacket includes a metal panel which is suitable to be coiled into a generally cylindrical shape so as to be placed in a relief area between an engine cylinder block and a cylinder liner. The relief area may be machined into either the block or the cylinder liner and the metal panel is formed with a pattern of protuberances shaped like corrugations. In one embodiment, the corrugations have a shape similar to a sine wave and are arranged in a plurality of generally parallel axial segments. The corrugation wave pattern of one segment may be the same as its adjacent segment or may be staggered by one corrugation which would mean one-half of a full wave cycle. The corrugation pattern in the turbulator panel may be created by any one of various stamping or forming operations and when placed between the cylinder liner and block, increases turbulence of the cooling liquid in order to enhance heat transfer.

  18. Comparison of biomechanical behavior between a cast material torso jacket and a polyethylene based jacket

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous designs are used to the treatment of Early Onset Scoliosis. For example, a Thoraco-Lumbo-Sacral Orthosis (TLSO) is constructed using Polyethylene (PE). In addition, a series of castings has been implemented using cast material (3M, BSN Medical). The cast material has some significant advantages over the PE design including: growth preserving, improved compliance, decreased invasiveness, delaying or avoiding surgery, and the ability to allow the skin to breathe. However, the mechanical effectiveness of the cast material brace as compared to the TLSO is unknown, thus providing the objective of this study. Methods A total of 23 standardized tensile tests were performed on the Delta-Cast Soft and 3MTM ScotchcastTM Plus Casting Tape in order to obtain mechanical properties (Youngs and shear moduli and Poisson ratios). Using a radiograph of a thoracic spine, the size of twelve vertebrae and eleven intervertebral discs were measured and used to create a finite element spine model. Simulations using this model were used to establish mechanical loads which were then applied to finite element models of the TLSO and cast jacket. The thicknesses and number of material layers was varied in these models. Multiple simulations were performed. Results It was found that a 6.6.mm thick cast jacket made of Delta-Cast Soft had a maximum deformation of 4.7 mm, a maximum stress of 2.9 MPa and a structural factor of safety of 5.71. On the other hand, a 4 mm thick jacket made of PE had a maximum deformation of 2 mm, a maximum stress of 8.9 MPa and a structural factor of safety of 2.70. The cast jacket was 3.5 times lighter and had a material of cost 1/5 of the PE brace. Conclusions Based on the results, either design will generate the proper constraint forces to maintain spinal correction. But, based on the design parameters (thickness, mechanical properties, structural factor of safety and cost) the brace made of cast material, though slightly thicker has superior structural and cost benefits. Thus, from the biomechanical point of view, the cast brace is more efficient than the PE brace. PMID:25815054

  19. Destabilization and intracranial fragmentation of a full metal jacket bullet.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, A; Raul, J S; Geraut, A; Tortel, M C; Ludes, B

    2009-10-01

    We report a case with an atypical entrance wound as a result of a destabilized full metal jacket bullet penetration. The destabilized bullet by an impact with the dorsal hand experiences a yawing to tumbling motion in flight. The large angle of yaw induces a larger presenting profile upon impact that contributes, associated to a rapid deceleration, to a greater mechanical force on the projectile structure and a fragmentation into core and jacket. Forensic pathologists have to be aware that the metal jacket bullet could tend to break up outside or inside the body particularly after a shooting through a target. This phenomenon induces atypical entrance wounds and atypical X-ray presentation. PMID:19733330

  20. An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sinpyo; Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Cheolmin; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Lim, Hee Chang

    2015-09-01

    An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine is presented. The effects of the Center of Gravity (COG), mooring line spring constant, and fair-lead location on the turbine's motion in response to regular waves are investigated. Experimental results show that for a typical mooring system of a SPAR buoy-type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT), the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of the turbine can be considered negligible. However, the pitch decreases notably as the COG increases. The COG and spring constant of the mooring line have a negligible effect on the fairlead displacement. Numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis show that the wind turbine motion and its sensitivity to changes in the mooring system and COG are very large near resonant frequencies. The test results can be used to validate numerical simulation tools for FOWTs.

  1. An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sinpyo; Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Cheolmin; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Lim, Hee Chang

    2015-05-01

    An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine is presented. The effects of the Center of Gravity (COG), mooring line spring constant, and fair-lead location on the turbine's motion in response to regular waves are investigated. Experimental results show that for a typical mooring system of a SPAR buoy-type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT), the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of the turbine can be considered negligible. However, the pitch decreases notably as the COG increases. The COG and spring constant of the mooring line have a negligible effect on the fairlead displacement. Numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis show that the wind turbine motion and its sensitivity to changes in the mooring system and COG are very large near resonant frequencies. The test results can be used to validate numerical simulation tools for FOWTs.

  2. Discrimination of bullet types using analysis of lead isotopes deposited in gunshot entry wounds.

    PubMed

    Wunnapuk, Klintean; Minami, Takeshi; Durongkadech, Piya; Tohno, Setsuko; Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan; Moriwake, Yumi; Vichairat, Karnda; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Tohno, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    In order to discriminate bullet types used in firearms, of which the victims died, the authors investigated lead isotope ratios in gunshot entry wounds from nine lead (unjacketed) bullets, 15 semi-jacketed bullets, and 14 full-jacketed bullets by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. It was found that the lead isotope ratio of 207/206 in gunshot entry wounds was the highest with lead bullets, and it decreased in order from full-jacketed to semi-jacketed bullets. Lead isotope ratios of 208/206 or 208/207 to 207/206 at the gunshot entry wound were able to discriminate semi-jacketed bullets from lead and full-jacketed ones, but it was difficult to discriminate between lead and full-jacketed bullets. However, a combination of element and lead isotope ratio analyses in gunshot entry wounds enabled discrimination between lead, semi-jacketed, and full-jacketed bullets. PMID:19129983

  3. Red Jacket and the Decolonization of Republican Virtue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganter, Granville

    2007-01-01

    History has not always been kind to Sagoyewatha, or, as he is more commonly known, Red Jacket. One of the most eloquent spokesmen for Native sovereignty in the early national period, Sagoyewatha was nonetheless accused by his peers of cowardice, alcoholism, and egotism. Fortunately, this picture is beginning to change. Christopher Densmore's

  4. Yellow jacket envenomation-related acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Stalin; Prabhu, Chaitanya; Arulneyam, Jayanthi; Remalayam, Bhavith; Adil, Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    We report a 58-year-old man with multiple yellow jacket stings who developed urticaria, renal failure, quadriparesis, rhabdomyolysis in succession. Investigations revealed renal and hepatic dysfunction, proteinuria, demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, acute tubular necrosis and glomerulonephritis. He improved with methylprednisolone, antihypertensives and two sessions of haemodialysis. PMID:25984147

  5. Expected damages of retrofitted bridges with RC jacketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, O.; Jara, J. M.; Jara, M.; Olmos, B. A.

    2015-07-01

    The bridge infrastructure in many countries of the world consists of medium span length structures built several decades ago and designed for very low seismic forces. Many of them are reinforced concrete structures that according to the current code regulations have to be rehabilitated to increase their seismic capacity. One way to reduce the vulnerability of the bridges is by using retrofitting techniques that increase the strength of the structure or by incorporating devices to reduce the seismic demand. One of the most common retrofit techniques of the bridges substructures is the use of RC jacketing; this research assesses the expected damages of seismically deficient medium length highway bridges retrofitted with reinforced concrete jacketing, by conducting a parametric study. We select a suite of twenty accelerograms of subduction earthquakes recorded close to the Pacific Coast in Mexico. The original structures consist of five 30 m span simple supported bridges with five pier heights of 5 m, 10 m, 15 m 20 and 25 m and the analyses include three different jacket thickness and three steel ratios. The bridges were subjected to the seismic records and non-linear time history analyses were carried out by using the OpenSEEs Plataform. Results allow selecting the reinforced concrete jacketing that better improves the expected seismic behavior of the bridge models.

  6. Bond strength of concrete confined by SMA wire jackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Yeon-Wook; Chung, Young-Soo; Yang, Kyoung-Taek

    This study pursuits a goal to assess bond strength of concrete confined by shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets that can provide active confinement due to shape memory effect. This study uses NiTiNb SMA wires which show more wider temperature hysteresis than normal NiTi SMA wire. Thus, NiTiNb SMA wires are more applicable for the use of shape memory effect for civil structures which are exposed severe environmental conditions such as large temperature variation. Concrete cylinders of 200 mm 100 mm (LxD) are used for this study. The SMA wire jackets increases the bond strength of concrete and changes the failure mode from split to pull-out failure. A particular thing in the tests is a split crack developing even with the SMA wire jackets. In general, the crack is not developed in the pull-out mode failure. The SMA wire jackets increase the bonding strength even with the crack developing since it seems that they provide active confinement as well as external passive confinement.

  7. VIEW POURING PLATFORM SHOWING MOLD POURING JACKETS AND WEIGHTS AND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW POURING PLATFORM SHOWING MOLD POURING JACKETS AND WEIGHTS AND, IN THE FOREGROUND, SAND RETURN FROM THE SHAKEOUT ACTUATING A SIMPLE LEVER SYSTEM THAT ADDED FRESH WATER TO THE SAND IN PREPARATION FOR ITS REUSE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

  8. Welding vacuum jacketed piping at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clautice, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    The present work describes fabrication, welding, and repair procedures and specifications for the vacuum jacketed piping used for conveying cryogenic fuels at space vehicle launch sites. The weld inspection procedures are described, and some examples of modifications of the piping are presented.

  9. An Empirical Analysis of Life Jacket Effectiveness in Recreational Boating.

    PubMed

    Viauroux, Christelle; Gungor, Ali

    2016-02-01

    This article gives a measure of life jacket (LJ) effectiveness in U.S. recreational boating. Using the U.S. Coast Guard's Boating Accident Report Database from 2008 to 2011, we find that LJ wear is one of the most important determinants influencing the number of recreational boating fatalities, together with the number of vessels involved, and the type and engine of the vessel(s). We estimate a decrease in the number of deceased per vessel of about 80% when the operator wears their LJs compared to when they do not. The odds of dying are 86% higher than average if the accident involves a canoe or kayak, but 80% lower than average when more than one vessel is involved in the accident and 34% lower than average when the operator involved in the accident has more than 100 hours of boating experience. Interestingly, we find that LJ effectiveness decreases significantly as the length of the boat increases and decreases slightly as water temperature increases. However, it increases slightly as the operator's age increases. We find that between 2008 and 2011, an LJ regulation that requires all operators to wear their LJs-representing a 20% increase in wear rate-would have saved 1,721 (out of 3,047) boaters or 1,234 out of 2,185 drowning victims. The same policy restricted to boats 16-30 feet in length would have saved approximately 778 victims. Finally, we find that such a policy would reduce the percentage of drowning victims compared to other causes of death. PMID:26206494

  10. Calibration and Validation of a Spar-Type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Model using the FAST Dynamic Simulation Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states.

  11. World offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Redden, J.

    1984-07-20

    An update for offshore operations in the Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, Brazil, Australia, and Argentina is presented. The points of discussion are exploration targets, production figures, governmental controls, and drilling programs. There is some discussion of land leases.

  12. Method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple

    DOEpatents

    Thermos, Anthony Constantine (Greer, SC); Rahal, Fadi Elias (Easley, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

  13. A fuzzy logic approach for estimation of permeability and rock type from conventional well log data: an example from the Kangan reservoir in the Iran Offshore Gas Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadkhodaie Ilkhchi, Ali; Rezaee, Mohammadreza; Moallemi, Seyed Ali

    2006-12-01

    Permeability and rock type are the most important rock properties which can be used as input parameters to build 3D petrophysical models of hydrocarbon reservoirs. These parameters are derived from core samples which may not be available for all boreholes, whereas, almost all boreholes have well log data. In this study, the importance of the fuzzy logic approach for prediction of rock type from well log responses was shown by using an example of the Vp to Vs ratio for lithology determination from crisp and fuzzy logic approaches. A fuzzy c-means clustering technique was used for rock type classification using porosity and permeability data. Then, based on the fuzzy possibility concept, an algorithm was prepared to estimate clustering derived rock types from well log data. Permeability was modelled and predicted using a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy inference system. Then a back propagation neural network was applied to verify fuzzy results for permeability modelling. For this purpose, three wells of the Iran offshore gas field were chosen for the construction of intelligent models of the reservoir, and a forth well was used as a test well to evaluate the reliability of the models. The results of this study show that fuzzy logic approach was successful for the prediction of permeability and rock types in the Iran offshore gas field.

  14. Advanced Main Combustion Chamber structural jacket strength analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, L. M.; Perkins, L. A.; Denniston, C. L.; Price, J. M.

    1993-04-01

    The structural analysis of the Advanced Main Combustion Chamber (AMCC) is presented. The AMCC is an advanced fabrication concept of the Space Shuttle Main Engine main combustion chamber (MCC). Reduced cost and fabrication time of up to 75 percent were the goals of the AMCC with cast jacket with vacuum plasma sprayed or platelet liner. Since the cast material for the AMCC is much weaker than the wrought material for the MCC, the AMCC is heavier and strength margins much lower in some areas. Proven hand solutions were used to size the manifolds cutout tee areas for combined pressure and applied loads. Detailed finite element strength analyses were used to size the manifolds, longitudinal ribs, and jacket for combined pressure and applied local loads. The design of the gimbal actuator strut attachment lugs were determined by finite element analyses and hand solutions.

  15. Advanced Main Combustion Chamber structural jacket strength analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, L. M.; Perkins, L. A.; Denniston, C. L.; Price, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The structural analysis of the Advanced Main Combustion Chamber (AMCC) is presented. The AMCC is an advanced fabrication concept of the Space Shuttle Main Engine main combustion chamber (MCC). Reduced cost and fabrication time of up to 75 percent were the goals of the AMCC with cast jacket with vacuum plasma sprayed or platelet liner. Since the cast material for the AMCC is much weaker than the wrought material for the MCC, the AMCC is heavier and strength margins much lower in some areas. Proven hand solutions were used to size the manifolds cutout tee areas for combined pressure and applied loads. Detailed finite element strength analyses were used to size the manifolds, longitudinal ribs, and jacket for combined pressure and applied local loads. The design of the gimbal actuator strut attachment lugs were determined by finite element analyses and hand solutions.

  16. Strength analysis of CARR-CNS with crescent-shape moderator cell and helium sub-cooling jacket covering cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qingfeng; Feng, Quanke; Kawai, Takeshi; Shen, Feng; Yuan, Luzheng; Cheng, Liang

    2005-12-01

    The new type of the moderator cell was developed for the cold neutron source (CNS) of the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) which is now being constructed at the China Institute of Atomic Energy in Beijing. A crescent-shape moderator cell covered by the helium sub-cooling jacket is adopted. The structure of the moderator cell is optimized by the stress FEM analysis. A crescent-shape would help to increase the volume of the moderator cell for fitting it to the four cold neutron guide tubes, even if liquid hydrogen, not liquid deuterium, was used as a cold moderator. The helium sub-cooling jacket covering the moderator cell removes the nuclear heating of the outer shell wall of the cell. It contributes to reduce the void fraction of liquid hydrogen in the outer shell of the moderator cell. Such a type of a moderator cell is suitable for the CNS with higher nuclear heating. The cold helium gas flows down first into the helium sub-cooling jacket and then flows up to the condenser. The theory of the self-regulation suitable to the thermo-siphon type of the CNS is also applicable and validated.

  17. Optimal startup control of a jacketed tubular reactor.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, D. R.; Fan, L. T.; Hwang, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    The optimal startup policy of a jacketed tubular reactor, in which a first-order, reversible, exothermic reaction takes place, is presented. A distributed maximum principle is presented for determining weak necessary conditions for optimality of a diffusional distributed parameter system. A numerical technique is developed for practical implementation of the distributed maximum principle. This involves the sequential solution of the state and adjoint equations, in conjunction with a functional gradient technique for iteratively improving the control function.

  18. Changing life jacket wearing behavior: an evaluation of two approaches.

    PubMed

    Mangione, Thomas; Chow, Wendy

    2014-05-01

    In the United States during 1999-2012, about 4 per cent of adults wore life jackets while engaged in recreation on powerboats. Educational campaigns have promoted life jacket use. Mandatory use regulations target primarily children or boaters on personal watercrafts or water skiing. We describe findings from two interventions - 'Wear It California!', a targeted marketing campaign in the California Delta region and mandatory wear regulations at four US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) lakes in the state of Mississippi. Before the campaign in the Delta, adult wear was 8.5 per cent, increasing to 12.1 per cent during the first year, dipping to 9.4 per cent during the second year, and rising slightly to 10.5 per cent 3 plus years after the campaign. Before mandatory regulations at USACE lakes, adult wear was 13.7 per cent, increasing to 75.6 per cent during the first year, 70.1 per cent during the second year, and remaining high at 68.1 per cent in the third year. Policymakers should consider these findings when choosing how to increase life jacket use. PMID:24430805

  19. Towers for Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, V. J.; Narayanan, S. P.; Ganapathy, C.

    2010-06-01

    Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy from wind over the oceans and convert to electric energy. The advantages of offshore wind turbines as compared to land are that offshore winds flow at higher speed than onshore winds and the more available space. In some land based settings, for better efficiency, turbines are separated as much as 10 rotor diameters from each other. In offshore applications where only two wind directions are likely to predominate, the distances between the turbines arranged in a line can be shortened to as little as two or four rotor diameters. Today, more than a dozen offshore European wind facilities with turbine ratings of 450 kw to 3.6 MW exist offshore in very shallow waters of 5 to 12 m. Compared to onshore wind turbines, offshore wind turbines are bigger and the tower height in offshore are in the range of 60 to 80 m. The water depths in oceans where offshore turbines can be located are within 30 m. However as the distance from land increases, the costs of building and maintaining the turbines and transmitting the power back to shore also increase sharply. The objective of this paper is to review the parameters of design for the maximum efficiency of offshore wind turbines and to develop types offshore towers to support the wind turbines. The methodology of design of offshore towers to support the wind turbine would be given and the environmental loads for the design of the towers would be calculated for specific cases. The marine corrosion on the towers and the methods to control the corrosion also would be briefly presented. As the wind speeds tend to increase with distance from the shore, turbines build father offshore will be able to capture more wind energy. Currently two types of towers are considered. Cylindrical tubular structures and truss type structures. But truss type structures have less weight and flexibility in design. The construction of the offshore towers to harness the wind energy is also presented. The results will include the calculation of wind and wave forces on the tower and the design details for the tower.

  20. Calibration and validation of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine model using the FAST dynamic simulation tool

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, high-quality computer simulations are required when designing floating wind turbines because of the complex dynamic responses that are inherent with a high number of degrees of freedom and variable metocean conditions. In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale inmore » a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states. Wave basin tests with the spar attached to a scale model of the NREL 5-megawatt reference wind turbine were performed at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands under the DeepCwind project. This project included free-decay tests, tests with steady or turbulent wind and still water (both periodic and irregular waves with no wind), and combined wind/wave tests. The resulting data from the 1/50th model was scaled using Froude scaling to full size and used to calibrate and validate a full-size simulated model in FAST. Results of the model calibration and validation include successes, subtleties, and limitations of both wave basin testing and FAST modeling capabilities.« less

  1. Calibration and validation of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine model using the FAST dynamic simulation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    High-quality computer simulations are required when designing floating wind turbines because of the complex dynamic responses that are inherent with a high number of degrees of freedom and variable metocean conditions. In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states. Wave basin tests with the spar attached to a scale model of the NREL 5-megawatt reference wind turbine were performed at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands under the DeepCwind project. This project included free-decay tests, tests with steady or turbulent wind and still water (both periodic and irregular waves with no wind), and combined wind/wave tests. The resulting data from the 1/50th model was scaled using Froude scaling to full size and used to calibrate and validate a full-size simulated model in FAST. Results of the model calibration and validation include successes, subtleties, and limitations of both wave basin testing and FAST modeling capabilities.

  2. Calibration and validation of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine model using the FAST dynamic simulation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, high-quality computer simulations are required when designing floating wind turbines because of the complex dynamic responses that are inherent with a high number of degrees of freedom and variable metocean conditions. In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states. Wave basin tests with the spar attached to a scale model of the NREL 5-megawatt reference wind turbine were performed at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands under the DeepCwind project. This project included free-decay tests, tests with steady or turbulent wind and still water (both periodic and irregular waves with no wind), and combined wind/wave tests. The resulting data from the 1/50th model was scaled using Froude scaling to full size and used to calibrate and validate a full-size simulated model in FAST. Results of the model calibration and validation include successes, subtleties, and limitations of both wave basin testing and FAST modeling capabilities.

  3. Requalification of an unmanned jacket structure using reliability methods

    SciTech Connect

    Dalane, J.I.; Haver, S.

    1995-12-01

    A reliability assessment of an existing jacket structure exposed to reservoir subsidence is considered in this paper. Due to reduced airgap the probability that a wave will hit the deck is increasing and this is crucial concerning the future safety for an existing structure. A consideration of the safety level as a function of subsidence is therefore established in order to identify when the safety level drops below an acceptable safety level and corrective actions must be taken. Reliability methods is used to describe the uncertainties involved in the problem and then used to make a cost optimal decision.

  4. Smarter offshoring.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2006-06-01

    During the past 15 years, companies have flocked to a handful of cities in India and Eastern Europe for offshore service functions. As a result, the most popular sites are now overheating: Demand for young professionals is outstripping supply, wages and turnover are soaring, and overburdened infrastructure systems are struggling to serve the explosive growth. The happy news is that the tight labor markets in the well-known hot spots are the exceptions, not the rule. Many attractive alternatives are emerging around the world. According to a McKinsey Global Institute study, more than 90% of the vast and rapidly growing pool of university-educated people suitable for work in multinationals are located outside the current hot spot cities. For instance, Morocco is now home to offshore centers for French and Spanish companies requiring fluent speakers of their home languages. Neighboring Tunisia has used its modern infrastructure, business-friendly regulations, and stable, low-cost workforce to attract companies such as Siemens and Wanadoo. Vietnam offers university graduates who have strong mathematics skills; speak French, English, German, or Russian; and do not demand high wages. The problems facing the hot spots, coupled with the emergence of many more countries able and willing to provide offshore services, mean that picking a site has become more complicated. In choosing a location, companies will have to focus less on low wages and much more on other ways that candidate cities can fulfill their business needs. They will have to be much more rigorous in articulating precisely what they require from an offshore location. That means evaluating their unique needs on a range of dimensions and understanding how alternative locations can meet those needs for the foreseeable future. PMID:16770896

  5. Autonomous detection of heart sound abnormalities using an auscultation jacket.

    PubMed

    Visagie, C; Scheffer, C; Lubbe, W W; Doubell, A F

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a study using an auscultation jacket with embedded electronic stethoscopes, and a software classification system capable of differentiating between normal and certain auscultatory abnormalities. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the potential of such a system for semi-automated diagnosis for underserved locations, for instance in rural areas or in developing countries where patients far outnumber the available medical personnel. Using an "auscultation jacket", synchronous data was recorded at multiple chest locations on 31 healthy volunteers and 21 patients with heart pathologies. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were also recorded simultaneously with phonocardiographic data. Features related to heart pathologies were extracted from the signals and used as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network. The system is able to classify between normal and certain abnormal heart sounds with a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 86%. Though the number of training and testing samples presented are limited, the system performed well in differentiating between normal and abnormal heart sounds in the given database of available recordings. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of such a system to be used as a fast and cost-effective screening tool for heart pathologies. PMID:20169844

  6. Pressure Drop Across Finned Cylinders Enclosed in a Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollin, Vern G; Ellerbrock, Herman H

    1937-01-01

    The pressure drop across finned cylinders in a jacket for a range of air speeds from approximately 13 to 230 miles per hour has been investigated. Tests were made to determine the effect on the pressure drop of changes in fin space, fin width, jacket entrance and exit areas, skirt-approach radius, and the use of fillets and a separator plate at the rear of the cylinder. The pressure drop across the cylinder increased as the fin space decreased, the increase being very rapid at fin spaces smaller than approximately 0.20 inch. Fin width had little effect on the pressure drop for the range of widths tested. The pressure drop across the cylinder was nearly halved by increasing the skirt-approach radius from 3/4 inch to 1-1/4 inches, but fillets and a separator plate at the rear of the cylinder had little effect on the pressure drop. The pressure drop across a cylinder with tapered fins was greater than that for a cylinder having rectangular fins with the same effective fin spacing.

  7. Development of Jacketing Technologies for Iter CS and TF Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, K.; Nakajima, H.; Matsui, K.; Kawano, K.; Takano, K.; Tsutsumi, F.; Okuno, K.; Teshima, O.; Soejima, K.

    2008-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed jacketing technologies for ITER Toroidal Field (TF) and Central Solenoid (CS) conductor. Full scale TF and CS conduits were fabricated using carbon-reduced SUS316LN and boron-added (40 ppm) high manganese stainless steel (0.025C -22Mn -13Cr -9Ni -0.12N: JK2LB), respectively. Welding condition was optimized so that back bead does not interfere a cable insertion. The weld joint samples were compacted by a compaction machine that was newly constructed and tested at 4.2 K. Mechanical characteristics at 4K of CS, TF conduits and CS welded joint satisfied ITER mechanical requirements. TF welded joint shows slightly lower value of 0.2% yield strength (885 MPa) than that of ITER requirement (900 MPa). The TF conduit contains nitrogen content of 0.14%, which is minimum value in ITER specification. The lower nitrogen content may be caused by the release of nitrogen from molten metal during non-filler welding resulting in a 4 K strength decrease. To satisfy the ITER requirements, minimum nitrogen contents of conduit should be increased from 0.14% to 0.15% at least. Therefore, JAEA successfully developed TF and CS conduits with welding technologies and finalized the procurement specification for ITER conductor jacketing.

  8. Low Life Jacket Use among Adult Recreational Boaters: A Qualitative Study of Risk Perception and Behavior Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Bennett, Elizabeth; Quan, Linda; Ebel, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Life jackets may prevent one in two drowning deaths, however, 85% of recreational boating-related drowning victims in the United States in 2012 did not wear a life jacket. This study explored behavioral factors and strategies to encourage consistent life jacket use among adult recreational boaters. Methods We conducted a qualitative study among boat owners who boat regularly, and explored factors associated with life jacket use by adults and child or adolescent passengers. Sixteen boaters participated in four focus groups. Results Most boaters reported inconsistent use of life jackets, using them only when conditions were poor. Each described episodes of unpredictable boating risk which occurred despite favorable conditions. Most required younger child passengers to wear a life jacket, but reported resistance among older children. Barriers to consistent life jacket use included discomfort and the belief that life jacket use indicated inexperience or poor swimming ability. Participants stated that laws requiring life jacket use would change behavior especially for children. The only demonstrated behavior change among group members was associated with use of inflatable life jacket devices. Conclusions Boating risk is inherently unpredictable; therefore interventions should focus on strategies for increasing consistent use of life jackets. Passage and enforcement of life jacket legislation for older children and adults is likely a promising approach for behavior change. Designing more comfortable, better-fitting, more appealing life jackets will be paramount to encouraging consistent use. PMID:24211559

  9. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160.151-57(n), except that servicing may be delayed until the next... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a)...

  10. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... this chapter (1) No later than the month and year on its servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  11. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160.151-57(n), except that servicing may be delayed until the next... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... this chapter (1) No later than the month and year on its servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  13. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... this chapter (1) No later than the month and year on its servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  14. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160.151-57(n), except that servicing may be delayed until the next... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment carried under this section is not acceptable...

  16. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment carried under this section is not acceptable...

  17. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment...

  18. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment...

  19. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment carried under this section is not acceptable...

  20. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment...

  1. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment...

  2. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment...

  3. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment carried under this section is not acceptable...

  4. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment carried under this section is not acceptable...

  5. CP monitoring of wellhead jacket in the North Sea and evaluation of polarization behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Osvoll, H.; Bjornaas, F.; Duesso, F.; Tobiassen, P.

    1999-07-01

    The collection and storage of data from the CP monitoring of a North Sea Jacket. CP data was continuously measured during installation. The jacket is essentially uncoated, and very short polarization time was experienced. Computer modeling is used to predict CP conditions.

  6. THE MAN&RSQUO;S JACKET DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY: AN IMPLEMENTATION OF C2CAD FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The C2CAD model served as the basis in the man’s jacket design and production. In man’s jackets, both natural and synthetic materials are commonly used for fabrics, threads, and buttons. To promote disassembly and value retention, we minimized material diversity an...

  7. THE MAN&RSQUO;S JACKET DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY: AN IMPLEMENTATION OF C2CAD FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The C2CAD model served as the basis in the mans jacket design and production. In mans jackets, both natural and synthetic materials are commonly used for fabrics, threads, and buttons. To promote disassembly and value retention, we minimized material diversity an...

  8. Stiffness and Confinement Ratios of SMA Wire Jackets for Confining Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dong Joo; Youn, Heejung

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses the effects of the stiffness and confinement ratios of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets on the behavior of confined concrete. SMA wire jackets are an effective confining material to improve concrete behavior; for example, by increasing peak strength and failure strain. The stiffness and confinement ratios of fiber-reinforced polymer jackets have been extensively discussed and their effects are well known. However, assessment of the stiffness and confinement ratios of SMA wire jackets has not previously been conducted. In this study, we investigate the effects of the stiffness and confinement ratios of steel jackets, and then compare the results with those of SMA wire jackets. In general, the stiffness ratios of SMA wire jackets are relatively smaller than those of steel jackets, and most of them have lower stiffness ratios because the Young's moduli of the SMAs are relatively small. The active confining pressure of the SMA wires does not improve the lower stiffness-ratio effect since the amount of active confining pressure is not sufficiently large.

  9. Vacuum jacketed composite propulsion feedlines for cryogenic launch and space vehicles, volume 1. [development of glass fiber composite for strength and protection from handling damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spond, D. E.; Laintz, D. J.; Hall, C. A.; Dulaigh, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thin metallic liners that provide leak-free service in cryogenic propulsion systems are overwrapped with a glass-fiber composite that provides strength and protection from handling damage. The resultant tube is lightweight, strong, and has a low thermal flux. The inside commodity flow line and the outside vacuum jacket were fabricated using this method. Several types of vacuum jackets were fabricated and tested at operating temperatures from 294 to 21 K (+70 to minus 423 F) and operating pressure up to 69 N/cm2 (100 psi). The primary objective of the program was to develop vacuum jacket concepts, using previously developed concepts for the inner line. All major program objectives were met resulting in a design concept that is adaptable to a wide range of aerospace vehicle requirements. Major items of development included convolution of thin metallic sections up to 46 cm (18 in.) in diameter, design and fabrication of an extremely lightweight tension membrane concept for the vacuum jacket, and analytical tools that predict the failure mode and levels.

  10. The investigation of the impact of basic operational parameters on the dynamics of water jacket in a biomass boiler using numerical and experimental methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szubel, Mateusz; Filipowicz, Mariusz

    2015-05-01

    Biomass boiler application, despite its many advantages, is dependent upon many technical aspects, which require tests and optimization. Because of practical constraints, one of the most problematic areas of research is the analysis of phenomena occurring inside the water jacket of the boiler during the combustion process. The issue referred to above is significant due to its direct impact on the heating up of the operating medium for current power of the device and the total efficiency. The paper presents the analytical possibilities of the operating medium in a biomass boiler water jacket. The experimental works conducted as a part of the study were performed using an actual device - EKOPAL RM 40 straw boiler. They were aimed at defining the values of significant boundary conditions. Resistance thermometers and K-type thermocouples connected to a data acquisition system were placed in selected points of the water jacket and the combustion chambers to allow the monitoring of the conditions of the water heating process during biomass combustion. A measurement of inlet water mass flow rate was performed. To develop a numerical model of heat transfer into the water jacket, ANSYS CFX software was applied. The results of the experiments and simulations were compared and discussed. The paper describes the methodology and instruments used to perform the experimental studies, as well as some optimization solutions developed based on the results of the numeric alanalysis.

  11. High-level GPU computing with jacket for MATLAB and C/C++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryor, Gallagher; Lucey, Brett; Maddipatla, Sandeep; McClanahan, Chris; Melonakos, John; Venugopalakrishnan, Vishwanath; Patel, Krunal; Yalamanchili, Pavan; Malcolm, James

    2011-06-01

    We describe a software platform for the rapid development of general purpose GPU (GPGPU) computing applications within the MATLAB computing environment, C, and C++: Jacket. Jacket provides thousands of GPU-tuned function syntaxes within MATLAB, C, and C++, including linear algebra, convolutions, reductions, and FFTs as well as signal, image, statistics, and graphics libraries. Additionally, Jacket includes a compiler that translates MATLAB and C++ code to CUDA PTX assembly and OpenGL shaders on demand at runtime. A facility is also included to compile a domain specific version of the MATLAB language to CUDA assembly at build time. Jacket includes the first parallel GPU FOR-loop construction and the first profiler for comparative analysis of CPU and GPU execution times. Jacket provides full GPU compute capability on CUDA hardware and limited, image processing focused compute on OpenGL/ES (2.0 and up) devices for mobile and embedded applications.

  12. Development and structural design of the bucket foundations for the Europipe jacket

    SciTech Connect

    Baerheim, M.; Tjelta, T.I.; Hoberg, L.

    1995-12-01

    The installation of the Statoil Europipe 16/11 E jacket with bucket foundations in the summer of 1994 represent the dawn of a new era for jacket foundation engineering. With traditional piled foundations giving way to the novel alternative termed ``bucket`` foundations, the installation of the Europipe jacket provides the first real opportunity to examine properly the benefits of this solution. The bucket foundations are circular plates with skirts installed at the base of each jacket leg, and as such they represent a radical departure from traditional piled foundation solutions. The bucket acts as gravity foundations with the skirts increasing the vertical compression and shear load capacity as well as providing considerable tension load capacity. This paper outlines the development of the bucket foundations, describes the structural design aspects and compares the results from the structural monitoring system installed on the jacket with the installation structural analysis results for the foundations.

  13. Structural integrity monitoring of an offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Chiostrini, S.; Vignoli, A.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to examine the possibility of detecting changes in the structural response of an offshore platform due to damage. The Vega A eight-legs steel platform presently operating in the Sicily Channel is examined, with the help of a system of vibration monitoring. In the paper, changes of the structural response due to the collapse of nodes in the deeper part of the jacket are evaluated numerically with respect to the undamaged behavior, and the feasibility of the monitoring system to detect such changes is examined. An attempt is made in order to detect also the location of the damage through the examination of shifts in the first natural frequencies.

  14. Integrated natural gas engine cooling jacket vapor compressor program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibella, F. A.

    1990-08-01

    A unique, alternative cogeneration system was designed that provides an industrial or commercial energy user with high pressure steam and electricity directly from a packaged cogeneration system. The Integrated Gas Engine Vapor Compression System concept includes an engine-generator set and a twin screw compressor that are mechanically integrated with the engine. The gas-fueled engine is ebulliently cooled, thus, allowing its water jacket heat to be recovered in the form of low-pressure steam. The steam is then compressed by the steam compressor to higher pressure, and when combined with the high pressure steam generated in the engine's exhaust gas boiler, it provides the end user with a more usable thermal energy source. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  15. Comparing the cyclic behavior of concrete cylinders confined by shape memory alloy wire or steel jackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joonam; Choi, Eunsoo; Park, Kyoungsoo; Kim, Hong-Taek

    2011-09-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets for concrete are distinct from conventional jackets of steel or fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) since they provide active confinement which can be easily achieved due to the shape memory effect of SMAs. This study uses NiTiNb SMA wires of 1.0 mm diameter to confine concrete cylinders with the dimensions of 300 mm 150 mm (L D). The NiTiNb SMAs have a relatively wider temperature hysteresis than NiTi SMAs; thus, they are more suitable for the severe temperature-variation environments to which civil structures are exposed. Steel jackets of passive confinement are also prepared in order to compare the cyclic behavior of actively and passively confined concrete cylinders. For this purpose, monotonic and cyclic compressive loading tests are conducted to obtain axial and circumferential strain. Both strains are used to estimate the volumetric strains of concrete cylinders. Plastic strains from cyclic behavior are also estimated. For the cylinders jacketed by NiTiNb SMA wires, the monotonic axial behavior differs from the envelope of cyclic behavior. The plastic strains of the actively confined concrete show a similar trend to those of passive confinement. This study proposed plastic strain models for concrete confined by SMA wire or steel jackets. For the volumetric strain, the active jackets of NiTiNb SMA wires provide more energy dissipation than the passive jacket of steel.

  16. Infrared detector Dewars - Increased LN2 hold time and vacuum jacket life spans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Boyd, W. J.; Blass, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    IR detector Dewars commonly suffer from shorter than desired LN2 hold times and insulation jacket vacuum corruption over relatively short time periods. In an attempt to solve this problem for a 9144 detector Dewar, small 1 liter/s appendage ion pumps were selected for continuous pumping of the vacuum jackets. This procedure extended LN2 hold times from 20 to 60 h and virtually eliminated vacuum jacket corruption. Thus the detector systems are usable continuously over periods of 6 months or more.

  17. Design, operations planning and experience from the marine operations for the Europipe jacket with bucket foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Rusaas, P.; Baerheim, M. [Statoil A Giske, S.R.; Barrett, G.; Christiansen, P.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Europipe 16/11-E riser platform was successfully installed in the Norwegian part of the North Sea last summer. Rather than having the traditional piled foundations, the platform has bucket foundations consisting of one inverted 12m diameter bucket in each of the four Jacket corners. After set down of the Jacket on the seabed and self weight penetration, the Jacket legs were waterfilled and the buckets thus gained further penetration. Finally suction within the buckets penetrated them to target penetration. This paper describes the preparatory work and the installation of the structure, discusses the main problem areas and experiences gained from the installation.

  18. Lightweight Vacuum Jacket for Cryogenic Insulation - Appendices to Final Report. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, D. L.; Bell, J. E.; Brogren, E. W.; Straayer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility is demonstrated of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials. Design and analytical studies were made on an orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were completed for the tank assembly which included an optimized vacuum jacket and multilayered insulation system. A half-scale LH2 test model was designed and fabricated and a force/stiffness proof test was conducted on the vacuum jacket. A vacuum leak rate of 0.00001 was measured, approximately 1500 hours of vacuum pressure was sustained, and 29 vacuum pressure cycles were experienced prior to failure. For vol. 1, see N75-26192.

  19. The confining effectiveness of NiTiNb and NiTi SMA wire jackets for concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chung, Young-Soo; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Hong-Taek; Lee, Hacksoo

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the confining effectiveness of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets for concrete. The performance of SMA wire jackets was compared to that of steel jackets. A prestrained martensitic SMA wire was wrapped around a concrete cylinder and then heated by a heating jacket. In the process, a confining stress around the cylinder was developed in the SMA wire due to the shape memory effect; this jacketing method can increase the strength and ductility of the cylinder under an axial compressive load. In this study, NiTi and NiTiNb SMA wires of 1.0 mm in diameter were used for the confinement. Recovery tests were conducted on the wires to assess their recovery and residual stress. The confinement by SMA wire jackets increased the strength slightly and greatly increased the ductility compared to the strength and ductility of plain concrete cylinders. The NiTiNb SMA wire jacket showed better performance than that of the NiTi SMA wire jacket. The confining effectiveness of the SMA wire jackets of this study was estimated to be similar to that of the steel jackets. This study showed the potential of the SMA wire jacketing method to retrofit reinforced concrete columns and protect them from seismic risks.

  20. Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.

  1. Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…

  2. U.S. Offshore Wind Port Readiness

    SciTech Connect

    C. Elkinton, A. Blatiak, H. Ameen

    2013-10-13

    This study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations.

  3. A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Jacketed Cuvette for the Spectronic 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jonathan E.; Ting, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The construction of a simple and inexpensive water-jacketed cuvette for the Spectronic 20 is described. This cuvette is utilized to determine the activation energy of the reaction between crystal violet and hydroxide ion spectrophotomerically.

  4. Yellow jackets may be an underestimated component of an ant-seed mutualism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bale, M.T.; Zettler, J.A.; Robinson, B.A.; Spira, T.P.; Allen, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Yellow jackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) are attracted to the typically ant-dispersed seeds of trilliums and will take seeds from ants in the genus Aphaenogaster. To determine if yellow jacket, Vespula maculifrons (Buysson), presence interferes with seed foraging by ants, we presented seeds of Trillium discolor Wray to three species (A. texana carolinensis Wheeler, Formica schaufussi Mayr, and Solenopsis invicta Buren) of seed-carrying ants in areas where vespids were present or excluded. We found that interspecific aggression between yellow jackets and ants is species specific. Vespid presence decreased average foraging time and increased foraging efficiency of two of the three ant species studied, a situation that might reflect competition for a limited food source. We also found that yellow jackets removed more seeds than ants, suggestive that vespids are important, albeit underestimated, components of ant-seed mutualisms.

  5. Effects of feather cover and insulative jackets on metabolic rate of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, B D; Morrison, W D; Leeson, S; Bayley, H S

    1983-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of feather cover and newly-devised insulative jackets on the heat production in Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens at 20 C. An open-circuit calorimeter was used to measure the gaseous exchange of the birds. With ad libitum feeding, birds with clipped back and breast feathers produced 6% more heat than did normally feathered hens. This difference was removed by placing jackets on the defeathered birds. The jackets also decreased the surface temperature of the feather-clipped areas, indicating an effective insulation. When the jackets were applied to naturally poor-feathered hens, fasting heat production decreased significantly, but not to the base level of that of normally feathered hens. PMID:6622359

  6. The effect on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garlock, E A; Ellis, Greer

    1933-01-01

    Tests made on a Curtiss D-12 engine in the Altitude Laboratory at the Bureau of Standards show the following effects on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature: 1) Friction at all altitudes is a linear function of the jacket-water temperature, decreasing with increasing temperature. 2) The brake horsepower below an altitude of about 9,000 feet decreases, and at higher altitudes increases, with jacket-water temperature. 3) The brake specific fuel consumption tends to decrease, at all altitudes, with increasing jacket-water temperature. 4) The percentage change in brake power output is roughly equal to the algebraic sum of the percentage change in volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency.

  7. Variable pressure insulating jackets for high-temperature batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.A.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Malecha, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    A new method is proposed for controlling the temperature of high-temperature batteries namely, varying the hydrogen pressure inside of multifoil insulation by varying the temperature of a reversible hydrogen getter. Calculations showed that the rate of heat loss through 1.5 cm of multifoil insulation between a hot-side temperature of 425[degrees]C and a cold-side temperature of 25[degrees]C could be varied between 17.6 W/m[sup 2] and 7,000 W/m[sup 2]. This change in heat transfer rate can be achieved by varying the hydrogen pressure between 1.0 Pa and 1,000 Pa, which can be done with an available hydrogen gettering alloy operating in the range of 50[degrees]C to 250[degrees]C. This approach to battery cooling requires cylindrical insulating jackets, which are best suited for bipolar batteries having round cells approximately 10 to 18 cm in diameter.

  8. Variable pressure insulating jackets for high-temperature batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.A.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Malecha, R.F.

    1992-12-31

    A new method is proposed for controlling the temperature of high-temperature batteries namely, varying the hydrogen pressure inside of multifoil insulation by varying the temperature of a reversible hydrogen getter. Calculations showed that the rate of heat loss through 1.5 cm of multifoil insulation between a hot-side temperature of 425{degrees}C and a cold-side temperature of 25{degrees}C could be varied between 17.6 W/m{sup 2} and 7,000 W/m{sup 2}. This change in heat transfer rate can be achieved by varying the hydrogen pressure between 1.0 Pa and 1,000 Pa, which can be done with an available hydrogen gettering alloy operating in the range of 50{degrees}C to 250{degrees}C. This approach to battery cooling requires cylindrical insulating jackets, which are best suited for bipolar batteries having round cells approximately 10 to 18 cm in diameter.

  9. Underwater noise from three types of offshore wind turbines: estimation of impact zones for harbor porpoises and harbor seals.

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Jakob; Henriksen, Oluf Damsgaard; Miller, Lee A

    2009-06-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from three different types of wind turbines in Denmark and Sweden (Middelgrunden, Vindeby, and Bockstigen-Valar) during normal operation. Wind turbine noise was only measurable above ambient noise at frequencies below 500 Hz. Total sound pressure level was in the range 109-127 dB re 1 microPa rms, measured at distances between 14 and 20 m from the foundations. The 1/3-octave noise levels were compared with audiograms of harbor seals and harbor porpoises. Maximum 1/3-octave levels were in the range 106-126 dB re 1 microPa rms. Maximum range of audibility was estimated under two extreme assumptions on transmission loss (3 and 9 dB per doubling of distance, respectively). Audibility was low for harbor porpoises extending 20-70 m from the foundation, whereas audibility for harbor seals ranged from less than 100 m to several kilometers. Behavioral reactions of porpoises to the noise appear unlikely except if they are very close to the foundations. However, behavioral reactions from seals cannot be excluded up to distances of a few hundred meters. It is unlikely that the noise reaches dangerous levels at any distance from the turbines and the noise is considered incapable of masking acoustic communication by seals and porpoises. PMID:19507958

  10. Development Potential for California's Offshore Wind Energy Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, M. J.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Archer, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    An initial analysis was performed for areas suitable for offshore wind farm development near the California coast. The siting of an offshore wind farm is limited by water depth, with shallow water being the most preferable economically. Acceptable depths for offshore wind farms were broken up into three categories, based on current and future wind turbine tower support technology; ?20 meters depth for monopile towers, ?50 meters for water jacket tripods/quadrapods, and ? 200 meters depth for deep water floating tower technology which is likely to be developed in the next 15 years. Using the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5) to predict winds aloft at high resolution (1.67 and 5 km) near the locations of interest, annual 80 meter wind speeds were found for each area. Annual 80 meter wind speeds were based on the average of January, April, July, and Octobers' 2005/2006 MM5 model data. The interannual variation is also examined. Floating buoys were used to validate the surface level winds off the California coast. Using the REpower 5M 5.0 MW, 126 meter diameter offshore wind turbine, a preliminary overall resource assessment was made for coastal California. Initial estimates show that 2-10 TWh, 9-27 TWh, and 67-293 TWh of energy could be harnessed annually using monopile, state of the art, and future turbine support technology in Northern California, the Bay Area, and Southern California respectively.

  11. New Structural-Dynamics Module for Offshore Multimember Substructures within the Wind Turbine Computer-Aided Engineering Tool FAST: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H.; Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.

    2013-08-01

    FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is a computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool for aero-hydro-servo-elastic analysis of land-based and offshore wind turbines. This paper discusses recent upgrades made to FAST to enable loads simulations of offshore wind turbines with fixed-bottom, multimember support structures (e.g., jackets and tripods, which are commonly used in transitional-depth waters). The main theory and strategies for the implementation of the multimember substructure dynamics module (SubDyn) within the new FAST modularization framework are introduced. SubDyn relies on two main engineering schematizations: 1) a linear frame finite-element beam (LFEB) model and 2) a dynamics system reduction via Craig-Bampton's method. A jacket support structure and an offshore system consisting of a turbine atop a jacket substructure were simulated to test the SubDyn module and to preliminarily assess results against results from a commercial finite-element code.

  12. Seismic retroftting of RC columns with RC jackets and wing walls with different structural details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shuenn-Yih; Chen, Ting-Wei; Tran, Ngoc-Cuong; Liao, Wen-I.

    2014-06-01

    An original reinforced concrete (RC) column and four strengthened specimens, two with RC jackets and two with wing walls, were tested in this study. The original column specimen was designed to comply with older (pre-1999) design standards so that the usual detailing deficiencies in existing school buildings in Taiwan could be simulated. Two different structural details were chosen to fabricate the full-scale specimens for each retrofitting technique. The study confirmed that either RC jacketing or the installation of wing walls with two different structural details can effectively improve the stiffness and strength of an existing column. RC jacketing shows a better improvement in energy dissipation and ductility when compared to the columns with wing walls installed. This is because the two RC jacketed columns experienced a flexural failure, while a shear failure was found in the two columns with the wing walls installed, and thus led to a drastic decrease of the maximum lateral strengths and ductility. Since many factors may affect the installation of a post-installed anchor, it is better to use standard hooks to replace post-installed anchors in some specific points when using RC jacketing or installing wing walls.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE FAILURE OF A RADIOACTIVE WASTE TRANSFER LINE JACKET

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B; Alan03 Plummer, A; Karthik Subramanian, K; Charles Jenkins, C; William Hinz, W; A Fellinger, A

    2007-04-06

    Radioactive wastes are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste is transported between tanks primarily via an underground transfer piping system. Due to the hazardous nature of the waste, the inner core stainless steel pipe is typically surrounded by a carbon steel pipe jacket, which provides secondary containment. Recently several through-wall penetrations were discovered on a segment of one of the jackets. An evaluation was performed to verify the failure mechanism and to estimate the degree of damage that occurred to the pipe segment. Failure analysis of a section of the jacket confirmed that pitting corrosion on the exterior of the pipe led to the through-wall penetration. Ultrasonic measurements on sections of the pipe were utilized to determine the remaining wall thickness in adjacent areas of the pipe. Based on these measurements, the degree of pitting and general corrosion was determined. Pit growth rate models were then developed to estimate the life expectancy of sections of the pipe that had not been excavated. The calculations estimated that the occurrence of through-wall failures in this jacket will begin to increase substantially in 12 years. Given that this pipe segment will be utilized beyond this time, short-term and long-term solutions to this failure were proposed. The short-term solutions focused on the repair or replace decisions that must be made to return the jacket to service as soon as practical. The long-term solutions focused on a broader strategy to address jacket integrity issues in the entire tank farm facility. These solutions included the evaluation of innovative remote inspection and repair techniques.

  14. Heat-transfer phenomena in water-cooled zinc-fuming furnace jackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholey, K. E.; Richards, G. G.; Samarasekera, I. V.

    1991-04-01

    In the zinc slag-fuming process, zinc is removed from lead blast furnace slag by reduction with a coal-air mixture injected into the slag through submerged tuyeres. The furnace is constructed of water-cooled jackets which freeze a slag layer and contain the bath. This greatly reduces vessel wear caused by the violently agitated and corrosive bath. The jackets, however, fail due to the formation of cracks which grow from the slag face through the working face of the jacket to the water channel. In this study, in-plant measurements and mathematical modeling of heat transfer in the jackets have been combined to elucidate the mechanism of failure. The working face of a water jacket was instrumented with thermocouples and installed in a fuming furnace at the Trail smelter of Cominco Ltd., Trail, BC. Measurements revealed the presence of large thermal transients or temperature “spikes” in the panel in the region immediately above the tuyeres. These were generally observed during charging and tapping of the furnace and are likely associated with disturbances on the surface of the bath or gas injection effects when the liquid level is low. Temperatures at the midthickness were seen to rise by as much as 180 °C above the steady-state level. Under these conditions, low-cycle fatigue may lead to crack formation and propagation. A mathematical modeling analysis of the transient freezing phenomena indicates that the temperature spikes are associated with sudden slag falloff and direct contact of molten slag on the jacket. In order to reduce slag falloff, an increased number of anchoring fins should be used in critical areas.

  15. Drag Measurements of a Protruding .50-caliber Machine Gun with Barrel Jacket Removed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luoma, Arvo A.

    1943-01-01

    Tests were made in 8-ft high-speed wind tunnel to determine the drag reduction possible by eliminating the barrel jacket of a protruding 50-caliber aircraft gun. It was found that the drag of a standard aircraft gun protruding into the air stream at right angles to the flow can be reduced by 23% by discarding the barrel jacket. At 300 mph and sea-level conditions, this amounts to a decrease in drag of from 83 to 64 pounds. A rough surface finish on the barrel was found to have no adverse effects on the drag of the barrel, the drag being actually less at high Mach Numbers.

  16. Experimental duplication of the important physical evidence of the lapel bulge of the jacket worn by Governor Connally when bullet 399 went through him.

    PubMed

    Lattimer, J K; Laidlaw, A; Heneghan, P; Haubner, E J

    1994-05-01

    By duplicating the wound to the neck of President Kennedy, which caused bullet 399 to turn sideways, and having it then hit a Connally-type rib cage with shirt and jacket, we reproduced the right-sided bulge of the jacket worn by Connally, with lapel eversion, which is so significant in frame 224. The extensive damage to his shirtfront was from the hail of rib fragments and soft tissue, exactly as described with his own shirt. Our tumbling bullet then went on to fracture a radius and be recovered intact except that it was somewhat flattened and bent and had lead extruded from the rear, as did bullet 399. Fragments of this lead were scraped off on the ragged bone-ends of some of our fractured radiuses, just as with Governor Connally's radius. It is believed that this duplication of the jacket and lapel bulge of Governor Connally, which occurred dependably, when we reproduced the circumstances at Dallas, confirmed this very important detail in this technical demonstration of the findings in the shooting of President Kennedy and Governor Connally. The bulge and the lapel eversion of the jacket worn by Governor Connally, starting in Zapruder frame 224, does indeed establish, beyond any shadow of a doubt, the exact moment when bullet 399 went through him. The right arms of both men were seen to react simultaneously, immediately thereafter. It also permits us to establish that there was plenty of time (three and one-half seconds) between the first two shots (frames 160 to 224) and even more time (five seconds) between the last two shots (frames 224 to 313), for Oswald to reload, reacquire his target (the head of President Kennedy) plus two full seconds to lock onto it. If the bullet does not traverse the neck of President Kennedy, it does not cause Governor Connally's jacket and lapel to bulge. The lapel bulge is a very important bit of actual physical evidence in establishing the fact that one bullet hit both men and that Oswald had plenty of time to hit the President, first in the neck and then in the head. These experiments confirm the mechanism of the lapel bulge and the behavior of the bullet. PMID:8167893

  17. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  18. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  19. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  20. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  1. Viability of Bismuth as a Green Substitute for Lead in Jacketed .357 Magnum Revolver Bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Joel

    In seeking to develop environmentally friendly lead-free non-toxic bullets, the research ballistically evaluated the performance of copper-jacketed handgun bullets containing a pure bismuth core. The lead was first removed from 140 grain Hornady(TM) XTPRTM bullets of 38 caliber (.357 diameter) by melting. The empty jackets were then refilled with pure bismuth, including the forming of a correctly sized hollow-point cavity. Due to the lower density of bismuth as compared to lead, the bismuth-cored bullets consistently weighed 125 gains. Conveniently this allowed direct comparison to commercially available 125 grain Hornady(TM) XTPRTM lead-cored bullets of 38 caliber. Both bismuth-cored and lead-cored versions of the 125 grain bullets had identical nose dimensions and jacket material, the only dimensional difference being the bullet length below the cannelure. Shooting took place at an outdoor range using a 357 Magnum Ruger(TM) SP101RTM revolver with 3" barrel as the test weapon. FBI protocols were followed when firing through clothing, wallboard, plywood, steel plates and laminated glass. Wound paths and bullets were captured in ballistic gelatin, with data collected for velocity, penetration, expansion, and weight retention. Bismuth compared favorably with lead in all but the laminated glass test, where it under penetrated due to jacket separation.

  2. Arikan and Alamouti matrices based on fast block-wise inverse Jacket transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moon Ho; Khan, Md Hashem Ali; Kim, Kyeong Jin

    2013-12-01

    Recently, Lee and Hou (IEEE Signal Process Lett 13: 461-464, 2006) proposed one-dimensional and two-dimensional fast algorithms for block-wise inverse Jacket transforms (BIJTs). Their BIJTs are not real inverse Jacket transforms from mathematical point of view because their inverses do not satisfy the usual condition, i.e., the multiplication of a matrix with its inverse matrix is not equal to the identity matrix. Therefore, we mathematically propose a fast block-wise inverse Jacket transform of orders N = 2 k , 3 k , 5 k , and 6 k , where k is a positive integer. Based on the Kronecker product of the successive lower order Jacket matrices and the basis matrix, the fast algorithms for realizing these transforms are obtained. Due to the simple inverse and fast algorithms of Arikan polar binary and Alamouti multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) non-binary matrices, which are obtained from BIJTs, they can be applied in areas such as 3GPP physical layer for ultra mobile broadband permutation matrices design, first-order q-ary Reed-Muller code design, diagonal channel design, diagonal subchannel decompose for interference alignment, and 4G MIMO long-term evolution Alamouti precoding design.

  3. Wave loading on offshore structures: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Standing, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Man has worked close to the sea for many centuries, exploiting its resources and sailing his ships across it. In the process he has experienced, and gained respect for, the enormous forces exerted by sea waves during a violent storm or tsunami. Occasionally a coastal village is devastated; more often ships, harbours, lighthouses and coastal defences are wrecked. The long-term damage may be less dramatic, but no less destructive: sea waves can gradually erode a structure or its foundations, and cause cracking, ultimately leading to failure. Offshore engineering for the oil and gas industry started before World War II, and progress since then has been rapid. Early steel jacket structures were in water depths of 5-15m. By the early 1960s the water depth had reached 100m, and in 1978 the Cognac platform was completed in the Gulf of Mexico at a depth exceeding 300m. Rapidly increasing costs, however, have forced designers to examine radically new methods of production for deeper waters. A range of compliant structures, including tethered buoyant platforms and guyed towers, has been proposed.

  4. Servicing the offshore industry

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    What factors are leading operators to using boat-based services vs. those that are rig-based for offshore completions, stimulations and workovers? What trends are companies experiencing in completion practices for the unconsolidated formations in the Gulf of Mexico? What are companies` most important specifications for well service boats operating near their offshore platforms? To answer these and other questions, Petroleum Engineering International asked those who should know -- the producing companies active in offshore operations in the Gulf of Mexico and worldwide.

  5. Session: Offshore wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

  6. Geotechnical experience from the installation of the Europipe jacket with bucket foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Tjelta, T.I.

    1995-12-01

    The Europipe jacket with bucket foundations replacing piles was installed in July 1995 in 70 meters water depth in the central part of the North Sea. The bucket foundations offer a new and economically attractive alternative to piled foundations and consist of circular mudmats with 6 meter deep skirts around the circumference, one under each jacket leg. They have the ability to resist both tensile and compressive loads. Installation is provided by means of a suction system that enables the skirts to be fully penetrated into the sea bed. The use of suction to install the Europipe bucket foundations is absolutely essential. The geotechnical aspects of this installation method are discussed in the paper and results from installation are provided.

  7. Low smoke, non-corrosive, fire retardant cable jackets based on HNBR and EVM

    SciTech Connect

    Meisenheimer, H.

    1991-06-01

    This article examines the properties of the polymers HNBR and EVM which make them good candidates for use in meeting the low smoke, non-corrosive, low toxicity and fire retardant requirements for electric safety cable jackets and electric insulation. Topics of the article include density, weight, and viscosity of each polymer, mechanical proprieties of each polymer, and other results of laboratory testing of these polymers.

  8. Management of offshore wastes in the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    During the process of finding and producing oil and gas in the offshore environment operators generate a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Some of these wastes are directly related to exploration and production activities (e.g., drilling wastes, produced water, treatment workover, and completion fluids) while other types of wastes are associated with human occupation of the offshore platforms (e.g., sanitary and domestic wastes, trash). Still other types of wastes can be considered generic industrial wastes (e.g., scrap metal and wood, wastes paints and chemicals, sand blasting residues). Finally, the offshore platforms themselves can be considered waste materials when their useful life span has been reached. Generally, offshore wastes are managed in one of three ways--onsite discharge, injection, or transportation to shore. This paper describes the regulatory requirements imposed by the government and the approaches used by offshore operators to manage and dispose of wastes in the US.

  9. Getting offshoring right.

    PubMed

    Aron, Ravi; Singh, Jitendra V

    2005-12-01

    The prospect of offshoring and outsourcing business processes has captured the imagination of CEOs everywhere. In the past five years, a rising number of companies in North America and Europe have experimented with this strategy, hoping to reduce costs and gain strategic advantage. But many businesses have had mixed results. According to several studies, half the organizations that have shifted processes offshore have failed to generate the expected financial benefits. What's more, many of them have faced employee resistance and consumer dissatisfaction. Clearly, companies have to rethink how they formulate their offshoring strategies. A three-part methodology can help. First, companies need to prioritize their processes, ranking each based on two criteria: the value it creates for customers and the degree to which the company can capture some of that value. Companies will want to keep their core (highest-priority) processes in-house and consider outsourcing their commodity (low-priority) processes; critical (moderate-priority) processes are up for debate and must be considered carefully. Second, businesses should analyze all the risks that accompany offshoring and look systematically at their critical and commodity processes in terms of operational risk (the risk that processes won't operate smoothly after being offshored) and structural risk (the risk that relationships with service providers may not work as expected). Finally, companies should determine possible locations for their offshore efforts, as well as the organizational forms--such as captive centers and joint ventures--that those efforts might take. They can do so by examining each process's operational and structural risks side by side. This article outlines the tools that will help companies choose the right processes to offshore. It also describes a new organizational structure called the extended organization, in which companies specify the quality of services they want and work alongside providers to get that quality. PMID:16334588

  10. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Offshore rectennas are feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but the type of rectenna suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. A nonground plane design minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This perferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors or tagis supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane, winter storm, and icing conditions for a one time cost of $5.7 billion. Subsequent units would be about 1.3 less expensive. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in substantially lower costs. The major advantage of an offshore rectenna is the removal of microwave radiation from populated areas.

  11. Drilling and producing offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Hall and his team of authors share technically detailed state-of-the-art designs, equipment and techniques, focusing on fixed-platform operations. This book provides explicit data on offshore equipment and procedures. Contents: Development drilling structures -- template, concrete gravity, and other platforms; Development drilling systems -- through-the-leg drilling, floating drilling, tension-leg platform drilling, template utilization, and mud-line casing suspension and casing support systems; Completion systems -- platform completions, through-the-leg completions, tension-leg completions, multiwell subsea completions, and subsea satellite completion systems; Production control -- wellhead control systems and subsea production control systems; Offshore oil-field diving operations and equipment -- commercial diving, history of diving, international offshore oil-field diving, physiological constraints in diving, diving capabilities and equipment, future trends.

  12. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  13. Offshore wave energy experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, K.; Scholten, N.C.; Soerensen, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the second phase of the off-shore wave energy experiment, taking place in the Danish part of the North Sea near Hanstholm. The wave power converter is a scale model consisting of a float 2.5 meter in diameter connected by rope to a seabed mounted piston pump installed on 25 meter deep water 2,5 km offshore. The structure, installation procedure results and experience gained during the test period will be presented and compared to calculations based on a computer model.

  14. NREL Software Aids Offshore Wind Turbine Designs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    NREL researchers are supporting offshore wind power development with computer models that allow detailed analyses of both fixed and floating offshore wind turbines. While existing computer-aided engineering (CAE) models can simulate the conditions and stresses that a land-based wind turbine experiences over its lifetime, offshore turbines require the additional considerations of variations in water depth, soil type, and wind and wave severity, which also necessitate the use of a variety of support-structure types. NREL's core wind CAE tool, FAST, models the additional effects of incident waves, sea currents, and the foundation dynamics of the support structures.

  15. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, M.; Gilioli, A.; Manes, A.; Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.

    2012-08-01

    In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy) of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus?Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors). Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature) and new material data (with strain rate effect) obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass) with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  16. Base deformation of full metal-jacketed rifle bullets as a measure of impact velocity and range of fire.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lucien C

    2015-03-01

    Full metal-jacketed rifle bullets with lead cores and open bases can experience deformation of their cylindrical shapes as they yaw during the penetration of soft tissues. The amount of deformation depends upon the strength of the bullet and the velocity in soft tissue when they go into yaw. The yaw behavior of a bullet in soft tissue depends upon its design (length, ogive shape, ogive length, center of gravity, and pre-impact stability) as it penetrates soft tissue. The yaw characteristics of common spitzer-type military rifle bullets are relatively well known and quite reproducible when fired into suitable soft tissue simulants. This, in turn, results in a relationship between the amount of deformation of the bullet's shank and impact velocity with soft tissue. The specific relationship between impact velocity and bullet deformation must be worked out through empirical testing, but this relationship can be of critical importance in determining impact velocity, which, in turn, relates to range of fire. PMID:25594572

  17. Offshore Wind Energy Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrove, P.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the possibility of installing offshore windmills to provide electricity and to save fuel for the United Kingdom. Favors their deployment in clusters to facilitate supervision and minimize cost. Discusses the power output and the cost involved and urges their quick development. (GA)

  18. QATAR offshore oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Qatar Petroleum Producing Authority is presently operating three offshore fields - Idd al-Shargi, Maydan Mahzam and Bul Hanine. The Idd al-Shargi field consists of 14 naturally flowing wells and three suspended wells. Individual flow rates of the producing wells range from 250 to 3000 barrels per day (b/d). The Maydan Mahzam field produces from 11 naturally flowing wells. Reservoir energy in the field is maintained by water injection. Each of the wells produce oil at rates ranging from 2500 to 20,000 b/d. The Bul Hanine field comprises 10 producing wells supported by 9 dumpflooders. Production rates of the individual wells reach 29,000 b/d, making them among the world's highest. In 1978 the completion of a major acceleration project for the Bul Hanine Arab IV reservoir added more than 40,000 b/d to the production potential of the field. Total Qatari oil exports in 1978 were 91,708,000 barrels, equivalent to an average export rate of 25,000 b/d. Total production in Qatar in 1979 was 100,641,394 barrels (offshore) and 84,130,917 (onshore), an increase of 11% and a decrease of 3%, respectively, over 1978. Halal Island provides offshore storage for oil and gas berthing and loading operations. A natural gas liquids offshore complex, including a fractionation plant, is nearing completion at Umm Said. (SAC)

  19. An analytical study and systematic monitoring procedure developed for the load-out operation of the North Rankin Jacket 'A'

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, N.; Inokoshi, O.; Kitani, T.; Masuda, S.; Zarate, H.

    1983-05-01

    The loadout of the 22,000 tonnes North Rankin Jacket 'A' onto a floating barge was successfully accomplished in April, 1982. During the loadout the barge ballast was continually adjusted to compensate for both jacket weight transfer onto the barge and full tide variation. The preparation for the loadout and the operation itself was characterized by newly developed integrated techniques. The techniques included: the development of a barge, jacket and quayside three-dimensional computer model to check the validity of conventional and simple ballast system software. The model was also used to evaluate the control parameters of the operation in a series of analyses which determine the sensitivity of critical steps of the operation to human or equipment errors: the development and operation of an integrated control system for jacket load transfer that relates jacket position to barge level and ballast pump requirements; the development and operation of a tide-expectation computer programme and associated ballast pump time scheduling software to compensate for differences between actual water level and that determined from standard tide tables, and to minimize the effect of short-term, local tide variations that are not forecast; and the incorporation of fail-safe concepts and measures into the operation.

  20. Offshore Wind Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This 2-page fact sheet describes NREL's offshore wind research and development efforts and capabilities. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is internationally recognized for offshore wind energy research and development (R&D). Its experience and capabilities cover a wide spectrum of wind energy disciplines. NREL's offshore wind R&D efforts focus on critical areas that address the long-term needs of the offshore wind energy industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). R&D efforts include: (1) Developing offshore design tools and methods; (2) Collaborating with international partners; (3) Testing offshore systems and developing standards; (4) Conducting economic analyses; (5) Characterizing offshore wind resources; and (6) Identifying and mitigating offshore wind grid integration challenges and barriers. NREL has developed and maintains a robust, open-source, modular computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool, known as FAST. FAST's state-of-the-art capabilities provide full dynamic system simulation for a range of offshore wind systems. It models the coupled aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, control system, and structural response of offshore wind systems to support the development of innovative wind technologies that are reliable and cost effective. FAST also provides dynamic models of wind turbines on offshore fixed-bottom systems for shallow and transitional depths and floating-platform systems in deep water, thus enabling design innovation and risk reduction and facilitating higher performance designs that will meet DOE's cost of energy, reliability, and deployment objectives.

  1. Offshore Space Center (offshore launch site)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit; an industrial area for HLLV maintenance; an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower; liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms; a power generation station, docks with an unloading area; two separate launch sites; and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

  2. Einstein's jacket: evidence for long-term perceptual specificity in mental imagery.

    PubMed

    Pearson, David G; Hollings, James

    2013-03-01

    To what extent are visual fantasies constrained by our perceptual experience of the real world? Our study exploits the fact that people's knowledge of the appearance of individuals from the early 20th Century (e.g., Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill) derives predominantly from viewing black-and-white media images. An initial experiment shows that mental imagery for individuals from this period are experienced as significantly less colourful than imagery for individuals from the era of colour media. A second experiment manipulated whether participants were instructed to explicitly imagine using colour or not (i.e., "imagine Albert Einstein wearing a green jacket" vs. "imagine Albert Einstein wearing a jacket"). Results show that colour manipulation only influences imagery for black-and-white era individuals, with no comparable effect on imagery for colour era individuals. This finding is replicated in a third experiment that includes an additional control condition of imagining generic characters (i.e., "Imagine a knight wearing a cloak" vs. "imagine a knight wearing a red cloak"). Again, only imagery for black-and-white era individuals is affected by the colour manipulation. Overall these results provide evidence for long-term perceptual specificity effects in mental imagery. We argue that visual fantasies can be constrained by surface features of underlying representations in memory, even when imagining something we have never directly perceived. PMID:23280307

  3. Experimental evaluation of energy efficiency in a gas-heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, V.; Garca, L.; Alfonso, J.

    2014-06-01

    Gas Technological Development Center (CDT de GAS) has developed a new gas-heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle as a solution for temperature-controlled cooking of pulp fruit in the Colombian traditional candy-making industry. This initiative seeks to contribute to the promotion of natural gas as a cleaner and more efficient alternative to traditional fuels such as wood and coal in the Andean countries. Prototype follows the operational and safety rules provided by international and local standards: ASTM-F1602, ASME (section VIII, division 1), and NTC-4082. This paper presents the methodology, experimental setup and results obtained during the performance tests for heating efficiency evaluation of the kettle, according to the ASTM-F1785 standard, and the estimation of measurement uncertainty according to GUM method. The heating efficiency rate for this new prototype is higher to the convectional and commercial models of gas heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle. The results showed a heating efficiency of 63.83% 1.66% (k=2), whereas the emission of CO and NOX in stack gases was under the regulate limits for natural gas equipment.

  4. Model test of wave forces on a structurally dense jacket platform

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, G.Z.; Parsley, M.A.; Berek, E.P.; Calvo, J.J.; Johnson, R.C.; Petruska, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    In the Gulf of Mexico, there are a significant number of jacket platforms built in the 1950`s and 60`s which are still in operation. Typically, these platforms have a large number of closely spaced legs and densely arranged bracing members. Since most of these platforms are beyond their design lives but the reservoirs are still producing, their safety, serviceability and fitness-for-purpose must be re-assessed in order to continue producing from them. During Mobil`s in-house re-qualification effort, it was found that the predictions by structural analysis programs (such as SACS and KARMA) were inconsistent with the platform inspection results. The programs predicted a large number of joint can failures during design storms (such as hurricane Andrew), but underwater inspections indicated only few failures had actually occurred. It was apparent that the procedure used for the assessment was conservative--either the wave loads the platforms experienced during the hurricanes were overestimated and/or the structural resistances were underestimated. This paper addresses the wave load issue. To calibrate the force algorithms typically used in structural analysis programs, a model test of a typical aging jacket platform was conducted in the wave basin.

  5. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Bent-Core Mesogen-Jacketed Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,X.; Tenneti, K.; Li, C.; Bai, Y.; Zhou, R.; Wan, X.; Fan, X.; Zhou, Q.

    2006-01-01

    We report the design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymers with bent-core liquid crystals (BCLCs). For the first time, BCLC mesogens were directly side-attached to the polymer backbone and bent-core mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymers (BMJLCPs) were achieved. Both three-ring and five-ring mesogens were employed. The n-alkoxy substituent lengths for the three-ring and five-ring BMJLCPs were controlled as n = 1-5 and n = 6-16, respectively. Various characterization techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and polarized light microscopy were used to study their mesomorphic phase behavior. The monomers of five-ring BMJLCPs with relatively long tails showed mesophase behavior. Columnar liquid crystalline phase was observed in both three-ring and five-ring BMJLCPs. Columnar rectangular ({phi}{sub R}) phase was observed in the three-ring system. In the five-ring BMJLCPs, relatively short-tail homologues possess {phi}{sub R} phase, while columnar hexagonal phase was observed in the long-tail samples. The differences in the phase structures were attributed to the 'softness' of the macromolecular BMJLCP column surface.

  6. Temporal variation in environmental conditions and the structure of fish assemblages around an offshore oil platform in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toyonobu

    2015-07-01

    This study reports temporal variations in the environmental conditions and the structure of fish assemblages observed in the vicinity of an offshore oil platform and the surrounding seafloor in the North Sea. Multi-seasonal sampling was conducted at a typical large steel jacketed facility, using mid-water fish traps at three different depths (i.e., 10, 50 & 100 m). Commercially important gadoids such as saithe Pollachius virens, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus and cod Gadus morhua were the most abundant species, however, the species composition and the relative abundances of the species varied with depth, season and between years. Comparisons with a large-scale bottom trawl survey data suggested highly dynamic and species-specific interactions between fish movements, changing environmental conditions and the physical presence of an offshore platform. Given the number of platforms currently installed across the North Sea, there is a need to identify biological mechanisms behind such dynamic interactions. PMID:25965149

  7. Arctic offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bhula, D.N.

    1984-01-24

    An offshore structure is disclosed for use in drilling and producing wells in arctic regions having a conical shaped lower portion that extends above the surface of the water and a cylindrical upper section. The conical portion is provided with a controlled stiffness outer surface for withstanding the loads produced by ice striking the structure. The stiffness properties of the outer shell and flexible members are designed to distribute the load and avoid high local loads on the inner parts of the structure.

  8. Image processing in offshore engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, M.V.R.; A. Oliveira, M. de; Almeida, M.E.T. de; Lorenzoni, C.; Ferrante, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    The technological progress which has taken place during the last decade introduced a totally new outlook regarding the professional computational environment in general, and regarding the engineering profession in particular. During many years engineering computing was performed based on large computer centers, getting bigger and bigger all the time, going from mainframes to super computers, essentially producing numerical results on paper media. Lately, however, it has been realized that a much more productive computational environment can be implemented using an open architecture of client/server type, based on smaller lower cost equipment including workstations and PC`s, and considering engineering information in a broader sense. This papers reports briefly the experience of the Production Department of Petrobras in transforming its centralized, mainframe based, computational environment into a open distributed client/server computational environment, focusing on the problem of handling technical graphics information regarding its more than 70 fixed offshore platforms.

  9. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  10. Offshore blowouts, data for risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Holand, P.

    1995-12-31

    Blowouts are, besides gas leakages, the major contributor to the total risk for offshore installations. Therefore, the blowout risk is always included in Quantitative Risk Analyses (QRAs) of offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea. SINTEF Offshore Blowout Database has existed since 1984 (until 1990 it was called Marintek`s blowout database). In 1990 the responsibility of the database was transferred to SINTEF Safety and Reliability. Throughout these years the database has been used for assessing blowout risk associated to development and operation of fields offshore Norway. Six oil companies and two consultants are presently sponsoring the database. These companies are using the database when performing risk analyses. During the past three years the database has been subjected to a thorough quality improvement, both with respect to the user interface, and most important, regarding the blowout data included in the database. What is unique with this database, besides the high quality of blowout descriptions, is first that the blowout causes are categorized related to loss of primary and secondary barriers. Secondly that the user interface makes it possible to establish searches to withdraw information regarding any blowout type subjected for specific searches.

  11. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  12. Reducing exposures to airborne lead in a covered, outdoor firing range by using totally copper-jacketed bullets.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R K; Sherertz, P C; Llewellyn, G C; Armstrong, C W; Ramsey, S L

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of reducing or eliminating airborne lead concentrations at a covered, outdoor firing range by using totally copper-jacketed ammunition. Used in the study were 38-caliber-special police revolvers, and firings were conducted with 38-caliber, totally copper-jacketed bullets. The mean lead levels in general area air samples and personal breathing zone samples were 9.53 micrograms/m3 and 5.88 micrograms/m3, respectively, calculated as an 8-hr, time-weighted average (TWA). The mean copper levels in general area samples and personal breathing zone samples were 0.8 micrograms/m3 and 1.43 micrograms/m3, respectively. These concentrations in general area air samples and personal breathing zone samples were well below the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for occupational exposure to inorganic lead (50 micrograms/m3) and for copper (100 micrograms/m3). No significant difference was found between blood lead levels before and after firing totally copper-jacketed bullets. Based on comparison with results from a comparable study using nonjacketed lead ammunition, it was concluded that the use of totally copper-jacketed bullets significantly reduced airborne lead levels by a factor of 21 in the personal breathing zone samples and by a factor of 7.5 in the general area air samples. PMID:2301251

  13. Putting on and Removing Coats and Jackets: The Acquisition and Maintenance of Skills by Children with Severe Multiple Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Gail M.; Snell, Martha E.

    1991-01-01

    A system of graduated guidance was used to teach three children (ages six through nine) with severe multiple disabilities to don and remove their jackets and coats independently. The training approach involved initial use of oversized garments, fading of guidance, and individualized reinforcement. Skill maintenance and generalization were also

  14. The effect on stability and thermal hydraulic quenchback of perforating the jacket of a cable-in-conduit conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Dresner, L.

    1994-12-31

    This Paper continues earlier work on the reduction of the quench pressure in a doubler cable-in-conduit conductor achieved by perforating the inner jacket. The present study examines the effect of the perforations on the stability margin and on the onset of thermal hydraulic quenchback.

  15. Doing Research in a Professional Development School and Why I Feel like Houdini in a Straight Jacket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neapolitan, Jane

    2004-01-01

    When the author was a little girl, her father told her the story of how he once saw the great Harry Houdini escape from a straight jacket. In the early 1900s, Houdini fascinated thousands of people by performing feats of life-threatening daring and agility. Houdini was a professional in the traditional sense: he acted alone, kept his trade secrets…

  16. Condition monitoring methods applied to degradation of chlorosulfonated polyethylene cable jacketing materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Assink, Roger Alan; Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Bernstein, Robert; Celina, Mathias Christopher

    2005-05-01

    Three promising polymer material condition monitoring (CM) methods were applied to eight commercial chlorosulfonated polyethylene cable jacket materials aged under both elevated temperature and high-energy radiation conditions. The CM methods examined, cross-sectional modulus profiling, solvent uptake and NMR T{sub 2} relaxation time measurements of solvent-swelled samples, are closely related since they are all strongly influenced by the changes in overall crosslink density of the materials. Each approach was found to correlate well with ultimate tensile elongation measurements, the most widely used method for following degradation of elastomeric materials. In addition approximately universal failure criteria were found to be applicable for the modulus profiling and solvent uptake measurements, independent of the CSPE material examined and its degradation environment. For an arbitrarily assumed elongation 'failure' criterion of 50% absolute, the CSPE materials typically reached 'failure' when the modulus increased to {approx}35 MPa and the uptake factor in p-xylene decreased to {approx}1.6.

  17. Investigation of Bonded Jacket Cable Insulation Failure Mechanisms: HELB Environment Results

    SciTech Connect

    L. Duncan

    2002-11-01

    When overaged from thermal or radiation environments, composite insulation composed of a layer of ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) covered with a bonded layer of chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE[Hypalon]) can crack if subjected to steam environments associated with loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). The work described in this report evaluated the effects of a lesser accident, a high-energy line break (HELB), on the aged insulating materials. The object of the test was to determine if the same cracking concerns exist for the less severe HELB environment. The work is based on the use of aged specimens that were prepared under the test program described in EPRI report Investigation of Bonded Jacket Cable Insulation Failure Mechanisms (1001002).

  18. Turbodrilling performance offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, L.A.; Abdulrahman, E.A.

    1983-03-01

    Until the first quarter of 1979 Qatar General Petroleum Corporation Offshore routinely rotary drilled its vertical development wells using tricone bits. Turbodrilling the 17 1/2'' and 8 1/2'' hole sections was introduced in the second quarter of 1979 followed by the 12 1/4'' hole section in the first qarter of 1980. This resulted in avoiding/minimising downhole problems and the elimination of 7'' and 4 1/2'' liners. As a result of introducing these practices a 50 percent time saving and a 30 percent cost saving has been achieved, equivalent to $550,000/well.

  19. 46 CFR 389.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... installing an offshore drilling or production platform jacket in a timely manner. “Foreign launch barge”, for.... “Platform Jacket” refers to a single physical component and includes any type of offshore exploration, development, or production structure or component thereof, including platform jackets, tension leg or...

  20. Offshore outlook: the American Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jahns, M.O.

    1985-05-01

    Offshore areas in the American Arctic are highlighted and the development of the area is compared with other offshore areas where the required technology is more readily available. Principal areas are shown in which new concepts are being put to practice. Canada's east coast is examined. Several technological trends are reviewed to help operators accelerate the discovery and development of arctic petroleum reserves.

  1. Floating offshore structure

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, M.; Narita, H.; Tabuchi, H.; Yashima, N.

    1985-05-28

    A floating offshore structure which is moored at a fixed position on the sea by means of mooring hawsers and anchors connected to the ends thereof respectively for conducting a submarine excavating operation from a deck of the structure. The structure includes a moorage hull part provided with a vertical through-hole formed therein for receiving an excavating drill pipe and the mooring hawsers and a movable hull part connected to the moorage hull part so as to be rotatable within a horizontal plane. The movable hull part is constituted as a hull defining the outer wall of the floating offshore structure and connected with the moorage hull part by inserting it into a moorage hull part receiving hole formed at a position closer to the bow thereof. The movable hull part has near its water plane a horizontal section with a substantially oval shape formed by a fore draft part in a substantially circular or polygonal shape, with the moorage hull part receiving hole as a center and an after draft part taperingly projecting aft from the fore draft part.

  2. Pioneering offshore excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, R.P.; Grattan, L.

    1996-11-01

    Hibernia Management and Development Company Ltd. (HMDC) was formed in 1990 by a consortium of oil companies to develop their interests in the Hibernia and Avalon reservoirs offshore Newfoundland in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. The reservoirs are located 315km ESE of St. John`s in the North Atlantic. The water depth is about 80m. The entire Hibernia field is estimated to contain more than three billion barrels of oil in place and the owners development plan area is estimated to contain two billion barrels. Recoverable reserves are estimated to be approximately 615 million barrels. The Hibernia reservoir, the principle reservoir, is located at an average depth of 3,700m. HMDC is building a large concrete gravity based structure (GBS) that which will support the platform drilling and processing facilities and living quarters for 280 personnel. In 1997 the platform will be towed to the production site and production will commence late 1997. Oil will be exported by a 2 km long pipeline to an offshore loading system. Dynamically positioned tankers will then take the oil to market. Average daily production is expected to plateau between 125,000 and 135,000 BOPD. It will be the first major development on the east coast of Canada and is located in an area that is prone to pack ice and icebergs.

  3. An intelligent ultrasonic inspection system for flooded member detection in offshore structures.

    PubMed

    Hayward, G; Pearson, J; Stirling, G

    1993-01-01

    An ultrasonic system for automatic underwater inspection of steel jacket offshore installation is described. It is based on the unambiguous detection of water ingress in normally sealed tubular members, thereby providing an indication of through-wall structural failure. A novel transducer design, based on a dual frequency array of 1-3 connectivity thickness drive transducers, is used to provide the required sensitivity and act also as an environmental monitor for input to an expert system, which performs automatic data analysis. Although intended primarily for operation on a remotely operated vehicle, the system may be employed satisfactorily by a driver. A series of test trials is described, and the prototype is shown to perform very well for all intended modes of operation. PMID:18263214

  4. The cost effective use of pultruded composite mud-mats in offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Porcari, A.M.; Spessa, A.

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the development and application of pultruded fiber-reinforced plastic mud-mats used as primary load-bearing structural components in the construction of the offshore platform ``Garibaldi C``, recently installed by AGIP S.p.A. in the Adriatic sea. The pultruded composite elements were used as an alternative to traditional steel structures. The mechanical and functional performance of the composite mud-mats are the same. The cost advantages are coming from weight savings, from the necessity of a lower number of aluminum anodes, from the construction procedures used in the yard and from the installation of the jacket performed with a lifting vessel of a lower class. The solutions of particular problems connected with the design and construction of composite mud-mats, as well as cost advantages, are illustrated and discussed.

  5. Airborne sound propagation over sea during offshore wind farm piling.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Dekoninck, L

    2014-02-01

    Offshore piling for wind farm construction has attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to the extremely high noise emission levels associated with such operations. While underwater noise levels were shown to be harmful for the marine biology, the propagation of airborne piling noise over sea has not been studied in detail before. In this study, detailed numerical calculations have been performed with the Green's Function Parabolic Equation (GFPE) method to estimate noise levels up to a distance of 10?km. Measured noise emission levels during piling of pinpiles for a jacket-foundation wind turbine were assessed and used together with combinations of the sea surface state and idealized vertical sound speed profiles (downwind sound propagation). Effective impedances were found and used to represent non-flat sea surfaces at low-wind sea states 2, 3, and 4. Calculations show that scattering by a rough sea surface, which decreases sound pressure levels, exceeds refractive effects, which increase sound pressure levels under downwind conditions. This suggests that the presence of wind, even when blowing downwind to potential receivers, is beneficial to increase the attenuation of piling sound over the sea. A fully flat sea surface therefore represents a worst-case scenario. PMID:25234870

  6. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application requirements for offshore stations. 22.1037 Section 22.1037 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON...) The channel and type of emission; (4) The height and type of antenna; (5) The bearing of the main...

  7. On the instability of offshore foundations: theory and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, FuPing; Li, JinHui; Qi, WenGang; Hu, Cun

    2015-12-01

    As the offshore engineering moving from shallow to deep waters, the foundation types for fixed and floating platforms have been gradually evolving to minimize engineering costs and structural risks in the harsh offshore environments. Particular focus of this paper is on the foundation instability and its failure mechanisms as well as the relevant theory advances for the prevailing foundation types in both shallow and deep water depths. Piles, spudcans, gravity bases, suction caissons, and plate anchors are detailed in this paper. The failure phenomena and mechanisms for each type of foundations are identified and summarized, respectively. The theoretical approaches along with sophisticated empirical solutions for the bearing capacity problems are then presented. The major challenges are from flow-structure-soil coupling processes, rigorous constitutive modeling of cyclic behaviors of marine sediments, and the spatial variability of soil properties for large-spreading structures. Further researches are suggested to reveal the instability mechanisms for underpinning the evolution of offshore foundations.

  8. Bahrain's offshore banking center

    SciTech Connect

    Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

    1983-01-01

    The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

  9. Conceptual Model of Offshore Wind Environmental Risk Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hamilton, Erin L.

    2010-06-01

    In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of offshore wind energy generation projects. The development of ERES for offshore wind is closely allied to a concurrent process undertaken to examine environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy generation, although specific risk-relevant attributes will differ between the MHK and offshore wind domains. During FY10, a conceptual design of ERES for offshore wind will be developed. The offshore wind ERES mockup described in this report will provide a preview of the functionality of a fully developed risk evaluation system that will use risk assessment techniques to determine priority stressors on aquatic organisms and environments from specific technology aspects, identify key uncertainties underlying high-risk issues, compile a wide-range of data types in an innovative and flexible data organizing scheme, and inform planning and decision processes with a transparent and technically robust decision-support tool. A fully functional version of ERES for offshore wind will be developed in a subsequent phase of the project.

  10. Ice interaction with offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cammaert, A.B.; Muggeridge, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Oil platforms and other offshore structures being built in the arctic regions must be able to withstand icebergs, ice islands, and pack ice. This reference explain the effect ice has on offshore structures and demonstrates design and construction methods that allow such structures to survive in harsh, ice-ridden environments. It analyzes the characteristics of sea ice as well as dynamic ice forces on structures. Techniques for ice modeling and field testing facilitate the design and construction of sturdy, offshore constructions. Computer programs included.

  11. Effect of Change of Aging Heat Treatment Pattern on the JK2LB Jacket for the ITER Central Solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, Hidemasa; Saito, Toru; Kawano, Katsumi; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Yamazaki, Toru; Isono, Takaaki

    Following the recent improvement of the heat treatment pattern for the ITER CS conductor from 250 hour at 650 C to 250 hour at 570 C and then 100 hour at 650 C, the mechanical properties at 4K and the material structure of the conductor jacketmade of JK2LB after heat treatment including the 570 C phasewere studied. The mechanical test results at 4K showed no noticeable difference with the jacket heat-treated only at 650 C to the one additionally heat-treatedat 570 C.Both satisfied the ITER requirement. The metallographic test results also did not show large difference. In conclusion the 570 C step does not affect noticeably the JK2LB jacket and the improved heat treatment pattern is applicable.

  12. Offshore search continues despite disappointments

    SciTech Connect

    Cornitius, T.

    1985-05-01

    Exploration drilling activity in Australia broke records onshore in 1984, but offshore it was a different story. A total of 373 wells were drilled, onshore and offshore, with 266 labeled as wildcats and appraisals. Out of 80 wells drilled offshore last year, 43 were exploratory compared with 49 in 1983; 48 were oil wells, seven were gas, and 25 were dusters. Offshore discoveries included the Talisman 1 off the coast of Western Australia, which tested around 6000 b/d, and Challis 1 in the Timor Sea, which flowed at 5000 b/d. The failure to establish Jabiru in the Timor Sea as a major oil province like Bass Strait was a major disappointment. However, the Challis 1 was a relief since it indicated the presence of a commercial field adjacent to Jabiru.

  13. Methane Seeps along Offshore Virginia

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Numerous distinct methane streams emanating from the seafloor at an upper slope (< 500 m water depth) cold seep site offshore Virginia. Image courtesy of NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program, 2013 Northeast U.S. Canyons Expedition....

  14. The enhancing effect of mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymer PBPCS on epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, C. P.; Li, X. J.; Zhu, Y.; Gao, Y. X.; Li, G. P.; Luo, Y. J.

    2015-12-01

    The mixtures of mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymers (MJLCP) and epoxy resin (E-51) have been prepared in a certain proportion. The category of the MJLCP is poly{2, 5-bis[(4-butoxyphenyl) oxycarbonyl] styrenes} (PBPCS). Methyl tetrahydro phthalic anhydride (MeTHPA) is served as a curing agent, and N, N-dimethylbenzylamine plays the role of catalyst. Then, based on the curing process, the modified materials have been acquired by casting molding. The effect of PBPCS's improvement has been researched through the mechanical properties test, dynamic thermal mechanical test and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicated that PBPCS could apparently improve the mechanical properties of resin E-51. Compared with unmodified materials, the elongation at break and the tensile strength of PBPCS have been improved remarkably through modification. Both mechanical properties of the 4wt% PBPCS/E-51/MeTHPA were enhanced by 48% and 153% separately, and the characteristics of the 3wt% one were raised by 47% and 19% respectively. Also, the ductile fracture morphology of the resins was exhibited in SEM photograph clearly.

  15. Offshore well support miniplatform

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, J.W.

    1987-07-14

    This patent describes a protective well support system installed on an offshore well having an upstanding conductor pipe extending above the seabed, the system comprising: (a) an upstanding conductor clamp (adapts to encircle the conductor pipe) formed by two upstanding facing members supported by a bottom engaging frame; (b) the frame including frame members joined together defining a substantially horizontal rectangular support frame for engaging the seabed; (c) angularly extending brace members secured at one end to the conductor clamp and at the other end to the frame; (d) the conductor clamp attaches to the frame and extending upright to enable the conductor clamp to fasten about the conductor pipe; (e) a boat landing mounts about the conductor pipe, the boat landing formed by at least two sectional components fixedly secured to semicircular clamp members adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for mounting the boat landing components; and (f) well platform means supported on bracket means adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for removably securing the well platform means.

  16. Reassessment of offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V.V.D.; Kuhn, J.M. )

    1993-05-01

    Data from Hurricane Andrew demonstrated that the systems and procedures in place for evacuating offshore workers and minimizing oil spills and environmental damage functioned as planned. While the vast majority of the platforms survived the storm with no damage, a few of the older platforms (installed prior to 1972) either collapsed or suffered severe damage. The collapsed platforms were designed with insufficient deck height to clear the storm waves. In recent years, the API RP 2A has introduced guidance for minimum air gap, minimum structures, platform inspection and platform reuse. These provisions, coupled with natural attribution of the older platforms, will significantly improve the performance of platforms in the future. The reliability of NDT techniques to detect major structural defects should be improved through continued research. While flooded member detection is used by several operators as a screening tool to detect major defects underwater, its reliability is not always good and further research is needed in this area. Another area of high priority research is related to the use of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) to perform underwater inspection of structures. 51 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  18. Incorporation of Multi-Member Substructure Capabilities in FAST for Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Sewell, D.

    2012-05-01

    FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is an aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool widely used for analyzing onshore and offshore wind turbines. This paper discusses recent modifications made to FAST to enable the examination of offshore wind turbines with fixed-bottom, multi-member support structures (which are commonly used in transitional-depth waters).; This paper addresses the methods used for incorporating the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loading on multi-member structures in FAST through its hydronamic loading module, HydroDyn. Modeling of the hydrodynamic loads was accomplished through the incorporation of Morison and buoyancy loads on the support structures. Issues addressed include how to model loads at the joints of intersecting members and on tapered and tilted members of the support structure. Three example structures are modeled to test and verify the solutions generated by the modifications to HydroDyn, including a monopile, tripod, and jacket structure. Verification is achieved through comparison of the results to a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-derived solution using the commercial software tool STAR-CCM+.

  19. Helical piles: an innovative foundation design option for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2015-02-28

    Offshore wind turbines play a key part in the renewable energy strategy in the UK and Europe as well as in other parts of the world (for example, China). The majority of current developments, certainly in UK waters, have taken place in relatively shallow water and close to shore. This limits the scale of the engineering to relatively simple structures, such as those using monopile foundations, and these have been the most common design to date, in UK waters. However, as larger turbines are designed, or they are placed in deeper water, it will be necessary to use multi-footing structures such as tripods or jackets. For these designs, the tension on the upwind footing becomes the critical design condition. Driven pile foundations could be used, as could suction-installed foundations. However, in this paper, we present another concept-the use of helical pile foundations. These foundations are routinely applied onshore where large tension capacities are required. However, for use offshore, a significant upscaling of the technology will be needed, particularly of the equipment required for installation of the piles. A clear understanding of the relevant geotechnical engineering will be needed if this upscaling is to be successful. PMID:25583860

  20. Data and Modeling Needs for Offshore Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.; Bailey, B.; AMS Offshore Energy APT

    2011-12-01

    The offshore wind energy community is identifying needs and strategies for expansion of meteorological and oceanographic (met-ocean) data required to support studies of the U.S. wind resource and conditions relevant to wind farm development and operation in offshore locations. The American Meteorological Society (AMS) in collaboration with many other organizations has identified Offshore Wind Energy as an Annual Partnership Topic and established a Committee that is bringing stakeholders to focus on data and modeling needs. The areas being addressed include types of data that impact offshore wind energy such as wind, wave, and current, and including non-restricted public access to other relevant meteorological parameters. This presentation will update the community on progress of the AMS APT and solicit input to their report. The core sections of the report will include an overview of offshore wind energy opportunities & challenges in the US, the role of met-ocean data in addressing project planning, design & operations, sources of existing measured and modeled data, and data gaps and strategies to address them.

  1. Offshore Wind Resource Assessment Based on Mesoscale Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, M. J.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2008-12-01

    A methodology for assessing regional offshore wind energy development potential using mesoscale modeling for wind fields has been developed. Recommendations are made on selecting the best mesoscale modeling domain resolution, as well as choosing the best data for model initial and boundary conditions, based on a sensitivity study using the Penn State/NCAR MM5 mesoscale model near California coast validated with offshore buoy wind data and coastal meteorological stations. Annual wind speed averages are developed by modeling four seasonal months to reduce total computational time, as well as to allow study of the innterannual variability. Four seasonal months of 2005, 2006, and 2007 were compared to using a complete modeled year for 2007 to calculate how the overall energy answer changed. Results from summer 2006 MM5 simulations show the average 10 m wind speed to be calculated within one percent when using three months of data (Jun, Jul, Aug) versus using July alone. Siting restrictions were developed based on bathymetry depth limits for offshore turbine tower support structures with economic and structural limitations for monopiles, multi-leg, and future floating tower support types corresponding to 30, 70, and 200 m depth respectively. Other exclusionary entities such as shipping lanes and avarian flyways were also considered as exclusion zones inside of areas amenable for offshore wind energy farms. A method to validate the modeled wind fields though error calculations against offshore buoy wind data, as well as onshore coastal meteorological towers is presented.

  2. Method of installing offshore constructions

    SciTech Connect

    Grosman, I.

    1987-12-08

    A method of constructing and installing an offshore gravity structure type construction in a body of water, by assembling columns of one-by-one using column sections for each individual column is described comprising the steps of: (a) providing a number of hollow, unconnected supporting column sections; (b) transporting the unconnected column sections to a construction site on a sea going vessel; (c) providing only one construction vessel with at least two hoisting systems thereon; (d) arranging, with one hoisting system on the one construction vessel, a single first one of the column sections for a single column near the surface of a body of water; (e) at least submerging with the one hoisting system the single first column section for the single column in the body of water by a certain amount; (f) placing, with another of the at least two hoisting systems, a single second one of the column sections on the top of the first column section and joining the top of the first column section to the bottom of the single second column section near the surface of the body of water to thereby build up a single column; (g) at least partly submerging with one hoisting system the second column section as jointed to the first column section by a depth substantially equal to the length of the second column section; (h) repeatedly placing with another hoisting system on the one construction vessel additional single ones of the column sections; and (i) repeating steps (d) to (h) to form at least a second individual column of desired height by joining column sections one-by-one, the second column being spaced from the first mentioned column, the steps (d) to (h) being repeated until columns are erected in a desired arrangement relative to each other with only the single construction vessel.

  3. Metallurgical considerations of the high yield to ultimate ratio in high strength steels for use in offshore engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, J.; Billingham, J.

    1995-12-31

    High strength steels are increasingly being specified for offshore applications primarily on topsides, but also more recently in jackets themselves. Compared with conventional structural steels, modem high strength steels possess higher yield ratios (YR). This has caused some concern and debate on their work hardening capacity and moreover, current material specification and design codes severely penalize their use by placing limits on YR and on allowable design stress. Many changes have occurred in steel processing and alloying methods over the past 15 years or so, to produce higher strength steels with increased toughness yet utilizing leaner chemistries to enhance weldability. High strength steels in the range 355--550MPa are likely to be increasingly used in future offshore applications and the current paper, although concerned with studies aimed specifically to assess the importance of variations in YR, also presents an overview of typical mechanical properties possessed by such steels. In general, the actual yield strength of steel plates exceeds the SMYS by a significant margin, sometimes by as much as 100MPa, which has important implications for material selection, design procedures and welding considerations. In general, as the yield strength increases, so also does the YR. However, despite possessing high YR values, modem steels maintain high levels of combined toughness, ductility and weldability. Variability in mechanical properties can be correlated with parameters such as particular steel manufacturer and production route, composition, and plate thickness. It has been demonstrated that some manufacturers can exert closer control on variability in properties, thereby consistently satisfying current offshore requirements.

  4. Potential threats to offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Increasingly spectacular acts of terrorism have led to growing concern that terrorists will move beyond the symbols of society and directly attack its technological and industrial vulnerabilities. Offshore platforms have been frequently mentioned among the potential targets terrorists might attack. This concern, however, has not resulted in extensive research like that devoted to possible threats to nuclear facilities, which have also been frequently mentioned as possible future targets of terrorists. For one thing, offshore drilling does not invoke the fear inherent in the word nuclear, a fear that translates directly into heavy security for the nuclear industry. Neither does the construction of offshore platforms provoke anything like the kind of protest generated by the construction of nuclear facilities.

  5. The carry-through of residues of maleic hydrazide from treated potatoes, following manufacture into potato crisps and 'jacket' potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Wilkinson, K; Reynolds, S L

    1998-07-01

    Potatoes, which had been treated 'in the field' with a commercial formulation of maleic hydrazide, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps on a factory production line using standard manufacturing conditions. Samples were taken at strategic points throughout the process and analysed to determine the degree of carry-through of residues. Results demonstrated that ca 56% of the maleic hydrazide residue in a potato could be carried through into the potato crisps, irrespective of which type of crisp was being manufactured. Results from a similarly constructed study investigating the fate of pesticides applied post-harvest showed that carry-through was less than 10%. This difference is explained in terms of the different modes of action of the two classes of pesticides being investigated. It is known that, as maleic hydrazide is a systemic pesticide, it will be located within the flesh of the potato tuber and is therefore likely to be protected from the various stages of the crisping process. However, the post-harvest non-systemic pesticides are applied to the exterior surface of the tuber and are therefore not likely to be protected in the same way. The results also showed that, due to the concentration effect caused by the loss of moisture during crisp manufacture, the levels of maleic hydrazide residues in crisps (on a mg/kg product basis) were approximately twice those measured in the original potatoes. PMID:9829033

  6. Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-04-12

    A report detailing the presentations and topics discussed at the Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop, an event designed to bring together offshore energy industry representatives to share information, best practices, and lessons learned.

  7. Offshore wind farm siting procedures applied offshore of Block Island, Rhode Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Christopher M.

    Since 2008, the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council (CRMC) has been leading a Rhode Island Ocean Area Management Plan (RIOSAMP) in partnership with the University of Rhode Island, resulting in an extensive multidisciplinary analysis of the Rhode Island offshore environment and its suitability for siting an offshore wind farm. As part of the RIOSAMP project, a standard siting optimization approach was first developed based on a siting index defined as the ratio of costs associated with the wind farm deployment to the available wind resource. This index, combined within a marine spatial planning approach to address ecological and societal constraints, provided an initial macro-siting tool (Spaulding et al., 2010). The multiple GIS layers required in this approach and the absence of theoretical support to optimize the resulting zoning, led to an extension of the initial optimization approach into a more comprehensive macro-siting optimization tool, integrating societal and ecological constraints into the siting tool, the Wind Farm Siting Index (WIFSI) (Grilli et al, 2012). The projects led to the definition of several favorable development areas including a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) off of Block Island, in State Waters. Deep Water Wind Inc. (DWW) plans to install and commission five 6 MW direct drive Siemens lattice jacket turbines in the REZ area, by 2014. In this thesis two major steps are accomplished to refine and expand the RIOSAMP macro-siting tool. First the macro-siting tool is expanded to include a model simulating the exclusionary zones defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations. Second a micro-siting model is developed, optimizing the relative position of each turbine within a wind farm area. The micro-siting objective is to minimize, (1) the loss in power due to the loss of wind resource in the wake of the turbines (wake "effect"), and (2) the cable costs that inter-connect the turbines and connecting the farm to the land. The REZ area is chosen as test site for the algorithm, and an optimal layout for the 5 turbines is found and discussed. Similarly the FAA tool is applied to the Block Island airport demonstrating the complexity of the FAA exclusionary area, and defining the limits of the exclusionary areas. The FAA regulation model is a geometric model in which all major (FAA) regulations within RI and the RI topography are embedded. The user specifies the dimension of the proposed turbines and an airport of interest, and a map of exclusionary zones specific to the turbine height and rules applying to the airport is generated. The model is validated for the entire state of Rhode Island. The micro-siting model finds the optimum placement of each turbine for a given number of turbines within an area. It includes the aerodynamic constraints (loss in wind speed within the wake of a turbine) associated to the deployment of arrays of turbines and the cable interconnection cost. It is combined with the technical, ecological, and social constraints used in the RIOSAMP macro-siting tool to provide a comprehensive micro-siting tool. In the optimization algorithm, a simple wake model and turbine-clustering algorithm are combined with the WIFSI in an objective function; the objective function is optimized with a genetic algorithm (GA).

  8. Offshore wind farm layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkinton, Christopher Neil

    Offshore wind energy technology is maturing in Europe and is poised to make a significant contribution to the U.S. energy production portfolio. Building on the knowledge the wind industry has gained to date, this dissertation investigates the influences of different site conditions on offshore wind farm micrositing---the layout of individual turbines within the boundaries of a wind farm. For offshore wind farms, these conditions include, among others, the wind and wave climates, water depths, and soil conditions at the site. An analysis tool has been developed that is capable of estimating the cost of energy (COE) from offshore wind farms. For this analysis, the COE has been divided into several modeled components: major costs (e.g. turbines, electrical interconnection, maintenance, etc.), energy production, and energy losses. By treating these component models as functions of site-dependent parameters, the analysis tool can investigate the influence of these parameters on the COE. Some parameters result in simultaneous increases of both energy and cost. In these cases, the analysis tool was used to determine the value of the parameter that yielded the lowest COE and, thus, the best balance of cost and energy. The models have been validated and generally compare favorably with existing offshore wind farm data. The analysis technique was then paired with optimization algorithms to form a tool with which to design offshore wind farm layouts for which the COE was minimized. Greedy heuristic and genetic optimization algorithms have been tuned and implemented. The use of these two algorithms in series has been shown to produce the best, most consistent solutions. The influences of site conditions on the COE have been studied further by applying the analysis and optimization tools to the initial design of a small offshore wind farm near the town of Hull, Massachusetts. The results of an initial full-site analysis and optimization were used to constrain the boundaries of the farm. A more thorough optimization highlighted the features of the area that would result in a minimized COE. The results showed reasonable layout designs and COE estimates that are consistent with existing offshore wind farms.

  9. FROM COAST TO OFFSHORE: SOME PROGRESS ON DEVELOPING MULTI-RESOURCE DESIGNS FOR GREAT LAKES MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the next generation of monitoring the condition of very large aquatic systems, we need to explore designs that integrate across multiple aquatic resource types, including coastal subsystems, nearshore, and offshore components, which together make up the total hydroscape. This ...

  10. Detection of QTc interval prolongation using jacket telemetry in conscious non-human primates: comparison with implanted telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Derakhchan, K; Chui, RW; Stevens, D; Gu, W; Vargas, HM

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: During repeat-dose toxicity studies, ECGs are collected from chemically or physically-restrained animals over a short timeframe. This is problematic due to cardiovascular changes caused by manual restraint stress and anesthesia, and limited ECG sampling. These factors confound data interpretation, but may be overcome by using a non-invasive jacket-based ECG collection (JET). The current study investigated whether a jacketed external telemetry system could detect changes in cardiac intervals and heart rate in non-human primates (NHPs), previously implanted with a PCT transmitter. Experimental Approach: Twelve male cynomolgus monkeys were treated weekly with vehicle or sotalol (8, 16, 32 mg kg−1) p.o. ECGs were collected continuously for 24 hours, following treatment, over 4 weeks. A satellite group of six NHPs was used for sotalol toxicokinetics. Key Results: Sotalol attained Cmax values 1–3 hours after dosing, and exhibited dose-proportional exposure. In jacketed NHPs, sotalol dose-dependently increased QT/QTc intervals, prolonged PR interval, and reduced heart rate. Significant QTc prolongation of 27, 54 and 76 msec was detected by JET after 8, 16, and 32 mg kg−1 sotalol, respectively, compared with time-matched vehicle-treated animals. Overall, JET-derived PR, QT, QTc intervals, QRS duration, and heart rate correlated well with those derived from PCT. Conclusions and Implications: The current findings clearly support the use of JET to quantify cardiac interval and rhythm changes, capable of detecting QTc prolongation caused by sotalol. JET may be a preferred method compared to restraint-based ECG because high-density ECG sampling can be collected in unstressed conscious monkeys, over several weeks. PMID:24372552

  11. Eighteenth annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    These sixty papers were given at a conference on offshore technology. Topics covered include friction effects of driving piles into sea beds of various compositions, wave forces on offshore platforms, stability, materials testing of various components such as plates, legs, wellheads, pipe joints, and protection of offshore platforms against ice and collision with icebergs.

  12. Foundations for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2003-12-15

    An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers. PMID:14667305

  13. China offshore has top priority

    SciTech Connect

    Cornitius, T.A.

    1983-11-01

    Joint venture development of offshore petroleum reserves has top priority in the mammoth effort to modernize the People's Republic of China. While the country works to overcome a critical shortage of skilled personnel, export of oil, coal, consumer goods, and metals will finance technological imports.

  14. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  15. The carry-through of residues of thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham from potatoes following manufacture into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Reynolds, S L

    1996-01-01

    Potatoes, commercially treated with thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps at a crisp factory using standard manufacturing conditions. A multi-residue method based on gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was developed and used to determine pesticide residue levels in the potatoes and potato crisps. Results showed that the residues of all three pesticides were significantly reduced to less than 2% and less than 10% of the maximum theoretical residue carry-through level for potato crisps and jacket potato crisps respectively. PMID:9064247

  16. Two offshore Australian crudes assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-05-09

    Two light, sweet crudes from offshore Australia have been assayed. Gippsland crude, also called Bass Strait, is produced off the coast of Victoria, in southeastern Australia. The 47 API, 0.09% sulfur crude was analyzed in mid-1993. Skua, a 42 API, 0.06 wt % sulfur crude, is produced in the Timor Sea. Data are given on the whole crude and fractions for both deposits. Both chemical and physical properties are listed.

  17. Fatigue handbook: Offshore steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Almarnaess, A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of Offshore Steel Structures; Loads on Ocean Structures; Fracture Mechanics As a Tool in Fatigue Analysis; Basic Fatigue Properties of Welded Joints; Significance of Defects; Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints; Effects of Marine Environment and Cathodic Protection on Fatigue of Structural Steels Fatigue of Tubular Joints; Unstable Fracture; Fatigue Life Calculations; and Fatigue in Building Codes Background and Applications.

  18. Offshore sand and gravel mining

    SciTech Connect

    Pandan, J.W.

    1983-05-01

    This paper reviews the status of mining offshore for sand and gravel on a world-wide basis. It discusses the technology for exploration and evaluation of sea floor mineral targets, as well as mining, transportation, and processing. Large operations in Japan and Europe are described, based upon personal observations of the author. The U.S. situation is outlined and opinions offered as to the outlook for the future.

  19. Offshore platform system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, R.T.

    1983-03-29

    An offshore platform structure and a system for transport and for reversible erection is disclosed. The light weight, semimobile structure; has negative buoyancy; is free standing on the ocean floor; has fixed guylines below interference depth and quickly positioned upper guylines for storm conditions; the structure may contain suitable tanks in the base for production of marginal crude oil wells or other fluid storage; a special tender to furnish buoyancy during transport.

  20. Pipelaying in artic offshore waters

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C. G.

    1985-11-19

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for constructing pipelines in Arctic offshore waters by a directional drilling technique, thereby minimizing exposure to ice gouging and eliminating the hazards associated with unstable permafrost. A special drilling-pipe-line construction vessel is also provided which has a conical shape with reinforced outer walls to resist ice forces, which vessel includes means to install deep underground pipeline segments and means to connect and protect the pipe ends.

  1. Offshore platform structure for artic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Einstabland, T.

    1984-11-27

    An offshore platform structure of the gravity type intended to be installed on a sea bed in artic or corresponding waters. The platform structure comprises a substructure intended to be completely submerged and supported by the sea bed when in installed position, a superstructure extending up from the substructure and up above the sea bed and a deck superstructure supported by the superstructure above the sea level. A fender is provided intended to protect the superstructure against drifting ice and icebergs, the substructure being provided with a preferably horizontal top support slab supporting the fender, the fender being movably arranged on said support slab and comprising a preferably compartmented cylindrical ring-shaped body with a large weight resting preferably freely on the substructure, intended to be arranged apart from the superstructure when in normal position.

  2. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Sha, O. P.; Misra, S. C.

    2010-09-01

    Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor) or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  3. Offshore oil: Correctness of perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.F.

    1993-05-01

    Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are determined to move forward. The depressed price of oil does not encourage development but recently gas prices in the US have increased, making offshore gas development more feasible. Perhaps most significant is development and application of new technology and more intense management to make sure it works. The offshore oil companies and support industries have made significant technological advances, expending over and above the dollars paid in taxes, lease fees, and royalties. The ocean industries harbor a great reservoir of high technology knowledge. They have demonstrated the ability to successfully meet a vast array of challenges in exploring for, drilling, and producing oil and gas in extreme conditions. These facts beg the question as to the rational basis of each and every regulation and the ban on drilling.

  4. Integrated natural-gas-engine cooling jacket vapor-compressor program. Annual progress report (phase 2), January-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.

    1988-01-01

    A unique, alternative cogeneration system was designed that will provide an industrial or commercial energy user with high-pressure steam and electricity directly from a packaged cogeneration system. The Integrated Gas Engine Vapor Compression System concept includes an engine-generator set and a steam screw compressor that are mechanically integrated with the engine. The gas-fueled engine is ebulliently cooled, thus allowing its water jacket heat to be recovered in the form of low-pressure steam. This steam is then compressed by the steam compressor to a higher pressure, and when combined with the high-pressure steam generated in the engine's exhaust gas boiler it provides the end user with a more useable thermal energy source. Phase 1B of this project was completed in 1986 and consisted primarily of the procurement of equipment and the final design and assembly of a prototype integrated gas-engine vapor-compression system.

  5. Liquid-crystalline phase development of a mesogen-jacketed polymer-application of two-dimensional infrared correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Chen, Erqiang; Ye, Chun; Zhang, Hailiang; Wu, Peiyi; Noda, Isao; Zhou, Qifeng

    2005-04-01

    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy has been applied to study PMPCS (poly{2,5-bis[(4-methoxyphenyl)oxycarbonyl]styrene}), a representative example of mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymers. With the precise analysis of a series of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of PMPCS recorded at varied temperatures, a reasonable mechanism of the development of liquid crystalline (LC) phase is proposed. Before the phase transition, the conformational change of individual side chains occurs sooner than that of the backbone due to the larger motional freedom of the side chains. After the phase transition, however, the readjustment of still somewhat mobile backbone occurs before the ordered, rigid, and mutually interacting side chains. That is, phase transition leading to the LC phase formation brings in a new cooperative restriction of motions to the segments. PMID:16851670

  6. Vessel movement influences offshore communications system design

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, S.R.; Burger, S.D.

    1996-05-27

    Communications links for the Liuhua 11-1 oil production project, offshore China, required a system that would function with vessel movement under typhoon conditions of heavy rainfall and extreme wave action. The system includes a microwave path between two floating production facilities and a satellite connection between the offshore facilities and onshore China. The system provides multiple local-area-network (LAN) linkages, and voice with fax in English and Chinese. The satellite link has a geostabilized platform offshore and a China National Offshore Oil Corp. master earth station onshore. System operations started in mid-1995. This paper reviews the design and performance of this communications network.

  7. 1991 worldwide offshore contractors and equipment directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book is the information source-book for the international offshore oil industry. Within this single convenient reference you'll find addresses, phone numbers, telex, fax and cable listings for more than 3,500 companies and their key personnel in the drilling, workover, construction, service/supply/manufacturers, geophysical, diving and transportation segments of the offshore industry. Along with this vital contact information, the authors include such pertinent data as rig specifications, ownership, an equipment index, a company index and a current survey of offshore production systems from Offshore Incorporating the Oilman.

  8. What can wave energy learn from offshore oil and gas?

    PubMed

    Jefferys, E R

    2012-01-28

    This title may appear rather presumptuous in the light of the progress made by the leading wave energy devices. However, there may still be some useful lessons to be learnt from current 'offshore' practice, and there are certainly some awful warnings from the past. Wave energy devices and the marine structures used in oil and gas exploration as well as production share a common environment and both are subject to wave, wind and current loads, which may be evaluated with well-validated, albeit imperfect, tools. Both types of structure can be designed, analysed and fabricated using similar tools and technologies. They fulfil very different missions and are subject to different economic and performance requirements; hence 'offshore' design tools must be used appropriately in wave energy project and system design, and 'offshore' cost data should be adapted for 'wave' applications. This article reviews the similarities and differences between the fields and highlights the differing economic environments; offshore structures are typically a small to moderate component of field development cost, while wave power devices will dominate overall system cost. The typical 'offshore' design process is summarized and issues such as reliability-based design and design of not normally manned structures are addressed. Lessons learned from poor design in the past are discussed to highlight areas where care is needed, and wave energy-specific design areas are reviewed. Opportunities for innovation and optimization in wave energy project and device design are discussed; wave energy projects must ultimately compete on a level playing field with other routes to low CO₂ energy and/or energy efficiency. This article is a personal viewpoint and not an expression of a ConocoPhillips position. PMID:22184670

  9. Seismic assessment for offshore pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, R.; Gudmestad, O.T.; Blaker, F.; Nadim, F.

    1995-12-31

    An international consensus on seismic design criteria for onshore pipelines has been established during the last thirty years. The need to assess seismic design for offshore pipelines has not been similarly recognized. In this paper, the geotechnical hazard for a pipeline routed across steep slopes and irregular terrains affected by earthquakes, is discussed. The integrity of both natural and artificial load bearing supports is assessed.d The response of the pipeline to direct excitation from soil or through discontinuous, sparsely distributed natural or artificial supports, is commented.

  10. Offshore drilling and production structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, R.K.; Palmer, H.E.; Stenning, D.G.

    1982-02-09

    The invention relates to an off-shore marine structure that provides an elevated support for a drilling and/or production platform. A structure comprised of three interlocking components is provided, the first component being a large foundation base installed on the sea bed; the second being a conical shaped support component which is engagable with the foundation base and which, releasably carries the third platform supporting component. In the preferred form, the platform supporting component comprises a centrally-disposed vertical column, means being provided to facilitate engagement of the column with the platform and the second component and to subsequently elevate the platform to an operating height above sea level.

  11. 1986 Offshore Contractors and Equipment Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The 1986 Offshore Contractors and Equipment Directory contains 3,000 listings of companies in the offshore drilling, construction, geophysical, diving, service/supply/manufacturing and transportation industries. Complete information about each business is given, including its affiliates, subsidiaries, divisions and branch offices as well as the correct address, phone, cable and telex numbers and the names of key personnel.

  12. Aeroelastic Modeling of Offshore Turbines and Support Structures in Hurricane-Prone Regions (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, R.

    2014-03-01

    US offshore wind turbines (OWTs) will likely have to contend with hurricanes and the associated loading conditions. Current industry standards do not account for these design load cases (DLCs), thus a new approach is required to guarantee that the OWTs achieve an appropriate level of reliability. In this study, a sequentially coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic modeling technique was used to address two design approaches: 1.) The ABS (American Bureau of Shipping) approach; and 2.) The Hazard Curve or API (American Petroleum Institute) approach. The former employs IEC partial load factors (PSFs) and 100-yr return-period (RP) metocean events. The latter allows setting PSFs and RP to a prescribed level of system reliability. The 500-yr RP robustness check (appearing in [2] and [3] upcoming editions) is a good indicator of the target reliability for L2 structures. CAE tools such as NREL's FAST and Bentley's' SACS (offshore analysis and design software) can be efficiently coupled to simulate system loads under hurricane DLCs. For this task, we augmented the latest FAST version (v. 8) to include tower aerodynamic drag that cannot be ignored in hurricane DLCs. In this project, a 6 MW turbine was simulated on a typical 4-legged jacket for a mid-Atlantic site. FAST-calculated tower base loads were fed to SACS at the interface level (transition piece); SACS added hydrodynamic and wind loads on the exposed substructure, and calculated mudline overturning moments, and member and joint utilization. Results show that CAE tools can be effectively used to compare design approaches for the design of OWTs in hurricane regions and to achieve a well-balanced design, where reliability levels and costs are optimized.

  13. Ice island creation, drift, recurrences, mechanical properties, and interactions with arctic offshore oil production structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Li, Fucheng; Lu, Mingchi.

    1991-03-01

    Research and engineering studies on first-year sea ice for over two decades has resulted in the design, construction, and operation of jacket platforms, of artificial islands, and of massive gravity structures which routinely withstand moving sea ice of thickness up to 2 meters. However, the less-common interactions between such structures and moving multiyear ice ([ge]3 meters thick), and also moving ice islands (10 to 60 meters thick) remain as the unknown and potentially most serious hazard for Arctic offshore structures. In this study, research was addressed across the complete span of remaining questions regarding such features. Ice island components, thickness distributions, scenarios and models for the interactions of massive ice features with offshore structures, all were considered. Ice island morphology and calving studies were directed at the cluster of 19 ice islands produced in a calving from the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on Ellesmere Island in 1983, and also at a calving from the Milne Ice Shelf in 1988. The statistics of ice island dynamics, on both a short-term small-scale basis and also on a long-term basis, were studied. Typical wind velocities of 5 to 7.5 meters per second led to ice island speeds of about 0.014 of the wind speed, at an angle of 20[degrees] to the right of the wind direction. Ice island samples were tested for their stress/strain characteristics. Compressive strength values ranged from 1.64 MPa at a strain rate of 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] s[sup [minus]1] to 6.75 MPa at a strain rate of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] s[sup [minus]1]. Scenarios for ice island/structure interactions were developed, and protective countermeasures such as spray ice and ice rubble barriers were suggested. Additional computer modeling of structure/ice interactions for massive ice features is recommended.

  14. Underbalanced drilling benefits now available offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Vozniak, J.P.; Cuthbertson, B.; Nessa, D.O.

    1997-05-01

    Offshore underbalanced drilling (UBD) is a reality. Applications in older, partially depleted fields and new fields are being considered. However, low productivity reservoirs and fields with sub normal pressures causing drilling problems are currently the main targets for offshore UBD. With proper planning and the correct technique, both jointed pipe and coiled tubing UBD drilling operations have been carried out offshore with success. The main concerns for offshore UBD have been altered drilling practices and surface production system operation. These issues have been examined and equipment has been designed and tested to address them. Environmental, safety and health issues are paramount and have been studied carefully. Detailed well planning, engineering, and flow modeling have proven critical for successful offshore UBD operations. Examples are given from oil and gas fields.

  15. Simplified rotor load models and fatigue damage estimates for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Muskulus, M

    2015-02-28

    The aim of rotor load models is to characterize and generate the thrust loads acting on an offshore wind turbine. Ideally, the rotor simulation can be replaced by time series from a model with a few parameters and state variables only. Such models are used extensively in control system design and, as a potentially new application area, structural optimization of support structures. Different rotor load models are here evaluated for a jacket support structure in terms of fatigue lifetimes of relevant structural variables. All models were found to be lacking in accuracy, with differences of more than 20% in fatigue load estimates. The most accurate models were the use of an effective thrust coefficient determined from a regression analysis of dynamic thrust loads, and a novel stochastic model in state-space form. The stochastic model explicitly models the quasi-periodic components obtained from rotational sampling of turbulent fluctuations. Its state variables follow a mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Although promising, more work is needed on how to determine the parameters of the stochastic model and before accurate lifetime predictions can be obtained without comprehensive rotor simulations. PMID:25583872

  16. Quantifying the benefits of a slender, high tip speed blade for large offshore wind turbiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blonk, Lindert; Rainey, Patrick; Langston, David A. J.; Vanni, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    An in-depth study has been completed to study the effects of slender, flexible blades in combination with high rotor speed operation on load mitigation, targeted at cost reductions of the structural components of large wind turbines, consequently lowering the levelized cost of energy. An overview of existing theory of sensitivity of turbine fatigue loading to the blade chord and rotor speed was created, and this was supplemented by a proposed theory for aboverated operation including the pitch controller. A baseline jacket-supported offshore turbine (7 MW) was defined, of which the blade was then redesigned to be more slender and flexible, at the same time increasing rotor speed. The blade redesign and optimisation process was guided by cost of energy assessments using a reduced loadset. Thereafter, a full loadset conform IEC61400-3 was calculated for both turbines. The expected support structure load reductions were affirmed, and it was shown that reductions of up to 18.5% are possible for critical load components. Cost modelling indicated that turbine and support structure CapEx could be reduced by 6%. Despite an energy production reduction of 0.44% related to the thicker airfoils used, the blade redesign led to a reduction in Cost of Energy.

  17. Verification of the New FAST v8 Capabilities for the Modeling of Fixed-Bottom Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barahona, B.; Jonkman, J.; Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Hayman, G.

    2014-12-01

    Coupled dynamic analysis has an important role in the design of offshore wind turbines because the systems are subject to complex operating conditions from the combined action of waves and wind. The aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool FAST v8 is framed in a novel modularization scheme that facilitates such analysis. Here, we present the verification of new capabilities of FAST v8 to model fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. We analyze a series of load cases with both wind and wave loads and compare the results against those from the previous international code comparison projects-the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 23 Subtask 2 Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) and the IEA Wind Task 30 OC3 Continued (OC4) projects. The verification is performed using the NREL 5-MW reference turbine supported by monopile, tripod, and jacket substructures. The substructure structural-dynamics models are built within the new SubDyn module of FAST v8, which uses a linear finite-element beam model with Craig-Bampton dynamic system reduction. This allows the modal properties of the substructure to be synthesized and coupled to hydrodynamic loads and tower dynamics. The hydrodynamic loads are calculated using a new strip theory approach for multimember substructures in the updated HydroDyn module of FAST v8. These modules are linked to the rest of FAST through the new coupling scheme involving mapping between module-independent spatial discretizations and a numerically rigorous implicit solver. The results show that the new structural dynamics, hydrodynamics, and coupled solutions compare well to the results from the previous code comparison projects.

  18. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R,; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Greene, H. Gary; Cochrane, Guy R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Watt, Janet T.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chin, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Potential marine benthic habitat types in the Offshore of Fort Ross map area include unconsolidated continental-shelf sediments, mixed continental-shelf substrate, and hard continental-shelf substrate. Rocky shelf outcrops and rubble are considered the primary habitat type for rockfish and lingcod, both of which are recreationally and commercially important species.

  19. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Jon G.; Manwell, James F.; Lackner, Matthew A.

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  20. Offshore Wind Plant Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Saur, G.; Maples, B.; Meadows, B.; Hand, M.; Musial, W.; Elkington, C.; Clayton, J.

    2012-09-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non-turbine costs associated with offshore turbine sizes ranging from 3 MW to 6 MW and offshore wind plant sizes ranging from 100 MW to 1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US offshore wind plants.

  1. Inconsistency in 9 mm bullets: correlation of jacket thickness to post-impact geometry measured with non-destructive X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Thornby, John; Landheer, Dirk; Williams, Tim; Barnes-Warden, Jane; Fenne, Paul; Norman, Daniel; Attridge, Alex; Williams, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental to any ballistic armour standard is the reference projectile to be defeated. Typically, for certification purposes, a consistent and symmetrical bullet geometry is assumed, however variations in bullet jacket dimensions can have far reaching consequences. Traditionally, characteristics and internal dimensions have been analysed by physically sectioning bullets--an approach which is of restricted scope and which precludes subsequent ballistic assessment. The use of a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) method has been demonstrated and validated (Kumar et al., 2011 [15]); the authors now apply this technique to correlate bullet impact response with jacket thickness variations. A set of 20 bullets (9 mm DM11) were selected for comparison and an image-based analysis method was employed to map jacket thickness and determine the centre of gravity of each specimen. Both intra- and inter-bullet variations were investigated, with thickness variations of the order of 200 ?m commonly found along the length of all bullets and angular variations of up to 50 ?m in some. The bullets were subsequently impacted against a rigid flat plate under controlled conditions (observed on a high-speed video camera) and the resulting deformed projectiles were re-analysed. The results of the experiments demonstrate a marked difference in ballistic performance between bullets from different manufacturers and an asymmetric thinning of the jacket is observed in regions of pre-impact weakness. The conclusions are relevant for future soft armour standards and provide important quantitative data for numerical model correlation and development. The implications of the findings of the work on the reliability and repeatability of the industry standard V50 ballistic test are also discussed. PMID:24378310

  2. Worldwide offshore contractors and equipment directory, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book provides nearly 3,000 listings of companies and personnel in the drilling, construction, geophysical, diving, service/supply/manufacturinig, and transportation industries. Complete information includes addresses, phone numbers, telex and cable, and the names of key personnel in the offshore marketplace. Naval architecture, marine engineering, offshore pipelaying, design and fabrication of platforms, mobile drilling units and other offshore oil structures are included among the many other services and products presented in this directory. A completely revised and greatly expanded service/supply/manufacturing section provides much more extensive information on backup suppliers, price and delivery. Locations and personnel of thousands of branch offices and outlets are compiled.

  3. 1987 worldwide offshore contractor and equipment directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Within this reference source there are nearly 3,000 listings of companies and personnel in the drilling, construction, geophysical, diving, service/supply/manufacturing, and transportation industries. Complete and updated information includes addresses, phone numbers, telex and cable, and the names of key personnel in the offshore marketplace. In addition, the directory supplies a company index, the 1986 Marine Transportation Survey from Offshore Magazine, the current Worldwide Survey of Offshore Production Systems from the same publication, and the new, complete Mobile Rig Survey prepared by Electronic Rig Stats.

  4. Offshore drilling to increase in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A mid-year report presents a worldwide overview of offshore drilling operations. The Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea are posting substantial gains as companies rush to drill the millions of acres acquired in those sectors both last year and in previous offerings. The Middle East, Latin America and the Asia/Pacific offshore theaters will see only slight increases. The Mediterranean and African regions are expected to sustain declines. A region-by-region summary of the 1984 offshore forecast is presented showing exploration and appraisal activities, as well as development for all of these areas.

  5. Old Issues in a New Jacket: Power and Validation in the Context of Mixture Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubke, Gitta

    2012-01-01

    Von Davier et al. (this issue) describe two analyses that aim at determining whether the constructs measured with a number of observed items are categorical or continuous in nature. The issue of types versus traits has a long history and is relevant in many areas of behavioral research, including personality research, as emphasized by von Davier

  6. Numerical Study Of The Effects Of Preloading, Axial Loading And Concrete Shrinkage On Reinforced Concrete Elements Strengthened By Concrete Layers And Jackets

    SciTech Connect

    Lampropoulos, A. P.; Dritsos, S. E.

    2008-07-08

    In this study, the technique of seismic strengthening existing reinforced concrete columns and beams using additional concrete layers and jackets is examined. The finite element method and the finite element program ATENA is used in this investigation. When a reinforced jacket or layer is being constructed around a column it is already preloaded due to existing service loads. This effect has been examined for different values of the axial load normalized to the strengthened column. The techniques of strengthening with a concrete jacket or a reinforced concrete layer on the compressive side of the column are examined. Another phenomenon that is examined in this study is the shrinkage of the new concrete of an additional layer used to strengthen an existing member. For this investigation, a simply supported beam with an additional reinforced concrete layer on the tensile side is examined. The results demonstrate that the effect of preloading is important when a reinforced concrete layer is being used with shear connectors between the old and the new reinforcement. It was also found that the shrinkage of the new concrete reduces the strength of the strengthened beam and induces an initial sliding between the old and the new concrete.

  7. Integrated natural-gas-engine cooling-jacket vapor-compressor program. Final report, February 1985-August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    DiBella, F.A.

    1990-08-01

    A unique, alternative cogeneration system has been designed that will provide an industrial or commercial energy user with high-pressure steam and electricity directly from a packaged cogeneration system. The Integrated Gas Engine Vapor Compression System concept includes an engine-generator set and a twin screw compressor that are mechanically integrated with the engine. The gas-fueled engine is ebulliently cooled, thus allowing its water jacket heat to be recovered in the form of low-pressure steam. The steam is then compressed by the steam compressor to a higher pressure, and when combined with the high-pressure steam generated in the engine's exhaust gas boiler, it provides the end user with a more usable thermal energy source. Phase 1B of the project was completed in 1986 and consisted primarily of the procurement of equipment and the final design and assembly of a prototype integrated gas engine vapor compression system. The project continued with Phase 2, which comprised the actual laboratory testing of the prototype system, as well as the study of several pertinent subtasks that were identified to GRI as supportive of the primary project objective. Phase 2 also included the selection of a field site, site engineering, and the final installation, start-up, and acceptance testing of the system.

  8. Spacecraft attitude impacts on COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank thermal performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arif, Hugh

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot - Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) spacecraft will be launched into low earth orbit to perform fluid management experiments on the behavior of subcritical liquid hydrogen (LH2). For determining the optimum on-orbit attitude for the COLD-SAT satellite, a comparative analytical study was performed to determine the thermal impacts of spacecraft attitude on the performance of the COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank. Tank thermal performance was quantified by total conductive and radiative heat leakage into the pressure vessel due to the absorbed solar, earth albedo and infra-red on-orbit fluxes, and also by the uniformity of the variation of this leakage on the vessel surface area. Geometric and thermal analysis math models were developed for the spacecraft and the tank as part of this analysis, based on their individual thermal/structural designs. Two quasi-inertial spacecraft attitudes were investigated and their effects on the tank performance compared. The results are one of the criteria by which the spacecraft orientation in orbit was selected for the in-house NASA Lewis Research Center design.

  9. Some Effects of Injection Advance Angle, Engine-Jacket Temperature, and Speed on Combustion in a Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1936-01-01

    An optical indicator and a high-speed motion-picture camera capable of operating at the rate of 2,000 frames per second were used to record simultaneously the pressure development and the flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. Tests were made at engine speeds of 570 and 1,500 r.p.m. The engine-jacket temperature was varied from 100 degrees to 300 degrees F. And the injection advance angle from 13 degrees after top center to 120 degrees before top center. The results show that the course of the combustion is largely controlled by the temperature and pressure of the air in the chamber from the time the fuel is injected until the time at which combustion starts and by the ignition lag. The conclusion is presented that in a compression-ignition engine with a quiescent combustion chamber the ignition lag should be the longest that can be used without excessive rates of pressure rise; any further shortening of the ignition lag decreased the effective combustion of the engine.

  10. Spacecraft attitude impacts on COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank thermal performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arif, Hugh

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot - Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) spacecraft will be launched into low earth orbit to perform fluid management experiments on the behavior of subcritical liquid hydrogen (LH2). For determining the optimum on-orbit attitude for the COLD-SAT satellite, a comparative analytical study was performed to determine the thermal impacts of spacecraft attitude on the performance of the COLD-SAT non-vacuum jacketed LH2 supply tank. Tank thermal performance was quantitied by total conductive and radiative heat leakage into the pressure vessel due to the absorbed solar, earth albedo and infra-red on-orbit fluxes, and also by the uniformity of the variation of this leakage on the vessel surface area. Geometric and thermal analysis math models were developed for the spacecraft and the tank as part of this analysis, based on their individual thermal/structural designs. Two quasi-inertial spacecraft attitudes were investigated and their effects on the tank performance compared. The results are one of the criteria by which the spacecraft orientation in orbit was selected for the in-house NASA Lewis Research Center design.

  11. Offshore medicine: Medical care of employees in the offshore oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, R.A.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book is specifically designed to help the doctor who has to provide medical care for the expanding offshore oil industry. It describes the pattern of work offshore and the medical problems which it generates. The special features of offshore medical care are described along with the training of medics, the design of hospital facilities, and the provision of back-up services to cope with them. These are special chapters on diving, hygiene, and catering, dentistry, and legal aspects.

  12. Psychosocial burden among offshore drilling platform employees.

    PubMed

    Leszczy?ska, Irena; Je?ewska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Conditions of work on offshore drilling platforms are particularly hard due to extreme environmental situations created both by nature and technological processes. Oil drilling workers employed on the open sea are potentially exposed to permanently high stress. Apart from the obvious objective factors affecting drilling platform employees, a great role in the general work-related stress level is played by the working conditions and work-related psychosocial factors, defined according to Karask's concept as demands, control, and social support. A total of 184 drill platform workers were examined using objective and subjective research methods. The level of subjective stress among drilling platform workers is lower than the level of objective stress and the stress resulting from prognoses related with specificity of work in extremely hard conditions (audit). The examinations of drilling platform workers reveal a positive role of stress in psychological adaptation, being a special case of the "work ethos" and attachment to the firm. In such investigations of work-related stress on drilling platforms, which are very specific workplaces, a multi-aspect character, sociological and economic aspects, organizational culture conditions in the firm, and a tendency to conceal ailments and the stress experienced should be taken into account. It is important to apply measures referring to at least three different types of evidence (objective demands, subjective stress, health problems reported). Otherwise, the result reflecting work-related stress may not be objective and far from the truth. PMID:21154303

  13. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

  14. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  15. Engineering Challenges for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, S.; Musial, W.; Jonkman, J.; Sclavounos, P.

    2007-09-01

    The major objective of this paper is to survey the technical challenges that must be overcome to develop deepwater offshore wind energy technologies and to provide a framework from which the first-order economics can be assessed.

  16. New perspectives in offshore wind energy

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-01-01

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  17. 2014 Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce

    2014-08-25

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market.This 3rd annual report focuses on new developments that have occurred in 2014. The report provides stakeholders with a reliable and consistent data source addressing entry barriers and U.S. competitiveness in the offshore wind market. Available for download are both the full report and the report's underlying data.

  18. New perspectives in offshore wind energy.

    PubMed

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-02-28

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  19. Fatigue crack propagation in high strength steels for use offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Billingham, J.; Laws, P.A.

    1994-12-31

    The influence of applied cathodic protection levels on the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of a number of welded high strength microalloyed steels has been determined. The types of steel and the yield strengths selected, which ranged from 450 to 650MPa, were intended to cover both existing and likely developments in offshore structures over the next decade or so. The steels were welded using the submerged arc process at a heat input of 3kJ/mm and the corrosion fatigue properties of the coarse grained heat affected zones (CGHAZ) were examined using S.E.N. specimens subjected to a loading frequency of 0.5Hz and a load ratio of 0.6 in a synthetic seawater solution. At high over potentials ({minus}1100mV) all steels showed significantly enhanced corrosion fatigue crack propagation rates compared to similar samples protected at {minus}800mV. Growth rates of up to an order of magnitude faster were measured in some cases. Crack path deviation in general decreased as the potential decreased. Much flatter, cleavage type modes of fracture propagation were sometimes observed, indicating that the faster growth rates were associated with hydrogen embrittlement problems caused by the excess hydrogen generated by the cathodic protection process. However, the resulting fatigue performance was found to be no worse than for conventional lower strength 350MPa structural steels which are presently being used offshore. The work examined the influence of alloy composition and microstructure on fatigue crack growth behavior and emphasizes the difficulties associated with assessing and comparing fatigue behavior of welded samples because of the different microstructures which are sampled by the growing fatigue crack tip in conventional test procedures. Finally, the work makes recommendation on suitable high strength alloy types for further development for offshore applications.

  20. Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradstein, Felix M.; Hammer, Oyvind; Brunstad, Harald; Charnock, Mike; Hellem, Terje; Sigve Lervik, Kjell; Anthonissen, Erik

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX) provides a relational stratigraphic database for the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and Svalbard. Both regional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy are being substantially updated, following guidelines laid out in the International Stratigraphic Guide. The main body of information developed is available as a petroleum consortium (oracle-style) database, and the new lithostratigraphic definitions as a public domain (paper) document. NORLEX is presented as a browsing website via the internet at http://www.nhm.uio.no/norlex. Seismic cross-sections, core photographs, well logs, field outcrops, microfossil occurrences and other vital attributes are relationally cross-linked. In addition, there are menus for instantly finding updated formation and member tops or microfossil events in all wells, plus a map contouring routine for unit thicknesses and depths. Several new initiatives will expand data and user coverage: 1. Overhaul of Mesozoic stratigraphy, especially Triassic and Cretaceous, in the Barents Sea. 2. Coverage of East Greenland 3. Linkage to UK and Belgium and The Netherlands surface and subsurface stratigraphy 4. Creation of a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework for specific regions. 5. A national microfossil atlas to support zonations 6. Tight linkage to the basin datapacks in TimeScaleCreator Pro, as developed for Australia, New Zealand, Brasil, Gulf of Mexico, Canada and Russia. NORLEX may thus evolve to become STRATLEX, covering many basin regions.

  1. Problems unique to offshore measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    Most of us have arrived at this meeting in some kind of company provided transportation. This is supplied in order for us to do our assigned jobs. These may be trucks, or cars, or even helicopters, and maybe boats. All who are involved in the offshore industry know that transportation is the cost costly of all. The helicopter bill for our company is a bill which costs us somewhere in the 9 million dollar range. Since this costs us so much, we are constantly looking at ways to reduce this. The helicopters we use cost us $510.00 a flying hour plus $28,000.00 a month for lease. These helicopters fly in the neighborhood of 140 miles per hour. You can quickly see how fast the cost can climb. We have two technicians, along with a pilot, and approx. 400 lbs of test gear and spare parts. You have to carry all you think you will need for the day`s activities because it`s a long and costly trip to go pick up some gasket material or an orifice plate.

  2. Offshore well casing cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect

    Hamberg, A.; Orton, M.D.; Smith, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    Many papers have been published on cathodic protection of offshore platforms, but few references are made on the extent of protection of the well casings attached to the structures. Others reported tests in the Arabian Gulf which showed the galvanic anodes protected the wells to a depth of approximately 3200 ft (976 m) and that 300 A were required to completely protect bare well casings attached to a six-well platform in 40 ft (12 m) of water. Recent tests in deeper water (170 ft (52 m() showed the structure galvanic anodes deliver approximately 8 A per well and protect the bare casing to approximately 3000 ft (915 m). An impressed current cathodic protection system with 600 A applied to anodes placed 400 ft (122 m) from the structure protected the structure and six bare well casings to 8000 ft (2440 m). A protection criterion of 0.1 mA/ft/sup 2/ (1.1 mA/m/sup 2/) in the lower cemented zone was proposed. Impressed current anodes placed closer than 400 ft (122 m) from the structure did not protect the wells to the required depth.

  3. Arctic & Offshore Technical Data System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-07-01

    AORIS is a computerized information system to assist the technology and planning community in the development of Arctic oil and gas resources. In general, AORIS is geographically dependent and, where possible, site specific. The main topics are sea ice, geotechnology, oceanography, meteorology, and Arctic engineering, as they relate to such offshore oil and gas activities as exploration, production, storage, and transportation. AORIS consists of a directory component that identifies 85 Arctic energy-related databases and tellsmore » how to access them; a bibliographic/management information system or bibliographic component containing over 8,000 references and abstracts on Arctic energy-related research; and a scientific and engineering information system, or data component, containing over 800 data sets, in both tabular and graphical formats, on sea ice characteristics taken from the bibliographic citations. AORIS also contains much of the so-called grey literature, i.e., data and/or locations of Arctic data collected, but never published. The three components are linked so the user may easily move from one component to another. A generic information system is provided to allow users to create their own information systems. The generic programs have the same query and updating features as AORIS, except that there is no directory component.« less

  4. Offshore oil and the coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A radical, accelerated 5-year plan to offer 875 million acres (of which 20 million could actually be leased for oil and gas extraction purposes) on the outer continental shelf (OCS) could result in the release of large volumes of drilling wastes and spillage (Environ. Sci. Tech., Nov. 1981). The actual leasing, under the 5-year plan proposed by Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt, could amount to 4-5 million acres per year—about 10 times as much, on the average, as had been leased over the past 25 years. Regulations on the environmental effects may be less complicated yet more effective in that impact statements will cover large areas instead of the tract-by-tract statements now required. A number of the new offshore leasing areas, for example, the Alaska Coast (Cook Inlet, Beaufort Bay, Gulf of Alaska), the Blake Plateau and Baltimore Canyon, and the Georges Bank, are extremely valuable in terms of renewable resources and potentially fragile in terms of environmental conditions. Fishing interests in these areas have produced considerable controversy over the planned sale of petroleum rights.

  5. Arctic & Offshore Technical Data System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-07-01

    AORIS is a computerized information system to assist the technology and planning community in the development of Arctic oil and gas resources. In general, AORIS is geographically dependent and, where possible, site specific. The main topics are sea ice, geotechnology, oceanography, meteorology, and Arctic engineering, as they relate to such offshore oil and gas activities as exploration, production, storage, and transportation. AORIS consists of a directory component that identifies 85 Arctic energy-related databases and tellsmorehow to access them; a bibliographic/management information system or bibliographic component containing over 8,000 references and abstracts on Arctic energy-related research; and a scientific and engineering information system, or data component, containing over 800 data sets, in both tabular and graphical formats, on sea ice characteristics taken from the bibliographic citations. AORIS also contains much of the so-called grey literature, i.e., data and/or locations of Arctic data collected, but never published. The three components are linked so the user may easily move from one component to another. A generic information system is provided to allow users to create their own information systems. The generic programs have the same query and updating features as AORIS, except that there is no directory component.less

  6. Cleaning of a copper matte smelting slag from a water-jacket furnace by direct reduction of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Maweja, Kasonde; Mukongo, Tshikele; Mutombo, Ilunga

    2009-05-30

    Cleaning experiments of a copper matte smelting slag from the water-jacket furnace was undertaken by direct reduction in a laboratory-scale electric furnace. The effects of coal-to-slag ratio, w, and the reduction time, t, were considered for two different coal/slag mixing procedures. In the first procedure, metallurgical coal was added to the molten slag, whereas in the second procedure, coal was premixed with the solid slag before charging into the furnace. The recovery of heavy metals (Cu, Co), and the fuming of Pb and Zn were investigated. Contamination of the metal phase by iron and the acidity index of the final slag were analysed as these may impede the economical viability of the process. The lower w value of 2.56% yielded a recovery rate of less than 60% for copper and less than 50% for cobalt, and around 70% for zinc. However, increasing w to 5% allowed the recovery of 70-90% for Cu, Co and Zn simultaneously after 30-60 min reduction of the molten slag. After reduction, the cleaned slags contained only small amounts of copper and cobalt (<0.4 wt%). Fuming of lead and zinc was efficient as the %Pb of the residual slag dropped to levels lower than 0.04% after 30 min of reduction. Ninety percent of the lead was removed from the initial slag and collected in the dusts. The zinc content of the cleaned slags quickly dropped to between 1 and 3 wt% from the initial 8.2% after 30 min reduction for w value of 5 and after 60 min reduction for w value of 2.56. The dusts contained about 60% Zn and 10% Pb. Recovery of lead from fuming of the slag was higher than 90% in all the experimental conditions considered in this study. PMID:18848396

  7. Assessment of Ports for Offshore Wind Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Elkinton, Chris; Blatiak, Alicia; Ameen, Hafsa

    2014-03-21

    As offshore wind energy develops in the United States, port facilities will become strategic hubs in the offshore wind farm supply chain because all plant and transport logistics must transit through these facilities. Therefore, these facilities must provide suitable infrastructure to meet the specific requirements of the offshore wind industry. As a result, it is crucial that federal and state policy-makers and port authorities take effective action to position ports in the offshore wind value chain to take best advantage of their economic potential. The U.S. Department of Energy tasked the independent consultancy GL Garrad Hassan (GL GH) with carrying out a review of the current capability of U.S. ports to support offshore wind project development and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities related to upgrading this capability to support the growth of as many as 54 gigawatts of offshore wind installed in U.S. waters by 2030. The GL GH report and the open-access web-based Ports Assessment Tool resulting from this study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations. The offshore wind industry in the United States is still in its infancy and this study finds that additional port facilities capable of supporting offshore wind projects are needed to meet the anticipated project build-out by 2030; however, no significant barriers exist to prevent the development of such facilities. Furthermore, significant port capabilities are in place today with purpose-build port infrastructure currently being built. While there are currently no offshore wind farms operating in the United States, much of the infrastructure critical to the success of such projects does exist, albeit in the service of other industries. This conclusion is based on GL GH’s review of U.S. ports infrastructure and its readiness to support the development of proposed offshore wind projects in U.S. waters. Specific examples of facility costs and benefits are provided for five coastal regions (North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes, and Pacific) around the country. GL GH began this study by identifying the logistical requirements of offshore wind ports to service offshore wind. This review was based on lessons learned through industry practice in Northern Europe. A web-based port readiness assessment tool was developed to allow a capability gap analysis to be conducted on existing port facilities based on the identified requirements. Cost models were added to the assessment tool, which allowed GL GH to estimate the total upgrade cost to a port over the period 2014-2030 based on a set of regional project build-out scenarios. Port fee information was gathered from each port allowing an estimate of the potential revenue to the port under this same set of scenarios. The comparison of these revenue and improvement cost figures provides an initial indication of the level of offshore wind port readiness. To facilitate a more in-depth infrastructure analysis, six ports from different geographic regions, with varied levels of interest and preparedness towards offshore wind, were evaluated by modeling a range of installation strategies and port use types to identify gaps in capability and potential opportunities for economic development. Commonalities, trends, and specific examples from these case studies are presented and provide a summary of the current state of offshore wind port readiness in the U.S. and also illustrate the direction some ports have chosen to take to prepare for offshore wind projects. For example, the land area required for wind turbine and foundation manufacturing is substantial, particularly due to the large size of offshore wind components. Also, the necessary bearing capacities of the quayside and storage area are typically greater for offshore wind components than for more conventional cargo handling. As a result, most U.S. ports will likely require soil strength improvements before they can fully support offshore wind project construction. As U.S. ports and offshore wind developers look to work together on specific projects, they will encounter synergies and challenges. The challenges they face will include identifying sources of funding for the facility improvements required, and addressing ports’ typical desire to engage in long-term partnerships on the order of 10-20 years. Early projects will especially feel these challenges as they set the precedent for these partnerships in the United States. This study seeks to provide information about gaps, costs, and opportunities to aid these discussions.

  8. The Seabed Stability Zonation in Chinese Offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.

    2013-12-01

    There are abundant natural resources and energy in Chinese offshore continental shelf, and which should be the most development potential region now and in the future. But the seabed of Chinese offshore is often under the instable status caused by many factors which deeply affects the safety of marine development. Marine geohazards is an active one among the influence factors. The marine geohazards means the geological factors developed in the seabed surface and the strata below the seabed, such as fault, shallow gas, landslide, coastal erosion, buried river channel, sand wave and sand ridge, easily liquefied sand layer etc., which will cause damage to the human life and property. In this paper, the seabed stability were analyzed and divided it into five grades based on the marine geohazards evaluation result which made by fuzzy mathematic model. Firstly, by collecting the analyzing the marine geohazards which distributed on the seabed or under the seabed, the marine geohazards maps in Chinese offshore were made and the classification system of marine geohazards was established. Then, the evaluation index system of seabed stability was set which included the seismic peak acceleration, geomorphology, direct geohazards and restricted geohazards. And the weighted value of each indicator was calculated by using analytic hierarchy process. And, a group of appropriate number with normal distribution was selected to replace the membership grade function. Based on above, a fuzzy evaluation model for seabed stability is established. Using the maps of marine geohazards, geomorphology maps and seismic peak acceleration maps as data source, using the fuzzy matrix as calculated method, based on the principles of maximum membership grade of fuzzy mathematics, we get the evaluation result of Chinese offshore with 6' by 6' grid unit. The maximum membership grade should be taken as the stability level in each unit. Above all, the seabed stability of Chinese offshore is divided into five grades according to the maximum membership grade. In this paper, we defined 5 classes which respectively were basically stable, relatively stable, medium, relatively unstable and unstable. By using statistical analysis method, a stability zonation map of the Chinese offshore has been drawn based on the evaluation result of each unit. From the stability map, Chinese offshore seabed stability was divided into sixty sub-regions with 5 classes. And the unstable sub-regions were mainly located in the North-East of Liaodong Bay, north of Laizhou Bay, the shoal in north Jiangsu, north Taiwan offshore and around Nan'ao Islands of Guangdong. Most Chinese offshore seabed stability has been in the relatively stable status.

  9. A framework for offshore vendor capability development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf Wibisono, Yogi; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Irianto, Dradjad; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a common practice conducted by companies, especially in developed countries, by relocating one or more their business processes to other companies abroad, especially in developing countries. This practice grows rapidly owing to the ease of accessing qualified vendors with a lower cost. Vendors in developing countries compete more intensely to acquire offshore projects. Indonesia is still below India, China, Malaysia as main global offshore destinations. Vendor capability is among other factors that contribute to the inability of Indonesian vendor in competing with other companies in the global market. Therefore, it is essential to study how to increase the vendor's capability in Indonesia, in the context of global offshore outsourcing. Previous studies on the vendor's capability mainly focus on capabilities without considering the dynamic of capabilities due to the environmental changes. In order to be able to compete with competitors and maintain the competitive advantage, it is necessary for vendors to develop their capabilities continuously. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework that describes offshore vendor capability development along the client-vendor relationship stages. The framework consists of three main components, i.e. the stages of client-vendor relationship, the success of each stage, and the capabilities of vendor at each stage.

  10. Offshore oil gas trends in ROVs tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.R. )

    1994-04-01

    The ROVs that operate in today's offshore environment bear little or no resemblance to those which first began supporting the oil and gas work requirements less than 15 years ago. In that short span of time, an explosion of subsea technology has occurred, rendering older equipment obsolete and expanding subsea remote intervention capabilities beyond the horizon of intervention tasks originally envisioned. Today's offshore work ROVs employ the latest in robotics, fiver optics, acoustics, video, and computer technologies, and routinely achieve better than 90 percent operational availability. Leading offshore ROV operations companies have demonstrated less than 1 percent down-time over thousands of hours of operation. As the offshore oil and gas market evolves, the ever-expanding capabilities of the work ROV plays a major role in shaping the operational concepts employed in subsea oil and gas field exploration, development, and production. This paper explores the capabilities of available ROV systems in use offshore today, the economic trends driving ROV technology development, and the new trends in the employment of ROVs and their associated sensors and tooling systems.

  11. Operational management of offshore energy assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolios, A. J.; Martinez Luengo, M.

    2016-02-01

    Energy assets and especially those deployed offshore are subject to a variety of harsh operational and environmental conditions which lead to deterioration of their performance and structural capacity over time. The aim of reduction of CAPEX in new installations shifts focus to operational management to monitor and assess performance of critical assets ensuring their fitness for service throughout their service life and also to provide appropriate and effective information towards requalification or other end of life scenarios, optimizing the OPEX. Over the last decades, the offshore oil & gas industry has developed and applied various approaches in operational management of assets through Structural Health and Condition Monitoring (SHM/CM) systems which can be, at a certain level, transferable to offshore renewable installations. This paper aims to highlight the key differences between offshore oil & gas and renewable energy assets from a structural integrity and reliability perspective, provide a comprehensive overview of different approaches that are available and applicable, and distinguish the benefits of such systems in the efficient operation of offshore energy assets.

  12. Trophic connections in Lake Superior Part I: the offshore fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, A.E.; Hrabik, T.R.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed diet linkages within the offshore (> 80 m bathymetric depth) food web of Lake Superior are currently not well identified. We used analyses of fish stomach contents to create an empirically based food web model of the Lake Superior offshore fish community. Stomachs were collected seasonally (spring, summer, and fall) from nine offshore locations in 2005, using bottom and midwater trawls. In total, 2643 stomachs representing 12 fish species were examined. The predominant fish species collected were deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii), siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet), kiyi (Coregonus kiyi), and cisco (Coregonus artedi). Mysis diluviana was the most common prey item, indicating that changes in Mysis abundance could have a profound impact on the entire offshore food web. Mysis was the primary diet item of deepwater sculpin (≥ 53% by mass) and kiyi (≥ 96% by mass) regardless of depth or season. The invasive Bythotrephes was an important diet component of the pelagic cisco in summer and fall. Deepwater sculpin were the primary diet item of siscowet (≥ 52% by mass), with coregonines appearing in the diet of larger (> 400 mm) siscowet. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant seasonal or site-specific differences in diets of deepwater sculpin, cisco, or kiyi. Site was the primary structuring factor in siscowet diets. Generally, in Lake Superior, the diet items of the dominant offshore species did not appear to be in danger from those types of major ecological shifts occurring in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes.

  13. The challenge and prevention of epidemics: experience from offshore petroleum installations and its extrapolation to ships.

    PubMed

    Ulven, Arne Johan

    2011-01-01

    The risk of epidemics represents an important challenge in offshore petroleum activities. All personnel are needed for regular operations, and the outbreak of an epidemic will soon affect the operations. The economical consequences can be vast. The risk of an epidemic is raised due to the closeness of living and catering offshore combined with frequent changes of personnel who travel offshore from many nations. The article is based on the experience gained by the author during 22 years as a senior medical officer in a Norwegian oil company. Some endemics and epidemics are described. None of these resulted in the shutdown of production, but they still represented a major challenge to the company and to the medical staff in particular. The transfer value from experience offshore to ships is obvious but there are differences. Risk analysis and quality assurance systems play an important part in the prevention and limitation of epidemics offshore. The infrastructure of the food supply chain as well as education and training of personnel are key elements. Campaigns on different hygiene topics that address all personnel are launched at regular intervals. Contingency plans must be established and be ready for use in case of a threatening epidemic. Identification of the type and source of the infection or food poisoning, isolation of the infected personnel, safe evacuation of patients, and the establishment of other necessary barriers for reduction of spread of infection are necessary to control an outbreak of an epidemic. PMID:22544502

  14. Effect of confining pressure due to external jacket of steel plate or shape memory alloy wire on bond behavior between concrete and steel reinforcing bars.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2014-12-01

    For external jackets of reinforced concrete columns, shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are easy to install, and they provide active and passive confining pressure; steel plates, on the other hand, only provide passive confining pressure, and their installation on concrete is not convenient because of the requirement of a special device. To investigate how SMA wires distinctly impact bond behavior compared with steel plates, this study conducted push-out bond tests of steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete confined by SMA wires or steel plates. For this purpose, concrete cylinders were prepared with dimensions of 100 mm x 200 mm, and D-22 reinforcing bars were embedded at the center of the concrete cylinders. External jackets of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thickness steel plates were used to wrap the concrete cylinders. Additionally, NiTiNb SMA wire with a diameter of 1.0 mm was wound around the concrete cylinders. Slip of the reinforcing bars due to pushing force was measured by using a displacement transducer, while the circumferential deformation of specimens was obtained by using an extensometer. The circumferential deformation was used to calculate the circumferential strains of the specimens. This study assessed the radial confining pressure due to the external jackets on the reinforcing bars at bond strength from bond stress-slip curves and bond stress-circumferential strain curves. Then, the effects of the radial confining pressure on the bond behavior of concrete are investigated, and an equation is suggested to estimate bond strength using the radial confining pressure. Finally, this study focused on how active confining pressure due to recovery stress of the SMA wires influences bond behavior. PMID:25971115

  15. Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

  16. Investigation on installation of offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Yong

    2010-06-01

    Wind power has made rapid progress and should gain significance as an energy resource, given growing interest in renewable energy and clean energy. Offshore wind energy resources have attracted significant attention, as, compared with land-based wind energy resources, offshore wind energy resources are more promising candidates for development. Sea winds are generally stronger and more reliable and with improvements in technology, the sea has become a hot spot for new designs and installation methods for wind turbines. In the present paper, based on experience building offshore wind farms, recommended foundation styles have been examined. Furthermore, wave effects have been investigated. The split installation and overall installation have been illustrated. Methods appropriate when installing a small number of turbines as well as those useful when installing large numbers of turbines were analyzed. This investigation of installation methods for wind turbines should provide practical technical guidance for their installation.

  17. U. S. -French Cooperative Research Program: U. S. test results for cable insulation and jacket materials at the completion of accelerated aging

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Eight different U.S. insulation and jacket products have been accelerated aged at Sandia. The experimental variables included: (1) sequential versus simultaneous accelerated aging exposures; (2) the order of the sequential exposures; and (3) ambient versus 70/sup 0/C irradiation temperatures during sequential aging exposures. We observed that the irradiation temperature (70/sup 0/C or ambient) was secondary in importance to the choice of sequence for thermal and radiation aging. For most materials studied (except TEFZEL) the irradiation then thermal aging sequence was as severe or more severe than the thermal then irradiation aging sequence.

  18. Offshore windmills and the effects of electromagnetic fields on fish.

    PubMed

    Ohman, Marcus C; Sigray, Peter; Westerberg, Hkan

    2007-12-01

    With the large scale developments of offshore windpower the number of underwater electric cables is increasing with various technologies applied. A wind farm is associated with different types of cables used for intraturbine, array-to-transformer, and transformer-to-shore transmissions. As the electric currents in submarine cables induce electromagnetic fields there is a concern of how they may influence fishes. Studies have shown that there are fish species that are magneto-sensitive using geomagnetic field information for the purpose of orientation. This implies that if the geomagnetic field is locally altered it could influence spatial patterns in fish. There are also physiological aspects to consider, especially for species that are less inclined to move as the exposure could be persistent in a particular area. Even though studies have shown that magnetic fields could affect fish, there is at present limited evidence that fish are influenced by the electromagnetic fields that underwater cables from windmills generate. Studies on European eel in the Baltic Sea have indicated some minor effects. In this article we give an overview on the type of submarine cables that are used for electric transmissions in the sea. We also describe the character of the magnetic fields they induce. The effects of magnetic fields on fish are reviewed and how this may relate to the cables used for offshore wind power is discussed. PMID:18240676

  19. 76 FR 24504 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... make recommendations on same. (7) Update from other interagency organizations; Bureau of Ocean Energy... SECURITY National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: United States Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore...

  20. Strengthening America's Energy Security with Offshore Wind (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the current state of the offshore wind industry in the United States and the offshore wind research and development activities conducted the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program.

  1. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  2. 75 FR 80064 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of teleconference meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will...

  3. 75 FR 47311 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC)...

  4. 46 CFR 90.10-40 - Offshore supply vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., supplies or equipment in support of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources. (b) An existing offshore supply vessel is one contracted for, or the keel of which was...

  5. 46 CFR 90.10-40 - Offshore supply vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., supplies or equipment in support of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources. (b) An existing offshore supply vessel is one contracted for, or the keel of which was...

  6. 46 CFR 90.10-40 - Offshore supply vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., supplies or equipment in support of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources. (b) An existing offshore supply vessel is one contracted for, or the keel of which was...

  7. 46 CFR 90.10-40 - Offshore supply vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., supplies or equipment in support of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources. (b) An existing offshore supply vessel is one contracted for, or the keel of which was...

  8. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  9. Exploration potential of offshore northern California basins

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, S.B.; Crouch, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A series of exploratory wells was drilled in the northern California offshore basins in the 1960s following leasing of federal tracts off northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The drilling, although encountering numerous oil shows, was considered at the time to indicate low prospectivity in an area that extended as far south as the offshore Santa Maria basin. However, subsequent major discoveries in this decade in the offshore Santa Maria basin, such as the Point Arguello field, indicate that these offshore basins may be highly prospective exploration targets. Many of the key features of Monterey production in central and southern California are also present in the offshore basins of northern California. A new 5-year leasing plan has scheduled leasing in the northern California OCS starting in early 1989. The first basins on the schedule, the Point Arena and Eel River basins, differ in some respects. The Point Arena basin is more typical of a Monterey basin, with the potential for fractured chert reservoirs and organic-rich sections, deep burial of basinal sections to enhance the generation of higher gravity oils, and complex folding and faulting. The Eel River basin is more clastic-rich in its gas-producing, onshore extension. Key questions in the Eel River basin include whether the offshore, more distal stratigraphy will include Monterey-like biogenic sediments, and whether the basin has oil potential in addition to its proven gas potential. The Outer Santa Cruz basin shares a similar stratigraphy, structure, and hydrocarbon potential with the Point Arena basin. The Santa Cruz-Bodega basin, also with a similar stratigraphy, may have less exploration potential because erosion has thinned the Monterey section in parts of the basin.

  10. Ice island creation, drift, recurrences, mechanical properties, and interactions with arctic offshore oil production structures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Li, Fucheng; Lu, Mingchi

    1991-03-01

    Research and engineering studies on first-year sea ice for over two decades has resulted in the design, construction, and operation of jacket platforms, of artificial islands, and of massive gravity structures which routinely withstand moving sea ice of thickness up to 2 meters. However, the less-common interactions between such structures and moving multiyear ice ({ge}3 meters thick), and also moving ice islands (10 to 60 meters thick) remain as the unknown and potentially most serious hazard for Arctic offshore structures. In this study, research was addressed across the complete span of remaining questions regarding such features. Ice island components, thickness distributions, scenarios and models for the interactions of massive ice features with offshore structures, all were considered. Ice island morphology and calving studies were directed at the cluster of 19 ice islands produced in a calving from the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on Ellesmere Island in 1983, and also at a calving from the Milne Ice Shelf in 1988. The statistics of ice island dynamics, on both a short-term small-scale basis and also on a long-term basis, were studied. Typical wind velocities of 5 to 7.5 meters per second led to ice island speeds of about 0.014 of the wind speed, at an angle of 20{degrees} to the right of the wind direction. Ice island samples were tested for their stress/strain characteristics. Compressive strength values ranged from 1.64 MPa at a strain rate of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s{sup {minus}1} to 6.75 MPa at a strain rate of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}. Scenarios for ice island/structure interactions were developed, and protective countermeasures such as spray ice and ice rubble barriers were suggested. Additional computer modeling of structure/ice interactions for massive ice features is recommended.

  11. Regional method to assess offshore slope stability.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Edwards, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    The slope stability of some offshore environments can be evaluated by using only conventional acoustic profiling and short-core sampling, followed by laboratory consolidation and strength testing. The test results are synthesized by using normalized-parameter techniques. The normalized data are then used to calculate the critical earthquake acceleration factors or the wave heights needed to initiate failure. These process-related parameters provide a quantitative measure of the relative stability for locations from which short cores were obtained. The method is most applicable to offshore environments of gentle relief and simple subsurface structure and is not considered a substitute for subsequent site-specific analysis. -from ASCE Publications Information

  12. Flexible liner safeguards environment during offshore workover

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-10

    A Total-containment liner was installed on the upper deck of a Louisiana offshore platform in West Cameron 593A, by Unocal Exploration Corp. The liner will help protect the environment during workover operations. Unocal's major environmental concern was the oilbased packer fluid used in the wells. Even though the platform workover rig, Hercules; Rig 11, was equipped with containment equipment which met federal regulations, Unocal wanted a secondary containment device to further guarantee that an accidental spill would not occur, according to Clyde Landry, Unocal's district production manager for the west offshore district, Louisiana region.

  13. Air emissions associated with decommissioning California's offshore oil and gas platforms.

    PubMed

    Cantle, Peter; Bernstein, Brock

    2015-10-01

    The 27 oil and gas platforms offshore southern California are nearing the end of their productive lives and will be decommissioned in the near future. Many are in deep water and are correspondingly large, with the largest, Harmony, in 1200 feet of water and weighing approximately 43,000 tons. Nearly 30% of California's platforms are in water depths that exceed those of any previous decommissioning project anywhere in the world. Decommissioning will involve the operation of diesel-powered heavy equipment for long periods in virtually all phases of the operation (e.g, at the platform, in transit to and from the platform, in port, at offloading, salvage, and recycling facilities) in a region where air quality is a crucial concern for state, federal, and local regulatory agencies, as well as the public. To support future decision making about the choice between decommissioning options, we consider potential air emissions generated under complete and partial (removal to 85 feet below water line) removal options. We describe major emissions categories, and the environmental and human health issues associated with each, and examine how the regulatory system would operate in specific projects. We then describe methods to estimate emissions for a worst-case example involving the largest platform, Harmony. We estimate that complete versus partial removal of Harmony would result, respectively, in 600 or 89 tons of NOx, 50 or 7 tons of carbon monoxide, 29,400 or 4400 tons of CO2 , 21 or 3 tons of PM10, and 20 or 3 tons of PM2.5. Complete removal of Harmony's jacket and topsides creates approximately 6.75 times more air pollution than partial removal down to 85 feet below the sea surface. We discuss how the Harmony estimate can be used as a baseline to roughly estimate emissions from decommissioning other platforms, using expected time on station for the major categories of decommissioning equipment. PMID:25914363

  14. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in...

  15. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  16. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  17. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  18. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs). 15.520 Section... MANNING REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units... endorsement on an MMC as offshore installation manager (OIM), barge supervisor (BS), or ballast...

  19. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in...

  20. 77 FR 4572 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... exploration of offshore mineral and energy resources insofar as they relate to matters within Coast Guard... activities directly involved with or in support of the exploration of offshore mineral and energy resources... mineral and energy industry; (b) One member representing Diving Services related to offshore...

  1. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in...

  2. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  3. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in...

  4. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  5. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for offshore stations. 22.1037 Section 22.1037 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1037 Application requirements for offshore stations. Applications for...

  6. International Offshore Students' Perceptions of Virtual Office Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wdowik, Steven; Michael, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this study is to gauge international offshore students' perceptions of virtual office hours (VOH) to consult with their offshore unit coordinators in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This paper employs a quantitative and qualitative approach where data was sourced from three offshore campuses over a 12-month period

  7. United States Offshore Wind Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-12-01

    The utilization of the offshore wind resource will be necessary if the United States is to meet the goal of having 20% of its electricity generated by wind power because many of the electrical load centers in the country are located along the coastlines. The United States Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has supported an ongoing project to assess the wind resource for the offshore regions of the contiguous United States including the Great Lakes. Final offshore maps with a horizontal resolution of 200 meters (m) have been completed for Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, northern New England, and the Great Lakes. The ocean wind resource maps extend from the coastline to 50 nautical miles (nm) offshore. The Great Lake maps show the resource for all of the individual lakes. These maps depict the wind resource at 50 m above the water as classes of wind power density. Class 1 represents the lowest available wind resource, while Class 7 is the highest resource. Areas with Class 5 and higher wind resource can be economical for offshore project development. As offshore wind turbine technology improves, areas with Class 4 and higher resource should become economically viable. The wind resource maps are generated using output from a modified numerical weather prediction model combined with a wind flow model. The preliminary modeling is performed by AWS Truewind under subcontract to NREL. The preliminary model estimates are sent to NREL to be validated. NREL validates the preliminary estimates by comparing 50 m model data to available measurements that are extrapolated to 50 m. The validation results are used to modify the preliminary map and produce the final resource map. The sources of offshore wind measurement data include buoys, automated stations, lighthouses, and satellite- derived ocean wind speed data. The wind electric potential is represented as Megawatts (MW) of potential installed capacity and is based on the square kilometers (sq. km) of Class 5 and higher wind resource found in a specific region. NREL uses a factor of 5 MW of installed capacity per sq. km of "windy water" for its raw electric potential calculations. NREL uses Geographic Information System data to break down the offshore wind potential by state, water depth, and distance from shore. The wind potential estimates are based on the updated maps, and on previous offshore resource information for regions where new maps are not available. The estimates are updated as new maps are completed. For example, the updated Texas offshore map shows almost 3000 sq. km of Class 5 resource within 10 nm of shore and nearly 2000 sq. km of Class 5 resource or 10,000 MW of potential installed capacity in water depths of less than 30 m. NREL plans to develop exclusion criteria to further refine the offshore wind potential

  8. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Boezaart, Arnold; Edmonson, James; Standridge, Charles; Pervez, Nahid; Desai, Neel; Williams, Bruce; Clark, Aaron; Zeitler, David; Kendall, Scott; Biddanda, Bopi; Steinman, Alan; Klatt, Brian; Gehring, J. L.; Walter, K.; Nordman, Erik E.

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the project including to: 1) test and validate floating LIDAR technology; 2) collect and access offshore wind data; 3) detect and measure bird and bat activity over Lake Michigan; 4) conduct an over water sound propagation study; 5) prepare and offer a college course on offshore energy, and; 6) collect other environmental, bathometric, and atmospheric data. Desk-top research was performed to select anchorage sites and to secure permits to deploy the buoy. The project also collected and analyzed data essential to wind industry investment decision-making including: deploying highly mobile floating equipment to gather offshore wind data; correlating offshore wind data with conventional on-shore MET tower data; and performing studies that can contribute to the advancement and deployment of offshore wind technologies. Related activities included: • Siting, permitting, and deploying an offshore floating MET facility; • Validating the accuracy of floating LWS using near shoreline cup anemometer MET instruments; • Assessment of laser pulse technology (LIDAR) capability to establish hub height measurement of wind conditions at multiple locations on Lake Michigan; • Utilizing an extended-season (9-10 month) strategy to collect hub height wind data and weather conditions on Lake Michigan; • Investigation of technology best suited for wireless data transmission from distant offshore structures; • Conducting field-validated sound propagation study for a hypothetical offshore wind farm from shoreline locations; • Identifying the presence or absence of bird and bat species near wind assessment facilities; • Identifying the presence or absence of benthic and pelagic species near wind assessment facilities; All proposed project activities were completed with the following major findings: • Floating Laser Wind Sensors are capable of high quality measurement and recordings of wind resources. The WindSentinel presented no significant operational or statistical limitations in recording wind data technology at a at a high confidence level as compared to traditional anemometer cup technology. • During storms, mean Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) increases with height above water; • Sufficient wind resources exist over Lake Michigan to generate 7,684 kWh of power using a 850 kW rated turbine at elevations between 90 - 125 meters, a height lower than originally anticipated for optimum power generation; • Based on initial assessments, wind characteristics are not significantly different at distant (thirty-two mile) offshore locations as compared to near-shore (six mile) locations; • Significant cost savings can be achieved in generation wind energy at lower turbine heights and locating closer to shore. • Siting must be sufficiently distant from shore to minimize visual impact and to address public sentiment about offshore wind development; • Project results show that birds and bats do frequent the middle of Lake Michigan, bats more so than birds; • Based on the wind resource assessment and depths of Lake Michigan encountered during the project, future turbine placement will most likely need to incorporate floating or anchored technology; • The most appropriate siting of offshore wind energy locations will enable direct routing of transmission cables to existing generating and transmission facilities located along the Michigan shoreline; • Wind turbine noise propagation from a wind energy generating facility at a five mile offshore location will not be audible at the shoreline over normal background sound levels.

  9. Mechanical properties at high strain-rate of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.; Fichera, C.; Manes, A.; Giglio, M.

    2012-08-01

    Numerical simulations are now an actual option in order to try to reproduce and understand the mechanical response in components subjected to extreme loading conditions, like in a ballistic impact. A correct materials calibration is therefore necessary in order to extract the materials parameters. In this work the simple and widely used Johnson-Cook model was used to analyse the experimental data obtained for the characterization of the bullet materials. The bullet under investigation is a full metal jacket ball, with a lead-antimony alloy core and a brass jacket. The experimental tests cover a wide range in strain-rate, starting from quasi-static tests up to high dynamic tests performed on a standard Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar setup. In general, there is a great lack in strain-rate sensitivity and failure data. Pure lead is very soft and ductile, so antimony is used to give greater hardness and strength. The results of this study show a significant strain-rate influence for this alloy that can be associated with the presence of the lead-antimony phases and their structures. Also in case of the brass the results showed significant strain-rate sensitivity in the material response.

  10. Offshore Investments by Colleges Draw Scrutiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul; Wolverton, Brad

    2007-01-01

    Billions of dollars in untaxed, offshore investments by college endowments could be subject to taxation under a proposal being considered by the leaders of the U.S. Senate Finance Committee. The proposed change, which targets hedge funds, a popular investing strategy for many colleges, would affect the largest college endowments, including those…

  11. Accord near for offshore California oil shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-15

    There are faint glimmers of hope again for offshore California operators. After more than a decade of often bitter strife over offshore oil and gas development and transportation issues, state officials and oil producers may be moving toward compromise solutions. One such solution may be forthcoming on offshore development. But the real change came with the turnabout of the California Coastal Commission (CCC), which last month approved a permit for interim tankering of crude from Point Arguello oil field in the Santa Barbara Channel to Los Angeles. The dispute over how to ship offshore California crude to market has dragged on since before Point Arguelo development plans were unveiled. The project's status has become a flashpoint in the U.S. debate over resource use and environmental concerns. The controversy flared anew in the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez tanker spill off Alaska, when CCC voided a Santa Barbara County permit for interim tankering, a move project operator Chevron Corp. linked to the Exxon Valdez accident. Faced with litigation, the state's economic devastation, and acrimonious debate over transporting California crude, Gov. Pete Wilson and other agencies approved the CCC permit. But there's a catch: A permanent pipeline must be built to handle full production within 3 years. The paper discusses permit concerns, the turnaround decision, the anger of environmental groups, and pipeline proposals.

  12. Cleaning the Valhall offshore oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, G.R. )

    1990-08-01

    Severe wax deposits built up in the 20-in. (500-mm) Valhall subsea crude oil pipeline over a period of years. The successful program to remove these deposits gradually but completely with a series of foam and mechanical pigs is described, including details on equipment and procedures. The unique risks and difficulties associated with solids removal in offshore pipelines are discussed.

  13. 31 CFR 593.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 593.406 Section 593.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR...

  14. 31 CFR 594.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 594.407 Section 594.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 594.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 594.407 Section 594.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. Fish Swimming Underwater Offshore Northern California

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A kelp greenling fish swimming above a seafloor of mixed gravel, cobble and rock outcrop with scattered shell. Fish is approx. 20 cm (8 inches) long. Image acquired 1 km (0.62 miles) offshore Half Moon Bay, California at a depth of 14 meters (46 ft). Also in the image are encrusting sponge...

  17. 31 CFR 593.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 593.406 Section 593.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR...

  18. Human Rights, Academic Freedom, and Offshore Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Despite the carnage wrought on higher education by the Great Recession, evidence persists that the sector is still host to a speculator psychology. One example is the unabated stampede to set up branches and programs overseas. Colleges have many reasons to go offshore: (1) to reduce costs; (2) to build their "brands" in "emerging markets"; and (3)…

  19. Planning and evaluation parameters for offshore complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    Issues are presented for consideration in the planning and design of offshore artificial complexes. The construction of such complexes, their social, economic, and ecological impacts, and the legal-political-institutional environments within which their development could occur, are discussed. Planning, design, and construction of near-shore complexes located off the Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States is emphasized.

  20. 31 CFR 546.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 546.406 Section 546.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations ...

  1. 31 CFR 546.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 546.406 Section 546.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations ...

  2. 31 CFR 546.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 546.406 Section 546.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations ...

  3. 31 CFR 546.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 546.406 Section 546.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations ...

  4. 31 CFR 546.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 546.406 Section 546.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  5. Sea Stars Underwater Offshore Northern California

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Three sea stars on a rock, surrounded by a sandy seafloor littered with broken shells. Each sea star is approx. 10 - 15 cm (4-6 inches) across. Image acquired 4.5 km (3 miles) offshore Pigeon Point, southern San Mateo County, California at a depth of 52 meters....

  6. 31 CFR 541.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 541.406 Section 541.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations §...

  7. Cut drydocking costs for offshore rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E.K.

    1985-07-01

    Heavy-lift transport vessels (HLVs) can provide an economic alternative to the conventional shipyard approach of drydocking mobile offshore rigs for regulatory body inspections and/or repairs. Contractors now can drydock rigs in areas of the world where conventional drydocks are unavailable. This article discusses pros and cons of conventional shipyard drydocking and the HLV approach.

  8. Offshore Investments by Colleges Draw Scrutiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul; Wolverton, Brad

    2007-01-01

    Billions of dollars in untaxed, offshore investments by college endowments could be subject to taxation under a proposal being considered by the leaders of the U.S. Senate Finance Committee. The proposed change, which targets hedge funds, a popular investing strategy for many colleges, would affect the largest college endowments, including those

  9. 31 CFR 543.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 543.406 Section 543.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 543.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 543.406 Section 543.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  11. CHOOSING OFFSHORE PIPELINE ROUTES: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the environmental and fisheries problems associated with offshore pipelines. The report focuses on how these problems can be addressed during the pipeline planning and route selection process. Geologic hazards are highlighted as the major factors related to p...

  12. Human Rights, Academic Freedom, and Offshore Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Despite the carnage wrought on higher education by the Great Recession, evidence persists that the sector is still host to a speculator psychology. One example is the unabated stampede to set up branches and programs overseas. Colleges have many reasons to go offshore: (1) to reduce costs; (2) to build their "brands" in "emerging markets"; and (3)

  13. Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Gareth; Trinder, Mark; Furness, Bob; Banks, Alex N.; Caldow, Richard W. G.; Hume, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    We present a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool), to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979–2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species’ ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented. PMID:25210739

  14. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Gareth; Trinder, Mark; Furness, Bob; Banks, Alex N; Caldow, Richard W G; Hume, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    We present a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool), to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented. PMID:25210739

  15. Offshore Hydrokinetic Energy Conversion for Onshore Power Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Design comparisons have been performed for a number of different tidal energy systems, including a fully submerged, horizontal-axis electro-turbine system, similar to Verdant Tidal Turbines in New York's East River, a platform-based Marine Current Turbine, now operating in Northern Ireland's Strangford Narrows, and the Rotech Lunar Energy system, to be installed off the South Korean Coast. A fourth type of tidal energy system studied is a novel JPL/Caltech hydraulic energy transfer system that uses submerged turbine blades which are mechanically attached to adjacent high-pressure pumps, instead of to adjacent electrical turbines. The generated highpressure water streams are combined and transferred to an onshore hydroelectric plant by means of a closed-cycle pipeline. The hydraulic energy transfer system was found to be cost competitive, and it allows all electronics to be placed onshore, thus greatly reducing maintenance costs and corrosion problems. It also eliminates the expenses of conditioning and transferring multiple offshore power lines and of building offshore platforms embedded in the sea floor.

  16. Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Hao; Hamilton, Mark F.; Bhalla, Rajan; Brown, Walter E.; Hay, Todd A.; Whitelonis, Nicholas J.; Yang, Shang-Te; Naqvi, Aale R.

    2013-09-30

    Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

  17. Design verification of offshore concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Waagaard, K.

    1993-12-31

    Offshore concrete structures are today designed using the best available techniques. These include predictions of the force resultants in the structure using FE analysis with up to 1.5 million degrees of freedom, code checking of FE results using special dedicated post-processing software, local capacity evaluations in areas where the linear FE analysis is known to be inaccurate. Further, special analyses are carried out for prediction of response from earthquake, wave induced dynamic action and geometric non-linear action. Verification of the design of offshore concrete structures are today carried out either as a document review of original design work, by independent design analysis and code checking or a combination of above. This paper will, based on current status, evaluate the situation and discuss a verification approach which may be used for both shallow and deep water structures.

  18. Offshore technology has a tremendous future

    SciTech Connect

    Brundage, H.T.

    1984-05-01

    Proven offshore technology has the capability to produce oil and gas through the world's continental shelves, on the continental slopes, and toward the abyssal plains. As with all other economic endeavors, there will eventually be a point of diminishing returns in producing offshore hydrocarbons. But just where or when this point will be reached is not now known, nor is it likely to be known soon. A basic fact of oceanographic research is that oil shows have been found in deep ocean basins, such as at Challenger Knoll in the Sigsbee Deep in the central Gulf of Mexico, and elsewhere. At least 240 billion barrels of recoverable oil are considered to exist in the world's continental shelves. Exploratory drilling combined with engineering and oceanographic research, continually broaden horizons and potential in this respect.

  19. Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armani, F. B.; Paltrinieri, D.

    2013-06-01

    Italy is the first European and world's fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

  20. The geotechnical centrifuge in offshore engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Murff, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    One of the greatest needs in offshore geotechnical engineering is for large scale test measurements on which to calibrate design procedures. The geotechnical centrifuge offers at least a partial remedy. Because it allows one to properly simulate stresses, it is a legitimate, relatively inexpensive option to full scale field testing. As such it is a valuable technique and can be an excellent complement to laboratory tests, 1-g model tests and numerical analyses. However, it has not been widely used by industry even though the capability has existed for almost thirty years. This paper argues that this technology should gain acceptance beyond the research community. The paper presents an overview of centrifuge principles, philosophies of use, and limitations of the technique. For illustration, several actual applications of centrifuge testing for complex offshore problems are described. Results are shown to provide important insights into prototype behavior and to agree well with full scale measurements where these are available.

  1. Wind/Wave Misalignment in the Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barj, L.; Stewart, S.; Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-02-01

    Wind resources far from the shore and in deeper seas have encouraged the offshore wind industry to look into floating platforms. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is developing a new technical specification for the design of floating offshore wind turbines that extends existing design standards for land-based and fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. The work summarized in this paper supports the development of best practices and simulation requirements in the loads analysis of floating offshore wind turbines by examining the impact of wind/wave misalignment on the system loads under normal operation. Simulations of the OC3-Hywind floating offshore wind turbine system under a wide range of wind speeds, significant wave heights, peak-spectral periods and wind/wave misalignments have been carried out with the aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool FAST [4]. The extreme and fatigue loads have been calculated for all the simulations. The extreme and fatigue loading as a function of wind/wave misalignment have been represented as load roses and a directional binning sensitivity study has been carried out. This study focused on identifying the number and type of wind/wave misalignment simulations needed to accurately capture the extreme and fatigue loads of the system in all possible metocean conditions considered, and for a down-selected set identified as the generic US East Coast site. For this axisymmetric platform, perpendicular wind and waves play an important role in the support structure and including these cases in the design loads analysis can improve the estimation of extreme and fatigue loads. However, most structural locations see their highest extreme and fatigue loads with aligned wind and waves. These results are specific to the spar type platform, but it is expected that the results presented here will be similar to other floating platforms.

  2. The Offshore East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, D.; Klimke, J.; Jokat, W.; Stollhofen, H.; Mahanjane, S.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have addressed various aspects of the East African Rift system but surprisingly few on the offshore continuation of the south-eastern branch of the rift into the Mozambique Channel. The most prominent article has been published almost 30 years ago by Mougenot et al. (1986) and is based on vintage seismic data. Several studies investigating earthquakes and plate motions from GPS measurements reveal recent deformation along the offshore branch of the East African Rift system. Slip vectors from earthquakes data in Mozambique's offshore basins show a consistent NE direction. Fault plane solutions reveal ~ E-W extensional failure with focal depth clustering around 19 km and 40 km, respectively. Here, we present new evidence for neotectonic deformation derived from modern seismic reflection data and supported by additional geophysical data. The modern rift system obviously reactivates structures from the disintegration of eastern Gondwana. During the Jurassic/Cretaceous opening of the Somali and Mozambique Basins, Madagascar moved southwards along a major shear zone, to its present position. Since the Miocene, parts of the shear zone became reactivated and structurally overprinted by the East African rift system. The Kerimbas Graben offshore northern Mozambique is the most prominent manifestation of recent extensional deformation. Bathymetry data shows that it deepens northwards, with approximately 700 m downthrown on the eastern shoulder. The graben can be subdivided into four subbasins by crosscutting structural lineaments with a NW-SE trend. Together with the N-S striking graben-bounding faults, this resembles a conjugate fault system. In seismic reflection data normal faulting is distinct not only at the earthquake epicenters. The faults cut through the sedimentary successions and typically reach the seafloor, indicating ongoing recent deformation. Reference: Mougenot, D., Recq, M., Virlogeux, P., and Lepvrier, C., 1986, Seaward extension of the East African Rift: Nature, v. 321, p. 599-603

  3. Rocky and Sandy Seafloor Offshore California

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Image of ripples in sand, next to a rocky surface on the seafloor 2.5 km (1.5 miles) offshore San Mateo County, California at a depth of 24.6 meters (81 feet). The two red dots in the image (from lasers mounted on the camera and used as reference points) are 15 cm (6 inches) apa...

  4. Quality assurance for offshore aluminum sacrificial anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, J. )

    1993-10-01

    In recent years there has been a far greater emphasis placed on quality assurance within the oil and gas industry, including the cathodic protection supply sector within the offshore market. The need for quality aluminum anodes is obvious, especially for deep-water projects. This trend toward improved quality control has resulted in more third-party inspection work and better-defined quality test procedures. The practicalities of quality control and some of the problems encountered are highlighted.

  5. Automatic welding comes of age. [Offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.L. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Automatic pipe welding systems today fall into three main categories: gas metal arc welding, gas-tungsten arc welding, and flash-butt welding. The first automatic welding devices used offshore were the CRC and H.C. Price systems. Both use gas metal arc welding with a consumable steel filler wire. The recently developed McDermott flash-butt welding system is described. (DLC)

  6. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2015-01-01

    Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft, unconsolidated sediment interspersed with isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Refugio Beach map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats, which lie primarily within the Shelf (continental shelf) but also partly within the Flank (basin flank or continental slope) megahabitats, primarily are composed of soft sediment interrupted by a few carbonate mounds. This homogeneous seafloor of sediment and low-relief bedrock provides promising habitat for groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms.

  7. Offshore Essaouira basin: Geology and hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Ait Salem, A. )

    1991-03-01

    The study area lies in the offshore extension of the onshore Essaouria basin. The Mesozoic development of the Essaouira margin was largely controlled by Late Triassic to Mid-Jurassic rifting and subsequent opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, continental margin. Diapiric salt structure recognized on seismic defines a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic salt basin in the offshore area initiated during early rifting. Subsidence and sea-level rise during Jurassic resulted in carbonate platform development. This was followed during Cretaceous and Tertiary time by the deposition of a prograding siliciclastic system. Only three wells have been drilled in this basin. Although drilled on poorly defined prospects, these wells encountered gas and oil shows. Fairly extensive seismic coverage of good quality data is now available. A study based on an integrated approach involving seismic facies definition and mapping, correlation with well data, identification of the principal control on sedimentation, and basin modeling in conjunction with source rock prediction and maturity modeling has been carried out. Results have shown that hydrocarbon potential in the offshore Essaouira basin has not yet been substantiated by drilling. Attractive structural and stratigraphic prospects exist in the shelf, shelf edge, and the slope, and await confirmation by drilling.

  8. Caisson shield for arctic offshore production platform

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton, J. D.; Reusswig, G. H.

    1985-03-12

    A caisson shield for the protection of an offshore production platform and, more particularly, a caisson shield for use in an arctic environment for the protection of the offshore structure in iceberg-infested waters which is capable of absorbing the destructive forces of an impact produced by a large iceberg. The caisson shield consists of an essentially annular concrete structure encircling at least the submerged support section of the offshore production platform including vertically upstanding concentrically spaced, annular side walls, a horizontal slab base resting on the marine bottom on which the side walls are supported, and a slab top supported on the side walls, and including annularly spaced internal radial partition walls whereby the entire overall caisson shield structure provides a generally toroidal configuration incorporating a plurality of closed compartments. In one embodiment of the invention, located along the outer annular wall is a plurality of arcuate wall sections forming a series of arches and enclosed compartments between each arcuate wall section and the outer annular wall, which impart a ''scallop-like'' configuration to the outer circumference of the caisson shield. The ''scallop-like'' outer walls are capable of resisting and absorbing extremely high ice loads by being adapted to progressively crush the leading edge of an impacting iceberg and to thereby minimize the crush of the iceberg against the caisson shield before coming to rest against the shield.

  9. Operating requirements for and historical operations of Arctic offshore drilling systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Regg, J.; Breitmeier, J.; Walker, J.

    1995-12-31

    Many of the floating and bottom-founded drilling structures used for oil and gas exploration in the US Arctic have recently been proposed for use in the Russian Arctic offshore. This paper describes the US Arctic environmental conditions in terms of operation capabilities for the various types of drilling systems. A brief description of the various types of drilling systems used to date in the US Arctic is provided as background information. Also presented are the special regulatory requirements and contingency plans which have been developed for offshore Arctic drilling-system operations. The paper will summarize information on the operating experiences of the various drilling systems used in the US Arctic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) to date.

  10. 26th Annual offshore technology conference: 1994 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference represents the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest with this volume containing papers relative to design of offshore platforms and marine riser systems. Papers deal with design, installation, fabrication, transport systems, mooring devices, repair methods, and development of satellite production facilities. Case histories on various offshore oil and gas fills are discussed along with economics of some applications and designs.

  11. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) for IEA Wind Task 23 Offshore Wind Technology and Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2010-12-01

    This final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports, Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). Subtask 1 discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. Subtask 2 included here, is the larger of the two volumes and contains five chapters that cover background information and objectives of Subtask 2 and results from each of the four phases of the project.

  12. Offshore oil & gas markets heating up: Gulf of Mexico rising from `Dead Sea` image; healthy Gulf, North Sea markets combine for big impact

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.R.

    1995-09-01

    Only three years ago, Gulf of Mexico drilling activity was so moribund that it was termed the Dead Sea. But the market has changed so there is now effectively 100 percent utilization in several important categories of offshore rigs, and almost every type of offshore rig is now getting higher use and better rates. What makes these changes so profound is that few industry participants saw this tightness developing, and almost no one predicted that it would occur so soon. Even the largest offshore contractors were pleasantly surprised as they watched their key drilling markets tighten so uickly after many years of vast oversupply. Today, while neither the Gulf of Mexico nor the North Sea could be described as booming, they are not falling apart either. The combination of both markets merely being normal at the same time has made a big impact on the worldwide supply and demand for offshore drilling. The need for steady and increasing offshore oil and gas production has never been so high. The technology now in place is allowing the development of offshore areas deemed almost impossible less than a decade ago. Also, the vast excess supply of offshore equipment is gone for many forms of drilling, and the need for steadily higher dayrates is real and will merely increase over time.

  13. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Carpinteria, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Carpinteria map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The small city of Carpinteria is the most significant onshore cultural center in the map area; the smaller town of Summerland lies west of Carpinteria. These communities rest on a relatively flat coastal piedmont that is surrounded on the north, east, and west by hilly relief on the flanks of the Santa Ynez Mountains. El Estero, a salt marsh on the coast west of Carpinteria, is an ecologically important coastal estuary. Southeast of Carpinteria, the coastal zone is narrow strip containing highway and railway transportation corridors and a few small residential clusters. Rincon Point is a well-known world-class surf break, and Rincon Island, constructed for oil and gas production, lies offshore of Punta Gorda. The steep bluffs backing the coastal strip are geologically unstable, and coastal erosion problems are ongoing in the map area; most notably, landslides in 2005 struck the small coastal community of La Conchita, engulfing houses and killing ten people. The Offshore of Carpinteria map area lies in the central part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, whose littoral drift is to the east-southeast. Drift rates have been estimated to be about 400,000 tons/yr at Santa Barbara Harbor (about 15 km west of Carpinteria). At the east end of the littoral cell, eastward-moving sediment is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported to the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. Sediment supply to the western and central part of the littoral cell is largely from relatively small transverse coastal watersheds, which have an estimated cumulative annual sediment flux of 640,000 tons/yr. The much larger Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, the mouths of which are about 25 to 30 km southeast of Carpinteria, yield an estimated 3.4 million tons of sediment annually, the coarser sediment load generally moving southeast, down the coast, and the finer sediment load moving both upcoast and offshore. The offshore part of the map area consists of a relatively flat and shallow continental shelf, which dips so gently (about 0.4° to 0.5°) that water depths at the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters are 40 to 45 m. This part of the Santa Barbara Channel is relatively well protected from large Pacific swells from the north and northwest by Point Conception and from the south and southwest by offshore islands and banks. Fair-weather wave base is typically shallower than 20-m water depth, but winter storms are capable of resuspending fine-grained sediments in 30 m of water, and so shelf sediments in the map area probably are remobilized on an annual basis. The shelf is underlain by variable amounts of upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments that thicken to the south. Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft sediment and isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Carpinteria map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats lie within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, dominated by a flat seafloor and substrates formed from deposition of fluvial and marine sediment during sea-level rise. This fairly homogeneous seafloor provides promising habitat for groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms. The only significant interruptions to this homogeneous habitat type are the exposures of hard, irregular, and hummocky sedimentary bedrock and coarse-grained sediment where potential habitats for rockfish and related species exist.

  14. Operational Impacts of Large Deployments of Offshore Wind (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Heaney, M.

    2014-10-01

    The potential operational impact of deploying 54 GW of offshore wind in the United States was examined. The capacity was not evenly distributed; instead, it was concentrated in regions with better wind quality and close to load centers (Table 1). A statistical analysis of offshore wind power time series was used to assess the effect on the power system. The behavior of offshore wind resembled that of onshore wind, despite the former presenting higher capacity factors, more consistent power output across seasons, and higher variability levels. Thus, methods developed to manage onshore wind variability can be extended and applied to offshore wind.

  15. Offshore Wind Turbines - Estimated Noise from Offshore Wind Turbine, Monhegan Island, Maine: Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, Pamela M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-11-23

    Deep C Wind, a consortium headed by the University of Maine will test the first U.S. offshore wind platforms in 2012. In advance of final siting and permitting of the test turbines off Monhegan Island, residents of the island off Maine require reassurance that the noise levels from the test turbines will not disturb them. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, at the request of the University of Maine, and with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program, modeled the acoustic output of the planned test turbines.

  16. Venezuela offshore oil and gas production development: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Perez La Salvia, H.; Schwartz, E.; Contreras, M.; Rodriguez, J.I.; Febres, G.; Gajardo, E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a short history of offshore oil and gas production in Venezuela starting in Lake Maracaibo in 1923. The main emphasis has been the results of the recent R and D and the exploratory offshore programs in areas like Orinoco Delta located in the Atlantic Ocean, Northeast and Northwest Venezuela in the Caribbean sea. In the R and D offshore program the main objectives were: (1) To establish the local environmental, oceanographical, geotechnical and seismicity conditions for the Venezuelan Continental Platform. (2) To give a technical support to the PDVSA Operating Affiliates during the exploratory programs including: (a) to develop accurate drilling vessel positioning systems; (b) evaluation of sea bottom geotechnical conditions for safely operating the jack-ups and drilling vessels involved in the exploratory wells and (c) to identify those areas which because of their special nature require further investigation to establish preliminary type of platforms required for the areas to be developed or to evaluate other solutions proposed by Foreign Consultant Engineering Companies to the PDVSA Operating Affiliated Companies. The main objective of PDVSA for the coming future will be to develop the North of Paria Gas Field through the initially named Christopher Columbus Project now Sucre Gas, S.A., a consortium conformed by LaGoven, S.A. Shell, Exxon and Mitsubishi. objective of this paper is to give an idea of the history of the Venezuelan Oil and Gas Offshore development giving emphasis to the results of the INTEVEP S.A. Red offshore program and to show some results of the particular characteristics of oceanographical, environmental, geotechnical and seismic conditions in the main areas evaluated during the exploratory program: Orinoco Delta, Gulf of Paria and North of Paria.

  17. 78 FR 43003 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request on Information Collection Tools Relating to the Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... the Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program (OVDP) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury..., the IRS is soliciting comments concerning the Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program (OVDP). DATES... record-keeping requirements: Title: Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program (OVDP). OMB Number:...

  18. 46 CFR 174.080 - Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units 174.080 Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. (a) On a surface type unit...

  19. 46 CFR 174.080 - Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units 174.080 Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. (a) On a surface type unit...

  20. Seismic no-data zone, offshore Mississippi delta: depositional controls on geotechnical properties, velocity structure, and seismic attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    May, J.A.; Meeder, C.A.; Tinkle, A.R.; Wener, K.R.

    1986-09-01

    Seismic acquisition problems plague exploration and production offshore the Mississippi delta. Geologic and geotechnical analyses of 300-ft borings and 20-ft piston cores, combined with subbottom acoustic measurements, help identify and predict the locations, types, and magnitudes of anomalous seismic zones. This knowledge is used to design acquisition and processing techniques to circumvent the seismic problems.

  1. Nearshore substrate and morphology offshore of the Elwha River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Sagy, Y.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2008-01-01

    The planned removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington, will likely increase river sediment flux to the coast, which may alter coastal habitats through sedimentation and turbidity. It is therefore important to characterize the current habitat conditions near the river mouth, so that future changes can be identified. Here we provide combined sonar and video mapping results of approximately 20 km2 of seafloor offshore of the Elwha River collected with the purpose to characterize nearshore substrate type and distribution prior to dam removal. These combined data suggest that the nearshore of the western delta and Freshwater Bay are dominated by coarse sediment (sand, gravel, cobble, and boulders) and bedrock outcrops; no fine-grained sediment (mud or silt) was identified within the survey limits. The substrate is generally coarser in Freshwater Bay and on the western flank of the delta, where boulders and bedrock outcrops occur, than directly offshore and east of the river mouth. High variation in substrate was observed within much of the study area, however, and distinct boulder fields, gravel beds and sand waves were observed with spatial scales of 10-100 m. Gravel beds and sand waves suggest that sediment transport is active in the study area, presumably in response to tidal currents and waves. Both historic (1912) and recent (1989-2004) distributions of Bull Kelp (Nereocystis sp.) beds were preferentially located along the boulder and bedrock substrates of Freshwater Bay. Although kelp has also been mapped in areas dominated by gravel and sand substrate, it typically has smaller canopy areas and lower temporal persistence in these regions.

  2. Offshore Benin, a classic passive margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mathalone, J.M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    Offshore Benin comprises a narrow east-west continental shelf, some 30 km wide. A sharp shelf break running parallel to the coast borders the shelf, whereupon water depths rapidly increase to over 7000 ft. The area lies within the Dahomey Embayment, one of a series of Cretaceous and younger basins lining the coast of Africa that owe their inception to the Late Mesozoic break-up of the Gondwanaland Continent. The basin extends some 100 km inland, but sedimentary section is thin onshore compared to a maximum of 20,000 ft of sediment offshore. Initial sedimentation in this basin was of Neocomian alluvial and lacustrine clastics. These were deposited in east-west-trending narrow half-grabens associated with the initial break up of the South American and African continents. They are covered unconformably by more extensive Albian and Cenomanian transgressive clastics and shallow marine Turonian sandstones which are the main reservoir at Seme, Benin's only oilfield. The Senonian section offshore comprises passive margin deep sea clastic sediments prograding southwards. Very large proximal deep sea channels up to 2500 ft thick are developed in this interval. These channels are associated with excellent petroleum source rocks, averaging 4-5% oil-prone organic carbon, and form the main exploration target in the area when configured in a trap morphology. Seismic data quality is excellent in the region allowing detailed examination of the relationships between the rifted section and later units. In addition, these data illustrate clearly both internal and external morphology of the Senonian proximal deep sea channels.

  3. Arctic and offshore research. Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The DOE Arctic and Offshore Research (AOR) effort is designed to meet the needs for a centralized, high-quality, Arctic energy-related data base and for long-term, high-risk research. The ultimate purpose of the DOE effort is to promote extensive private use of the evolving AOR technology data base in order to accelerate development of Arctic oil and gas resources. In assessing the Arctic energy-related research needs as delineated in this report, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), with the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology, developed the following activities: AOR Energy-Related Technology Data Base Development; AOR Seminars and Workshops; Arctic and Offshore Energy Research Coordination; Sea Ice Research; Seafloor/Soils Research; and Subice Systems Development. The DOE AOR effort was initiated in FY 1983, the early development activities were performed in January and February 1983, and the effort evolved to its present form by the conclusion of FY 1984. The current activities have included determining the Arctic bibliographic data base and initiating most pieces of the research described above (except multiyear ice properties and pipeline research). Some of the FY 1984 major accomplishments are: four to five ice islands 1 to 2 miles in length drifting off the Ellesmere ice shelves north of Ellesmere Island were aerially surveyed. A report was completed on the location of the ice shelf edge, breakup, and regrowth of the Ellesmere ice shelves over the past two decades. Ice-ridging shear zone studies have shown that the 6- to 10-feet high shoals usually under the shear zone are not totally destroyed from ice gouging from one year to the next, but that the ice gouging may be instrumental in initiating and maintaining the shoals, which may protect Arctic offshore structures. Airborne radar sensing techniques were used to determine the electromagnetic properties of sea ice and physical properties.

  4. Shallow Offshore Tsunami Sedimentary Deposits: Challenges and Benefits with examples from the Eastern Mediterranean and northern Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman Tchernov, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamigenic deposits preserved in the offshore, shallow (<30msl) uppershelf environment has been suggested as a possible resource for improving the understanding of tsunami sedimentological dynamics and producing a more detailed paleotsunami record. On one hand, this zone is advantageous due to its relatively lower susceptibility to anthropogenic disturbance and certain types of erosion. However, the added complications of collection difficulties, marine dynamics and disturbance, and heterogeneity may prove this archive less desirable and accessible. Recent results of a multitude of offshore shallow coring efforts in the eastern Mediterranean and northern Red Sea will be presented and discussed with regard to the question of the usefulness, limitations, and advantages of these offshore records. Broadly summarized, like their terrestrial counterparts, the offshore archive requires extensive attention to the local background conditions and characteristics of the surrounding contributing sources in order to recognize, interpret, and mine the information contained within them. While some tsunami indicator criteria remain the 'rule', their expression and appearance inter and intrasite can vary considerably and therefore the ability to recognize them challenging. Ultimately, as more results are shared from recent modern analogues and compared with sedimentological anomalies with possible tsunamigenic characteristics within the offshore sedimentological record, the better and more precisely these deposits will be defined and interpreted.

  5. Platform evaluation of an offshore field

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.L.; Saleri, N.G.; Al-Khowaiter, A.O.

    1995-10-01

    A numerical study of an offshore field was performed to evaluate the relative performance of horizontal versus conventional wells, and various well completion/placement/production scenarios for a six-well platform. The results presented in this paper are found to be counterintuitive. While horizontal/high slant wells showed delayed gas and/or water breakthroughs, the overall platform performance remained largely insensitive to well configuration (horizontal versus conventional). Well placement, completion interval, and production strategy after breakthrough were identified to be the critical parameters in determining the performance of the platform. The study results favor conventional completions for this particular six-well platform.

  6. Calculator program helps set offshore design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, V.B.

    1983-01-10

    Describes a new program for the Hewlett-Packard HP 41C (or HP-41C) hand-held programmable calculator which predicts the design criteria for building offshore facilities. Points out that the ''wind and wave'' (WIWA) program can quickly provide the calculations necessary for proper design involving wind forces, wave forces, and stress acting on the hydrostatic pressure case of a submerged system. Presents a flow diagram of the program and the program listing. Explains the equations used as the basis of the program.

  7. Articulated stable offshore platforms: With buoys attached via universal joints, ASOP`S configuration minimizes transmission of forces, moments to the platform hull

    SciTech Connect

    Grinius, V.G.; Mooney, J.B.; Mills, T.R.J.

    1996-04-01

    Articulated stable offshore platforms (ASOP) are a vessel concept that can provide a very stable floating platform at sea. The concept lends itself to two distinct types of offshore platforms: (1) a system that can produce, store, and offload oil (FPSO) and (2) a mobile system that can be self-propelled and provide a stable platform for uses such as a floating production system (FPS) and/or any other commercial or military need that requires a very stable deck. An ASOP concept was originally developed in the early 1970s by Offshore Model Basin (OMB), then known as Offshore Technology Corp. Patents were granted in 1974 and 1975. A design for an oil storage and a self-propelled, highly mobile, exploratory drilling rig was among several of the concepts. There was extensive model testing performed on these designs, and the results were very favorable inasmuch as they showed an improvement when compared to similar use platforms.

  8. 2014-2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Aaron

    2015-11-18

    This presentation provides an overview of progress toward offshore wind cost reduction in Europe and implications for the U.S. market. The presentation covers an overview of offshore wind developments, economic and performance trends, empirical evidence of LCOE reduction, and challenges and opportunities in the U.S. market.

  9. 76 FR 39410 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...The Coast Guard seeks applications for membership on the National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee. This Committee advises the Secretary of Department of Homeland Security on matters and actions concerning activities directly involved with or in support of the exploration of offshore mineral and energy resources insofar as they relate to matters within Coast Guard...

  10. 26th Annual offshore technology conference: 1994 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. This conference is divided into four volumes with this volume containing conference papers relative to offshore drilling and well completion information. Papers also deal with construction specifications for marine risers and pipelines, along with any relevant installation and performance information.

  11. Wind Resource Mapping for United States Offshore Areas: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is producing validated wind resource maps for priority offshore regions of the United States. This report describes the methodology used to validate the maps and to build a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) database to classify the offshore wind resource by state, water depth, distance from shore, and administrative unit.

  12. 75 FR 23582 - Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... published the proposed rule Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells (74 FR 38147). The comment... the published proposed rule 1010-AD47 Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells (74 FR... to Subpart E--Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations to read as follows: * * * * * Casing...

  13. Flying in, Flying out: Offshore Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Wee Tiong; Edwards, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of university education faculties offering offshore education. The analogy, "flying in, flying out" captures the intensity of such offshore experiences for visiting academics, and contrasts their professional experiences against expatriate academics. This paper reports on case studies of two

  14. Offshore Oil: Environmental Impacts on Land and Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Pamela L.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a counter position to that provided in SE 512 127 in which the author emphasizes that there are too many problems yet to be solved (related to offshore oil development) to proceed with full-scale development of offshore oil drilling. (PEB)

  15. 78 FR 34115 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ..., issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). ] Docket: For access to the docket to read documents or... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: United States Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of teleconference meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee...

  16. 78 FR 18614 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: For... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: United States Coast Guard. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meetings. SUMMARY: The National Offshore...

  17. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCED WATER AT SOME OFFSHORE OIL PLATFORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of produced water treatment was briefly studied in offshore oil and gas extraction operations in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and the Gulf of Mexico. Three offshore oil extraction facilities were examined in the Cook Inlet production field, and seven platforms were studi...

  18. 78 FR 18618 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...The United States Coast Guard is requesting applications from qualified candidates seeking consideration for appointment as members to the National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC). NOSAC advises the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) on matters and actions concerning activities directly involved with or in support of the exploration of offshore mineral and energy......

  19. 46 CFR 90.10-40 - Offshore supply vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Offshore supply vessels. 90.10-40 Section 90.10-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter 90.10-40 Offshore supply vessels. (a) An...

  20. SKS Splitting offshore California from ALBACORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, J.; Davis, P. M.; Kohler, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    The development and evolution of the Pacific-North America plate boundary offshore Southern California is of great geodynamical interest. For better understanding, the Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment (ALBACORE) was initiated. ALBACORE is a network of 24 broadband and 10 short-period ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) deployed across the southwestern region of the Pacific-North American plate boundary. Other than at scattered island stations present seismic array data ends at the coastline due to the difficulty of measurements further to sea. The experiment is intended to study many aspects of the Pacific-North American plate boundary. In this study we calculate SKS splitting parameters in an effort to measure the anisotropy of the region. The first step involved determining the orientations of each seismometer due to twisting during deployment. P wave arrivals are used and waveforms of each OBS are compared to nearby island stations of the California Seismic Network. The horizontal waveforms from the OBS's are rotated until the rotated components achieved maximum correlation with North and East components at a nearby station. The rotation angle is further constrained by particle motion. Once orientations are established, we calculate SKS splitting parameters by minimizing energy in the transverse component.

  1. Thermometric well testing on the Vietnam offshore

    SciTech Connect

    San, T.N.; Shtyrlin, V.F.; Vakhitov, G.G.; Loi, L.M.; Listengarten, L.; Hien, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    It is impossible to control and adjust an oil and gas field development without determining the flow intervals of production wells. For that it is preferable to get production profiles by using the downhole flowmeter. There are, however, some main restrictions for wide-spread application of them on the offshore of Vietnam as follows: the flowmeter spinner velocity cannot indicate correctly in the open hole wells having a nonuniform diameter; it is unable to carry out in the case when the tubing shoe is lower than top formation on 300--500m. In this paper, the authors present a summary of temperature profile method to determine the flowing and intaking intervals of wells drilled in basement of the White Tiger Field on Vietnam offshore. For the last 2 years more than 30 wells were surveyed by this method in the above mentioned conditions. This paper presents the theory and practice of well temperature profile surveys, the concrete examples of data interpretation using the software Oiltest.

  2. Ghana seeks to resume offshore production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-17

    Ghana National Petroleum Corp. (GNPC) plans a two well offshore drilling program it hopes will lead to a resumption of hydrocarbon production in the West African state. The wells will be drilled in South Tano field in the extreme western sector of Ghana's offshore area, near the boundary with Ivory Coast. If the program is successful, the state company will develop a novel floating production system to handle and export oil. Gas will provide fuel for an electrical power generating unit integrated into a floating production system. Power will move ashore through a submarine cable. North and south Tano fields were discovered by Phillips Petroleum Corp., which relinquished the acreage in 1982. The South Tano discovery well flowed 1,614 b/d of oil and 8.2 MMCfd of gas. Studies by a unit of ARCO, when it was a partner in a group that later acquired the Tano block, pegged North Tano hydrocarbons in place at 53.6 million bbl of oil and 102 bcf of gas. Braspetro, under contract with GNPC, estimated South Tano hydrocarbons in place at 82 million bbl of oil and 100 bcf of gas. GNPC is evaluating the possibility of rehabilitating Saltpond oil field about 150 miles east-northeast of North and South Tano. Saltpond has been shut in since 1985.

  3. Optimization of monopiles for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Kallehave, Dan; Byrne, Byron W; LeBlanc Thilsted, Christian; Mikkelsen, Kristian Kousgaard

    2015-02-28

    The offshore wind industry currently relies on subsidy schemes to be competitive with fossil-fuel-based energy sources. For the wind industry to survive, it is vital that costs are significantly reduced for future projects. This can be partly achieved by introducing new technologies and partly through optimization of existing technologies and design methods. One of the areas where costs can be reduced is in the support structure, where better designs, cheaper fabrication and quicker installation might all be possible. The prevailing support structure design is the monopile structure, where the simple design is well suited to mass-fabrication, and the installation approach, based on conventional impact driving, is relatively low-risk and robust for most soil conditions. The range of application of the monopile for future wind farms can be extended by using more accurate engineering design methods, specifically tailored to offshore wind industry design. This paper describes how state-of-the-art optimization approaches are applied to the design of current wind farms and monopile support structures and identifies the main drivers where more accurate engineering methods could impact on a next generation of highly optimized monopiles. PMID:25583868

  4. Job stress, mental health, and accidents among offshore workers in the oil and gas extraction industries.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C L; Sutherland, V J

    1987-02-01

    Psychosocial and occupational stressors among 194 male employees on drilling rig and production platform installations in the United Kingdom and Dutch sectors of the North Sea were studied. Mental well-being and job satisfaction were also assessed, with attention to the incidence of accidents offshore. This occupational group were found to be much less satisfied with their jobs than their onshore counterparts. Although overall mental well-being compared favorably with that of the general population, levels of anxiety were significantly higher. Multivariate analysis showed "relationships at work and at home" to be a strong predictor of both job dissatisfaction and mental ill-health. Type A coronary-prone behavior was also found to be a significant predictor of reduced mental well-being and increased accident rates offshore. PMID:3819891

  5. The coefficient of friction between sea ice and various materials used in offshore structure

    SciTech Connect

    Saeki, H.; Nakazawa, N.; Ono, T.; Sakai, M.; Tanaka, S.

    1984-05-01

    When structures having inclined surfaces, such as cone type and inclined pile structures, are constructed in coastal and offshore cold regions, sea ice pressure must be considered in their design. In order to estimate this ice pressure, the relationship of the coefficients of static and kinetic friction between sea ice in various conditions and construction materials must be clarified. The authors have been conducting, for four years, coefficient of friction experiments between sea ice and various commonly used offshore construction materials such as concrete and steel. These coefficients have been found to be affected by the following: i) relative velocity ii) sea ice temperature iii) surface roughness of construction material They have been found to be relatively unaffected by the following: i) contact area ii) vertical stress iii) growth direction of sea ice iv) water in the sea ice interface

  6. Integrated reservoir study - M/T structure offshore Abu Dhabi

    SciTech Connect

    Cartier, G.; Combes, J.T. des; Hassan, T.H.

    1995-08-01

    A multidisciplinary approach involving geology, geophysics, petrophysics and reservoir engineering is used to assess the oil-bearing Thamama reservoirs in the Offshore Abu Dhabi M/T Structure. The structural definition is hampered by subtle variations of the seismic velocities created by shallow high velocity channel fills. Improved time to depth conversion was achieved through detailed velocity studies and layer caking. As currently defined at the Thamama level, the M/T structure is a gentle low relief feature with closure of about 125 feet. The Lower Cretaceous Thamama Group comprises the producing zones and consists of a succession which was deposited over an extensive carbonate ramp platform. Seven depositional environments and fifteen associated lithofacies range from slope or basin edge, gradually passing to fore shoal, algal shoal, and rudistid backshoal of the inner ramp. Three third order sequences, their associated systems tracts, sequence boundaries and shallowing upwards parasequences are recognised. Based on geological and petrophysical data, a rock type scheme was developed as a basis for detailed reservoir layering and simulation studies. The main diagenetic processes which adversely affect porosity are circumgranular, ferroan and non-ferroan calcite and saddle dolomite cementation, while leaching is the primary porosity-enhancing process. Conventional and special core analyses indicate that specific poroperm, petrophysical and engineering parameters can be assigned to various rock types. The integration of all disciplines will optimise future appraisal drilling and lead to a more efficient development strategy of this field.

  7. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Administrative and political boundaries and offshore sand resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics Geopdf of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, military areas, marine protected areas, cultural resources, locations of submerged cables, and shipping routes. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in the administrative and political boundaries of Florida's coastal and offshore region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will find that they have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers.

  8. Evaluation of the vapor-protection capabilities of the jacket/trouser interface on the regulation ground-crew chemical defense ensemble. Interim report, 15 Nov-15 Dec 88

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.R.; Pointer, B.W.

    1990-12-01

    The ground-crew chemical defense ensemble (CDE) has deficiencies in its ability to prevent chemical warfare (CW) simulant vapors from leaking past the outer charcoal layer in the abdominal region when personnel wearing this CDE perform exercise in a simulant CW agent vapor. The purpose of this study was to determine the site and amount of vapor penetration. A charcoal-fabric cummerbund was used as an experimental tool to prevent vapor from leaking through the jacket/trouser interface. Test subjects, wearing the ground-crew CDE with and without cummerbund, performed exercises in a CW simulant vapor (methyl salicylate). While subjects were exposed to the simulant vapor, vapor concentrations were measured under the CDE jacket in the abdominal region. After removing the CDE in a vapor-free area, subjects entered sealed offgassing booths where simulant vapor levels were continuously measured. Subjects wearing a cummerbund had 80% lower abdominal vapor concentrations and 33% lower maximum offgassing booth concentrations than subjects that did not wear a cummerbund. The source of the vapor penetration is along the jacket/ trouser interface of the ground crew CDE.

  9. ASME Section VIII Recertification of a 33,000 Gallon Vacuum-jacketed LH2 Storage Vessel for Densified Hydrogen Testing at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, Adam M.; Notardonato, William U.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) has been developed at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. GODU-LH2 has three main objectives: zero-loss storage and transfer, liquefaction, and densification of liquid hydrogen. A cryogenic refrigerator has been integrated into an existing, previously certified, 33,000 gallon vacuum-jacketed storage vessel built by Minnesota Valley Engineering in 1991 for the Titan program. The dewar has an inner diameter of 9.5 and a length of 71.5; original design temperature and pressure ranges are -423 F to 100 F and 0 to 95 psig respectively. During densification operations the liquid temperature will be decreased below the normal boiling point by the refrigerator, and consequently the pressure inside the inner vessel will be sub-atmospheric. These new operational conditions rendered the original certification invalid, so an effort was undertaken to recertify the tank to the new pressure and temperature requirements (-12.7 to 95 psig and -433 F to 100 F respectively) per ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. This paper will discuss the unique design, analysis and implementation issues encountered during the vessel recertification process.

  10. No jacket required--new fungal lineage defies dress code: recently described zoosporic fungi lack a cell wall during trophic phase.

    PubMed

    James, Timothy Y; Berbee, Mary L

    2012-02-01

    Analyses of environmental DNAs have provided tantalizing evidence for "rozellida" or "cryptomycota", a clade of mostly undescribed and deeply diverging aquatic fungi. Here, we put cryptomycota into perspective through consideration of Rozella, the only clade member growing in culture. This is timely on account of the publication in Nature of the first images of uncultured cryptomycota from environmental filtrates, where molecular probes revealed non-motile cyst-like structures and motile spores, all lacking typical fungal chitinous cell walls. Current studies of Rozella can complement these fragmentary observations from environmental samples. Rozella has a fungal-specific chitin synthase and its resting sporangia have walls that appear to contain chitin. Cryptomycota, including Rozella, lack a cell wall when absorbing food but like some other fungi, they may have lost their "dinner jacket" through convergence. Rather than evolutionary intermediates, the cryptomycota may be strange, divergent fungi that evolved from an ancestor with a nearly complete suite of classical fungal-specific characters. PMID:22131166

  11. Quantifying the hurricane catastrophe risk to offshore wind power.

    PubMed

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Apt, Jay

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that over 50 GW of offshore wind power will be required for the United States to generate 20% of its electricity from wind. Developers are actively planning offshore wind farms along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts and several leases have been signed for offshore sites. These planned projects are in areas that are sometimes struck by hurricanes. We present a method to estimate the catastrophe risk to offshore wind power using simulated hurricanes. Using this method, we estimate the fraction of offshore wind power simultaneously offline and the cumulative damage in a region. In Texas, the most vulnerable region we studied, 10% of offshore wind power could be offline simultaneously because of hurricane damage with a 100-year return period and 6% could be destroyed in any 10-year period. We also estimate the risks to single wind farms in four representative locations; we find the risks are significant but lower than those estimated in previously published results. Much of the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines can be mitigated by designing turbines for higher maximum wind speeds, ensuring that turbine nacelles can turn quickly to track the wind direction even when grid power is lost, and building in areas with lower risk. PMID:23763387

  12. On the Offshore Advection of Boundary-Layer Structures and the Influence on Offshore Wind Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenkmper, Martin; Optis, Michael; Monahan, Adam; Steinfeld, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    The coastal discontinuity imposes strong signals to the atmospheric conditions over the sea that are important for wind-energy potential. Here, we provide a comprehensive investigation of the influence of the land-sea transition on wind conditions in the Baltic Sea using data from an offshore meteorological tower, data from a wind farm, and mesoscale model simulations. Results show a strong induced stable stratification when warm inland air flows over a colder sea. This stratification demonstrates a strong diurnal pattern and is most pronounced in spring when the land-sea temperature difference is greatest. The strength of the induced stratification is proportional to this parameter and inversely proportional to fetch. Extended periods of stable stratification lead to increased influence of inertial oscillations and increased frequency of low-level jets. Furthermore, heterogeneity in land-surface roughness along the coastline is found to produce pronounced horizontal streaks of reduced wind speeds that under stable stratification are advected several tens of kilometres over the sea. The intensity and length of the streaks dampen as atmospheric stability decreases. Increasing sea surface roughness leads to a deformation of these streaks with increasing fetch. Slight changes in wind direction shift the path of these advective streaks, which when passing through an offshore wind farm are found to produce large fluctuations in wind power. Implications of these coastline effects on the accurate modelling and forecasting of offshore wind conditions, as well as damage risk to the turbine, are discussed.

  13. Method for removing obsolete offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.S.; Gautreau, C.T; Heels, R.W; Hein, N.W. Jr.

    1990-02-20

    This patent describes a method for removing an offshore platform anchored to the seabed by hollow pilings. It comprises: establishing an annulus inside one of the pilings at a level below the top of the seabed by lowering a cylindrical member down into the piling and sealing at least the top of the member against the interior of the piling, the displacing the connecting member between the positions, the connecting member being provided with at least one engaging formation; and a locking member engaging the formation and adapted to brace against the other article at least two locations straddling the connecting member for retaining the other article locked to the one of the articles until the locking member is withdrawn from engagement with the formation.

  14. Personnel evacuation apparatus for an offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, A.F.

    1987-04-28

    An apparatus is described for evacuating personnel from an offshore platform in all weather conditions to a position on the ocean surface a safe distance from the platform the apparatus comprising: a boat launching ramp; flotation means; boat means adapted to be supported and launched by the ramp; means for releasably securing the boat means within the ramp means adjacent the entry end; means for releasing the latch means to permit the flotation means to move the launching ramp from its stowed position to a deployed position; and means for releasing the boat securing means, thereby permitting the boat means to slide down the ramp and be launched from the exit end of the ramp onto the surface of the ocean a safe distance from the platform.

  15. Underwater wet welding consumables for offshore applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Osio, A.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.; Ibarra, S.

    1993-12-31

    The use of underwater wet welding for offshore repairs has been limited mainly because of porosity in the resulting welds. With appropriate consumable design, however, it is possible to enhance weld metal toughness through microstructural refinement and to reduce porosity. New titanium and boron based consumables have been developed with which high toughness acicular ferrite can be produced in underwater wet welds. Titanium, by means of oxide formation, promoted an increase in weld metal acicular ferrite, while boron additions decreased the amount of grain boundary ferrite, further improving the microstructure. Porosity reduction was possible through the addition of calcium carbonate at approximately 13 wt. % in the coating. However, weld metal decarburization also resulted with the addition.

  16. Recent advances in offshore pipeline technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, R.; Vitali, L.

    1994-12-31

    Since the pioneering construction of the TRANSMED pipeline system across the Sicily Channel in the early 80`s, offshore pipeline technology has been progressing towards more and more difficult environments. Now the projects envisaged for the 90`s are venturing far beyond the challenges of the recent past. The scope of this paper is to present the recent research efforts aimed at tackling the main design aspects of the new challenges. Particular attention will be given to the experiences and achievements on the last few years in transmission pipelines across the European Continental Shelf, e.g. in the Central and Southern North Sea and across the Mediterranean Sea. Technologies, tools and purpose developed criteria will be discussed. The performance of current operating pipeline systems will be reviewed and incentives to rationalize design criteria and guidelines will be illustrated.

  17. Peru seeking buyer for productive offshore tract

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-31

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) is seeking a buyer for its Petromar offshore exploration and production unit. Peru's national oil company wants to sell Petromar acreage, production, and production installations on Block Z-2b for $200 million, payable at $10 million/year for 20 years, plus a share of future production. Petroperu is offering a full interest petroleum exploration and exploitation contract for 30 years for oil and as long as 40 years in the case of gas exploitation. The company seeking the smallest share of current and incremental future production to operate Block Z-2b will be awarded the acreage. Petromar's sale is the latest announced under Peru's privatization program ordered by President Alberto Jujimori.

  18. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS IN THE OFFSHORE ENVIRONMENT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Robert A.; Basham, Peter W.

    1985-01-01

    This report discusses earthquake effects and potential hazards in the marine environment, describes and illustrates methods for the evaluation of earthquake hazards, and briefly reviews strategies for mitigating hazards. The report is broadly directed toward engineers, scientists, and others engaged in developing offshore resources. The continental shelves have become a major frontier in the search for new petroleum resources. Much of the current exploration is in areas of moderate to high earthquake activity. If the resources in these areas are to be developed economically and safely, potential earthquake hazards must be identified and mitigated both in planning and regulating activities and in designing, constructing, and operating facilities. Geologic earthquake effects that can be hazardous to marine facilities and operations include surface faulting, tectonic uplift and subsidence, seismic shaking, sea-floor failures, turbidity currents, and tsunamis.

  19. Statoil's offshore submerged turret loading system

    SciTech Connect

    Brevik, K. ); Smedal, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Statoil, the Norwegian state oil company, and Marine Consulting Group (MCG), with support from Norwegian research institutes, are jointly developing a new offshore shuttle tanker loading concept called the Submerged Turret Loading (STL) system. The STL comprises a spread-moored buoy and export line riser configured such that, when not in use, the buoy remains submerged. For shuttle tanker loading, the vessel moves over the buoy and pulls it into a compartment in the bottom of its hull. Mooring loads are then transferred into the vessel's hull; and the export riser is connected to the shuttle's tankage within the chamber, below waterline. Principal features of the innovative new system that allows operations in seastates well beyond present-system limits, increases safety and reduces pollution potential are outlined here.

  20. Troll, Haltenpipe showcase offshore pipelay advances

    SciTech Connect

    Blaker, F.; Gjertveit, E.; Breivik, J.

    1996-07-29

    Pipelines installed on the Norwegian continental shelf represent current offshore pipeline installation technology for pipe size (up to 40 in.), water depth (to 540 m) distance between pigging stations (up to 800 km), and complex seabed intervention and landfall construction. Furthermore, the number of deepwater pipelines worldwide has triggered significant advances in the development of pipeline repair. The Troll oil pipeline and Haltenpipe projects faced technical challenges: irregular seabed, conditions requiring highly accurate mapping, careful routing, free-span design, seabed preparation works, and special low-tension lay techniques. The two projects, therefore, have in many ways benefited from each other and been run practically as one large integrated project. The paper describes the design, route preparation, and installation for both pipelines.

  1. Offshore structure and method of sinking same

    SciTech Connect

    Fern, D. T.

    1985-02-05

    An offshore structure and a method of skinking it to the sea bed. In accordance with one aspect of this invention, the structure is sunk asymmetrically by first sinking a first end portion thereof and then sinking the other end portion. The first end portion is sunk by ballasting it while the other end portion is closed to ballast. The structure is provided with sufficient water plane area while sinking each end portion to maintain stability during the sinking process. In accordance with another aspect of this invention, at least two spaced-apart piles are provided at the end corresponding to the first end portion to absorb the force of impact with the sea bed and to maintain a skirt on the structure out of contact with the sea bed until both ends of the structure have been sunk to the sea bed.

  2. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Love, David C.; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production. PMID:25415208

  3. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-01

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production. PMID:25415208

  4. Beyond offshoring: assess your company's global potential.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2004-12-01

    In the past few years, companies have become aware that they can slash costs by offshoring: moving jobs to lower-wage locations. But this practice is just the tip of the iceberg in terms of how globalization can transform industries, according to research by the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI). The institute's yearlong study suggests that by streamlining their production processes and supply chains globally, rather than just nationally or regionally, companies can lower their costs-as we've seen in the consumer-electronics and PC industries. Companies can save as much as 70% of their total costs through globalization--50% from offshoring, 5% from training and business-task redesign, and 15% from process improvements. But they don't have to stop there. The cost reductions make it possible to lower prices and expand into new markets, attracting whole new classes of customers. To date, however, few businesses have recognized the full scope of performance improvements that globalization makes possible, much less developed sound strategies for capturing those opportunities. In this article, Diana Farrell, director of MGI, offers a step-by-step approach to doing both things. Among her suggestions: Assess where your industry falls along the globalization spectrum, because not all sectors of the economy face the same challenges and opportunities at the same time. Also, pay attention to production, regulatory, and organizational barriers to globalization. If any of these can be changed, size up the cost-saving (and revenue-generating) opportunities that will emerge for your company as a result of those changes. Farrell also defines the five stages of globalization-market entry, product specialization, value chain disaggregation, value chain reengineering, and the creation of new markets-and notes the different levers for cutting costs and creating value that companies can use in each phase. PMID:15605568

  5. Proceedings of the fifth international offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering (OMAE) symposium. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, V.J.; Wang, Y.S.; Ayorinde, O.A.; Sodhi, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on offshore platforms. Topics considered at the symposium included climates, Arctic regions, hydrate formation, the buckling of heated oil pipelines in frozen ground, icebergs, concretes, air cushion vehicles, mobile offshore drilling units, tanker ships, ice-induced dynamic loads, adfreeze forces on offshore platforms, and multiyear ice floe collision with a massive offshore structure.

  6. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  7. 26th annual offshore technology conference, 1994 proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four Proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest, with relative sessions included in each volume. This Volume 3 contains information relative to offshore platforms and marine system designs. It describes both the installation and decommissioning of offshore platforms, retrofitting platforms to meet current safety standards, and technology assessments for both drilling and platform designs. Papers are also provided which describe maintenance and repair technologies for damages to platform.

  8. Mid-year report. [Review of offshore petroleum industry activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    A mid-year review and forecast for the offshore energy focuses on the impact of energy prices, worldwide drilling, the market for marine transportation, the mobile rig market, the diving industry, construction prospects, and seismic activity. The price of oil is seen as the most influential factor affecting offshore programs being considered for the next 10 yr. The analysis of drilling data indicates the trend for offshore activity will continue to rise, notwithstanding the current rig activity statistics. The growing importance of remotely operated vehicles in the diving industry is noted.

  9. BOSS '94: Behaviour of offshore structures. Volume 1. Geotechnics

    SciTech Connect

    Chryssostomidis, C.; Triantafyllou, M.S.; Whittle, A.J.; Hoo Fatt, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    The 1994 Conference on the Behavior of Offshore Structures (BOSS) is concerned with the design, construction, and installation of structures used for the development of offshore oil and gas fields. Boss '94 continues the tradition with technical sessions presenting more than 100 state-of-the-art technical papers. Volume I of the proceedings contains 22 papers on the geotechnics of offshore platform construction. A separate abstract and indexing have been prepared for each of the papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.

    2015-01-01

    Circulation over the continental shelf in the Offshore of San Francisco map area is dominated by the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific Gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint offshore of central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface waters southeastward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. Ocean temperatures offshore of central California have increased over the past 50 years, driving an ecosystem shift from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment.

  11. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Ventura, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Ventura map area lies within the Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the Ventura Basin, in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The city of Ventura is the major cultural center in the map area. The Ventura River cuts through Ventura, draining the Santa Ynez Mountains and the coastal hills north of Ventura. Northwest of Ventura, the coastal zone is a narrow strip containing highway and railway transportation corridors and a few small residential clusters. Rincon Island, an island constructed for oil and gas production, lies offshore of Punta Gorda. Southeast of Ventura, the coastal zone consists of the mouth and broad, alluvial plains of the Santa Clara River, and the region is characterized by urban and agricultural development. Ventura Harbor sits just north of the mouth of the Santa Clara River, in an area formerly occupied by lagoons and marshes. The Offshore of Ventura map area lies in the eastern part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, whose littoral drift is to the east-southeast. Drift rates of about 700,000 to 1,150,000 tons/yr have been reported at Ventura Harbor. At the east end of the littoral cell, eastward-moving sediment is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported into the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. The largest sediment source to this littoral cell (and the largest in all of southern California) is the Santa Clara River, which has an estimated annual sediment flux of 3.1 million tons. In addition, the Ventura River yields about 270,000 tons of sediment annually. Despite the large local sediment supply, coastal erosion problems are ongoing in the map area. Riprap, revetments, and seawalls variably protect the coast within and north of Ventura. The offshore part of the map area mainly consists of relatively flat, shallow continental shelf, which dips so gently (about 0.2° to 0.4°) that water depths at the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters are just 20 to 40 m. This part of the Santa Barbara Channel is relatively well protected from large Pacific swells from the north and west by Point Conception and the Channel Islands; long-period swells affecting the area are mainly from the south-southwest. Fair-weather wave base is typically shallower than 20-m water depth, but winter storms are capable of resuspending fine-grained sediments in 30 m of water, and so shelf sediments in the map area probably are remobilized on an annual basis. The shelf is underlain by tens of meters of interbedded upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated up and down in the last several hundred thousand years. Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft sediment and isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Ventura map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats lie within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, dominated by a flat seafloor and substrates formed from deposition of fluvial and marine sediment during sea-level rise. This flat, fairly homogeneous seafloor, composed primarily of unconsolidated sand and mud and local deposits of gravel, cobbles, and pebbles, provides promising habitat for groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms. The only significant interruptions to this homogeneous habitat type are exposures of hard, irregular sedimentary bedrock and coarse-grained sediment where potential habitats for rockfish and related species exist.

  12. Motion performance and mooring system of a floating offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Haitao

    2012-09-01

    The development of offshore wind farms was originally carried out in shallow water areas with fixed (seabed mounted) structures. However, countries with limited shallow water areas require innovative floating platforms to deploy wind turbines offshore in order to harness wind energy to generate electricity in deep seas. The performances of motion and mooring system dynamics are vital to designing a cost effective and durable floating platform. This paper describes a numerical model to simulate dynamic behavior of a new semi-submersible type floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) system. The wind turbine was modeled as a wind block with a certain thrust coefficient, and the hydrodynamics and mooring system dynamics of the platform were calculated by SESAM software. The effect of change in environmental conditions on the dynamic response of the system under wave and wind loading was examined. The results indicate that the semi-submersible concept has excellent performance and SESAM could be an effective tool for floating wind turbine design and analysis.

  13. Analysis of Acoustic Wave and Current Data Offshore of Mytle Beach, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, K. A.; Wren, A.

    2008-12-01

    Two bottom boundary layer (BBL) instrument frames have been deployed on the shoreface and inner-shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina offshore of Myrtle Beach as part of a South Carolina Sea Grant funded project to measure sediment transport over two hardbottom habitats. The inshore instrument frame is located on an extensive hardbottom surface 850 meters offshore. The second instrumented frame is secured to a hardbottom surface on the inner-shelf at a distance of approximately 2.5 km offshore. The nearshore BBL observing system is composed of a downward-looking RDI/ Teledyne 1200 kHz Pulse-Coherent Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, an upward-looking Nortek Acoustic Wave and Current Profiler (AWAC), and an Aquatec Acoustic Backscatter Sensor. As part of this larger study, the wave and current data from the AWAC have been analyzed. Long-term continuous time series data include wave height, wave period, directional wave spectra, and the magnitude and direction of currents in the water column. Within the data set are several wave events, including several frontal passages and Tropical Storm Hanna which hit the Myrtle Beach area in early September. Wave data have been correlated with meteorological data, and a comparison of shoreface wave characteristics during each type of event are presented.

  14. Advanced Technologies For Turbomachinery to Utilize Effectively Renewable Energies at Offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemoto, Toshiaki

    2010-06-01

    For the next leap in the sustainable energy exploitations, we are under obligations not only to cope with the warming global environment but also to conserve natural ecosystems and to coexist with natures. This paper introduces the following advanced technologies in Kyushu Institute of Technology, to utilize effectively the promising ocean and wind resources at the offshore. (1) Counter-Rotating Type Reversible Hydroelectric Unit, which is composed of the tandem runners and the peculiar generator with the double rotational armatures, is applicable to both rising and falling tides at the power station with the embankment, in place of the traditional bulb type turbines. (2) Gyro-Type Reversible Hydraulic Turbine, which is composed of some blades with the high aspect ratio, is effective to utilize the tide power even at the shallow and/or the very low range of the tide. (3) Submerged Ocean Wave Power Unit, where a pair of floats is lined up at the interval of one wave pitch and supports the vertical type hydroelectric unit submerged at the middle position, can get velocity energy eight times higher than the traditional unit. (4) Intelligent Wind Power Unit, which is composed of the tandem wind rotors and the double rotational armature type generator, is suitable for the offshore wind farm.

  15. Overlap in offshore habitat use by double-crested cormorants and boaters in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Bur, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and boats of 2 length classes (a?? 8 m and > 8 m) were counted from a boat along 31 established strip transects in western Lake Erie from 24 April to 1 September 2000. Each transect included only one of the following habitats: (1) offshore of a breeding island or roosting/loafing area for cormorants ('refuge'), (2) reefs or shoals, (3) open water, or (4) offshore of an island shoreline that had evidence of development by humans. Foraging cormorants were recorded most often offshore of refuges and least often on open water. There was no difference between the numbers of foraging cormorants/kmA? recorded offshore of developed shorelines and on reefs and shoals. More than half of all boats recorded were on transects that were within 1 km of developed shorelines. Among those transects > 1 km from developed shorelines, there were no differences among the habitats for the number of boats of either length class. The respective ranks of the 31 transect means of the number of cormorants/kmA? and the numbers of boats/kmA? in either length class were uncorrelated. The results suggest that (1) cormorants select foraging habitats based mainly on shoreline type, distance from shoreline, and depth, and (2) the amount of boat traffic is influenced by proximity to port and trip objectives, including sport angling and recreational boating. Although there is overlap in habitat use by cormorants and humans, this overlap is not complete. The perception of cormorants as a threat to fish populations may in part be due to this overlap.

  16. Variable Frequency Operations of an Offshore Wind Power Plant with HVDC-VSC: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated. Based on DOE study, wind power generation may reach 330 GW by 2030 at the level of penetration of 20% of the total energy production. From this amount of wind power, 54 GW of wind power will be generated at offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore wind power plants requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmission requires submarine cable, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission. Otherwise, if the power is transmitted via alternating current, the reactive power generated by the cable capacitance may cause an excessive over voltage in the middle of the transmission distance which requires unnecessary oversized cable voltage breakdown capability. The use of HVDC is usually required for transmission distance longer than 50 kilometers of submarine cables to be economical. The use of HVDC brings another advantage; it is capable of operating at variable frequency. The inland substation will be operated to 60 Hz synched with the grid, the offshore substation can be operated at variable frequency, thus allowing the wind power plant to be operated at constant Volt/Hz. In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated.

  17. Canadian offshore oil production solution gas utilization alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.V.

    1999-07-01

    Oil and gas development in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is in its early stage and the offshore industry emphasis is almost exclusively on oil production. At the Hibernia field, the Gravity Base Structure (GBS) is installed and the first wells are in production. The Terra Nova project, based on a Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) ship shaped concept, is in its engineering and construction stage and first oil is expected by late 2000. Several other projects, such as Husky's White Rose and Chevron's Hebron, have significant potential for future development in the same area. It is highly probably that these projects will employ the FPSO concept. It is also expected that the solution gas disposal issues of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and the operators may be forced to look for alternatives to gas reinjection. Three gas utilization alternatives for a FPSO concept based project have been considered and evaluated in this paper: liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and gas-to-liquids conversion (GTL). The evaluation and the relative ranking of these alternatives is based on a first pass screening type of study which considers the technical and economical merits of each alternative. Publicly available information and in-house data, compiled within Fluor Daniel's various offices, was used to establish the basic parameters.

  18. Offshore oil & gas: Deep waters dominate in 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Deep water exploration and field development dominate the energy market as 1997 begins. All indicators point that a turnaround in the oil and gas industry is in full swing. Strong market fundamentals are in place: the worldwide offshore mobile rig fleet is approaching full utilization of marketed rigs, which has tightened the supply/demand balance and boosted day rates for all types of drilling units. The exploration and production niche is in its healthiest shape in more than 15 years with a growth spurt in progress. The excess rig supply has disappeared and some market observers believe the present supply of deep water rigs needs to triple just to meet demand in the Gulf of Mexico market alone. There is evidence that some energy companies are delaying drilling programs because suitable rigs simply are not available. Floating rigs generally are working longer-term contracts with some units under contract until late in the decade. Analysts forecast a heated market over the next 12 to 18 months. Gas prices are expected to remain strong through 1997 and crude prices should hold steady.

  19. OUTSHORE Maturity Model: Assistance for Software Offshore Outsourcing Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mki, Juho; Betz, Stafanie; Oberweis, Andreas

    Offshore outsourcing software development (OOSD) is increasingly being used by the Software Industry. OOSD is a specific variant of Geographically Distributed Software Developmentdistributed software development (GDSD). Compared to the traditional mode of software development (i.e., in-house) GDSD is more edgy and puts at risk the attainment of the expected results. Although the failure of an offshore outsourcing software project may be caused by a variety of factors, one major complication is geographical distance. Consequently we argue that risk avoidance in outshore software development should be undertaken well in advance of the development launch. This could be done by testing the offshore outsourcing relevance of each software project and then the offshore outsourcing company involved. With this in mind we have developed the OUTSHORE Maturity Modeloutshore maturity model - OMM.

  20. 14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFTRIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, TACKLE BOX, RESTROOMS ON 3RD TEE - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER AND 2ND TEE (CENTER), REFUGE BAY (RIGHT) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. Use of a mobile diving support vessel, Offshore California

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.P.

    1983-03-01

    The Blue Dolphin is a converted workboat with a one-atmosphere manipulator bell diving system. It provides diving support for Chevron's offshore drilling program. This support includes underwater inspection, repair and salvage.

  3. Understanding Potential Climate Variability Impacts on the Offshore Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stear, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability may have important implications for the offshore energy industry. Scenarios of increased storm activity and changes in sea level could require the retrofit of existing offshore platforms and coastal infrastructure, the decommissioning of facilities for which upgrade or relocation is not economically viable, and the development of new methods and equipment which are removed from or less sensitive to environmental loads. Over the past years the energy industry has been actively involved in collaborative research efforts with government and academia to identify the potential changes in the offshore operating environment, and corresponding risk implications. This presentation will review several of these efforts, and for several of the hypothetical climate variation scenarios, review the potential impacts on and possible mitigations for offshore and coastal energy infrastructure and operations.

  4. OFFSHORE PLATFORM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a program conducted to evaluate the technical and environmental feasibility of using a proposed offshore platform incineration facility in the destruction of hazardous wastes and for incineration research.

  5. V-type engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimi, H.; Asanomi, K.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a V-type engine having a crankshaft with an axis consisting of a cylinder block having first and second cylinder banks. Each cylinder bank has an outer side face and a row of a number of cylinders extending between the front and rear faces of the cylinder block. The row of cylinders in the first cylinder bank start from a location near the front end face of the cylinder block and the row of cylinders in the second cylinder bank start from a location spaced apart from the front end face of the cylinder block. A principal feature of this patent, which is characterized, is an engine cooling system water pump (having a pump chamber in which an impeller is rotated) that is mounted on the front end face of the cylinder block midway between the first and second cylinder banks. A coolant inlet-passage to the water pump is formed in the cylinder block at the second cylinder bank and the foremost cylinder in the second cylinder bank. The coolant inlet-passage communicates with the water pump's pump chamber at one end and with a discharge conduit of the radiator at the other end. The pump chamber is joined to water jackets formed in the first and second cylinder banks by way of first and second coolant feed passages, respectively.

  6. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.2 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The city of Santa Barbara, the main coastal population center in the map area, is part of a contiguous urban area that extends from Carpinteria to Goleta. This urban area was developed on the coalescing alluvial surfaces, uplifted marine terraces, and low hills that lie south of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains. Several beaches line the actively utilized Santa Barbara coastal zone, including Arroyo Burro Beach Park, Leadbetter Beach, East Beach, and “Butterfly Beach.” There are ongoing coastal erosion problems associated with both development and natural processes; between 1933–1934 and 1998, cliff erosion in the map area occurred at rates of about 0.1 to 1 m/yr, the largest amount (63 m) occurring at Arroyo Burro in the western part of the map area. In addition, development of the Santa Barbara Harbor, which began in 1928, lead to shoaling west of the harbor as the initial breakwater trapped sand, as well as to coastal erosion east of the harbor. Since 1959, annual harbor dredging has mitigated at least some of the downcoast erosion problems. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies in the central part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, which is characterized by littoral drift to the east-southeast. Drift rates have been estimated to be about 400,000 tons/yr at Santa Barbara Harbor. Sediment supply to the western and central parts of the littoral cell, including the map area, is largely from relatively small transverse coastal watersheds. Within the map area, these coastal watersheds include (from east to west) San Ysidro Creek, Oak Creek, Montecito Creek, Sycamore Creek, Mission Creek, Arroyo Burro, and Atascadero Creek. The Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, the mouths of which are about 40 to 50 km southeast of Santa Barbara, are much larger sediment sources. Still farther east, eastward-moving sediment in the littoral cell is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported to the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. The offshore part of the map area consists of a relatively flat and shallow continental shelf, which dips gently seaward (about 0.4° to 0.8°) so that water depths at the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters are about 45 m in the east and about 75 m in the west. This part of the Santa Barbara Channel is relatively well protected from large Pacific swells from the north and northwest by Point Conception and from the south and southwest by offshore islands and banks. The shelf is underlain by variable amounts of upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated in the late Pleistocene. Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft sediment and isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats, which lie within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, range from soft, unconsolidated sediment to hard sedimentary bedrock. This heterogeneous seafloor provides promising habitat for rockfish, groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms.

  7. 2014–2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Aaron; Stehly, Tyler; Musial, Walter

    2015-09-01

    This report provides data and analysis to assess the status of the U.S. offshore wind industry through June 30, 2015. It builds on the foundation laid by the Navigant Consortium, which produced three market reports between 2012 and 2014. The report summarizes domestic and global market developments, technology trends, and economic data to help U.S. offshore wind industry stakeholders, including policymakers, regulators, developers, financiers, and supply chain participants, to identify barriers and opportunities.

  8. Use of risk analysis in offshore construction projects

    SciTech Connect

    Rettedal, W.K.; Gudmestad, O.T.; Aarum, T.; Vegge, A.

    1994-12-31

    Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) is regarded as an excellent tool to identify the risk in offshore construction projects. This tool is particularly suited to evaluate the potential of different strategies to reduce the risk in the construction project. The paper will discuss benefits of using risk analysis in offshore construction projects. An application will be discussed in detail: Risk analysis related to dropped objects and to marine operations of the Sleipner A platform installed in the North Sea, June 1993.

  9. Offshore Wind Balance-of-System Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, Michael; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Mone, Christopher

    2015-09-29

    Offshore wind balance-of-system (BOS) costs contribute up to 70% of installed capital costs. Thus, it is imperative to understand the impact of these costs on project economics as well as potential cost trends for new offshore wind technology developments. As a result, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and recently updated a BOS techno-economic model using project cost estimates created from wind energy industry sources.

  10. How to reduce sigma in offshore pipe fabrications

    SciTech Connect

    Still, J.

    1999-11-01

    The use of stainless steel for offshore oil and gas applications has increased dramatically over the last 20 years. Stainless steels fall into a number of categories depending on the composition and microstructure formed after heat treatment. Selection of pipe materials for offshore applications is dependent on the product to be carried. Austenitic and ferritic/austenitic (duplex) stainless steels are commonly used for process and utility piping systems offshore, whereas martensitic and ferritic are restricted to specific applications. Reference to sigma in offshore welding specifications has been mixed. Previously, the identification of sigma was wither not quoted or stated as being not permitted. However, achieving zero sigma content in duplex stainless steel welds and HAZs is questionable, particularly in steels and weld metals having a high chromium and molybdenum content. In the real world, how does one ensure that production welds performed offshore are free of sigma--or have a limited volume fraction of it--without having to constantly monitor welder performance? This review examines the difficulties and controls required to limit the presence of sigma in austenitic and duplex weld metals and HAZs associated with offshore piping and pipeline systems. Materials described here are those manufactured using contemporary steel making processes.

  11. Jacket-free stir bar sorptive extraction with bio-inspired polydopamine-functionalized immobilization of cross-linked polymer on stainless steel wire.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zixin; Zhang, Wenpeng; Bao, Tao; Chen, Zilin

    2015-08-14

    Stainless steel wire (SSW) is a good substrate for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). However, it is still a challenge to immobilize commonly used cross-linked polymers onto SSW. In this work, we present a new approach for immobilization of the cross-linked organic polymer onto SSW for jacket-free SBSE. A dopamine derivative was firstly synthesized; by introducing a mussel-inspired polydopamine process, a stable coating layer was finally generated on the surface of SSW. Secondly, the cross-linked polymer was synthesized on the polydopamine-modified SSW by using acetonitrile as the porogen, acrylamide (AA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker and 2,2'-azobis (2-methylpropionitrile) as the initiator. A diluted pre-polymerization solution was carefully prepared to generate a thin layer of the polymer. The prepared poly(EGDMA-AA)-modified stir bar showed high stability and good tolerance toward stirring, ultrasonication, organic solvents, and strong acidic and basic conditions. Morphology and structure characterization of coatings were performed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. The prepared poly(EGDMA-AA)-modified stir bar showed great extraction efficiency toward protoberberines, with enrichment factors of 19-42. An SBSE-HPLC method was also developed for quantitative analysis of protoberberines. The method showed low limits of detection (0.06-0.15 ng mL(-1)), wide linear range (0.5-400 ng mL(-1)), good linearity (R?0.9980) and good reproducibility (RSD?3.60% for intra-day, RSD?4.73% for inter-day). The developed method has been successfully applied to determine protoberberines in herb and rat plasma samples, with recoveries of 88.53-114.61%. PMID:26141275

  12. Database Design for the Evaluation of On-shore and Off-Shore Storm Characteristics over East Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Amy A.; Wilson, Jennifer G.; Brown, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from multiple sources is needed to investigate lightning characteristics over differing terrain (on-shore vs. off-shore) by comparing natural cloud-to-ground lightning behavior differences depending on the characteristics of attachment mediums. The KSC Lightning Research Database (KLRD) was created to reduce manual data entry time and aid research by combining information from various data sources into a single record for each unique lightning event of interest. The KLRD uses automatic data handling functions to import data from a lightning detection network and identify and record lighting events of interest. Additional automatic functions import data from the NASA Buoy 41009 (located approximately 20 miles off the coast) and the KSC Electric Field Mill network, then match these electric field mill values to the corresponding lightning events. The KLRD calculates distances between each lightning event and the various electric field mills, aids in identifying the location type for each stroke (i.e., on-shore vs. off-shore, etc.), provides statistics on the number of strokes per flash, and produces customizable reports for quick retrieval and logical display of data. Data from February 2014 to date covers 48 unique storm dates with 2295 flashes containing 5700 strokes, of which 2612 are off-shore and 1003 are on-shore. The number of strokes per flash ranges from 1 to 22. The ratio of single to subsequent stroke flashes is 1.29 for off-shore strokes and 2.19 for on-shore strokes.

  13. Massive sediment bypassing on the lower shoreface offshore of a wide tidal inlet - Cat Island Pass, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, B.E.; List, J.H.; Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric and shoreline surveys along the Louisiana coast west of the Mississippi River mouth detected a large area of deposition in water depths of 2.0-8.5 m offshore of a 9-km- wide tidal inlet, the Cat Island Pass/Wine Island Pass system. A 59.9 ?? 106 m3 sandy deposit formed from the 1930s-1980s, spanning 27 km in the alongshore direction, delineating the transport pathway for sediment bypassing offshore of the inlet on the shoreface. Bypassing connected the shorefaces of two barrier island systems, the Isles Dernieres and the Bayou Lafourche. The processes responsible for formation of this deposit are not well understood, but sediment-transport modeling suggests that sediment is transported primarily by wind-driven coastal currents during large storms and hurricanes. Deposition appears to be related to changes in shoreline orientation, closing of transport pathways into a large bay to the east and the presence of tidal inlets. This newly documented type of bypassing, an offshore bypassing of the inlet system, naturally nourished the immediate downdrift area, the eastern Isles Dernieres, where shoreface and shoreline erosion rates are about half of pre-bypassing rates. Erosion rates remained the same farther downdrift, where bypassing has not yet reached. As this offshore bypassing continues, the destruction of the Isles Dernieres will be slowed.

  14. Probability Distributions for Offshore Wind Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, E. C.; Lackner, M.; Vogel, R. M.; Baise, L. G.

    2009-12-01

    In planning offshore wind farms, short-term wind speeds play a central role in estimating various engineering parameters, such as power output, design load, fatigue load, etc. Lacking wind speed data at a specific site, the probability distribution of wind speed serves as the primary substitute for such measurements during parameter estimation. It is common practice to model wind speeds with the Weibull distribution, but recent literature suggests that many other distributions may perform better. Such studies are often limited in either the time-span or geographic scope of their datasets. Using 10-minute average wind speed time series ranging from 1 month to 20 years in duration collected from 178 buoys around North America, we show that the widely-accepted Weibull distribution provides a poor fit to the distribution of wind speeds when compared with other models. For example several other distributions, including the bimodal Weibull, Kappa and Wakeby models, fit the data remarkably well, yielding values significantly closer to 1 than the Weibull and many other distributions. Additionally, we show that the Kappa and Wakeby predict average wind turbine power output better than other distributions, including the bimodal Weibull. Our results show that more complicated models than the two-parameter Weibull are needed to capture the complex behavior of wind, and that using such models leads to improved engineering decisions.

  15. Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.M. )

    1996-01-01

    In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of oil and gas. Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between the then Soviet Oil and Gas Ministry and the Vietnam Oil and Gas Corporation was formed. Most of Vietsovpetro's efforts have been to develop the Bach Ho field in the Cuu Long Basin. This now produces [approximately]130000 bopd. The most recent large scale licensing round occurred in 1992, and, at present, there are over thirty foreign companies active in these Basins' blocks . The first phase of exploration is ending and successes in the Nam Con Son Basin include the BP-led Lan Tay/Lan Do gas discoveries and Pedco's gas discoveries. Mitsubishi's and Petronas' oil discoveries in the Cuu Long Basin have attracted much attention also. The Dai Hung oil field (BHP-operated) has been producing since late 1994. Certain blocks are being appraised, and exploration work is also continuing. Areas of the Cuu Long Basin that were part of Vietsovpetro's acreage, but which may soon be re-licensed, have generated keen interest. The presence of an active upstream industry - exploring, appraising, developing and producing - indicates the emergence of Vietnam as an important East Asian oil and gas player.

  16. Method for supporting offshore well caisson

    SciTech Connect

    Tawfik, A.S.; Urquhart, R.G.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes a method for supporting an offshore well caisson or drivepipe extending generally vertically from a seabed to a point thereabove. It comprises providing a support member comprising generally vertically oriented tubular sleeve means adapted to be sleeved around the caisson in supporting relationship thereto, the sleeve means being a continuous vertically- extending sleeve or vertically spaced-apart sleeves aligned one with the other, lateral brace means extending from the sleeve means to plural spaced-apart pile guide sleeves, and diagonally-extending brace means extending generally upwardly and downwardly, respectively, between an intermediate point on the sleeve means and the spaced-apart pile guide sleeves to form a unitary support for the caisson and for receiving generally vertically-extending anchor piles for anchoring the support member to the seabed; positioning the support member on the seabed in a predetermined location; driving respective piles through respective sets of vertically spaced-apart pile guide sleeves to a predetermined depth; and inserting the caisson through the sleeve means and conducting well operation through the caissons.

  17. Data warehouse manages offshore project information

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-04

    A data warehouse adopted from the POSC/Caesar data model will manage the life-cycle information for the offshore Norway Aasgard project. The Aasgard project comprises the Midgard, Smorbukk, and Smorbukk South fields, which lie in 780--985 ft of water. A semisubmersible production facility will handle gas exports, scheduled to begin in 2000. Statoil estimates that recoverable reserves in the fields are 7.5 tcf of gas and 780 million bbl of oil. Notia software components include: the Intergraph asset and information management (AIM) product; the P/C PDM and P/C RDL models; a data mapping, translation, and import toolkit; the application programming interface (API); and query and browser clients. Intergraph describes AIM, with its object management framework (OMF) from metaphase technology, as the engine upon which Notia is based. The P/C PDM defines the data terminology and structure. A dictionary of standard petrochemical data items, the P/C RDL, defines the various activities, materials, components, and relationships among these items. The API allows users to develop additional functionality, and the toolkit provides resources for translating and mapping data from existing sources into a neutral format so that administrators can prepopulate the data warehouse. A worldwide web browser client allows users to query the data warehouse and display results in a variety of configurable formats, including virtual data sheets.

  18. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development agencies, to assist in identifying policies with low effort and high impact (Chapter 3). Section 3.3 provides specific policy examples that have been demonstrated to be effective in removing barriers to development. (c) Current and potential domestic suppliers in the offshore wind market, in evaluating areas of opportunity and understanding requirements for participation (Chapter 4). Section 4.4 provides a step-by-step description of the qualification process that suppliers looking to sell components into a future U.S. offshore wind market will need to follow.

  19. Fluid additive and specialized PDC bits improve ROP in offshore applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.A.

    1997-02-01

    Improving drilling rates of penetration (ROP) has always been a concern of operators in the oil and gas industry. This concern is increasingly prevalent as costs associated with drilling in challenging offshore environments continue to rise, which increases the impact of ROP improvements on overall project economics. Factors such as drilling fluid, bit design, hydraulics, weight on bit, rotary speed and bit balling affect a well`s overall ROP. This article focuses on two of the factors: drilling fluid type and bit selection.

  20. Compensation technology for a novel reflex optical fiber temperature sensor used under offshore oil well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Liao, Yanbiao

    2003-01-01

    We propose a semiconductor absorption optical fiber temperature sensor adapted to offshore explorations. The sensing mechanism relies on the well-known temperature induced shift of the optical absorption edge of GaAs. The sensor system uses a common-path reference measurement method combined with a node-type error compensation technology. This allows to correct for errors caused by fluctuations of the light intensity level, by differences in and variations of the detector responsiveness and by the amplification of the processing circuitry. Preliminary experimental results show the feasibility of our approach and indicate that we can achieve a temperature measurement uncertainty of 0.2 C.