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Sample records for jacobi-davidson type methods

  1. Parallel two-level domain decomposition based Jacobi-Davidson algorithms for pyramidal quantum dot simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tao; Hwang, Feng-Nan; Cai, Xiao-Chuan

    2016-07-01

    We consider a quintic polynomial eigenvalue problem arising from the finite volume discretization of a quantum dot simulation problem. The problem is solved by the Jacobi-Davidson (JD) algorithm. Our focus is on how to achieve the quadratic convergence of JD in a way that is not only efficient but also scalable when the number of processor cores is large. For this purpose, we develop a projected two-level Schwarz preconditioned JD algorithm that exploits multilevel domain decomposition techniques. The pyramidal quantum dot calculation is carefully studied to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Numerical experiments confirm that the proposed method has a good scalability for problems with hundreds of millions of unknowns on a parallel computer with more than 10,000 processor cores.

  2. The trace minimization method for the symmetric generalized eigenvalue problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameh, Ahmed; Tong, Zhanye

    2000-11-01

    In this paper, the trace minimization method for the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problems proposed by Sameh and Wisniewski [35] is reviewed. Convergence of an inexact trace minimization algorithm is established and a variant of the algorithm that uses expanding subspaces is introduced and compared with the block Jacobi-Davidson algorithm.

  3. Using generalized Cayley transformations within an inexact rational Krylov sequence method.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, R. B.; Meerbergen, K.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Utrecht Univ.

    1999-01-01

    The rational Krylov sequence (RKS) method is a generalization of Arnoldi's method. It constructs an orthogonal reduction of a matrix pencil into an upper Hessenberg pencil. The RKS method is useful when the matrix pencil may be efficiently factored. This article considers approximately solving the resulting linear systems with iterative methods. We show that a Cayley transformation leads to a more efficient and robust eigensolver than the usual shift-invert transformation when the linear systems are solved inexactly within the RKS method. A relationship with the recently introduced Jacobi--Davidson method is also established.

  4. Software for computing eigenvalue bounds for iterative subspace matrix methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, Ron; Minkoff, Michael; Zhou, Yunkai

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes software for computing eigenvalue bounds to the standard and generalized hermitian eigenvalue problem as described in [Y. Zhou, R. Shepard, M. Minkoff, Computing eigenvalue bounds for iterative subspace matrix methods, Comput. Phys. Comm. 167 (2005) 90-102]. The software discussed in this manuscript applies to any subspace method, including Lanczos, Davidson, SPAM, Generalized Davidson Inverse Iteration, Jacobi-Davidson, and the Generalized Jacobi-Davidson methods, and it is applicable to either outer or inner eigenvalues. This software can be applied during the subspace iterations in order to truncate the iterative process and to avoid unnecessary effort when converging specific eigenvalues to a required target accuracy, and it can be applied to the final set of Ritz values to assess the accuracy of the converged results. Program summaryTitle of program: SUBROUTINE BOUNDS_OPT Catalogue identifier: ADVE Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVE Computers: any computer that supports a Fortran 90 compiler Operating systems: any computer that supports a Fortran 90 compiler Programming language: Standard Fortran 90 High speed storage required:5m+5 working-precision and 2m+7 integer for m Ritz values No. of bits in a word: The floating point working precision is parameterized with the symbolic constant WP No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2452 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 281 543 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: The computational solution of eigenvalue problems using iterative subspace methods has widespread applications in the physical sciences and engineering as well as other areas of mathematical modeling (economics, social sciences, etc.). The accuracy of the solution of such problems and the utility of those errors is a fundamental problem that is of

  5. Hybrid Lanczos-type product methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ressel, K.J.

    1996-12-31

    A general framework is proposed to construct hybrid iterative methods for the solution of large nonsymmetric systems of linear equations. This framework is based on Lanczos-type product methods, whose iteration polynomial consists of the Lanczos polynomial multiplied by some other arbitrary, {open_quotes}shadow{close_quotes} polynomial. By using for the shadow polynomial Chebyshev (more general Faber) polynomials or L{sup 2}-optimal polynomials, hybrid (Chebyshev-like) methods are incorporated into Lanczos-type product methods. In addition, to acquire spectral information on the system matrix, which is required for such a choice of shadow polynomials, the Lanczos-process can be employed either directly or in an QMR-like approach. The QMR like approach allows the cheap computation of the roots of the B-orthogonal polynomials and the residual polynomials associated with the QMR iteration. These roots can be used as a good approximation for the spectrum of the system matrix. Different choices for the shadow polynomials and their construction are analyzed. The resulting hybrid methods are compared with standard Lanczos-type product methods, like BiOStab, BiOStab({ell}) and BiOS.

  6. Projection preconditioning for Lanczos-type methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bielawski, S.S.; Mulyarchik, S.G.; Popov, A.V.

    1996-12-31

    We show how auxiliary subspaces and related projectors may be used for preconditioning nonsymmetric system of linear equations. It is shown that preconditioned in such a way (or projected) system is better conditioned than original system (at least if the coefficient matrix of the system to be solved is symmetrizable). Two approaches for solving projected system are outlined. The first one implies straightforward computation of the projected matrix and consequent using some direct or iterative method. The second approach is the projection preconditioning of conjugate gradient-type solver. The latter approach is developed here in context with biconjugate gradient iteration and some related Lanczos-type algorithms. Some possible particular choices of auxiliary subspaces are discussed. It is shown that one of them is equivalent to using colorings. Some results of numerical experiments are reported.

  7. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to compare typing methods, individually and combined, to use in the routine surveillance of Campylobacter in broiler carcasses. C. jejuni (n=94) and C. coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler carcasses were characterized using different typing methods: multilocus sequen...

  8. A Method for Predicting Protein-Protein Interaction Types

    PubMed Central

    Silberberg, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) govern basic cellular processes through signal transduction and complex formation. The diversity of those processes gives rise to a remarkable diversity of interactions types, ranging from transient phosphorylation interactions to stable covalent bonding. Despite our increasing knowledge on PPIs in humans and other species, their types remain relatively unexplored and few annotations of types exist in public databases. Here, we propose the first method for systematic prediction of PPI type based solely on the techniques by which the interaction was detected. We show that different detection methods are better suited for detecting specific types. We apply our method to ten interaction types on a large scale human PPI dataset. We evaluate the performance of the method using both internal cross validation and external data sources. In cross validation, we obtain an area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve ranging from 0.65 to 0.97 with an average of 0.84 across the predicted types. Comparing the predicted interaction types to external data sources, we obtained significant agreements for phosphorylation and ubiquitination interactions, with hypergeometric p-value = 2.3e−54 and 5.6e−28 respectively. We examine the biological relevance of our predictions using known signaling pathways and chart the abundance of interaction types in cell processes. Finally, we investigate the cross-relations between different interaction types within the network and characterize the discovered patterns, or motifs. We expect the resulting annotated network to facilitate the reconstruction of process-specific subnetworks and assist in predicting protein function or interaction. PMID:24625764

  9. n-Type diamond and method for producing same

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    A new n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed, which is doped with n-type dopant atoms. Such diamond is advantageously formed by chemical vapor deposition from a source gas mixture comprising a carbon source compound for the diamond, and a volatile hot wire filament for the n-type impurity species, so that the n-type impurity atoms are doped in the diamond during its formation. A corresponding chemical vapor deposition method of forming the n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed. The n-type semiconducting diamond of the invention may be usefully employed in the formation of diamond-based transistor devices comprising pn diamond junctions, and in other microelectronic device applications.

  10. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracting methods and contract type. 235.006 Section 235.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.006 Contracting methods and...

  11. Method for identifying type I diabetes mellitus in humans

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Thomas O [Kennewick, WA; Qian, Weijun [Richland, WA; Jacobs, Jon M [Pasco, WA

    2011-04-12

    A method and system for classifying subject populations utilizing predictive and diagnostic biomarkers for type I diabetes mellitus. The method including determining the levels of a variety of markers within the serum or plasma of a target organism and correlating this level to general populations as a screen for predisposition or progressive monitoring of disease presence or predisposition.

  12. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting methods and contract type. 235.006 Section 235.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.006 Contracting methods and...

  13. Solving inverse problems of identification type by optimal control methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhart, S.; Protopopescu, V.; Yong, J.

    1997-05-01

    Inverse problems of identification type for nonlinear equations are considered within the framework of optimal control theory. The rigorous solution of any particular problem depends on the functional setting, type of equation, and unknown quantity (or quantities) to be determined. Here we present only the general articulations of the formalism. Compared to classical regularization methods (e.g. Tikhonov coupled with optimization schemes), our approach presents several advantages, namely: (i) a systematic procedure to solve inverse problems of identification type; (ii) an explicit expression for the approximations of the solution; and (iii) a convenient numerical solution of these approximations. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Solving inverse problems of identification type by optimal control methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhart, S.; Protopopescu, V.; Jiongmin Yong

    1997-06-01

    Inverse problems of identification type for nonlinear equations are considered within the framework of optimal control theory. The rigorous solution of any particular problem depends on the functional setting, type of equation, and unknown quantity (or quantities) to be determined. Here the authors present only the general articulations of the formalism. Compared to classical regularization methods (e.g. Tikhonov coupled with optimization schemes), their approach presents several advantages, namely: (i) a systematic procedure to solve inverse problems of identification type; (ii) an explicit expression for the approximations of the solution; and (iii) a convenient numerical solution of these approximations.

  15. Challenges for standardization of Clostridium difficile typing methods.

    PubMed

    Huber, Charlotte A; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V; Paterson, David L

    2013-09-01

    Typing of Clostridium difficile facilitates understanding of the epidemiology of the infection. Some evaluations have shown that certain strain types (for example, ribotype 027) are more virulent than others and are associated with worse clinical outcomes. Although restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis have been widely used in the past, PCR ribotyping is the current method of choice for typing of C. difficile. However, global standardization of ribotyping results is urgently needed. Whole-genome sequencing of C. difficile has the potential to provide even greater epidemiologic information than ribotyping. PMID:23784128

  16. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Alexandra; Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Miller, William G; De Zutter, Lieven; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Dierick, Katelijne; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different typing methods, individually and combined, for use in the monitoring of Campylobacter in food. Campylobacter jejuni (n=94) and Campylobacter coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler meat carcasses were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), flagellin gene A restriction fragment length polymorphism typing (flaA-RFLP), antimicrobial resistance profiling (AMRp), the presence/absence of 5 putative virulence genes; and, exclusively for C. jejuni, the determination of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) class. Discriminatory power was calculated by the Simpson's index of diversity (SID) and the congruence was measured by the adjusted Rand index and adjusted Wallace coefficient. MLST was individually the most discriminative typing method for both C. jejuni (SID=0.981) and C. coli (SID=0.957). The most discriminative combination with a SID of 0.992 for both C. jejuni and C. coli was obtained by combining MLST with flaA-RFLP. The combination of MLST with flaA-RFLP is an easy and feasible typing method for short-term monitoring of Campylobacter in broiler meat carcass. PMID:26996762

  17. A PCR-RFLP method for typing human papillomavirus type 16 variants.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Trampe, Ángel; Trujillo-Murillo, Karina del C; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Barboza-Cerda, Maria del C; Lugo-Trampe, José de J; Hernández-Ramirez, Laura C; Canseco-Avila, Luis M; Espinoza-Ruiz, Marisol; Domínguez-Arrevillaga, Sergio; Delgado-Enciso, Iván

    2013-02-01

    Infection with some types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is required for cervical cancer development, being HPV type 16 (HPV 16) the most common type in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. DNA sequencing has revealed the existence of intratypic variants of HPV 16 whose genotyping is clinically useful for distinguishing between persistent and recurrent infections. From the epidemiological perspective, the frequency of diverse HPV 16 variants in several populations could correlate with the presence of precursor high-risk lesions in different anatomical locations. Currently, the "gold standard" method for identifying HPV 16 variants involves the sequencing of genomic regions to identify characteristic polymorphic sites. Although some other methods have been described, they require specialized or high-cost equipment. In this study, a robust and low cost procedure is described for HPV 16 variant typing, based on the long control region of the virus. PMID:23124001

  18. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-reimbursement contracts is usually appropriate (see subpart 16.3). The nature of development work often requires... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.006 Contracting methods and..., performance objectives, and specifications for the work can be defined will largely determine the type...

  19. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-reimbursement contracts is usually appropriate (see subpart 16.3). The nature of development work often requires... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.006 Contracting methods and..., performance objectives, and specifications for the work can be defined will largely determine the type...

  20. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-reimbursement contracts is usually appropriate (see subpart 16.3). The nature of development work often requires... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.006 Contracting methods and..., performance objectives, and specifications for the work can be defined will largely determine the type...

  1. New method for removing type 2 copper from Rhus laccase.

    PubMed

    Klemens, A S; McMillin, D R

    1990-02-01

    A new procedure is described for preparing tree laccase that is missing the type 2 copper. The derivative has only about 5% of the activity of the native enzyme, and some, or all, of the residual activity could be due to traces of holoprotein. The type 1 copper is fully oxidized in the purified type-2-depleted protein, while the type 3 site is reduced to the extent of at least 85%. However, the type 3 coppers can be reoxidized by treatment with excess H2O2. Reconstitution is achieved by incubation with Cu(I), and the remetalated protein exhibits the activity and the spectral properties of the native enzyme. The type 2 copper is removed by dialysis against a redox buffer containing ferri- and ferrocyanide ions as well as EDTA. More than 25% of the total copper is removed from laccase during the procedure, but the type-2-depleted fraction is readily isolated by means of an ion-exchange column. The practical advantages of this procedure are described. Finally, the simplicity of the method raises hopes that the mechanism of depletion can be defined. PMID:2324732

  2. Strain Typing Methods and Molecular Epidemiology of Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Patricia; Nevez, Gilles; Hauser, Philippe M.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Lundgren, Bettina

    2004-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) caused by the opportunistic fungal agent Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly P. carinii) continues to cause illness and death in HIV-infected patients. In the absence of a culture system to isolate and maintain live organisms, efforts to type and characterize the organism have relied on polymerase chain reaction–based approaches. Studies using these methods have improved understanding of PCP epidemiology, shedding light on sources of infection, transmission patterns, and potential emergence of antimicrobial resistance. One concern, however, is the lack of guidance regarding the appropriateness of different methods and standardization of these methods, which would facilitate comparing results reported by different laboratories. PMID:15504257

  3. Analytical methods applied to diverse types of Brazilian propolis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Propolis is a bee product, composed mainly of plant resins and beeswax, therefore its chemical composition varies due to the geographic and plant origins of these resins, as well as the species of bee. Brazil is an important supplier of propolis on the world market and, although green colored propolis from the southeast is the most known and studied, several other types of propolis from Apis mellifera and native stingless bees (also called cerumen) can be found. Propolis is usually consumed as an extract, so the type of solvent and extractive procedures employed further affect its composition. Methods used for the extraction; analysis the percentage of resins, wax and insoluble material in crude propolis; determination of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and heavy metal contents are reviewed herein. Different chromatographic methods applied to the separation, identification and quantification of Brazilian propolis components and their relative strengths are discussed; as well as direct insertion mass spectrometry fingerprinting. Propolis has been used as a popular remedy for several centuries for a wide array of ailments. Its antimicrobial properties, present in propolis from different origins, have been extensively studied. But, more recently, anti-parasitic, anti-viral/immune stimulating, healing, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activities of diverse types of Brazilian propolis have been evaluated. The most common methods employed and overviews of their relative results are presented. PMID:21631940

  4. Weighted Wilcoxon-type Smoothly Clipped Absolute Deviation Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    Summary Shrinkage-type variable selection procedures have recently seen increasing applications in biomedical research. However, their performance can be adversely influenced by outliers in either the response or the covariate space. This paper proposes a weighted Wilcoxon-type smoothly clipped absolute deviation (WW-SCAD) method, which deals with robust variable selection and robust estimation simultaneously. The new procedure can be conveniently implemented with the statistical software R. We establish that the WW-SCAD correctly identifies the set of zero coefficients with probability approaching one and estimates the nonzero coefficients with the rate n−1/2. Moreover, with appropriately chosen weights the WW-SCAD is robust with respect to outliers in both the x and y directions. The important special case with constant weights yields an oracle-type estimator with high efficiency at the presence of heavier-tailed random errors. The robustness of the WW-SCAD is partly justified by its asymptotic performance under local shrinking contamination. We propose a BIC-type tuning parameter selector for the WW-SCAD. The performance of the WW-SCAD is demonstrated via simulations and by an application to a study that investigates the effects of personal characteristics and dietary factors on plasma beta-carotene level. PMID:18647294

  5. Prototyping method for Bragg-type atom interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, Brandon; Krygier, Michael; Heward, Jeffrey; Edwards, Mark; Clark, Charles W.

    2011-10-15

    We present a method for rapid modeling of new Bragg ultracold atom-interferometer (AI) designs useful for assessing the performance of such interferometers. The method simulates the overall effect on the condensate wave function in a given AI design using two separate elements. These are (1) modeling the effect of a Bragg pulse on the wave function and (2) approximating the evolution of the wave function during the intervals between the pulses. The actual sequence of these pulses and intervals is then followed to determine the approximate final wave function from which the interference pattern can be calculated. The exact evolution between pulses is assumed to be governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation whose solution is approximated using a Lagrangian variational method to facilitate rapid estimation of performance. The method presented here is an extension of an earlier one that was used to analyze the results of an experiment [J. E. Simsarian et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2040 (2000)], where the phase of a Bose-Einstein condensate was measured using a Mach-Zehnder-type Bragg AI. We have developed both 1D and 3D versions of this method and we have determined their validity by comparing their predicted interference patterns with those obtained by numerical integration of the 1D GP equation and with the results of the above experiment. We find excellent agreement between the 1D interference patterns predicted by this method and those found by the GP equation. We show that we can reproduce all of the results of that experiment without recourse to an ad hoc velocity-kick correction needed by the earlier method, including some experimental results that the earlier model did not predict. We also found that this method provides estimates of 1D interference patterns at least four orders-of-magnitude faster than direct numerical solution of the 1D GP equation.

  6. Prototyping method for Bragg-type atom interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Brandon; Krygier, Michael; Heward, Jeffrey; Edwards, Mark; Clark, Charles W.

    2011-10-01

    We present a method for rapid modeling of new Bragg ultracold atom-interferometer (AI) designs useful for assessing the performance of such interferometers. The method simulates the overall effect on the condensate wave function in a given AI design using two separate elements. These are (1) modeling the effect of a Bragg pulse on the wave function and (2) approximating the evolution of the wave function during the intervals between the pulses. The actual sequence of these pulses and intervals is then followed to determine the approximate final wave function from which the interference pattern can be calculated. The exact evolution between pulses is assumed to be governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation whose solution is approximated using a Lagrangian variational method to facilitate rapid estimation of performance. The method presented here is an extension of an earlier one that was used to analyze the results of an experiment [J. E. Simsarian , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.85.2040 85, 2040 (2000)], where the phase of a Bose-Einstein condensate was measured using a Mach-Zehnder-type Bragg AI. We have developed both 1D and 3D versions of this method and we have determined their validity by comparing their predicted interference patterns with those obtained by numerical integration of the 1D GP equation and with the results of the above experiment. We find excellent agreement between the 1D interference patterns predicted by this method and those found by the GP equation. We show that we can reproduce all of the results of that experiment without recourse to an ad hoc velocity-kick correction needed by the earlier method, including some experimental results that the earlier model did not predict. We also found that this method provides estimates of 1D interference patterns at least four orders-of-magnitude faster than direct numerical solution of the 1D GP equation.

  7. Luminex-Based Methods in High-Resolution HLA Typing.

    PubMed

    Testi, Manuela; Andreani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Luminex-based technology has been applied to discriminate between the different Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) alleles. The typing method consists in a reverse-SSO assay: Target DNA is PCR-amplified using biotinylated group-specific primers. A single PCR reaction is used for each HLA locus. The biotinylated PCR product is chemically denatured using a pH change and allowed to rehybridize to complementary DNA probes conjugated to microspheres. These beads are characterized by two internal fluorescent dyes that create a unique combination of color, make them identifiable. Washes are performed to eliminate any additional PCR product that does not exactly match the sequence detected by the probe. The biotinylated PCR product bound to the microsphere is labelled with streptavidin conjugated with R-phycoerythrin (SAPE). A flow analyzer identifies the fluorescent intensity SAPE on each microsphere. Software is used to assign positive or negative reactions based on the strength of the fluorescent signal. The assignment of the HLA typing is based on positive and negative probe reactions compared with published HLA gene sequences. Recently kits characterized by an extensive number of probes/beads designed to potentially reduce the number of ambiguities or to directly lead to an allele level typing, have been made available. PMID:26024639

  8. The Movable Type Method Applied to Protein-Ligand Binding.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zheng; Ucisik, Melek N; Merz, Kenneth M

    2013-12-10

    Accurately computing the free energy for biological processes like protein folding or protein-ligand association remains a challenging problem. Both describing the complex intermolecular forces involved and sampling the requisite configuration space make understanding these processes innately difficult. Herein, we address the sampling problem using a novel methodology we term "movable type". Conceptually it can be understood by analogy with the evolution of printing and, hence, the name movable type. For example, a common approach to the study of protein-ligand complexation involves taking a database of intact drug-like molecules and exhaustively docking them into a binding pocket. This is reminiscent of early woodblock printing where each page had to be laboriously created prior to printing a book. However, printing evolved to an approach where a database of symbols (letters, numerals, etc.) was created and then assembled using a movable type system, which allowed for the creation of all possible combinations of symbols on a given page, thereby, revolutionizing the dissemination of knowledge. Our movable type (MT) method involves the identification of all atom pairs seen in protein-ligand complexes and then creating two databases: one with their associated pairwise distant dependent energies and another associated with the probability of how these pairs can combine in terms of bonds, angles, dihedrals and non-bonded interactions. Combining these two databases coupled with the principles of statistical mechanics allows us to accurately estimate binding free energies as well as the pose of a ligand in a receptor. This method, by its mathematical construction, samples all of configuration space of a selected region (the protein active site here) in one shot without resorting to brute force sampling schemes involving Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms or molecular dynamics simulations making the methodology extremely efficient. Importantly, this method explores the free

  9. Improved methods for typing nontypeable isolates of group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Benson, Jeffrey A; Flores, Aurea E; Baker, Carol J; Hillier, Sharon L; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2002-06-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are classified by capsular polysaccharide (CPS) type and by cell surface-expressed proteins (c and R). Isolates lacking detectable CPS are considered nontypeable (NT) although they frequently express surface proteins. Immunological and genetic methods were used to study 91 NT GBS isolates collected during surveillance studies for invasive disease or colonization in pregnant or non-pregnant women and neonates less than seven days of age. CPS production was upregulated by the addition of glucose and sodium phosphate to Todd-Hewitt broth (THB) and cells were extracted using hot HCl or mutanolysin. Extracts were tested with antisera for specific CPS types Ia, Ib, and II - VIII by double immunodiffusion (DD) in agarose. By mutanolysin extraction, 12 (13.2%) of the 91 isolates were typeable. In contrast, only four of these 12 newly typeable isolates tested positive for CPS with the HCl extracts of cells grown in modified THB. DNA was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI restriction with NT isolates grouped by protein profile to facilitate analysis. PFGE results of the NT isolates were compared to DNA profiles of typeable isolates and were correlated with the DD results. The DNA profiles of the newly typeable isolates were similar to profiles of isolates with corresponding defined CPS type. Of the remaining 78 NT isolates digested by SmaI, 63 (80.8%) had DNA profiles that resembled those of specific types of GBS. These approaches will be useful for classification of NT isolates in continued epidemiological surveillance associated with GBS vaccine trials. PMID:12139427

  10. The Movable Type Method Applied to Protein-Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Ucisik, Melek N.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Accurately computing the free energy for biological processes like protein folding or protein-ligand association remains a challenging problem. Both describing the complex intermolecular forces involved and sampling the requisite configuration space make understanding these processes innately difficult. Herein, we address the sampling problem using a novel methodology we term “movable type”. Conceptually it can be understood by analogy with the evolution of printing and, hence, the name movable type. For example, a common approach to the study of protein-ligand complexation involves taking a database of intact drug-like molecules and exhaustively docking them into a binding pocket. This is reminiscent of early woodblock printing where each page had to be laboriously created prior to printing a book. However, printing evolved to an approach where a database of symbols (letters, numerals, etc.) was created and then assembled using a movable type system, which allowed for the creation of all possible combinations of symbols on a given page, thereby, revolutionizing the dissemination of knowledge. Our movable type (MT) method involves the identification of all atom pairs seen in protein-ligand complexes and then creating two databases: one with their associated pairwise distant dependent energies and another associated with the probability of how these pairs can combine in terms of bonds, angles, dihedrals and non-bonded interactions. Combining these two databases coupled with the principles of statistical mechanics allows us to accurately estimate binding free energies as well as the pose of a ligand in a receptor. This method, by its mathematical construction, samples all of configuration space of a selected region (the protein active site here) in one shot without resorting to brute force sampling schemes involving Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms or molecular dynamics simulations making the methodology extremely efficient. Importantly, this method explores the

  11. An Object-Based Method for Chinese Landform Types Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hu; Tao, Fei; Zhao, Wufan; Na, Jiaming; Tang, Guo'an

    2016-06-01

    Landform classification is a necessary task for various fields of landscape and regional planning, for example for landscape evaluation, erosion studies, hazard prediction, et al. This study proposes an improved object-based classification for Chinese landform types using the factor importance analysis of random forest and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). In this research, based on 1km DEM of China, the combination of the terrain factors extracted from DEM are selected by correlation analysis and Sheffield's entropy method. Random forest classification tree is applied to evaluate the importance of the terrain factors, which are used as multi-scale segmentation thresholds. Then the GLCM is conducted for the knowledge base of classification. The classification result was checked by using the 1:4,000,000 Chinese Geomorphological Map as reference. And the overall classification accuracy of the proposed method is 5.7% higher than ISODATA unsupervised classification, and 15.7% higher than the traditional object-based classification method.

  12. Design method for four-reflector type beam waveguide systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betsudan, S.; Katagi, T.; Urasaki, S.

    1986-01-01

    Discussed is a method for the design of four reflector type beam waveguide feed systems, comprised of a conical horn and 4 focused reflectors, which are used widely as the primary reflector systems for communications satellite Earth station antennas. The design parameters for these systems are clarified, the relations between each parameter are brought out based on the beam mode development, and the independent design parameters are specified. The characteristics of these systems, namely spillover loss, crosspolarization components, and frequency characteristics, and their relation to the design parameters, are also shown. It is also indicated that design parameters which decide the dimensions of the conical horn or the shape of the focused reflectors can be unerringly established once the design standard for the system has been selected as either: (1) minimizing the crosspolarization component by keeping the spillover loss to within acceptable limits, or (2) minimizing the spillover loss by maintaining the crossover components below an acceptable level and the independent design parameters, such as the respective sizes of the focused reflectors and the distances between the focussed reflectors, etc., have been established according to mechanical restrictions. A sample design is also shown. In addition to being able to clarify the effects of each of the design parameters on the system and improving insight into these systems, the efficiency of these systems will also be increased with this design method.

  13. THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD FOR TYPE II PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares E, Felipe; Hamuy, Mario; Pignata, Giuliano; Maza, Jose; Bersten, Melina; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrel, Nidia I.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Matheson, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we study the 'standardized candle method' using a sample of 37 nearby (redshift z < 0.06) Type II plateau supernovae having BVRI photometry and optical spectroscopy. An analytic procedure is implemented to fit light curves, color curves, and velocity curves. We find that the V-I color toward the end of the plateau can be used to estimate the host-galaxy reddening with a precision of {sigma}(A{sub V}) = 0.2 mag. The correlation between plateau luminosity and expansion velocity previously reported in the literature is recovered. Using this relation and assuming a standard reddening law (R{sub V} = 3.1), we obtain Hubble diagrams (HDs) in the BVI bands with dispersions of {approx}0.4 mag. Allowing R{sub V} to vary and minimizing the spread in the HDs, we obtain a dispersion range of 0.25-0.30 mag, which implies that these objects can deliver relative distances with precisions of 12%-14%. The resulting best-fit value of R{sub V} is 1.4 {+-} 0.1.

  14. Methods to distinguish various types of protein phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigan, D.L.; Shriner, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To distinguish the action of protein Tyr(P) and protein Ser(P)/Thr(P) phosphatases on /sup 32/P-labeled phosphoproteins in subcellular fractions different inhibitors and activators are utilized. Comparison of the effects of added compounds provides a convenient, indirect method to characterize dephosphorylation reactions. Protein Tyr(P) phosphatases are specifically inhibited by micromolar Zn2+ or vanadate, and show maximal activity in the presence of EDTA. The other class of cellular phosphatases, specific for protein Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues, are inhibited by fluoride and EDTA. In this class of enzymes two major functional types can be distinguished: those sensitive to inhibition by the heat-stable protein inhibitor-2 and not stimulated by polycations, and those not sensitive to inhibition and stimulated by polycations. Preparation of /sup 32/P-labeled Tyr(P) and Ser(P) phosphoproteins also is presented for the direct measurement of phosphatase activities in preparations by the release of acid-soluble (/sup 32/P)phosphate.

  15. Module Based Differential Coexpression Analysis Method for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lin; Zheng, Chun-Hou; Xia, Jun-Feng; Huang, De-Shuang

    2015-01-01

    More and more studies have shown that many complex diseases are contributed jointly by alterations of numerous genes. Genes often coordinate together as a functional biological pathway or network and are highly correlated. Differential coexpression analysis, as a more comprehensive technique to the differential expression analysis, was raised to research gene regulatory networks and biological pathways of phenotypic changes through measuring gene correlation changes between disease and normal conditions. In this paper, we propose a gene differential coexpression analysis algorithm in the level of gene sets and apply the algorithm to a publicly available type 2 diabetes (T2D) expression dataset. Firstly, we calculate coexpression biweight midcorrelation coefficients between all gene pairs. Then, we select informative correlation pairs using the “differential coexpression threshold” strategy. Finally, we identify the differential coexpression gene modules using maximum clique concept and k-clique algorithm. We apply the proposed differential coexpression analysis method on simulated data and T2D data. Two differential coexpression gene modules about T2D were detected, which should be useful for exploring the biological function of the related genes. PMID:26339648

  16. High Molecular Weight Typing with MALDI-TOF MS - A Novel Method for Rapid Typing of Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Rizzardi, Kristina; Åkerlund, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile strains were typed by a newly developed MALDI-TOF method, high molecular weight typing, and compared to PCR ribotyping. Among 500 isolates representing 59 PCR ribotypes a total of 35 high molecular weight types could be resolved. Although less discriminatory than PCR ribotyping, the method is extremely fast and simple, and supports for cost-effective screening of isolates during outbreak situations. PMID:25923527

  17. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., performance objectives, and specifications for the work can be defined will largely determine the type of contract employed. The contract type must be selected to fit the work required. (c) Because the absence of...-reimbursement contracts is usually appropriate (see subpart 16.3). The nature of development work often...

  18. Methods for Differentiating Prion Types in Food-Producing Animals.

    PubMed

    Gough, Kevin C; Rees, Helen C; Ives, Sarah E; Maddison, Ben C

    2015-01-01

    Prions are an enigma amongst infectious disease agents as they lack a genome yet confer specific pathologies thought to be dictated mainly, if not solely, by the conformation of the disease form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)). Prion diseases affect humans and animals, the latter including the food-producing ruminant species cattle, sheep, goats and deer. Importantly, it has been shown that the disease agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. Current diagnostic tests can distinguish different prion types and in food-producing animals these focus on the differentiation of BSE from the non-zoonotic agents. Whilst BSE cases are now rare, atypical forms of both scrapie and BSE have been reported, as well as two types of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Typing of animal prion isolates remains an important aspect of prion diagnosis and is now becoming more focused on identifying the range of prion types that are present in food-producing animals and also developing tests that can screen for emerging, novel prion diseases. Here, we review prion typing methodologies in light of current and emerging prion types in food-producing animals. PMID:26580664

  19. Interactions between Personality Type and the Experimental Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; Taylor, Beck A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors bring together two research streams in the literature that examine separately the effectiveness of using experiments in the principles classroom and the relationship between different personality types and student achievement. Using a sample of 255 principles of microeconomics students, 48 of whom were enrolled in sections that relied…

  20. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... award a fixed-price type contract for a development program effort unless— (1) The level of program risk... allocation of program risk between the Government and the contractor; and (3) A written determination that... contract for the lead ship of a class; (2) A reduction in the amount of work under a fixed-price...

  1. Preference for Instructional Methods and MBTI Personality Types in Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Carol Fowler

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personality type and preference for instructional methodologies (lecture, online and simulation). The sample consisted of 94 practicing gerontology nurses (RNs and LPNs) who attended a continuing education workshop on the care of the acutely ill elder at a public university in the…

  2. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... development contract or a fixed-price type contract for the lead ship of a class, when the value of the work... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT... production option on a development contract for a major weapon system reasonably in advance of the...

  3. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... development contract or a fixed-price type contract for the lead ship of a class, when the value of the work... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT... production option on a development contract for a major weapon system reasonably in advance of the...

  4. Suicide Methods in Singapore (2000-2004): Types and Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Boon-Hock; Franzco, Audrey Chia; Ng, Wai-Yee; Tai, Bee-Choo

    2011-01-01

    The choice of suicide methods varies between countries. Common methods used in Singapore between 2000 and 2004 were jumping (72.4%), hanging (16.6%), and poisoning (5.9%). Those who jumped were more likely to be young, single, female, and to have had a major mental illness. By comparison, those who hung themselves were more likely to be older (OR…

  5. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.006 Contracting methods and... projects when the objectives of the research are well defined and there is sufficient confidence in...

  6. Prototyping method for Bragg-type atom interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Brandon; Krygier, Michael; Heward, Jeffrey; Edwards, Mark; Clark, Charles

    2012-02-01

    We present a method for rapid modeling of new Bragg ultracold atom-interferometer (AI) designs useful for assessing the performance of such interferometers. The method simulates the overall effect on the condensate wave function in a given AI design using two separate elements. These are (1) modeling the effect of a Bragg pulse on the wave function and (2) approximating its evolution during the intervals between the pulses. The actual sequence of these pulses and intervals is then followed to determine the approximate final wave function from which the interference pattern can be calculated. The exact evolution between pulses is assumed to be governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE). We have developed both 1D and 3D versions of this method and have determined their validity by comparing their predicted interference patterns with those obtained by numerical integration of the 1D GPE and with the results of an experiment performed at NIST. We find good agreement between the 1D interference patterns predicted by this method and those found by the GPE. We show that we can reproduce the results of the NIST experiment and that this method provides estimates of 1D interference patterns 10,000 times faster than direct integration of the GPE.

  7. 48 CFR 1335.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 1335.006 Contracting methods and... is exempt from the requirements of 15 CFR part 27 and does not require Institutional Review Board... research involving human subjects to be carried out in performance of the award is exempt from 15 CFR...

  8. 48 CFR 1335.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 1335.006 Contracting methods and... is exempt from the requirements of 15 CFR part 27 and does not require Institutional Review Board... research involving human subjects to be carried out in performance of the award is exempt from 15 CFR...

  9. Synoptic typing: interdisciplinary application methods with three practical hydroclimatological examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, C. M.; Leathers, D. J.; Levia, D. F.

    2016-01-01

    Synoptic classification is a methodology that represents diverse atmospheric variables and allows researchers to relate large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns to regional- and small-scale terrestrial processes. Synoptic classification has often been applied to questions concerning the surface environment. However, full applicability has been under-utilized to date, especially in disciplines such as hydroclimatology, which are intimately linked to atmospheric inputs. This paper aims to (1) outline the development of a daily synoptic calendar for the Mid-Atlantic (USA), (2) define seasonal synoptic patterns occurring in the region, and (3) provide hydroclimatological examples whereby the cascading response of precipitation characteristics, soil moisture, and streamflow are explained by synoptic classification. Together, achievement of these objectives serves as a guide for development and use of a synoptic calendar for hydroclimatological studies. In total 22 unique synoptic types were identified, derived from a combination of 12 types occurring in the winter (DJF), 13 in spring (MAM), 9 in summer (JJA), and 11 in autumn (SON). This includes six low pressure systems, four high pressure systems, one cold front, three north/northwest flow regimes, three south/southwest flow regimes, and five weakly defined regimes. Pairwise comparisons indicated that 84.3 % had significantly different rainfall magnitudes, 86.4 % had different rainfall durations, and 84.7 % had different rainfall intensities. The largest precipitation-producing classifications were not restricted to low pressure systems, but rather to patterns with access to moisture sources from the Atlantic Ocean and easterly (on-shore) winds, which transport moisture inland. These same classifications resulted in comparable rates of soil moisture recharge and streamflow discharge, illustrating the applicability of synoptic classification for a range of hydroclimatological research objectives.

  10. Matrix-valued polynomials in Lanczos type methods

    SciTech Connect

    Simoncini, V.; Gallopoulos, E.

    1994-12-31

    It is well known that convergence properties of iterative methods can be derived by studying the behavior of the residual polynomial over a suitable domain of the complex plane. Block Krylov subspace methods for the solution of linear systems A[x{sub 1},{hor_ellipsis}, x{sub s}] = [b{sub 1},{hor_ellipsis}, b{sub s}] lead to the generation of residual polynomials {phi}{sub m} {element_of} {bar P}{sub m,s} where {bar P}{sub m,s} is the subset of matrix-valued polynomials of maximum degree m and size s such that {phi}{sub m}(0) = I{sub s}, R{sub m} := B - AX{sub m} = {phi}{sub m}(A) {circ} R{sub 0}, where {phi}{sub m}(A) {circ} R{sub 0} := R{sub 0} - A{summation}{sub j=0}{sup m-1} A{sup j}R{sub 0}{xi}{sub j}, {xi}{sub j} {element_of} R{sup sxs}. An effective method has to balance adequate approximation with economical computation of iterates defined by the polynomial. Matrix valued polynomials can be used to improve the performance of block methods. Another approach is to solve for a single right-hand side at a time and use the generated information in order to update the approximations of the remaining systems. In light of this, a more general scheme is as follows: A subset of residuals (seeds) is selected and a block short term recurrence method is used to compute approximate solutions for the corresponding systems. At the same time the generated matrix valued polynomial is implicitly applied to the remaining residuals. Subsequently a new set of seeds is selected and the process is continued as above, till convergence of all right-hand sides. The use of a quasi-minimization technique ensures a smooth convergence behavior for all systems. In this talk the authors discuss the implementation of this class of algorithms and formulate strategies for the selection of parameters involved in the computation. Experiments and comparisons with other methods will be presented.

  11. New doping method to obtain n-type silicon ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. A.; Platte, B.; Brito, M. C.; Serra, J. M.

    2015-10-01

    A method to dope silicon ribbons is presented. The method consists on the spraying of the ribbons with a phosphoric acid solution followed by a recrystallization in an optical heating furnace. During the sample heating, as phosphoric acid is dehydrated the resulting phosphorous compounds are either evaporated or serve as source for phosphorous diffusion. Phosphorous is efficiently incorporated in silicon by solid-state diffusion during heating and directly mixed in the melted silicon. Experimental results show significant incorporation gradients along the samples' length. The origin of the incorporation gradient is analysed, by testing the effect of experimental parameters such as the argon flux and the recrystallization velocity and direction. It is shown that samples recrystallized in a downward direction have homogeneous doping profiles over most of the length.

  12. Dispersion type zirconium matrix fuels fabricated by capillary impregnation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, A.; Konovalov, I.; Vatulin, A.; Morozov, A.; Orlov, V.; Uferov, O.; Ershov, S.; Laushkin, A.; Kulakov, G.; Maranchak, S.; Petrova, Z.

    2007-05-01

    Several novel dispersion fuel compositions with a high uranium content fuel (U9Mo, U5Zr5Nb, U3Si) and a zirconium alloy matrix with low melting point (1063-1133 K) have been developed at A.A. Bochvar Institute using a capillary impregnation fabrication method. The capillary impregnation method introduces fuel granules and granules of a zirconium alloy into a fuel element followed by a short-term anneal at a temperature above the melting temperature of alloy. The alloy melts down and under capillary forces moves into the joints between the fuel element components to form metallurgical bonds. The volume ratios between the components are: 55-65% fuel, 10-20% matrix, and 15-30% pores. Fuel elements produced by capillary impregnation method have a high uranium content (9-10 g cm-3) and a high thermal conductivity (18-22 W m-1 K-1), which, when used as PWR or BWR fuels allow the fuel temperature to be lowered to 723-773 K. They also feature porosity to accommodate swelling. The metallurgical fuel-cladding bond makes the fuel elements serviceable in power transients. The primary advantages for PWR, BWR and CANDU use of these fuels elements, would be the high uranium content, low fuel temperature and serviceability under transient conditions. Consideration is given to their applicability in Floating Nuclear Power Plants (FNPP) as well as for the feasibility of burning civil and weapon grade plutonium.

  13. Study on Winding Method to Reduce the Residual Current of Track Type (Oval Type) ZCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Fumio; Ibe, Masayuki; Ninohei, Koichiro; Okamura, Seiichiro

    ZCT (Zero-phase-sequence Current Transformer) is used widely for the detection of the ground fault current in low or high voltage distribution power line. Especially, the use of pole air switches equipped with ZCT is increasing to prevent the extended accident caused by the ground fault. The accurate detection of low level ground fault is needed from the view of early stage discovery. The internal residual current of ZCT must be small as possible for the detection of low level ground fault. Generally, the magnetic shield around the core of ZCT is used to reduce the internal residual current. Also, the core material and shield effect is related to the reduction of the internal residual current. In this paper, the reducing method of the internal residual current is proposed by using new winding method of the core. In new winding method, the secondary and tertiary windings are provided, and each winding is divided into two or three sections with parallel connection. The leakage magnetic flux caused by the primary current is changed to the cross current in parallel winding. This cross current is used to offset the leakage magnetic flux caused by the primary current. It is observed by the examination that the cross current is effective to reduce the internal residual current without influence to the zero phase current detection.

  14. Discriminatory Indices of Typing Methods for Epidemiologic Analysis of Contemporary Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Marcela; Hogan, Patrick G.; Satola, Sarah W.; Crispell, Emily; Wylie, Todd; Gao, Hongyu; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Fritz, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Historically, a number of typing methods have been evaluated for Staphylococcus aureus strain characterization. The emergence of contemporary strains of community-associated S. aureus, and the ensuing epidemic with a predominant strain type (USA300), necessitates re-evaluation of the discriminatory power of these typing methods for discerning molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics, essential to investigations of hospital and community outbreaks. We compared the discriminatory index of 5 typing methods for contemporary S. aureus strain characterization. Children presenting to St. Louis Children's Hospital and community pediatric practices in St. Louis, Missouri (MO), with community-associated S. aureus infections were enrolled. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (repPCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal protein A (spa), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing were performed on 200 S. aureus isolates. The discriminatory index of each method was calculated using the standard formula for this metric, where a value of 1 is highly discriminatory and a value of 0 is not discriminatory. Overall, we identified 26 distinct strain types by repPCR, 17 strain types by PFGE, 30 strain types by MLST, 68 strain types by spa typing, and 5 strain types by SCCmec typing. RepPCR had the highest discriminatory index (D) of all methods (D = 0.88), followed by spa typing (D = 0.87), MLST (D = 0.84), PFGE (D = 0.76), and SCCmec typing (D = 0.60). The method with the highest D among MRSA isolates was repPCR (D = 0.64) followed by spa typing (D = 0.45) and MLST (D = 0.44). The method with the highest D among MSSA isolates was spa typing (D = 0.98), followed by MLST (D = 0.93), repPCR (D = 0.92), and PFGE (D = 0.89). Among isolates designated USA300 by PFGE, repPCR was most discriminatory, with 10 distinct strain types identified (D = 0.63). We

  15. A fast method for computing the centroid of a type-2 fuzzy set.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Jung; Su, Yao-Lung; Lee, Shie-Jue

    2012-06-01

    Type reduction does the work of computing the centroid of a type-2 fuzzy set. The result is a type-1 fuzzy set from which a corresponding crisp number can then be obtained through defuzzification. Type reduction is one of the major operations involved in type-2 fuzzy inference. Therefore, making type reduction efficient is a significant task in the application of type-2 fuzzy systems. Liu introduced a horizontal slice representation, called the α-plane representation, and proposed a type-reduction method for a type-2 fuzzy set. By exploring some useful properties of the α-plane representation and of the type reduction for interval type-2 fuzzy sets, a fast method is developed for computing the centroid of a type-2 fuzzy set. The number of computations and comparisons involved is greatly reduced. Convergence in each iteration can then speed up, and type reduction can be done much more efficiently. The effectiveness of the proposed method is analyzed mathematically and demonstrated by experimental results. PMID:22180511

  16. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  20. High performance p-type thermoelectric materials and methods of preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alexander (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in high performance p-type thermoelectric materials having enhanced thermoelectric properties and the methods of preparing such materials. In one aspect of the invention, p-type semiconductors of formula Zn4-xAxSb3-yBy wherein 0?x?4, A is a transition metal, B is a pnicogen, and 0?y?3 are formed for use in manufacturing thermoelectric devices with substantially enhanced operating characteristics and improved efficiency. Two methods of preparing p-type Zn4Sb3 and related alloys of the present invention include a crystal growth method and a powder metallurgy method.

  1. A simple method for gene expression and chromatin profiling of individual cell types within a tissue

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Roger B.; Henikoff, Steven

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the production and function of specialized cells during development requires the isolation of individual cell types for analysis, but this is currently a major technical challenge. Here we describe a method for cell type-specific RNA and chromatin profiling that circumvents many of the limitations of current methods for cell isolation. We used in vivo biotin labeling of a nuclear envelope protein in individual cell types followed by affinity isolation of labeled nuclei to measure gene expression and chromatin features of the hair and non-hair cell types of the Arabidopsis root epidermis. We identified hundreds of genes that are preferentially expressed in each cell type and show that genes with the largest expression differences between hair and non-hair cells also show differences between cell types in the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysines 4 and 27. This method should be applicable to any organism that is amenable to transformation. PMID:20627084

  2. Optimum selection of mechanism type for heavy manipulators based on particle swarm optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Chen, Genliang; Wang, Hao; Lin, Zhongqin

    2013-07-01

    The mechanism type plays a decisive role in the mechanical performance of robotic manipulators. Feasible mechanism types can be obtained by applying appropriate type synthesis theory, but there is still a lack of effective and efficient methods for the optimum selection among different types of mechanism candidates. This paper presents a new strategy for the purpose of optimum mechanism type selection based on the modified particle swarm optimization method. The concept of sub-swarm is introduced to represent the different mechanisms generated by the type synthesis, and a competitive mechanism is employed between the sub-swarms to reassign their population size according to the relative performances of the mechanism candidates to implement the optimization. Combining with a modular modeling approach for fast calculation of the performance index of the potential candidates, the proposed method is applied to determine the optimum mechanism type among the potential candidates for the desired manipulator. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated through a case study on the optimum selection of mechanism type of a heavy manipulator where six feasible candidates are considered with force capability as the specific performance index. The optimization result shows that the fitness of the optimum mechanism type for the considered heavy manipulator can be up to 0.578 5. This research provides the instruction in optimum selection of mechanism types for robotic manipulators.

  3. Fast and simple epidemiological typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the double-locus sequence typing (DLST) method.

    PubMed

    Basset, P; Blanc, D S

    2014-06-01

    Although the molecular typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is important to understand the local epidemiology of this opportunistic pathogen, it remains challenging. Our aim was to develop a simple typing method based on the sequencing of two highly variable loci. Single-strand sequencing of three highly variable loci (ms172, ms217, and oprD) was performed on a collection of 282 isolates recovered between 1994 and 2007 (from patients and the environment). As expected, the resolution of each locus alone [number of types (NT) = 35-64; index of discrimination (ID) = 0.816-0.964] was lower than the combination of two loci (NT = 78-97; ID = 0.966-0.971). As each pairwise combination of loci gave similar results, we selected the most robust combination with ms172 [reverse; R] and ms217 [R] to constitute the double-locus sequence typing (DLST) scheme for P. aeruginosa. This combination gave: (i) a complete genotype for 276/282 isolates (typability of 98%), (ii) 86 different types, and (iii) an ID of 0.968. Analysis of multiple isolates from the same patients or taps showed that DLST genotypes are generally stable over a period of several months. The high typability, discriminatory power, and ease of use of the proposed DLST scheme makes it a method of choice for local epidemiological analyses of P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the possibility to give unambiguous definition of types allowed to develop an Internet database ( http://www.dlst.org ) accessible by all. PMID:24326699

  4. Solving the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation using the ranking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurhakimah Ab.; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-07-01

    Polynomial equations with trapezoidal and triangular fuzzy numbers have attracted some interest among researchers in mathematics, engineering and social sciences. There are some methods that have been developed in order to solve these equations. In this study we are interested in introducing the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation and solving it using the ranking method of fuzzy numbers. The ranking method concept was firstly proposed to find real roots of fuzzy polynomial equation. Therefore, the ranking method is applied to find real roots of the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation. We transform the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation to a system of crisp interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation. This transformation is performed using the ranking method of fuzzy numbers based on three parameters, namely value, ambiguity and fuzziness. Finally, we illustrate our approach by numerical example.

  5. Capsular Typing Method for Streptococcus agalactiae Using Whole-Genome Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Alison; Jones, Nicola; Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Efstratiou, Androulla; Patel, Darshana; Walker, A. Sarah; Berkley, James A.; Crook, Derrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) capsular serotypes are major determinants of virulence and affect potential vaccine coverage. Here we report a whole-genome-sequencing-based method for GBS serotype assignment. This method shows strong agreement (kappa of 0.92) with conventional methods and increased serotype assignment (100%) to all 10 capsular types. PMID:26962081

  6. Boundary Value Technique for Initial Value Problems Based on Adams-Type Second Derivative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jator, S. N.; Sahi, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we propose a family of second derivative Adams-type methods (SDAMs) of order up to 2k + 2 ("k" is the step number) for initial value problems. The methods are constructed through a continuous approximation of the SDAM which is obtained by multistep collocation. The continuous approximation is used to obtain initial value methods,…

  7. Capsular Typing Method for Streptococcus agalactiae Using Whole-Genome Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Anna E; Vaughan, Alison; Jones, Nicola; Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Efstratiou, Androulla; Patel, Darshana; Walker, A Sarah; Berkley, James A; Crook, Derrick W; Seale, Anna C

    2016-05-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) capsular serotypes are major determinants of virulence and affect potential vaccine coverage. Here we report a whole-genome-sequencing-based method for GBS serotype assignment. This method shows strong agreement (kappa of 0.92) with conventional methods and increased serotype assignment (100%) to all 10 capsular types. PMID:26962081

  8. Sol-gel method of p-type zinc oxide films preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Armen R.; Li, XiaoNan; Manukyan, Alexandr L.; Grigoryan, Stepan G.; Vardanyan, Eduard S.

    2007-09-01

    Both n-type and p-type ZnO will be required for development of homojunction light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. It is easy to obtain strong n-type ZnO, but very difficult to create consistent, reliable, high-conductivity p-type material. Here we present our investigations of p-type ZnO thin film preparation by sol-gel method using single Li doping and Ga(Al)+N codoping technique. ZnO thin films with c-axis orientation have been prepared on glass substrates. Zn acetate dihydrate, gallium nitrate and acetamide were used as zinc, gallium and nitrogen precursors respectively. SEM, X-ray diffraction, electric conductivity and Hall effect measurements were carried out. The results show that p-type conducting ZnO films with hole concentrations as high as 5x10 17 cm -3 were obtained by this method.

  9. A Method of Forest Type Classification Using PolInSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinshuang; Chen, Erxue; Li, Zengyuan; Yao, Wangqiang; Li, Wenmei; Li, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Forest type mapping is of great significance for regional forest carbon estimation as forest types distribution information is always the critical prior input information to forest carbon stock mapping model using remote sensing. Polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar (Pol-InSAR) data acquired by DLR airborne SAR system (ESAR) in the Traunstein test site in Germany was used to study forest type classification method in this paper. A new unsupervised PolInSAR classification method based on coherent optimization R matrix was proposed to distinguish coniferous forest, deciduous forest and other land cover types. It not only considers the full polarimetric information of single Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) data set but also the coherent information of a pair of PolSAR data. The results show that the classification algorithm proposed in this paper is the best method with higher accuracy comparing with the classical method based on T6 matrix.

  10. What's in a Name? A Comparison of Methods for Classifying Predominant Type of Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, A.S.; Leeb, R.T.; English, D.; Graham, J.C.; Briggs, E.C.; Brody, K.E.; Marshall, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The primary aim of the study was to identify a classification scheme, for determining the predominant type of maltreatment in a child's history that best predicts differences in developmental outcomes. Method:: Three different predominant type classification schemes were examined in a sample of 519 children with a history of alleged…

  11. On spectral methods for Volterra-type integro-differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ying-Jun

    2009-08-01

    This paper considers the spectral methods for a Volterra-type integro-differential equation. Firstly, the Volterra-type integro-differential equation is equivalently restated as two integral equations of the second kind. Secondly, a Legendre-collocation method is used to solve them. Then the error analysis is conducted based on the L[infinity]-norm. In addition, numerical results are presented to confirm our analysis.

  12. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Spain: molecular epidemiology and utility of different typing methods.

    PubMed

    Vindel, Ana; Cuevas, Oscar; Cercenado, Emilia; Marcos, Carmen; Bautista, Verónica; Castellares, Carol; Trincado, Pilar; Boquete, Teresa; Pérez-Vázquez, Maria; Marín, Mercedes; Bouza, Emilio

    2009-06-01

    In a point-prevalence study performed in 145 Spanish hospitals in 2006, we collected 463 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in a single day. Of these, 135 (29.2%) were methicillin (meticillin)-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed by a microdilution method, and mecA was detected by PCR. The isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SmaI digestion, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, agr typing, spa typing with BURP (based-upon-repeat-pattern) analysis, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The 135 MRSA isolates showed resistance to ciprofloxacin (93.3%), tobramycin (72.6%), gentamicin (20.0%), erythromycin (66.7%), and clindamycin (39.3%). Among the isolates resistant to erythromycin, 27.4% showed the M phenotype. All of the isolates were susceptible to glycopeptides. Twelve resistance patterns were found, of which four accounted for 65% of the isolates. PFGE revealed 36 different patterns, with 13 major clones (including 2 predominant clones with various antibiotypes that accounted for 52.5% of the MRSA isolates) and 23 sporadic profiles. Two genotypes were observed for the first time in Spain. SCCmec type IV accounted for 6.7% of the isolates (70.1% were type IVa, 23.9% were type IVc, 0.9% were type IVd, and 5.1% were type IVh), and SCCmec type I and SCCmec type II accounted for 7.4% and 5.2% of the isolates, respectively. One isolate was nontypeable. Only one of the isolates produced the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. The isolates presented agr type 2 (82.2%), type 1 (14.8%), and type 3 (3.0%). spa typing revealed 32 different types, the predominant ones being t067 (48.9%) and t002 (14.8%), as well as clonal complex 067 (78%) by BURP analysis. The MRSA clone of sequence type 125 and SCCmec type IV was the most prevalent throughout Spain. In our experience, PFGE, spa typing, SCCmec typing, and MLST presented good correlations for the majority of the MRSA strains; we suggest the

  13. Methods for improving n-type photoconductivity of electrodeposited Cu2O thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalubowila, K. D. R. N.; Gunawardhana, L. K. A. D. D. S.; Wijesundera, R. P.; Siripala, W.

    2014-07-01

    Electrodeposition technique is very useful for depositing n-type Cu2O thin films on various substrates. However, most of the reported n-type Cu2O thin film electrodes exhibit not only n-type photoactivity but also p-type photoactivity in photoelectrochemical cells. In this study, current-voltage characteristics and zero bias spectral response measurements were employed to investigate the possibilities to remove/minimize this unwanted p-type behaviour of n-type Cu2O thin films electrodeposited on Ti substrate. For this, prior deposition of Cu thin films on Ti substrate, low temperature annealing of Cu2O films in air and optimization of deposition bath pH were investigated. Growth of a very thin Cu film improved the n-type photosignal significantly and reduced the p-type photoresponse of the films. Films electrodeposited using an acetate bath of pH 6.1 produced only the n-type photoresponse. Low temperature annealing of Cu2O films in air improved the n-type photoresponse and it was found that annealing at 100 °C for 24 h produces the best result. These methods will be very useful to obtain electrodeposited Cu2O thin film with improved n-type photoactivity suitable for applications in thin film solar cells and other devices.

  14. [Development of an accelerated method of determining the antibiotic sensitivity of Cl. perfringens type A].

    PubMed

    Zemlianitskaia, E P; Kurbanova, I Z; Sergeeva, T I

    1979-02-01

    An express method for determination of antibiotic sensitivity in the strains of Cl. perfringens of type A using Soviet dry nutrient media and antibiotics is proposed. The criteria for estimation of the level of the antibiotic sensitivity of the causative agent of gas gangrene in short periods on the basis of comparison of the data of the antibiotic agar diffusion procedure and the antibiotic MIC were worked out. Twelve antibiotics and 45 collection strains of Cl. perfringens of type A were used in the experiment. The antibiotic agar diffusion method with the use of the nutrient media, microbial load and cultivation conditions developed by the authors is recommended for tentative determination of the antibiotic sensitivity in Cl. perfringens of type A for 4 hours. The use of the agar diffusion method and determination of the antibiotic MIC provided complete estimation of tha antibiotic sensitivity of Cl. perfringens of type A within not more than 24 hours. PMID:219770

  15. Overview of molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sabat, A J; Budimir, A; Nashev, D; Sá-Leão, R; van Dijl, J m; Laurent, F; Grundmann, H; Friedrich, A W

    2013-01-01

    Typing methods for discriminating different bacterial isolates of the same species are essential epidemiological tools in infection prevention and control. Traditional typing systems based on phenotypes, such as serotype, biotype, phage-type, or antibiogram, have been used for many years. However, more recent methods that examine the relatedness of isolates at a molecular level have revolutionised our ability to differentiate among bacterial types and subtypes. Importantly, the development of molecular methods has provided new tools for enhanced surveillance and outbreak detection. This has resulted in better implementation of rational infection control programmes and efficient allocation of resources across Europe. The emergence of benchtop sequencers using next generation sequencing technology makes bacterial whole genome sequencing (WGS) feasible even in small research and clinical laboratories. WGS has already been used for the characterisation of bacterial isolates in several large outbreaks in Europe and, in the near future, is likely to replace currently used typing methodologies due to its ultimate resolution. However, WGS is still too laborious and time-consuming to obtain useful data in routine surveillance. Also, a largely unresolved question is how genome sequences must be examined for epidemiological characterisation. In the coming years, the lessons learnt from currently used molecular methods will allow us to condense the WGS data into epidemiologically useful information. On this basis, we have reviewed current and new molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance of bacterial pathogens in clinical practice, aiming to give an overview of their specific advantages and disadvantages. PMID:23369389

  16. A new Liu-Storey type nonlinear conjugate gradient method for unconstrained optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li

    2009-03-01

    Although the Liu-Storey (LS) nonlinear conjugate gradient method has a similar structure as the well-known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) and Hestenes-Stiefel (HS) methods, research about this method is very rare. In this paper, based on the memoryless BFGS quasi-Newton method, we propose a new LS type method, which converges globally for general functions with the Grippo-Lucidi line search. Moreover, we modify this new LS method such that the modified scheme is globally convergent for nonconvex minimization if the strong Wolfe line search is used. Numerical results are also reported.

  17. A description of Lax type integrable dynamical systems via the Marsden-Weinstein reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prykarpatsky, Yarema A.

    2013-09-01

    A Lie-algebraic approach to constructing nonlinear Lax type integrable dynamical systems of modern mathematical and theoretical physics, based on the Marsden-Weinstein reduction method on canonically symplectic manifolds with group symmetry, is proposed. Its natural relationship with the well known Adler-Kostant-Souriau-Berezin-Kirillov method and the associated R-matrix approach is analyzed.

  18. Typing methods used in the molecular epidemiology of microbial pathogens: a how-to guide.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Reza; Karami, Ali; Farshad, Shohreh; Giammanco, Giovanni M; Mammina, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Microbial typing is often employed to determine the source and routes of infections, confirm or rule out outbreaks, trace cross-transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens, recognize virulent strains and evaluate the effectiveness of control measures. Conventional microbial typing methods have occasionally been useful in describing the epidemiology of infectious diseases. However, these methods are generally considered too variable, labour intensive and time-consuming to be of practical value in epidemiological investigations. Moreover, these approaches have proved to be insufficiently discriminatory and poorly reproducible. DNA-based typing methods rely on the analysis of the genetic material of a microorganism. In recent years, several methods have been introduced and developed for investigation of the molecular epidemiology of microbial pathogens. Each of them has advantages and limitations that make them useful in some studies and restrictive in others. The choice of a molecular typing method therefore will depend on the skill level and resources of the laboratory and the aim and scale of the investigation. This study reviews the most popular DNA-based molecular typing methods used in the epidemiology of bacterial pathogens together with their advantages and limitations. PMID:24531166

  19. Evaluation of simplified DNA extraction methods for emm typing of group A streptococci.

    PubMed

    Jose, J J M; Brahmadathan, K N

    2006-04-01

    Simplified methods of DNA extraction for amplification and sequencing for emm typing of group A streptococci (GAS) can save valuable time and cost in resource crunch situations. To evaluate this, we compared two methods of DNA extraction directly from colonies with the standard CDC cell lysate method for emm typing of 50 GAS strains isolated from children with pharyngitis and impetigo. For this, GAS colonies were transferred into two sets of PCR tubes. One set was preheated at 94 degrees C for two minutes in the thermal cycler and cooled while the other set was frozen overnight at -20 degrees C and then thawed before adding the PCR mix. For the cell lysate method, cells were treated with mutanolysin and hyaluronidase before heating at 100 degrees C for 10 minutes and cooling immediately as recommended in the CDC method. All 50 strains could be typed by sequencing the hyper variable region of the emm gene after amplification. The quality of sequences and the emm types identified were also identical. Our study shows that the two simplified DNA extraction methods directly from colonies can conveniently be used for typing a large number of GAS strains easily in relatively short time. PMID:16687865

  20. Lattice Boltzmann Method of Different BGA Orientations on I-Type Dispensing Method

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Z. L.; Ishak, M. H. H.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Khor, Soon Fuat

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the three dimensional (3D) simulation of fluid flows through the ball grid array (BGA) to replicate the real underfill encapsulation process. The effect of different solder bump arrangements of BGA on the flow front, pressure and velocity of the fluid is investigated. The flow front, pressure and velocity for different time intervals are determined and analyzed for potential problems relating to solder bump damage. The simulation results from Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) code will be validated with experimental findings as well as the conventional Finite Volume Method (FVM) code to ensure highly accurate simulation setup. Based on the findings, good agreement can be seen between LBM and FVM simulations as well as the experimental observations. It was shown that only LBM is capable of capturing the micro-voids formation. This study also shows an increasing trend in fluid filling time for BGA with perimeter, middle empty and full orientations. The perimeter orientation has a higher pressure fluid at the middle region of BGA surface compared to middle empty and full orientation. This research would shed new light for a highly accurate simulation of encapsulation process using LBM and help to further increase the reliability of the package produced. PMID:27454872

  1. Lattice Boltzmann Method of Different BGA Orientations on I-Type Dispensing Method.

    PubMed

    Abas, Aizat; Gan, Z L; Ishak, M H H; Abdullah, M Z; Khor, Soon Fuat

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the three dimensional (3D) simulation of fluid flows through the ball grid array (BGA) to replicate the real underfill encapsulation process. The effect of different solder bump arrangements of BGA on the flow front, pressure and velocity of the fluid is investigated. The flow front, pressure and velocity for different time intervals are determined and analyzed for potential problems relating to solder bump damage. The simulation results from Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) code will be validated with experimental findings as well as the conventional Finite Volume Method (FVM) code to ensure highly accurate simulation setup. Based on the findings, good agreement can be seen between LBM and FVM simulations as well as the experimental observations. It was shown that only LBM is capable of capturing the micro-voids formation. This study also shows an increasing trend in fluid filling time for BGA with perimeter, middle empty and full orientations. The perimeter orientation has a higher pressure fluid at the middle region of BGA surface compared to middle empty and full orientation. This research would shed new light for a highly accurate simulation of encapsulation process using LBM and help to further increase the reliability of the package produced. PMID:27454872

  2. Method of Asteroid S/C Type Classification Using Color Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jia-hui; Zhao, Hai-bin; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The color indices obtained from multi-color photometry have important significance of reference in the S/C type classification of asteroids, and the color parameter a derived from the principal component analysis of color indices is a key parameter of classification. Two methods, the direct demarcation at a = 0 and the cluster analysis of a-parameters, are applied to the asteroid S/C type classifications of the SDSSMOC4 and XSTPS-GAC (Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey of the Galactic Anti-Center) multi-color data samples, respectively. The results show that the two methods are effective and consistent in the case of large samples, and well consistent with the Carvano's result of S/C type classification, and that the a = 0 demarcation method is sensitive to the variation of sample space, but the method of cluster analysis is more stable.

  3. High performance P-type thermoelectric materials and methods of preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alexander (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in high performance p-type thermoelectric materials having enhanced thermoelectric properties and the methods of preparing such materials. In one aspect of the invention, p-type semiconductors of formula Zn.sub.4-x A.sub.x Sb.sub.3-y B.sub.y wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4, A is a transition metal, B is a pnicogen, and 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.3 are formed for use in manufacturing thermoelectric devices with substantially enhanced operating characteristics and improved efficiency. Two methods of preparing p-type Zn.sub.4 Sb.sub.3 and related alloys of the present invention include a crystal growth method and a powder metallurgy method.

  4. Extended RKN-type methods for numerical integration of perturbed oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongli; Wu, Xinyuan; You, Xiong; Fang, Yonglei

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, extended Runge-Kutta-Nyström-type methods for the numerical integration of perturbed oscillators with low frequencies are presented, which inherit the framework of RKN methods and make full use of the special feature of the true flows for both the internal stages and the updates. Following the approach of J. Butcher, E. Hairer and G. Wanner, we develop a new kind of tree set to derive order conditions for the extended Runge-Kutta-Nyström-type methods. The numerical stability and phase properties of the new methods are analyzed. Numerical experiments are accompanied to show the applicability and efficiency of our new methods in comparison with some well-known high quality methods proposed in the scientific literature.

  5. SYBR Green Real-Time PCR Method To Detect Clostridium botulinum Type A▿

    PubMed Central

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio; De Medici, Dario; Delibato, Elisabetta; Aureli, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are classically produced by Clostridium botulinum but rarely also from neurotoxigenic strains of Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum. BoNT type A (BoNT/A), BoNT/B, BoNT/E, and very rarely BoNT/F are mainly responsible for human botulism. Standard microbiological methods take into consideration only the detection of C. botulinum. The presumptive identification of the toxigenic strains together with the typing of BoNT has to be performed by mouse bioassay. The development of PCR-based methods for the detection and typing of BoNT-producing clostridia would be an ideal alternative to the mouse bioassay. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and robust real-time PCR method for detecting C. botulinum type A. Four different techniques for the extraction and purification of DNA from cultured samples were initially compared. Of the techniques used, Chelex 100, DNeasy tissue kit, InstaGene matrix DNA, and boiling, the boiling technique was significantly less efficient than the other three. These did not give statistically different results, and Chelex 100 was chosen because it was less expensive than the others. In order to eliminate any false-negative results, an internal amplification control was synthesized and included in the amplification mixture according to ISO 22174. The specificity of the method was tested against 75 strains of C. botulinum type A, 4 strains of C. botulinum type Ab, and 101 nontarget strains. The detection limit of the reaction was less than 6 × 101 copies of C. botulinum type A DNA. The robustness of the method was confirmed using naturally contaminated stool specimens to evaluate the tolerance of inhibitor substances. SYBR green real-time PCR showed very high specificity for the detection of C. botulinum types A and Ab (inclusivity and exclusivity, 100%). PMID:17369349

  6. SYBR green real-time PCR method to detect Clostridium botulinum type A.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio; De Medici, Dario; Delibato, Elisabetta; Aureli, Paolo

    2007-05-01

    Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are classically produced by Clostridium botulinum but rarely also from neurotoxigenic strains of Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum. BoNT type A (BoNT/A), BoNT/B, BoNT/E, and very rarely BoNT/F are mainly responsible for human botulism. Standard microbiological methods take into consideration only the detection of C. botulinum. The presumptive identification of the toxigenic strains together with the typing of BoNT has to be performed by mouse bioassay. The development of PCR-based methods for the detection and typing of BoNT-producing clostridia would be an ideal alternative to the mouse bioassay. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and robust real-time PCR method for detecting C. botulinum type A. Four different techniques for the extraction and purification of DNA from cultured samples were initially compared. Of the techniques used, Chelex 100, DNeasy tissue kit, InstaGene matrix DNA, and boiling, the boiling technique was significantly less efficient than the other three. These did not give statistically different results, and Chelex 100 was chosen because it was less expensive than the others. In order to eliminate any false-negative results, an internal amplification control was synthesized and included in the amplification mixture according to ISO 22174. The specificity of the method was tested against 75 strains of C. botulinum type A, 4 strains of C. botulinum type Ab, and 101 nontarget strains. The detection limit of the reaction was less than 6 x 10(1) copies of C. botulinum type A DNA. The robustness of the method was confirmed using naturally contaminated stool specimens to evaluate the tolerance of inhibitor substances. SYBR green real-time PCR showed very high specificity for the detection of C. botulinum types A and Ab (inclusivity and exclusivity, 100%). PMID:17369349

  7. Application of neutron transmutation doping method to initially p-type silicon material.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myong-Seop; Kang, Ki-Doo; Park, Sang-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The neutron transmutation doping (NTD) method was applied to the initially p-type silicon in order to extend the NTD applications at HANARO. The relationship between the irradiation neutron fluence and the final resistivity of the initially p-type silicon material was investigated. The proportional constant between the neutron fluence and the resistivity was determined to be 2.3473x10(19)nOmegacm(-1). The deviation of the final resistivity from the target for almost all the irradiation results of the initially p-type silicon ingots was at a range from -5% to 2%. In addition, the burn-up effect of the boron impurities, the residual (32)P activity and the effect of the compensation characteristics for the initially p-type silicon were studied. Conclusively, the practical methodology to perform the neutron transmutation doping of the initially p-type silicon ingot was established. PMID:19318259

  8. CFD-based method of determining form factor k for different ship types and different drafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinbao; Yu, Hai; Zhang, Yuefeng; Xiong, Xiaoqing

    2016-07-01

    The value of form factor k at different drafts is important in predicting full-scale total resistance and speed for different types of ships. In the ITTC community, most organizations predict form factor k using a low-speed model test. However, this method is problematic for ships with bulbous bows and transom. In this article, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based method is introduced to obtain k for different type of ships at different drafts, and a comparison is made between the CFD method and the model test. The results show that the CFD method produces reasonable k values. A grid generating method and turbulence model are briefly discussed in the context of obtaining a consistent k using CFD.

  9. Comparative analysis of codeword representation by clustering methods for the classification of histological tissue types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygili, Ahmet; Uysal, Gunalp; Bilgin, Gokhan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the classification of several histological tissue types, i.e., muscles, nerves, connective and epithelial tissue cells, is studied in high resolutional histological images. In the feature extraction step, bag of features method is utilized to reveal distinguishing features of each tissue cell types. Local small blocks of sub-images/patches are extracted to find discriminative patterns for followed strategy. For detecting points of interest in local patches, Harris corner detection method is applied. Afterwards, discriminative features are extracted using the scale invariant feature transform method using these points of interests. Several code word representations are obtained by clustering approach (using k-means fuzzy c-means, expectation maximization method, Gaussian mixture models) and evaluated in comparative manner. In the last step, the classification of the tissue cells data are performed using k-nearest neighbor and support vector machines methods.

  10. Gaussian Beam Propagation in a Kerr Type Metamaterial Medium Using ABCD Matrix Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz, A.; Naseri, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a split step ABCD matrix method is suggested to investigate Gaussian beam propagation in a Kerr type metamaterial medium. This method is based on dividing the medium interval into subsequent steps. Meanwhile, Gaussian beam profile in every step is obtained by finding the ABCD matrix of that particular step, and is used to find the ABCD matrix of the next step. Results of the suggested matrix method have been compared with the results of numerical split-step Fourier method for a Kerr medium, which indicates a good agreement. Then, we use the ABCD matrix to investigate Gaussian beams propagation in a Kerr type metamaterial, which is also in agreement with pervious results by other methods.

  11. Implementation of integrated care for type 2 diabetes: a protocol for mixed methods research

    PubMed Central

    Busetto, Loraine; Luijkx, Katrien Ger; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While integrated care for diabetes mellitus type 2 has achieved good results in terms of intermediate clinical and process outcomes, the evidence-based knowledge on its implementation is scarce, and insights generalisable to other settings therefore remain limited. Objective This study protocol provides a description of the design and methodology of a mixed methods study on the implementation of integrated care for type 2 diabetes. The aim of the proposed research is to investigate the mechanisms by which and the context in which integrated care for type 2 diabetes has been implemented, which outcomes have been achieved and how the context and mechanisms have affected the outcomes. Methods This article describes a convergent parallel mixed methods research design, including a systematic literature review on the implementation of integrated care for type 2 diabetes as well as a case study on two Dutch best practices on integrated care for type 2 diabetes. Discussion The implementation of integrated care for diabetes type 2 is an under-researched area. Insights from this study could be applied to other settings as well as other chronic conditions to strengthen the evidence on the implementation of integrated care. PMID:25550689

  12. Evaluation of molecular typing methods for identification of outbreak-associated Neisseria meningitidis isolates.

    PubMed

    Törös, Bianca; Hedberg, Sara T; Jacobsson, Susanne; Fredlund, Hans; Olcén, Per; Mölling, Paula

    2013-06-01

    It is essential in an outbreak investigation that strain characterization of Neisseria meningitidis is performed in a rapid and accurate manner. This study evaluated two new molecular typing methods, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) (DiversiLab; bioMérieux) and compared them with current recommended methodologies. This retrospective study included 36 invasive N. meningitidis serogroup C isolates collected in Sweden 2001 through 2009 and previously subjected to outbreak investigation. All strains were typed with highly variable-MLVA (HV-MLVA) and rep-PCR. The isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequencing of the fetA, fHbp, penA, porA and porB genes. The results showed that HV-MLVA had the highest index of diversity (0.99) and rep-PCR had the highest congruence (40%) with the currently recommended typing methods. The HV-MLVA correlated best to the spatiotemporal connections and had the overall highest Adjusted Wallace coefficients, suggesting that HV-MLVA can predict the results of the other typing methods in the study. We therefore suggest that after initial confirmation of species, serogroup and genosubtype, HV-MLVA should be used as the most discriminatory method for first hand investigation of N. meningitidis serogroup C isolates. PMID:23216005

  13. A qPCR method to characterize the sex type of the cell strains from rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Junbei; Li, Zhilin; Wan, Qian; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Mianxue; Jiang, Xiaohui; Xie, Linfeng

    2016-10-01

    A simple and fast method was established to identify the sex types of the rat-derived cell strains. The single copy X-chromosome-linked gene AR and the single copy Y-chromosome-linked gene Sry were both detected with qPCR for the rat genomic DNA sample and the AR/Sry ratio was calculated. According to the law of the AR/Sry ratio, a new method to identify the sex types of the rat-derived cell strains was developed. The new assay was proved effective. The new assay showed advantages over the traditional sex type identification PCR methods, which detected only the Sry gene. Moreover, the new method was used to identify the sex types of two rat-derived cell strains unknown for the sex types and the results were confirmed with the in situ hybridization. Finally, the problem of the cross contamination between the female and the male samples was addressed and discussed extensively. PMID:27316703

  14. Clostridium difficile infection: Early history, diagnosis and molecular strain typing methods.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, C; Van Broeck, J; Taminiau, B; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2016-08-01

    Recognised as the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains high despite efforts to improve prevention and reduce the spread of the bacterium in healthcare settings. In the last decade, many studies have focused on the epidemiology and rapid diagnosis of CDI. In addition, different typing methods have been developed for epidemiological studies. This review explores the history of C. difficile and the current scope of the infection. The variety of available laboratory tests for CDI diagnosis and strain typing methods are also examined. PMID:27238460

  15. Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate method for differential equations with local fractional derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Srivastava, H. M.; He, Ji-Huan; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2013-10-01

    In this Letter, we propose to use the Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate method in order to investigate a family of local fractional differential operators on Cantor sets. Some testing examples are given to illustrate the capability of the proposed method for the heat-conduction equation on a Cantor set and the damped wave equation in fractal strings. It is seen to be a powerful tool to convert differential equations on Cantor sets from Cantorian-coordinate systems to Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate systems.

  16. Look-ahead procedures for Lanczos-type product methods based on three-term recurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Gutknecht, M.H.; Ressel, K.J.

    1996-12-31

    Lanczos-type product methods for the solution of large sparse non-Hermitian linear systems either square the Lanczos process or combine it with a local minimization of the residual. They inherit from the underlying Lanczos process the danger of breakdown. For various Lanczos-type product methods that are based on the Lanczos three-term recurrence, look-ahead versions are presented, which avoid such breakdowns or near breakdowns with a small computational overhead. Different look-ahead strategies are discussed and their efficiency is demonstrated in several numerical examples.

  17. Type-2 fuzzy set extension of DEMATEL method combined with perceptual computing for decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Mitra Bokaei; Tarokh, Mohammad Jafar

    2013-05-01

    Most decision making methods used to evaluate a system or demonstrate the weak and strength points are based on fuzzy sets and evaluate the criteria with words that are modeled with fuzzy sets. The ambiguity and vagueness of the words and different perceptions of a word are not considered in these methods. For this reason, the decision making methods that consider the perceptions of decision makers are desirable. Perceptual computing is a subjective judgment method that considers that words mean different things to different people. This method models words with interval type-2 fuzzy sets that consider the uncertainty of the words. Also, there are interrelations and dependency between the decision making criteria in the real world; therefore, using decision making methods that cannot consider these relations is not feasible in some situations. The Decision-Making Trail and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method considers the interrelations between decision making criteria. The current study used the combination of DEMATEL and perceptual computing in order to improve the decision making methods. For this reason, the fuzzy DEMATEL method was extended into type-2 fuzzy sets in order to obtain the weights of dependent criteria based on the words. The application of the proposed method is presented for knowledge management evaluation criteria.

  18. Domain decomposition methods for nonconforming finite element spaces of Lagrange-type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowsar, Lawrence C.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, we consider the application of three popular domain decomposition methods to Lagrange-type nonconforming finite element discretizations of scalar, self-adjoint, second order elliptic equations. The additive Schwarz method of Dryja and Widlund, the vertex space method of Smith, and the balancing method of Mandel applied to nonconforming elements are shown to converge at a rate no worse than their applications to the standard conforming piecewise linear Galerkin discretization. Essentially, the theory for the nonconforming elements is inherited from the existing theory for the conforming elements with only modest modification by constructing an isomorphism between the nonconforming finite element space and a space of continuous piecewise linear functions.

  19. Solutions of interval type-2 fuzzy polynomials using a new ranking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurhakimah Ab.; Abdullah, Lazim; Ghani, Ahmad Termimi Ab.; Ahmad, Noor'Ani

    2015-10-01

    A few years ago, a ranking method have been introduced in the fuzzy polynomial equations. Concept of the ranking method is proposed to find actual roots of fuzzy polynomials (if exists). Fuzzy polynomials are transformed to system of crisp polynomials, performed by using ranking method based on three parameters namely, Value, Ambiguity and Fuzziness. However, it was found that solutions based on these three parameters are quite inefficient to produce answers. Therefore in this study a new ranking method have been developed with the aim to overcome the inherent weakness. The new ranking method which have four parameters are then applied in the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomials, covering the interval type-2 of fuzzy polynomial equation, dual fuzzy polynomial equations and system of fuzzy polynomials. The efficiency of the new ranking method then numerically considered in the triangular fuzzy numbers and the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. Finally, the approximate solutions produced from the numerical examples indicate that the new ranking method successfully produced actual roots for the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomials.

  20. Current Methods in the Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Other Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    van Ingen, Jakko; Dziadek, Jarosław; Mazur, Paweł K.; Bielecki, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    In the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases, as in all infectious diseases, the key issue is to define the source of infection and to disclose its routes of transmission and dissemination in the environment. For this to be accomplished, the ability of discerning and tracking individual Mycobacterium strains is of critical importance. Molecular typing methods have greatly improved our understanding of the biology of mycobacteria and provide powerful tools to combat the diseases caused by these pathogens. The utility of various typing methods depends on the Mycobacterium species under investigation as well as on the research question. For tuberculosis, different methods have different roles in phylogenetic analyses and person-to-person transmission studies. In NTM diseases, most investigations involve the search for environmental sources or phylogenetic relationships. Here, too, the type of setting determines which methodology is most suitable. Within this review, we summarize currently available molecular methods for strain typing of M. tuberculosis and some NTM species, most commonly associated with human disease. For the various methods, technical practicalities as well as discriminatory power and accomplishments are reviewed. PMID:24527454

  1. Comparison of mineral resources calculation methods for different genetic types of gravel and sand deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patashova, T.

    2009-04-01

    Calculation of mineral resources and their proper assessment is relevant, since the stock of resources determines the economic independence of the state. I would like present the work wherein discusses gravel and sand deposits of different genetic type (kames, eskers, marginal glaciofluvial ridges, sandurs, glaciofluvial deltas and redrifted glaciofluvial aeolian formations). Their geological structure and formation conditions have been assessed; quality characteristics of mineral resources have been analysed; calculation of resources has been performed by applying most popular resources calculating methods used in Lithuania up to now, such as those of geological blocks, profiles and isolines, as well as the up-to-date GRID method created on the basis of triangle method in GIS environment. Comparison of resources assessed by different methods has revealed their advantages and disadvantages, their availability subject to deposits‘genetic types.

  2. A Gram-Negative Bacterial Secreted Protein Types Prediction Method Based on PSI-BLAST Profile

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of secreted protein types based solely on sequence data remains to be a challenging problem. In this study, we extract the long-range correlation information and linear correlation information from position-specific score matrix (PSSM). A total of 6800 features are extracted at 17 different gaps; then, 309 features are selected by a filter feature selection method based on the training set. To verify the performance of our method, jackknife and independent dataset tests are performed on the test set and the reported overall accuracies are 93.60% and 100%, respectively. Comparison of our results with the existing method shows that our method provides the favorable performance for secreted protein type prediction. PMID:27563663

  3. Comparison of pencil-type ionization chamber calibration results and methods between dosimetry laboratories.

    PubMed

    Hourdakis, Costas J; Büermann, Ludwig; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Csete, Istvan; Delis, Harry; Gomola, Igor; Persson, Linda; Novak, Leos; Petkov, Ivailo; Toroi, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of calibration results and procedures in terms of air kerma length product, PKL, and air kerma, K, was conducted between eight dosimetry laboratories. A pencil-type ionization chamber (IC), generally used for computed tomography dose measurements, was calibrated according to three calibration methods, while its residual signal and other characteristics (sensitivity profile, active length) were assessed. The results showed that the "partial irradiation method" is the preferred method for the pencil-type IC calibration in terms of PKL and it could be applied by the calibration laboratories successfully. Most of the participating laboratories achieved high level of agreement (>99%) for both dosimetry quantities (PKL and K). Estimated relative standard uncertainties of comparison results vary among laboratories from 0.34% to 2.32% depending on the quantity, beam quality and calibration method applied. Detailed analysis of the assigned uncertainties have been presented and discussed. PMID:26508013

  4. Improvement of the Owner Distinction Method for Healing-Type Pet Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Hara, Mirai; Abe, Koji; Tajima, Takuya

    In order to decrease human stress, Animal Assisted Therapy which applies pets to heal humans is attracted. However, since animals are insanitary and unsafe, it is difficult to practically apply animal pets in hospitals. For the reason, on behalf of animal pets, pet robots have been attracted. Since pet robots would have no problems in sanitation and safety, they are able to be applied as a substitute for animal pets in the therapy. In our previous study where pet robots distinguish their owners like an animal pet, we used a puppet type pet robot which has pressure type touch sensors. However, the accuracy of our method was not sufficient to practical use. In this paper, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of the distinction. The proposed method can be applied for capacitive touch sensors such as installed in AIBO in addition to pressure type touch sensors. Besides, this paper shows performance of the proposed method from experimental results and confirms the proposed method has improved performance of the distinction in the conventional method.

  5. Method of Multiple Scales and Travelling Wave Solutions for (2+1)-Dimensional KdV Type Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhan, Burcu; Özer, M. Naci; Bekir, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we applied the method of multiple scales for Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type equations and we derived nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) type equations. So we get a relation between KdV type equations and NLS type equations. In addition, exact solutions were found for KdV type equations. The ( G'} over G )-expansion methods and the ( {G'} over G, {1 over G}} )-expansion methods were proposed to establish new exact solutions for KdV type differential equations. We obtained periodic and hyperbolic function solutions for these equations. These methods are very effective for getting travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs).

  6. A New Method for Non-Invasive Estimation of Human Muscle Fiber Type Composition

    PubMed Central

    Baguet, Audrey; Everaert, Inge; Hespel, Peter; Petrovic, Mirko; Achten, Eric; Derave, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been established that excellence in sports with short and long exercise duration requires a high proportion of fast-twitch (FT) or type-II fibers and slow-twitch (ST) or type-I fibers, respectively. Until today, the muscle biopsy method is still accepted as gold standard to measure muscle fiber type composition. Because of its invasive nature and high sampling variance, it would be useful to develop a non-invasive alternative. Methodology Eighty-three control subjects, 15 talented young track-and-field athletes, 51 elite athletes and 14 ex-athletes volunteered to participate in the current study. The carnosine content of all 163 subjects was measured in the gastrocnemius muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Muscle biopsies for fiber typing were taken from 12 untrained males. Principal Findings A significant positive correlation was found between muscle carnosine, measured by 1H-MRS, and percentage area occupied by type II fibers. Explosive athletes had ∼30% higher carnosine levels compared to a reference population, whereas it was ∼20% lower than normal in typical endurance athletes. Similar results were found in young talents and ex-athletes. When active elite runners were ranked according to their best running distance, a negative sigmoidal curve was found between logarithm of running distance and muscle carnosine. Conclusions Muscle carnosine content shows a good reflection of the disciplines of elite track-and-field athletes and is able to distinguish between individual track running distances. The differences between endurance and sprint muscle types is also observed in young talents and former athletes, suggesting this characteristic is genetically determined and can be applied in early talent identification. This quick method provides a valid alternative for the muscle biopsy method. In addition, this technique may also contribute to the diagnosis and monitoring of many conditions and diseases that are

  7. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from southwest of Iran using spa and SCCmec typing methods.

    PubMed

    Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood; Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad; Marashifard, Masoud; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali Asghar; Parhizgari, Najmeh; Yazdanpanah, Mahboobeh; Gharibpour, Farzaneh; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Sharifi, Bahman; Haeili, Mehri

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus remains a major cause of nosocomial infection worldwide. Characterization of S. aureus isolates circulating in the southwest of Iran will contribute to understand and control the spread of the strains in this area. spa and SCCmec typing methods were used for genotyping of 125 S. aureus isolates obtained from two teaching hospitals in Ahvaz. Drug susceptibility testing was performed by using disk diffusion method. Frequency of the methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates was 39% (n = 34) and 27% (n = 10) in Emam Khomeini and Golestan hospitals, respectively. Except for Erythromycin, MRSA strains showed high rate of resistance to antimicrobial agents including penicillin (100%), norfloxacine (80%), azitromycin (80%), ciprofloxacin (80%), gentamycin (77%), cotrimoxazole (75%), cephotaxime. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin. Out of 44 MRSA strains, 39 (88.5%) were SCCmec III, three (7%) were IVc and two (4.5%) of them were nontypeable. spa types t037 (26 isolates; 59%), and t1149 (25 isolates; 31%) were the most dominant types found in MRSA and methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains, respectively. We found SCCmec type III as the most prominent type indicating that most of the studied bacterial population had hospital origin. spa type t037, the most frequent genotype in this study were significantly (100%) associated with MRSA. For the first time we are reporting spa types t692, t706 and t018 from Iran and t342, t704, t2622, t5598, t11270 and t2864 from Asia. Moreover we are reporting types t6871 and t2684 for the second time in the world. PMID:27392699

  8. [New methods of type II tympanoplasty in erosion of the long incus process].

    PubMed

    Maassen, M M; Lüdtke, R; Lehner, R; Reischl, G; Zenner, H P

    1997-03-01

    Reliable methods of reconstruction of the ossicular chain in the situation of an isolated errosion of the long process of the incus using a tympanoplasty type II have not been available until recently. Instead, the tympanoplasty type III has been generally performed with the interposition of an autologous incus. In this presentation, we are describing two methods for reconstruction of the ossicular chain between the in-situ residing incus and the stapes on the other side so that the direct connection eventually will result in a tympanoplasty type II. In the first case, we used ionomeric cement in a way that features two characteristics: the direct connection between the stapes and the long process of the incus could be achieved as well as an articulation that was created on the head of the stapes. Hence, a too stiff connection between the head of the stapes and the long process of the incus could be avoided. In addition, a new method for precise microapplication of cooled bone cement (IONOCAP LV) with a syringe will be presented. In the second method titanium-gold-angle prostheses have been crimped to the long process of the incus and positioned onto the head of the stapes in the way of an articulation. So far, comparison of the audiological results of those two methods of a tympanoplasty type II reveal in average better results than postoperative conductive hearing thresholds of the conventional tympanoplasty type III. If the achieved results can be reproduced on a larger number of patients, the expected audiological results are likely to resemble those of stapes surgery. PMID:9417436

  9. A De-identification method for bilingual clinical texts of various note types.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Park, Yu Rang; Shin, Yongdon; Choi, Hyo Joung; Park, Jihyun; Lyu, Yongman; Lee, Moo-Song; Choi, Chang-Min; Kim, Woo-Sung; Lee, Jae Ho

    2015-01-01

    De-identification of personal health information is essential in order not to require written patient informed consent. Previous de-identification methods were proposed using natural language processing technology in order to remove the identifiers in clinical narrative text, although these methods only focused on narrative text written in English. In this study, we propose a regular expression-based de-identification method used to address bilingual clinical records written in Korean and English. To develop and validate regular expression rules, we obtained training and validation datasets composed of 6,039 clinical notes of 20 types and 5,000 notes of 33 types, respectively. Fifteen regular expression rules were constructed using the development dataset and those rules achieved 99.87% precision and 96.25% recall for the validation dataset. Our de-identification method successfully removed the identifiers in diverse types of bilingual clinical narrative texts. This method will thus assist physicians to more easily perform retrospective research. PMID:25552878

  10. Comparison of traditional and molecular methods of typing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Tenover, F C; Arbeit, R; Archer, G; Biddle, J; Byrne, S; Goering, R; Hancock, G; Hébert, G A; Hill, B; Hollis, R

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-nine Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 1 isolate of Staphylococcus intermedius were typed by investigators at eight institutions by using either antibiograms, bacteriophage typing, biotyping, immunoblotting, insertion sequence typing with IS257/431, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, restriction analysis of plasmid DNA, pulsed-field or field inversion gel electrophoresis, restriction analysis of PCR-amplified coagulase gene sequences, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing by using four staphylococcal genes as probes, or ribotyping. Isolates from four well-characterized outbreaks (n = 29) and a collection of organisms from two nursing homes were mixed with epidemiologically unrelated stock strains from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Several isolates were included multiple times either within or between the sets of isolates to analyze the reproducibilities of the typing systems. Overall, the DNA-based techniques and immunoblotting were most effective in grouping outbreak-related strains, recognizing 27 to 29 of the 29 outbreak-related strains; however, they also tended to include 3 to 8 epidemiologically unrelated isolates in the same strain type. Restriction fragment length polymorphism methods with mec gene-associated loci were less useful than other techniques for typing oxacillin-susceptible isolates. Phage typing, plasmid DNA restriction analysis, and antibiogram analysis, the techniques most readily available to clinical laboratories, identified 23 to 26 of 29 outbreak-related isolates and assigned 0 to 6 unrelated isolates to outbreak strain types. No single technique was clearly superior to the others; however, biotyping, because it produced so many subtypes, did not effectively group outbreak-related strains of S. aureus. PMID:7908673

  11. Development of a neutronics calculation method for designing commercial type Japanese sodium-cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, T.; Shimazu, Y.; Hibi, K.; Fujimura, K.

    2012-07-01

    Under the R and D project to improve the modeling accuracy for the design of fast breeder reactors the authors are developing a neutronics calculation method for designing a large commercial type sodium- cooled fast reactor. The calculation method is established by taking into account the special features of the reactor such as the use of annular fuel pellet, inner duct tube in large fuel assemblies, large core. The Verification and Validation, and Uncertainty Qualification (V and V and UQ) of the calculation method is being performed by using measured data from the prototype FBR Monju. The results of this project will be used in the design and analysis of the commercial type demonstration FBR, known as the Japanese Sodium fast Reactor (JSFR). (authors)

  12. Runge-Kutta type methods with special properties for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogiratou, Z.; Monovasilis, Th.; Psihoyios, G.; Simos, T. E.

    2014-03-01

    In this work we review single step methods of the Runge-Kutta type with special properties. Among them are methods specially tuned to integrate problems that exhibit a pronounced oscillatory character and such problems arise often in celestial mechanics and quantum mechanics. Symplectic methods, exponentially and trigonometrically fitted methods, minimum phase-lag and phase-fitted methods are presented. These are Runge-Kutta, Runge-Kutta-Nyström and Partitioned Runge-Kutta methods. The theory of constructing such methods is given as well as several specific methods. In order to present the performance of the methods we have tested 58 methods from all categories. We consider the two dimensional harmonic oscillator, the two body problem, the pendulum problem and the orbital problem studied by Stiefel and Bettis. Also we have tested the methods on the computation of the eigenvalues of the one dimensional time independent Schrödinger equation with the harmonic oscillator, the doubly anharmonic oscillator and the exponential potentials.

  13. Bovine Papillomavirus in Brazil: Detection of Coinfection of Unusual Types by a PCR-RFLP Method

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, R. F.; Sakata, S. T.; Giovanni, D. N. S.; Mori, E.; Brandão, P. E.; Richtzenhain, L. J.; Pozzi, C. R.; Arcaro, J. R. P.; Miranda, M. S.; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J.; Melo, T. C.; Comenale, G.; Assaf, S. L. M. R.; Beçak, W.; Stocco, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is recognized as a causal agent of benign and malignant tumors in cattle. Thirteen types of BPV are currently characterized and classified into three distinct genera, associated with different pathological outcomes. The described BPV types as well as other putative ones have been demonstrated by molecular biology methods, mainly by the employment of degenerated PCR primers. Specifically, divergences in the nucleotide sequence of the L1 gene are useful for the identification and classification of new papillomavirus types. On the present work, a method based on the PCR-RFLP technique and DNA sequencing was evaluated as a screening tool, allowing for the detection of two relatively rare types of BPV in lesions samples from a six-year-old Holstein dairy cow, chronically affected with cutaneous papillomatosis. These findings point to the dissemination of BPVs with unclear pathogenic potential, since two relatively rare, new described BPV types, which were first characterized in Japan, were also detected in Brazil. PMID:23865043

  14. An overview of various typing methods for clinical epidemiology of the emerging pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, Giovanni; Creti, Roberta; Pompilio, Arianna; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Typing of bacterial isolates has been used for decades to study local outbreaks as well as in national and international surveillances for monitoring newly emerging resistant clones. Despite being recognized as a nosocomial pathogen, the precise modes of transmission of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in health care settings are unknown. Due to the high genetic diversity observed among S. maltophilia clinical isolates, the typing results might be better interpreted if also environmental strains were included. This could help to identify preventative measures to be designed and implemented for decreasing the possibility of outbreaks and nosocomial infections. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview on the most common typing methods used for clinical epidemiology of S. maltophilia strains, such as PCR-based fingerprinting analyses, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis, and multilocus sequence type. Application of the proteomic-based mass spectrometry by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight is also described. Improvements of typing methods already in use have to be achieved to facilitate S. maltophilia infection control at any level. In the near future, when novel Web-based platforms for rapid data processing and analysis will be available, whole genome sequencing technologies will likely become a highly powerful tool for outbreak investigations and surveillance studies in routine clinical practices. PMID:25592000

  15. Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium intracellulare Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis, Mycobacteria Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Typing, and Multilocus Sequence Typing: Molecular Characterization and Comparison of Each Typing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Semi; Lim, Nara; Kwon, Seungjik; Shim, Taesun; Park, Misun; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Seonghan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Mycobacterium intracellulare is the major causative agent of nontuberculous mycobacteria-related pulmonary infections. The strain typing of M. intracellulare is important for the treatment and control of its infections. We compared the discrimination capacity and effective value of four different molecular typing methods. Methods Antibiotic susceptibility testing, hsp65 and rpoB sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), mycobacteria interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR), and VNTR assay targeting 44 M. intracellulare isolates obtained from patients with pulmonary infections were performed. Results All the antibiotic susceptibility patterns had no association with the molecular and sequence types tested in this study; however, the molecular and sequence types were related with each other. PFGE gave best results for discriminatory capacity, followed by VNTR, MLST, and MIRU-VNTR. Conclusion The high discriminatory power of PFGE, VNTR, and MLST is enough for differentiating between reinfection and relapse, as well as for other molecular epidemiological usages. The MLST could be regarded as a representative classification method, because it showed the clearest relation with the sequence types. PMID:25180144

  16. Applicability of meteor radiant determination methods depending on orbit type. I. High-eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoren, J.; Neslusan, L.; Porubcan, V.

    1993-07-01

    It is evident that there is no uniform method of calculating meteor radiants which would yield reliable results for all types of cometary orbits. In the present paper an analysis of this problem is presented, together with recommended methods for various types of orbits. Some additional methods resulting from mathematical modelling are presented and discussed together with Porter's, Steel-Baggaley's and Hasegawa's methods. In order to be able to compare how suitable the application of the individual radiant determination methods is, it is necessary to determine the accuracy with which they approximate real meteor orbits. To verify the accuracy with which the orbit of a meteoroid with at least one node at 1 AU fits the original orbit of the parent body, we applied the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion (Southworth, R.B., Hawkins, G.S.: 1963, Smithson. Contr. Astrophys 7, 261). D<=0.1 indicates a very good fit of orbits, 0.10.2 the fit is rather poor and the change of orbit unrealistic. The optimal methods with the smallest values of D for given types of orbits are shown in two series of six plots. The new method of rotation around the line of apsides we propose is very appropriate in the region of small inclinations. There is no doubt that Hasegawa's omega-adjustment method (Hasegawa, I.: 1990, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 42, 175) has the widest application. A comparison of the theoretical radiants with the observed radiants of seven known meteor showers is also presented.

  17. Research on insulation design method of a cold dielectric type superconducting cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwag, D. S.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. W.; Kim, S. H.

    2008-09-01

    It is important that study on cryogenic electrical insulation design to develop the cold dielectric (CD) type high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable because the cable is operated under the high-voltage environment in cryogenic temperature. Therefore, this paper describes a design method for the electrical insulation layer of the CD type HTS cable adopting the partial discharge (PD)-free design under ac stress, based on the experimental results such a partial discharge inception stress (PDIE) and V- t characteristics, and an impulse breakdown strength of liquid nitrogen (LN 2)/laminated polypropylene paper (LPP) composite insulation system in which the mini-model cable is immersed into pressurized LN 2.

  18. Axisymmetric analysis of a tube-type acoustic levitator by a finite element method.

    PubMed

    Hatano, H

    1994-01-01

    A finite element approach was taken for the study of the sound field and positioning force in a tube-type acoustic levitator. An axisymmetric model, where a rigid sphere is suspended on the tube axis, was introduced to model a cylindrical chamber of a levitation tube furnace. Distributions of velocity potential, magnitudes of positioning force, and resonance frequency shifts of the chamber due to the presence of the sphere were numerically estimated in relation to the sphere's position and diameter. Experiments were additionally made to compare with the simulation. The finite element method proved to be a useful tool for analyzing and designing the tube-type levitator. PMID:18263265

  19. Standardization of Type 2 Diabetes Outpatient Expenditure with Bundled Payment Method in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Chao; Luo, Yun; Li, Qian; Wu, Meng-Fan; Zhou, Zi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Chinese population has been increasing by years, directly leading to an average annual growth rate of 19.90% of medical expenditure. Therefore, it is urgent to work on strategies to control the growth of medical expenditure on type 2 diabetes on the basis of the reality of China. Therefore, in this study, we explored the feasibility of implementing bundled payment in China through analyzing bundled payment standards of type 2 diabetes outpatient services. Methods: This study analyzed the outpatient expenditure on type 2 diabetes with Beijing Urban Employee's Basic Medical Insurance from 2010 to 2012. Based on the analysis of outpatient expenditure and its influential factors, we adopted decision tree approach to conduct a case-mix analysis. In the end, we built a case-mix model to calculate the standard expenditure and the upper limit of each combination. Results: We found that age, job status, and whether with complication were significant factors that influence outpatient expenditure for type 2 diabetes. Through the analysis of the decision tree, we used six variables (complication, age, diabetic foot, diabetic nephropathy, cardiac-cerebrovascular disease, and neuropathy) to group the cases, and obtained 11 case-mix groups. Conclusions: We argued that it is feasible to implement bundled payment on type 2 diabetes outpatient services. Bundled payment is effective to control the increase of outpatient expenditure. Further improvements are needed for the implementation of bundled payment reimbursement standards, together with relevant policies and measures. PMID:27064041

  20. Damage identification in beam type structures based on statistical moment using a two step method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dansheng; Xiang, Wei; Zhu, Hongping

    2014-02-01

    This paper defines a novel damage index-strain statistical moment, and formulates the fourth strain statistical moment (FSSM) of beam-type structures under white noise excitation. Based on this newly defined strain statistical moment index and the least square optimization algorithm, a two-step damage identification method is proposed. This two-step method is operated like this: first use the difference curves of FSSMs before and after damage to locate damage elements; then for those identified damage elements, employ the model updating method based on the least square algorithm to assess their damage severity. Numerical studies on a simply supported beam and a two-span continuous beam are performed and the study results show that the newly defined index is effective to locate damages, even when the noise intensity is as high as 15 percent. Integrating with the least square-based model updating technique, the damage severities of beam-type structures can also be determined quantitatively. In this way, the proposed two-step method is verified and found to be capable of identifying damage positions and severities of beam-type structures and insensitive to measurement noise.

  1. A second order operator splitting method for Allen-Cahn type equations with nonlinear source terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Geun; Lee, June-Yub

    2015-08-01

    Allen-Cahn (AC) type equations with nonlinear source terms have been applied to a wide range of problems, for example, the vector-valued AC equation for phase separation and the phase-field equation for dendritic crystal growth. In contrast to the well developed first and second order methods for the AC equation, not many second order methods are suggested for the AC type equations with nonlinear source terms due to the difficulties in dealing with the nonlinear source term numerically. In this paper, we propose a simple and stable second order operator splitting method. A core idea of the method is to decompose the original equation into three subequations with the free-energy evolution term, the heat evolution term, and a nonlinear source term, respectively. It is important to combine these three subequations in proper order to achieve the second order accuracy and stability. We propose a method with a half-time free-energy evolution solver, a half-time heat evolution solver, a full-time midpoint solver for the nonlinear source term, and a half-time heat evolution solver followed by a final half-time free-energy evolution solver. We numerically demonstrate the second order accuracy of the new numerical method through the simulations of the phase separation and the dendritic crystal growth.

  2. Methods and automatic procedures for processing images based on blind evaluation of noise type and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Vladimir V.; Abramov, Sergey K.; Ponomarenko, Nikolay N.; Uss, Mikhail L.; Zriakhov, Mikhail; Vozel, Benoit; Chehdi, Kacem; Astola, Jaakko T.

    2011-01-01

    In many modern applications, methods and algorithms used for image processing require a priori knowledge or estimates of noise type and its characteristics. Noise type and basic parameters can be sometimes known in advance or determined in an interactive manner. However, it occurs more and more often that they should be estimated in a blind manner. The results of noise-type blind determination can be false, and the estimates of noise parameters are characterized by certain accuracy. Such false decisions and estimation errors have an impact on performance of image-processing techniques that is based on the obtained information. We address some issues of such a negative influence. Possible structures of automatic procedures are presented and discussed for several typical applications of image processing as remote sensing data preprocessing and compression.

  3. Influence of consolidation method on structure/properties of rapidly solidified Type 304 SS powders

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.; Wright, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The structure/properties of consolidated, centrifugally atomized (CA) Type 304 SS powders containing approx.8 appM helium entrapped during powder processing were evaluated. Three powder consolidation methods were used in the study: hot extrusion, hot isostatic pressing (HIPping), and dynamic (using explosives). In addition, cold-rolled 50% HIPped material was included in the evaluation. The four forms of consolidated powders were fully dense and possessed good bond strengths. The bond strength of the HIPped powders was the lowest. The consolidated materials were subjected to 1 h heat treatments and their grain growth, tensile, and creep behaviors were compared with those of wrought ingot metallurgy Type 304 SS materials. Grain growth of the CA Type 304 SS consolidated powders was substantially lower than for the wrought material. Similarly, significant strengthening was observed for the powder materials. The apparent microstructure stability and strengthening observed for the consolidated powder materials is attributed to the entrapped helium. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Molecular Analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated in Lebanon Using Four Different Typing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rafei, Rayane; Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Eveillard, Matthieu; Lemarié, Carole; Gaultier, Marie-Pierre; Mallat, Hassan; Moghnieh, Rima; Husni-Samaha, Rola; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Kempf, Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed 42 Acinetobacter baumannii strains collected between 2009–2012 from different hospitals in Beyrouth and North Lebanon to better understand the epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms in our collection and to compare the robustness of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and blaOXA-51 sequence-based typing (SBT). Among 31 carbapenem resistant strains, we have detected three carbapenem resistance genes: 28 carried the blaOXA-23 gene, 1 the blaOXA-24 gene and 2 strains the blaOXA-58 gene. This is the first detection of blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-24 in Lebanon. PFGE identified 11 types and was the most discriminating technique followed by rep-PCR (9 types), blaOXA-51 SBT (8 types) and MLST (7 types). The PFGE type A'/ST2 was the dominant genotype in our collection present in Beyrouth and North Lebanon. The clustering agreement between all techniques was measured by adjust Wallace coefficient. An overall agreement has been demonstrated. High values of adjust Wallace coefficient were found with followed combinations: PFGE to predict MLST types  = 100%, PFGE to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 100%, blaOXA-51 SBT to predict MLST = 100%, MLST to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 84.7%, rep-PCR to predict MLST = 81.5%, PFGE to predict rep-PCR = 69% and rep-PCR to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 67.2%. PFGE and MLST are gold standard methods for outbreaks investigation and population structure studies respectively. Otherwise, these two techniques are technically, time and cost demanding. We recommend the use of blaOXA-51 SBT as first typing method to screen isolates and assign them to their corresponding clonal lineages. Repetitive sequence-based PCR is a rapid tool to access outbreaks but careful interpretation of results must be always performed. PMID:25541711

  5. New types of multisoliton solutions of some integrable equations via direct methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burde, Georgy I.

    2016-06-01

    Exact explicit solutions, which describe new multisoliton dynamics, have been identified for some KdV type equations using direct methods devised for this purpose. It is found that the equations, having multi-soliton solutions in terms of the KdV-type solitons, possess also an alternative set of multi-soliton solutions which include localized static structures that behave like (static) solitons when they collide with moving solitons. The alternative sets of solutions include the steady-state solution describing the static soliton itself and unsteady solutions describing mutual interactions in a system consisting of a static soliton and several moving solitons. As distinct from common multisoliton solutions those solutions represent combinations of algebraic and hyperbolic functions and cannot be obtained using the traditional methods of soliton theory.

  6. An integrated structural strength analysis method for Spar type floating wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jin

    2016-04-01

    An integrated structural strength analysis method for a Spar type floating wind turbine is proposed in this paper, and technical issues related to turbine structure modeling and stress combination are also addressed. The NREL-5MW "Hywind" Spar type wind turbine is adopted as study object. Time-domain dynamic coupled simulations are performed by a fully-coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool, FAST, on the purpose of obtaining the dynamic characteristics of the floating wind turbine, and determining parameters for design load cases of finite element calculation. Then design load cases are identified, and finite element analyses are performed for these design load cases. The structural stresses due to wave-induced loads and wind-induced loads are calculated, and then combined to assess the structural strength of the floating wind turbine. The feasibility of the proposed structural strength analysis method for floating wind turbines is then validated.

  7. Conjugate gradient type methods for linear systems with complex symmetric coefficient matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    We consider conjugate gradient type methods for the solution of large sparse linear system Ax equals b with complex symmetric coefficient matrices A equals A(T). Such linear systems arise in important applications, such as the numerical solution of the complex Helmholtz equation. Furthermore, most complex non-Hermitian linear systems which occur in practice are actually complex symmetric. We investigate conjugate gradient type iterations which are based on a variant of the nonsymmetric Lanczos algorithm for complex symmetric matrices. We propose a new approach with iterates defined by a quasi-minimal residual property. The resulting algorithm presents several advantages over the standard biconjugate gradient method. We also include some remarks on the obvious approach to general complex linear systems by solving equivalent real linear systems for the real and imaginary parts of x. Finally, numerical experiments for linear systems arising from the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  8. Method and apparatus for checking the stability of a setup for making reflection type holograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, H. G. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for checking the stability of a setup for recording reflection-type (white light) holograms. Two sets of interference fringes are simultaneously obtained, one giving information about coherence and stability of the setup alone and the other demonstrating coherence of the entire system, including the holographic recording plate. Special emphasis is given to the stability of the plate, due to the fact that any minute vibration might severely degrade or completely destroy the recording.

  9. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Yan, Yanfa; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Dehart, Clay M.

    2009-04-14

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  10. A mathematical model of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) method for mixed type rock

    SciTech Connect

    Sitnikov, A.A.; Eremin, N.A.; Ibattulin, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with the microbial enhanced oil recovery method. It covers: (1) Mechanism of microbial influence on the reservoir was analyzed; (2) The main groups of metabolites affected by the hydrodynamic characteristics of the reservoir were determined; (3) The criterions of use of microbial influence method on the reservoir are defined. The mathematical model of microbial influence on the reservoir was made on this basis. The injection of molasse water solution with Clostridium bacterias into the mixed type of rock was used in this model. And the results of calculations were compared with experimental data.

  11. Legendre spectral-collocation method for solving some types of fractional optimal control problems.

    PubMed

    Sweilam, Nasser H; Al-Ajami, Tamer M

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the Legendre spectral-collocation method was applied to obtain approximate solutions for some types of fractional optimal control problems (FOCPs). The fractional derivative was described in the Caputo sense. Two different approaches were presented, in the first approach, necessary optimality conditions in terms of the associated Hamiltonian were approximated. In the second approach, the state equation was discretized first using the trapezoidal rule for the numerical integration followed by the Rayleigh-Ritz method to evaluate both the state and control variables. Illustrative examples were included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed techniques. PMID:26257937

  12. A ROBUST ARBITRARILY HIGH ORDER TRANSPORT METHOD OF THE CHARACTERISTIC TYPE FOR UNSTRUCTURED TETRAHEDRAL GRIDS

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Ferrer; Y. Y. Azmy

    2009-05-01

    We present a robust arbitrarily high order transport method of the characteristic type for unstructured tetrahedral grids. Previously encountered difficulties have been addressed through the reformulation of the method based on coordinate transformations, evaluation of the moments balance relation as a linear system of equations involving the expansion coefficients of the projected basis, and the asymptotic expansion of the integral kernels in the thin cell limit. The proper choice of basis functions for the high-order spatial expansion of the solution is discussed and its effect on problems involving scattering discussed. Numerical tests are presented to illustrate the beneficial effect of these improvements, and the improved robustness they yield.

  13. Comparative experimental biomechanical study of different types of stabilization methods of the lower cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Kalff, R; Ulrich, C; Claes, L; Wilke, H J; Grote, W

    1992-01-01

    In a comparative experimental biodynamic study using thirty-two human cervical spines of cadavers the primary stabilization effect of different types of spondylodesis was examined. Whereas in flexion stress all methods showed a sufficient stability, the rotation tests proved, that in case of a dorsal instability of the lower cervical spine, posterior interlaminar wiring or anterior plate stabilization showed no reliable stabilization effect. However, the compression clamps by ROOSEN and TRAUSCHEL as well as the hook-plates by MAGERL are suitable dorsal stabilization methods with excellent rotation stability. In case of dorsal instability of the lower cervical spine a posterior spondylodesis is necessary and sufficient. PMID:1480272

  14. Vertically resolved separation of dust and other aerosol types by a new lidar depolarization method.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tao; Wang, Zhien; Ferrare, Richard A; Hostetler, Chris A; Yuan, Renmin; Zhang, Damao

    2015-06-01

    This paper developed a new retrieval framework of external mixing of the dust and non-dust aerosol to predict the lidar ratio of the external mixing aerosols and to separate the contributions of non-spherical aerosols by using different depolarization ratios among dust, sea salt, smoke, and polluted aerosols. The detailed sensitivity tests and case study with the new method showed that reliable dust information could be retrieved even without prior information about the non-dust aerosol types. This new method is suitable for global dust retrievals with satellite observations, which is critical for better understanding global dust transportation and for model improvements. PMID:26072778

  15. System identification of a truss type space structure using the multiple boundary condition test (MBCT) method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, C. P.; Wada, B. K.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental results on the application of the multiple boundary condition test (MBCT) method to experimental hardware have validated its usefulness in the ground testing of large flexible space structures. Excellant results were obtained with a beam with a uniform cross-section and with a beam consisting of two different cross-sections alternately located. The MBCT method is then applied to a 12 bay MAST type structure which is part of the NASA COFS program, and the cross-sectional area of the updated mathematical model was found to be within 4.5 percent of the true value.

  16. A decoupling control method of reluctance type bearingless motors considering magnetic saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Michioka, Chikara; Sakamoto, Tomokazu; Ichikawa, Osamu; Fukao, Tadashi; Chiba, Akira

    1995-12-31

    The interference of torque component current of the motor to the radial position control of reluctance type bearingless motors is investigated. In order to cancel this interference, a decoupling control method has been proposed. With this method, machine parameters identification of radial force production is very important. It is shown that the radial force constants exhibit significant variations in accordance with the torque component current due to magnetic saturation. The parameter tuning of the decoupling compensator taking into account of the magnetic saturation is found to realize very stable operation in radial rotor position control.

  17. Comparison of mineral resources calculation methods for different genetic types of gravel and sand deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patašova, Tatjana; Jurgaitis, Algirdas

    2008-01-01

    Calculation of mineral resources and their proper assessment is relevant, since the stock of resources determines the economic independence of the state. The present work discusses gravel and sand deposits of different genetic type (kames, eskers, marginal glaciofluvial ridges, sandurs, glaciofluvial deltas and redrifted glaciofluvial aeolian formations). Their geological structure and formation conditions have been assessed; quality characteristics of mineral resources have been analysed; calculation of resources has been performed by applying old methods used in Lithuania up to now, such as those of geological blocks, profiles and isolines, as well as the up-to-date GRID method created on the basis of the triangle method in GIS environment. Comparison of resources assessed by different methods has revealed their advantages and disadvantages.

  18. A new measurement method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by aircraft type panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical basis for and experimental validation of a measurement method for separating airborne and structure borne noise radiated by aircraft type panels are presented. An extension of the two microphone, cross spectral, acoustic intensity method combined with existing theory of sound radiation of thin shell structures of various designs, is restricted to the frequency range below the coincidence frequency of the structure. Consequently, the method lends itself to low frequency noise problems such as propeller harmonics. Both an aluminum sheet and two built up aircraft panel designs (two aluminum panels with frames and stringers) with and without added damping were measured. Results indicate that the method is quick, reliable, inexpensive, and can be applied to thin shell structures of various designs.

  19. Simulating Univariate and Multivariate Burr Type IIII and Type XII Distributions through the Method of L-Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pant, Mohan Dev

    2011-01-01

    The Burr families (Type III and Type XII) of distributions are traditionally used in the context of statistical modeling and for simulating non-normal distributions with moment-based parameters (e.g., Skew and Kurtosis). In educational and psychological studies, the Burr families of distributions can be used to simulate extremely asymmetrical and…

  20. [Method of Remote Sensing Identification for Mineral Types Based on Multiple Spectral Characteristic Parameters Matching].

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Ming, Yan-fang; Han, Liu-sheng; Ren, Zhong-liang; Guo, Ya-min

    2015-10-01

    The traditional mineral mapping methods with remote sensing data, based on spectral reflectance matching techniques, shows low accuracy, for obviously being affected by the image quality, atmospheric and other factors. A new mineral mapping method based on multiple types of spectral characteristic parameters is presented in this paper. Various spectral characteristic parameters are used together to enhanced the stability in the situation of atmosphere and environment background affecting. AVIRIS (Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data of Nevada Cuprite are selected to determine the mineral types with this method. Typical mineral spectral data are also obtained from USGS (United States Geological Survey) spectral library to calculate the spectral characteristic parameters. A mineral identification model based on multiple spectral characteristic parameters is built by analyzing the various characteristic parameters, and is applied in the mineral mapping experiment in Cuprite area. The mineral mapping result produced by Clark et al. in 1995 is used to evaluate the effect of this method, results show, that mineral mapping results with this method can obtain a high precision, the overall mineral identification accuracy is 78.96%. PMID:26904833

  1. Strain typing of acetic acid bacteria responsible for vinegar production by the submerged elaboration method.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; Torres, Carmen; Sanz, Susana; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2010-12-01

    Strain typing of 103 acetic acid bacteria isolates from vinegars elaborated by the submerged method from ciders, wines and spirit ethanol, was carried on in this study. Two different molecular methods were utilised: pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of total DNA digests with a number of restriction enzymes, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) - PCR analysis. The comparative study of both methods showed that restriction fragment PFGE of SpeI digests of total DNA was a suitable method for strain typing and for determining which strains were present in vinegar fermentations. Results showed that strains of the species Gluconacetobacter europaeus were the most frequent leader strains of fermentations by the submerged method in the studied vinegars, and among them strain R1 was the predominant one. Results showed as well that mixed populations (at least two different strains) occurred in vinegars from cider and wine, whereas unique strains were found in spirit vinegars, which offered the most stressing conditions for bacterial growth. PMID:20832673

  2. Evaluation of different DNA-based fingerprinting methods for typing Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Monique; Avendaño-Herrera, Rubén; Zaccone, R; Toranzo, Alicia E; Magariños, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of three different molecular techniques, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) for rapid typing of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida strains isolated from different species of marine fish and geographic areas. The results obtained by the three methods showed that RAPD and ERIC-PCR were more discriminative for suitable rapid typing of Ph. damselae ssp. piscicida than REP-PCR. The analysis of DNA banding patterns generated by both molecular methods (RAPD and ERIC-PCR) clearly separated the strains into two main groups that strongly correlated with their geographic origin. Moreover, the REP-PCR analysis was less reproducible than the RAPD and ERIC-PCR methods and does not allow the establishment of genetic groups. RAPD and ERIC-PCR constitute valuable tools for molecular typing of Ph. damselae ssp. piscicida strains, which can be used in epidemiological studies of photobacteriosis infections. PMID:17657358

  3. Epidemiology of Candida infection. II. Application of biochemical methods for typing of Candida albicans strains.

    PubMed

    Budak, A

    1990-01-01

    Biochemical profiles of 350 C. albicans isolates from five towns in Poland and from Freiburg in Germany were determined on the basis of nine biochemical tests of Odds and Abbott method. API 20 C AUX system and additionally a resistogram. The analysis of the strains according to Odds' and Abbotts's system showed that investigated strains can be typed into 9 profile codes of common biochemical patterns. There were some differences among the profiles according to their geographical origin and anatomical sources of the isolation. On the basis of the ability C. albicans strains to assimilate of carbon sources, 350 isolates were categorised into 13 separate auxotrophic profiles with the major one: 2,576,174 accounting for 81% of the total. The majority of the investigated isolates were susceptible to antifungal agents (83%). A disproportionate distribution of auxotrophic profiles limited the use of resistogram method and API 20 C AUX as systems for typing C. albicans strains. On the other hand, the method of Odds and Abbott provides valuable criteria for typing of C. albicans. PMID:2130802

  4. A method for implementing Dirichlet and third-type boundary conditions in PTRW simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J.; Nowak, W.

    2014-02-01

    We present an efficient and accurate numerical method for implementing Dirichlet boundary conditions in particle tracking random walk (PTRW) simulations of advective-dispersive transport. This is a challenge, because defining concentrations for Dirichlet boundary conditions requires invoking control volumes of some kind, which are not natural to the Lagrangian-based PTRW concept. Our method performs a Galerkin projection of PTRW-based particle densities onto control volumes that discretize the boundary. Thus, we obtain concentration values at the boundary condition and can control the particle release rates such that the prescribed boundary values are met. This allows for complex-shaped internal and external boundaries, where concentration values are fixed to prescribed values. Third-type boundary conditions can be addressed as well. We test and illustrate the properties and behavior of our method in a series of test cases. The results are benchmarked against the conceptually related semianalytical method MASST (multiple analytical source superposition technique) and to those of a finite element method (FEM). While MASST is restricted to uniform velocity fields due to the underlying analytical solutions, FEM is limited in heterogeneous velocity fields at large Péclet numbers by numerical dispersion in the feasible discretization range. The results demonstrate that our proposed method performs better than the other methods in both regimes.

  5. Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities. Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract. The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract. The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information. First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model. Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  6. Linear augmented Slater-type orbital method for free standing clusters.

    PubMed

    Kang, K S; Davenport, J W; Glimm, J; Keyes, D E; McGuigan, M

    2009-06-01

    We have developed a Scalable Linear Augmented Slater-Type Orbital (LASTO) method for electronic-structure calculations on free-standing atomic clusters. As with other linear methods we solve the Schrödinger equation using a mixed basis set consisting of numerical functions inside atom-centered spheres and matched onto tail functions outside. The tail functions are Slater-type orbitals, which are localized, exponentially decaying functions. To solve the Poisson equation between spheres, we use a finite difference method replacing the rapidly varying charge density inside the spheres with a smoothed density with the same multipole moments. We use multigrid techniques on the mesh, which yields the Coulomb potential on the spheres and in turn defines the potential inside via a Dirichlet problem. To solve the linear eigen-problem, we use ScaLAPACK, a well-developed package to solve large eigensystems with dense matrices. We have tested the method on small clusters of palladium. PMID:18988248

  7. Molecular typing of uropathogenic E. coli strains by the ERIC-PCR method

    PubMed Central

    Ardakani, Maryam Afkhami; Ranjbar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most common cause of urinary infections in hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ERIC-PCR method for molecular typing of uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated from hospitalized patients. Methods In a cross sectional study, 98 E. coli samples were collected from urine samples taken from patients admitted to Baqiyatallah Hospital from June 2014 to January 2015. The disk agar diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic sensitivity. DNA proliferation based on repetitive intergenic consensus was used to classify the E. coli strains. The products of proliferation were electrophoresed on 1.5% agarose gel, and their dendrograms were drawn. The data were analyzed by online Insillico software. Results The method used in this research proliferated numerous bands (4–17 bands), ranging from 100 to 3000 base pairs. The detected strains were classified into six clusters (E1–E6) with 70% similarity between them. Conclusion In this study, uropathogenic E. coli strains belonged to different genotypic clusters. It was found that ERIC-PCR had good differentiation power for molecular typing of uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated from the patients in the study. PMID:27280007

  8. A piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Shao, Shubao; Chen, Jie; Xu, Minglong

    2015-11-01

    Under certain application conditions like nanoindentation technology and the mechanical property measurement of soft materials, the elastic deformation of strain-type load sensors affects their displacement measurement accuracy. In this work, a piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors that compensates for this elastic deformation is presented. The piezoelectric material-based deformation compensation method is proposed. An Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik GmbH (HBM) Z30A/50N load sensor acts as the foundation of the method presented in this work. The piezoelectric stack is selected based on its size, maximum deformation value, blocking force and stiffness. Then, a clamping and fixing structure is designed to integrate the HBM sensor with the piezoelectric stack. The clamping and fixing structure, piezoelectric stack and HBM load sensor comprise the sensing part of the enhanced load sensor. The load-deformation curve and the voltage-deformation curve of the enhanced load sensor are then investigated experimentally. Because a hysteresis effect exists in the piezoelectric structure, the relationship between the control signal and the deformation value of the piezoelectric material is nonlinear. The hysteresis characteristic in a quasi-static condition is studied and fitted using a quadratic polynomial, and its coefficients are analyzed to enable control signal prediction. Applied arithmetic based on current theory and the fitted data is developed to predict the control signal. Finally, the experimental effects of the proposed method are presented. It is shown that when a quasi-static load is exerted on this enhanced strain-type load sensor, the deformation is reduced and the equivalent stiffness appears to be almost infinite.

  9. Automatic recognition of coronal type II radio bursts: The ARBIS 2 method and first observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, Vasili; Cairns, Iver; Robinson, Peter; Steward, Graham; Patterson, Garth

    Major space weather events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompa-nied by solar radio bursts, which can potentially be used for real-time space weather forecasts. Type II radio bursts are produced near the local plasma frequency and its harmonic by fast electrons accelerated by a shock wave moving through the corona and solar wind with a typi-cal speed of 1000 km s-1 . The coronal bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency gradually falling with time and durations of several minutes. We present a new method developed to de-tect type II coronal radio bursts automatically and describe its implementation in an extended Automated Radio Burst Identification System (ARBIS 2). Preliminary tests of the method with spectra obtained in 2002 show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ˜ 80%, while the probability of false positives is reasonably low, with one false positive per 100-200 hr for high solar activity and less than one false event per 10000 hr for low solar activity periods. The first automatically detected coronal type II radio bursts are also presented. ARBIS 2 is now operational with IPS Radio and Space Services, providing email alerts and event lists internationally.

  10. Mass Spectrometry-based PhyloProteomics (MSPP): A novel microbial typing Method

    PubMed Central

    Erich Zautner, Andreas; Omurwa Masanta, Wycliffe; Weig, Michael; Groß, Uwe; Bader, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    MALDI-TOF-MS of microorganisms, which identifies microbes based on masses of high abundant low molecular weight proteins, is rapidly advancing to become another standard method in clinical routine laboratory diagnostics. Allelic isoforms of these proteins result in varying masses of detectable biomarker ions. These variations give rise to a novel typing method for microorganisms named mass spectrometry-based phyloproteomics (MSPP). The base of MSPP is an amino acid sequence list of allelic isoforms caused by non-synonymous mutations in biomarker genes, which were detectable as mass shifts in an overlay of calibrated MALDI-TOF spectra. Thus, for each isolate a combination of amino acid sequences can be deduced from the scheme of recordable biomarker masses. Performing comparably to laborious multilocus and whole genome sequence typing (wgMLST)-approaches it is feasible to build phyloproteomic dendrograms using hierarchical cluster analysis. MSPP bears a high potential especially for identification of chromosomal localised virulence or antimicrobial resistance factors associated with evolutionary relatedness. In this study the principle of MSPP-typing was demonstrated on a Campylobacter jejuni ssp. jejuni isolate collection and MSPP was compared to MLST. PMID:26303099

  11. Novel Method for Differentiating Histological Types of Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma, a single heterogeneous disease with multiple epidemiological and histopathological characteristics, accounts for approximately 10% of cancers worldwide. It is categorized into four histological types: papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC), tubular adenocarcinoma (TAC), mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC), and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRC). Effective differentiation of the four types of adenocarcinoma will greatly improve the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma to increase its five-year survival rate. We reported here the differentiation of the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma from the molecularly structural viewpoint of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In total, 79 patients underwent laparoscopic or open radical gastrectomy during 2008-2011: 21 for signet ring cell carcinoma, 21 for tubular adenocarcinoma, 14 for papillary adenocarcinoma, 6 for mucinous carcinoma, and 17 for normal gastric mucosas obtained from patients underwent operation for other benign lesions. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical charts, and Raman data were processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two-dimensional plots of PCA and LDA clearly demonstrated that the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma could be differentiated, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy provides potentially a rapid and effective method for differentiating SRC and MAC from TAC or PAC. PMID:27472385

  12. Novel Method for Differentiating Histological Types of Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma, a single heterogeneous disease with multiple epidemiological and histopathological characteristics, accounts for approximately 10% of cancers worldwide. It is categorized into four histological types: papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC), tubular adenocarcinoma (TAC), mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC), and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRC). Effective differentiation of the four types of adenocarcinoma will greatly improve the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma to increase its five-year survival rate. We reported here the differentiation of the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma from the molecularly structural viewpoint of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In total, 79 patients underwent laparoscopic or open radical gastrectomy during 2008–2011: 21 for signet ring cell carcinoma, 21 for tubular adenocarcinoma, 14 for papillary adenocarcinoma, 6 for mucinous carcinoma, and 17 for normal gastric mucosas obtained from patients underwent operation for other benign lesions. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical charts, and Raman data were processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two-dimensional plots of PCA and LDA clearly demonstrated that the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma could be differentiated, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy provides potentially a rapid and effective method for differentiating SRC and MAC from TAC or PAC. PMID:27472385

  13. JPPRED: Prediction of Types of J-Proteins from Imbalanced Data Using an Ensemble Learning Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Chengjin; Gao, Rui; Yang, Runtao

    2015-01-01

    Different types of J-proteins perform distinct functions in chaperone processes and diseases development. Accurate identification of types of J-proteins will provide significant clues to reveal the mechanism of J-proteins and contribute to developing drugs for diseases. In this study, an ensemble predictor called JPPRED for J-protein prediction is proposed with hybrid features, including split amino acid composition (SAAC), pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC), and position specific scoring matrix (PSSM). To deal with the imbalanced benchmark dataset, the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) and undersampling technique are applied. The average sensitivity of JPPRED based on above-mentioned individual feature spaces lies in the range of 0.744–0.851, indicating the discriminative power of these features. In addition, JPPRED yields the highest average sensitivity of 0.875 using the hybrid feature spaces of SAAC, PseAAC, and PSSM. Compared to individual base classifiers, JPPRED obtains more balanced and better performance for each type of J-proteins. To evaluate the prediction performance objectively, JPPRED is compared with previous study. Encouragingly, JPPRED obtains balanced performance for each type of J-proteins, which is significantly superior to that of the existing method. It is anticipated that JPPRED can be a potential candidate for J-protein prediction. PMID:26587542

  14. Numerical investigation of performance of vane-type propellant management device by VOF methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. T.; Zhou, C.; Wu, Y. L.; Zhuang, B. T.; Li, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The orbital propellant management performance of the vane-type tank is so important for the propellant system and it determines the lifetime of the satellite. The propellant in the tank can be extruded by helium gas. To study the two phase distribution in the vane-type surface tension tank and the capability of the vane-type propellant management device (PMD), a large volume vane-type surface tension tank is analysed using 3-D unsteady numerical simulations. VOF methods are used to analyse the location of the interface of the two phase. Performances of the propellant acquisition vanes and propellant refillable reservoir in the tank are investigated. The flow conductivity of the propellant acquisition vanes and the liquid storage capacity of propellant refillable reservoir can be affected by the value of the gravity and the volume of the propellant in the tank. To avoid the large resistance causing by surface tension in an outflow of a small hole, the design of the vanes in a propellant refillable reservoir should have suitable space.

  15. Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Amanda J.; Harnly, James M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Risch, Adam; Mayne, Susan T.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. Objectives One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Methods Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Results Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Conclusions Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome. PMID:23459329

  16. Fabrication of Lotus-Type Porous Aluminum through Thermal Decomposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. Y.; Park, J. S.; Nakajima, H.

    2009-04-01

    Lotus-type porous aluminum with cylindrical pores was fabricated by unidirectional solidification through thermal decomposition of calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, or titanium hydride. The pore-forming gas decomposed from calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, and titanium hydride is identified as hydrogen. The elongated pores are evolved due to the solubility gap between liquid and solid when the melt dissolving hydrogen is solidified unidirectionally. The porosity of lotus aluminum is as high as 20 pct despite the type of the compounds. The pore size decreases and the pore density increases with increasing amount of calcium hydroxide, which is explained by an increase in the number of pore nucleation sites. The porosity and pore size in lotus aluminum fabricated using calcium hydroxide decrease with increasing argon pressure, which is explained by Boyle’s law. It is suggested that this fabrication method is simple and safe, which makes it superior to the conventional technique using high-pressure hydrogen gas.

  17. An extended affinity propagation clustering method based on different data density types.

    PubMed

    Zhao, XiuLi; Xu, WeiXiang

    2015-01-01

    Affinity propagation (AP) algorithm, as a novel clustering method, does not require the users to specify the initial cluster centers in advance, which regards all data points as potential exemplars (cluster centers) equally and groups the clusters totally by the similar degree among the data points. But in many cases there exist some different intensive areas within the same data set, which means that the data set does not distribute homogeneously. In such situation the AP algorithm cannot group the data points into ideal clusters. In this paper, we proposed an extended AP clustering algorithm to deal with such a problem. There are two steps in our method: firstly the data set is partitioned into several data density types according to the nearest distances of each data point; and then the AP clustering method is, respectively, used to group the data points into clusters in each data density type. Two experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of our algorithm: one utilizes an artificial data set and the other uses a real seismic data set. The experiment results show that groups are obtained more accurately by our algorithm than OPTICS and AP clustering algorithm itself. PMID:25685144

  18. Practical Thermal Evaluation Methods For HAC Fire Analysis In Type B Radiaoactive Material (RAM) Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, Glenn; Hensel, Stephen J; Gupta, Narendra K.

    2013-03-28

    Title 10 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR Part 71.73) requires that Type B radioactive material (RAM) packages satisfy certain Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) thermal design requirements to ensure package safety during accidental fire conditions. Compliance with thermal design requirements can be met by prototype tests, analyses only or a combination of tests and analyses. Normally, it is impractical to meet all the HAC using tests only and the analytical methods are too complex due to the multi-physics non-linear nature of the fire event. Therefore, a combination of tests and thermal analyses methods using commercial heat transfer software are used to meet the necessary design requirements. The authors, along with his other colleagues at Savannah River National Laboratory in Aiken, SC, USA, have successfully used this 'tests and analyses' approach in the design and certification of several United States' DOE/NNSA certified packages, e.g. 9975, 9977, 9978, 9979, H1700, and Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This paper will describe these methods and it is hoped that the RAM Type B package designers and analysts can use them for their applications.

  19. Study on the rotor design method for a small propeller-type wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Yasuyuki; Yamashita, Yusuke; Inagaki, Terumi

    2016-08-01

    Small propeller-type wind turbines have a low Reynolds number, limiting the number of usable airfoil materials. Thus, their design method is not sufficiently established, and their performance is often low. The ultimate goal of this research is to establish high-performance design guidelines and design methods for small propeller-type wind turbines. To that end, we designed two rotors: Rotor A, based on the rotor optimum design method from the blade element momentum theory, and Rotor B, in which the chord length of the tip is extended and the chord length distribution is linearized. We examined performance characteristics and flow fields of the two rotors through wind tunnel experiments and numerical analysis. Our results revealed that the maximum output tip speed ratio of Rotor B shifted lower than that of Rotor A, but the maximum output coefficient increased by approximately 38.7%. Rotors A and B experienced a large-scale separation on the hub side, which extended to the mean in Rotor A. This difference in separation had an impact on the significant decrease in Rotor A's output compared to the design value and the increase in Rotor B's output compared to Rotor A.

  20. An advanced method for classifying atmospheric circulation types based on prototypes connectivity graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagouras, Athanassios; Argiriou, Athanassios A.; Flocas, Helena A.; Economou, George; Fotopoulos, Spiros

    2012-11-01

    Classification of weather maps at various isobaric levels as a methodological tool is used in several problems related to meteorology, climatology, atmospheric pollution and to other fields for many years. Initially the classification was performed manually. The criteria used by the person performing the classification are features of isobars or isopleths of geopotential height, depending on the type of maps to be classified. Although manual classifications integrate the perceptual experience and other unquantifiable qualities of the meteorology specialists involved, these are typically subjective and time consuming. Furthermore, during the last years different approaches of automated methods for atmospheric circulation classification have been proposed, which present automated and so-called objective classifications. In this paper a new method of atmospheric circulation classification of isobaric maps is presented. The method is based on graph theory. It starts with an intelligent prototype selection using an over-partitioning mode of fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm, proceeds to a graph formulation for the entire dataset and produces the clusters based on the contemporary dominant sets clustering method. Graph theory is a novel mathematical approach, allowing a more efficient representation of spatially correlated data, compared to the classical Euclidian space representation approaches, used in conventional classification methods. The method has been applied to the classification of 850 hPa atmospheric circulation over the Eastern Mediterranean. The evaluation of the automated methods is performed by statistical indexes; results indicate that the classification is adequately comparable with other state-of-the-art automated map classification methods, for a variable number of clusters.

  1. Dimension-optimizing design method for annular-type cooling channel of thrust chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie

    1995-05-01

    The new-generation liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant liquid fuel rocket engine will use a high-pressure combustion chamber arrangement. In this case, cooling the thrust chamber becomes a key technical problem. The article presents a design scheme for the geometric-dimension optimization of annular-type regenerative cooling channels. The aim of the optimization is minimum pressure losses as coolant passes through the cooling channel. As shown in typical computations and experiments, application of this optimizing design method can reduce 50 percent of pressure losses. In other words, the optimization design is advantageous in solving the cooling problem in high-pressure thrust chambers.

  2. A numerical method for systems of conservation laws of mixed type admitting hyperbolic flux splitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Chi-Wang

    1992-01-01

    The present treatment of elliptic regions via hyperbolic flux-splitting and high order methods proposes a flux splitting in which the corresponding Jacobians have real and positive/negative eigenvalues. While resembling the flux splitting used in hyperbolic systems, the present generalization of such splitting to elliptic regions allows the handling of mixed-type systems in a unified and heuristically stable fashion. The van der Waals fluid-dynamics equation is used. Convergence with good resolution to weak solutions for various Riemann problems are observed.

  3. Discrete element method for emergency flow of pedestrian in S-type corridor.

    PubMed

    Song, Gyeongwon; Park, Junyoung

    2014-10-01

    Pedestrian flow in curved corridor should be modeled before design because this type of corridor can be most dangerous part during emergency evacuation. In this study, this flow is analyzed by Discrete Element Method with psychological effects. As the turning slope of corridor increases, the evacuation time is linearly increases. However, in the view of crashed death accident, the case with 90 degree turning slope can be dangerous because there are 3 dangerous points. To solve this matter, the pedestrian gathering together in curved part should be dispersed. PMID:25942811

  4. The Amadori rearrangement as glycoconjugation method: Synthesis of non-natural C-glycosyl type glycoconjugates

    PubMed Central

    Adanitsch, Florian; Stütz, Arnold E

    2012-01-01

    Summary The Amadori rearrangement was investigated as a potential method for the conjugation of carbohydrate moieties to suitable amino components. Starting from selected aldoheptoses, which are readily available by means of the Kiliani–Fischer C-elongation reaction of the corresponding aldohexoses, glycoconjugates presenting D-gluco, D-manno and D-galacto as well as GlcNAc motifs have been synthesised. Following this strategy, non-natural C-glycosyl type glycoconjugates, which can be utilised as building blocks for the composition of larger molecular constructions, are available by a very short synthetic approach. PMID:23209494

  5. Principles and applications of Ligation Mediated PCR methods for DNA-based typing of microbial organisms.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Beata; Kur, Józef; Stojowska-Swędrzyńska, Karolina; Śpibida, Marta

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of DNA-based techniques has been introduced into the field of microorganisms' characterization and taxonomy. These genomic fingerprinting methods were developed to detect DNA sequence polymorphisms by using general principles, such as restriction endonuclease analysis, molecular hybridization, and PCR amplification. In recent years, some alternative techniques based on ligation of oligonucleotide adapters before DNA amplification by PCR, known as Ligation-Mediated PCR methods (LM PCR), have been successfully applied for the typing of microorganisms below the species level. These molecular methods include: Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), Amplification of DNA fragments Surrounding Rare Restriction Sites (ADSRRS), PCR Melting Profiles (PCR MP), Ligation Mediated PCR/Shifter (LM PCR/Shifter), Infrequent-Restriction-Site Amplification (IRS PCR), double digestion Ligation Mediated Suppression PCR (ddLMS PCR). These techniques are now applied more and more often because they involve less time, are comparably inexpensive, and require only standard lab equipment. Here, we present a general review of this group of methods showing their possibilities and limitations. We also identify questions and propose solutions which may be helpful in choosing a particular LM PCR method for the achievement of the required goal. PMID:26885774

  6. High-Speed Coating Method for Photovoltaic Textiles with Closed-Type Die Coater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Takahiko; Shibayama, Norihisa; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Shiraishi, Kenji; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Toshihiro

    2013-06-01

    We developed a closed-type die-coating method to fabricate thin films for electronic devices. We succeeded in the die-coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) water dispersions and regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solution to fabricate thin films of these organic materials with extremely high speeds of 5 and 20 m/min, respectively. The film thicknesses were evaluated by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The deviations of the film thicknesses from our target values were less than 5%. We fabricated Al/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) textiles as an example of an application of the method, and the photovoltaic characteristic of the devices was confirmed.

  7. Novel method of separating macroporous arrays from p-type silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobo, Peng; Fei, Wang; Tao, Liu; Zhenya, Yang; Lianwei, Wang; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a novel method to fabricate separated macroporous silicon using a single step of photo-assisted electrochemical etching. The method is applied to fabricate silicon microchannel plates in 100 mm p-type silicon wafers, which can be used as electron multipliers and three-dimensional Li-ion microbatteries. Increasing the backside illumination intensity and decreasing the bias simultaneously can generate additional holes during the electrochemical etching which will create lateral etching at the pore tips. In this way the silicon microchannel can be separated from the substrate when the desired depth is reached, then it can be cut into the desired shape by using a laser cutting machine. Also, the mechanism of lateral etching is proposed.

  8. A Type of Low-Latency Data Gathering Method with Multi-Sink for Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Sha, Chao; Qiu, Jian-Mei; Li, Shu-Yan; Qiang, Meng-Ye; Wang, Ru-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    To balance energy consumption and reduce latency on data transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), a type of low-latency data gathering method with multi-Sink (LDGM for short) is proposed in this paper. The network is divided into several virtual regions consisting of three or less data gathering units and the leader of each region is selected according to its residual energy as well as distance to all of the other nodes. Only the leaders in each region need to communicate with the mobile Sinks which have effectively reduced energy consumption and the end-to-end delay. Moreover, with the help of the sleep scheduling and the sensing radius adjustment strategies, redundancy in network coverage could also be effectively reduced. Simulation results show that LDGM is energy efficient in comparison with MST as well as MWST and its time efficiency on data collection is higher than one Sink based data gathering methods. PMID:27338401

  9. A Type of Low-Latency Data Gathering Method with Multi-Sink for Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Chao; Qiu, Jian-mei; Li, Shu-yan; Qiang, Meng-ye; Wang, Ru-chuan

    2016-01-01

    To balance energy consumption and reduce latency on data transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), a type of low-latency data gathering method with multi-Sink (LDGM for short) is proposed in this paper. The network is divided into several virtual regions consisting of three or less data gathering units and the leader of each region is selected according to its residual energy as well as distance to all of the other nodes. Only the leaders in each region need to communicate with the mobile Sinks which have effectively reduced energy consumption and the end-to-end delay. Moreover, with the help of the sleep scheduling and the sensing radius adjustment strategies, redundancy in network coverage could also be effectively reduced. Simulation results show that LDGM is energy efficient in comparison with MST as well as MWST and its time efficiency on data collection is higher than one Sink based data gathering methods. PMID:27338401

  10. Using the spring constant method to analyze arterial elasticity in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study tests the validity of a newly-proposed spring constant method to analyze arterial elasticity in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods The experimental group comprised 66 participants (36 men and 30 women) ranging between 46 and 86 years of age, all with diabetes mellitus. In the experimental group, 21 participants suffered from atherosclerosis. All were subjected to the measurements of both the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and the spring constant method. The comparison (control) group comprised 66 normal participants (37 men and 29 women) with an age range of 40 to 80 years who did not have diabetes mellitus. All control group members were subjected to measurement by the spring constant method. Results Statistical analysis of the experimental and control groups indicated a significant negative correlation between the spring constant and the cfPWV (P < .001; r = - 0.824 and – 0.71). Multivariate analysis similarly indicated a close relationship. The Student’s t test was used to examine the difference in the spring constant parameter between the experimental and control groups. A P-value less than .05 confirmed that the difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant. In receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the Area Under Curve (AUC, = 0.85) indicates good discrimination. These findings imply that the spring constant method can effectively identify normal versus abnormal characteristics of elasticity in normal and diabetic participants. Conclusions This study verifies the use of the spring constant method to assess arterial elasticity, and found it to be efficient and simple to use. The spring constant method should prove useful not only for improving clinical diagnoses, but also for screening diabetic patients who display early evidence of vascular disease. PMID:22531211

  11. Concordance between two methods in measuring treatment adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    López-Simarro, Flora; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Aguado-Jodar, Alba; Cols-Sagarra, Cèlia; Miravet-Jiménez, Sònia

    2016-01-01

    Objective We analyzed the concordance between two methods for measuring treatment adherence (TA) and studied the determinants of TA in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in a primary care center, involving 320 diabetic patients. TA was measured using the Haynes–Sackett (H–S) adherence test during the patient interview and based on pharmacy refill data. TA was calculated globally and by drug groups (antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic drugs). Results Poor TA as measured by the H–S test was observed in 11.2% of the patients. Based on pharmacy refill data, there was a poor global TA rate of 30.3%, which was 33.3%, 26.6%, and 34.2% for oral antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering drugs, respectively. Concordance between the two methods was poor. There was no relationship between the degree of disease control and TA as measured by the H–S test. Good TA measured based on pharmacy refill data for antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs was associated with lower glycosylated hemoglobin and diastolic blood pressure values, respectively. Patients with good global TA showed lower glycosylated hemoglobin, diastolic blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values. The multivariate analysis found good oral antidiabetic adherence to be associated to free pharmacy service; good antihypertensive drug adherence to the existence of comorbidities; and good lipid-lowering drug adherence to a history of ischemic heart disease, and a more experienced physician and/or female physician. Conclusion Concordance between the two methods in assessing TA was low. Approximately one-third of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented poor TA in relation to antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic medication. An improved TA was associated with a better control of the studied parameters. Comorbidities, such as ischemic heart disease and access to free pharmacy service

  12. A comparative study of single reference correlation methods of the coupled-pair type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wennmohs, Frank; Neese, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Several variants of coupled electron pair type approximations are compared with respect to their accuracy in the prediction of bond distances, harmonic vibrational frequencies and anharmonic corrections for a range of closed-shell diatomic molecules. In the first part of the paper the coupled-electron pair (CEPA) methods (CEPA/1,2,3) are discussed. Extensions of these methods allow the derivation of the correlation energy from the stationarization of a correlation energy functional (CPF/1,2,3 methods). All methods are formulated as diagonally dressed configuration-interaction with single- and double-excitations (CISD) eigenvalue problems. Averaging the diagonal shifts of the CPF methods in various ways lead to the ACPF and AQCC methods. Several small modifications of the shifts for the single excitations are proposed that enhance the stability of the methods (NCPF/1,2,3, NCEPA/1,2,3, NACPF). The reduced shifts are justified by linear response arguments. The implementation of the methods for a closed-shell ground state is described. In the application part, we first tested the size-consistency, exactness for two-electron systems and unitary invariance of the methods. Extensive numerical studies with polarized quadruple- ζ basis sets are employed to test the accuracy of the coupled pair approaches relative to the more elaborate quadratic CI (QCISD) and coupled-cluster (CCSD and CCSD(T)) approaches. Not surprisingly, the CCSD(T) method is the most accurate approach on average. However, the proposed NCPF/1 variant led to even smaller average errors for bond distances (˜0.2 pm relative to ˜0.3 pm for CCSD(T)) while predicting still accurate harmonic frequencies (av. Error ˜25 cm -1 for NCPF/1, ˜8 cm -1 for CCSD(T) and ˜45 cm -1 for CCSD). All coupled pair methods are more accurate than present day DFT approaches (BP86, B3LYP). The exception is the recently proposed double-hybrid B2PLYP functional that approaches the coupled pair performance. Some more difficult

  13. Potential of Three-Way Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis as a Typing Method for Twelve Salmonella Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Soto, S. M.; Guerra, B.; González-Hevia, M. A.; Mendoza, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of a three-way randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) procedure (RAPD typing) for typing Salmonella enterica strains assigned to 12 serotypes was analyzed. The series of organisms used included 235 strains (326 isolates) collected mainly from clinical samples in the Principality of Asturias and 9 reference strains. RAPD typing was performed directly with broth cultures of bacteria by using three selected primers and optimized PCR conditions. The profiles obtained with the three primers were used to define RAPD types and to evaluate the procedure as a typing method at the species and serotype levels. The typeability was 100%; the reproducibility and in vitro stability could be considered good. The concordance of RAPD typing methods with serotyping methods was 100%, but some profiles obtained with two of the three primers were obtained with strains assigned to different serotypes. The discrimination index (DI) within the series of organisms was 0.94, and the DI within serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Virchow were 0.72, 0.52, and 0.66, respectively. Within these serotypes the most common RAPD types were differentiated into phage types and vice versa; combining the types identified by the two procedures (RAPD typing and phage typing) resulted in further discrimination (DI, 0.96, 0.74, and 0.87, respectively). The efficiency, rapidity, and flexibility of the RAPD typing method support the conclusion that it can be used as a tool for identifying Salmonella organisms and as a typing method that is complementary to serotyping and phage typing methods. PMID:10543793

  14. A simple method for MR elastography: a gradient-echo type multi-echo sequence.

    PubMed

    Numano, Tomokazu; Mizuhara, Kazuyuki; Hata, Junichi; Washio, Toshikatsu; Homma, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel MR elastography (MRE) technique based on a conventional gradient-echo type multi-echo MR sequence which does not need additional bipolar magnetic field gradients (motion encoding gradient: MEG), yet is sensitive to vibration. In a gradient-echo type multi-echo MR sequence, several images are produced from each echo of the train with different echo times (TEs). If these echoes are synchronized with the vibration, each readout's gradient lobes achieve a MEG-like effect, and the later generated echo causes a greater MEG-like effect. The sequence was tested for the tissue-mimicking agarose gel phantoms and the psoas major muscles of healthy volunteers. It was confirmed that the readout gradient lobes caused an MEG-like effect and the later TE images had higher sensitivity to vibrations. The magnitude image of later generated echo suffered the T2 decay and the susceptibility artifacts, but the wave image and elastogram of later generated echo were unaffected by these effects. In in vivo experiments, this method was able to measure the mean shear modulus of the psoas major muscle. From the results of phantom experiments and volunteer studies, it was shown that this method has clinical application potential. PMID:25311570

  15. Automatic Recognition of Coronal Type II Radio Bursts: The Method for ARBIS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, V.; Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, P. A.; Steward, G.; Paterson, G.

    2009-12-01

    The major space weather events like solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompanied by solar radio bursts, which can be used for a real-time space weather forecast. Type II radio bursts are produced near the local electron plasma frequency and near its harmonic by fast electrons accelerated by a shock wave moving through the corona and solar wind with a typical speed of ~1000 km/s. These bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency gradually falling with time (~0.25 MHz s-1), the duration of the coronal burst being several minutes. This paper presents a new method developed to detect coronal radio bursts automatically and describes its implementation in an Automated Radio Burst Identification System (ARBIS 2). The central idea of the implementation is to use the Hough transform for more objective detection of the type II bursts. Preliminary tests of the method with the use of the spectra obtained in 2002 show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ~80%, while the probability of false positives is reasonably low, 0.004-0.010 false positives per hour. Prospects for improvements are discussed.

  16. A Method and Tool for Fact Type Reuse in the DOGMA Ontology Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debruyne, Christophe; de Leenheer, Pieter; Meersman, Robert

    In the DOGMA approach to ontology engineering, the construction of an ontology starts from a "Lexon Base", a possibly very large and un-interpreted base of plausible elementary fact types called lexons. Lexons - mined from various linguistic sources such as schemas, texts or domain experts - are used to create ontological commitments by selecting or reusing a meaningful set of lexons and together with constraints so that the intended conceptualization is well approximated. All too often, the same or similar lexons are entered in the Lexon Base, which causes heterogeneity among different ontological commitments. Due to this heterogeneity, meaning negotiation to agree upon a common commitment becomes more difficult. Encouraging lexon reuse by providing knowledge engineers and domain experts an automated process for finding relevant lexons in the Lexon Base or existing ontological commitments can tackle this problem. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to fact type reuse that we will apply to DOGMA MESS, a state-of-the-art collaborative ontology engineering methodology. The method we propose uses several heuristics that reside in one of the six semiotic levels described by Ronald Stamper's semiotic ladder and adds a pragmatic and social layer onto the current methodology and tools. We provide a proof of concept by implementing our method in a tool for finding relevant lexons while building an ontological commitment in a production environment called DOGMA Studio Workbench.

  17. A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan

    2013-02-01

    One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.

  18. Systematic selection of analogue redesign method for forward-type digital power converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cave-Ayland, Kim; Becerra, Victor M.; Potter, Benjamin; Shirsavar, Seyed

    2014-05-01

    This article proposes a systematic approach to determine the most suitable analogue redesign method to be used for forward-type converters under digital voltage mode control. The focus of the method is to achieve the highest phase margin at the particular switching and crossover frequencies chosen by the designer. It is shown that at high crossover frequencies with respect to switching frequency, controllers designed using backward integration have the largest phase margin; whereas at low crossover frequencies with respect to switching frequency, controllers designed using bilinear integration with pre-warping have the largest phase margins. An algorithm has been developed to determine the frequency of the crossing point where the recommended discretisation method changes. An accurate model of the power stage is used for simulation and experimental results from a Buck converter are collected. The performance of the digital controllers is compared to that of the equivalent analogue controller both in simulation and experiment. Excellent closeness between the simulation and experimental results is presented. This work provides a concrete example to allow academics and engineers to systematically choose a discretisation method.

  19. Mercury analysis of various types of coal using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jae Young Park; Jong Hyun Won; Tai Gyu Lee

    2006-12-15

    The mercury contents of various types of coal currently consumed in Korea were analyzed using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods. The results of analysis by acid extraction and pyrolysis methods were compared and discussed. Generally, high mercury concentrations of 105.6 to 434.5 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 125.7 to 475.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis) were obtained for tested anthracite coals in this study. For bituminous coals, the mercury contents were 11.5-48 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 12.5-52.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis). For coal samples, much simpler and far less time-consuming pyrolysis method tends to give higher values for the Hg concentration than the acid extraction method (by less than 10%) because of the interference from a UV absorption by SOx generated during thermal destruction of coal matrix. Also, further analysis shows that coals with higher densities have higher mercury contents and that the sulfur and mercury contents of coals are positively correlated with each other. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Effect of the carbohydrate counting method on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of achieving and maintaining an appropriate metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) has been established in many studies aiming to prevent the development of chronic complications. The carbohydrate counting method can be recommended as an additional tool in the nutritional treatment of diabetes, allowing patients with DM1 to have more flexible food choices. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of nutrition intervention and the use of multiple short-acting insulin according to the carbohydrate counting method on clinical and metabolic control in patients with DM1. Methods Our sample consisted of 51 patients with DM1, 32 females, aged 25.3 ± 1.55 years. A protocol of nutritional status evaluation was applied and laboratory analysis was performed at baseline and after a three-month intervention. After the analysis of the food records, a balanced diet was prescribed using the carbohydrate counting method, and short-acting insulin was prescribed based on the total amount of carbohydrate per meal (1 unit per 15 g of carbohydrate). Results A significant decrease in A1c levels was observed from baseline to the three-month evaluation after the intervention (10.40 ± 0.33% and 9.52 ± 0.32%, respectively, p = 0.000). It was observed an increase in daily insulin dose after the intervention (0.99 ± 0.65 IU/Kg and 1.05 ± 0.05 IU/Kg, respectively, p = 0.003). No significant differences were found regarding anthropometric evaluation (BMI, waist, hip or abdominal circumferences and waist to hip ratio) after the intervention period. Conclusions The use of short-acting insulin based on the carbohydrate counting method after a short period of time resulted in a significant improvement of the glycemic control in patients with DM1 with no changes in body weight despite increases in the total daily insulin doses. PMID:20716374

  1. Free Energy-Based Conformational Search Algorithm Using the Movable Type Sampling Method.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li-Li; Zheng, Zheng; Wang, Ting; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we extend the movable type (MT) sampling method to molecular conformational searches (MT-CS) on the free energy surface of the molecule in question. Differing from traditional systematic and stochastic searching algorithms, this method uses Boltzmann energy information to facilitate the selection of the best conformations. The generated ensembles provided good coverage of the available conformational space including available crystal structures. Furthermore, our approach directly provides the solvation free energies and the relative gas and aqueous phase free energies for all generated conformers. The method is validated by a thorough analysis of thrombin ligands as well as against structures extracted from both the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). An in-depth comparison between OMEGA and MT-CS is presented to illustrate the differences between the two conformational searching strategies, i.e., energy-based versus free energy-based searching. These studies demonstrate that our MT-based ligand conformational search algorithm is a powerful approach to delineate the conformational ensembles of molecular species on free energy surfaces. PMID:26605406

  2. Implicit high-order discontinuous Galerkin method with HWENO type limiters for steady viscous flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen-Hua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian

    2013-08-01

    Two types of implicit algorithms have been improved for high order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to solve compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on triangular grids. A block lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BLU-SGS) approach is implemented as a nonlinear iterative scheme. And a modified LU-SGS (LLU-SGS) approach is suggested to reduce the memory requirements while retain the good convergence performance of the original LU-SGS approach. Both implicit schemes have the significant advantage that only the diagonal block matrix is stored. The resulting implicit high-order DG methods are applied, in combination with Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) limiters, to solve viscous flow problems. Numerical results demonstrate that the present implicit methods are able to achieve significant efficiency improvements over explicit counterparts and for viscous flows with shocks, and the HWENO limiters can be used to achieve the desired essentially non-oscillatory shock transition and the designed high-order accuracy simultaneously.

  3. MFI-type boroaluminosilicate: A comparative study between the direct synthesis and the templating method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Wei; Zhang Shiyu; Hao Xiangying; Guo Hao; Zhang Cui; Zhang Yinqing; Liu Shuangxi . E-mail: sxliu@nankai.edu.cn

    2006-03-15

    Boroaluminosilicate with MFI zeotype (henceforth B-ZSM-5) was synthesized both via the direct synthesis where ZSM-5 was employed as crystal seed and the templating method by using TPABr as the structure-directing agent (SDA). Characterization based on its structure, bonding, surface acidity, and morphology was performed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), {sup 11}B MAS NMR spectrometry, FT-IR spectrometry, pyridine-chemisorption IR spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of the prepared zeolites was determined by ICP-AES; the zeolite framework stability was investigated by steam treatment. The differences in the physicochemical properties of B-ZSM-5 prepared by the two methods were compared and discussed. In the direct synthesis, increasing initial boron-substitution ratio concomitantly brings about increasing difficulty to prepare pure B-ZSM-5 and, MFI-type borosilicate (free of aluminum) cannot be synthesized; the highest SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio=70.64 is received. B-ZSM-5 prepared by the templating method shows remarkable hydrothermal stability than its counterpart prepared by the direct synthesis.

  4. Method of fabricating n-type and p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1990-02-02

    A method of fabricating doped microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material which includes a band gap widening element through a glow discharge deposition process by subjecting a precursor mixture which includes a diluent gas to an a.c. glow discharge in the absence of a magnetic field of sufficient strength to induce electron cyclotron resonance.

  5. Comparison of Methods for Renal Risk Prediction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (ZODIAC-36)

    PubMed Central

    Riphagen, Ineke J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Drion, Iefke; Alkhalaf, Alaa; van Diepen, Merel; Cao, Qi; Groenier, Klaas H.; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Navis, Gerjan; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes are at high risk of death prior to reaching end-stage renal disease, but most models predicting the risk of kidney disease do not take this competing risk into account. We aimed to compare the performance of Cox regression and competing risk models for prediction of early- and late-stage renal complications in type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the observational ZODIAC study were included. Prediction models for (micro)albuminuria and 50% increase in serum creatinine (SCr) were developed using Cox regression and competing risk analyses. Model performance was assessed by discrimination and calibration. Results During a total follow-up period of 10 years, 183 out of 640 patients (28.6%) with normoalbuminuria developed (micro)albuminuria, and 22 patients (3.4%) died without developing (micro)albuminuria (i.e. experienced the competing event). Seventy-nine out of 1,143 patients (6.9%) reached the renal end point of 50% increase in SCr, while 219 (19.2%) died without developing the renal end point. Performance of the Cox and competing risk models predicting (micro)albuminuria was similar and differences in predicted risks were small. However, the Cox model increasingly overestimated the risk of increase in SCr in presence of a substantial number of competing events, while the performance of the competing risk model was quite good. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that, in case of substantial numbers of competing events, it is important to account for the competing risk of death in renal risk prediction in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25775414

  6. New methods for accelerating the convergence of molecular electronic integrals over exponential type orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safouhi, Hassan; Hoggan, Philip

    2003-01-01

    This review on molecular integrals for large electronic systems (MILES) places the problem of analytical integration over exponential-type orbitals (ETOs) in a historical context. After reference to the pioneering work, particularly by Barnett, Shavitt and Yoshimine, it focuses on recent progress towards rapid and accurate analytic solutions of MILES over ETOs. Software such as the hydrogenlike wavefunction package Alchemy by Yoshimine and collaborators is described. The review focuses on convergence acceleration of these highly oscillatory integrals and in particular it highlights suitable nonlinear transformations. Work by Levin and Sidi is described and applied to MILES. A step by step description of progress in the use of nonlinear transformation methods to obtain efficient codes is provided. The recent approach developed by Safouhi is also presented. The current state of the art in this field is summarized to show that ab initio analytical work over ETOs is now a viable option.

  7. Monte Carlo methods for neutrino transport in type-II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janka, Hans-Thomas

    Neutrinos play an important role in the type-II supernova scenario. Numerous approaches have been made in order to treat the generation and transport of neutrinos and the interactions between neutrinos and matter during stellar collapse and the shock propagation phase. However, all computationally fast methods have in common the fact that they cannot avoid simplifications in describing the interactions and, furthermore, have to use parameterizations in handling the Boltzmann transport equation. In order to provide an instrument for calibrating these treatments and for calculating neutrino spectra emitted from given stellar configurations, a Monte Carlo transport code was designed. Special attention was paid to an accurate computation of scattering kernels and source functions. Neutrino spectra for a hydrostatic stage of a 20 solar mass supernova simulation were generated and conclusions drawn concerning a late time revival of the stalled shock by neutrino heating.

  8. Spin transport through n-type doped silicon using electrical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, H.-Jae; Huang, Biqin; Appelbaum, Ian

    2008-03-01

    In this presentation, we report on all-electrical injection, transport, and detection of spin-polarized electrons through a 3um n-type Phosphorus-doped single-crystal silicon device. Using our hot-electron methods, we demonstrate both spin-valve behavior in an in-plane magnetic field and spin precession in a perpendicular magnetic field. Voltage spectroscopy reveals the effects of charge screening and band bending in the spin transport layer which are not evident in the operation of our previously-studied undoped silicon devices [1,2]. References [1] Ian Appelbaum et al. Nature 447, 295 (2007). [2] Biqin Huang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 177209 (2007).

  9. The application of the barrier-type anodic oxidation method to thickness testing of aluminum films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Xiao, Ruihua; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Baofu; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The thickness of the active metal oxide film formed from a barrier-type anodizing process is directly proportional to its formation voltage. The thickness of the consumed portion of the metal film is also corresponding to the formation voltage. This principle can be applied to the thickness test of the metal films. If the metal film is growing on a dielectric substrate, when the metal film is exhausted in an anodizing process, because of the high electrical resistance of the formed oxide film, a sudden increase of the recorded voltage during the anodizing process would occur. Then, the thickness of the metal film can be determined from this voltage. As an example, aluminum films are tested and discussed in this work. This method is quite simple and is easy to perform with high precision. PMID:25273741

  10. The application of the barrier-type anodic oxidation method to thickness testing of aluminum films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Xiao, Ruihua; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Baofu; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The thickness of the active metal oxide film formed from a barrier-type anodizing process is directly proportional to its formation voltage. The thickness of the consumed portion of the metal film is also corresponding to the formation voltage. This principle can be applied to the thickness test of the metal films. If the metal film is growing on a dielectric substrate, when the metal film is exhausted in an anodizing process, because of the high electrical resistance of the formed oxide film, a sudden increase of the recorded voltage during the anodizing process would occur. Then, the thickness of the metal film can be determined from this voltage. As an example, aluminum films are tested and discussed in this work. This method is quite simple and is easy to perform with high precision.

  11. Superconvergence and recovery type a posteriori error estimation for hybrid stress finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, YanHong; Wu, YongKe; Xie, XiaoPing

    2016-09-01

    Superconvergence and a posteriori error estimators of recovery type are analyzed for the 4-node hybrid stress quadrilateral finite element method proposed by Pian and Sumihara (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engrg., 1984, 20: 1685-1695) for linear elasticity problems. Uniform superconvergence of order $O(h^{1+\\min\\{\\alpha,1\\}})$ with respect to the Lam\\'{e} constant $\\lambda$ is established for both the recovered gradients of the displacement vector and the stress tensor under a mesh assumption, where $\\alpha>0$ is a parameter characterizing the distortion of meshes from parallelograms to quadrilaterals. A posteriori error estimators based on the recovered quantities are shown to be asymptotically exact. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results.

  12. Scale space methods for analysis of type 2 diabetes patients' blood glucose values.

    PubMed

    Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Godtliebsen, Fred

    2011-01-01

    We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to reveal important features of unevenly sampled data, and useful for identifying medically relevant features for use both by patients as part of their self-management process, and provide useful information for physicians. PMID:21436873

  13. Scale Space Methods for Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes Patients' Blood Glucose Values

    PubMed Central

    Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Godtliebsen, Fred

    2011-01-01

    We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to reveal important features of unevenly sampled data, and useful for identifying medically relevant features for use both by patients as part of their self-management process, and provide useful information for physicians. PMID:21436873

  14. Further development of multiplex single nucleotide polymorphism typing method, the DigiTag2 assay.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Nao; Tanabe, Tetsuya; Takasu, Miwa; Suyama, Akira; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2007-05-01

    A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are considered to be candidate susceptibility or resistance genetic factors for multifactorial disease. Genome-wide searches for disease susceptibility regions followed by high-resolution mapping of primary genes require cost-effective and highly reliable technology. To accomplish successful and low-cost typing for candidate SNPs, new technologies must be developed. We previously reported a multiplex SNP typing method, designated the DigiTag assay, that has the potential to analyze nearly any SNP with high accuracy and reproducibility. However, the DigiTag assay requires multiple washing steps in manipulation and uses genotyping probes modified with biotin for each target SNP. Here we describe the next version of the assay, DigiTag2, which works with simple protocols and uses unmodified genotyping probes. We investigated the feasibility of the DigiTag2 assay by genotyping 96 target SNPs spanning a 610-kb region of human chromosome 5. The DigiTag2 assay is suitable for genotyping an intermediate number of SNPs (tens to hundreds of sites) with a high conversion rate (>90%), high accuracy, and low cost. PMID:17359929

  15. Support of Wheelchairs Using Pheromone Information with Two Types of Communication Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Koji; Nitta, Katsumi

    In this paper, we propose a communication framework which combined two types of communication among wheelchairs and mobile devices. Due to restriction of range of activity, there is a problem that wheelchair users tend to shut themselves up in their houses. We developed a navigational wheelchair which loads a system that displays information on a map through WWW. However, this wheelchair is expensive because it needs a solid PC, a precise GPS, a battery, and so on. We introduce mobile devices and use this framework to provide information to wheelchair users and to facilitate them to go out. When a user encounters other users, they exchange messages which they have by short-distance wireless communication. Once a message is delivered to a navigational wheelchair, the wheelchair uploads the message to the system. We use two types of pheromone information which represent trends of user's movement and existences of a crowd of users. First, when users gather, ``crowd of people pheromone'' is emitted virtually. Users do not send these pheromones to the environment but carry them. If the density exceeds the threshold, messages that express ``people gethered'' are generated automatically. The other pheromone is ``movement trend pheromone'', which is used to improve probability of successful transmissions. From results of experiments, we concluded that our method can deliver information that wheelchair users gathered to other wheelchairs.

  16. Synthesis of Zr-based perovskite-type alloy phosphors by polymerized complex method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komagata, Hiroki; Kato, Riku; Kato, Ariyuki

    2014-02-01

    To demonstrate the fabrication of inorganic electroluminescent (EL) devices using perovskite-type oxide phosphors by electrophoretic deposition (EPD), AZrO3:RE (A = Ca, Sr, Ba; RE = Eu, Tb) were synthesized by the polymerized complex method. AZrO3:Eu showed orange or red emissions and AZrO3:Tb showed blue-green or green emissions depending on their crystal structures. The emission intensity was found to be enhanced by introducing strains to the host matrices by Mg codoping or alloying. Inorganic EL devices prepared by EPD using BaZrO3:Eu and SrZrO3:Eu as the phosphor layers showed orange and blue emissions that were observable under room light, respectively, which is the first observation of EL emission from the devices prepared by EPD to the best of our knowledge. The combination of perovskite-type oxide phosphors and EPD was found to be a promising way to fabricate inorganic EL devices.

  17. A Method for Measuring Active Region Filling Factors on Solar-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampapa, Mark Steven; Andretta, Vincenzo; Beeck, Benjamin; Reiners, Ansgar; Schussler, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    Radiative diagnostics of “activity” in the Sun and solar-type stars are spatially associated with sites of emergent magnetic flux. The magnetic fields themselves are widely regarded as the surface manifestations of a dynamo mechanism. The further development of both dynamo theory and models of the non-radiative heating of outer stellar atmospheres requires a knowledge of stellar magnetic field properties. In this context, it becomes important to determine the surface distribution, or at least the fractional coverage of, magnetic active regions as one critical constraint for dynamo models. But, while information on the spatial distribution of activity on stellar surfaces can be gathered in some special cases (mostly rapid rotators), such measurements have always been elusive in more solar-like stars. We discuss the challenges and results obtained from a method that relies on the non-linear response of the two principal He I triplet lines (at 1083 nm and 587.6 nm) to infer useful constraints on the fractional area coverage of magnetic active regions on solar-type stars.

  18. Hydrogen Isotope Behavior in Type 316 Stainless Steel Sorbed by Various Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Oya, Y.; Onishi, Y.; Okuno, K.; Kawano, T.; Asakura, Y.; Uda, T.; Tanaka, S.

    2005-07-15

    Typical materials for components, type 316 stainless steel (316-SS), were chosen as a sample and hydrogen isotope was charged by various methods, water adsorption, electrolysis and ion irradiation to elucidate hydrogen isotope behavior on/in SS. The chemical states of SS surface were studied by XPS and the hydrogen isotope retention and its desorption behavior were analyzed by TDS. Two types of surface finish, namely non-pretreated sample and pretreated sample by polish and annealing were prepared. It was found that the oxy-hydroxide and hydroxide were formed on the surface layer. The hydrogen isotope desorption stages consisted of three stages, namely the desorption stages from oxy-hydroxide, hydroxide and bulk hydrogen. A large amount of deuterium was trapped by the oxy-hydroxide layer for the non-pretreated sample with electrolysis. The hydrogen isotope trapping by this layer would have a large influence on the hydrogen isotope retention. The surface finish would be one of the effective improvement for decreasing its retention on SS.

  19. The influence of methods of bariatric surgery for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bužga, Marek; Maresova, Petra; Seidlerova, Adela; Zonča, Pavel; Holéczy, Pavol; Kuča, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    The constantly growing incidence of obesity represents a risk of health complications for individuals, and is a growing economic burden for health care systems and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bariatric surgery, specifically laparoscopic greater curve plication, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The effect of bariatric surgery on the changes in blood pressure before, and 12 months after, surgery and in pharmacotherapy in the 12 months after surgery was analyzed. For achieving this purpose, 74 patients from the Obesity and Surgery Department of Vitkovice Hospital in Ostrava in the Czech Republic, were monitored. They were operated in 2011 and 2012. The Bonferroni method was used to test hypotheses about the impact of surgery on blood pressure and pharmacotherapy. One year after the surgery, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values decreased, both with no statistically significant difference between surgery types. Improvement was observed in 68% of cases, with 25% of patients discontinuing pharmacotherapy entirely. PMID:27143901

  20. The Influence of Polymerization Type and Reinforcement Method on Flexural Strength of Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Kasuya, Amanda Vessoni Barbosa; Favarão, Isabella Negro; Naves, Lucas Zago; Hoeppner, Márcio Grama

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of acrylic resin bars by varying the types of resin polymerization and reinforcement methods. Fourteen groups (N = 10) were created by the interaction of factors in study: type of resin (self-cured (SC) or heat-cured (HC)) and reinforcement method (industrialized glass fiber (Ind), unidirectional glass fiber (Uni), short glass fiber (Short), unidirectional and short glass fiber (Uni-Short), thermoplastic resin fiber (Tpl), and steel wire (SW)). Reinforced bars (25 × 2 × 2 mm) were tested in flexural strength (0.5 mm/min) and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data (MPa) were submitted to factorial analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey and T-student tests (a = 5%) showing significant interaction (P = 0.008), for SC: Uni (241.71 ± 67.77)a, Uni-Short (221.05 ± 71.97)a, Ind (215.21 ± 46.59)ab, SW (190.51 ± 31.49)abc, Short (156.31 ± 28.76)bcd, Tpl (132.51 ± 20.21)cd, Control SC (101.47 ± 19.79)d and for HC: Ind (268.93 ± 105.65)a, Uni (215.14 ± 67.60)ab, Short (198.44 ± 95.27)abc, Uni-Short (189.56 ± 92.27)abc, Tpl (161.32 ± 62.51)cd, SW (106.69 ± 28.70)cd, and Control HC (93.39 ± 39.61)d. SEM analysis showed better fiber-resin interaction for HC. Nonimpregnated fibers, irrespective of their length, tend to improve fracture strength of acrylics. PMID:25879079

  1. An improved method for the preparation of type I collagen from skin.

    PubMed

    Pacak, Christina A; MacKay, Allison A; Cowan, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    Soluble type 1 collagen (COL1) is used extensively as an adhesive substrate for cell cultures and as a cellular scaffold for regenerative applications. Clinically, this protein is widely used for cosmetic surgery, dermal injections, bone grafting, and reconstructive surgery. The sources of COL1 for these procedures are commonly nonhuman, which increases the potential for inflammation and rejection as well as xenobiotic disease transmission. In view of this, a method to efficiently and quickly purify COL1 from limited quantities of autologously-derived tissues would circumvent many of these issues; however, standard isolation protocols are lengthy and often require large quantities of collagenous tissues. Here, we demonstrate an efficient COL1 extraction method that reduces the time needed to isolate and purify this protein from about 10 days to less than 3 hr. We chose the dermis as our tissue source because of its availability during many surgical procedures. This method uses traditional extraction buffers combined with forceful agitation and centrifugal filtration to obtain highly-pure, soluble COL1 from small amounts of corium. Briefly, dermal biopsies are washed thoroughly in ice-cold dH2O after removing fat, connective tissue, and hair. The skin samples are stripped of noncollagenous proteins and polysaccharides using 0.5 M sodium acetate and a high speed bench-top homogenizer. Collagen from residual solids is subsequently extracted with a 0.075 M sodium citrate buffer using the homogenizer. These extracts are purified using 100,000 MW cut-off centrifugal filters that yield COL1 preparations of comparable or superior quality to commercial products or those obtained using traditional procedures. We anticipate this method will facilitate the utilization of autologously-derived COL1 for a multitude of research and clinical applications. PMID:24473107

  2. Using phenological metrics and the multiple classifier fusion method to map land cover types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianhong; Pan, Yaozhong; Zhu, Xiufang; Zhu, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection and multiple classifier fusion (MCF) are effective approaches to improve land cover classification accuracy. In this study, we combined phenological metrics and the MCF method to map land cover types in Jiangsu province of China during the second crop growing season using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer time-series data. Eight phenological metrics were developed and calculated, and a MCF scheme was proposed by combining a simple majority vote and the measurement of posterior probabilities. The four base classifiers (i.e., the maximum likelihood classifier, the Mahalanobis distance classifier, the support vector machine classifier, and the neural networks classifier) and the MCF method were used in classifications using two spectral indices from the original satellite data (direct classification) and the computed metric data (metrics-based classification). Accuracy assessments indicated that the overall accuracies and kappa coefficients of the metrics-based classifications were all higher than those of direct classifications. The average overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of metrics-based classifications were 8.36% and 0.1 higher than that of direct classifications, respectively. Similarly, the overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of MCF generally were close to or exceeded the highest accuracy among all the base classifiers. The highest overall accuracy and kappa coefficient was achieved by classification with the MCF method based on phenological metrics (m-MCF), which were 88% and 0.85, respectively. Our results suggested that combining phenological metrics and MCF in classification is a promising method for land cover mapping in regions where strong phenological signals can be detected.

  3. Distance determinations using type II supernovae and the expanding photosphere method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, L.; Hillier, D. J.

    2005-08-01

    Due to their high intrinsic brightness, caused by the disruption of the progenitor envelope by the shock-wave initiated at the bounce of the collapsing core, hydrogen-rich (type II) supernovae (SN) can be used as lighthouses to constrain distances in the Universe using variants of the Baade-Wesselink method. Based on a large set of CMFGEN models (Hillier & Miller 1998) covering the photospheric phase of type II SN, we study the various concepts entering one such technique, the Expanding Photosphere Method (EPM). We compute correction factors ξ needed to approximate the synthetic Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) with that of a blackbody at temperature T. Our ξ, although similar, are systematically greater, by ~0.1, than the values obtained by Eastman et al. (1996) and translate into a systematic enhancement of 10-20% in EPM-distances. We find that line emission and absorption, not directly linked to color temperature variations, can considerably alter the synthetic magnitude: in particular, line-blanketing attributable to Fe ii and Ti ii is the principal cause for above-unity correction factors in the B and V bands in hydrogen-recombining models. Following the dominance of electron-scattering opacity in type II SN outflows, the blackbody SED arising at the thermalization depth is diluted, by a factor of approximately 0.2 to 0.4 for fully- or partially-ionized models, but rising to unity as hydrogen recombines for effective temperatures below 9000 K. For a given effective temperature, models with a larger spatial scale, or lower density exponent, have a larger electron-scattering optical depth at the photosphere and consequently suffer enhanced dilution. We also find that when lines are present in the emergent spectrum, the photospheric radius in the corresponding wavelength range can be enhanced by a factor of 2-3 compared to the case when only continuum opacity is considered. Lines can thus nullify the uniqueness of the photosphere radius and invalidate the

  4. Hyperspectral imaging based method for fast characterization of kidney stone types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Francisco; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Havel, Josef; Valiente, Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The formation of kidney stones is a common and highly studied disease, which causes intense pain and presents a high recidivism. In order to find the causes of this problem, the characterization of the main compounds is of great importance. In this sense, the analysis of the composition and structure of the stone can give key information about the urine parameters during the crystal growth. But the usual methods employed are slow, analyst dependent and the information obtained is poor. In the present work, the near infrared (NIR)-hyperspectral imaging technique was used for the analysis of 215 samples of kidney stones, including the main types usually found and their mixtures. The NIR reflectance spectra of the analyzed stones showed significant differences that were used for their classification. To do so, a method was created by the use of artificial neural networks, which showed a probability higher than 90% for right classification of the stones. The promising results, robust methodology, and the fast analytical process, without the need of an expert assistance, lead to an easy implementation at the clinical laboratories, offering the urologist a rapid diagnosis that shall contribute to minimize urolithiasis recidivism.

  5. Convergence of Godunov type methods for a conservation law with a spatially varying discontinuous flux function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimurthi; Mishra, Siddhartha; Gowda, G. D. Veerappa

    2007-09-01

    We deal with single conservation laws with a spatially varying and possibly discontinuous coefficient. This equation includes as a special case single conservation laws with conservative and possibly singular source terms. We extend the framework of optimal entropy solutions for these classes of equations based on a two-step approach. In the first step, an interface connection vector is used to define infinite classes of entropy solutions. We show that each of these classes of solutions is stable in L^1 . This allows for the possibility of choosing one of these classes of solutions based on the physics of the problem. In the second step, we define optimal entropy solutions based on the solution of a certain optimization problem at the discontinuities of the coefficient. This method leads to optimal entropy solutions that are consistent with physically observed solutions in two-phase flows in heterogeneous porous media. Another central aim of this paper is to develop suitable numerical schemes for these equations. We develop and analyze a set of Godunov type finite volume methods that are based on exact solutions of the corresponding Riemann problem. Numerical experiments are shown comparing the performance of these schemes on a set of test problems.

  6. Optimal protein extraction methods from diverse sample types for protein profiling by using Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2DE).

    PubMed

    Tan, A A; Azman, S N; Abdul Rani, N R; Kua, B C; Sasidharan, S; Kiew, L V; Othman, N; Noordin, R; Chen, Y

    2011-12-01

    There is a great diversity of protein samples types and origins, therefore the optimal procedure for each sample type must be determined empirically. In order to obtain a reproducible and complete sample presentation which view as many proteins as possible on the desired 2DE gel, it is critical to perform additional sample preparation steps to improve the quality of the final results, yet without selectively losing the proteins. To address this, we developed a general method that is suitable for diverse sample types based on phenolchloroform extraction method (represented by TRI reagent). This method was found to yield good results when used to analyze human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), Vibrio cholerae, Cryptocaryon irritans cyst and liver abscess fat tissue. These types represent cell line, bacteria, parasite cyst and pus respectively. For each type of samples, several attempts were made to methodically compare protein isolation methods using TRI-reagent Kit, EasyBlue Kit, PRO-PREP™ Protein Extraction Solution and lysis buffer. The most useful protocol allows the extraction and separation of a wide diversity of protein samples that is reproducible among repeated experiments. Our results demonstrated that the modified TRI-reagent Kit had the highest protein yield as well as the greatest number of total proteins spots count for all type of samples. Distinctive differences in spot patterns were also observed in the 2DE gel of different extraction methods used for each type of sample. PMID:22433892

  7. A multi-wavelength classification method for polar stratospheric cloud types using infrared limb spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, Reinhold; Hoffmann, Lars; Höpfner, Michael; Griessbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf; Pitts, Michael C.; Orr, Andrew M. W.; Riese, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument on board the ESA Envisat satellite operated from July 2002 until April 2012. The infrared limb emission measurements represent a unique dataset of daytime and night-time observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) up to both poles. Cloud detection sensitivity is comparable to space-borne lidars, and it is possible to classify different cloud types from the spectral measurements in different atmospheric windows regions. Here we present a new infrared PSC classification scheme based on the combination of a well-established two-colour ratio method and multiple 2-D brightness temperature difference probability density functions. The method is a simple probabilistic classifier based on Bayes' theorem with a strong independence assumption. The method has been tested in conjunction with a database of radiative transfer model calculations of realistic PSC particle size distributions, geometries, and composition. The Bayesian classifier distinguishes between solid particles of ice and nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), as well as liquid droplets of super-cooled ternary solution (STS). The classification results are compared to coincident measurements from the space-borne lidar Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument over the temporal overlap of both satellite missions (June 2006-March 2012). Both datasets show a good agreement for the specific PSC classes, although the viewing geometries and the vertical and horizontal resolution are quite different. Discrepancies are observed between the CALIOP and the MIPAS ice class. The Bayesian classifier for MIPAS identifies substantially more ice clouds in the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex than CALIOP. This disagreement is attributed in part to the difference in the sensitivity on mixed-type clouds. Ice seems to dominate the spectral behaviour in the limb infrared spectra and may cause an overestimation in ice occurrence

  8. [Is intensive functional insulin therapy the method of choice in newly diagnosed type-1 diabetes mellitus?].

    PubMed

    Araszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Zozulińska, Dorota; Trepińska, Magdalena; Wierusz-Wysocka, Bogna

    2004-11-01

    The aim of our study was a prospective evaluation of type 1 diabetic patients treated with intensive insulin therapy. We recruited 100 patients (62 males and 38 females) aged 24.3+/-6.2 years with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. The mean observation period was 5.2+/-1.5 years. Parameters of diabetes metabolic balance, occurrence of chronic complications and patients' knowledge about the disease and the methods of its treatment were evaluated. 68% of the patients controlled their glycaemia regularly before main meals and 53% of them had a diabetic diary. In the knowledge test 20% of the subjects reached < or = 11 points, 62% 11-17 points and 18% > 17 points (mean 14.4+/-3.2 points of maximal 20 to achieve). The mean result in the questionnaire of knowledge about the disease was 28.1+/-4.9 points. Fasting glycaemia was 7.2+/-3.4 mmol/l, 2h postprandial glycaemia 9.4+/-3.6 mmol/l, HbA1c 7.5+/-1.4%, the mean C-peptide level 0.9+/-0.4 ng/ml and the number of hypoglycaemic episodes was 6/individual/month. We observed a statistically significant correlation between the level of patients' knowledge and HbA1c (r=-0.31, p<0.05). Retinopathy and nephropathy were detected in 8 (9%) and 6 (6.8%) subjects respectively. The risk of microangiopathy was connected with low knowledge (RR: 5.67; 95% CI: 2.02-15.82, p<0.0002). The study confirms the crucial role of intensive insulin therapy and systematic patients' education concerning the disease in maintaining a good metabolic control and thus reducing the risk of diabetic vascular complications. PMID:15754632

  9. Illustration of a Common Framework for Relating Multiple Typing Methods by Application to Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes†

    PubMed Central

    Carriço, J. A.; Silva-Costa, C.; Melo-Cristino, J.; Pinto, F. R.; de Lencastre, H.; Almeida, J. S.; Ramirez, M.

    2006-01-01

    The studies that correlate the results obtained by different typing methodologies rely solely on qualitative comparisons of the groups defined by each methodology. We propose a framework of measures for the quantitative assessment of correspondences between different typing methods as a first step to the global mapping of type equivalences. A collection of 325 macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolates associated with pharyngitis cases in Portugal was used to benchmark the proposed measures. All isolates were characterized by macrolide resistance phenotyping, T serotyping, emm sequence typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), using SmaI or Cfr9I and SfiI. A subset of 41 isolates, representing each PFGE cluster, was also characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The application of Adjusted Rand and Wallace indices allowed the evaluation of the strength and the directionality of the correspondences between the various typing methods and showed that if PFGE or MLST data are available one can confidently predict the emm type (Wallace coefficients of 0.952 for both methods). In contrast, emm typing was a poor predictor of PFGE cluster or MLST sequence type (Wallace coefficients of 0.803 and 0.655, respectively). This was confirmed by the analysis of the larger data set available from http://spyogenes.mlst.net and underscores the necessity of performing PFGE or MLST to unambiguously define clones in S. pyogenes. PMID:16825375

  10. Noninvasive method to estimate anaerobic threshold in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While several studies have identified the anaerobic threshold (AT) through the responses of blood lactate, ventilation and blood glucose others have suggested the response of the heart rate variability (HRV) as a method to identify the AT in young healthy individuals. However, the validity of HRV in estimating the lactate threshold (LT) and ventilatory threshold (VT) for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been investigated yet. Aim To analyze the possibility of identifying the heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) by considering the responses of parasympathetic indicators during incremental exercise test in type 2 diabetics subjects (T2D) and non diabetics individuals (ND). Methods Nine T2D (55.6 ± 5.7 years, 83.4 ± 26.6 kg, 30.9 ± 5.2 kg.m2(-1)) and ten ND (50.8 ± 5.1 years, 76.2 ± 14.3 kg, 26.5 ± 3.8 kg.m2(-1)) underwent to an incremental exercise test (IT) on a cycle ergometer. Heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and expired gas concentrations were measured at the end of each stage. HRVT was identified through the responses of root mean square successive difference between adjacent R-R intervals (RMSSD) and standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability (SD1) by considering the last 60 s of each incremental stage, and were known as HRVT by RMSSD and SD1 (HRVT-RMSSD and HRVT-SD1), respectively. Results No differences were observed within groups for the exercise intensities corresponding to LT, VT, HRVT-RMSSD and HHVT-SD1. Furthermore, a strong relationship were verified among the studied parameters both for T2D (r = 0.68 to 0.87) and ND (r = 0.91 to 0.98) and the Bland & Altman technique confirmed the agreement among them. Conclusion The HRVT identification by the proposed autonomic indicators (SD1 and RMSSD) were demonstrated to be valid to estimate the LT and VT for both T2D and ND. PMID:21226946

  11. A novel quantitative method for diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy assessment in type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chon, Ki H; Yang, Bufan; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Siu, Kin L; Rolle, Marsha; Brink, Peter; Birzgalis, Aija; Moore, Leon C

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we used a sensitive and noninvasive computational method to assess diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) from pulse oximeter (photoplethysmographic; PPG) recordings from mice. The method, which could be easily applied to humans, is based on principal dynamic mode (PDM) analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Unlike the power spectral density, PDM has been shown to be able to separately identify the activities of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems without pharmacological intervention. HRV parameters were measured by processing PPG signals from conscious 1.5- to 5-month-old C57/BL6 control mice and in Akita mice, a model of insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes, and compared with the gold-standard Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The PDM results indicate significant cardiac autonomic impairment in the diabetic mice in comparison to the controls. When tail-cuff PPG recordings were collected and analyzed starting from 1.5 months of age in both C57/Bl6 controls and Akita mice, onset of DCAN was seen at 3 months in the Akita mice, which persisted up to the termination of the recording at 5 months. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses also showed a reduction in nerve density in Akita mice at 3 and 4 months as compared to the control mice, thus, corroborating our PDM data analysis of HRV records. Western blot analysis of autonomic nerve proteins corroborated the PPG-based HRV analysis via the PDM approach. In contrast, traditional HRV analysis (based on either the power spectral density or time-domain measures) failed to detect the nerve rarefaction. PMID:25097056

  12. A Novel Quantitative Method for Diabetic Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Assessment in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bufan; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F.; Siu, Kin L.; Rolle, Marsha; Brink, Peter; Birzgalis, Aija; Moore, Leon C.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we used a sensitive and noninvasive computational method to assess diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) from pulse oximeter (photoplethysmographic; PPG) recordings from mice. The method, which could be easily applied to humans, is based on principal dynamic mode (PDM) analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Unlike the power spectral density, PDM has been shown to be able to separately identify the activities of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems without pharmacological intervention. HRV parameters were measured by processing PPG signals from conscious 1.5- to 5-month-old C57/BL6 control mice and in Akita mice, a model of insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes, and compared with the gold-standard Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The PDM results indicate significant cardiac autonomic impairment in the diabetic mice in comparison to the controls. When tail-cuff PPG recordings were collected and analyzed starting from 1.5 months of age in both C57/Bl6 controls and Akita mice, onset of DCAN was seen at 3 months in the Akita mice, which persisted up to the termination of the recording at 5 months. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses also showed a reduction in nerve density in Akita mice at 3 and 4 months as compared to the control mice, thus, corroborating our PDM data analysis of HRV records. Western blot analysis of autonomic nerve proteins corroborated the PPG-based HRV analysis via the PDM approach. In contrast, traditional HRV analysis (based on either the power spectral density or time-domain measures) failed to detect the nerve rarefaction. PMID:25097056

  13. Effects of Carbohydrate Counting Method on Metabolic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gökşen, Damla; Atik Altınok, Yasemin; Özen, Samim; Demir, Günay; Darcan, Şükran

    2014-01-01

    Ob­jec­ti­ve: Medical nutritional therapy is important for glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Carbohydrate (carb) counting, which is a more flexible nutritional method, has become popular in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carb counting on metabolic control, body measurements and serum lipid levels in children and adolescents with T1DM. Methods: T1DM patients aged 7-18 years and receiving flexible insulin therapy were divided into carb counting (n=52) and control (n=32) groups and were followed for 2 years in this randomized, controlled study. Demographic characteristics, body measurements, insulin requirements, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum lipid levels at baseline and at follow-up were evaluated. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in mean HbA1c values in the year preceding the study or in age, gender, duration of diabetes, puberty stage, total daily insulin dose, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) and serum lipid values. While there were no differences in BMI SDS, daily insulin requirement, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride values between the two groups (p>0.05) during the follow-up, annual mean HbA1c levels of the 2nd year were significantly lower in the carb counting group (p=0.010). The mean values of high-density lipoprotein were also significantly higher in the first and 2nd years in the carb counting group (p=0.02 and p=0.043, respectively). Conclusion: Carb counting may provide good metabolic control in children and adolescents with T1DM without causing any increase in weight or in insulin requirements. PMID:24932599

  14. Simulation method for transmission-type radio-frequency single-electron transistor (RF-SET) operation by SPICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun Seop; Oh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hee Tae; Kim, Yong Gyu; Son, Seung Hun; Choi, Bum Ho; Hwang, Sung Woo; Ahn, Doyel

    2009-02-01

    An efficient simulation method for transmission-type radio-frequency single-electron transistors (RF-SETs) is developed. By introducing equivalent circuits of propagating microwaves through RF cables, we solve the master equation for RF-SETs self-consistently by using the conventional circuit simulator SPICE together with the SET current model. By examining transmitted waves from the transmission-type RF-SET, we show that the developed method successfully reproduces the numerical reference methods (calculated self- consistently). We also show that our method provides simple and fast ways to simulate and analyze RF-SETs even under complicated circuit geometry and in high frequencies over GHz. Based on the developed simulation method, we introduce the modulation technique to estimate the charge sensitivity of the transmission-type RF-SET.

  15. Using Qualitative Methods to Evaluate a Family Behavioral Intervention for Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Sweenie, Rachel; Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Holmes, Clarissa; Streisand, Randi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objectives of this study were to qualitatively evaluate a dyadic adolescent-parent type 1 diabetes (T1D) program developed to prevent deterioration in diabetes care among adolescents with T1D and provide recommendations for program refinement. Method Thirteen adolescent-parent dyads who participated in the larger RCT, the TeamWork Project, were interviewed regarding their perceptions of their participation in the program and current T1D challenges. Interviews were transcribed and coded to establish broad themes. Results Adolescents and parents thought the TeamWork Project sessions were helpful and taught them new information. Five themes catalog findings from the qualitative interviews: TeamWork content, TeamWork structure, transition of responsibility, current and future challenges, and future intervention considerations. Discussion Addressing T1D challenges as a parent-adolescent dyad via a behavioral clinic program is helpful to families during adolescence. Findings highlight the utility of qualitative evaluation to tailor interventions for the unique challenges related to pediatric chronic illness. PMID:24269281

  16. A comparison of three therapy methods for children with different types of developmental phonological disorder.

    PubMed

    Dodd, B; Bradford, A

    2000-01-01

    Treatment case studies of three children whose speech was characterized by non-developmental errors are described. Three therapy methods were trialed with each child: phonological contrast; core vocabulary and PROMPT. The accuracy and intelligibility of the children's connected speech improved throughout the course of the programme. Intervention that focused on teaching a rule about the contrastive use of phonemes was most successful for a child who consistently made non-developmental errors. Children making inconsistent errors received most benefit from the core vocabulary approach that markedly enhanced consistency of production. However, once consistency was established, one child benefited from phonological contrast therapy. While the results of the study should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size and the cumulative effects of intervention, the findings suggest that different parts of a child's phonological and phonetic system may respond to various types of treatment approaches that target different aspects of speech production. The implication drawn is that just as no single treatment approach is appropriate for all children with disordered phonology, management of some children may involve selecting and sequencing a range of different approaches. PMID:10912251

  17. Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method using a new type of WENO limiters on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhong, Xinghui; Shu, Chi-Wang; Qiu, Jianxian

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we generalize a new type of limiters based on the weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite volume methodology for the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) methods solving nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws, which were recently developed in [32] for structured meshes, to two-dimensional unstructured triangular meshes. The key idea of such limiters is to use the entire polynomials of the DG solutions from the troubled cell and its immediate neighboring cells, and then apply the classical WENO procedure to form a convex combination of these polynomials based on smoothness indicators and nonlinear weights, with suitable adjustments to guarantee conservation. The main advantage of this new limiter is its simplicity in implementation, especially for the unstructured meshes considered in this paper, as only information from immediate neighbors is needed and the usage of complicated geometric information of the meshes is largely avoided. Numerical results for both scalar equations and Euler systems of compressible gas dynamics are provided to illustrate the good performance of this procedure.

  18. Godunov-type numerical methods for a model of granular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimurthi, A.; Aggarwal, Aekta; Veerappa Gowda, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze finite volume Godunov type methods based on discontinuous flux for a 2 × 2 system of non-linear partial differential equations proposed by Hadeler and Kuttler to model the dynamics of growing sandpiles generated by a vertical source on a flat bounded rectangular table. The scheme is made well-balanced by modifying the flux function locally by including source term as a part of the convection term. Its extension to multi-dimensions is not straightforward for which an approach has been introduced here based on Transport Rays. This approach is compared with another approach for inclusion of source term which uses the idea of inverting the divergence operator relying on the Curl-free component of the Helmholtz decomposition of the source term. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme for both unsteady and steady state calculations and to make comparisons with the previously studied finite difference and semi-Lagrangian approaches by Falcone and Finzi Vita.

  19. Influence of starting zeolite on synthesis of RUT type zeolite by interzeolite conversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itakura, Masaya; Ota, Kai; Shibata, Shohei; Inoue, Takayuki; Ide, Yusuke; Sadakane, Masahiro; Sano, Tsuneji

    2011-01-01

    In this study, hydrothermal conversions of *BEA and FAU type zeolites using various structure-directing agents were carried out. Highly crystalline and pure RUT type zeolites were obtained from both zeolites in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide. There were no major differences between the characteristics of the RUT type zeolites obtained from the two starting zeolites. However, the Si/Al ratio and the crystallization rate of the RUT type zeolites were strongly dependent on both the framework structure and the Si/Al ratio of the starting zeolite. That is, the crystallization rate of the RUT type zeolite from the *BEA type zeolite did not depend on the Si/Al ratio of the starting *BEA type zeolite, whereas the crystallization rate of the RUT type zeolite from the FAU type zeolite was dependent on the Si/Al ratio of the starting FAU type zeolite. This suggests that the chemical structure and the concentration of locally ordered aluminosilicate species produced by the decomposition/dissolution of the starting zeolite can be altered by changing the framework structure of the zeolite.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with food poisoning outbreaks in France: comparison of different molecular typing methods, including MLVA

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Sophie; Felix, Benjamin; Vingadassalon, Noémie; Grout, Joël; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Guillier, Laurent; Brisabois, Anne; Auvray, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks (SFPOs) are frequently reported in France. However, most of them remain unconfirmed, highlighting a need for a better characterization of isolated strains. Here we analyzed the genetic diversity of 112 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 76 distinct SFPOs that occurred in France over the last 30 years. We used a recently developed multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) protocol and compared this method with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing and carriage of genes (se genes) coding for 11 staphylococcal enterotoxins (i.e., SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI, SEJ, SEP, SER). The strains known to have an epidemiological association with one another had identical MLVA types, PFGE profiles, spa-types or se gene carriage. MLVA, PFGE and spa-typing divided 103 epidemiologically unrelated strains into 84, 80, and 50 types respectively demonstrating the high genetic diversity of S. aureus strains involved in SFPOs. Each MLVA type shared by more than one strain corresponded to a single spa-type except for one MLVA type represented by four strains that showed two different-but closely related-spa-types. The 87 enterotoxigenic strains were distributed across 68 distinct MLVA types that correlated all with se gene carriage except for four MLVA types. The most frequent se gene detected was sea, followed by seg and sei and the most frequently associated se genes were sea-seh and sea-sed-sej-ser. The discriminatory ability of MLVA was similar to that of PFGE and higher than that of spa-typing. This MLVA protocol was found to be compatible with high throughput analysis, and was also faster and less labor-intensive than PFGE. MLVA holds promise as a suitable method for investigating SFPOs and tracking the source of contamination in food processing facilities in real time. PMID:26441849

  1. A reddening-free method to estimate the 56Ni mass of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, S.; Leibundgut, B.; Spyromilio, J.; Blondin, S.

    2016-04-01

    The increase in the number of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has demonstrated that the population shows greater diversity than has been assumed in the past. The reasons (e.g. parent population, explosion mechanism) for this diversity remain largely unknown. We investigated a sample of SNe Ia near-infrared light curves and correlated the phase of the second maximum with the bolometric peak luminosity. The peak bolometric luminosity is related to the time of the second maximum (relative to the B light curve maximum) as follows: Lmax(1043 erg s-1) = (0.039 ± 0.004) × t2(J)(days) + (0.013 ± 0.106). 56Ni masses can be derived from the peak luminosity based on Arnett's rule, which states that the luminosity at maximum is equal to the instantaneous energy generated by the nickel decay. We checked this assumption against recent radiative-transfer calculations of Chandrasekhar-mass delayed detonation models and find this assumption is valid to within 10% in recent radiative-transfer calculations of Chandrasekhar-mass delayed detonation models. The Lmax vs. t2 relation is applied to a sample of 40 additional SNe Ia with significant reddening (E(B - V) > 0.1 mag), and a reddening-free bolometric luminosity function of SNe Ia is established. The method is tested with the 56Ni mass measurement from the direct observation of γ-rays in the heavily absorbed SN 2014J and found to be fully consistent. Super-Chandrasekhar-mass explosions, in particular SN 2007if, do not follow the relations between peak luminosity and second IR maximum. This may point to an additional energy source contributing at maximum light. The luminosity function of SNe Ia is constructed and is shown to be asymmetric with a tail of low-luminosity objects and a rather sharp high-luminosity cutoff, although it might be influenced by selection effects.

  2. Flatbed-type 3D display systems using integral imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Yuzo; Nagatani, Hiroyuki; Saishu, Tatsuo; Fukushima, Rieko; Taira, Kazuki

    2006-10-01

    We have developed prototypes of flatbed-type autostereoscopic display systems using one-dimensional integral imaging method. The integral imaging system reproduces light beams similar of those produced by a real object. Our display architecture is suitable for flatbed configurations because it has a large margin for viewing distance and angle and has continuous motion parallax. We have applied our technology to 15.4-inch displays. We realized horizontal resolution of 480 with 12 parallaxes due to adoption of mosaic pixel arrangement of the display panel. It allows viewers to see high quality autostereoscopic images. Viewing the display from angle allows the viewer to experience 3-D images that stand out several centimeters from the surface of the display. Mixed reality of virtual 3-D objects and real objects are also realized on a flatbed display. In seeking reproduction of natural 3-D images on the flatbed display, we developed proprietary software. The fast playback of the CG movie contents and real-time interaction are realized with the aid of a graphics card. Realization of the safety 3-D images to the human beings is very important. Therefore, we have measured the effects on the visual function and evaluated the biological effects. For example, the accommodation and convergence were measured at the same time. The various biological effects are also measured before and after the task of watching 3-D images. We have found that our displays show better results than those to a conventional stereoscopic display. The new technology opens up new areas of application for 3-D displays, including arcade games, e-learning, simulations of buildings and landscapes, and even 3-D menus in restaurants.

  3. Selection of method is crucial for the diagnosis of porcine circovirus type 2 associated reproductive failures.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mette S; Hjulsager, Charlotte K; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Haugegaard, Svend; Dupont, Kitt; Høgedal, Peter; Kunstmann, Lars; Larsen, Lars E

    2010-07-29

    During a 2-month period a newly repopulated Danish pig herd experienced an increase in numbers of stillborn and mummies, caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) associated reproductive failure. Based on recordings of data over time, the progression of the clinical outbreak was studied and the diagnostic value of different techniques was evaluated. Foetal hearts (38 cases and 13 controls) were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of PCV2; and total immunoglobulin G (IgG) was measured in pleura cavity fluid. PCV2 IHC was positive in 14/38 of the case foetuses, which were delivered during a 9 days period early in the outbreak. On the basis of the results obtained by IHC and PCR, the foetuses were divided into 3 categories: PCV2 negative; moderately positive (10(4) to 10(7) copies per 500 ng DNA); and massively positive for PCV2 (>10(7) copies per 500 ng DNA). All control- and IHC positive foetuses were included in the negative and massively positive groups, respectively. Ten case foetuses had elevated IgG levels, which did not correlate with the IHC or PCR results. Based on the clustering of the IHC positive foetuses, it is suggested that IHC only is suited for diagnosing acute stages of reproductive failure, whereas quantitative PCR can be used as a sensitive diagnostic method within a wider time span. It seems that IgG measurements are unpredictable as indication of intrauterine infection with PCV2. PMID:20097019

  4. A new type of descent conjugate gradient method with exact line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajar, Nurul; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd.; Jusoh, Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, conjugate gradient (CG) methods are impressive for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems. In this paper, a new CG method is proposed and analyzed. This new CG method satisfies descent condition and its global convergence is established using exact line search. Numerical results show that this new CG method substantially outperforms the previous CG methods. This new CG method is considered robust, efficient and provided faster and stable convergence.

  5. New PCR-Based Open Reading Frame Typing Method for Easy, Rapid, and Reliable Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii International Epidemic Clones without Performing Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Hosoba, Eriko; Matsui, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance issues have become a global health concern. The rapid identification of multidrug-resistant microbes, which depends on microbial genomic information, is essential for overcoming growing antimicrobial resistance challenges. However, genotyping methods, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), for identifying international epidemic clones of Acinetobacter baumannii are not easily performed as routine tests in ordinary clinical laboratories. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel genotyping method that can be performed in ordinary microbiology laboratories. Several open reading frames (ORFs) specific to certain bacterial genetic lineages or species, together with their unique distribution patterns on the chromosomes showing a good correlation with the results of MLST, were selected in A. baumannii and other Acinetobacter spp. by comparing their genomic data. The distribution patterns of the ORFs were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis after multiplex PCR amplification and digitized. A. baumannii sequence types (STs) corresponding to international clones I and II were successfully discriminated from other STs and Acinetobacter species by detecting the distribution patterns of their ORFs using the multiplex PCR developed here. Since bacterial STs can be easily expressed as digitized numeric data with plus (+) expressed as 1 and minus (−) expressed as 0, the results of the method can be easily compared with those obtained by different tests or laboratories. This PCR-based ORF typing (POT) method can easily and rapidly identify international epidemic clones of A. baumannii and differentiate this microbe from other Acinetobacter spp. Since this POT method is easy enough to be performed even in ordinary clinical laboratories, it would also contribute to daily infection control measures and surveillance. PMID:24899031

  6. Improvement of minority carrier life time in N-type monocrystalline Si by the Czochralski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Sungsun; Pang, Ilsun; Kim, Jaemin; Kim, Kwanghun

    2016-07-01

    The installation amount of solar power plants increases every year. Multi-crystalline Si solar cells comprise a large share of the market of solar power plants. Multi-crystalline and single-crystalline Si solar cells are competing against one another in the market. Many single-crystalline companies are trying to develop and produce n-type solar cells with higher cell efficiency than that of p-type. In n-type wafers with high cell efficiency, wafer quality has become increasingly important. In order to make ingots with higher MCLT, the effects of both poly types related to metal impurities and pull speeds related to vacancy concentration on minority carrier life time were studied. In the final part of ingots, poly types related to the metal impurities are a dominant factor on MCLT. In the initial part of ingots, pull speeds related to vacancy concentration are a dominant factor on MCLT. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Typing multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: conflicting epidemiological data produced by genotypic and phenotypic methods clarified by phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, M; Givney, R; Pegler, M; Vickery, A; Funnell, G

    1996-01-01

    An outbreak of an unusual tetracycline-sensitive, rifampicin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain at a large teaching hospital was investigated. Two typing methods, phage typing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (RFLP-PFGE), gave conflicting results which were clarified by phylogenetic analysis. Phage typing identified all the "epidemic-associated" strains as identical, while RFLP-PFGE further divided these strains into four pulsotypes. Phylogenetic analysis showed these four pulsotypes were related genetically and also recognized a second strain of MRSA causing a continuing cross-infection problem. Variation in the RFLP-PFGE pattern was shown to occur following lysogenization of phage-sensitive MRSA. These results indicate that in analyzing outbreaks caused by subgroups of clonal organisms like MRSA, it is necessary to use at least two typing methods and that conflicts between these could be resolved by phylogenetic analysis. PMID:8789023

  8. On conjugate gradient type methods and polynomial preconditioners for a class of complex non-Hermitian matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland

    1988-01-01

    Conjugate gradient type methods are considered for the solution of large linear systems Ax = b with complex coefficient matrices of the type A = T + i(sigma)I where T is Hermitian and sigma, a real scalar. Three different conjugate gradient type approaches with iterates defined by a minimal residual property, a Galerkin type condition, and an Euclidian error minimization, respectively, are investigated. In particular, numerically stable implementations based on the ideas behind Paige and Saunder's SYMMLQ and MINRES for real symmetric matrices are proposed. Error bounds for all three methods are derived. It is shown how the special shift structure of A can be preserved by using polynomial preconditioning. Results on the optimal choice of the polynomial preconditioner are given. Also, some numerical experiments for matrices arising from finite difference approximations to the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  9. First web space post-burn contracture types: contracture elimination methods.

    PubMed

    Grishkevich, Viktor M

    2011-03-01

    First web space adduction contractures are a common consequence of hand burns. Many reconstructive techniques are used and investigation for more effective methods continues. Effective hand reconstruction usually considers anatomy as its foundation. Based on the experience of over 500 web space contracture elimination cases, three anatomical types of thumb adduction contractures were identified: edge, medial and total. Edge contractures (80% of all thumb adduction contractures) are caused by a fold in which only one sheet is scarred, either the palmar or dorsal surface. The contraction is caused by a trapeze-shaped length deficiency of the scar sheet, which has a surface surplus in width. Reconstruction consists of surface deficiency compensation with trapezoid flap prepared from the non-scarred side and skin-fat tissues of the web space. In most cases, the small scar-fat trapezoid flaps should be prepared from the non-scarred side to cover the donor wounds on both sides of the main flap. Medial contractures (10% of thumb adduction contractures) are caused by the fold, both sheets of which are scarred and have trapeze-shaped surface deficiency in length and surplus in width. Both fold sheets are converted into one or several pairs of trapezoid scar-fat flaps by radial incisions. The oppositely located flaps are transposed towards each other. As a result of the counter flaps transposition, the contracture is eliminated; the web space's shape and depth are restored by the use of flaps alone or in combination with skin grafting. The trapeze-flap plasty is very simple and effective with the length gain of up to 100-200%. Neither flap loss nor re-contracture occurs. Total contractures (about 10% of all) have no fold. Reconstruction consists of the creation of the central zone of the first web space depth with the rectangular subdermal pedicle flap; the wounds on both sides of the flap are skin grafted. The flap sustains normal web depth and prevents the contracture

  10. A SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR EVALUATING THE LIQUEFACTION OF SANDY SOIL CONFINED BY A LATTICE-TYPE DEEP MIXING WALL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Akira; Shamoto, Yasuhiro; Jang, Gjiho; Kimura, Takumi

    A simplified method for evaluating the liquefaction of sandy soil confined by a lattice-type deep mixing wall is proposed in this paper. The method calculates the accumulative excess pore water pressure from the initial shear strain using an equivalent shear-stiffness model by homogenization method. The method uses only parameters that are clear in their physical meaning, and can evaluate not only the effect of variations in the external forces, but also the physical properties of the ground. This paper first explains the proposed idea and then presents a specific calculation procedure using an actual site plan.

  11. Modeling of Non-equilibrium Processes in Oil Trunk Pipeline Using Godunov Type Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumskoi, S. I.; Sverchkov, A. M.

    The Article presents the numerical method of solving the system of one-dimensional non-stationary equations describing oil movement in the oil pipeline. The method is aimed at modeling the non-equilibrium and transitional processes in the oil pipelines in the normal and emergency modes. This new developed method can be applied for relaxation non-equilibrium flow case, that can't be modeling using another methods. Also this method is aimed at modeling the non-equilibrium and transitional processes in the liquefied hydrocarbon pipelines in the normal and emergency modes. Phase non-equilibrium flow is considered for boiling liquids transporting pipeline.

  12. A comparison of three types of pulse tube refrigerators - New methods for reaching 60 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radebaugh, Ray; Zimmerman, James; Smith, David R.; Louie, Beverly

    1986-01-01

    The three types of pulse tube refrigerator, namely the resonant, basic, and orifice designs, are compared with each other and with such common refrigerators as the Joule-Thomson and Stirling types, using an apparatus able to measure their intrinsic behavior from 30 to 300 K. Orifice pulse tubes are found capable of reaching 60 K temperature drops in a single stage. Additional advantages of the type are (1) a single, room-temperature moving part, (2) the use of moderate pressures and pressure ratios, (3) good intrinsic efficiency, and (4) the ability to operate several stages from the same pressure wave generator. The low refrigeration rate/unit mass flow means, however, that better regenerator units are required.

  13. Strain typing of Zygosaccharomyces yeast species using a single molecular method based on polymorphism of the intergenic spacer region (IGS).

    PubMed

    Wrent, Petra; Rivas, Eva-María; Peinado, José M; de Silóniz, María-Isabel

    2010-08-15

    Unlike previously reported methods that need a combination of several typing techniques, we have developed a single method for strain typing of the Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Z. mellis and Z. rouxii spoilage species. Strains belonging to other species have also been included for comparison. We have demonstrated that the IGS-PCR RFLP method has a high discriminative power. Considering the three endonucleases used in this work, we have obtained a variability of 100% for Z. mellis and Z. rouxii strains and up to 70% for Z. bailii. We have also detected two misidentified Z. mellis strains (CBS 711 and CBS 7412) which have RFLP patterns with a set of bands characteristic of Z. rouxii strains. Sequencing of 26S rDNA D1/D2 domains and the 5.8-ITS rDNA region confirmed these strains as Z. rouxii. The method also groups three certified hybrid strains of Zygosaccharomyces in a separate cluster. PMID:20619910

  14. Simulation of magnetization process of Pure-type superconductor magnet undulator based on T-method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deri, Yi; Kawaguchi, Hideki; Tsuchimoto, Masanori; Tanaka, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    For the next generation Free Electron Laser, Pure-type undulator made of high Tc superconductors (HTSs) was considered to achieve a small size and high intensity magnetic field undulator. In general, it is very difficult to adjust the undulator magnet alignment after the HTS magnetization since the entire undulator is installed inside a cryostat. The appropriate HTS alignment has to be determined in the design stage. This paper presents the development of a numerical simulation code for magnetization process of the Pure-type HTS undulator to assist the design of the optimal size and alignment of the HTS magnets.

  15. Carotenoid profiling from 27 types of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) with different colors, shapes, and cultivation methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; An, Chul Geon; Park, Jong-Suk; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Suna

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we investigated carotenoid profiles and contents from 27 types of paprika with different colors (red, orange, and yellow), shapes (blocky and conical), and cultivation methods (soil and soilless). We simultaneously analyzed 12 kinds of carotenoids using UPLC equipped with an HSS T3 column for 30 min, and we identified six kinds of carotenoids in red paprika and nine types in orange and yellow paprika. Zeaxanthin concentrations in orange paprika were in the range of 85.06±23.37-151.39±5.94 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), which shows that orange paprika is a great source of zeaxanthin. Generally, red paprika is a great source of capsanthin. However, a new cultivar, 'Mini Goggal Red', contained large amounts of zeaxanthin (121.41±30.10 mg/100 g dw) even though its visible color is red. This is very meaningful considering that consumers have a preference for red color and the potent functional value of zeaxanthin. Carotenoid profiles and concentrations in blocky and conical type paprika were not significantly different in red paprika except the 'Mini Goggal Red' cultivar and yellow paprika. Blocky type orange paprika contains plenty of zeaxanthin, unlike conical type orange paprika. Three new cultivars of the conical type were cultivated in both soil culture and soilless culture in the same province, and carotenoid profiles and concentrations were similar, showing that both cultivations methods can be used. PMID:26868549

  16. Method for the typing of Clostridium difficile based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tabaqchali, S.; O'Farrell, S.; Holland, D.; Silman, R.

    1986-01-01

    A typing method for Clostridium difficile based on the incorporation of (/sup 35/S)methionine into cellular proteins, their separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their visualization by autoradiography is described. On analysis of the radiolabeled-protein profiles, nine distinct groups were observed (A to E and W to Z). The method, which is simple, reproducible, and readily expandable, has been applied in epidemiological studies to demonstrate cross-infection and hospital acquisition of C. difficile.

  17. Many Tests of Significance: New Methods for Controlling Type I Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keselman, H. J.; Miller, Charles W.; Holland, Burt

    2011-01-01

    There have been many discussions of how Type I errors should be controlled when many hypotheses are tested (e.g., all possible comparisons of means, correlations, proportions, the coefficients in hierarchical models, etc.). By and large, researchers have adopted familywise (FWER) control, though this practice certainly is not universal. Familywise…

  18. An instrumental method to identify electric charge types with a simple device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isik, Hakan

    2015-07-01

    In this study, an easy and enjoyable activity to determine the type of electric charge is presented, using a readymade electronic test screw. A four-way usage of the tester is explained with an electroscope. In the activity, ebonite and glass rods are negatively and positively charged by rubbing with paper sheets, respectively.

  19. A Laboratory Exercise to Determine Human ABO Blood Type by Noninvasive Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael P.; Detzel, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and their association with diseases and nondisease phenotypes is of growing importance in human biology studies. In this laboratory exercise, students determine the genetic basis for their ABO blood type; however, no blood is drawn. Students isolate genomic DNA from buccal mucosa cells that are present…

  20. The Optimal Conditions for Form-Focused Instruction: Method, Target Complexity, and Types of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-eun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates optimal conditions for form-focused instruction (FFI) by considering effects of internal (i.e., timing and types of FFI) and external (i.e., complexity and familiarity) variables of FFI when it is offered within a primarily meaning-focused context of adult second language (L2) learning. Ninety-two Korean-speaking…

  1. Flexible n-Type High-Performance Thermoelectric Thin Films of Poly(nickel-ethylenetetrathiolate) Prepared by an Electrochemical Method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanhui; Qiu, Lin; Tang, Liangpo; Geng, Hua; Wang, Hanfu; Zhang, Fengjiao; Huang, Dazhen; Xu, Wei; Yue, Peng; Guan, Ying-Shi; Jiao, Fei; Sun, Yimeng; Tang, Dawei; Di, Chong-An; Yi, Yuanping; Zhu, Daoben

    2016-05-01

    Flexible thin films of poly(nickel-ethylenetetrathiolate) prepared by an electrochemical method display promising n-type thermoelectric properties with the highest ZT value up to 0.3 at room temperature. Coexistence of high electrical conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient in this coordination polymer is attributed to its degenerate narrow-bandgap semiconductor behavior. PMID:26928813

  2. On the Iterative Methods of Linearization, Decrease of Order and Dimension of the Karman-Type PDEs

    PubMed Central

    Krysko, A. V.; Awrejcewicz, J.; Pavlov, S. P.; Zhigalov, M. V.; Krysko, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    Iterative methods to achieve a suitable linearization as well as a decrease of the order and dimension of nonlinear partial differential equations of the eighth order into the biharmonic and Poisson-type differential equations with their simultaneous linearization are proposed in this work. Validity and reliability of the obtained results are discussed using computer programs developed by the authors. PMID:24757437

  3. Type analysis of the oligosaccharide chains on microheterogeneous components of bovine pancreatic DNAase by the lectin-nitrocellulose sheet method.

    PubMed Central

    Kijimoto-Ochiai, S; Katagiri, Y U; Hatae, T; Okuyama, H

    1989-01-01

    The oligosaccharide chains of microheterogeneous bovine pancreatic DNAases were characterized by the lectin-nitrocellulose sheet method. The active fractions of the DNAases from column chromatography showed four major and several minor spots on a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel. They were transferred on to nitrocellulose sheets and treated with glycosidases (neuraminidase, endo-beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase H or F, or peptide N-glycosidase F) and treated with peroxidase-coupled lectins (concanavalin A, Ricinus communis agglutinin or wheat-germ agglutinin). From the results, the most probable oligosaccharide types were proposed to be as follows: the four major spots contained components which had high-mannose type or hybrid-type oligosaccharides, such as those susceptible to endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. In addition, spot 1 contained a complex-type biantennary oligosaccharide without sialic acid and spot 3 contained a tri- or tetra-antennary complex-type oligosaccharide with sialic acid. The component corresponding to spot 2 had a hybrid-type oligosaccharide chain with a 'bisecting' acetylglucosamine, linked 1-4 to the beta-mannose residue of the trimannosyl core, and the component corresponding to spot 4 had a high-mannose-type oligosaccharide chain. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2920025

  4. Effects of Learning Method and Word Type on Acquiring Vocabulary in an Unfamiliar Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotto, Lorella; de Groot, M. B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the roles of learning method, word frequency, and cognate status in the learning of 80 Italian words by 56 adult Dutch learners previously unfamiliar with Italian. Two learning methods were contrasted: word learning, where the Italian word was presented with its translation in Dutch, and picture learning, where it was presented with a…

  5. Mathematics Learning with Multiple Solution Methods: Effects of Types of Solutions and Learners' Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Große, Cornelia S.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly suggested to mathematics teachers to present learners different methods in order to solve one problem. This so-called "learning with multiple solution methods" is also recommended from a psychological point of view. However, existing research leaves many questions unanswered, particularly concerning the effects of…

  6. The development of a normalization method for comparing nerve regeneration effectiveness among different graft types

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei; DeVince, Jeffrey; Green, Gabriella; Shah, Munish B.; Johns, Michael S.; Meng, Yan; Yu, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    The inability to compare directly different nerve grafts has been a significant factor hindering the advance of nerve graft development. Due to the abundance of variables that exist in nerve graft construction and multiple assessment types, there has been limited success in comparing nerve graft effectiveness among experiments. Using mathematical techniques on nerve conduction velocity (NCV) autograft data, a normalization function was empirically derived that normalizes differences in gap lengths. Further analysis allowed for the development of the Relative Regeneration Ratio (RRR). The RRR function allows researchers to directly compare nerve graft results based on the NCV data from their respective studies as long as the data was collected at the same post-operation time. This function also allows for comparisons between grafts tested at different gap lengths. Initial testing of this RRR function provided confidence that the function is accurate for a continuum of gap lengths and different nerve graft types. PMID:24118184

  7. On Differential form Method to Find Lie Symmetries of two Types of Toda Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Qi; Tian, Shou-Fu

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate Lie symmetries of the (1 + 1)-dimensional celebrated Toda lattice and the (2 + 1)-dimensional modified semidiscrete Toda lattice by using the extended Harrison and Estabrook's geometric approach. Two closed ideals written in terms of a set of differential forms are constructed for Toda lattices. Moreover, commutation relations of a Kac-Moody-Virasoro type Lie algebra are obtained by direct computation.

  8. Laryngeal cleft type I: a novel method of repair using Bioplastique.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, S; Pothier, D; Philpott, J; Sengupta, P; Frosh, A

    2004-08-01

    The authors report a novel treatment of a case of type I laryngeal cleft diagnosed in an adult. They describe a technique of endoscopic obliteration of the posterior commissure defect. Initially, a test implant of starch and adrenaline was used, followed by permanent staged injections of Bioplastique to the posterior commissure. This rare congenital anomaly usually presents in childhood but late presentation should be considered when adults present with lifelong dysphonia especially when associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. PMID:15453945

  9. Invader plus method detects herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid and simultaneously differentiates types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Allawi, Hatim T; Li, Haijing; Sander, Tamara; Aslanukov, Azamat; Lyamichev, Victor I; Blackman, Amondrea; Elagin, Slava; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2006-09-01

    We report here on the development and validation of a prototype Invader Plus method for the qualitative detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The method combines PCR and Invader techniques in a single, closed-tube, continuous-reaction format that gives an analytical sensitivity of approximately 10 copies per reaction. The clinical sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 98.6%, respectively, when the results of the method were validated against the results obtained with a PCR colorimetric microtiter plate system by use of clinical CSF specimens. PMID:16954297

  10. A method for interface shape control during Bridgman type crystal growth of HgCdTe alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for interface shape control of Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys during Bridgman-type crystal growth. The authors have used this method for several years to obtain the flat or convex interface shapes required for simultaneously reducing radial compositional variations and crystal defects. The method turns to advantage the thick-walled, fused-silica ampules required for growing these alloys. A proper combination of furnace geometry (two isothermal zones separated by a thin barrier), upper- and lower-zone temperatures, and growth rate is required. Examples of results are reported.

  11. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996-2013: method development and detailed accounting by battery type.

    PubMed

    Patrício, João; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E O; Rosado, Leonardo; Åberg, Helena

    2015-05-01

    In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows - due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996-2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese dioxide batteries, the value achieved 74%. PMID:25782361

  12. A Novel Method for KIR-ligand Typing by Pyrosequencing to Predict NK Cell Alloreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Gong; Tolar, Jakub; Yerich, Anton K.; Marsh, Steven G.E.; Robinson, James; Noreen, Harriet; Blazar, Bruce R.; Miller, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    Studies have shown that KIR-ligand mismatching to predict NK cell alloreactivity may result in less relapse and better survival in patients with AML. KIR-ligands are distinguished by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from HLA-B and HLA-C sequences. We hypothesized that pyrosequencing to determine KIR-ligand status by direct sequencing of the ligand epitope can be done as an alternative to high resolution HLA-typing. Pyrosequencing is rapid and would be particularly useful in analysis of retrospective cohorts where high resolution HLA-typing is unavailable or too expensive. To validate this assay, RNA and DNA from 70 clinical samples were tested for KIR-ligand by pyrosequencing. Primer binding to invariant regions without known SNPs was critical for KIR-ligand assignment by pyrosequencing to be in full concordance with high resolution HLA-typing. Pyrosequencing is sensitive, specific, high-throughput, inexpensive, and can rapidly screen KIR-ligand status to evaluate potential alloreactive NK cell or transplant donors. PMID:17446137

  13. Auxiliary functions for molecular integrals with Slater-type orbitals. II. Gauss transform methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ema, I.; López, R.; Fernández, J. J.; Ramírez, G.; Rico, J. F.

    The Gauss transform of Slater-type orbitals is used to express several types of molecular integrals involving these functions in terms of simple auxiliary functions. After reviewing this transform and the way it can be combined with the shift operator technique, a master formula for overlap integrals is derived and used to obtain multipolar moments associated to fragments of two-center distributions and overlaps of derivatives of Slater functions. Moreover, it is proved that integrals involving two-center distributions and irregular harmonics placed at arbitrary points (which determine the electrostatic potential, field and field gradient, as well as higher order derivatives of the potential) can be expressed in terms of auxiliary functions of the same type as those appearing in the overlap. The recurrence relations and series expansions of these functions are thoroughly studied, and algorithms for their calculation are presented. The usefulness and efficiency of this procedure are tested by developing two independent codes: one for the derivatives of the overlap integrals with respect to the centers of the functions, and another for derivatives of the potential (electrostatic field, field gradient, and so forth) at arbitrary points.0

  14. Method for discriminating synchronous multiple lung cancers of the same histological type

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xudong; Tian, Long; Fan, Jun; Lai, Yutian; Li, Shuangjiang; Che, Guowei; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With the development of imaging technology, an increasing number of synchronous multiple lung cancers (SMLCs) have been diagnosed in recent years. Patients with >1 tumor are diagnosed with either synchronous multiple primary lung cancers (SMPLCs) or other primary tumors and metastases. Clinical guidelines, histological characteristics, and molecular diagnostics have been used to discriminate SMPLCs from other multiple lung cancers. However, there is still ambiguity in the diagnosis of SMPLCs of the same histological type. We enrolled 24 patients with the same histological type of SMLCs and assessed their status using established clinical guidelines, comprehensive histological subtyping, and molecular analysis. The sum value of the differential microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles (ΔΔCt) with matched tumors was evaluated to discriminate SMPLCs of the same histological type from metastases. Twelve patients with lymph node metastases were included for comparison, and the sum value of the ΔΔCt of 5 miRNAs between primary tumors and lymph node metastases was <9. Patients definitively diagnosed with SMPLCs by integrated analysis were also classified as SMPLCs by miRNA analysis; 6 patients showed conflicting diagnoses by integrated and miRNA analysis and 14 were given the same classification. Analysis of miRNA expression profiles is considered to be a useful tool for discriminating SMPLCs from intrapulmonary metastases. PMID:27495091

  15. Parallel computing study for the large-scale generalized eigenvalue problems in modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, XuanHua; Chen, Pu; Wu, RuiAn; Xiao, ShiFu

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we study the algorithms and their parallel implementation for solving large-scale generalized eigenvalue problems in modal analysis. Three predominant subspace algorithms, i.e., Krylov-Schur method, implicitly restarted Arnoldi method and Jacobi-Davidson method, are modified with some complementary techniques to make them suitable for modal analysis. Detailed descriptions of the three algorithms are given. Based on these algorithms, a parallel solution procedure is established via the PANDA framework and its associated eigensolvers. Using the solution procedure on a machine equipped with up to 4800 processors, the parallel performance of the three predominant methods is evaluated via numerical experiments with typical engineering structures, where the maximum testing scale attains twenty million degrees of freedom. The speedup curves for different cases are obtained and compared. The results show that the three methods are good for modal analysis in the scale of ten million degrees of freedom with a favorable parallel scalability.

  16. Preparation and Thermoelectric Properties of Sn-Based Type VIII Single-Crystalline Clathrate Via a-Sn Flux Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Feng; Shen, Lanxian; Li, Decong; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Jinsong; Deng, Shukang

    2016-06-01

    In this study, type VIII Ba8Ga16Sn30 single-crystal clathrates with different stoichiometric ratios were prepared using the a-Sn self-flux method. The structures of the samples were also investigated. Results indicate that n-/p-type single-crystal clathrates can be obtained by adjusting the initial content of Ga. Samples were determined to be n-type when the initial Ga content was X = 12, 13, and 14; and p-type when X = 16 and 18. The samples exhibited high melting points and large lattice parameters, as well as increasing Ga content. The electrical conductivities of the samples were lower than those prepared using the Sn self-flux method because of the low carrier concentration. The elemental composition of the sample was near the theoretical value when the Ga content was X = 14 and 16, which also yielded the highest Seebeck values of -523 μV/K and 331 V/K, respectively. Finally, the sample with X = 14 and 18 exhibited the highest ZT values of 0.82 and 0.46, respectively, at a temperature of 480 K in n-/p-type.

  17. Preparation and Thermoelectric Properties of Sn-Based Type VIII Single-Crystalline Clathrate Via a-Sn Flux Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Feng; Shen, Lanxian; Li, Decong; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Jinsong; Deng, Shukang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, type VIII Ba8Ga16Sn30 single-crystal clathrates with different stoichiometric ratios were prepared using the a-Sn self-flux method. The structures of the samples were also investigated. Results indicate that n-/p-type single-crystal clathrates can be obtained by adjusting the initial content of Ga. Samples were determined to be n-type when the initial Ga content was X = 12, 13, and 14; and p-type when X = 16 and 18. The samples exhibited high melting points and large lattice parameters, as well as increasing Ga content. The electrical conductivities of the samples were lower than those prepared using the Sn self-flux method because of the low carrier concentration. The elemental composition of the sample was near the theoretical value when the Ga content was X = 14 and 16, which also yielded the highest Seebeck values of -523 μV/K and 331 V/K, respectively. Finally, the sample with X = 14 and 18 exhibited the highest ZT values of 0.82 and 0.46, respectively, at a temperature of 480 K in n-/p-type.

  18. A facile method for processing lignin reinforced chitosan biopolymer microfibres: optimising the fibre mechanical properties through lignin type and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Loo, L. S.; Goh, K. L.

    2016-03-01

    A chitosan biopolymer microfibre—reinforced by lignin—has been processed by a wet-spinning method. To optimise the fibre mechanical and structural properties two types of lignin, with molecular weights 28 000 g mol-1 and 60 000 g mol-1, were examined and the chitosan fibre was blended with the respective lignin type at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 wt% lignin concentrations. The main effects of lignin type and concentration, as well as the interaction between the two parameters, on the fibre tensile stiffness, extensibility, strength and toughness were evaluated using the two-factor analysis of variance. Significant variations in the respective mechanical properties were observed with varying lignin concentrations (P < 0.05). The magnitude of the respective mechanical properties is low at 1 wt% but peaks at 3 wt% before decreasing steadily with increasing lignin concentration. Except for extensibility, significant variations in the strength and toughness were observed with respect to lignin type (P < 0.05) variations in the stiffness were masked by interactions between lignin type and concentration. These results were related to the dispersion of lignin in the fibre and the nature of the bonds between lignin and chitosan, based on findings from scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This new method for the fabrication of chitosan biopolymer microfibre is inexpensive and versatile and could lend itself to the production of high performance biocomposite structures.

  19. Use of molecular typing methods to trace the dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes in a shrimp processing plant.

    PubMed Central

    Destro, M T; Leitão, M F; Farber, J M

    1996-01-01

    Molecular typing of bacteria has been widely used in epidemiological studies but not as extensively for tracing the transmission of pathogenic bacteria in food plants. This study was conducted to examine the potential use of two molecular typing methods, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), to trace Listeria monocytogenes contamination in a shrimp processing plant. Ribotyping and phase typing were also performed on a select number of strains. One hundred fifteen strains of L. monocytogenes collected in different areas of a shrimp processing plant were first serotyped and then subtyped by molecular typing. RAPD and PFGE showed great promise for typing L. monocytogenes isolates since distinguishable and reproducible DNA polymorphisms were obtained. When the composite profile from both (RAPD and PFGE) methods was generated, there was an increase in the discriminatory power to discern differences between strains of L. monocytogenes. The results indicated that environmental strains all fell into composite profile groupings unique to the environment, while strains from both water and utensils shared another composite profile group. L. monocytogenes fresh shrimp isolates belonging to one profile group were found in different areas of the processing line. This same profile group was also present in food handlers from the processing and packaging areas of the plant. PMID:8593073

  20. A comparative study of finite element and finite difference methods for Cauchy-Riemann type equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, G. J.; Rose, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    A least squares formulation of the system divu = rho, curlu = zeta is surveyed from the viewpoint of both finite element and finite difference methods. Closely related arguments are shown to establish convergence estimates.

  1. Typing of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Turkey by Genotypic Methods, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Virulence Gene Patterns: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Manfreda, Gerardo; Parisi, Antonio; De Cesare, Alessandra; Mion, Domenico; Piva, Silvia; Zanoni, Renato G

    2016-02-01

    In this retrospective study, typing ability, discriminatory power, and concordance between typing results obtained on 123 Campylobacter jejuni turkey isolates, collected in 1998, within 14 different farms, applying multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antibiotic resistance profile, and virulence gene pattern, were assessed and compared. Overall, 33 sequence types, 28 pulsotypes, 10 resistotypes, and 5 pathotypes were identified. MLST and PFGE showed the better discriminatory ability (i.e., Simpson's diversity index >0.90) as well as unidirectional (i.e., Wallace and adjusted Wallace coefficients >0.86) and bidirectional (i.e., adjusted Rand coefficient >0.60) concordance. Moreover, both methods showed a good unidirectional and bidirectional concordance with the resistotype. On the contrary, the congruence of both genotyping methods and resistotype with the pathotype seemed due to chance alone. A clonal relationship was identified among 66.7% of the isolates. Furthermore, 59.7% of the investigated isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobials and 92% to tetracycline. All the isolates harbored cadF and pldA genes, whereas a flaA gene product and a cdtB gene product were amplified from 85.4% and 79.7% of the isolates, respectively, using the primers designed by Bang et al. (2003). The results of this study clarify the level of genetic diversity among the C. jejuni originating from turkeys. MLST level of correlation with PFGE, resistotype, and pathotype is assessed. This result supports the selection of type and number of typing methods to use in epidemiological studies. Finally, the identification of clonal complexes (i.e., groups of profiles differing by no more than one gene from at least one other profile of the group using the entire Campylobacter MLST database) shared between turkey and human isolates suggests that turkeys could be a possible source of Campylobacter infection. PMID:26693797

  2. [Comparison of two types of double-lined simulated landfill leakage detection based on high voltage DC method].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Nai, Chang-Xin; Dong, Lu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Yan-Wen

    2006-01-01

    Two types of double high density polyethylene (HDPE) liners landfill that clay or geogrid was added between the two HDPE liners. The general resistance of the second mode is 15% larger than the general resistance of the first mode in the primary HDPE liner detection, and 20% larger than that of the first one in the secondary HDPE liner detection. High voltage DC method can accomplish the leakage detection and location of these two types of landfill and the error of leakage location is less than 10cm when electrode space is 1m. PMID:16599145

  3. Pescan

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-06-05

    The software calculates the interior eigenstates of a nanosystem with a given Hamiltonian. This is used for nonselfconsistent calculations of electron and hole states for large (a few thousands to hundreds of thousands of atoms) nanostructures. The electron wave function is represented by a planewave basis set. FFT is used to transform the wavefunction from reciprocal space to real space to be applied to the potential. Nonlocal pseudopotentlals are used in the Hamiltonian and spin-orbitmore » interactions are included. One primary approach to calculate the interior eigenstates in the code is to use the folded spectrum method. Several numerical algorithms are implemented in this package, including the conjugated gradient method, the Jacobi-Davidson method, and the LOPCG method. The user can select different algorithms based on their particular problem and number of wavefunctions needed to be solved.« less

  4. Method of mitigating titanium impurities effects in p-type silicon material for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, A. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Microstructural evaluation tests performed on Cu-doped, Ti-doped and Cu/Ti doped p-type silicon single crystal wafers, before and after the solar cell fabrication, and evaluation of both dark forward and reverse I-V characteristic records for the solar cells produced from the corresponding silicon wafers, show that Cu mitigates the unfavorable effects of Ti, and thus provides for higher conversion efficiency, thereby providing an economical way to reduce the deleterious effects of titanium, one of the impurities present in metallurgical grade silicon material.

  5. Numerical methods for systems of conservation laws of mixed type using flux splitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Chi-Wang

    1990-01-01

    The essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) finite difference scheme is applied to systems of conservation laws of mixed hyperbolic-elliptic type. A flux splitting, with the corresponding Jacobi matrices having real and positive/negative eigenvalues, is used. The hyperbolic ENO operator is applied separately. The scheme is numerically tested on the van der Waals equation in fluid dynamics. Convergence was observed with good resolution to weak solutions for various Riemann problems, which are then numerically checked to be admissible as the viscosity-capillarity limits. The interesting phenomena of the shrinking of elliptic regions if they are present in the initial conditions were also observed.

  6. Transverse-type laser assembly using induced electrical discharge excitation and method

    DOEpatents

    Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    A transverse-type laser assembly is disclosed herein. This assembly defines a laser cavity containing a vapor or gaseous substance which lases when subjected to specific electrical discharge excitation between a pair of spaced-apart electrodes located within the cavity in order to produce a source of light. An arrangement located entirely outside the laser cavity is provided for inducing a voltage across the electrodes within the cavity sufficient to provide the necessary electrical discharge excitation to cause a vapor substance between the electrodes to lase.

  7. Transverse-type laser assembly using induced electrical discharge excitation and method

    DOEpatents

    Ault, E.R.

    1994-04-19

    A transverse-type laser assembly is disclosed herein. This assembly defines a laser cavity containing a vapor or gaseous substance which lases when subjected to specific electrical discharge excitation between a pair of spaced-apart electrodes located within the cavity in order to produce a source of light. An arrangement located entirely outside the laser cavity is provided for inducing a voltage across the electrodes within the cavity sufficient to provide the necessary electrical discharge excitation to cause a vapor substance between the electrodes to lase. 3 figures.

  8. DIMENSION STABILIZED FIXED PHOTOGRAPHIC TYPE EMULSION AND A METHOD FOR PRODUCING SAME

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, F.C.

    1962-03-13

    A process is given for stabilizing the dimensions of fixed gelatin-base photographic type emulsions containing silver halide, and particularly to such emulsions containing large amounts of silver chloride for use as nuclear track emulsions, so that the dimensions of the final product are the same as or in a predetermined fixed ratio to the dimensions of the emulsions prior to exposure. The process comprises contacting an exposed, fixed emulsion with a solution of wood rosin dissolved in ethyl alcohol for times corresponding to the dimensions desired, and thereafter permitting the alcohol to evaporate. (AEC)

  9. Ribbons of semithin sections: an advanced method with a new type of diamond knife.

    PubMed

    Blumer, Michael J F; Gahleitner, P; Narzt, T; Handl, C; Ruthensteiner, B

    2002-10-15

    Complete series of semithin sections are imperative for 3-D reconstruction, but with traditional microtomy techniques it is difficult and time-consuming to trace stained and labeled structures. In the present study we introduce a method for making and collecting ribbons of semithin sections with a new, commercial available diamond knife (histo-jumbo-diamond knife, Diatome AG, Biel, Switzerland). The special feature of the diamond knife is the large water bath (boat) into which a glass slide can be dipped. The method has distinct advantages and the handling is simple. The resin block is trimmed into a truncated pyramid. Contact glue is applied to the leading face of the pyramid, which makes sections stick together to form a ribbon. Following sectioning, the ribbons are mounted onto glass slides and aligned in parallel. Stretching out and drying the ribbons on a hot plate is the final step of the method. Major advantages of this method are the perfect alignment of sections with identical orientation of structures, the completeness of series, and the significant saving of time. This facilitates tracing of stained and labeled structures, yielding quick 3-D reconstruction. Semithin sections can be cut from 0.5 to 2 micro m and several ribbons can be mounted side by side onto the slide. Two examples are presented to illustrate the advantages of the method. PMID:12351202

  10. Method for Slater-Type Density Fitting for Intermolecular Electrostatic Interactions with Charge Overlap. I. The Model.

    PubMed

    Öhrn, Anders; Hermida-Ramon, Jose M; Karlström, Gunnar

    2016-05-10

    The effects of charge overlap, or charge penetration, are neglected in most force fields and interaction terms in QM/MM methods. The effects are however significant at intermolecular distances near the van der Waals minimum. In the present study, we propose a method to evaluate the intermolecular Coloumb interaction using Slater-type functions, thus explicitly modeling the charge overlap. The computational cost of the method is low, which allows it to be used in large systems with most force fields as well as in QM/MM schemes. The charge distribution is modeled as a distributed multipole expansion up to quadrupole and Slater-type functions of angular momentum up to L = 1. The exponents of the Slater-type functions are obtained using a divide-and-conquer method to avoid the curse of dimensionality that otherwise is present for large nonlinear optimizations. A Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is applied in the fitting process. A set of parameters is obtained for each molecule, and the process is fully automated. Calculations have been performed in the carbon monoxide and the water dimers to illustrate the model. Results show a very good accuracy of the model with relative errors in the electrostatic potential lower than 3% over all reasonable separations. At very short distances where the charge overlaps is the most significant, errors are lower than 8% and lower than 3.5% at distances near the van der Waals minimum. PMID:27015000

  11. Versatile alignment layer method for new types of liquid crystal photonic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Finnemeyer, V.; Bryant, D.; Lu, L.; Bos, P.; Reich, R.; Clark, H.; Berry, S.; Bozler, C.; Yaroshchuk, O.

    2015-07-21

    Liquid crystal photonic devices are becoming increasingly popular. These devices often present a challenge when it comes to creating a robust alignment layer in pre-assembled cells. In this paper, we describe a method of infusing a dye into a microcavity to produce an effective photo-definable alignment layer. However, previous research on such alignment layers has shown that they have limited stability, particularly against subsequent light exposure. As such, we further describe a method of utilizing a pre-polymer, infused into the microcavity along with the liquid crystal, to provide photostability. We demonstrate that the polymer layer, formed under ultraviolet irradiation of liquid crystal cells, has been effectively localized to a thin region near the substrate surface and provides a significant improvement in the photostability of the liquid crystal alignment. This versatile alignment layer method, capable of being utilized in devices from the described microcavities to displays, offers significant promise for new photonics applications.

  12. Distinguishing between two reservir oil types using surface geochemical modeling methods

    SciTech Connect

    Silliman, A.H.; Harrington, P.A.

    1996-08-01

    A passive soil gas surface geochemical survey was conducted in a frontier basin in Latin America. The survey was conducted in two phases in the early 1990s. Hydrocarbon data in the mass range from C{sub 2} to C{sub 11} was acquired. The data were analyzed by thermal desorption mass spectrometry. Geochemical interpretation and modeling of this data were performed using principal components analysis. During the first phase, a generic oil model was developed which mapped multiple geochemical anomalies in the basin. Subsequent drilling found that these anomalies were associated with two types of oil, a high gravity oil and a low gravity oil. During the second phase, the previous survey was expanded. The objective of the second phase was to define areas of high gravity oil influence only. Geochemical models were developed to separate areas of high gravity oil influence from low gravity oil influence. Subsequent drilling on two anomalies confirmed the presence of high gravity oil accumulations. This project illustrates the ability of passive soil gas geochemistry to distinguish between two different types of oil at depth using geochemical modeling techniques. This project also demonstrates the effectiveness of integrating multiple phases of geochemical sampling in an exploration program.

  13. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar berta, and comparison of methods for typing.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J. E.; Brown, D. J.; Baggesen, D. L.; Bisgaard, M.

    1992-01-01

    Strains of Salmonella enterica serovar berta (S. berta) from Denmark and seven other countries have been characterized with the aim of developing a rational typing strategy in connection with outbreak investigations. Biotyping divided the strains into H2S-positive (90%) and H2S-negative (10%) biovars. Six percent of the strains were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Eighty-eight percent of the strains carried plasmids and 52 different plasmid profiles were recognized. Six of the common plasmid sizes in these profiles were shown by restriction enzyme analyses to contain more than one plasmid species. More than 90% of the strains had the same ribotype with the restriction enzymes Sma I and EcoR I and the same whole cell protein profile. Outer membrane protein profiles and isoenzyme profiles were identical in all S. berta analysed. Plasmid profiling in combination with restriction enzyme analysis of plasmids seemed to be the most rational typing strategy for S. berta. The results indicated that S. berta strains regardless of geographical source or host are possibly clonal in nature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1582467

  14. Practical method for the confirmation of authentic flours of different types of cereals and pseudocereals.

    PubMed

    Ačanski, Marijana M; Vujić, Djura N; Psodorov, Djordje B

    2015-04-01

    Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to perform a qualitative analysis of the liposoluble flour extract of different types of cereals (bread wheat and spelt) and pseudocereals (amaranth and buckwheat). In addition to major fatty acids, the liposoluble extract also contained minor fatty acids with more than 20 carbon atoms, higher hydrocarbons and phytosterols. TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide, 0.2 mol/l in methanol) was used as a trans-esterification reagent. In a trans-esterification reaction, triglycerides esterified from acilglycerols to methyl-esters. SIM (selected ion monitoring) was applied to isolate fatty acid methyl esters on TIC (total ion current) chromatograms, using the 74 Da fragment ion, which originated from McLafferty rearrangement, and is typical for methyl-esters. GC-MS system was used for the trans-esterification of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters in the gas chromatographic injector. This eliminated laboratory preparation for fatty acid methyl esters. Cluster analysis was applied to compare the liposoluble flour extract from different types of cereals and pseudocereals. Statistical data showed the liposoluble extract analysis enabled determination of flour origin and, because the results were unambiguous, this approach could be used for quality control. PMID:25442559

  15. ADAM: a general method for using various data types in asteroid reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikinkoski, Matti; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Durech, Josef

    2015-04-01

    We introduce ADAM, the All-Data Asteroid Modelling algorithm. ADAM is simple and universal since it handles all disk-resolved data types (adaptive optics or other images, interferometry, and range-Doppler radar data) in a uniform manner via the 2D Fourier transform, enabling fast convergence in model optimization. The resolved data can be combined with disk-integrated data (photometry). In the reconstruction process, the difference between each data type is only a few code lines defining the particular generalized projection from 3D onto a 2D image plane. Occultation timings can be included as sparse silhouettes, and thermal infrared data are efficiently handled with an approximate algorithm that is sufficient in practice because of the dominance of the high-contrast (boundary) pixels over the low-contrast (interior) pixels. This is of particular importance to the raw ALMA data that can be directly handled by ADAM without having to construct the standard image. We study the reliability of the inversion, using the independent shape supports of function series and control-point surfaces. When other data are lacking, one can carry out fast non-convex lightcurve-only inversions, but any shape models resulting from it should only be taken as illustrative large-scale models. The code is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/576/A8

  16. Applicability of meteor radiant determination methods depending on orbit type. II. Low-eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoren, J.; Neslusan, L.; Porubcan, V.

    1994-08-01

    All known parent bodies of meteor showers belong to bodies moving in high-eccentricity orbits (e => 0.5). Recently, asteroids in low-eccentricity orbits (e < 0.5) approaching the Earth's orbit, were suggested as another population of possible parent bodies of meteor streams. This paper deals with the problem of calculation of meteor radiants connected with the bodies in low-eccentricity orbits from the point of view of optimal results depending on the method applied. The paper is a continuation of our previous analysis of high-eccentricity orbits (Svoren, J., Neslusan, L., Porubcan, V.: 1993, Contrib. Astron. Obs. Skalnate Pleso 23, 23). Some additional methods resulting from mathematical modelling are presented and discussed together with Porter's, Steel-Baggaley's and Hasegawa's methods. In order to be able to compare how suitable the application of the individual radiant determination methods is, it is necessary to determine the accuracy with which they approximate real meteor orbits. To verify the accuracy with which the orbit of a meteoroid with at least one node at 1 AU fits the original orbit of the parent body, the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion (Southworth, R.B., Hawkins, G.S.: 1963, Smithson. Contr. Astrophys. 7, 261) was applied. D <= 0.1 indicates a very good fit of orbits, 0.1 < D <= 0.2 is considered for a good fit and D > 0.2 means that the fit is rather poor and the change of orbit unrealistic. The optimal method, i.e. the one which results in the smallest D values for the population of low-eccentricity orbits, is that of adjusting the orbit by varying both the eccentricity and perihelion distance. A comparison of theoretical radiants obtained by various methods was made for typical representatives from each group of the NEA (near-Earth asteroids) objects.

  17. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... weighed to determine the percent of weight loss. 3. Test method D-3—Compression Exudation Test The entire... from the glass tube and weighed to determine the percent of weight loss. EC02MR91.067 ... assembly is placed under the compression rod, and compression is applied by means of the weight on...

  18. Burton-Miller-type singular boundary method for acoustic radiation and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhuo-Jia; Chen, Wen; Gu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes the singular boundary method (SBM) in conjunction with Burton and Miller's formulation for acoustic radiation and scattering. The SBM is a strong-form collocation boundary discretization technique using the singular fundamental solutions, which is mathematically simple, easy-to-program, meshless and introduces the concept of source intensity factors (SIFs) to eliminate the singularities of the fundamental solutions. Therefore, it avoids singular numerical integrals in the boundary element method (BEM) and circumvents the troublesome placement of the fictitious boundary in the method of fundamental solutions (MFS). In the present method, we derive the SIFs of exterior Helmholtz equation by means of the SIFs of exterior Laplace equation owing to the same order of singularities between the Laplace and Helmholtz fundamental solutions. In conjunction with the Burton-Miller formulation, the SBM enhances the quality of the solution, particularly in the vicinity of the corresponding interior eigenfrequencies. Numerical illustrations demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the present scheme on some benchmark examples under 2D and 3D unbounded domains in comparison with the analytical solutions, the boundary element solutions and Dirichlet-to-Neumann finite element solutions.

  19. Perceptions of Self-Efficacy for Two Types of Second Language Methods Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A mixed method design was used to investigate the effects of online second language (L2) methodology instruction on the sense of efficacy of teacher-candidates enrolled in initial licensure programs for L2 teachers. More specifically, the researcher examined the extent to which L2 teacher-candidates completing online L2 methodology instruction…

  20. Inculcation Method of Character Education Based on Personality Types Classification in Realizing Indonesia Golden Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunarto, M. J. Dewiyani; Sagirani, Tri

    2014-01-01

    "The rise of Indonesia Golden Generation" is the theme of National Education Day in 2012. In an effort to create a golden generation; education must be interpreted as a complex problem, in particular the cultivation of character education that was originally using indoctrination method. Given the shifting of the changing times,…

  1. Efficacy of surface sampling methods for different types of beryllium compounds.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, A; Mocanu, T; Viau, S; Perrault, G; Dion, C

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the research work was to evaluate the efficiency of three different sampling methods (Ghost Wipe™, micro-vacuum, and ChemTest®) in the recovery of Be dust by assessing: (1) four Be compounds (beryllium acetate, beryllium chloride, beryllium oxide and beryllium aluminium), (2) three different surfaces (polystyrene, glass and aluminium) and (3) inter-operator variation. The three sampling methods were also tested on site in a laboratory of a dental school for validation purposes. The Ghost Wipe™ method showed recovery ranging from 43.3% to 85.8% for all four Be compounds and for all three quantities of Be spiked on Petri dishes, while recovery with the micro-vacuum method ranged from 0.1% to 12.4%. On polystyrene dishes with 0.4 µg Be, the recovery ranged from 48.3% to 81.7%, with an average recovery of 59.4% for Operator 1 and 68.4% for Operator 2. The ChemTest® wipe method with beryllium acetate, beryllium chloride, and AlBeMet® showed analogous results that are in line with the manufacturer's manual, but collection of beryllium oxide was negative. In the dental laboratory, Ghost Wipe™ samplings showed better recovery than the micro-vacuum method. The ratios between the recovered quantities of Be in each location where the Ghost Wipe™ was tested differed substantially, ranging from 1.45 to 64. In the dental laboratory, a faint blue color indicating the presence of Be was observed on the ChemTest® wipes used in two locations out of six. In summary, the Ghost Wipe™ method was more efficient than micro-vacuuming in collecting the Be dust from smooth, non-porous surfaces such as Petri dishes by a factor of approximately 18. The results obtained on site in a dental laboratory also showed better recovery with Ghost Wipes™. However, the ratio of Be recovered by Ghost Wipes™ versus micro-vacuuming was much lower for surfaces where a large amount of dust was present. Wet wiping is preferred over micro-vacuuming for beryllium forms, but

  2. Visual Method of Measuring Reflection-Type Characteristics of Holographic Optical Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jai-Soon; Smirnov, Vadim V.; Son, Jung-Young; Chun, You-Seek; Im, Tong-Gun

    1998-12-01

    A highly diverging laser beam is used to measure angular and spectral selectivities and grating vector direction for reflection-type holographic optical elements (HOE s). The intensity distribution of the beam transmitted from the HOE s reveals dark, ring-shaped patterns. Since these ring patterns are formed as a result of the beam diffracted by the HOE s, the thicknesses and the diameters of the ring patterns convey information on both the angular and the spectral selectivities of the HOE s. In addition the deviation of the ring centers relative to the center of the intensity distribution reveals the grating vector direction. Determination of values related to the ring patterns permits highly accurate measurement of HOE characteristics, such as the upper limit of the diffraction wavelength, the angular and the spectral selectivities, and the grating vector direction. This is proved experimentally.

  3. Advanced panel-type influence coefficient methods applied to subsonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. T.; Rubbert, P. E.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced technique for solving the linear integral equations of three-dimensional subsonic potential flows (steady, inviscid, irrotational and incompressible) about arbitrary configurations is presented. It involves assembling select, logically consistent networks whose construction comprises four tasks, which are described in detail: surface geometry definition; singularity strength definition; control point and boundary condition specification; and calculation of induced potential or velocity. The technique is applied to seven wing examples approached by four network types: source/analysis, doublet/analysis, source/design, and doublet/design. The results demonstrate the forgiveness of the model to irregular paneling and the practicality of combined analysis/design boundary conditions. The appearance of doublet strength mismatch is a valuable indicator of locally inadequate paneling.

  4. Three-stage sorption type cryogenic refrigeration systems and methods employing heat regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, Steven (Inventor); Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A three-stage sorption type cryogenic refrigeration system, each stage containing a fluid having a respectively different boiling point, is presented. Each stage includes a compressor in which a respective fluid is heated to be placed in a high pressure gaseous state. The compressor for that fluid which is heated to the highest temperature is enclosed by the other two compressors to permit heat to be transferred from the inner compressor to the surrounding compressors. The system may include two sets of compressors, each having the structure described above, with the interior compressors of the two sets coupled together to permit selective heat transfer therebetween, resulting in more efficient utilization of input power.

  5. Concise Review: Methods and Cell Types Used to Generate Down Syndrome Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hibaoui, Youssef; Feki, Anis

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21), is the most common viable chromosomal disorder, with an incidence of 1 in 800 live births. Its phenotypic characteristics include intellectual impairment and several other developmental abnormalities, for the majority of which the pathogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Several models have been used to investigate the mechanisms by which the extra copy of chromosome 21 leads to the DS phenotype. In the last five years, several laboratories have been successful in reprogramming patient cells carrying the trisomy 21 anomaly into induced pluripotent stem cells, i.e., T21-iPSCs. In this review, we summarize the different T21-iPSCs that have been generated with a particular interest in the technical procedures and the somatic cell types used for the reprogramming. PMID:26239351

  6. Recommendations for choosing an analysis method that controls Type I error for unbalanced cluster sample designs with Gaussian outcomes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jacqueline L; Kreidler, Sarah M; Catellier, Diane J; Murray, David M; Muller, Keith E; Glueck, Deborah H

    2015-11-30

    We used theoretical and simulation-based approaches to study Type I error rates for one-stage and two-stage analytic methods for cluster-randomized designs. The one-stage approach uses the observed data as outcomes and accounts for within-cluster correlation using a general linear mixed model. The two-stage model uses the cluster specific means as the outcomes in a general linear univariate model. We demonstrate analytically that both one-stage and two-stage models achieve exact Type I error rates when cluster sizes are equal. With unbalanced data, an exact size α test does not exist, and Type I error inflation may occur. Via simulation, we compare the Type I error rates for four one-stage and six two-stage hypothesis testing approaches for unbalanced data. With unbalanced data, the two-stage model, weighted by the inverse of the estimated theoretical variance of the cluster means, and with variance constrained to be positive, provided the best Type I error control for studies having at least six clusters per arm. The one-stage model with Kenward-Roger degrees of freedom and unconstrained variance performed well for studies having at least 14 clusters per arm. The popular analytic method of using a one-stage model with denominator degrees of freedom appropriate for balanced data performed poorly for small sample sizes and low intracluster correlation. Because small sample sizes and low intracluster correlation are common features of cluster-randomized trials, the Kenward-Roger method is the preferred one-stage approach. PMID:26089186

  7. Using photography as a method to explore adolescent challenges and resilience in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ashby F; Johnson, Cathryn; Schatz, Desmond A; Silverstein, Janet H; Lyles, Shannon; Rohrs, Henry J

    2015-05-01

    Patient-centered approaches to disease management are consistently recognized as valuable tools for improving health outcomes, yet studies are rarely designed to elicit adolescent perspectives. This study sought to better understand the perspectives of youths with type 1 diabetes according to key demographic variables. We conducted an exploratory study through which 40 youths were provided with disposable cameras and prompted to take five photographs each that captured what diabetes meant to them and to provide narratives to accompany their photo choices. Demographic variables examined included sex, age, disease duration, socioeconomic status (SES), race, and glycemic control (A1C). Content analysis was used for photos and open-ended responses to assign photo index scores, which were then analyzed by demographic variables using Mann-Whitney U tests for statistical significance. Analysis of photos/narratives (n = 202) revealed five main types of representations depicted by at least 50% of the young people. "Challenge" photos included diabetes supplies as tethering, food as a source of frustration, and the body as a territory for disease encroachment. "Resilience" photos included coping mechanisms and symbols of resistance. Overall, these representations were consistent across demographic categories with two exceptions. Males took more food depictions than females (P <0.005) and had fewer coping depictions (P <0.05). Youths from more affluent households were more likely to take photos of resistance (P <0.05). The use of photo index scores expands previous studies using photography by comparing demographic variation within a sample. Our findings provide insight into coping strategies and indicate that SES may provide an advantage for affluent youths in meeting diabetes-specific challenges. PMID:25987807

  8. Using Photography as a Method to Explore Adolescent Challenges and Resilience in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cathryn; Schatz, Desmond A.; Silverstein, Janet H.; Lyles, Shannon; Rohrs, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Patient-centered approaches to disease management are consistently recognized as valuable tools for improving health outcomes, yet studies are rarely designed to elicit adolescent perspectives. This study sought to better understand the perspectives of youths with type 1 diabetes according to key demographic variables. We conducted an exploratory study through which 40 youths were provided with disposable cameras and prompted to take five photographs each that captured what diabetes meant to them and to provide narratives to accompany their photo choices. Demographic variables examined included sex, age, disease duration, socioeconomic status (SES), race, and glycemic control (A1C). Content analysis was used for photos and open-ended responses to assign photo index scores, which were then analyzed by demographic variables using Mann-Whitney U tests for statistical significance. Analysis of photos/narratives (n = 202) revealed five main types of representations depicted by at least 50% of the young people. “Challenge” photos included diabetes supplies as tethering, food as a source of frustration, and the body as a territory for disease encroachment. “Resilience” photos included coping mechanisms and symbols of resistance. Overall, these representations were consistent across demographic categories with two exceptions. Males took more food depictions than females (P <0.005) and had fewer coping depictions (P <0.05). Youths from more affluent households were more likely to take photos of resistance (P <0.05). The use of photo index scores expands previous studies using photography by comparing demographic variation within a sample. Our findings provide insight into coping strategies and indicate that SES may provide an advantage for affluent youths in meeting diabetes-specific challenges. PMID:25987807

  9. A Novel Typing Method for Streptococcus pneumoniae Using Selected Surface Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Domenech, Arnau; Moreno, Javier; Ardanuy, Carmen; Liñares, Josefina; de la Campa, Adela G.; Martin-Galiano, Antonio J.

    2016-01-01

    The diverse pneumococcal diseases are associated with different pneumococcal lineages, or clonal complexes. Nevertheless, intra-clonal genomic variability, which influences pathogenicity, has been reported for surface virulence factors. These factors constitute the communication interface between the pathogen and its host and their corresponding genes are subjected to strong selective pressures affecting functionality and immunogenicity. First, the presence and allelic dispersion of 97 outer protein families were screened in 19 complete pneumococcal genomes. Seventeen families were deemed variable and were then examined in 216 draft genomes. This procedure allowed the generation of binary vectors with 17 positions and the classification of strains into surfotypes. They represent the outer protein subsets with the highest inter-strain discriminative power. A total of 116 non-redundant surfotypes were identified. Those sharing a critical number of common protein features were hierarchically clustered into 18 surfogroups. Most clonal complexes with comparable epidemiological characteristics belonged to the same or similar surfogroups. However, the very large CC156 clonal complex was dispersed over several surfogroups. In order to establish a relationship between surfogroup and pathogenicity, the surfotypes of 95 clinical isolates with different serogroup/serotype combinations were analyzed. We found a significant correlation between surfogroup and type of pathogenic behavior (primary invasive, opportunistic invasive, and non-invasive). We conclude that the virulent behavior of S. pneumoniae is related to the activity of collections of, rather than individual, surface virulence factors. Since surfotypes evolve faster than MLSTs and directly reflect virulence potential, this novel typing protocol is appropriate for the identification of emerging clones. PMID:27064593

  10. Versatile methods for synthesizing organic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloids as anti-ulcerative colitis agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hai-Jing; Deng, An-Jun; Wu, Lian-Qiu; Li, Zhi-Hong; Song, Hong-Rui; Wang, Wen-Jie; Qin, Hai-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Two versatile methods to synthesize kinds of organic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloids were investigated in order to determine which is more efficient to improve the liposolubility of the target compounds and to explore the efficacy of the target compounds as anti-ulcerative colitis (UC) agents. Overall evaluation according to the reaction results and yields of the final products indicated that the synthetic method using tertiary (±)-8-acylmethyldihydroberberine-type alkaloids as key intermediates is superior to that of using tertiary dihydroberberine-type alkaloids as intermediates. Ten target compounds were synthesized using quaternary berberine chloride and quaternary coptisine chloride as starting materials, respectively, and the anti-UC activity of some target compounds was evaluated in an in vitro x-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) transcriptional activity assay using dual luciferase reporter detection. At 10 μM, the tested compounds were found to activate the transcription of XBP1 target at almost the same level as that of quaternary coptisine chloride. The synthesized target compounds were also found to share higher liposolubility than the inorganic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloid. PMID:27097666

  11. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996–2013: Method development and detailed accounting by battery type

    SciTech Connect

    Patrício, João; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E.O.; Rosado, Leonardo; Åberg, Helena

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Developed MFA method was validated by the national statistics. • Exponential increase of EEE sales leads to increase in integrated battery consumption. • Digital convergence is likely to be a cause for primary batteries consumption decline. • Factors for estimation of integrated batteries in EE are provided. • Sweden reached the collection rates defined by European Union. - Abstract: In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows – due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996–2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese

  12. Quotient-difference type generalizations of the power method and their analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, Avram; Ford, William F.

    1989-01-01

    The recursion relations that were proposed by W. F. Ford and A. Sidi (Appl. Numer. Math, 4 (1988), pp. 477-489) for implementing vector extrapolation methods are used for devising generalizations of the power method for linear operators. These generalizations are shown to produce approximations to largest eigenvalues of a linear operator under certain conditions. They are similar in form to the quotient-difference algorithm and share similar convergence properties with the latter. These convergence properties also resemble those obtained for the basic LR and QR algorithms. Finally, it is shown that the convergence rate produced by one fo these generalizations is twice as fast for normal operators as it is for nonnormal operators.

  13. The Laplace method for small deviations of Gaussian processes of Wiener type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatalov, V. R.

    2005-04-01

    Results on the exact asymptotics of the probabilities \\displaystyle \\mathsf P\\biggl\\{\\,\\int_0^1\\vert\\xi(t)\\vert^p\\,dt \\le\\varepsilon^p\\biggr\\},\\qquad\\varepsilon\\to 0,for p>0 are proved for two Gaussian processes \\xi(t): the Wiener process and the Brownian bridge. The method of study is the Laplace method in Banach spaces and the approach to the probabilities of small deviations based on the theory of large deviations for the occupation time. The calculations are carried out for the cases p=1 and p=2 as a result of solving the extremal problem for the action functional and studying the corresponding Schrödinger equations.

  14. Methods for detecting saddle-type objects from spatio-temporal data: A comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, S.; Padberg, K.; Donner, R.; Kurths, J.

    2009-04-01

    The positions of saddle points and their associated invariant manifolds are known to play a crucial role in understanding transport processes in two-dimensional steady flows. Since the relevant data are often only coarsely gridded, a reliable detection of fixed points in spatio-temporal discretised vector fields is a problem of contemporary interest. Unsteady flows may additionally exhibit distinguished hyperbolic trajectories and associated manifolds - often only defined on a finite-time span - that continue to organise particle transport. As these objects are known to be Lagrangian their exact position can typically not be deduced from analysing single velocity fields. In the literature, several methods are described for approximating hyperbolic objects in steady and unsteady flows, but it is usually not clear how well they perform for a specific data set. This contribution presents a comparative analysis of the performance of three common methods (finite-time Lyapunov exponents, hyperbolicity time, leaking). In addition, a simple statistic approach based on a gradient approximation of the velocity fields is used to approximate instantaneous stagnation points. The results are evaluated with respect to the errors in the total number and location of analytically known saddle points for two different two-dimensional steady velocity fields. The reliability is statistically tested by applying multiplicative Gaussian white noise to the original data and repeating all procedures. In a second step of analysis, the different methods are applied to time-dependent versions of these velocity fields, where candidates for hyperbolic trajectories are detected and compared.

  15. Accelerating Particle Filter Using Randomized Multiscale and Fast Multipole Type Methods.

    PubMed

    Shabat, Gil; Shmueli, Yaniv; Bermanis, Amit; Averbuch, Amir

    2015-07-01

    Particle filter is a powerful tool for state tracking using non-linear observations. We present a multiscale based method that accelerates the tracking computation by particle filters. Unlike the conventional way, which calculates weights over all particles in each cycle of the algorithm, we sample a small subset from the source particles using matrix decomposition methods. Then, we apply a function extension algorithm that uses a particle subset to recover the density function for all the rest of the particles not included in the chosen subset. The computational effort is substantial especially when multiple objects are tracked concurrently. The proposed algorithm significantly reduces the computational load. By using the Fast Gaussian Transform, the complexity of the particle selection step is reduced to a linear time in n and k, where n is the number of particles and k is the number of particles in the selected subset. We demonstrate our method on both simulated and on real data such as object tracking in video sequences. PMID:26352448

  16. Conflicting HLA assignment by three different typing methods due to the apparent loss of heterozygosity in the MHC region.

    PubMed

    Linjama, T; Impola, U; Niittyvuopio, R; Kuittinen, O; Kaare, A; Rimpiläinen, J; Volin, L; Peräsaari, J; Jaatinen, T; Lauronen, J; Saarinen, T; Juvonen, E; Partanen, J; Koskela, S

    2016-05-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been reported to cause false human leukocyte antigen (HLA) homozygous typing results in pre-transplant patients suffering from haematological malignancies, who in fact are HLA heterozygous. This poses a challenge for histocompatibility testing, as a stem cell graft from a genuinely HLA homozygous donor to a mistyped patient may lead to acute life-threatening graft-vs-host disease. LOH in the HLA region on chromosome 6 is known to be quite common in solid tumours, helping malignant cells to escape T-cell surveillance, but the incidence in haematological malignancies is less well known and the estimates vary. Here we report LOH in the HLA region of five patients with haematological malignancy. We found considerable differences in sensitivity between the three different HLA typing methods used in our laboratory: SSP was clearly the most sensitive method for detecting the lost haplotype, followed by rSSO, while SBT was the least sensitive technique. A subsequent, retrospective genotyping of 65 HLA homozygous haematological patients by SSP method showed no mistyped LOH cases in our laboratory in the past 10 years. The frequency of HLA homozygosity was found to be similar between haematological patients and control groups. It is important for an HLA laboratory to be aware of the differences in various HLA typing techniques' sensitivity for detecting an under-represented haplotype between HLA typing techniques when genotyping patients with haematological diseases. It is advisable for HLA laboratories to have at least two different methods with different sensitivities in their repertoire to be able to retype samples when a false homozygous result is suspected. PMID:26969202

  17. A photon counting and a squeezing measurement method by the exact absorption and dispersion spectrum of Λ-type Atoms.

    PubMed

    Naeimi, Ghasem; Alipour, Samira; Khademi, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the master equations for the interaction of two-mode photons with a three-level Λ-type atom are exactly solved for the coherence terms. In this paper the exact absorption spectrum is applied for the presentation of a non-demolition photon counting method, for a few number of coupling photons, and its benefits are discussed. The exact scheme is also applied where the coupling photons are squeezed and the photon counting method is also developed for the measurement of the squeezing parameter of the coupling photons. PMID:27610321

  18. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristic groups. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.G.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) model presents a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) into groups of tanks expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. This model has identified 29 different waste-type groups encompassing 135 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTs. The remaining 14 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. This letter report will detail the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the SORWT model and present the grouping results. Included with this report is a brief description and approximate compositions of the single-shell tank waste types. In the near future, the validity of the predicted groups will be statistically tested using analysis of variance of characterization data obtained from recent (post-1989) core sampling and analysis activities. In addition, the SORWT model will be used to project the nominal waste characteristics of entire waste type groups that have some recent characterization data available. These subsequent activities will be documented along with these initial results in a comprehensive, formal PNL report cleared for public release by September 1994.

  19. Synthesis of Magnetic Rattle-Type Silica with Controllable Magnetite and Tunable Size by Pre-Shell-Post-Core Method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Tan, Longfei; Meng, Xianwei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have developed the pre-shell-post-core route to synthesize the magnetic rattle-type silica. This method has not only simplified the precursor's process and reduced the reacting time, but also ameliorated the loss of magnetite and made the magnetite content and the inner core size controllable and tunable. The magnetite contents and inner core size can be easily controlled by changing the type and concentration of alkali, reaction system and addition of water. The results show that alkali aqueous solution promotes the escape of the precursor iron ions from the inner space of rattle-type silica and results in the loss of magnetite. In this case, NaOH ethanol solution is better for the formation of magnetite than ammonia because it not only offers an appropriate alkalinity to facilitate the synthesis of. magnetic particles, but also avoids the escape of the iron ions from the mesopores of rattle-type silica. The synthesis process is very simple and efficient, and it takes no more than 2 hours to complete the total preparation and handling of the magnetic rattle-type silica. The end-product Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposites also have good magnetic properties which will perform potential application in biomedical science. PMID:27455750

  20. An improved lectin-based method for the detection of mucin-type O-glycans in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Siang; Muthusamy, Arivalagan; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Bhavanandan, Veer P; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2013-06-21

    Mucins and mucin-type glycoproteins, collectively referred to as mucin-type O-glycans, are implicated in many important biological functions and pathological conditions, including malignancy. Presently, there is no reliable method to measure the total mucin-type O-glycans of a sample, which may contain one or more of these macromolecules of unknown structures. We report the development of an improved microassay that is based on the binding of lectins to the unique and constant GalNAc-Ser/Thr structural feature of mucin-type O-glycans. Since the sugar-amino acid linkage in the mucin-type O-glycans is invariably cryptic, we first chemically removed the heterogeneous peripheral and core saccharides of model glycoconjugates before examining for their interactions using an enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA). Desialylation of the model glycoconjugates led to maximal binding of the lectins but additional treatments such as Smith degradation did not result in increased binding. Of the lectins tested for their ability to probe the desialylated O-glycans, jacalin showed the highest sensitivity followed by champedak galactose binding (CGB) lectin and Vicia villosa agglutinin. Further improvement in the sensitivity of ELLA was achieved by using microtiter plates that were pre-coated with the CGB lectin, which increased the specificity of the assay to mucin-type O-glycans. Finally, the applicability of the developed sandwich ELLA to crude samples was demonstrated by estimating trace quantities of the mucin-type O-glycans in the human serum. PMID:23665615

  1. Alfalfa hay storage losses study as influenced by bale type and storage method. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Cuomo, G.; Sheaffer, C.; Martin, N.

    1997-10-30

    This experiment was conducted in cooperation with the Minnesota Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) cooperative. Alfalfa for use as both a biomass energy source and as a protein supplement has been proposed by MnVAP. Research has shown that alfalfa deteriorates over time in storage, and that storage method and bale type affect the amount of deterioration. Therefore, evaluation of different storage methods and bale types on dry matter and quality losses of alfalfa leaf and stem components is important information for the alfalfa grower and the MnVAP cooperative. Two bale types were evaluated for four storage methods, and measurements were made of initial and final bale weights, dry matter, leaf and stem components, and forage quality estimates. Few differences were detected among bale types for dry matter losses, and interactions among bale type and storage method were not detected. This indicates that dry matter losses were similar for different bale types regardless of the storage method. However, differences in dry matter losses and visible spoilage were detected among storage methods. No interactions between bale type and storage method were detected for forage quality parameters, indicating that forage quality losses as a result of storage were similar for different bale types. Bale type by sample type and storage method by sample type interactions were detected. Many of these were the result of poorer quality alfalfa. 4 refs., 9 tabs.

  2. A Confidence Interval for the Wallace Coefficient of Concordance and Its Application to Microbial Typing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Francisco R.; Melo-Cristino, José; Ramirez, Mário

    2008-01-01

    Very diverse research fields frequently deal with the analysis of multiple clustering results, which should imply an objective detection of overlaps and divergences between the formed groupings. The congruence between these multiple results can be quantified by clustering comparison measures such as the Wallace coefficient (W). Since the measured congruence is dependent on the particular sample taken from the population, there is variability in the estimated values relatively to those of the true population. In the present work we propose the use of a confidence interval (CI) to account for this variability when W is used. The CI analytical formula is derived assuming a Gaussian sampling distribution and recurring to the algebraic relationship between W and the Simpson's index of diversity. This relationship also allows the estimation of the expected Wallace value under the assumption of independence of classifications. We evaluated the CI performance using simulated and published microbial typing data sets. The simulations showed that the CI has the desired 95% coverage when the W is greater than 0.5. This behaviour is robust to changes in cluster number, cluster size distributions and sample size. The analysis of the published data sets demonstrated the usefulness of the new CI by objectively validating some of the previous interpretations, while showing that other conclusions lacked statistical support. PMID:19002246

  3. Mechanically stable, high aspect ratio, multifilar, wound, ribbon-type conductor and method for manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Cottingham, James G.

    1987-01-01

    A mechanically stable, wound, multifilar, ribbon-type conductor having a cross-sectional aspect ratio which may be greater than 12:1, comprising a plurality of conductive strands wound to form a flattened helix containing a plastic strip into which the strands have been pressed so as to form a bond between the strip and the strands. The bond mechanically stabilizes the conductor under tension, preventing it from collapsing into a tubular configuration. In preferred embodiments the plastic strip may be polytetrafluoroethylene, and the conductive strands may be formed from a superconductive material. Conductors in accordance with the present invention may be manufactured by winding a plurality of conductive strands around a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of the mandrel continuously varying from substantially circular to a high aspect ratio elipse while maintaining a constant circumference. The wound conductive strands are drawn from the mandrel as a multifilar helix while simultaneously a plastic strip is fed through the hollow mandrel so that it is contained within the helix as it is withdrawn from the mandrel. The helical conductor is then compressed into a ribbon-like form and the strands are bonded to the plastic strip by a combination of heat and pressure.

  4. Mechanically stable, high aspect ratio, multifilar, wound, ribbon-type conductor and method for manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Cottingham, James G.

    1987-11-03

    A mechanically stable, wound, multifilar, ribbon-type conductor having a cross-sectional aspect ratio which may be greater than 12:1, comprising a plurality of conductive strands wound to form a flattened helix containing a plastic strip into which the strands have been pressed so as to form a bond between the strip and the strands. The bond mechanically stabilizes the conductor under tension, preventing it from collapsing into a tubular configuration. In preferred embodiments the plastic strip may be polytetrafluoroethylene, and the conductive strands may be formed from a superconductive material. Conductors in accordance with the present invention may be manufactured by winding a plurality of conductive strands around a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of the mandrel continuously varying from substantially circular to a high aspect ratio elipse while maintaining a constant circumference. The wound conductive strands are drawn from the mandrel as a multifilar helix while simultaneously a plastic strip is fed through the hollow mandrel so that it is contained within the helix as it is withdrawn from the mandrel. The helical conductor is then compressed into a ribbon-like form and the strands are bonded to the plastic strip by a combination of heat and pressure.

  5. Development of flow network analysis code for block type VHTR core by linear theory method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H.; Yoon, S. J.; Park, J. W.; Park, G. C.

    2012-07-01

    VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) is high-efficiency nuclear reactor which is capable of generating hydrogen with high temperature of coolant. PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor) type reactor consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks. The flow paths in the prismatic VHTR core consist of coolant holes, bypass gaps and cross gaps. Complicated flow paths are formed in the core since the coolant holes and bypass gap are connected by the cross gap. Distributed coolant was mixed in the core through the cross gap so that the flow characteristics could not be modeled as a simple parallel pipe system. It requires lot of effort and takes very long time to analyze the core flow with CFD analysis. Hence, it is important to develop the code for VHTR core flow which can predict the core flow distribution fast and accurate. In this study, steady state flow network analysis code is developed using flow network algorithm. Developed flow network analysis code was named as FLASH code and it was validated with the experimental data and CFD simulation results. (authors)

  6. A Hubble Diagram from Type II Supernovae Based Solely on Photometry: The Photometric Color Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Anderson, J. P.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Bolt, L.; Burns, C. R.; Campillay, A.; Castellón, S.; Contreras, C.; Folatelli, G.; Freedman, W. L.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Krisciunas, K.; Krzeminski, W.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Morrell, N.; Olivares E., F.; Persson, S. E.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-12-01

    We present a Hubble diagram of SNe II using corrected magnitudes derived only from photometry, with no input of spectral information. We use a data set from the Carnegie Supernovae Project I for which optical and near-infrared light curves were obtained. The apparent magnitude is corrected by two observables, one corresponding to the slope of the plateau in the V band and the second a color term. We obtain a dispersion of 0.44 mag using a combination of the (V - i) color and the r band and we are able to reduce the dispersion to 0.39 mag using our golden sample. A comparison of our photometric color method (PCM) with the standardized candle method (SCM) is also performed. The dispersion obtained for the SCM (which uses both photometric and spectroscopic information) is 0.29 mag, which compares with 0.43 mag from the PCM for the same SN sample. The construction of a photometric Hubble diagram is of high importance in the coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys, which will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will prohibit spectroscopic follow up in the vast majority of cases, and hence methods must be deployed which can proceed using solely photometric data. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes, with the du Pont and Swope telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program GS-2008B-Q-56). Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programmes 076.A-0156,078.D-0048, 080.A-0516, and 082.A-0526).

  7. Multiphase fluid simulations through porous rock using Shan-Chen type lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qohar, Ulin Nuha Abdul; Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar; Fauzi, Umar

    2015-09-01

    Fluid flow with multiphase components is one of the daily problems that interesting to learn and widely used in various fields, one of them in rock physics. Euler approach and Lagrange approach, the two models are applied to study the fluid flow, which often known as the microscopic and macroscopic approaches. Lattice Boltzmann Method combines the advantages and appropriate of both approaches, that is used as a more efficient model approach, also known as mesoscopic. The LB method has been used to model the two-phase fluid flow with different viscosities using the Shan-Chen model, this model explain the interaction between two different fluid phases. Validated numerical models compiled using two ways, namely analytical models and physical models. Based on this research, numerical models are designed to meet the analytical model with an error on the lattice at the edge of the lattice. When compared with physical models, numerical models have qualitatively suitability. Based on the results of the validation of numerical models, modeling is done to the image of porous rock which gives the results of multiphase fluid flow profile inside the pore. Moreover, the results obtained indicate that there are effective pores that fluid can not be drained.

  8. A Low Density Microarray Method for the Identification of Human Papillomavirus Type 18 Variants

    PubMed Central

    Meza-Menchaca, Thuluz; Williams, John; Rodríguez-Estrada, Rocío B.; García-Bravo, Aracely; Ramos-Ligonio, Ángel; López-Monteon, Aracely; Zepeda, Rossana C.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel microarray based-method for the screening of oncogenic human papillomavirus 18 (HPV-18) molecular variants. Due to the fact that sequencing methodology may underestimate samples containing more than one variant we designed a specific and sensitive stacking DNA hybridization assay. This technology can be used to discriminate between three possible phylogenetic branches of HPV-18. Probes were attached covalently on glass slides and hybridized with single-stranded DNA targets. Prior to hybridization with the probes, the target strands were pre-annealed with the three auxiliary contiguous oligonucleotides flanking the target sequences. Screening HPV-18 positive cell lines and cervical samples were used to evaluate the performance of this HPV DNA microarray. Our results demonstrate that the HPV-18's variants hybridized specifically to probes, with no detection of unspecific signals. Specific probes successfully reveal detectable point mutations in these variants. The present DNA oligoarray system can be used as a reliable, sensitive and specific method for HPV-18 variant screening. Furthermore, this simple assay allows the use of inexpensive equipment, making it accessible in resource-poor settings. PMID:24077317

  9. TESTING THE METAL OF LATE-TYPE KEPLER PLANET HOSTS WITH IRON-CLAD METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Andrew W.; Hilton, Eric J.; Gaidos, Eric; Kraus, Adam

    2013-06-10

    It has been shown that F, G, and early K dwarf hosts of Neptune-sized planets are not preferentially metal-rich. However, it is less clear whether the same holds for late K and M dwarf planet hosts. We report metallicities of Kepler targets and candidate transiting planet hosts with effective temperatures below 4500 K. We use new metallicity calibrations to determine [Fe/H] from visible and near-infrared spectra. We find that the metallicity distribution of late K and M dwarfs monitored by Kepler is consistent with that of the solar neighborhood. Further, we show that hosts of Earth- to Neptune-sized planets have metallicities consistent with those lacking detected planets and rule out a previously claimed 0.2 dex offset between the two distributions at 6{sigma} confidence. We also demonstrate that the metallicities of late K and M dwarfs hosting multiple detected planets are consistent with those lacking detected planets. Our results indicate that multiple terrestrial and Neptune-sized planets can form around late K and M dwarfs with metallicities as low as 0.25 solar. The presence of Neptune-sized planets orbiting such low-metallicity M dwarfs suggests that accreting planets collect most or all of the solids from the disk and that the potential cores of giant planets can readily form around M dwarfs. The paucity of giant planets around M dwarfs compared to solar-type stars must be due to relatively rapid disk evaporation or a slower rate of planet accretion, rather than insufficient solids to form a core.

  10. An efficient method for the immobilization of inulinase using new types of polymers containing epoxy groups.

    PubMed

    Trytek, Mariusz; Fiedurek, Jan; Podkościelna, Beata; Gawdzik, Barbara; Skowronek, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    New glycidyl methacrylate copolymers containing different numbers of epoxy groups were synthesized and used to develop effective procedures for inulinase immobilization. The beneficial characteristics of the carriers included a high degree of crosslinking, stability at ambient temperature, an appropriate surface, and the presence of reactive epoxy groups. Some factors affecting the efficiency of immobilization of crude inulinase, including the kind and amount of carrier, the number of epoxy groups, as well as buffer pH and buffer concentration were examined. The yield of immobilization of this enzyme on the investigated type of microspheres was higher than on the commercial carrier, Eupergit(®) C. After immobilization, the optimum temperature for inulinase activity shifted from 55 to 45 °C, whereas the optimum pH = 5 remained unchanged. The basic parameters of inulin hydrolysis were examined, and the possibility of applying the obtained biocatalyst in continuous conditions was tested. Inulin at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v) was almost completely hydrolyzed to fructose (in a yield of 98 %) at a flow rate of 0.1 mL/min. A tenfold increase in the speed of flow resulted in an increase in the yield of oligosaccharides (DP2-DP6) up to ~41% in the overall hydrolysate, as analysed by HPLC-RID and LC-ESI/MS. These results indicate that two forms of inulinase, an exo- and an endo-acting enzyme, were immobilized on our carrier. The enzyme showed good operational stability in a packed column over 28 days. There were no significant decreases in the efficiency of continuous hydrolysis during this time (about 17.4% in comparison to its initial value). PMID:25896034

  11. Investigation of synthetic aperture methods in ultrasound surface imaging using elementary surface types.

    PubMed

    Kerr, W; Pierce, S G; Rowe, P

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic aperture imaging methods have been employed widely in recent research in non-destructive testing (NDT), but uptake has been more limited in medical ultrasound imaging. Typically offering superior focussing power over more traditional phased array methods, these techniques have been employed in NDT applications to locate and characterise small defects within large samples, but have rarely been used to image surfaces. A desire to ultimately employ ultrasonic surface imaging for bone surface geometry measurement prior to surgical intervention motivates this research, and results are presented for initial laboratory trials of a surface reconstruction technique based on global thresholding of ultrasonic 3D point cloud data. In this study, representative geometry artefacts were imaged in the laboratory using two synthetic aperture techniques; the Total Focusing Method (TFM) and the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) employing full and narrow synthetic apertures, respectively. Three high precision metallic samples of known geometries (cuboid, sphere and cylinder) which featured a range of elementary surface primitives were imaged using a 5MHz, 128 element 1D phased array employing both SAFT and TFM approaches. The array was manipulated around the samples using a precision robotic positioning system, allowing for repeatable ultrasound derived 3D surface point clouds to be created. A global thresholding technique was then developed that allowed the extraction of the surface profiles, and these were compared with the known geometry samples to provide a quantitative measure of error of 3D surface reconstruction. The mean errors achieved with optimised SAFT imaging for the cuboidal, spherical and cylindrical samples were 1.3mm, 2.9mm and 2.0mm respectively, while those for TFM imaging were 3.7mm, 3.0mm and 3.1mm, respectively. These results were contrary to expectations given the higher information content associated with the TFM images. However, it was

  12. TLC Fingerprinting and Pattern Recognition Methods in the Assessment of Authenticity of Poplar-Type Propolis.

    PubMed

    Milojković Opsenica, Dušanka; Ristivojević, Petar; Trifković, Jelena; Vovk, Irena; Lušić, Dražen; Tešić, Živoslav

    2016-08-01

    Propolis is a "natural" remedy with prominent biological activity, which is used as dietary supplement. In the absence of clinical studies that would substantiate these claims, information on the biological activity of propolis is valuable. This study comprises chromatographic, image processing and chemometric approach for phenolic profiling of Serbian, Croatian and Slovenian propolis test solutions. Modern thin-layer chromatography equipment in combination with software for image processing was applied for fingerprinting and data acquisition, whereas the principal component analysis was used as pattern recognition method. Characterization of phenolic profile was performed along with the determination of the botanical and geographical origin of propolis. High-performance thin-layer chromatograms reveal that Central and Southeastern European propolis samples are rich in flavonoids. In addition, phenolic compounds proved to be suitable markers for the determination of European propolis authenticity. PMID:26931733

  13. Probabilistic methods for identification of significant accident sequences in loop-type LMFBRs

    SciTech Connect

    Jamali, K M.A.

    1983-06-01

    The aim of the Probabilistic Accident Progression Analysis (PAPA) described herein is to establish a framework for better use of the probability measure; first, as a basis for deterministic calculations, and second, as a part of a comprehensive method for risk assessment in its own right. The achievement of this goal rests on: (1) improvements in the existing approaches for acquisition and analysis of accident sequences; (2) defining a new measure of probabilistic importance that aids in the ranking of sequences of highly uncertain events; and (3) implementation of new techniques for quantification of dependent failures of similar components. The existing techniques related to the above three topics are discussed and the state of the art is reviewed. The PAPA approach is described. The techniques of PAPA are applied to a class of Protected Transients (transients in which the reactor is successfully shutdown) in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The results of the application of these techniques are described.

  14. Cascade-probabilistic methods and solution of Boltzman type of equations for particle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupchishin, A. I.; Kupchishin, A. A.; Voronova, N. A.

    2016-02-01

    A new method for calculating the spatial and temporal distributions of secondary particles and passing through a substance called cascade-probabilistic (HF) was proposed, developed and described. Original problems in the application of the original CP-technique in radiation physics, cosmic ray and positron physics was resolved. The general expression for the Boltzmann equation for the steady and unsteady cases was recorded based on an analysis of all the studies. In case of one-dimensional and three-dimensional (coordinate and angles θ and φ) Boltzmann equations solution goes into the previously obtained expressions for Nm. In addition, all previously derived analytical expressions for flow of different particles: protons, neutrons, electrons, concentration of defects, etc. are obtained after simplifying. At the same calculations give satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  15. Kirkpatrick-Baez type x-ray focusing mirror fabricated by the bent-polishing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Takano, Hidekazu; Terada, Yasuko

    2005-09-01

    Microfocusing optics with total reflection mirrors has been constructed, and a performance test in the hard x-ray region has been carried out. The material of the mirror is fused quartz, and parabolic surface figures are fabricated by the bent-polishing method. The reflective surface is coated with platinum. By configuring two parabolic mirrors in the Kirkpatrick-Baez optics, a focused beam size of 150nm in the vertical direction ×110nm in the horizontal direction has been achieved at an x-ray energy of 12keV. A focused beam size of smaller than 300nm is obtained within an x-ray energy range of 8-28keV. In a performance test of the scanning microscope, fine periodic structures with a line pitch of 140nm are clearly resolved. Diffraction limit and modulation transfer function of these focusing optics are discussed.

  16. Kirkpatrick-Baez type x-ray focusing mirror fabricated by the bent-polishing method

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Takano, Hidekazu; Terada, Yasuko

    2005-09-15

    Microfocusing optics with total reflection mirrors has been constructed, and a performance test in the hard x-ray region has been carried out. The material of the mirror is fused quartz, and parabolic surface figures are fabricated by the bent-polishing method. The reflective surface is coated with platinum. By configuring two parabolic mirrors in the Kirkpatrick-Baez optics, a focused beam size of 150 nm in the vertical direction x110 nm in the horizontal direction has been achieved at an x-ray energy of 12 keV. A focused beam size of smaller than 300 nm is obtained within an x-ray energy range of 8-28 keV. In a performance test of the scanning microscope, fine periodic structures with a line pitch of 140 nm are clearly resolved. Diffraction limit and modulation transfer function of these focusing optics are discussed.

  17. Elucidation of Listeria monocytogenes Contamination Routes in Cold-Smoked Salmon Processing Plants Detected by DNA-Based Typing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Fonnesbech Vogel, Birte; Huss, Hans Henrik; Ojeniyi, Bente; Ahrens, Peter; Gram, Lone

    2001-01-01

    polymorphism profiling, and these methods confirmed the type division obtained by RAPD profiling. PMID:11375167

  18. Elucidation of Listeria monocytogenes contamination routes in cold-smoked salmon processing plants detected by DNA-based typing methods.

    PubMed

    Fonnesbech Vogel, B; Huss, H H; Ojeniyi, B; Ahrens, P; Gram, L

    2001-06-01

    polymorphism profiling, and these methods confirmed the type division obtained by RAPD profiling. PMID:11375167

  19. A Single-Cell-Type Real-Time PCR Method Based on a Modified Patch-Pipette Cell Harvesting System.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuanlong; Zhang, Miaomiao; Tao, Xiaoqing; Xu, Zifen; Zhang, Liangpin; Zheng, Yunjie; Zhu, Minjie; Gao, Linlin

    2016-09-01

    Real-time PCR is a powerful tool for quantifying nucleic acid expression. Real-time PCR is conventionally performed at the tissue level to guarantee an abundance of nucleic acid for detection. The precision and reliability of this method, however, is limited by usually being composed of a mixture of different cell types. Single-cell PCR, in contrast, eliminates the purity problem of the cell source. However, use of this method is usually impeded by difficulties in cell harvesting and stringent requirements for processing of very small quantities of nucleic acids. In this study, we combined the advantages of the high purity of selected cells in single-cell PCR with the greater nucleic acid quantities and thus greater ease of tissue-level PCR. The key aspect of our method is to use a modified patch-clamp pipette to harvest several selected cells of the same type. This method is therefore especially useful for cells that can be morphologically or histologically identified such as primary sensory neurons, striated muscle fibers and cells labeled with fluorescent makers. PMID:27271017

  20. Development of the Theta Comparative Cell Scoring Method to Quantify Diverse Phenotypic Responses Between Distinct Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Warchal, Scott J.; Dawson, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we have developed novel data visualization tools and a Theta comparative cell scoring (TCCS) method, which supports high-throughput in vitro pharmacogenomic studies across diverse cellular phenotypes measured by multiparametric high-content analysis. The TCCS method provides a univariate descriptor of divergent compound-induced phenotypic responses between distinct cell types, which can be used for correlation with genetic, epigenetic, and proteomic datasets to support the identification of biomarkers and further elucidate drug mechanism-of-action. Application of these methods to compound profiling across high-content assays incorporating well-characterized cells representing known molecular subtypes of disease supports the development of personalized healthcare strategies without prior knowledge of a drug target. We present proof-of-principle data quantifying distinct phenotypic response between eight breast cancer cells representing four disease subclasses. Application of the TCCS method together with new advances in next-generation sequencing, induced pluripotent stem cell technology, gene editing, and high-content phenotypic screening are well placed to advance the identification of predictive biomarkers and personalized medicine approaches across a broader range of disease types and therapeutic classes. PMID:27552144

  1. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dolmashkin, A A; Dubrovskii, V A; Zabenkov, I V

    2012-05-31

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  2. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmashkin, A. A.; Dubrovskii, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  3. Development of the Theta Comparative Cell Scoring Method to Quantify Diverse Phenotypic Responses Between Distinct Cell Types.

    PubMed

    Warchal, Scott J; Dawson, John C; Carragher, Neil O

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we have developed novel data visualization tools and a Theta comparative cell scoring (TCCS) method, which supports high-throughput in vitro pharmacogenomic studies across diverse cellular phenotypes measured by multiparametric high-content analysis. The TCCS method provides a univariate descriptor of divergent compound-induced phenotypic responses between distinct cell types, which can be used for correlation with genetic, epigenetic, and proteomic datasets to support the identification of biomarkers and further elucidate drug mechanism-of-action. Application of these methods to compound profiling across high-content assays incorporating well-characterized cells representing known molecular subtypes of disease supports the development of personalized healthcare strategies without prior knowledge of a drug target. We present proof-of-principle data quantifying distinct phenotypic response between eight breast cancer cells representing four disease subclasses. Application of the TCCS method together with new advances in next-generation sequencing, induced pluripotent stem cell technology, gene editing, and high-content phenotypic screening are well placed to advance the identification of predictive biomarkers and personalized medicine approaches across a broader range of disease types and therapeutic classes. PMID:27552144

  4. Use of Relational Agents to Improve Family Communication in Type 1 Diabetes: Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Karen W; Redondo, Maria J; Anderson, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Physiological and environmental risk factors interact to undermine blood glucose control during early adolescence. This has been documented to be associated with family conflict and poor adherence to diabetes management tasks. Family Teamwork is an efficacious program demonstrated to enhance family communication and reduce conflict during this vulnerable period. It was designed to be delivered to families in-person, which limited reach and potential impact. Objective The purpose of this paper is to present the protocol for adapting Family Teamwork for Web-based delivery. Methods Formative research with health care providers, parents, and adolescents will help modify Family Teamwork for Web-based delivery by a relational agent (ie, a computerized character with human-like features and actions). Sessions will be interactive, requiring both parent and adolescent participation, with the relational agent serving as a health coach. After programming, usability testing will be conducted to help ensure the program is easy to use. Video and instructional materials will be developed to facilitate use, and a small pilot study will be conducted to assess feasibility. Families will provide written informed consent prior to participation in any phase of the study. The Institutional Review Board at Baylor College of Medicine reviewed and approved the protocol (H-37245). Results Formative research is underway. No results are available at this time. Conclusions This research has the potential to make an important contribution to diabetes management by using technology to enhance the reach of an efficacious program. PMID:27468762

  5. Automatic Recognition of Coronal Type II Radio Bursts: The Automated Radio Burst Identification System Method and First Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, Vasili V.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.; Steward, Graham; Patterson, Garth

    2010-02-01

    Major space weather events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompanied by solar radio bursts, which can potentially be used for real-time space weather forecasts. Type II radio bursts are produced near the local plasma frequency and its harmonic by fast electrons accelerated by a shock wave moving through the corona and solar wind with a typical speed of ~1000 km s-1. The coronal bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency gradually falling with time and durations of several minutes. This Letter presents a new method developed to detect type II coronal radio bursts automatically and describes its implementation in an extended Automated Radio Burst Identification System (ARBIS 2). Preliminary tests of the method with spectra obtained in 2002 show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ~80%, while the probability of false positives is reasonably low, with one false positive per 100-200 hr for high solar activity and less than one false event per 10000 hr for low solar activity periods. The first automatically detected coronal type II radio burst is also presented.

  6. Automatic recognition of type III solar radio bursts: Automated Radio Burst Identification System method and first observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, Vasili V.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.; Steward, Graham; Patterson, Garth

    2009-04-01

    Because of the rapidly increasing role of technology, including complicated electronic systems, spacecraft, etc., modern society has become more vulnerable to a set of extraterrestrial influences (space weather) and requires continuous observation and forecasts of space weather. The major space weather events like solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompanied by solar radio bursts, which can be used for a real-time space weather forecast. Coronal type III radio bursts are produced near the local electron plasma frequency and near its harmonic by fast electrons ejected from the solar active regions and moving through the corona and solar wind. These bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency rapidly falling with time, the typical duration of the coronal burst being about 1-3 s. This paper presents a new method developed to detect coronal type III bursts automatically and its implementation in a new Automated Radio Burst Identification System. The central idea of the implementation is to use the Radon transform for more objective detection of the bursts as approximately straight lines in dynamic spectra. Preliminary tests of the method with the use of the spectra obtained during 13 days show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ˜84%, while no false positives are observed and 23 events not listed previously are found. Prospects for improvements are discussed. The first automatically detected coronal type III radio bursts are presented.

  7. High Yield Overexpression, Refolding, Purification and Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type B-Flagellin: An Improved Method Without Sonication

    PubMed Central

    Faezi, Sobhan; Bahrmand, Ahmad Reza; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Nikokar, Iraj; Sardari, Soroush; Holder, Ian Alan

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen is a significant cause of acute and chronic infections in patients with compromised defenses. This bacterium is motile via a single polar flagellum made of polymerized flagellin subunits differentiated into two major serotypes: A and B. flagellin plays an important role as a virulence factor in the adhesion, colonization and invasion of P. aeruginosa into host epithelial cells. To develop a functional vaccine that can be used in practical application to prevent and treat infection, type B-flagellin was produced as recombinant protein. In this work, the fliC gene was introduced into a pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expressed recombinant protein was purified by a modified method without sonication using a HisTrap affinity column. The functional activities of produced flagellin were confirmed by ELISA, western blot analysis, motility inhibition assay and opsonophagocytosis test. The purification process of the type B-flagellin was lead to a high yield. The produced recombinant type B-flagellin showed high biological activity in all of these standard assays. In conclusions, this report provides the new protocol to efficiently obtain the type B-flagellin with high biological activity and immunogenicity. This immunogen can be introduced as an adjuvant or vaccine in the future study. PMID:27386437

  8. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristic groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.G.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) model presents a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) into groups of tank expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. This model has identified 29 different waste-type groups encompassing 135 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTs. The remaining 14 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. This letter report will detail the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the SORWT model and present the grouping results. In the near future, the validity of the predicted groups will be statistically tested using analysis of variance of characterization data obtained from recent (post-1989) core sampling and analysis activities. In addition, the SORWT model will be used to project the nominal waste characteristics of entire waste type groups that have some recent characterization data available. These subsequent activities will be documented along with these initial results in a comprehensive, formal PNL report cleared for public release by September 1994.

  9. Comparative Outcomes of the Two Types of Sacral Extradural Spinal Meningeal Cysts Using Different Operation Methods: A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian-jun; Wang, Zhen-yu; Teo, Mario; Li, Zhen-dong; Wu, Hai-bo; Yen, Ru-yu; Zheng, Mei; Chang, Qing; Yisha Liu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study compares different clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with two types of sacral extradural spinal meningeal cysts (SESMC) undergoing different means of surgical excision. Using the relationship between the cysts and spinal nerve roots fibers (SNRF) as seen under microscope, SESMCs were divided into two types: cysts with SNRF known as Tarlov cysts and cysts without. The surgical methods were tailored to the different types of SESMCs. The improved Japanese Orthopedic Association (IJOA) scoring system was used to evaluate preoperative and postoperative neurological function of the patients. Preoperative IJOA scores were 18.5±1.73, and postoperative IJOA scores were 19.6±0.78. The difference between preoperative and postoperative IJOA scores was statistically significant (t = -4.52, p = 0.0001), with a significant improvement in neurological function after surgery. Among the improvements in neurological functions, the most significant was sensation (z=-2.74, p=0.006), followed by bowel/bladder function (z=-2.50, p=0.01). There was a statistically significant association between the types of SESMC and the number (F=12.57, p=0.001) and maximum diameter (F=8.08, p=0.006) of the cysts. SESMC with SNRF are often multiple and small, while cysts without SNRF tend to be solitary and large. We advocate early surgical intervention for symptomatic SESMCs in view of significant clinical improvement postoperatively. PMID:24386317

  10. Investigation of the optimal material type and dimension for spallation targets using simulation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feghhi, Seyed Amir Hossein; Gholamzadeh, Zohreh; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Accelerator-driven systems are extensively developed to generate neutron sources for research, industrial, and medical plans. Different heavy elements are utilized as spallation targets to produce spallation neutrons. Computational methods are efficiently utilized to simulate neutronic behavior of a spallation target. MCNPX 2.6.0 is used as a powerful code based on Monte Carlo stochastic techniques for spallation process computation. This code has the ability to transport different particles using different physical models. In this paper, MCNPX has been utilized to calculate the leaked neutron yield from Pb, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), W, Ta, Hg, U, Th, Sn, and Cu cylindrical heavy targets. The effects of the target thickness and diameter on neutron yield value have been investigated via the thickness and diameter variations between 5 to 30 cm and 5 to 20 cm, respectively. Proton-induced radionuclide production into the targets as well as leaked neutron spectra from the targets has been calculated for the targets of an optimum determined dimension. The 1-GeV proton particle has been selected to induce spallation process inside the targets. The 2-mm spatial FWHM distribution has been considered for the 1-mA proton beam. Uranium target produced the highest leaked neutron yield with a 1.32 to 3.7 factor which overweighs the others. A dimension of 15 × 60 cm is suggested for all the cylindrical studied spallation targets. Th target experienced the highest alpha emitter radionuclide production while lighter elements such as Cu and Sn bore the lowest radiotoxicity. LBE liquid spallation target competes with the investigated solid targets in neutronic point of view while has surpass than volatile liquid Hg target.

  11. Investigation of the optimal material type and dimension for spallation targets using simulation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feghhi, S. A. H.; Gholamzadeh, Z.; Tenreiro, C.

    2014-03-01

    Accelerator-driven systems are extensively developed to generate neutron sources for research, industrial and medical plans. Different heavy elements are utilized as spallation targets to produce spallation neutrons. Computational methods are efficiently utilized to simulate neutronic behavior of a spallation target. MCNPX 2.6.0 is used as a powerful code based on Monte Carlo stochastic techniques for spallation process computation. This code has the ability to transport different particles using different physical models. In this paper, MCNPX has been utilized to calculate the leaked neutron yield from Pb, LBE, W, Ta, Hg, U, Th, Sn and Cu cylindrical heavy targets. Effects of the target thickness and diameter on neutron yield value have been investigated via the thickness and diameter variations between 5-30 and 5-20 cm, respectively. Proton-induced radionuclide production into the targets as well as leaked neutron spectra from the targets has been calculated for the targets of an optimum determined dimension. 1 GeV proton particle has been selected to induce spallation process inside the targets. 2 mm spatial FWHM distribution has been considered for the 1 mA proton beam. Uranium target produced the highest leaked neutron yield with a 1.32-3.7 factor overweigh the others. Dimension of 15 × 60 cm is suggested for all the cylindrical studied spallation targets. Th target experienced the highest alpha-emitter radionuclide production while lighter elements such as Cu and Sn bore the lowest radio-toxicity. LBE liquid spallation target competes with the investigated solid targets in neutronic point of view while has surpass than volatile liquid Hg target.

  12. Preventive effects of various types of footwear and cleaning methods on dermatophyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kumi; Katoh, Takuro; Irimajiri, Junya; Taniguchi, Hiroko; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2006-08-01

    Tinea pedis is contagious and typically spreads from infected to non-infected persons. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of footwear in preventing tinea pedis adhesion. Using the stamp culture method, we investigated the effectiveness of preventing dermatophyte passage by the wearing of stockings made of nylon, socks made of cotton and tabi (Japanese socks), as well as the effect of removing dermatophytes from these items by washing with soap, cold water and cold water after turning inside-out. For sandals, sneakers and boots, we also investigated the effect of dermatophyte removal by pouring cold water into the footwear, wiping with a wet towel, and pouring boiling water into the footwear. The wearing of socks or tabi was effective in preventing passage of dermatophytes. The stocking material proved to be too thin to prevent passage. On the inner side of socks (the side of the sole), all treatments were effective at removing dermatophytes, but on the outer side of socks (the side touching the surface of the sandals), the treatment of washing in cold water after turning inside-out resulted in significantly more dermatophytes as compared with the other treatments. Pouring cold water, wiping with a wet towel and pouring boiling water were all effective for removing dermatophytes from sandals and sneakers. However, for boots, the treatment of pouring cold water was less effective. To prevent the adhesion of dermatophytes to sandals, wearing socks or tabi was effective, and the treatments of washing socks in cold water after turning inside-out and of pouring cold water into the boots were less effective than the others. PMID:16923133

  13. Fabrication of Transparent p-Type CuxZnyS Thin Films by the Electrochemical Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Ichimura, Masaya

    2011-04-01

    CuxZnyS thin films were deposited on indium-tin oxide-coated glass substrates by the electrochemical deposition (ECD) method using aqueous solutions containing CuSO4, ZnSO4, and Na2S2O3. The film deposited under optimum conditions exhibited a high optical transmission, and its energy band gap was about 3.2 eV. It was confirmed that CuxZnyS showed p-type conduction and photosensitivity. To fabricate a ZnO/CuxZnyS heterojunction, an n-type ZnO thin film was deposited on CuxZnyS by ECD. In a current-voltage measurement, the heterojunction showed rectification properties.

  14. Synthesis of nanostructured LiTi 2(PO 4) 3 powder by a Pechini-type polymerizable complex method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, C. R.; Galven, C.; Crosnier-Lopez, M.-P.; Le Berre, F.; Bohnke, O.

    2006-02-01

    The nanostructured NASICON-type LiTi 2(PO 4) 3 (LTP) material has been synthesized by Pechini-type polymerizable complex method. The use of water-soluble ammonium citratoperoxotitanate (IV) metal complex instead of alkoxides as precursor allows to prepare monophase material. Thermal analyses have been carried out on the powder precursor to check the weight loss and synthesis temperature. X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) has been performed on the LTP powder obtained after heating the powder precursor over a temperature range from 550 to 1050 °C for 2 h. By varying the molar ratio of citric acid to metal ion (CA/Ti) and citric acid to ethylene glycol (CA/EG), the grain size of the LTP powder could be modified. The formation of small and well-crystalline grains, in the order of 50-125 nm in size, has been determined from the XRD patterns and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.

  15. PCR amplification of rRNA intergenic spacer regions as a method for epidemiologic typing of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, C P; Stock, F; Beekmann, S E; Williams, E C; Gill, V J

    1995-01-01

    From January to March 1993, a suspected outbreak of antibiotic-associated diarrhea occurred on a pediatric oncology ward of the Clinical Center Hospital at the National Institutes of Health. Isolates of Clostridium difficile obtained from six patients implicated in this outbreak were typed by both PCR amplification of rRNA intergenic spacer regions (PCR ribotyping) and restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic DNA. Comparable results were obtained with both methods; five of the six patients were infected with the same strain of C. difficile. Subsequent analysis of 102 C. difficile isolates obtained from symptomatic patients throughout the Clinical Center revealed the existence of 41 distinct and reproducible PCR ribotypes. These data suggest that PCR ribotyping provides a discriminatory, reproducible, and simple alternative to conventional molecular approaches for typing strains of C. difficile. PMID:7699038

  16. Use of a PCR method based on IS6110 polymorphism for typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from BACTEC cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Otal, I; Samper, S; Asensio, M P; Vitoria, M A; Rubio, M C; Gómez-Lus, R; Martín, C

    1997-01-01

    Two PCR typing methods, based on polymorphism of the insertion sequence IS6110, were compared with Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by using a single primer complementary to the inverted repeats of IS6110. Total M. tuberculosis DNA either was amplified directly (IS6110-PCR) or was amplified following digestion and ligation (IS6110-inverse-PCR). Both PCR techniques showed a similar degree of discrimination. Because of its simplicity, IS6110-PCR was chosen to confirm that a single M. tuberculosis strain was responsible for an outbreak of tuberculosis in a secondary school. IS6110-PCR was used to study the degree of differentiation in 85 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates from BACTEC 12B broth cultures. Results were consistent with those of the standardized IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis method, showing identical PCR types for identical RFLPs, although the degree of discrimination was greater by RFLP analysis. The study concludes that due to its simplicity, IS6110-PCR is a good screening method when quick differentiation between M. tuberculosis strains is needed because BACTEC cultures may be used directly. PMID:8968924

  17. Identification of red pepper powder irradiated with different types of radiation using luminescence methods: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Byeong-Keun; Yoon, Young-Min; Jung, Koo; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Lee, Yunjong; Kim, Dong-Ho; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the reliability of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) methods for identifying irradiated foods, described in the European standards EN 13751:2002 and EN 1788:2001, respectively, which were established solely through interlaboratory studies on gamma-irradiated food. Red pepper powder samples irradiated with electron-beams (e-beams), gamma rays and high-energy X-rays were used as model foods. Samples irradiated with each radiation type at ⩾4 kGy could be correctly identified by the PSL method, whereas samples irradiated at ⩾0.5 kGy with each radiation type could be correctly recognized by the TL method when e-beams, gamma rays, or high-energy X-rays were used as normalization sources. However, different TL intensities were observed for minerals separated from red pepper powder for different irradiation sources, which was confirmed using pure quartz and K-feldspar minerals. Further interlaboratory studies are required to verify this phenomenon. PMID:26830591

  18. Two novel real-time PCR methods for genotyping the von Willebrand disease type I mutation in Doberman Pinscher dogs.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, Fabio; Turba, Maria E

    2013-08-01

    Two single tube real-time PCR methods were designed to genotype the mutation responsible for von Willebrand disease type I (von Willebrand factor c.7437G>A) in Doberman Pinscher dogs: (1) the Divergent PCR assay, which is a modification of the bi-directional PCR amplification of a specific allele (BI-PASA) technique, and (2) a minor groove binder (MGB) real-time PCR assay using fluorescently labelled probes. There was complete agreement between the genotypes determined using the two real-time PCR methods and the results of sequencing of PCR products generated by conventional PCR from genomic DNA purified from the blood of 27 Doberman Pinscher dogs. The Divergent PCR assay yielded reliable results with ≥ 6.4 ng genomic DNA per reaction and the MGB real-time PCR assay yielded reliable results with ≥ 150 pg genomic DNA per reaction. Both real-time PCR methods are suitable for routine genetic testing for the von Willebrand disease type I mutation using blood samples. PMID:23911791

  19. A Godunov-type method in Lagrangian coordinates for computing linearly-perturbed planar-symmetric flows of gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarisse, Jean-Marie; Jaouen, Stéphane; Raviart, Pierre-Arnaud

    2004-07-01

    Linear stability studies of complex flows require that efficient numerical methods be devised for predicting growth rates of multi-dimensional perturbations. For one-dimensional (1D) basic flows - i.e. of planar, cylindrical or spherical symmetry - a general numerical approach is viable which consists in solving simultaneously the one-dimensional equations of gas dynamics and their linearized forms for three-dimensional perturbations. Extensions of artificial viscosity methods have thus been used in the past. More recently [Equations aux dérivées partielles et applications, articles dédiés à J.-L. Lions, 1998], Godunov-type schemes for single-fluid flows of gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics have been proposed. Pursuing this effort, we introduce, within the Lagrangian perturbation approach, a class of Godunov-type schemes which is well suited for solving multi-material problems of gas dynamics. These schemes are developed here for the planar-symmetric case and comprise two second-order extensions. The numerical capabilities of these methods are illustrated by computations of Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities occurring at a single material interface. A systematic comparison of numerically computed growth rates with results of the linear theory for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is provided.

  20. Evaluation of Anatomical and Functional Hip Joint Center Methods: The Effects of Activity Type, Gender, and Proximal Reference Segment.

    PubMed

    McGibbon, C A; Fowler, J; Chase, S; Steeves, K; Landry, J; Mohamed, A

    2016-01-01

    Accurate hip joint center (HJC) location is critical when studying hip joint biomechanics. The HJC is often determined from anatomical methods, but functional methods are becoming increasingly popular. Several studies have examined these methods using simulations and in vivo gait data, but none has studied high-range of motion activities, such a chair rise, nor has HJC prediction been compared between males and females. Furthermore, anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) marker visibility during chair rise can be problematic, requiring a sacral cluster as an alternative proximal segment; but functional HJC has not been explored using this approach. For this study, the quality of HJC measurement was based on the joint gap error (JGE), which is the difference in global HJC between proximal and distal reference segments. The aims of the present study were to: (1) determine if JGE varies between pelvic and sacral referenced HJC for functional and anatomical methods, (2) investigate which functional calibration motion results in the lowest JGE and if the JGE varies depending on movement type (gait versus chair rise) and gender, and (3) assess whether the functional HJC calibration results in lower JGE than commonly used anatomical approaches and if it varies with movement type and gender. Data were collected on 39 healthy adults (19 males and 20 females) aged 14-50 yr old. Participants performed four hip "calibration" tests (arc, cross, star, and star-arc), as well as gait and chair rise (activities of daily living (ADL)). Two common anatomical methods were used to estimate HJC and were compared to HJC computed using a published functional method with the calibration motions above, when using pelvis or sacral cluster as the proximal reference. For ADL trials, functional methods resulted in lower JGE (12-19 mm) compared to anatomical methods (13-34 mm). It was also found that women had significantly higher JGE compared to men and JGE was significantly higher for

  1. One-sided Post-processing for the Discontinuous Galerkin Method Using ENO Type Stencil Choosing and the Local Edge Detection Method

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, Richard K; Gelb, Anne; Gottlieb, Sigal; Ryan, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    In a previous paper by Ryan and Shu [Ryan, J. K., and Shu, C.-W. (2003). Methods Appl. Anal. 10(2), 295-307], a one-sided post-processing technique for the discontinuous Galerkin method was introduced for reconstructing solutions near computational boundaries and discontinuities in the boundaries, as well as for changes in mesh size. This technique requires prior knowledge of the discontinuity location in order to determine whether to use centered, partially one-sided, or one-sided post-processing. We now present two alternative stencil choosing schemes to automate the choice of post-processing stencil. The first is an ENO type stencil choosing procedure, which is designed to choose centered post-processing in smooth regions and one-sided or partially one-sided post-processing near a discontinuity, and the second method is based on the edge detection method designed by Archibald, Gelb, and Yoon [Archibald, R., Gelb, A., and Yoon, J. (2005). SIAM J. Numeric. Anal. 43, 259-279; Archibald, R., Gelb, A., and Yoon, J. (2006). Appl. Numeric. Math. (submitted)]. We compare these stencil choosing techniques and analyze their respective strengths and weaknesses. Finally, the automated stencil choices are applied in conjunction with the appropriate post-processing procedures and it is determine that the resulting numerical solutions are of the correct order.

  2. Method for generating extreme ultraviolet with mather-type plasma accelerators for use in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hassanein, Ahmed; Konkashbaev, Isak

    2006-10-03

    A device and method for generating extremely short-wave ultraviolet electromagnetic wave uses two intersecting plasma beams generated by two plasma accelerators. The intersection of the two plasma beams emits electromagnetic radiation and in particular radiation in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength. In the preferred orientation two axially aligned counter streaming plasmas collide to produce an intense source of electromagnetic radiation at the 13.5 nm wavelength. The Mather type plasma accelerators can utilize tin, or lithium covered electrodes. Tin, lithium or xenon can be used as the photon emitting gas source.

  3. Application of a numerical index of discriminatory power to a comparison of four physiochemical typing methods for Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, P R; Fraser, C A

    1989-01-01

    Four typing methods for the strain differentiation of Candida albicans (morphotyping, resistotyping, extracellular enzyme production, and carbon source assimilation reactions) were compared on a single population of 100 strains. An index of discriminatory power was used to facilitate this comparison. Extracellular enzyme production had poor discriminatory power, and carbon source assimilation reactions were poorly reproducible. Morphotyping and resistotyping had acceptable reproducibility and discrimination. The use of resistotyping and morphotyping in parallel enhanced discrimination without an unacceptable decrease in reproducibility, although other combinations did not enhance discrimination because reproductibility was impaired. PMID:2685017

  4. Simulation of optical configurations and signal processing methods in Anger-type neutron-position scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, C. T.; Strauss, M. G.; Brenner, R.

    The spatial linearity and resolution of Anger type neutron position scintillation detectors were studied as a semi-empirical model. Detector optics with either an air gap or optical grease between the scintillator and the dispersive light guide are considered. Three signal processing methods which truncate signals from PMT's distant from the scintillation are compared with the linear resistive weighting method. Air gap optics yields a 15% improvement in spatial resolution and 50% reduction in differential and integral nonlinearity relative to grease coupled optics, using linear processing. Using signal truncation instead of linear processing improves the resolution 15% to 20% for the air gap and 20% to 30% for the grease coupling case. The initial discrepancy in the resolution between the two optics nearly vanished, however, the linearity of the grease coupled system is still significantly poorer.

  5. Simulation of optical configurations and signal processing methods in Anger-type neutron-position scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, C.T.; Strauss, M.G.; Brenner, R.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial linearity and resolution of Anger-type neutron-position scintillation detectors are studied using a semi-empirical model. Detector optics with either an air gap or optical grease between the scintillator and the dispersive light guide are considered. Three signal processing methods which truncate signals from PMT's distant from the scintillation are compared with the linear resistive weighting method. Air gap optics yields a 15% improvement in spatial resolution and 50% reduction in differential and integral nonlinearity relative to grease coupled optics, using linear processing. Using signal truncation instead of linear processing improves the resolution 15-20% for the air gap and 20-30% for the grease coupling case. Thus, the initial discrepancy in the resolution between the two optics nearly vanished, however the linearity of the grease coupled system is still significantly poorer.

  6. Molecular typing for fungi--a critical review of the possibilities and limitations of currently and future methods.

    PubMed

    Gil-Lamaignere, C; Roilides, E; Hacker, J; Müller, F-M C

    2003-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections represent an increasing problem in patients with inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies. Molecular biotyping techniques, such as DNA fingerprinting, are useful tools to increase our knowledge of the pathogenic organisms that cause them, and thus to improve their treatment and develop prevention strategies. In the present review, we evaluate and discuss the possibilities and limitations of the methods currently used for biotyping strains of fungal species. These include techniques based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with or without hybridization to probes (Southern), PCR-based techniques, electrophoretic karyotyping (EK), and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Additionally, we discuss newer techniques that are being developed for the fingerprinting of fungal strains. Among them, we review conformation-based polymorphism scanning methods, such as single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and heteroduplex mobility assays, sequencing strategies such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and DNA microarrays. PMID:12667249

  7. A Novel Feature Extraction Method with Feature Selection to Identify Golgi-Resident Protein Types from Imbalanced Data

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Runtao; Zhang, Chengjin; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi Apparatus (GA) is a major collection and dispatch station for numerous proteins destined for secretion, plasma membranes and lysosomes. The dysfunction of GA proteins can result in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, accurate identification of protein subGolgi localizations may assist in drug development and understanding the mechanisms of the GA involved in various cellular processes. In this paper, a new computational method is proposed for identifying cis-Golgi proteins from trans-Golgi proteins. Based on the concept of Common Spatial Patterns (CSP), a novel feature extraction technique is developed to extract evolutionary information from protein sequences. To deal with the imbalanced benchmark dataset, the Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE) is adopted. A feature selection method called Random Forest-Recursive Feature Elimination (RF-RFE) is employed to search the optimal features from the CSP based features and g-gap dipeptide composition. Based on the optimal features, a Random Forest (RF) module is used to distinguish cis-Golgi proteins from trans-Golgi proteins. Through the jackknife cross-validation, the proposed method achieves a promising performance with a sensitivity of 0.889, a specificity of 0.880, an accuracy of 0.885, and a Matthew’s Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.765, which remarkably outperforms previous methods. Moreover, when tested on a common independent dataset, our method also achieves a significantly improved performance. These results highlight the promising performance of the proposed method to identify Golgi-resident protein types. Furthermore, the CSP based feature extraction method may provide guidelines for protein function predictions. PMID:26861308

  8. A Novel Feature Extraction Method with Feature Selection to Identify Golgi-Resident Protein Types from Imbalanced Data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runtao; Zhang, Chengjin; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi Apparatus (GA) is a major collection and dispatch station for numerous proteins destined for secretion, plasma membranes and lysosomes. The dysfunction of GA proteins can result in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, accurate identification of protein subGolgi localizations may assist in drug development and understanding the mechanisms of the GA involved in various cellular processes. In this paper, a new computational method is proposed for identifying cis-Golgi proteins from trans-Golgi proteins. Based on the concept of Common Spatial Patterns (CSP), a novel feature extraction technique is developed to extract evolutionary information from protein sequences. To deal with the imbalanced benchmark dataset, the Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE) is adopted. A feature selection method called Random Forest-Recursive Feature Elimination (RF-RFE) is employed to search the optimal features from the CSP based features and g-gap dipeptide composition. Based on the optimal features, a Random Forest (RF) module is used to distinguish cis-Golgi proteins from trans-Golgi proteins. Through the jackknife cross-validation, the proposed method achieves a promising performance with a sensitivity of 0.889, a specificity of 0.880, an accuracy of 0.885, and a Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.765, which remarkably outperforms previous methods. Moreover, when tested on a common independent dataset, our method also achieves a significantly improved performance. These results highlight the promising performance of the proposed method to identify Golgi-resident protein types. Furthermore, the CSP based feature extraction method may provide guidelines for protein function predictions. PMID:26861308

  9. Comparing Type of Health Insurance Among Low-Income Children: A Mixed-Methods Study from Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Lorraine; Selph, Shelley; Westfall, Nicholas; Crocker, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    We employed a mixed-methods study of primary data from a statewide household survey and in-person interviews with parents to examine—quantitatively and qualitatively—whether low-income children experienced differences between public and private insurance coverage types. We carried out 24 in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of respondents to Oregon’s 2005 Children’s Access to Healthcare Study (CAHS), analyzed using a standard iterative process and immersion/crystallization cycles. Qualitative findings guided quantitative analyses of CAHS data that assessed associations between insurance type and parental-reported unmet children’s health care needs. Interviewees uniformly reported that stable health insurance was important, but there was no consensus regarding which type was superior. Quantitatively, there were only a few significant differences. Cross-sectionally, compared with private coverage, public coverage was associated with higher odds of unmet specialty care needs (odds ratio [OR] 3.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52–8.24). Comparing full-year coverage patterns, those with public coverage had lower odds of unmet prescription needs (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.36–0.99) and unmet mental health counseling needs (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10–0.63), compared with privately covered children. Low-income Oregon parents reported few differences in their child’s experience with private versus public coverage. PMID:21052802

  10. Synthesis and magnetic properties of (Eu-Ni) substituted Y-type hexaferrite by surfactant assisted co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Irshad; Islam, M. U.; sadiq, Imran; Karamat, Nazia; Iftikhar, Aisha; khan, M. Azhar; Shah, Afzal; Athar, Muhammad; Shakir, Imran; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem

    2015-07-01

    A series of (Eu-Ni) substituted Y-type hexaferrite with composition Sr2Co(2-x)NixEuyFe(12-y)O22 (x=0.0-1, Y=0.0-0.1) were prepared by the surfactant assisted co-precipitation method. The present samples were sintered at 1050 °C for 8 h. The shape of the particles is plate-like which is very advantageous for various applications and the grain size varies from 73 to 269 nm. The values of saturation magnetization (Ms), remanent magnetization (Mr) and magnetic moment (nB) were found to decrease which are attributed to the weakening of super exchange interactions. The values of in-plane Squareness ratios (Mr/Ms) ranging from 0.41 to 0.65 whereas in case of out of plane measurement it varies from 0.30 to 0.62.The investigated samples can be used in perpendicular recording media (PRM) due to high value of coercivity 2300 Oe which is analogous to the those of M-type and W-type hard magnetic.

  11. On the divergence-free condition in Godunov-type schemes for ideal magnetohydrodynamics: the upwind constrained transport method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londrillo, P.; del Zanna, L.

    2004-03-01

    We present a general framework to design Godunov-type schemes for multidimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems, having the divergence-free relation and the related properties of the magnetic field B as built-in conditions. Our approach mostly relies on the constrained transport (CT) discretization technique for the magnetic field components, originally developed for the linear induction equation, which assures [∇.B]num=0 and its preservation in time to within machine accuracy in a finite-volume setting. We show that the CT formalism, when fully exploited, can be used as a general guideline to design the reconstruction procedures of the B vector field, to adapt standard upwind procedures for the momentum and energy equations, avoiding the onset of numerical monopoles of O(1) size, and to formulate approximate Riemann solvers for the induction equation. This general framework will be named here upwind constrained transport (UCT). To demonstrate the versatility of our method, we apply it to a variety of schemes, which are finally validated numerically and compared: a novel implementation for the MHD case of the second-order Roe-type positive scheme by Liu and Lax [J. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 5 (1996) 133], and both the second- and third-order versions of a central-type MHD scheme presented by Londrillo and Del Zanna [Astrophys. J. 530 (2000) 508], where the basic UCT strategies have been first outlined.

  12. A NEW METHOD FOR CLASSIFYING FLARES OF UV Ceti TYPE STARS: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SLOW AND FAST FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Dal, H. A.; Evren, S.

    2010-08-15

    In this study, a new method is presented to classify flares derived from the photoelectric photometry of UV Ceti type stars. This method is based on statistical analyses using an independent samples t-test. The data used in analyses were obtained from four flare stars observed between 2004 and 2007. The total number of flares obtained in the observations of AD Leo, EV Lac, EQ Peg, and V1054 Oph is 321 in the standard Johnson U band. As a result flares can be separated into two types, slow and fast, depending on the ratio of flare decay time to flare rise time. The ratio is below 3.5 for all slow flares, while it is above 3.5 for all fast flares. Also, according to the independent samples t-test, there is a difference of about 157 s between equivalent durations of slow and fast flares. In addition, there are significant differences between amplitudes and rise times of slow and fast flares.

  13. A New Method for Classifying Flares of UV Ceti Type Stars: Differences Between Slow and Fast Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal, H. A.; Evren, S.

    2010-08-01

    In this study, a new method is presented to classify flares derived from the photoelectric photometry of UV Ceti type stars. This method is based on statistical analyses using an independent samples t-test. The data used in analyses were obtained from four flare stars observed between 2004 and 2007. The total number of flares obtained in the observations of AD Leo, EV Lac, EQ Peg, and V1054 Oph is 321 in the standard Johnson U band. As a result flares can be separated into two types, slow and fast, depending on the ratio of flare decay time to flare rise time. The ratio is below 3.5 for all slow flares, while it is above 3.5 for all fast flares. Also, according to the independent samples t-test, there is a difference of about 157 s between equivalent durations of slow and fast flares. In addition, there are significant differences between amplitudes and rise times of slow and fast flares.

  14. TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY AND THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Chris B.; Sako, Masao; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Holtzman, Jon; Konishi, Kohki; Yasuda, Naoki; Schneider, D. P.; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J. Craig; Cinabro, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Atlee, David W.; Bassett, Bruce; Castander, Francisco J.; Goobar, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    We apply the Standardized Candle Method (SCM) for Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), which relates the velocity of the ejecta of a SN to its luminosity during the plateau, to 15 SNe II-P discovered over the three season run of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. The redshifts of these SNe-0.027 < z < 0.144-cover a range hitherto sparsely sampled in the literature; in particular, our SNe II-P sample contains nearly as many SNe in the Hubble flow (z > 0.01) as all of the current literature on the SCM combined. We find that the SDSS SNe have a very small intrinsic I-band dispersion (0.22 mag), which can be attributed to selection effects. When the SCM is applied to the combined SDSS-plus-literature set of SNe II-P, the dispersion increases to 0.29 mag, larger than the scatter for either set of SNe separately. We show that the standardization cannot be further improved by eliminating SNe with positive plateau decline rates, as proposed in Poznanski et al. We thoroughly examine all potential systematic effects and conclude that for the SCM to be useful for cosmology, the methods currently used to determine the Fe II velocity at day 50 must be improved, and spectral templates able to encompass the intrinsic variations of Type II-P SNe will be needed.

  15. Evaluation of DNA typing as a positive identification method for soft and hard tissues immersed in strong acids.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Pazzi, M; Di Vella, G; Martinelli, D; Mazzola, L; Ricci, U; Testi, R; Vincenti, M

    2015-11-01

    Identification of human remains can be hindered by several factors (e.g., traumatic mutilation, carbonization or decomposition). Moreover, in some criminal cases, offenders may purposely adopt various expedients to thwart the victim's identification, including the dissolution of body tissues by the use of corrosive reagents, as repeatedly reported in the past for Mafia-related murders. By means of an animal model, namely porcine samples, we evaluated standard DNA typing as a method for identifying soft (muscle) and hard (bone and teeth) tissues immersed in strong acids (hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric acid) or in mixtures of acids (aqua regia). Samples were tested at different time intervals, ranging between 2 and 6h (soft tissues) and 2-28 days (hard tissues). It was shown that, in every type of acid, complete degradation of the DNA extracted from soft tissues preceded tissue dissolution and could be observed within 4h of immersion. Conversely, high molecular weight DNA amenable to STR analysis could be isolated from hard tissues as long as cortical bone fragments were still present (28 days for sulfuric acid, 7 days for nitric acid, 2 days for hydrochloric acid and aqua regia), or the integrity of the dental pulp chamber was preserved (7 days, in sulfuric acid only). The results indicate that DNA profiling of acid-treated body parts (in particular, cortical bone) is still feasible at advanced stages of corrosion, even when the morphological methods used in forensic anthropology and odontology can no longer be applied for identification purposes. PMID:26195111

  16. Solubility of 238U radionuclide from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids using "US in vitro" digestion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Sarmani, Sukiman; Majid, Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2015-04-01

    238U radionuclide is a naturally occuring radioactive material that can be found in soil. In this study, the solubility of 238U radionuclide obtained from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids was analysed by "US P in vitro" digestion method. The synthetic gastrointestinal fluids were added to the samples with well-ordered, mixed throughly and incubated according to the human physiology digestive system. The concentration of 238U radionuclide in the solutions extracted from the soil was measured using Induced Coupling Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The concentration of 238U radionuclide from the soil samples in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids showed different values due to different homogenity of soil types and chemical reaction of 238U radionuclide. In general, the solubility of 238U radionuclide in gastric fluid was higher (0.050 - 0.209 ppm) than gastrointestinal fluids (0.024 - 0.050 ppm). It could be concluded that the US P in vitro digestion method is practicle for estimating the solubility of 238U radionuclide from soil materials and could be useful for monitoring and risk assessment purposes applying to environmental, health and contaminated soil samples.

  17. The effects of fuel type in synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles by microwave assisted combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcıoğlu Karakaş, Zeynep; Boncukçuoğlu, Recep; Karakaş, İbrahim H.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, it was investigated the effects of the used fuels on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of nanoparticles in nanoparticle synthesis with microwave assisted combustion method with an important method in quick, simple and low cost at synthesis of the nanoparticles. In this aim, glycine, urea and citric acid were used as fuel, respectively. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area (BET), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) techniques. We observed that fuel type is quite effective on magnetic properties and surface properties of the nanoparticles. X-ray difractograms of the obtained nanoparticles were compared with standard powder diffraction cards of NiFe2O4 (JCPDS Card Number 54-0964). The results demonstrated that difractograms are fully compatible with standard reflection peaks. According to the results of the XRD analysis, the highest crystallinity was observed at nanoparticles synthesized with glycine. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticles prepared with urea has the highest surface area. The micrographs of SEM showed that all of the nanoparticles have nano-crystalline behaviour and particles indication cubic shape. VSM analysis demonstrated that the type of fuel used for synthesis is highly effective a parameter on magnetic properties of nanoparticles.

  18. Comparative studies on p-type CuI grown on glass and copper substrate by SILAR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Sunetra L.; Latthe, Sanjay S.; Kappenstein, Charles; Mukherjee, S. K.; Rao, A. Venkateswara

    2010-04-01

    Depending upon the method of synthesis and the nature of substrate surface, there is variation in the physico-chemical properties of the material. Cuprous iodide films are deposited at room temperature on the glass and copper substrates by a simple SILAR method and the obtained results are compared. The p-type material with optical band gap 2.88 eV is found to be possessing face-centered cubic crystal structure with lattice parameter 6.134 Å. We observed irregular particles for the CuI film on the glass substrate while patterned arrays of micro-rods with cabbage like tips on copper substrate, for the same preparative conditions. Also, the material deposited on copper is showing superhydrophobic nature (contact angle ˜156°) while that on glass it is hydrophilic (contact angle ˜88°). We have characterized the thin films by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness and contact angle measurement, thermoelectric power measurement and optical studies. This hydrophobic, p-type material with wide band gap will be helpful in the development of optoelectronic devices.

  19. [Total aortic arch replacement in Stanford type A aortic dissection using a new method of implanting the stented graft].

    PubMed

    Kiyama, Hiroshi; Kaki, Nobuaki; Shiomi, Daisuke; Shimada, Naohiro

    2012-07-01

    In surgery for Stanford type A aortic dissection (SAAD) with intimal tear in the arch or proximal descending aorta, we performed total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk technique for the purpose of achieving complete exclusion of the entry. To reduce the circulatory arrest time, we developed a quick stent graft placement method in the proximal descending aorta. We reported the early results and assessed the efficacy of our new method. Between March 2006 and February 2010, 52 consecutive patients with SAAD were divided into 2 groups:group A consisted of 17 patients who received total arch replacement with our new method;group B consisted of 35 patients who received ascending aorta or partial arch replacement. The duration of operation and cardiopulmonary bypass were significantly longer in group A. However, the duration of circulatory arrest time and postoperative factors including hospital mortality did not differ in both groups. In group A, thrombus obliteration of the residual false lumen in the descending aorta was observed in 75% at 19.2±13.1 months postoperatively. Shrinkage of false lumen in the aortic arch occurred in 15 patients( 93.8%). There was no reoperation for the residual false lumen and late death. Total aortic arch replacement with our new method for SAAD is technically feasible without increasing the operative risk and might reduce the necessity for further operations. PMID:22750824

  20. Paleoepidemiologic investigation of Legionnaires disease at Wadsworth Veterans Administration Hospital by using three typing methods for comparison of legionellae from clinical and environmental sources.

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, P H; Nakahama, C; Tobin, J O; Calarco, K; Beer, K B; Joly, J R; Selander, R K

    1986-01-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, monoclonal antibody typing for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, and plasmid analysis were used to type 89 L. pneumophila strains isolated from nosocomial cases of Legionnaires disease at the Veterans Administration Wadsworth Medical Center (VAWMC) and from the hospital environment. Twelve L. pneumophila clinical isolates, obtained from patients at non-VAWMC hospitals, were also typed by the same methods to determine typing specificity. Seventy-nine percent of 33 VAWMC L. pneumophila serogroup 1 clinical isolates and 70% of 23 environmental isolates were found in only one of the five monoclonal subgroups. Similar clustering was found for the other two typing methods, with excellent correlation between all methods. Enzyme electrophoretic typing divided the isolates into the greatest number of distinct groups, resulting in the identification of 10 different L. pneumophila types and 5 types not belonging to L. pneumophila, which probably constitute an undescribed Legionella species; 7 clinical and 34 environmental VAWMC isolates and 2 non-VAWMC clinical isolates were found to be members of the new species. Twelve different plasmid patterns were found; 95% of VAWMC clinical isolates contained plasmids. Major VAWMC epidemic-bacterial types were common in the hospital potable-water distribution system and cooling towers. Strains of L. pneumophila which persisted after disinfection of contaminated environmental sites were of a different type from the prechlorination strains. All three typing methods were useful in the epidemiologic analysis of the VAWMC outbreak. PMID:3711303

  1. A method for estimating the dynamical age of FR II-type radio sources from multi-frequency data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalski, J.; Chyży, K. T.; Stawarz, Ł.; Kozieł, D.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Determining the ages of powerful radio sources is crucial for understanding galaxy evolution, the activity cycle of galactic nuclei, and their influence on the surrounding intergalactic medium. So far, several different methods for estimating the age of classical double radio galaxies have been proposed and widely used in the literature, although each of them faces difficulty due to observational limitations and/or freedom in choosing the underlying model assumptions. Aims: We propose a new approach to determining the ages of FR II type radio sources that, on one hand exploits a dynamical model developed for these objects by Kaiser et al. (1997, MNRAS, 292, 723) and, on the other hand, uses multifrequency radio observations not necessarily restricted to the high-resolution ones. Methods: In particular, we applied the assumed dynamical model to a number of FR II type radio galaxies observed at different radio frequencies and fit - for each frequency separately - the model's free parameters to the quantities of the observed sources. Such a procedure, which in fact enlarged a number of observables, enabled us to determine relatively precise ages and other crucial characteristics (like the jets' kinetic power) for the analyzed sources. Results: The resulting age estimates agree very well with those obtained with the "classical" spectral aging method for objects not older than 10 Myr, for which good-quality spectral data are available. However, this method is also applicable in the case of older sources than this and/or those for which the only available low-resolution radio data do not allow for detailed spectral aging studies. Interestingly, the estimated ages always correspond to the realistic values of the jets' advance velocity of ~0.01-0.1~c. Conclusions: . Our analysis indicates that the main factor precluding precise age determination for FR II type radio galaxies is related to the poorly known shape of the initial electron energy distribution injected

  2. On the principles of the U-trend method for dating quaternary sediments, II: Alternative U-trend type models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, A. G.

    If, as assumed in the U-trend method, the fluxing of U down through a sedimentary unit leaves behind a time-dependent trail of daughter products, what isotopic variations might one expect to observe? Are the isotopic variations of loosely bound U-series isotopes, as they establish reequilibrition by radioactive growth and decay, correlated with depth? In the original U-trend method, the answers to these questions are not entirely clear for two main reasons. First, it is stated that α-recoil effects are included in the empirical equations, but it is not clear how this was achieved or what effect they may have on depth-related variation of activity ratios. Second, many of the data sets (paper 1) do not show strong correlations of activity ratios with depth. In effect, 'U-trend' does not appear to include 'activity-ratio trend', as might be expected if chronological information is contained within loosely bound U-fluxed isotopes. In this paper, three alternative models, based upon assumptions close to original U-trend assumptions, predict that (1) U content should change systematically with depth and (2) {234U }/{238U }and{sol 230Th }/{234U } variations should also show systematic trends with depth. The caveat is that, unlike U-trend, α-recoil effects were not taken into account because of the difficulty of assessing the magnitude of the (variable) source term. Two of the models give identical U-trend and isotope ratio trends, which suggests that age estimation might be independent of some types of fluviation processes. It is the view of this and the preceding paper that the first requirement for the viability of any U-trend type method is to establish leaching techniques that can reliably and selectively extract the U-flux isotopes.

  3. Methods to identify the lactate and glucose thresholds during resistance exercise for individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Sérgio R; Arsa, Gisela; Oliveira, Hildeamo B; Lima, Laila C J; Campbell, Carmen S G; Simões, Herbert G

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different methods to identify the lactate threshold (LT) and glucose threshold (GT) on resistance exercise for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Nine men with type 2 diabetes (47.2 +/- 12.4 years, 87.6 +/- 20.0 kg, 174.9 +/- 5.9 cm, and 22.4 +/- 7.2% body fat) performed incremental tests (ITs) on the leg press (LP) and bench press (BP) at relative intensities of 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) at each 1-minute stage. During the 2-minute interval between stages, 25 mul of capillary blood were collected from the earlobe for blood lactate [Lac] and blood glucose [Gluc] analysis (YSI 2700S). The LT in the LP and BP was identified at IT by the inflexion in [Lac] response as well as by an equation originated from a polynomial adjustment (LTp) of the [Lac]/% 1RM ratio responses. The lowest [Gluc] during the IT identified the GT. The analysis of variance did not show differences among the 1RM at the thresholds identified by different methods in the LP (LTLP = 31.0% +/- 5.3% 1RM; GTLP = 32.1% +/- 6.1% 1RM; LTpLP = 36.7% +/- 5.6% 1RM; p > 0.05) and BP (LTBP = 29.9% +/- 8.5% 1RM; GTBP = 32.1% +/- 8.5% 1RM; LTpBP = 31.8% +/- 6.7% 1RM; p > 0.05). It was concluded that it was possible to identify the LT and GT in resistance exercise by different methods for individuals with type 2 diabetes with no differences between them. The intensities (kg) corresponding to these thresholds were between 46% and 60% of the body weight on the LP and between 18% and 26% of the body weight on the BP, in which the exercise prescription would be done to this intensity in 3 sets of 20 to 30 repetitions each and 1 minute of rest while alternating the muscle groups for blood glucose control for individuals with characteristics similar to the participants. PMID:18545200

  4. The research of calibration method on lens-tilt displacement transmission-type system based on the aberration bounded model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chun-mei; Liu, Bing-qi; Li, Li; Huang, Fu-yu; Zhang, Chu

    2015-10-01

    As the developing appliance range of high-resolution optical design, the requirement on the aberration of system design is becoming higher and higher, but the installation and adjustment error of optical components is an important element which influences the aberration. The decentration and tilt of optical components result not only the image lateral displacement but also the aberration enlargement of the optical system, the research on image quality of plane symmetric optical system is becoming more and more popular. The Gaussian correction methods on lens decentration already exist, but it is short of theoretical research to guide the correction on the lens tilt, which leads to the effect of image lateral displacement. This thesis analyzes theoretically a mathematical model between the lens tilt degree and wave aberration, and deduces mathematically the correction equation of zero aberration increment under the aberration constraint condition. Taking an example of some type optical sight, the ZEMAX simulation is carried out to validate this method, and the results show that: This method can effectively guide the correction of lens tilt, and reduce the influence of lens position change on the optical imaging quality. It has important practical significance to guide high-resolution optical design.

  5. Performance of DFT+U method for prediction of structural and thermodynamic parameters of monazite-type ceramics.

    PubMed

    Blanca Romero, Ariadna; Kowalski, Piotr M; Beridze, George; Schlenz, Hartmut; Bosbach, Dirk

    2014-07-01

    We performed a density functional theory (DFT) study of the monazite-type ceramics using DFT+U method, where the Hubbard U parameters are derived ab initio, with the main goal in testing the predictive power of this computational method for modeling of f-electron materials that are of interest in nuclear waste management. We show that DFT+U approach with PBEsol as the exchange-correlation functional significantly improves description of structures and thermodynamic parameters of lanthanide-bearing oxides and monazites over commonly used standard DFT (PBE) approach. We found that it is essential to use the Hubbard U parameter derived for a given element and a given structure to reproduce the structural parameters of the measured materials. We obtained exceptionally good description of the structural parameters with U parameter derived using the linear response approach of Cococcioni and de Gironcoli (Phys. Rev. B 2005, 71, 035105). This shows that affordable methods, such as DFT+U with a clever choice of exchange-correlation functional and the Hubbard U parameter can lead to a good description of f-electron materials. PMID:24760757

  6. A Degenerate Primer MOB Typing (DPMT) Method to Classify Gamma-Proteobacterial Plasmids in Clinical and Environmental Settings

    PubMed Central

    de la Cruz, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Transmissible plasmids are responsible for the spread of genetic determinants, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence traits, causing a large ecological and epidemiological impact. Transmissible plasmids, either conjugative or mobilizable, have in common the presence of a relaxase gene. Relaxases were previously classified in six protein families according to their phylogeny. Degenerate primers hybridizing to coding sequences of conserved amino acid motifs were designed to amplify related relaxase genes from γ-Proteobacterial plasmids. Specificity and sensitivity of a selected set of 19 primer pairs were first tested using a collection of 33 reference relaxases, representing the diversity of γ-Proteobacterial plasmids. The validated set was then applied to the analysis of two plasmid collections obtained from clinical isolates. The relaxase screening method, which we call “Degenerate Primer MOB Typing” or DPMT, detected not only most known Inc/Rep groups, but also a plethora of plasmids not previously assigned to any Inc group or Rep-type. PMID:22792321

  7. A Novel Approach for Weed Type Classification Based on Shape Descriptors and a Fuzzy Decision-Making Method

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Pedro Javier; Dorado, José.; Ribeiro, Ángela.

    2014-01-01

    An important objective in weed management is the discrimination between grasses (monocots) and broad-leaved weeds (dicots), because these two weed groups can be appropriately controlled by specific herbicides. In fact, efficiency is higher if selective treatment is performed for each type of infestation instead of using a broadcast herbicide on the whole surface. This work proposes a strategy where weeds are characterised by a set of shape descriptors (the seven Hu moments and six geometric shape descriptors). Weeds appear in outdoor field images which display real situations obtained from a RGB camera. Thus, images present a mixture of both weed species under varying conditions of lighting. In the presented approach, four decision-making methods were adapted to use the best shape descriptors as attributes and a choice was taken. This proposal establishes a novel methodology with a high success rate in weed species discrimination. PMID:25195854

  8. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy types 4 and 5: Review and proposal of a new rehabilitation method.

    PubMed

    Yozu, Arito; Haga, Nobuhiko; Funato, Tetsuro; Owaki, Dai; Chiba, Ryosuke; Ota, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although pain is unpleasant, it should serve as a reminder for individuals to avoid similar damaging incidents in the future. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) includes genetic disorders involving various sensory and autonomic dysfunctions. They are classified by the mode of inheritance, clinical features, and related genes. HSAN type 4 (HSAN-4) and type 5 (HSAN-5) are characterized by insensitivity to pain and thermal sensation. Further, HSAN-4 is accompanied by decreased sweating and intellectual disabilities. These characteristics of HSAN-4 and -5 result in many clinical features, such as pediatric, psychiatric, orthopedic, oral, dermatological, and ophthalmological problems. Orthopedic problems include destructive injuries such as multiple fractures and joint dislocation. Studies on gait have shown greater speed and higher heel contact angular velocity in HSAN-4 and -5 patients compared with controls. Studies on grasp-lift-holding tasks have shown higher grasp force and fluctuations in acceleration of the object. We believe that these findings represent outcomes of deficient motor learning. We propose a new rehabilitation method for patients with HSAN-4 and -5, with the aim of decreasing their destructive injuries. PMID:26562335

  9. Dental age estimation and different predictive ability of various tooth types in the Czech population: data mining methods.

    PubMed

    Velemínská, Jana; Pilný, Ales; Cepek, Miroslav; Kot'ová, Magdaléna; Kubelková, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Dental development is frequently used to estimate age in many anthropological specializations. The aim of this study was to extract an accurate predictive age system for the Czech population and to discover any different predictive ability of various tooth types and their ontogenetic stability during infancy and adolescence. A cross-sectional panoramic X-ray study was based on developmental stages assessment of mandibular teeth (Moorrees et al. 1963) using 1393 individuals aged from 3 to 17 years. Data mining methods were used for dental age estimation. These are based on nonlinear relationships between the predicted age and data sets. Compared with other tested predictive models, the GAME method predicted age with the highest accuracy. Age-interval estimations between the 10th and 90th percentiles ranged from -1.06 to +1.01 years in girls and from -1.13 to +1.20 in boys. Accuracy was expressed by RMS error, which is the average deviation between estimated and chronological age. The predictive value of individual teeth changed during the investigated period from 3 to 17 years. When we evaluated the whole period, the second molars exhibited the best predictive ability. When evaluating partial age periods, we found that the accuracy of biological age prediction declines with increasing age (from 0.52 to 1.20 years in girls and from 0.62 to 1.22 years in boys) and that the predictive importance of tooth types changes, depending on variability and the number of developmental stages in the age interval. GAME is a promising tool for age-interval estimation studies as they can provide reliable predictive models. PMID:24466642

  10. Review and International Recommendation of Methods for Typing Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and Their Implications for Improved Knowledge of Gonococcal Epidemiology, Treatment, and Biology

    PubMed Central

    Unemo, Magnus; Dillon, Jo-Anne R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Gonorrhea, which may become untreatable due to multiple resistance to available antibiotics, remains a public health problem worldwide. Precise methods for typing Neisseria gonorrhoeae, together with epidemiological information, are crucial for an enhanced understanding regarding issues involving epidemiology, test of cure and contact tracing, identifying core groups and risk behaviors, and recommending effective antimicrobial treatment, control, and preventive measures. This review evaluates methods for typing N. gonorrhoeae isolates and recommends various methods for different situations. Phenotypic typing methods, as well as some now-outdated DNA-based methods, have limited usefulness in differentiating between strains of N. gonorrhoeae. Genotypic methods based on DNA sequencing are preferred, and the selection of the appropriate genotypic method should be guided by its performance characteristics and whether short-term epidemiology (microepidemiology) or long-term and/or global epidemiology (macroepidemiology) matters are being investigated. Currently, for microepidemiological questions, the best methods for fast, objective, portable, highly discriminatory, reproducible, typeable, and high-throughput characterization are N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) or full- or extended-length porB gene sequencing. However, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Opa typing can be valuable in specific situations, i.e., extreme microepidemiology, despite their limitations. For macroepidemiological studies and phylogenetic studies, DNA sequencing of chromosomal housekeeping genes, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), provides a more nuanced understanding. PMID:21734242

  11. A PCR-based genotyping method to distinguish between wild-type and ornamental varieties of Imperata cylindrica.

    PubMed

    Cseke, Leland J; Talley, Sharon M

    2012-01-01

    Wild-type I. cylindrica (cogongrass) is one of the top ten worst invasive plants in the world, negatively impacting agricultural and natural resources in 73 different countries throughout Africa, Asia, Europe, New Zealand, Oceania and the Americas(1-2). Cogongrass forms rapidly-spreading, monodominant stands that displace a large variety of native plant species and in turn threaten the native animals that depend on the displaced native plant species for forage and shelter. To add to the problem, an ornamental variety [I. cylindrica var. koenigii (Retzius)] is widely marketed under the names of Imperata cylindrica 'Rubra', Red Baron, and Japanese blood grass (JBG). This variety is putatively sterile and noninvasive and is considered a desirable ornamental for its red-colored leaves. However, under the correct conditions, JBG can produce viable seed (Carol Holko, 2009 personal communication) and can revert to a green invasive form that is often indistinguishable from cogongrass as it takes on the distinguishing characteristics of the wild-type invasive variety(4) (Figure 1). This makes identification using morphology a difficult task even for well-trained plant taxonomists. Reversion of JBG to an aggressive green phenotype is also not a rare occurrence. Using sequence comparisons of coding and variable regions in both nuclear and chloroplast DNA, we have confirmed that JBG has reverted to the green invasive within the states of Maryland, South Carolina, and Missouri. JBG has been sold and planted in just about every state in the continental U.S. where there is not an active cogongrass infestation. The extent of the revert problem in not well understood because reverted plants are undocumented and often destroyed. Application of this molecular protocol provides a method to identify JBG reverts and can help keep these varieties from co-occurring and possibly hybridizing. Cogongrass is an obligate outcrosser and, when crossed with a different genotype, can produce

  12. Species Identification of Bovine, Ovine and Porcine Type 1 Collagen; Comparing Peptide Mass Fingerprinting and LC-Based Proteomics Methods

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is one of the most ubiquitous proteins in the animal kingdom and the dominant protein in extracellular tissues such as bone, skin and other connective tissues in which it acts primarily as a supporting scaffold. It has been widely investigated scientifically, not only as a biomedical material for regenerative medicine, but also for its role as a food source for both humans and livestock. Due to the long-term stability of collagen, as well as its abundance in bone, it has been proposed as a source of biomarkers for species identification not only for heat- and pressure-rendered animal feed but also in ancient archaeological and palaeontological specimens, typically carried out by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) as well as in-depth liquid chromatography (LC)-based tandem mass spectrometric methods. Through the analysis of the three most common domesticates species, cow, sheep, and pig, this research investigates the advantages of each approach over the other, investigating sites of sequence variation with known functional properties of the collagen molecule. Results indicate that the previously identified species biomarkers through PMF analysis are not among the most variable type 1 collagen peptides present in these tissues, the latter of which can be detected by LC-based methods. However, it is clear that the highly repetitive sequence motif of collagen throughout the molecule, combined with the variability of the sites and relative abundance levels of hydroxylation, can result in high scoring false positive peptide matches using these LC-based methods. Additionally, the greater alpha 2(I) chain sequence variation, in comparison to the alpha 1(I) chain, did not appear to be specific to any particular functional properties, implying that intra-chain functional constraints on sequence variation are not as great as inter-chain constraints. However, although some of the most variable peptides were only observed in LC-based methods, until the range of

  13. A numerical method to enhance the performance of a cam-type electric motor-driven left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Ming; Lu, Cunyue; Xu, Liang; Zhuang, Xiaoqi; Meng, Fan

    2013-10-01

    Pulsatile left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) driven by electric motors have been widely accepted as a treatment of heart failure. Performance enhancement with computer assistance for this kind of LVAD has seldom been reported. In this article, a numerical method is proposed to assist the design of a cam-type pump. The method requires an integrated model of an LVAD system, consisting of a motor, a transmission mechanism, and a cardiovascular circulation. Performance indices, that is, outlet pressure, outlet flow, and pump efficiency, were used to select the best cam profile from six candidates. A prototype pump connected to a mock circulatory loop (MCL) was used to calibrate the friction coefficient of the cam groove and preliminarily evaluate modeling accuracy. In vitro experiments show that the mean outlet pressure and flow can be predicted with high accuracy by the model, and gross geometries of the measurements can also be reproduced. Simulation results demonstrate that as the total peripheral resistance (TPR) is fixed at 1.1 mm Hg.s/mL, the two-cycle 2/3-rise profile is the best. Compared with other profiles, the maximum increases of pressure and flow indices are 75 and 76%, respectively, and the maximum efficiency increase is over 51%. For different TPRs (0.5∼1.5 mm Hg.s/mL) and operation intervals (0.1∼0.4 s) in counterpulsation, the conclusion is also acceptable. PMID:23634991

  14. A quantitative real-time PCR method using an X-linked gene for sex typing in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Maria; Castelló, Anna; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Folch, Josep M

    2013-06-01

    At present, a wide range of molecular sex-typing protocols in wild and domestic animals are available. In pigs, most of these methods are based on PCR amplification of X-Y homologous genes followed by gel electrophoresis which is time-consuming and in some cases expensive. In this paper, we describe, for the first time, a SYBR green-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using an X-linked gene, the glycoprotein M6B, for genetic sexing of pigs. Taking into account the differences in the glycoprotein M6B gene copy number between genders, we determine the correct sex of 54 pig samples from either diaphragm or hair follicle from different breeds using the 2(-ΔΔCT) method for relative quantification. Our qPCR assay represents a quick, inexpensive, and reliable tool for sex determination in pigs. This new protocol could be easily adapted to other species in which the sex determination was required. PMID:22843326

  15. A Computational Analysis of the Expanding Photosphere Method and the Distances to Type II-P Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Robert C.; Didier, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of research into the Expanding Photosphere Method (EPM) and its use in determining the distance to a supernova and the epoch in which the explosion occurred. This research was part of a six-week summer program pairing faculty with undergraduate students, computationally determining the distance and explosion epoch through the EPM's assumption of blackbody luminosity with empirically-derived correction factors. This method was applied to a sampling of supernovae with data sets covering different post-explosion time periods. We compare our distance and explosion epoch calculations to those determined by other means, demonstrate which types of data sets can be more reliably applied to the EPM, and describe the uncertainties involved. Although it is inconclusive for now as to how effective the EPM is as an indicator of the explosion epoch, this research provides further evidence of its effectiveness as an indicator of distance, provided the data set is large enough and covers earlier post-explosion phases of the supernova.

  16. Study on the design method of the jack-up's x-type cantilever allowable load nephogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yazhou; Sun, Chengmeng; Qin, Hongde; Jiang, Bin; Fan, Yansong

    2014-09-01

    The extending of a cantilever and transverse moving of a drilling floor enable the jack-up to operate in several well positions after the Jack-up has pitched. The cantilever allowable load nephogram is the critical reference which can evaluate the jack-up's drilling ability, design the cantilever structure and instruct a jack-up manager to make the operations safe. The intent of this paper is to explore the interrelationships between the cantilever position, drilling floor and the loads including wind force, the stand set-back weight etc., through analyzing the structure and load characteristics of the x-type cantilever and the simplified mechanics model with the restriction of the maximum moment capacity of the cantilever single side beam. Referring to several typical position designs load values, the cantilever allowable load nephogram is obtained by using the suitable interpolation method. The paper gives a method for cantilever allowable load design, which is proved reliable and effective by the calculation example.

  17. Evaluation of a Method Using Three Genomic Guided Escherichia coli Markers for Phylogenetic Typing of E. coli Isolates of Various Genetic Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Hirai, Itaru

    2015-06-01

    Genotyping and characterization of bacterial isolates are essential steps in the identification and control of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Recently, one novel genotyping method using three genomic guided Escherichia coli markers (GIG-EM), dinG, tonB, and dipeptide permease (DPP), was reported. Because GIG-EM has not been fully evaluated using clinical isolates, we assessed this typing method with 72 E. coli collection of reference (ECOR) environmental E. coli reference strains and 63 E. coli isolates of various genetic backgrounds. In this study, we designated 768 bp of dinG, 745 bp of tonB, and 655 bp of DPP target sequences for use in the typing method. Concatenations of the processed marker sequences were used to draw GIG-EM phylogenetic trees. E. coli isolates with identical sequence types as identified by the conventional multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method were localized to the same branch of the GIG-EM phylogenetic tree. Sixteen clinical E. coli isolates were utilized as test isolates without prior characterization by conventional MLST and phylogenetic grouping before GIG-EM typing. Of these, 14 clinical isolates were assigned to a branch including only isolates of a pandemic clone, E. coli B2-ST131-O25b, and these results were confirmed by conventional typing methods. Our results suggested that the GIG-EM typing method and its application to phylogenetic trees might be useful tools for the molecular characterization and determination of the genetic relationships among E. coli isolates. PMID:25809972

  18. Lagrange-type modeling of continuous dielectric permittivity variation in double-higher-order volume integral equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobanyan, E.; Ilić, M. M.; Notaroš, B. M.

    2015-05-01

    A novel double-higher-order entire-domain volume integral equation (VIE) technique for efficient analysis of electromagnetic structures with continuously inhomogeneous dielectric materials is presented. The technique takes advantage of large curved hexahedral discretization elements—enabled by double-higher-order modeling (higher-order modeling of both the geometry and the current)—in applications involving highly inhomogeneous dielectric bodies. Lagrange-type modeling of an arbitrary continuous variation of the equivalent complex permittivity of the dielectric throughout each VIE geometrical element is implemented, in place of piecewise homogeneous approximate models of the inhomogeneous structures. The technique combines the features of the previous double-higher-order piecewise homogeneous VIE method and continuously inhomogeneous finite element method (FEM). This appears to be the first implementation and demonstration of a VIE method with double-higher-order discretization elements and conformal modeling of inhomogeneous dielectric materials embedded within elements that are also higher (arbitrary) order (with arbitrary material-representation orders within each curved and large VIE element). The new technique is validated and evaluated by comparisons with a continuously inhomogeneous double-higher-order FEM technique, a piecewise homogeneous version of the double-higher-order VIE technique, and a commercial piecewise homogeneous FEM code. The examples include two real-world applications involving continuously inhomogeneous permittivity profiles: scattering from an egg-shaped melting hailstone and near-field analysis of a Luneburg lens, illuminated by a corrugated horn antenna. The results show that the new technique is more efficient and ensures considerable reductions in the number of unknowns and computational time when compared to the three alternative approaches.

  19. Effect of Filling Type and Heating Method on Prevalence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes in Dumplings Produced in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Barbara; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-05-01

    The count of Listeria monocytogenes was determined, before and after heat treatment, in 200 samples of dumplings of 9 brands and with different types of stuffing. Analyses were conducted according to ISO 11290-1 standard and with real-time PCR method. The highest count of L. monocytogenes was found in meat dumplings (10(2) to 10(4) CFU/g), whereas products with white cheese-potato stuffing and vegetable-mushroom stuffing contained significantly less Listeria, 20 to 80 and 5 to 32 CFU/g, respectively. In cooled meat dumplings the extent of contamination depended significantly on the producer. In addition, a significant (P < 0.05) correlation was determined between contamination level and meat content in the stuffing (rho = 0.418), especially in stuffing containing pork meat (0.464), contrary to beef-containing stuffing (0.284). Heating dumplings in boiling water for 2 min completely eliminated L. monocytogenes in meat dumplings. In contrast, the microwave heating applied for 2 min at 600 W only reduced the count of L. monocytogenes by 1 to 2 logs. Hence, the microwave heating failed to reduce the risk of infection with this pathogen below the level permissible in the EU regulation, especially in the most contaminated samples. In this case, the efficacy of microwave heating was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the initial count of L. monocytogenes (rho = 0.626), then by meat content in the stuffing (0.476), and to the lowest extent--by the type of meat (0.415 to 0.425). However, no Listeria sp. and L. monocytogenes were isolated from cooked dumplings with fruits (strawberries or blueberries). PMID:25847074

  20. Numerical simulation of X-wing type biplane flapping wings in 3D using the immersed boundary method.

    PubMed

    Tay, W B; van Oudheusden, B W; Bijl, H

    2014-09-01

    The numerical simulation of an insect-sized 'X-wing' type biplane flapping wing configuration is performed in 3D using an immersed boundary method solver at Reynolds numbers equal to 1000 (1 k) and 5 k, based on the wing's root chord length. This X-wing type flapping configuration draws its inspiration from Delfly, a bio-inspired ornithopter MAV which has two pairs of wings flapping in anti-phase in a biplane configuration. The objective of the present investigation is to assess the aerodynamic performance when the original Delfly flapping wing micro-aerial vehicle (FMAV) is reduced to the size of an insect. Results show that the X-wing configuration gives more than twice the average thrust compared with only flapping the upper pair of wings of the X-wing. However, the X-wing's average thrust is only 40% that of the upper wing flapping at twice the stroke angle. Despite this, the increased stability which results from the smaller lift and moment variation of the X-wing configuration makes it more suited for sharp image capture and recognition. These advantages make the X-wing configuration an attractive alternative design for insect-sized FMAVS compared to the single wing configuration. In the Reynolds number comparison, the vorticity iso-surface plot at a Reynolds number of 5 k revealed smaller, finer vortical structures compared to the simulation at 1 k, due to vortices' breakup. In comparison, the force output difference is much smaller between Re = 1 k and 5 k. Increasing the body inclination angle generates a uniform leading edge vortex instead of a conical one along the wingspan, giving higher lift. Understanding the force variation as the body inclination angle increases will allow FMAV designers to optimize the thrust and lift ratio for higher efficiency under different operational requirements. Lastly, increasing the spanwise flexibility of the wings increases the thrust slightly but decreases the efficiency. The thrust result is similar to one of the

  1. A Framework for Assessing the Concordance of Molecular Typing Methods and the True Strain Phylogeny of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Using Draft Genome Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Catherine D.; Kruczkiewicz, Peter; Mutschall, Steven; Tudor, Andrei; Clark, Clifford; Taboada, Eduardo N.

    2012-01-01

    Tracking of sources of sporadic cases of campylobacteriosis remains challenging, as commonly used molecular typing methods have limited ability to unambiguously link genetically related strains. Genomics has become increasingly prominent in the public health response to enteric pathogens as methods enable characterization of pathogens at an unprecedented level of resolution. However, the cost of sequencing and expertise required for bioinformatic analyses remains prohibitive, and these comprehensive analyses are limited to a few priority strains. Although several molecular typing methods are currently widely used for epidemiological analysis of campylobacters, it is not clear how accurately these methods reflect true strain relationships. To address this, we have developed a framework and associated computational tools to rapidly analyze draft genome sequence data for the assessment of molecular typing methods against a “gold standard” based on the phylogenetic analysis of highly conserved core (HCC) genes with high sequence quality. We analyzed 104 publicly available whole genome sequences (WGS) of C. jejuni and C. coli. In addition to in silico determination of multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), flaA, and porA type, as well as comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF) type, we inferred a “reference” phylogeny based on 389 HCC genes. Molecular typing data were compared to the reference phylogeny for concordance using the adjusted Wallace coefficient (AWC) with confidence intervals. Although MLST targets the sequence variability in core genes and CGF targets insertions/deletions of accessory genes, both methods are based on multi-locus analysis and provided better estimates of true phylogeny than methods based on single loci (porA, flaA). A more comprehensive WGS dataset including additional genetically related strains, both epidemiologically linked and unlinked, will be necessary to more comprehensively assess the performance of subtyping methods for

  2. Rapid detection of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus type 3 using a reverse transcription loop-mediated amplification method.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Helen Ann; Pietersen, Gerhard

    2013-12-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is the most important disease of Grapevines in South Africa. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus type 3 (GLRaV-3) has a close association with the disease and is prevalent in South African vineyards. GLD can be controlled using a combination of virus-free planting material, systemic insecticides to control vector populations and removal of infected vines by roguing. Infected vines are identified each autumn using either symptom display (in red cultivars) or ELISA (in white cultivars). While ELISA is a simple, reliable means of testing for GLRaV-3, it is time consuming, laborious and insensitive and a quicker, more sensitive method of detecting GLRaV-3 in the field is needed. A single-tube one-step reverse transcription (RT) loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay combined with a simple RNA extraction protocol was developed for the rapid and easy detection of GLRaV-3. Hydroxy napthol blue was included as an indicator and under isothermal conditions at 60 °C the target viral gene could be amplified in under 2h and positive results could be easily seen by examining the colour change from violet to sky blue. Using this method, 50 samples could be also pooled together with a single positive sample still being detected. A direct comparison of ELISA, nested PCR and RT-LAMP showed that RT-LAMP is as sensitive as nested PCR and could be performed in a much shorter time with less equipment. This assay is may be a possible alternative to ELISA for the detection of GLRaV-3 in the field. PMID:24025344

  3. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, Megan E.; Ash, Susan; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Russell, Anthony W.

    2015-01-01

    Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI) with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR). Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2) participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day) was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57), carbohydrate (g/day) (r = 0.63, p < 0.05), protein (g/day) (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) and alcohol (g/day) (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01), with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day) (r = 0.24). Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.77–0.99) was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82–0.99). These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required. PMID:26091234

  4. Detection of Diurnal Variation of Tomato Transcriptome through the Molecular Timetable Method in a Sunlight-Type Plant Factory.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Takanobu; Tanigaki, Yusuke; Takayama, Kotaro; Nagano, Atsushi J; Honjo, Mie N; Fukuda, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    The timing of measurement during plant growth is important because many genes are expressed periodically and orchestrate physiological events. Their periodicity is generated by environmental fluctuations as external factors and the circadian clock as the internal factor. The circadian clock orchestrates physiological events such as photosynthesis or flowering and it enables enhanced growth and herbivory resistance. These characteristics have possible applications for agriculture. In this study, we demonstrated the diurnal variation of the transcriptome in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves through molecular timetable method in a sunlight-type plant factory. Molecular timetable methods have been developed to detect periodic genes and estimate individual internal body time from these expression profiles in mammals. We sampled tomato leaves every 2 h for 2 days and acquired time-course transcriptome data by RNA-Seq. Many genes were expressed periodically and these expressions were stable across the 1st and 2nd days of measurement. We selected 143 time-indicating genes whose expression indicated periodically, and estimated internal time in the plant from these expression profiles. The estimated internal time was generally the same as the external environment time; however, there was a difference of more than 1 h between the two for some sampling points. Furthermore, the stress-responsive genes also showed weakly periodic expression, implying that they were usually expressed periodically, regulated by light-dark cycles as an external factor or the circadian clock as the internal factor, and could be particularly expressed when the plant experiences some specific stress under agricultural situations. This study suggests that circadian clock mediate the optimization for fluctuating environments in the field and it has possibilities to enhance resistibility to stress and floral induction by controlling circadian clock through light supplement and temperature control

  5. Detection of Diurnal Variation of Tomato Transcriptome through the Molecular Timetable Method in a Sunlight-Type Plant Factory

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Takanobu; Tanigaki, Yusuke; Takayama, Kotaro; Nagano, Atsushi J.; Honjo, Mie N.; Fukuda, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    The timing of measurement during plant growth is important because many genes are expressed periodically and orchestrate physiological events. Their periodicity is generated by environmental fluctuations as external factors and the circadian clock as the internal factor. The circadian clock orchestrates physiological events such as photosynthesis or flowering and it enables enhanced growth and herbivory resistance. These characteristics have possible applications for agriculture. In this study, we demonstrated the diurnal variation of the transcriptome in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves through molecular timetable method in a sunlight-type plant factory. Molecular timetable methods have been developed to detect periodic genes and estimate individual internal body time from these expression profiles in mammals. We sampled tomato leaves every 2 h for 2 days and acquired time-course transcriptome data by RNA-Seq. Many genes were expressed periodically and these expressions were stable across the 1st and 2nd days of measurement. We selected 143 time-indicating genes whose expression indicated periodically, and estimated internal time in the plant from these expression profiles. The estimated internal time was generally the same as the external environment time; however, there was a difference of more than 1 h between the two for some sampling points. Furthermore, the stress-responsive genes also showed weakly periodic expression, implying that they were usually expressed periodically, regulated by light–dark cycles as an external factor or the circadian clock as the internal factor, and could be particularly expressed when the plant experiences some specific stress under agricultural situations. This study suggests that circadian clock mediate the optimization for fluctuating environments in the field and it has possibilities to enhance resistibility to stress and floral induction by controlling circadian clock through light supplement and temperature control

  6. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

    PubMed

    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity. PMID:22981469

  7. Magnetic properties of Sr-La system M-type ferrite fine particles prepared by controlling the chemical coprecipitation method

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Seki, Hirota

    1999-09-01

    Single phase Sr-La M-type ferrite fine particles were prepared by the chemical coprecipitation and subsequent heat-treatment methods. Optimum magnetic properties were achieved with materials of composition Sr{sub 0.794}{sup 2+}La{sub 0.172}{sup 3+}Fe{sub 0.335}{sup 2+}Fe{sub 11.74}{sup 3+}O{sub 19}, and heat-treatment of 950 C x 2h in air. The magnetic and physical properties are {sigma}{sub s} = 90.5 x 10{sup {minus}6} Wb {center{underscore}dot} m/kg (72.0emu/g), H{sub cJ} = 505.3 kA/m (6.35 kOe), Tc = 454.4 C, the lattice constants a = 0.5882nm, c = 2.303nm, the activation energy = 230.9kJ/mol(55.2kcal/mol), and the average particle size = 0.3{micro}m.

  8. Layered double hydroxide/polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites. Influence of the intercalated LDH anion and the type of polymerization heating method

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero, M.; Martinez-Gallegos, S.; Labajos, F.M.; Rives, V.

    2011-11-15

    Conventional and microwave heating routes have been used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate had been previously intercalated in the LDH. PXRD and TEM were used to detect the degree of dispersion of the filler and the type of the polymeric composites obtained, and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the polymerization process had taken place. The thermal stability of these composites, as studied by thermogravimetric analysis, was enhanced when the microwave heating method was applied. Dodecyl sulphate was more effective than terephthalate to exfoliate the samples, which only occurred for the terephthalate ones under microwave irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Conventional and microwave heating routes were used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate was previously intercalated into the LDH. The microwave process improves the dispersion and the thermal stability of nanocomposites due to the interaction of the microwave radiation and the dipolar properties of EG and the homogeneous heating. Highlights: > LDH-PET compatibility is enhanced by preintercalation of organic anions. > Dodecylsulphate performance is much better than that of terephthalate. > Microwave heating improves the thermal stability of the composites. > Microwave heating improves as well the dispersion of the inorganic phase.

  9. Comparison of biotyping methods as alternative identification tools to molecular typing of pathogenic Cryptococcus species in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyazika, Tinashe K; Robertson, Valerie J; Nherera, Brenda; Mapondera, Prichard T; Meis, Jacques F; Hagen, Ferry

    2016-03-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is the leading fungal infection and AIDS defining opportunistic illness in patients with late stage HIV infection, particularly in South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Given the high mortality, clinical differences and the extensive ecological niche of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complexes, there is need for laboratories in sub-Sahara African countries to adopt new and alternative reliable diagnostic algorithms that rapidly identify and distinguish these species. We biotyped 74 and then amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyped 66 Cryptococcus isolates from a cohort of patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. C. gattii sensu lato was isolated at a prevalence of 16.7% (n = 11/66) and C. neoformans sensu stricto was responsible for 83.3% (n = 55/66) of the infections. l-Canavanine glycine bromothymol blue, yeast-carbon-base-d-proline-d-tryptophan and creatinine dextrose bromothymol blue thymine were able to distinguish pathogenic C. gattii sensu lato from C. neoformans sensu stricto species when compared with AFLP genotyping. This study demonstrates high C. gattii sensu lato prevalence in Zimbabwe. In addition, biotyping methods can be used as alternative diagnostic tools to molecular typing in resource-limited areas for differentiating pathogenic Cryptococcus species. PMID:26661484

  10. [[The method for projecting households by family type in terms of headship cohort change--Part 2. Projecting marital status and headship rates by family type in household formation stage

    PubMed

    Oe, M

    1994-01-01

    "This article is Part 2 of the study on the method for projecting households [in Japan] by family type.... Part 1 was on modelling the transition process among different family types of households headed by [persons] over 35 years old, and on the method for projecting households by family type using the transition model.... Part 2 focuses on the method for projecting households in the formation stage headed by [those] under 34 years old.... Among projection outcomes, the proportion never married of males aged 30-34 goes up from 32.8 per cent to 37.3 per cent between 1990 and 2010, and the proportion never married of females aged 25-29 from 40.4 per cent to 47.1 per cent. [The] tendency of late marriage will continue to the beginning of the twenty-first century." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12288665

  11. A method for studying the evolution of naming error types in the recovery of acute aphasia: a single-patient and single-stimulus approach.

    PubMed

    Capitani, Erminio; Laiacona, Marcella

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we present a method for analysing the evolution of picture naming errors in the follow-up of single patients affected by acute aphasia. In particular, we have based our analysis on the presence of response type inconsistency, as patients often fail to give the same type of response to the same stimulus at a task repetition attempted after a short time. Due to the uncertain definition of the type of response associated to a given stimulus for each stage of the clinical course, the investigation of the factors underlying the transition between different types of response is a serious methodological challenge. The solution presented here is based on a multiple presentation of the same naming battery at different stages of the clinical course, on the estimation of the probability associated with each response type at each stage, and on the estimation of the transition probability between different response types from one clinical stage to another. The basic idea was to use the set of probabilities referred to above as single stimuli weights in the study of linear models; these permit to compare different types of responses and different types of transitions. We present the application of this method to the study of a single case, a woman affected by fluent aphasia examined twice in the first 2 weeks following stroke. Besides discussing empirical findings, we comment on the usefulness of this method for wider fields of inquiry. PMID:14725799

  12. Error rate for HLA-B antigen assignment by serology: implications for proficiency testing and utilization of DNA-based typing methods.

    PubMed

    Bozón, M V; Delgado, J C; Selvakumar, A; Clavijo, O P; Salazar, M; Ohashi, M; Alosco, S M; Russell, J; Yu, N; Dupont, B; Yunis, E J

    1997-10-01

    Until recently, the majority of HLA class I typing has been performed by serology. Expensive commercial typing trays are frequently used for testing non-Caucasian subjects and new strategies using DNA-based methods have been adopted for improving clinical histocompatibility testing results and adapted as supplements in proficiency testing. A double-blind comparison of the typing of HLA-B specificities in 40 samples was carried out between serology and two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) and PCR amplification and subsequent hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP). The results demonstrated 22.5% misassignments of HLA-B antigens by serology. There was complete concordance between the results obtained with the two PCR based typing methods. A second panel of 20 donor samples with incomplete or ambiguous serologic results was analyzed by PCR-SSP and SSOP Both PCR methods identified correctly the HLA-B antigens. Our results suggest that more accurate typing results can be achieved by complementing serologic testing with DNA-based typing techniques. The level of resolution for HLA-B antigen assignment can be obtained by this combination of serology and limited DNA-based typing is equivalent to the HLA-B specificities defined by the WHO-HLA Committee. This level of resolution cannot routinely be achieved in clinical histocompatibility testing or in proficiency testing using serologic reagents only. PMID:9349624

  13. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  14. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  15. Deep-Sequencing Method for Quantifying Background Abundances of Symbiodinium Types: Exploring the Rare Symbiodinium Biosphere in Reef-Building Corals

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Kate M.; Davies, Sarah W.; Kenkel, Carly D.; Willis, Bette L.; Matz, Mikhail V.; Bay, Line K.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of reef-building corals to associate with environmentally-appropriate types of endosymbionts from the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium contributes significantly to their success at local scales. Additionally, some corals are able to acclimatize to environmental perturbations by shuffling the relative proportions of different Symbiodinium types hosted. Understanding the dynamics of these symbioses requires a sensitive and quantitative method of Symbiodinium genotyping. Electrophoresis methods, still widely utilized for this purpose, are predominantly qualitative and cannot guarantee detection of a background type below 10% of the total Symbiodinium population. Here, the relative abundances of four Symbiodinium types (A13, C1, C3, and D1) in mixed samples of known composition were quantified using deep sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal RNA gene (ITS-2) by means of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) using Roche 454. In samples dominated by each of the four Symbiodinium types tested, background levels of the other three types were detected when present at 5%, 1%, and 0.1% levels, and their relative abundances were quantified with high (A13, C1, D1) to variable (C3) accuracy. The potential of this deep sequencing method for resolving fine-scale genetic diversity within a symbiont type was further demonstrated in a natural symbiosis using ITS-1, and uncovered reef-specific differences in the composition of Symbiodinium microadriaticum in two species of acroporid corals (Acropora digitifera and A. hyacinthus) from Palau. The ability of deep sequencing of the ITS locus (1 and 2) to detect and quantify low-abundant Symbiodinium types, as well as finer-scale diversity below the type level, will enable more robust quantification of local genetic diversity in Symbiodinium populations. This method will help to elucidate the role that background types have in maximizing coral fitness across diverse environments and in response to

  16. Controlling Type I Error Rates in Assessing DIF for Logistic Regression Method Combined with SIBTEST Regression Correction Procedure and DIF-Free-Then-DIF Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Lin; Liu, Tien-Hsiang; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous item bias test (SIBTEST) method regression procedure and the differential item functioning (DIF)-free-then-DIF strategy are applied to the logistic regression (LR) method simultaneously in this study. These procedures are used to adjust the effects of matching true score on observed score and to better control the Type I error…

  17. A T-type method for characterization of the thermoelectric performance of an individual free-standing single crystal Bi2S3 nanowire.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weigang; Miao, Tingting; Zhang, Xing; Takahashi, Koji; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Zhang, Boping; Ge, Zhenhua

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive method to evaluate the thermoelectric performance of one-dimensional nanostructures, called the T-type method, has been first developed. The thermoelectric properties, including the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, of an individual free-standing single crystal Bi2S3 nanowire have been first characterized by applying the T-type method. The determined figure of merit is far less than the reported values of nanostructured bulk Bi2S3 samples, and the mechanism is that the Seebeck coefficient is nearly zero in the temperature range of 300-420 K and changes its sign at 320 K. PMID:26758548

  18. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Method for Simultaneous Identification and Toxigenic Type Characterization of Clostridium difficile From Stool Samples

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohammad J.; Tisdel, Naradah L.; Shah, Dhara N.; Yapar, Mehmet; Lasco, Todd M.; Garey, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to develop and validate a multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous identification and toxigenic type characterization of Clostridium difficile. Methods The multiplex real-time PCR assay targeted and simultaneously detected triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and binary toxin (cdtA) genes, and toxin A (tcdA) and B (tcdB) genes in the first and sec tubes, respectively. The results of multiplex real-time PCR were compared to those of the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay, targeting the tcdB gene alone. The toxigenic culture was used as the reference, where toxin genes were detected by multiplex real-time PCR. Results A total of 351 stool samples from consecutive patients were included in the study. Fifty-five stool samples (15.6%) were determined to be positive for the presence of C. difficile by using multiplex real-time PCR. Of these, 48 (87.2%) were toxigenic (46 tcdA and tcdB-positive, two positive for only tcdB) and 11 (22.9%) were cdtA-positive. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) of the multiplex real-time PCR compared with the toxigenic culture were 95.6%, 98.6%, 91.6%, and 99.3%, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of the multiplex real-time PCR assay was determined to be 103colonyforming unit (CFU)/g spiked stool sample and 0.0625 pg genomic DNA from culture. Analytical specificity determined by using 15 enteric and non-clostridial reference strains was 100%. Conclusions The multiplex real-time PCR assay accurately detected C. difficile isolates from diarrheal stool samples and characterized its toxin genes in a single PCR run. PMID:25932438

  19. Sensitive, Rapid, Quantitative and in Vitro Method for the Detection of Biologically Active Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type E.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula; Hernlem, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial cause of clinical infections and foodborne illnesses through its production of a group of enterotoxins (SEs) which cause gastroenteritis and also function as superantigens to massively activate T cells. In the present study, we tested Staphylococcal enterotoxin type E (SEE), which was detected in 17 of the 38 suspected staphylococcal food poisoning incidents in a British study and was the causative agent in outbreaks in France, UK and USA. The current method for detection of enterotoxin activity is an in vivo monkey or kitten bioassay; however, this expensive procedure has low sensitivity and poor reproducibility, requires many animals, is impractical to test on a large number of samples, and raises ethical concerns with regard to the use of experimental animals. The purpose of this study is to develop rapid sensitive and quantitative bioassays for detection of active SEE. We apply a genetically engineered T cell-line expressing the luciferase reporter gene under the regulation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells response element (NFAT-RE), combined with a Raji B-cell line that presents the SEE-MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class II to the engineered T cell line. Exposure of the above mixed culture to SEE induces differential expression of the luciferase gene and bioluminescence is read out in a dose dependent manner over a 6-log range. The limit of detection of biologically active SEE is 1 fg/mL which is 10⁸ times more sensitive than the monkey and kitten bioassay. PMID:27187474

  20. Sensitive, Rapid, Quantitative and in Vitro Method for the Detection of Biologically Active Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type E

    PubMed Central

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula; Hernlem, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial cause of clinical infections and foodborne illnesses through its production of a group of enterotoxins (SEs) which cause gastroenteritis and also function as superantigens to massively activate T cells. In the present study, we tested Staphylococcal enterotoxin type E (SEE), which was detected in 17 of the 38 suspected staphylococcal food poisoning incidents in a British study and was the causative agent in outbreaks in France, UK and USA. The current method for detection of enterotoxin activity is an in vivo monkey or kitten bioassay; however, this expensive procedure has low sensitivity and poor reproducibility, requires many animals, is impractical to test on a large number of samples, and raises ethical concerns with regard to the use of experimental animals. The purpose of this study is to develop rapid sensitive and quantitative bioassays for detection of active SEE. We apply a genetically engineered T cell-line expressing the luciferase reporter gene under the regulation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells response element (NFAT-RE), combined with a Raji B-cell line that presents the SEE-MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class II to the engineered T cell line. Exposure of the above mixed culture to SEE induces differential expression of the luciferase gene and bioluminescence is read out in a dose dependent manner over a 6-log range. The limit of detection of biologically active SEE is 1 fg/mL which is 109 times more sensitive than the monkey and kitten bioassay. PMID:27187474

  1. A new method for the separation of different types of nematocysts from scyphozoa and investigation of proteinaceous toxins utilizing laser catapulting and subsequent mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wiebring, Annika; Helmholz, Heike; Sötje, Ilka; Lassen, Stephan; Prange, Andreas; Tiemann, Henry

    2010-06-01

    Jellyfish have an increasing impact on marine ecology. Cnidocysts bearing stinging cells afford, amongst others, prey capture and defence. Several different types of stinging capsules are found in one species and they are supposed to have specific functions, e.g. paralysing prey or adhering to it. Due to these assumed different roles of the capsules, it is suggested that toxins, which are contained in the capsules, differ in composition. Analysis of distinct types of nematocysts requires an appropriate method for the separation of the different types. Mixtures of types of nematocysts were obtained of two species of jellyfish, Aurelia aurita and Cyanea lamarckii, by maceration of the tissue. These mixtures were treated with a method called laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC). Optimized maceration methods, which were firstly introduced as a method for this purpose, in conjunction with optimized LMPC parameters lead to sufficient amounts of separated capsules of individual types for subsequent mass-spectrometric analyses. In case of A. aurita, the resulting mass spectra had some constituents in common, whereas in the overall pattern, the two distinct nematocyst types differed. PMID:20336340

  2. HEALTHY study rationale, design and methods: Moderating risk of type 2 diabetes in multi-ethnic middle school students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed and implemented in response to the growing numbers of children and adolescents being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The objective was to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Modifiable risk factors measured were indicators of adiposity and gly...

  3. Natural olivine crystal-fabrics in the western Pacific convergence region: A new method to identify fabric type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Mainprice, David; Fujii, Ayano; Uehara, Shigeki; Shinkai, Yuri; Kondo, Yusuke; Ohara, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Teruaki; Fryer, Patricia; Bloomer, Sherman H.; Ishiwatari, Akira; Hawkins, James W.; Ji, Shaocheng

    2016-06-01

    Crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) of olivine within natural peridotites are commonly depicted by pole figures for the [100], [010], and [001] axes, and they can be categorized into five well-known fabric types: A, B, C, D, and E. These fabric types can be related to olivine slip systems: A with (010)[100], B with (010)[001], C with (001)[001], D with {0kl}[100], and E with (001)[100]. In addition, an AG type is commonly found in nature, but its origin is controversial, and could involve several contributing factors such as complex slip systems, non-coaxial strain types, or the effects of melt during plastic flow. In this paper we present all of our olivine fabric database published previously as well as new data mostly from ocean floor, mainly for the convergent margin of the western Pacific region, and we introduce a new index named Fabric-Index Angle (FIA), which is related to the P-wave property of a single olivine crystal. The FIA can be used as an alternative to classifying the CPOs into the six fabric types, and it allows a set of CPOs to be expressed as a single angle in a range between -90° and 180°. The six olivine fabric types have unique values of FIA: 63° for A type, -28° for B type, 158° for C type, 90° for D type, 106° for E type, and 0° for AG type. We divided our olivine database into five tectonic groups: ophiolites, ridge peridotites, trench peridotites, peridotite xenoliths, and peridotites enclosed in high-pressure metamorphic rocks. Our results show that although our database is not yet large enough (except for trench peridotites) to define the characteristics of the five tectonic groups, the natural olivine fabrics vary in their range of FIA: 0° to 150° for the ophiolites, 40° to 80° for the ridge peridotites, -40° to 100° for the trench peridotites, 0° to 100° for the peridotite xenoliths, and -40° to 10° for the peridotites enclosed in high-pressure metamorphic rocks. The trench peridotites show a statistically

  4. Method and system employing finite state machine modeling to identify one of a plurality of different electric load types

    DOEpatents

    Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Harley, Ronald Gordon; Habetler, Thomas G.; He, Dawei

    2016-08-09

    A system is for a plurality of different electric load types. The system includes a plurality of sensors structured to sense a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; and a processor. The processor acquires a voltage and current waveform from the sensors for a corresponding one of the different electric load types; calculates a power or current RMS profile of the waveform; quantizes the power or current RMS profile into a set of quantized state-values; evaluates a state-duration for each of the quantized state-values; evaluates a plurality of state-types based on the power or current RMS profile and the quantized state-values; generates a state-sequence that describes a corresponding finite state machine model of a generalized load start-up or transient profile for the corresponding electric load type; and identifies the corresponding electric load type.

  5. Mass Spectrometry-Based Method of Detecting and Distinguishing Type 1 and Type 2 Shiga-Like Toxins in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Christopher J.; Erickson-Beltran, Melissa L.; Skinner, Craig B.; Patfield, Stephanie A.; He, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Shiga-like toxins (verotoxins) are responsible for the virulence associated with a variety of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Direct detection of toxins requires a specific and sensitive technique. In this study, we describe a mass spectrometry-based method of analyzing the tryptic decapeptides derived from the non-toxic B subunits. A gene encoding a single protein that yields a set of relevant peptides upon digestion with trypsin was designed. The 15N-labeled protein was prepared by growing the expressing bacteria in minimal medium supplemented with 15NH4Cl. Trypsin digestion of the 15N-labeled protein yields a set of 15N-labeled peptides for use as internal standards to identify and quantify Shiga or Shiga-like toxins. We determined that this approach can be used to detect, quantify and distinguish among the known Shiga toxins (Stx) and Shiga-like toxins (Stx1 and Stx2) in the low attomole range (per injection) in complex media, including human serum. Furthermore, Stx1a could be detected and distinguished from the newly identified Stx1e in complex media. As new Shiga-like toxins are identified, this approach can be readily modified to detect them. Since intact toxins are digested with trypsin prior to analysis, the handling of intact Shiga toxins is minimized. The analysis can be accomplished within 5 h. PMID:26633510

  6. Analysis of focusing error signals by differential astigmatic method under off-center tracking in the land-groove-type optical disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Masahisa; Nakatani, Hidehiko

    2015-04-01

    We theoretically calculate the behavior of the focusing error signal in the land-groove-type optical disk when the objective lens traverses on out of the radius of the optical disk. The differential astigmatic method is employed instead of the conventional astigmatic method for generating the focusing error signals. The signal behaviors are compared and analyzed in terms of the gain difference of the slope sensitivity of the focusing error signals from the land and the groove. In our calculation, the format of digital versatile disc-random access memory (DVD-RAM) is adopted as the land-groove-type optical disk model, and advantageous conditions for suppressing the gain difference are investigated. The calculation method and results described in this paper will be reflected in the next generation land-groove-type optical disks.

  7. Finite Element Method Simulation of Double-T Type Vibrators for Flatly Supported Piezoelectric Vibratory Gyro-Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Takayuki; Tomikawa, Yoshiro; Soma, Takao

    2001-05-01

    In this study we deal with a flexural vibrating resonator for flatly supported vibratory gyro-sensors in parallel with the rotating plane. This type of gyro-sensor uses two vibration modes in only one plane of single crystal quartz, and therefore can be constructed to be very stable under operating conditions. The double-T type vibrator that has two T-type resonating arms and two resonant arms is designed for improving the quality factor Q of both driving and detecting vibration modes for this vibratory gyro-sensor. The result of finite element analysis of the double-T type vibrators shows the small influence of its vibration mode with the support at the center of gravity of the vibrator.

  8. Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An

    DOEpatents

    Loustau, Marie-Therese; Verhoog, Roelof; Precigout, Claude

    1996-09-24

    A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

  9. Embedded symmetric nested implicit Runge-Kutta methods of Gauss and Lobatto types for solving stiff ordinary differential equations and Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, G. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    A technique for constructing nested implicit Runge-Kutta methods in the class of mono-implicit formulas of this type is studied. These formulas are highly efficient in practice, since the dimension of the original system of differential equations is preserved, which is not possible in the case of implicit multistage Runge-Kutta formulas of the general from. On the other hand, nested implicit Runge-Kutta methods inherit all major properties of general formulas of this form, such as A-stability, symmetry, and symplecticity in a certain sense. Moreover, they can have sufficiently high stage and classical orders and, without requiring high extra costs, can ensure dense output of integration results of the same accuracy as the order of the underlying method. Thus, nested methods are efficient when applied to the numerical integration of differential equations of various sorts, including stiff and nonstiff problems, Hamiltonian systems, and invertible equations. In this paper, previously proposed nested methods based on the Gauss quadrature formulas are generalized to Lobatto-type methods. Additionally, a unified technique for constructing all such methods is proposed. Its performance is demonstrated as applied to embedded examples of nested implicit formulas of various orders. All the methods constructed are supplied with tools for local error estimation and automatic variable-stepsize mesh generation based on an optimal stepsize selection. These numerical methods are verified by solving test problems with known solutions. Additionally, a comparative analysis of these methods with Matlab built-in solvers is presented.

  10. Anomalous Oxide Charge Variation Identified by Alternating Current Surface Photovoltage Method in Cr-Aqueous-Solution-Rinsed p-Type Si(001) Wafers Exposed to Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Hirofumi; Sanada, Yuji

    2011-11-01

    Chromium (Cr)-aqueous-solution-rinsed and/or hydrofluoric acid (HF)-solution-dipped p-type silicon (Si) (001) wafer surfaces are investigated by the frequency-dependent alternating current (AC) surface photovoltage (SPV) method. At the Cr(OH)3/p-type Si interface, in principle, a Schottky barrier could not possibly be generated. The Cr ion (Cr3+) is considered to forcibly deprive a p-type Si substrate of electrons during metallization (Cr3++3e-→Cr). Thus, at an early stage of air exposure, a positive fixed oxide charge may be compensated for by electrons, indicating the disappearance of AC SPV. With air exposure time, AC SPV emerges again and increases gradually in a Cr-deposited p-type Si(001) surface. This is because the native oxide between the Cr atom layer and the p-type Si substrate grows with time. As a result, a positive fixed oxide charge exceeds the overall charge state of the Cr-deposited p-type Si surface. Thus, AC SPV appears again and gradually increases with the fixed oxide charge in p-type Si. The saturated value is in a good agreement with that of the HF aqueous-solution-dipped p-type Si surface.

  11. Ranking of causes lead to road accidents using a new linguistic variable in interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight of a decision making method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamri, Nurnadiah; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-07-01

    A linguistic data is a variable whose value is naturally language phase in dealing with too complex situation to be described properly in conventional quantitative expressions. However, all the past researchers on linguistic variables used positive fuzzy numbers in expressing meaning of symbolic word. It seems that positive and negative numbers were never put concurrently in defining linguistic variables. Accordingly, we intend to construct a new positive and negative linguistic variable in interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight for interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS (IT2 FTOPSIS). This paper uses a new linguistic variable in interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight to capture the problems on reducing number of road accidents due to all the previously mentioned methods had no discussion about ranking of factors associated with road accidents. Specifically the objective of this paper is to establish rankings of the selected factors associated with road accidents using a new positive and negative linguistic variable and interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight in interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS. This new method is hoped can produce an optimal preference ranking of alternatives in accordance with a set of criterion wise ranking in selection of causes that lead to road accidents. The proposed method produces actionable results that laid the decision-making process. Besides, it does not require a complicated computation procedure and will be beneficial to decision analysis.

  12. Comparison of four molecular typing methods for evaluating genetic diversity among Candida albicans isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with oral candidiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Guerra, T M; Martínez-Suárez, J V; Laguna, F; Rodríguez-Tudela, J L

    1997-01-01

    Candida albicans strain delineation by karyotyping. NotI restriction pattern analysis, hybridization with specific probe 27A, and PCR fingerprinting with the phage M13 core sequence were performed with 30 isolates from the oral cavities of 30 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and 8 reference strains. Within the panel of clinical isolates, 20 were geographically related, although 10 isolates were susceptible to fluconazole and 10 isolates were resistant to fluconazole. The remaining isolates used in this study were fluconazole resistant and geographically unrelated. A composite DNA type was defined for each of the strains as the combination of types obtained by the four molecular methods. By this procedure, a great diversity of DNA types was found among isolates from the oropharynges of HIV-infected individuals with oral candidiasis. This diversity was not reduced when isolates were evaluated on the basis of whether they came from the same geographical locale and whether they were fluconazole resistant. These data refute the idea of a clonal origin for fluconazole-resistant strains among HIV-positive patients. Karyotyping was the least discriminatory method, yielding 19 DNA types among the 38 strains analyzed. Conversely, hybridization with the 27A probe showed a unique DNA pattern for each of the strains examined in this study. Our results demonstrate that at least two different molecular methods are needed for Candida albicans typing and that there is a great deal of strain variation within the species, irrespective of place of origin or antifungal resistance patterns. PMID:9157142

  13. "Educational Administration Quarterly", 1979-2003: An Analysis of Types of Work, Methods of Investigation, and Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph; Vriesenga, Michael; Storey, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this article is to provide an analysis of articles in "Education Administration Quarterly (EAQ)" over the 25-year period 1979-2003. Approach: The approach is document analysis. Findings: Information is presented on four key themes: (a) types of articles published; (b) methodologies employed; (c) topic areas emphasized;…

  14. Methods to Mark Termites with Protein for Mark-Release-Recapture and Mark-Capture Type Studies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of marking the southwestern desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder), with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein for mark-release-recapture (MRR) and mark-capture type studies. Qualitative laboratory studies were conducted to de...

  15. Investigation of prediction methods for the loads and stresses of Apollo type spacecraft parachutes. Volume 1: Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickey, F. E.; Mcewan, A. J.; Ewing, E. G.; Huyler, W. C., Jr.; Khajeh-Nouri, B.

    1970-01-01

    An analysis was conducted with the objective of upgrading and improving the loads, stress, and performance prediction methods for Apollo spacecraft parachutes. The subjects considered were: (1) methods for a new theoretical approach to the parachute opening process, (2) new experimental-analytical techniques to improve the measurement of pressures, stresses, and strains in inflight parachutes, and (3) a numerical method for analyzing the dynamical behavior of rapidly loaded pilot chute risers.

  16. Analysis of behavior of focusing error signals generated by astigmatic method when a focused spot moves beyond the radius of a land-groove-type optical disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Masahisa; Nakatani, Hidehiko; Nakai, Kenya; Ohmaki, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically calculate behaviors of focusing error signals generated by an astigmatic method in a land-groove-type optical disk. The focusing error signal from the land does not coincide with that from the groove. This behavior is enhanced when a focused spot of an optical pickup moves beyond the radius of the optical disk. A gain difference between the slope sensitivities of focusing error signals from the land and the groove is an important factor with respect to stable focusing servo control. In our calculation, the format of digital versatile disc-random access memory (DVD-RAM) is adopted as the land-groove-type optical disk model, and the dependences of the gain difference on various factors are investigated. The gain difference strongly depends on the optical intensity distribution of the laser beam in the optical pickup. The calculation method and results in this paper will be reflected in newly developed land-groove-type optical disks.

  17. 41 CFR 302-7.13 - What are the various methods of shipping HHG and how is the weight determined for each type of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the various methods of shipping HHG and how is the weight determined for each type of shipment? 302-7.13 Section 302-7.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION...

  18. 41 CFR 302-7.13 - What are the various methods of shipping HHG and how is the weight determined for each type of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the various methods of shipping HHG and how is the weight determined for each type of shipment? 302-7.13 Section 302-7.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION...

  19. 41 CFR 302-7.13 - What are the various methods of shipping HHG and how is the weight determined for each type of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What are the various methods of shipping HHG and how is the weight determined for each type of shipment? 302-7.13 Section 302-7.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY...

  20. Comparing Performances (Type I Error and Power) of IRT Likelihood Ratio SIBTEST and Mantel-Haenszel Methods in the Determination of Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalay Kabasakal, Kübra; Arsan, Nihan; Gök, Bilge; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2014-01-01

    This simulation study compared the performances (Type I error and power) of Mantel-Haenszel (MH), SIBTEST, and item response theory-likelihood ratio (IRT-LR) methods under certain conditions. Manipulated factors were sample size, ability differences between groups, test length, the percentage of differential item functioning (DIF), and underlying…

  1. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods for the emerging Campylobacter species C. hyointestinalis, C. lanienae, C. sputorum, C. concisus and C. curvus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) systems have been reported previously for multiple food- and food animal-associated Campylobacter species (e.g. C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus) to both differentiate strains and identify clonal lineages. These MLST methods focused primarily on campylobact...

  2. ESTIMATION METHOD OF INFLUENCE OF MOISTURE CURING CONDITIONS ON STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT OF CONCRETE USING VARIOUS TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukudome, Kazuto; Furukawa, Yukinori; Shono, Akira

    In order to establish the evaluation method of the effect of the water supply curing we proposed the estimation method of influence of curing condition on the compressive strength development behaviors of concrete using ordinary portland cement. This method evaluates the strength development behaviors of concrete under various moisture conditions by the volume of hydration products calculated in consideration of the influence of water retaining condition on the hydration velocities of cement. In this study, the applicability of this method for concrete using various portland cements was investigated. As a result of the investigation, the general estimation method applicable for various portland cements was established in consideration of the difference in hydration velocities and the influence of water retaining condition due to the kind of cement.

  3. Analysis of Magnetic Properties on the Outer Rotor Type Hybrid Stepping Motors Using 3D Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Yuji; Miyata, Kenji; Oonishi, Kazuo; Motegi, Yasuaki

    The three-dimensional magnetic field analysis has clarified the effect of several structural and manufacturing factors on the properties of the outer rotor type stepping motors. (1) The number of rotor teeth, 128, can make a unit step angle under 0.5 degree and a cogging torque under 1mNm for the outer rotor type stepping motor with the outer diameter under 60mm and with the output torque above 0.4Nm. (2) The permanent magnet flux has an optimal value dependent on the thickness of the laminated core to maximize the motor torque. (3) The lamination stacking error of the small teeth of the rotor and stator has a large effect on the cogging torque of the stepping motor.

  4. Dating gold deposition in a Carlin-type gold deposit using Rb/Sr methods on the mineral galkhaite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretbar, David R.; Arehart, Greg B.; Christensen, John N.

    2000-10-01

    Significant effort has been expended in an attempt to date hydrothermal activity that generated Carlin-type gold deposits (CTDs) in the Great Basin of Nevada. Thus far, these efforts have been only partially successful, because the relationship(s) between the dated mineral and hydrothermal activity are equivocal in many cases. Galkhaite, a trace component of at least four CTDs in Nevada, contains significant amounts of Rb and virtually no Sr, making it an ideal candidate for radiometric dating. At the Getchell deposit, galkhaite is paragenetically late, but clearly associated with gold mineralization. Our data place gold mineralization at Getchell at 39.0 ± 2.1 Ma. This is the first unequivocally gold-related date produced for any of the Carlin-type systems. Galkhaite also has been reported at the Carlin, Rodeo, and Betze deposits and is likely present in other CTDs in Nevada. This mineral may provide a solution to the conundrum of dating of CTDs.

  5. Method of enhancing the electronic properties of an undoped and/or N-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon film

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.

    1980-01-01

    The dark conductivity and photoconductivity of an N-type and/or undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer fabricated by an AC or DC proximity glow discharge in silane can be increased through the incorporation of argon in an amount from 10 to about 90 percent by volume of the glow discharge atmosphere which contains a silicon-hydrogen containing compound in an amount of from about 90 to about 10 volume percent.

  6. Advanced image processing methods as a tool to map and quantify different types of biological soil crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Escribano, Paula; Cantón, Yolanda

    2014-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) modify numerous soil surface properties and affect many key ecosystem processes. As BSCs are considered one of the most important components of semiarid ecosystems, accurate characterisation of their spatial distribution is increasingly in demand. This paper describes a novel methodology for identifying the areas dominated by different types of BSCs and quantifying their relative cover at subpixel scale in a semiarid ecosystem of SE Spain. The approach consists of two consecutive steps: (i) First, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification to identify the main ground units, dominated by homogenous surface cover (bare soil, cyanobacteria BSC, lichen BSC, green and dry vegetation), which are of strong ecological relevance. (ii) Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) of the ground units to quantify the proportion of each type of surface cover within each pixel, to correctly characterize the complex spatial heterogeneity inherent to semiarid ecosystems. SVM classification showed very good results with a Kappa coefficient of 0.93%, discriminating among areas dominated by bare soil, cyanobacteria BSC, lichen BSC, green and dry vegetation. Subpixel relative abundance images achieved relatively high accuracy for both types of BSCs (about 80%), whereas general overestimation of vegetation was observed. Our results open the possibility of introducing the effect of presence and of relative cover of BSCs in spatially distributed hydrological and ecological models, and assessment and monitoring aimed at reducing degradation in these areas.

  7. Influence of a new surface treatment method on ohmic contact resistivity of p-type GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yingwen; Li, Xue; Kang, Yong; Li, Xiangyang; Gong, Haimei

    2005-01-01

    The contact resistivity of Ni/Au contact on p-type GaN was drastically decreased through the surface treatments in sequence using alcohol-based HCl and KOH solution. The surface oxide on p-type GaN formed during epitaxial growth was removed in the alcohol-based HCl and KOH solution, The O 1s and C 1s core-level peaks in the x-ray photoemission spectra showed that the alcohol-based HCl treatment was more effective in removing of the surface oxide layer. Compared to the KOH solution treated sample, the alcohol-based HCl-treated sample showed a Ga 2p core-level peak which was shifted toward the valence-band edge by 0.3 eV, indicating that the surface Fermi level was shifted toward the valence-band edge. These results suggest that the surface barrier height for hole injection from Ni/Au metal to p-type GaN be lowered by the surface treatment, which results in a drastic reduction in specific contact resistance.

  8. Characterization of Human Myotubes From Type 2 Diabetic and Nondiabetic Subjects Using Complementary Quantitative Mass Spectrometric Methods*

    PubMed Central

    Thingholm, Tine E.; Bak, Steffen; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Jensen, Ole N.; Gaster, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a key tissue site of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Human myotubes are primary skeletal muscle cells displaying both morphological and biochemical characteristics of mature skeletal muscle and the diabetic phenotype is conserved in myotubes derived from subjects with type 2 diabetes. Several abnormalities have been identified in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects, however, the exact molecular mechanisms leading to the diabetic phenotype has still not been found. Here we present a large-scale study in which we combine a quantitative proteomic discovery strategy using isobaric peptide tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and a label-free study with a targeted quantitative proteomic approach using selected reaction monitoring to identify, quantify, and validate changes in protein abundance among human myotubes obtained from nondiabetic lean, nondiabetic obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects, respectively. Using an optimized protein precipitation protocol, a total of 2832 unique proteins were identified and quantified using the iTRAQ strategy. Despite a clear diabetic phenotype in diabetic myotubes, the majority of the proteins identified in this study did not exhibit significant abundance changes across the patient groups. Proteins from all major pathways known to be important in type 2 diabetic subjects were well-characterized in this study. This included pathways like the trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle, lipid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, the glycolytic pathway, and glycogen metabolism from which all but two enzymes were found in the present study. None of these enzymes were found to be regulated at the level of protein expression or degradation supporting the hypothesis that these pathways are regulated at the level of post-translational modification. Twelve proteins were, however, differentially expressed among the three different groups. Thirty-six proteins were chosen for further analysis and

  9. New Method for Projectile Velocity Measurement Using Faraday-Type Electromagnetic Sensor for Hypervelocity Impact Experiments and Detection Efficiency of the Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Fumikazu; Kishimura, Hiroaki; Yokote, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Hideki; Yokoo, Manabu; Nakamura, Kazutaka G.; Kondo, Ken-ichi

    2012-09-01

    The authors developed a Faraday-type electromagnetic sensor as a conventional and fiducial technique for measuring the velocities of projectiles accelerated by propellant and gas guns. The sensor consists of a doughnut-shaped ferrite magnet and a pick-up coil, and detects the disturbance of the magnetic field in the pick-up coil caused by the passage of a metallic projectile. Projectile velocity is estimated from the time interval between two electromotive force signals and the distance between two sensors. Firing tests using a small nonmagnetic spherical Al projectile show that the projectile velocity is obtained with an accuracy of less than 2% in the velocity range from 2.17 to 5.80 km/s.

  10. COMPARISON OF IN VITRO-CULTURED AND WILD-TYPE PERKINSUS MARINUS. II: DOSING METHODS AND HOST RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endoparasites must breach host barriers to establish infection and then must survive host internal defenses to cause disease. Such barriers may frustrate attempts to experimentally transmit parasites by ?natural' methods. In addition, the host's condition may affect a study's out...

  11. Alternative anaerobic enrichments to the bacteriological analytical manual culture method for isolation of Shigella sonnei from selected types of fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Andrew P; Thunberg, Richard L; Johnson, Mildred L; Hammack, Thomas S; Andrews, Wallace H

    2004-01-01

    Alternative methods of reducing oxygen during anaerobic enrichment in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Shigella culture method were evaluated and compared to the current and less practical GasPak method. The alternative anaerobic methods included the use of reducing agents in Shigella broth and reducing culture container headspace volume to minimize atmospheric effects on oxygen concentration in Shigella broth during enrichment. The reducing agents evaluated were sodium thioglycollate, L-cystine, L-cysteine, titanium(III) citrate, and dithiothreitol, each at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01%. The use of Oxyrase for Broth with the enrichment medium (Shigella broth) was evaluated at concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 microL/mL. Recoveries of chill- and freeze-stressed S. sonnei strains 357 and 20143 were determined with each anaerobic method, including the GasPak method, using inoculation levels ranging from 10(0)to 10(3) cells. For each anaerobic method, strain, inoculation level, and stress type, 5 replicate enrichments were evaluated by streaking to MacConkey agar for isolation. The numbers of cultures with each method from which S. sonnei was isolated were used to compare the alternative anaerobic methods to the GasPak method. The alternative anaerobic method with which chill- and freeze-stressed S. sonnei strains 357 and 20143 were isolated most consistently was the use of Oxyrase for Broth in Shigella broth at a concentration of 20 microL/mL. This method was compared to the GasPak anaerobic method in evaluations on the recovery of S. sonnei strains 357 and 20143 from artificially contaminated test portions of parsley, cilantro, green onions, strawberries, carrots, and celery. A third anaerobic method included the use of 0.5 cm mineral oil overlay on cultures containing Oxyrase for Broth at concentrations of 20 microL/mL. Recovery rates of strain 357 were significantly greater (p < 0.05) with the GasPak method than with Oxyrase for Broth, with and

  12. Comparison of spectral analysis with fast Fourier transform and maximum entropy method. Application to the role of molybdenum implantation on localized corrosion of Type 304 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Beaunier, L.; Frydman, J.; Gabrielli, C.; Huet, F.; Keddam, M.

    1996-12-31

    A comparison of a spectral analysis using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and the maximum entropy method (MEM) was carried out in the case in which both methods can be performed, that is, when several time acquisitions can be recorded. A summary of the principles of the MEM is given. Then the main properties of this method are investigated, that is, influence of the MEM order on the spectrum accuracy, validity of the low-frequency plateau usually given by this technique, overlapping of spectra measured for different frequency bandwidths, and influence of a slow evolution of the amplitude of the signal fluctuations. The susceptibility to pitting corrosion of type 304 stainless steel and type 304 modified by molybdenum (Mo) by means of ion implantation was studied. The power spectral densities (PSD) measured with the FFT and MEM techniques are in reasonable agreement, except for low electrochemical current noises (ECN) buried in the parasitic noise generated by the power supply. In that case, the FFT technique is more appropriate than the MEM, which gave qualitative results only. The type 304 stainless steel showed a large metastable pitting leading to only a few macroscopic pits, whereas the type 304 Mo-implanted specimen showed a very low metastable pitting leading to many hemispheric pits covered by the Mo-implanted layer, under which localized corrosion occurred.

  13. Analysis of Experimental Sea-level Transient Data and Analog Method of Obtaining Altitude Response for Turbine-propeller Engine with Relay-type Speed Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasu, George; Pack, George J

    1951-01-01

    Correlation has been established between transient engine and control data obtained experimentally and data obtained by simulating the engine and control with an analog computer. This correlation was established at sea-level conditions for a turbine-propeller engine with a relay-type speed control. The behavior of the controlled engine at altitudes of 20,000 and 35,000 feet was determined with an analog computer using the altitude pressure and temperature generalization factors to calculate the new engine constants for these altitudes. Because the engine response varies considerably at altitude some type of compensation appears desirable and four methods of compensation are discussed.

  14. Investigation of a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak combining case-control, traditional typing and whole genome sequencing methods, Luxembourg, June 2014.

    PubMed

    Mossong, Joël; Decruyenaere, Frédéric; Moris, Gilbert; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Olinger, Christophe M; Johler, Sophia; Perrin, Monique; Hau, Patrick; Weicherding, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak occurred at an international equine sports event in Luxembourg requiring the hospitalisation of 31 persons. We conducted a microbiological investigation of patients and buffet items, a case-control study and a carriage study of catering staff. Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from patients, food and catering staff were characterised and compared using traditional typing methods and whole genome sequencing. Genotypically identical strains (sequence type ST8, spa-type t024, MLVA-type 4698, enterotoxin A FRI100) were isolated in 10 patients, shiitake mushrooms, cured ham, and in three members of staff. The case-control study strongly suggested pasta salad with pesto as the vehicle of infection (p<0.001), but this food item could not be tested, because there were no leftovers. Additional enterotoxigenic strains genetically unrelated to the outbreak strain were found in four members of staff. Non-enterotoxigenic strains with livestock-associated sequence type ST398 were isolated from three food items and two members of staff. The main cause of the outbreak is likely to have been not maintaining the cold chain after food preparation. Whole genome sequencing resulted in phylogenetic clustering which concurred with traditional typing while simultaneously characterising virulence and resistance traits. PMID:26608881

  15. A Godunov-type method for the shallow water equations with discontinuous topography in the resonant regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeFloch, Philippe G.; Thanh, Mai Duc

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the Riemann problem for the shallow water equations with variable and (possibly) discontinuous topography and provide a complete description of the properties of its solutions: existence; uniqueness in the non-resonant regime; multiple solutions in the resonant regime. This analysis leads us to a numerical algorithm that provides one with a Riemann solver. Next, we introduce a Godunov-type scheme based on this Riemann solver, which is well-balanced and of quasi-conservative form. Finally, we present numerical experiments which demonstrate the convergence of the proposed scheme even in the resonance regime, except in the limiting situation when Riemann data precisely belong to the resonance hypersurface.

  16. Influence of binder properties, method of addition, powder type and operating conditions on fluid-bed melt granulation and resulting tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Abberger, T

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate melt granulation in a laboratory scale fluid-bed granulator with respect to granule growth, granule properties and resulting tablet properties. The parameters investigated were method of addition of PEG (spray-on or addition as flakes), binder concentration, PEG type (3000, 4000 and 6000, sprayed-on), size (PEG 4000, added as three different sized flakes), powder type (two different sized lactose types and corn starch) and operating conditions (volume air flow and heating temperature). Addition of binder as flakes led to layering as a growth mechanism when the size of the flakes was high. Coalescence occurred when the size was low. Coalescence also occurred when spraying was the method of addition. Due to the greater viscosity of the PEG 6000 melt it produced bigger granules than 3000 or 4000. The influence of volume air flow was moderate and the influence of heating temperature in the range of 70-90 degrees C was very low with both methods of addition. The disintegration time of tablets from granules where PEG was added as flakes was shorter than from granules where PEG was sprayed-on. The latter method of binder addition led to tablets which did not disintegrate but eroded. This was apparently caused by formation of a binder matrix, which could not be destroyed by the disintegrant. PMID:11802658

  17. Integration of Near-Maximum-Light Type Ia Supernova Spectra as a Method of High-z Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troxel, M. A.; Ketchum, W. R.; Branch, D.; Garnavich, P.; Baron, E.; Wang, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Spectral identification of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has been limited in the past to approximately z = 1.7 due to noise. In order to extend this limit and allow identification of higher-z SNe Ia, we use a simple integration technique to sum near-maximum-light spectra weighted according to their relative fluxes. We show that this combination of near-maximum spectra statistically increases the available signal to noise ratio while preserving not only the signature spectral features of SNe Ia, but also the more specific spectral features that identify sub-types of SNe Ia. In the cases of some peculiar SNe Ia, the unique identity of the supernovae being integrated is preserved as well. This increases the redshift at which SNe Ia, used as standard candles in cosmology, can be identified and thus increases our ability to probe the expansion history of the universe. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0204771 and AST-0506028, and NASA grant NNG04GD36G.

  18. Identification of WA-type three-line hybrid rice with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y; Gao, B D; Chen, H Y; Mao, J J; Cao, A X; Zhu, J G; Zhu, S F

    2012-02-01

    A real-time fluorescent PCR (RTF-PCR) was developed to detect and quantify wild abortive (WA)-type three-line hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). The mitochondrial R₂₋₆₃₀ WA gene was reported to be closely related to male sterility in plants, and developed as a molecular maker to identify the cytoplasmic male sterility system of hybrid rice. First, we got the DNA sequence of R₂₋₆₃₀ WA gene in 17 rice species with traditional PCR. Then, a pair of specific primers (P₃, P₄) and TaqMan fluorescence probe (P₃₋₁₄) were designed based on the R₂₋₆₃₀ DNA sequence. The following RTF-PCR was performed on the 17 rice species finally. The results indicate that the probes used here are specific for three-line hybrid rice F₁ and male sterile lines. We can even identify a single hybrid seed using the probes, which confirmed that the probes can be applied to the identification and quantification of the WA-type three-line hybrid rice. In addition, the RFT-PCR system can be optimized when the annealing temperature is 60 °C and the Mg²⁺ concentration is 3.5 mmol/L. PMID:22161239

  19. Testing the Distance-Duality Relation from Hubble, Galaxy Clusters and Type Ia Supernovae Data with Model Independent Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Bingju; Fu, Xiangyun

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we perform cosmological-model-independent tests for the distance-duality (DD) relation η( z)= D L(1+ z)-2/ D A by combining the angular diameter distance D A(or comoving distances D c ) with the luminosity distance D L. The D A are provided by two galaxy clusters samples compiled by De Filippis et al. (the elliptical β model), Bonamente et al. (the spherical β model), the D c are obtained from Hubble parameter data and D L are given from the Union2.1 supernovae (SNe) Ia compilation. We employ two methods, i.e., method A: binning the SNe Ia data within the range Δ z=| z- z SNe|<0.005, and method B: reconstructing the D L( z) by smoothing the noise of Union2.1 data set over redshift with the Gaussian smoothing function, to obtain D L associated with the redshits of the observed D A or D c. Four parameterizations for η( z), i.e., η( z)=1+ η 0 z, η( z)=1+ η 0 z/(1+ z), η( z)=1+ η 0 z/(1+ z)2 and η( z)=1- η 0 ln(1+ z), are adopted for the DD relation. We find that DD relation is consistent with the present observational data, and the results we obtained are not sensitive to the method and parameterization.

  20. A study of local crankshaft-type mobility in vitreous polyvinyl chloride and polyacrylonitrile by the method of conformational probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalova, D. I.; Kolyadko, I. M.; Remizov, A. B.

    2009-12-01

    Secondary relaxation transitions and local conformational dynamics in polyacrylonitrile and polyvinyl chloride were studied by the method of conformational probes. Relaxation transitions at 210 and 260 K (polyvinyl chloride) and 165 K (polyacrylonitrile) were explained by freezing of “crankshaft-type” motions.

  1. 37 CFR 201.20 - Methods of affixation and positions of the copyright notice on various types of works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., device, fixed, machine, motion picture, pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works, and their variant forms... receptacle for the copies. (h) Motion pictures and other audiovisual works. (1) The following constitute examples of acceptable methods of affixation and positions of the copyright notice on motion pictures...

  2. 37 CFR 201.20 - Methods of affixation and positions of the copyright notice on various types of works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., device, fixed, machine, motion picture, pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works, and their variant forms... receptacle for the copies. (h) Motion pictures and other audiovisual works. (1) The following constitute examples of acceptable methods of affixation and positions of the copyright notice on motion pictures...

  3. 37 CFR 201.20 - Methods of affixation and positions of the copyright notice on various types of works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., device, fixed, machine, motion picture, pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works, and their variant forms... receptacle for the copies. (h) Motion pictures and other audiovisual works. (1) The following constitute examples of acceptable methods of affixation and positions of the copyright notice on motion pictures...

  4. The Use of Tools, Modelling Methods, Data Types, and Endpoints in Systems Medicine: A Survey on Projects of the German e:Med-Programme.

    PubMed

    Gietzelt, Matthias; Höfer, Thomas; Knaup-Gregori, Petra; König, Rainer; Löpprich, Martin; Poos, Alexandra; Ganzinger, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Systems medicine is the consequent continuation of research efforts on the road to an individualized medicine. Thereby, systems medicine tries to offer a holistic view on the patient by combining different data sources to highlight different perspectives on the patient's health. Our research question was to identify the main data types, modelling methods, analysis tools, and endpoints currently used and studied in systems medicine. Therefore, we conducted a survey on projects with a systems medicine background. Fifty participants completed this survey. The results of the survey were analyzed using histograms and cross tables, and finally compared to results of a former literature review with the same research focus. The data types reported in this survey were widely diversified. As expected, genomic and phenotype data were used most frequently. In contrast, environmental and behavioral data were rarely used in the projects. Overall, the cross tables of the data types in the survey and the literature review showed overlapping results. PMID:27577469

  5. Periprosthetic femoral fracture--a biomechanical comparison between Vancouver type B1 and B2 fixation methods.

    PubMed

    Moazen, Mehran; Mak, Jonathan H; Etchels, Lee W; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth K; Jones, Alison C; Tsiridis, Eleftherios

    2014-03-01

    Current clinical data suggest a higher failure rate for internal fixation in Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic femoral fracture (PFF) fixations compared to long stem revision in B2 fractures. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical performance of several fixations in the aforementioned fractures. Finite element models of B1 and B2 fixations, previously corroborated against in vitro experimental models, were compared. The results indicated that in treatment of B1 fractures, a single locking plate can be without complications provided partial weight bearing is followed. In case of B2 fractures, long stem revision and bypassing the fracture gap by two femoral diameters are recommended. Considering the risk of single plate failure, long stem revision could be considered in all comminuted B1 and B2 fractures. PMID:24035619

  6. AN ANALYTIC METHOD TO DETERMINE HABITABLE ZONES FOR S-TYPE PLANETARY ORBITS IN BINARY STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos E-mail: elke.pilat-lohinger@univie.ac.at

    2012-06-10

    With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical habitable zone have arisen. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the habitable zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host star only? In this article, we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting a Sun-like primary. We present time-independent analytical estimates and compare them to insolation statistics gained via high precision numerical orbit calculations. Results suggest a strong dependence of permanent habitability on the binary's eccentricity, as well as a possible extension of habitable zones toward the secondary in close binary systems.

  7. Tibialis Anterior Muscle Needle Biopsy and Sensitive Biomolecular Methods: A Useful Tool in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Iachettini, S.; Valaperta, R.; Marchesi, A.; Perfetti, A.; Cuomo, G.; Fossati, B.; Vaienti, L.; Costa, E.; Meola, G.

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by a CTG repeat expansion in 3’UTR of DMPK gene. This mutation causes accumulation of toxic RNA in nuclear foci leading to splicing misregulation of specific genes. In view of future clinical trials with antisense oligonucleotides in DM1 patients, it is important to set up sensitive and minimally-invasive tools to monitor the efficacy of treatments on skeletal muscle. A tibialis anterior (TA) muscle sample of about 60 mg was obtained from 5 DM1 patients and 5 healthy subjects through a needle biopsy. A fragment of about 40 mg was used for histological examination and a fragment of about 20 mg was used for biomolecular analysis. The TA fragments obtained with the minimally-invasive needle biopsy technique is enough to perform all the histopathological and biomolecular evaluations useful to monitor a clinical trial on DM1 patients. PMID:26708183

  8. An Optimized Histochemical Method to Assess Skeletal Muscle Glycogen and Lipid Stores Reveals Two Metabolically Distinct Populations of Type I Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Prats, Clara; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Nordby, Pernille; Andersen, Jesper L.; Helge, Jørn W.; Dela, Flemming; Baba, Otto; Ploug, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle energy metabolism has been a research focus of physiologists for more than a century. Yet, how the use of intramuscular carbohydrate and lipid energy stores are coordinated during different types of exercise remains a subject of debate. Controversy arises from contradicting data from numerous studies, which used different methodological approaches. Here we review the “pros and cons” of previously used histochemical methods and describe an optimized method to ensure the preservation and specificity of detection of both intramyocellular carbohydrate and lipid stores. For optimal preservation of muscle energy stores, air drying cryosections or cycles of freezing-thawing need to be avoided. Furthermore, optimization of the imaging settings in order to specifically image intracellular lipid droplets stained with oil red O or Bodipy-493/503 is shown. When co-staining lipid droplets with associated proteins, Bodipy-493/503 should be the dye of choice, since oil red O creates precipitates on the lipid droplets blocking the light. In order to increase the specificity of glycogen stain, an antibody against glycogen is used. The resulting method reveals the existence of two metabolically distinct myosin heavy chain I expressing fibers: I-1 fibers have a smaller crossectional area, a higher density of lipid droplets, and a tendency to lower glycogen content compared to I-2 fibers. Type I-2 fibers have similar lipid content than IIA. Exhaustive exercise lead to glycogen depletion in type IIA and IIX fibers, a reduction in lipid droplets density in both type I-1 and I-2 fibers, and a decrease in the size of lipid droplets exclusively in type I-1 fibers. PMID:24204959

  9. HEALTHY study rationale, design and methods: moderating risk of type 2 diabetes in multi-ethnic middle school students.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Kathryn; Baranowski, Tom; DeBar, Lynn; Foster, Gary D; Kaufman, Francine; Kennel, Phyllis; Linder, Barbara; Schneider, Margaret; Venditti, Elizabeth M; Yin, Zenong

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed and implemented in response to the growing numbers of children and adolescents being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The objective was to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Modifiable risk factors measured were indicators of adiposity and glycemic dysregulation: body mass index > or =85th percentile, fasting glucose > or =5.55 mmol l(-1) (100 mg per 100 ml) and fasting insulin > or =180 pmol l(-1) (30 microU ml(-1)). A series of pilot studies established the feasibility of performing data collection procedures and tested the development of an intervention consisting of four integrated components: (1) changes in the quantity and nutritional quality of food and beverage offerings throughout the total school food environment; (2) physical education class lesson plans and accompanying equipment to increase both participation and number of minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; (3) brief classroom activities and family outreach vehicles to increase knowledge, enhance decision-making skills and support and reinforce youth in accomplishing goals; and (4) communications and social marketing strategies to enhance and promote changes through messages, images, events and activities. Expert study staff provided training, assistance, materials and guidance for school faculty and staff to implement the intervention components. A cohort of students were enrolled in sixth grade and followed to end of eighth grade. They attended a health screening data collection at baseline and end of study that involved measurement of height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference and a fasting blood draw. Height and weight were also collected at the end of the seventh grade. The study was conducted in 42 middle schools, six at each of seven locations across the country, with 21 schools randomized to receive the intervention and 21 to act as controls (data collection activities only). Middle school was the unit of

  10. A Solution Method of Job-shop Scheduling Problems by the Idle Time Shortening Type Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Kenichi; Osawa, Akira

    In this paper, we propose a new idle time shortening method for Job-shop scheduling problems (JSPs). We insert its method into a genetic algorithm (GA). The purpose of JSP is to find a schedule with the minimum makespan. We suppose that it is effective to reduce idle time of a machine in order to improve the makespan. The left shift is a famous algorithm in existing algorithms for shortening idle time. The left shift can not arrange the work to idle time. For that reason, some idle times are not shortened by the left shift. We propose two kinds of algorithms which shorten such idle time. Next, we combine these algorithms and the reversal of a schedule. We apply GA with its algorithm to benchmark problems and we show its effectiveness.

  11. An empirical inferential method of estimating nitrogen deposition to Mediterranean-type ecosystems: the San Bernardino Mountains case study.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, A; Johnson, R F; Zhang, L; Jenerette, G D; Fenn, M E; Schilling, S L; Gonzalez-Fernandez, I

    2015-08-01

    The empirical inferential method (EIM) allows for spatially and temporally-dense estimates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to Mediterranean ecosystems. This method, set within a GIS platform, is based on ambient concentrations of NH3, NO, NO2 and HNO3; surface conductance of NH4(+) and NO3(-); stomatal conductance of NH3, NO, NO2 and HNO3; and satellite-derived LAI. Estimated deposition is based on data collected during 2002-2006 in the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM) of southern California. Approximately 2/3 of dry N deposition was to plant surfaces and 1/3 as stomatal uptake. Summer-season N deposition ranged from <3 kg ha(-1) in the eastern SBM to ∼ 60 kg ha(-1) in the western SBM near the Los Angeles Basin and compared well with the throughfall and big-leaf micrometeorological inferential methods. Extrapolating summertime N deposition estimates to annual values showed large areas of the SBM exceeding critical loads for nutrient N in chaparral and mixed conifer forests. PMID:25863884

  12. Solutions of the Schrödinger equation with inversely quadratic effective plus Mie-type potential using Nikiforov-Uvarov method

    SciTech Connect

    Ita, B. I.; Anake, T. A.

    2014-11-12

    The Schrödinger equation with the interaction of inversely quadratic effective and Mie-type potential has been solved for any angular momentum quantum number l using the Nikiforov-Uvarov method. The bound state energy eigenvalues and the corresponding un-normalized eigenfunctions are obtained in terms of the Laguerre polynomials. Several cases of the potential are also considered and their eigen values obtained.

  13. Nano-structure fabrication of GaAs using AFM tip-induced local oxidation method: different doping types and plane orientations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated nano-scaled oxide structures on GaAs substrates that are doped in different conductivity types of p- and n-types and plane orientations of GaAs(100) and GaAs(711), respectively, using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip-induced local oxidation method. The AFM-induced GaAs oxide patterns were obtained by varying applied bias from approximately 5 V to approximately 15 V and the tip loading forces from 60 to 180 nN. During the local oxidation, the humidity and the tip scan speed are fixed to approximately 45% and approximately 6.3 μm/s, respectively. The local oxidation rate is further improved in p-type GaAs compared to n-type GaAs substrates whereas the rate is enhanced in GaAs(100) compared to and GaAs(711), respectively, under the identical conditions. In addition, the oxide formation mechanisms in different doping types and plane orientations were investigated and compared with two-dimensional simulation results. PMID:21978373

  14. Applying the expanding photosphere and standardized candle methods to Type II-Plateau supernovae at cosmologically significant redshifts . The distance to SN 2013eq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, E. E. E.; Kotak, R.; Leibundgut, B.; Taubenberger, S.; Hillebrandt, W.; Kromer, M.

    2016-08-01

    Based on optical imaging and spectroscopy of the Type II-Plateau SN 2013eq, we present a comparative study of commonly used distance determination methods based on Type II supernovae. The occurrence of SN 2013eq in the Hubble flow (z = 0.041 ± 0.001) prompted us to investigate the implications of the difference between "angular" and "luminosity" distances within the framework of the expanding photosphere method (EPM) that relies upon a relation between flux and angular size to yield a distance. Following a re-derivation of the basic equations of the EPM for SNe at non-negligible redshifts, we conclude that the EPM results in an angular distance. The observed flux should be converted into the SN rest frame and the angular size, θ, has to be corrected by a factor of (1 + z)2. Alternatively, the EPM angular distance can be converted to a luminosity distance by implementing a modification of the angular size. For SN 2013eq, we find EPM luminosity distances of DL = 151 ± 18 Mpc and DL = 164 ± 20 Mpc by making use of different sets of dilution factors taken from the literature. Application of the standardized candle method for Type II-P SNe results in an independent luminosity distance estimate (DL = 168 ± 16 Mpc) that is consistent with the EPM estimate. Spectra of SN 2013eq are available in the Weizmann Interactive Supernova data REPository (WISeREP): http://wiserep.weizmann.ac.il

  15. Landscape object-based analysis of wetland plant functional types: the effects of spatial scale, vegetation classes and classifier methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dronova, I.; Gong, P.; Wang, L.; Clinton, N.; Fu, W.; Qi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Remote sensing-based vegetation classifications representing plant function such as photosynthesis and productivity are challenging in wetlands with complex cover and difficult field access. Recent advances in object-based image analysis (OBIA) and machine-learning algorithms offer new classification tools; however, few comparisons of different algorithms and spatial scales have been discussed to date. We applied OBIA to delineate wetland plant functional types (PFTs) for Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China and Ramsar wetland conservation site, from 30-m Landsat TM scene at the peak of spring growing season. We targeted major PFTs (C3 grasses, C3 forbs and different types of C4 grasses and aquatic vegetation) that are both key players in system's biogeochemical cycles and critical providers of waterbird habitat. Classification results were compared among: a) several object segmentation scales (with average object sizes 900-9000 m2); b) several families of statistical classifiers (including Bayesian, Logistic, Neural Network, Decision Trees and Support Vector Machines) and c) two hierarchical levels of vegetation classification, a generalized 3-class set and more detailed 6-class set. We found that classification benefited from object-based approach which allowed including object shape, texture and context descriptors in classification. While a number of classifiers achieved high accuracy at the finest pixel-equivalent segmentation scale, the highest accuracies and best agreement among algorithms occurred at coarser object scales. No single classifier was consistently superior across all scales, although selected algorithms of Neural Network, Logistic and K-Nearest Neighbors families frequently provided the best discrimination of classes at different scales. The choice of vegetation categories also affected classification accuracy. The 6-class set allowed for higher individual class accuracies but lower overall accuracies than the 3-class set because

  16. Mechanically stable, high-aspect-ratio, multifilar, wound, ribbon-type conductor and method for manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Cottingham, J.G.

    1982-03-15

    A mechanically stable, wound, multifilar, ribbon-type conductor is described having a cross-sectional aspect ratio which may be greater than 12:1, comprising a plurality of conductive strands wound to form a flattened helix containing a plastic strip into which the strands have been pressed so as to form a bond between the strip and the strands. The bond mechanically stabilizes the conductor under tension, preventing it from collapsing into a tubular configuration. In preferred embodiments the plastic strip may be polytetrafluoroethylene, and the conductive strands may be formed from a superconductive material. Conductors in accordance with the present invention may be manufactured by winding a plurality of conductive strands around a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of the mandrel continuously varying from substnatially circular to a high aspect ratio elipse while maintaining a constant circumference. The wound conductive strands are drawn from the mandrel as a multifilar helix while simultaneously a plastic strip is fed through the hollow mandrel so that it is contained within the helix as it is withdrawn from the mandrel. The helical conductor is then compressed into a ribbon-like form and the strands are bonded to the plastic strip by a combination of heat and pressure.

  17. Separation of the semiconducting and the metallic types of single-wall carbon nanotube by electrophoresis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Yen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Guan-Jhen; Hsiao, Tzu-Ti; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Kuo-Ting; Lee, Hsin-Ta; Yang, Wan-Ting

    2014-09-01

    This study was to separate the semiconducting and the metallic types of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by electrophoresis with the different dispersants that are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Triton X-100 and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), respectively. The dispersants modify the surface of SWNTs and disperse in the de-ionized water. and used electric power supply 100V to electrophoresis. However, the different dispersants such as DNA, Triton X-100 and SDS coated on SWNTs have different property of electronic field. Hence, in the same power of electrophoresis was applied to separate out s-SWNT and m-SWNT from the raw-SWNT. In addition, the DNA base pair and quantitative can be determine by electrophoresis with standard mark. The electrophoresis has features that low sample need, low energy required and efficiently for this fabrication. The results of Raman spectrum could verify the separation efficiency and determine the electrical of the samples with the radial breathing mode (RBM, 100-400cm-1) of SWNT. After the dispersion process with DNA, a new peak (~1450 cm-1) has been observed between D-band (~1350cm-1) and G-band (~1550cm-1) that also can identify s-SWNT and m-SWNT.

  18. Learning the Cell Structures with Three-Dimensional Models: Students' Achievement by Methods, Type of School and Questions' Cognitive Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Naim, Raphael

    2013-08-01

    The cell topic was taught to 9th-grade students in three modes of instruction: (a) students "hands-on," who constructed three-dimensional cell organelles and macromolecules during the learning process; (b) teacher demonstration of the three-dimensional model of the cell structures; and (c) teaching the cell topic with the regular learning material in an expository mode (which use one- or two-dimensional cell structures as are presented in charts, textbooks and microscopic slides). The sample included 669, 9th-grade students from 25 classes who were taught by 22 Biology teachers. Students were randomly assigned to the three modes of instruction, and two tests in content knowledge in Biology were used. Data were treated with multiple analyses of variance. The results indicate that entry behavior in Biology was equal for all the study groups and types of schools. The "hands-on" learning group who build three-dimensional models through the learning process achieved significantly higher on academic achievements and on the high and low cognitive questions' levels than the other two groups. The study indicates the advantages students may have being actively engaged in the learning process through the "hands-on" mode of instruction/learning.

  19. A New Chemiluminescent Method for Evaluation of the Functional Activity of Neutrophils in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Proskurnina, E V; Sozarukova, M M; Polimova, A M; Prudnikova, M A; Ametov, A S; Vladimirov, Yu A

    2016-06-01

    Functional activity of neutrophils was evaluated by the chemiluminescent method with successive double stimulation by soluble stimuli with different mechanisms of action: phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and phormyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenilalanine (fMLP). The study was carried out in 26 patients receiving oral sugar-reducing therapy. In addition to the functional activity of neutrophils, the levels of TBA reactive products, inflammation markers, blood clotting values, and biochemical parameters were measured. The results showed mainly reduction of the granulocytic component of the immune system in the patients. PMID:27388632

  20. Using qualitative methods to inform the trade-off between content validity and consistency in utility assessment: the example of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Key stakeholders regard generic utility instruments as suitable tools to inform health technology assessment decision-making regarding allocation of resources across competing interventions. These instruments require a 'descriptor', a 'valuation' and a 'perspective' of the economic evaluation. There are various approaches that can be taken for each of these, offering a potential lack of consistency between instruments (a basic requirement for comparisons across diseases). The 'reference method' has been proposed as a way to address the limitations of the Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY). However, the degree to which generic measures can assess patients' specific experiences with their disease would remain unresolved. This has been neglected in the discussions on methods development and its impact on the QALY values obtained and resulting cost per QALY estimate underestimated. This study explored the content of utility instruments relevant to type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) as examples, and the role of qualitative research in informing the trade-off between content coverage and consistency. Method A literature review was performed to identify qualitative and quantitative studies regarding patients' experiences with type 2 diabetes or AD, and associated treatments. Conceptual models for each indication were developed. Generic- and disease-specific instruments were mapped to the conceptual models. Results Findings showed that published descriptions of relevant concepts important to patients with type 2 diabetes or AD are available for consideration in deciding on the most comprehensive approach to utility assessment. While the 15-dimensional health related quality of life measure (15D) seemed the most comprehensive measure for both diseases, the Health Utilities Index 3 (HUI 3) seemed to have the least coverage for type 2 diabetes and the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) for AD. Furthermore, some of the utility instruments contained items that

  1. Synthesis of the p-type semiconducting ternary oxide CuAlO{sub 2} using the Pechini method

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, Richard H.; Bafia, Julie; Gebreslasse, Tsige; Ingram, Brian J.; Carter, J. David

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We have prepared single-phase samples of the semiconducting oxide CuAlO{sub 2} using the Pechini method. • Reaction times are reduced relative to conventional solid-state synthesis. • Products have high surface area suitable for ceramic processing. • Product composition is dictated by thermodynamic control; CuAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is obtained preferentially at lower temperature. - Abstract: The synthesis of the delafossite phase CuAlO{sub 2} using the Pechini method was investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction data showed that pure, single-phase samples were obtained after only 3 h heating at 1100 °C. CuAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which contains Cu(II) rather than Cu(I), was the dominant phase between 700 and 1100 °C. Conversion to CuAlO{sub 2} is promoted by the positive entropy change associated with the evolution of oxygen. No mixed Cu–Al oxide was formed below 700 °C.

  2. A new method for an objective, χ2-based spectroscopic analysis of early-type stars. First results from its application to single and binary B- and late O-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrgang, A.; Przybilla, N.; Heber, U.; Böck, M.; Hanke, M.; Nieva, M.-F.; Butler, K.

    2014-05-01

    Context. A precise quantitative spectral analysis, encompassing atmospheric parameter and chemical elemental abundance determination, is time-consuming due to its iterative nature and the multi-parameter space to be explored, especially when done by the naked eye. Aims: A robust automated fitting technique that is as trustworthy as traditional methods would allow for large samples of stars to be analyzed in a consistent manner in reasonable time. Methods: We present a semi-automated quantitative spectral analysis technique for early-type stars based on the concept of χ2 minimization. The method's main features are as follows: far less subjectivity than the naked eye, correction for inaccurate continuum normalization, consideration of the whole useful spectral range, and simultaneous sampling of the entire multi-parameter space (effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulence, macroturbulence, projected rotational velocity, radial velocity, and elemental abundances) to find the global best solution, which is also applicable to composite spectra. Results: The method is fast, robust, and reliable as seen from formal tests and from a comparison with previous analyses. Conclusions: Consistent quantitative spectral analyses of large samples of early-type stars can be performed quickly with very high accuracy. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 074.D-0021(A), 088.A-9003(A), and 091.C-0713(A). Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, proposal 41-027. Figures 2 and 3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Multiplex Method for Simultaneous Serological Detection of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Porcine Circovirus Type 2▿

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kathy; Wang, Chong; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Ramamoorthy, Sheela

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Routine serological diagnosis and surveillance play an important role in the prevention of PRDC, as it is a leading cause of economic losses to the swine industry. We herein describe an advanced microsphere-based immunoassay that permits the simultaneous detection of antibodies to PCV2 and PRRSV, thereby reducing the time and effort involved in testing. Recombinant PRRSV nucleoprotein antigen and the PCV2 capsid antigen were coupled to fluorophore-dyed beads with distinct spectral addresses. Weekly serum samples from 72 pigs that were experimentally exposed to either PCV2, PRRSV, or both PCV2 and PRRSV were used to validate the microbead assay (MBA) in comparison with the “gold standard” enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The kinetics of the PCV2- and PRRSV-specific antibody responses measured by the microbead assay were comparable to those of the standard assays; Spearman's rank correlations were 0.72 (P < 0.001) for PRRSV and 0.80 (P < 0.001) for PCV2. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined using field sera whose positive or negative status was determined by the standard tests. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were both 98% for PCV2 and were 91% and 93%, respectively, for PRRSV (kappa coefficients, 0.85 and 0.67 for PCV2 and PRRSV, respectively). Multiplexing did not interfere with assay performance or diagnostic sensitivity. Therefore, the described study demonstrates proof of concept for the development of more versatile and economical microbead array-based multiplex serological test panels for veterinary use. PMID:21734031

  4. Convenient analytical methods for endo-type glycosidase that acts on glycoconjugates and their application in glycotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ishii-Karakasa, Ikuko

    2003-01-01

    The following procedures were established in order to develop useful degradation enzymes of glycoconjugate for developing postgenome and postproteome research: (1) Enzyme activity with a short time reliability was measured using small amounts by HPLC. (2) The structures of the sugar chains liberated from the glycoconjugate were non-destructively analyzed using small amounts of sugar chains only by 1D 1H-NMR and H-H COSY spectrometry and a computer simulation of the spectrum. (3) The conformations of the sugar chains liberated from a glycoconjugate in aqueous solution were estimated using 1D 1H-NMR and H-H COSY spectrometry and the anisotropic effect. Endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from the culture medium of Streptomyces sp. OH-11242 developed using the above methods transferred the sugar chain to sugars and peptides; therefore, it was also an effective enzyme when synthesizing sugar chains and glycopeptides. PMID:12558030

  5. Applicability of a carbamate insecticide multiresidue method for determining additional types of pesticides in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Krause, R T; August, E M

    1983-03-01

    Several fruits and vegetables were fortified at a low (0.02-0.5 ppm) and at a high (0.1-5 ppm) level with pesticides and with a synergist, and recoveries were determined. Analyses were performed by using 3 steps of a multiresidue method for determining N-methylcarbamates in crops: methanol extraction followed by removal of plant co-extractives by solvent partitioning and chromatography with a charcoal-silanized Celite column. Eleven compounds were determined by using a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a reverse phase column and a fluorescence detector. Twelve additional compounds were determined by using a gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a nonpolar packed column and an electron capture or flame photometric detector. Recoveries of 10 pesticides (azinphos ethyl, azinphos methyl, azinphos methyl oxygen analog, carbaryl, carbofuran, naphthalene acetamide, naphthalene acetic acid methyl ester, napropamide, phosalone, and phosalone oxygen analog) and the synergist piperonyl butoxide, which were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, averaged 100% (range 86-117) at the low fortification level and 102% (range 93-115) at the high fortification level. Quantitative recovery of naphthalene acetamide through the method required that an additional portion of eluting solution be passed through the charcoal column. Recoveries of 7 additional pesticides (dimethoate, malathion, methyl parathion, mevinphos, parathion, phorate oxygen analog, and pronamide), which were determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), averaged 108% (range 100-120) at the low fortification level and 107% (range 99-122) at the high fortification level. DDT, diazinon, dieldrin, phorate, and pirimiphos ethyl, which were determined by GLC, were not quantitatively recovered. PMID:6853408

  6. Dependence of tracking error characteristics of in-line-type differential push-pull methods on arrangement error of segmented gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Masahisa; Nakai, Kenya

    2011-09-01

    We present the validity of in-line-type differential push-pull methods using segmented gratings with respect to arrangement errors by numerical calculation for the first time. In these differential push-pull methods, the segmented gratings for generating subspots are divided into more than two regions, each with a specific width and a specific phase value, and are ideally arranged on the optical axis. We calculate tracking error signals in these methods with respect to the arrangement errors against the optical axis under parameter conditions of the widths of the segmented regions of the gratings. The obtained results show that the grating with a simpler configuration with two regions reveals good compatibility between DVD-recordable (DVD-R) and DVD-random access memory (DVD-RAM) compared with those with three or four regions, when the arrangement error is less than 10% of the radius of the incident laser beam.

  7. Psychosocial functioning and cocaine use during treatment: strength of relationship depends on type of urine-testing method.

    PubMed

    Ghitza, Udi E; Epstein, David H; Preston, Kenzie L

    2007-12-01

    Although improvement in psychosocial functioning is a common goal in substance-abuse treatment, the primary outcome measure in most cocaine trials is urinalysis-verified cocaine use. However, the relationship between cocaine use and psychosocial outcomes is not well documented. To investigate this relationship and identify the optimal urine-screen method, we retrospectively analyzed data from two 25-week randomized controlled trials of abstinence reinforcement (AR) in 368 cocaine/heroin users maintained on methadone. Cocaine use was measured thrice weekly by qualitative urinalysis, benzoylecgonine concentration (BE), and an estimate of New Uses of cocaine by application of an algorithm to BE. Social adjustment (SAS-SR), current diagnosis of cocaine dependence (DSM-IV criteria), and depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) were determined at study exit. Cocaine use was significantly lower in AR groups than in controls. Across groups, in-treatment cocaine use was significantly associated with worse social adjustment, current cocaine dependence, and depression at exit. Significant differences were detected more frequently with New Uses than qualitative urinalysis or BE. Nevertheless, the amount of variance accounted for by the urine screens was typically <15%. Cocaine use during treatment, especially when measured with New Uses criteria, can predict psychosocial functioning, but cannot substitute for direct measures of psychosocial functioning. PMID:17624688

  8. Development of method to remove weld scallop and ceramic backing material of wedge type and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sung-Koo; Yang, Jong-Soo; Kim, Ho-Kyung

    2015-06-01

    The weld scallop has been used for joining T-bars. There are a lot of weld scallops in shipbuilding. It is difficult to perform scallop welding due to the inconvenient welding position. This results in many problems such as porosity, slag inclusion, etc. In this study, a new method is devised to remove weld scallops by incorporating a Ceramic Backing Material (CBM). The weld scallop is removed by an elongation of the v groove. In order to insert a CBM into the groove without a weld scallop, a wedge-shaped CBM is developed. The top side of the developed CBM is similar to the shape of a general back bead. The bottom surface has a saw-toothed shape for cutting at a suitable length. This can be attached to the root side of a face plate using adhesive tape, just like a general CBM. Welding experiments in normal and abnormal conditions are carried out and the possibility of burn-through is examined. This CBM's applicability to shipbuilding is verified.

  9. Solutions for complex, multi data type and multi tool analysis: principles and applications of using workflow and pipelining methods.

    PubMed

    Munro, Robin E J; Guo, Yike

    2009-01-01

    Analytical workflow technology, sometimes also called data pipelining, is the fundamental component that provides the scalable analytical middleware that can be used to enable the rapid building and deployment of an analytical application. Analytical workflows enable researchers, analysts and informaticians to integrate and access data and tools from structured and non-structured data sources so that analytics can bridge different silos of information; compose multiple analytical methods and data transformations without coding; rapidly develop applications and solutions by visually constructing analytical workflows that are easy to revise should the requirements change; access domain-specific extensions for specific projects or areas, for example, text extraction, visualisation, reporting, genetics, cheminformatics, bioinformatics and patient-based analytics; automatically deploy workflows directly into web portals and as web services to be part of a service-oriented architecture (SOA). By performing workflow building, using a middleware layer for data integration, it is a relatively simple exercise to visually design an analytical process for data analysis and then publish this as a service to a web browser. All this is encapsulated into what can be referred to as an 'Embedded Analytics' methodology which will be described here with examples covering different scientifically focused data analysis problems. PMID:19597790

  10. High-throughput typing method to identify a non-outbreak-involved Legionella pneumophila strain colonizing the entire water supply system in the town of Rennes, France.

    PubMed

    Sobral, D; Le Cann, P; Gerard, A; Jarraud, S; Lebeau, B; Loisy-Hamon, F; Vergnaud, G; Pourcel, C

    2011-10-01

    Two legionellosis outbreaks occurred in the city of Rennes, France, during the past decade, requiring in-depth monitoring of Legionella pneumophila in the water network and the cooling towers in the city. In order to characterize the resulting large collection of isolates, an automated low-cost typing method was developed. The multiplex capillary-based variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) (multiple-locus VNTR analysis [MLVA]) assay requiring only one PCR amplification per isolate ensures a high level of discrimination and reduces hands-on and time requirements. In less than 2 days and using one 4-capillary apparatus, 217 environmental isolates collected between 2000 and 2009 and 5 clinical isolates obtained during outbreaks in 2000 and 2006 in Rennes were analyzed, and 15 different genotypes were identified. A large cluster of isolates with closely related genotypes and representing 77% of the population was composed exclusively of environmental isolates extracted from hot water supply systems. It was not responsible for the known Rennes epidemic cases, although strains showing a similar MLVA profile have regularly been involved in European outbreaks. The clinical isolates in Rennes had the same genotype as isolates contaminating a mall's cooling tower. This study further demonstrates that unknown environmental or genetic factors contribute to the pathogenicity of some strains. This work illustrates the potential of the high-throughput MLVA typing method to investigate the origin of legionellosis cases by allowing the systematic typing of any new isolate and inclusion of data in shared databases. PMID:21821761

  11. Development of a new method for the identification of degradation products of V-type nerve agents by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Yong Han

    2014-01-01

    Degradation products of V-type nerve agents are important markers of these toxic chemical warfare agents; hence their detection and identification are of high importance from verification point of view of Chemical Weapons Convention. The new analytical technique using quantitation-enhanced data-dependent (QED) method has been developed for the analysis of the degradation products, 2-(N,N-dialkylamino)ethanesulfonic acids of V-type nerve agents, by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (Thermo-Scientific Vantage triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer, Thermo Finnigan Surveyor, San Jose, CA, USA) via an atmospheric pressure ionization source/interface operated in eletrospray ionization mode. With a single analytical run, we could perform the quantitative analysis of the 2-(N,N-dialkylamino)ethanesulfonic acids by the selected reaction monitoring scan mode with limit of detection at 0.1 ng/mL and identify their isomeric compounds by product ion scan mode, simultaneously. The QED method will be applicable to the trace analysis of degradation products of V-type nerve agents in the environmental matrices in the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons proficiency test. PMID:24470166

  12. Life Course Socioeconomic Transition and its Association with Early Onset Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol for a Sequential Exploratory Mixed Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Raman, V Kutty; Nochikattil, Santhosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of early onset type 2 diabetes (Diabetes below the age of 45 years) is increasing worldwide. Transition in socio-economic position–i.e. Life Course Socio-Economic Transition (LSET) - may contribute to the development of early onset T2D through complex processes involving economic and occupational opportunities as well as individual life style choices. Aim To develop and validate the life course socioeconomic transition questionnaire and to know the association between life courses socioeconomic transition and early onset type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods This study follows sequential exploratory mixed method study design. It consists of one qualitative strand followed by two quantitative strands. Qualitative strand consist of in- depth interview among the community dwellers to develop a tool for measuring LSET. Two quantitative strands consist of the validation of the questionnaire by conducting cross-sectional survey among 200 randomly selected community dwellers and a hospital based case control study using the same questionnaire. Results Those who have a history of lower SEP during his childhood period and enjoying higher SEP during his adulthood period have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes at their younger age (18-45 years). Conclusion This study will help to develop a validated life course socioeconomic transition questionnaire and application of that tool in an epidemiological study. PMID:27504317

  13. Interrelationships of breed type, USDA quality grade, cooking method, and degree of doneness on consumer evaluations of beef in Dallas and San Antonio, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    McKenna, D R; Lorenzen, C L; Pollok, K D; Morgan, W W; Mies, W L; Harris, J J; Murphy, R; McAdams, M; Hale, D S; Savell, J W

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumer controlled factors of cooking method and degree of doneness on top loin steaks from different USDA quality grades (Low Choice, High Select or Low Select) and breed-types (English, Continental European Cross or Brahman Cross). In addition, cities within the same region were evaluated for differences in consumer controlled factors and palatability responses. The in-home product test was conducted in Dallas and San Antonio, Texas, USA. Consumers (n=173) evaluated steaks for overall like (OSAT), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), and flavor (FLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales. Respondents in Dallas cooked their steaks to higher degrees of doneness than did those in San Antonio. Outdoor grilling was the most frequently used method of cookery for steaks in both cities. Generally, consumers in San Antonio gave higher palatability ratings to Choice steaks and Dallas consumers gave higher ratings to Select steaks. The interactions of city×cooking method, breed-type×cooking method, and degree of doneness×cooking method were significant for all palatability attributes. In addition, the interaction of cooking method×quality grade was significant for TEND, JUIC, and FLAV. Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force was determined on a steak from each strip loin. Steaks from Continental European Cross cattle and Low Choice carcasses had the lowest WBS values. Differences in consumer preparation of beef top loin steaks present very unique challenges for the beef industry. Consumer information programs may serve a valuable role in connecting consumer perceptions with the preparation techniques needed to consistently achieve satisfaction. PMID:22064143

  14. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of a novel immune-type receptor from Ictalurus punctatus and phasing by selenium anomalous dispersion methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrov, David A. Hernández Prada, José A.; Haire, Robert N.; Magis, Andrew T.; Bailey, Kate; Litman, Gary W.

    2007-12-01

    A highly diversified novel immune-type receptor from catfish, NITR10, was crystallized to reveal novel mechanisms of immune recognition. X-ray diffraction data from crystals of a novel immune-type receptor (NITR10 from the catfish Ictalurus punctatus) were collected to 1.65 Å resolution and reduced to the primitive hexagonal lattice. Native and selenomethionine derivatives of NITR10 crystallized under different conditions yielded P3{sub 1}21 crystals. SeMet NITR10 was phased to a correlation coefficient of 0.77 by SAD methods and experimental electron-density maps were calculated to 1.65 Å. Five NITR10 molecules are predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit based on the Matthews coefficient.

  15. Method for enhancing low frequency output of impulsive type seismic energy sources and its application to a seismic energy source for use while drilling

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Robert P; Stokes, Robert H; Glowka, David A

    2014-12-02

    A method for operating an impulsive type seismic energy source in a firing sequence having at least two actuations for each seismic impulse to be generated by the source. The actuations have a time delay between them related to a selected energy frequency peak of the source output. One example of the method is used for generating seismic signals in a wellbore and includes discharging electric current through a spark gap disposed in the wellbore in at least one firing sequence. The sequence includes at least two actuations of the spark gap separated by an amount of time selected to cause acoustic energy resulting from the actuations to have peak amplitude at a selected frequency.

  16. The End of Amnesia: A New Method for Measuring the Metallicity of Type Ia Supernova Progenitors Using Manganese Lines in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badenes, Carles; Bravo, Eduardo; Hughes, John P.

    2008-06-01

    We propose a new method to measure the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using Mn and Cr lines in the X-ray spectra of young supernova remnants. We show that the Mn-to-Cr mass ratio in Type Ia supernova ejecta is tightly correlated with the initial metallicity of the progenitor, as determined by the neutron excess of the white dwarf material before thermonuclear runaway. We use this correlation, together with the flux of the Cr and Mn Kα X-ray lines in the Tycho supernova remnant recently detected by Suzaku, to derive a metallicity of log (Z) = - 1.32+ 0.67-0.33 for the progenitor of this supernova, which corresponds to log (Z/Z⊙) = 0.60+ 0.31-0.60 according to the latest determination of the solar metallicity by Asplund and coworkers. The uncertainty in the measurement is large, but metallicities much smaller than the solar value can be confidently discarded. We discuss the implications of this result for future research on Type Ia supernova progenitors.

  17. Development of Blocked-Impurity-Band-Type Ge Detectors Fabricated with the Surface-Activated Wafer Bonding Method for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanaoka, M.; Kaneda, H.; Oyabu, S.; Yamagishi, M.; Hattori, Y.; Ukai, S.; Shichi, K.; Wada, T.; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, K.; Nagase, K.; Baba, S.; Kochi, C.

    2016-07-01

    We report the current status of the development of our new detectors for far-infrared (FIR) astronomy. We develop Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB)-type Ge detectors to realize large-format compact arrays covering a wide FIR wavelength range up to 200 μm. We fabricated Ge junction devices of different physical parameters with a BIB-type structure, using the room temperature, surface-activated wafer bonding (SAB) method. We measured the absolute responsivity and the spectral response curve of each device at low temperatures, using an internal blackbody source in a cryostat and a Fourier transform spectrometer, respectively. The results show that the SAB Ge junction devices have significantly higher absolute responsivities and longer cut-off wavelengths of the spectral response than the conventional bulk Ge:Ga device. Based upon the results, we discuss the optimum parameters of SAB Ge junction devices for FIR detectors. We conclude that SAB Ge junction devices possess a promising applicability to next-generation FIR detectors covering wavelengths up to ˜ 200 μm with high responsivity. As a next step, we plan to fabricate a BIB-type Ge array device in combination with a low-power cryogenic readout integrated circuit.

  18. Development of Blocked-Impurity-Band-Type Ge Detectors Fabricated with the Surface-Activated Wafer Bonding Method for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanaoka, M.; Kaneda, H.; Oyabu, S.; Yamagishi, M.; Hattori, Y.; Ukai, S.; Shichi, K.; Wada, T.; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, K.; Nagase, K.; Baba, S.; Kochi, C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the current status of the development of our new detectors for far-infrared (FIR) astronomy. We develop Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB)-type Ge detectors to realize large-format compact arrays covering a wide FIR wavelength range up to 200 \\upmu m. We fabricated Ge junction devices of different physical parameters with a BIB-type structure, using the room temperature, surface-activated wafer bonding (SAB) method. We measured the absolute responsivity and the spectral response curve of each device at low temperatures, using an internal blackbody source in a cryostat and a Fourier transform spectrometer, respectively. The results show that the SAB Ge junction devices have significantly higher absolute responsivities and longer cut-off wavelengths of the spectral response than the conventional bulk Ge:Ga device. Based upon the results, we discuss the optimum parameters of SAB Ge junction devices for FIR detectors. We conclude that SAB Ge junction devices possess a promising applicability to next-generation FIR detectors covering wavelengths up to ˜ 200 \\upmu m with high responsivity. As a next step, we plan to fabricate a BIB-type Ge array device in combination with a low-power cryogenic readout integrated circuit.

  19. Development of Blocked-Impurity-Band-Type Ge Detectors Fabricated with the Surface-Activated Wafer Bonding Method for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanaoka, M.; Kaneda, H.; Oyabu, S.; Yamagishi, M.; Hattori, Y.; Ukai, S.; Shichi, K.; Wada, T.; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, K.; Nagase, K.; Baba, S.; Kochi, C.

    2016-07-01

    We report the current status of the development of our new detectors for far-infrared (FIR) astronomy. We develop Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB)-type Ge detectors to realize large-format compact arrays covering a wide FIR wavelength range up to 200 \\upmu m. We fabricated Ge junction devices of different physical parameters with a BIB-type structure, using the room temperature, surface-activated wafer bonding (SAB) method. We measured the absolute responsivity and the spectral response curve of each device at low temperatures, using an internal blackbody source in a cryostat and a Fourier transform spectrometer, respectively. The results show that the SAB Ge junction devices have significantly higher absolute responsivities and longer cut-off wavelengths of the spectral response than the conventional bulk Ge:Ga device. Based upon the results, we discuss the optimum parameters of SAB Ge junction devices for FIR detectors. We conclude that SAB Ge junction devices possess a promising applicability to next-generation FIR detectors covering wavelengths up to ˜ 200 \\upmu m with high responsivity. As a next step, we plan to fabricate a BIB-type Ge array device in combination with a low-power cryogenic readout integrated circuit.

  20. A novel multiplex RT-qPCR method based on dual-labelled probes suitable for typing all known genotypes of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, D; López-Vázquez, C; Skall, H F; Mikkelsen, S S; Olesen, N J; Dopazo, C P

    2016-04-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is a notifiable fish disease, whose causative agent is a rhabdovirus isolated from a wide range of fish species, not only in fresh but also in marine and brackish waters. Phylogenetic studies have identified four major genotypes, with a strong geographical relationship. In this study, we have designed and validated a new procedure - named binary multiplex RT-qPCR (bmRT-qPCR) - for simultaneous detection and typing of all four genotypes of VHSV by real-time RT-PCR based on dual-labelled probes and composed by two multiplex systems designed for European and American/Asiatic isolates, respectively, using a combination of three different fluorophores. The specificity of the procedure was assessed by including a panel of 81 VHSV isolates covering all known genotypes and subtypes of the virus, and tissue material from experimentally infected rainbow trout, resulting in a correct detection and typing of all strains. The analytical sensitivity was evaluated in a comparative assay with titration in cell culture, observing that both methods provided similar limits of detection. The proposed method can be a powerful tool for epidemiological analysis of VHSV by genotyping unknown samples within a few hours. PMID:25952496

  1. The Successful Diagnosis and Typing of Systemic Amyloidosis Using A Microwave-Assisted Filter-Aided Fast Sample Preparation Method and LC/MS/MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiyi; Sun, Jian; Zou, Lili; Shen, Kaini; Zhong, Dingrong; Zhou, Daobin; Sun, Wei; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Laser microdissection followed by mass spectrometry has been successfully used for amyloid typing. However, sample contamination can interfere with proteomic analysis, and overnight digestion limits the analytical throughput. Moreover, current quantitative analysis methods are based on the spectrum count, which ignores differences in protein length and may lead to misdiagnoses. Here, we developed a microwave-assisted filter-aided sample preparation (maFASP) method that can efficiently remove contaminants with a 10-kDa cutoff ultrafiltration unit and can accelerate the digestion process with the assistance of a microwave. Additionally, two parameters (P- and D-scores) based on the exponentially modified protein abundance index were developed to define the existence of amyloid deposits and those causative proteins with the greatest abundance. Using our protocol, twenty cases of systemic amyloidosis that were well-typed according to clinical diagnostic standards (training group) and another twenty-four cases without subtype diagnoses (validation group) were analyzed. Using this approach, sample preparation could be completed within four hours. We successfully subtyped 100% of the cases in the training group, and the diagnostic success rate in the validation group was 91.7%. This maFASP-aided proteomic protocol represents an efficient approach for amyloid diagnosis and subtyping, particularly for serum-contaminated samples. PMID:25984759

  2. [Development of a handy-type monitoring system for cardiovascular haemodynamic functions based on the volume-compensation and electrical admittance method].

    PubMed

    Song, Yi-lin; Gao, Shu-mei; Ikarashi, Akira; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2009-03-01

    A handy-type monitoring system for cardiovascular haemodynamic functions based on the volume-compensation and electrical admittance method is developed. In this system, the inconvenient and discomfort due to cuff occlusion of the biological segment for BP measurement is improved by developing a new device using a local pressurization method, the stability for the physiological information detection is improved by developing a new detecting system, and the noise during detection using the system is greatly reduced by using a newly developed nozzle-flapper type electro-pneumatic converter. Also, for electrical admittance cardiography to estimate CO, the applicability of a two-compartment coaxial cylindrical model and the optimal position of a spot-electrode array that is used to replace the conventional band-electrode are discussed in this research. Experimental result shows that the monitoring system should satisfy non-invasive BP and CO measurement on beat by beat, and the comfort of measurement is significantly improved. PMID:19771888

  3. The Successful Diagnosis and Typing of Systemic Amyloidosis Using A Microwave-Assisted Filter-Aided Fast Sample Preparation Method and LC/MS/MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Lili; Shen, Kaini; Zhong, Dingrong; Zhou, Daobin; Sun, Wei; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Laser microdissection followed by mass spectrometry has been successfully used for amyloid typing. However, sample contamination can interfere with proteomic analysis, and overnight digestion limits the analytical throughput. Moreover, current quantitative analysis methods are based on the spectrum count, which ignores differences in protein length and may lead to misdiagnoses. Here, we developed a microwave-assisted filter-aided sample preparation (maFASP) method that can efficiently remove contaminants with a 10-kDa cutoff ultrafiltration unit and can accelerate the digestion process with the assistance of a microwave. Additionally, two parameters (P- and D-scores) based on the exponentially modified protein abundance index were developed to define the existence of amyloid deposits and those causative proteins with the greatest abundance. Using our protocol, twenty cases of systemic amyloidosis that were well-typed according to clinical diagnostic standards (training group) and another twenty-four cases without subtype diagnoses (validation group) were analyzed. Using this approach, sample preparation could be completed within four hours. We successfully subtyped 100% of the cases in the training group, and the diagnostic success rate in the validation group was 91.7%. This maFASP-aided proteomic protocol represents an efficient approach for amyloid diagnosis and subtyping, particularly for serum-contaminated samples. PMID:25984759

  4. Solubility of {sup 238}U radionuclide from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids using “US in vitro” digestion method

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Sarmani, Sukiman; Majid, Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2015-04-29

    238U radionuclide is a naturally occuring radioactive material that can be found in soil. In this study, the solubility of 238U radionuclide obtained from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids was analysed by “US P in vitro” digestion method. The synthetic gastrointestinal fluids were added to the samples with well-ordered, mixed throughly and incubated according to the human physiology digestive system. The concentration of 238U radionuclide in the solutions extracted from the soil was measured using Induced Coupling Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The concentration of 238U radionuclide from the soil samples in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids showed different values due to different homogenity of soil types and chemical reaction of 238U radionuclide. In general, the solubility of 238U radionuclide in gastric fluid was higher (0.050 – 0.209 ppm) than gastrointestinal fluids (0.024 – 0.050 ppm). It could be concluded that the US P in vitro digestion method is practicle for estimating the solubility of 238U radionuclide from soil materials and could be useful for monitoring and risk assessment purposes applying to environmental, health and contaminated soil samples.

  5. A method for measuring disease-specific iduronic acid from the non-reducing end of glycosaminoglycan in mucopolysaccharidosis type II mice.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yohta; Wakabayashi, Taichi; Akiyama, Kazumasa; Hoshina, Hiroo; Higuchi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Eto, Yoshikatsu; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya

    2016-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder arising from deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), which results in progressive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in multiple tissues. Accumulated GAGs are generally measured as the amount of total GAGs. However, we recently demonstrated that GAG accumulation in the brain of MPS II model mice cannot be reliably detected by conventional dye-binding assay measuring total GAGs. Here we developed a novel quantitative method for measurement of disease-specific GAGs based on the analysis of 2-sulfoiduronic acid levels derived from the non-reducing terminal end of the polysaccharides by using recombinant human IDS (rhIDS) and recombinant human iduronidase (rhIDUA). This method was evaluated on GAGs obtained from the liver and brain of MPS II mice. The GAGs were purified from tissue homogenates and then digested with rhIDS and rhIDUA to generate a desulfated iduronic acid from their non-reducing terminal end. HPLC analysis revealed that the generated iduronic acid levels were markedly increased in the liver and cerebrum of the MPS II mice, whereas the uronic acid was not detected in wild-type mice. These results indicate that this assay clearly detects the disease-specific GAGs in tissues from MPS II mice. PMID:26051019

  6. A Jacobi-Legendre polynomial-based method for the stable solution of a deconvolution problem of the Abel integral equation type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammari, Amara; Karoui, Abderrazek

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we build a stable scheme for the solution of a deconvolution problem of the Abel integral equation type. This scheme is obtained by further developing the orthogonal polynomial-based techniques for solving the Abel integral equation of Ammari and Karoui (2010 Inverse Problems 26 105005). More precisely, this method is based on the simultaneous use of the two families of orthogonal polynomials of the Legendre and Jacobi types. In particular, we provide an explicit formula for the computation of the Legendre expansion coefficients of the solution. This explicit formula is based on some known formulae for the exact computation of the integrals of the product of some Jacobi polynomials with the derivatives of the Legendre polynomials. Besides the explicit and the exact computation of the expansion coefficients of the solution, our proposed method has the advantage of ensuring the stability of the solution under a fairly weak condition on the functional space to which the data function belongs. Finally, we provide the reader with some numerical examples that illustrate the results of this work.

  7. Cell-type-specific Jumonji histone demethylase gene expression in the healthy rat CNS: detection by a novel flow cytometry method

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephanie M.C.; Kimyon, Rebecca S.; Watters, Jyoti J.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of how histone demethylation contributes to the regulation of basal gene expression in the brain is largely unknown in any injury model, and especially in the healthy adult brain. Although Jumonji genes are often regulated transcriptionally, cell-specific gene expression of Jumonji histone demethylases in the brain remains poorly understood. Thus, in the present study we profiled the mRNA levels of 26 Jumonji genes in microglia (CD11b+), neurons (NeuN+) and astrocytes (GFAP+) from the healthy adult rat brain. We optimized a method combining a mZBF (modified zinc-based fixative) and FCM (flow cytometry) to simultaneously sort cells from non-transgenic animals. We evaluated cell-surface, intracellular and nuclear proteins, including histones, as well as messenger- and micro-RNAs in different cell types simultaneously from a single-sorted sample. We found that 12 Jumonji genes were differentially expressed between adult microglia, neurons and astrocytes. While JMJD2D was neuron-restricted, PHF8 and JMJD1C were expressed in all three cell types although the expression was highest in neurons. JMJD3 and JMJD5 were expressed in all cell types, but were highly enriched in microglia; astrocytes had the lowest expression of UTX and JHDM1D. Levels of global H3K27 (H3 lysine 27) methylation varied among cell types and appeared to be lowest in microglia, indicating that differences in basal gene expression of specific Jumonji histone demethylases may contribute to cell-specific gene expression in the CNS (central nervous system). This multiparametric technique will be valuable for simultaneously assaying chromatin modifications and gene regulation in the adult CNS. PMID:24735454

  8. Photodetectors of slit and sandwich types based on CdS and CdS1-xSex films obtained using MOCVD method from dithiocarbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalova, Ludmila V.; Svechnikov, Sergey V.; Tchoni, Vladimir G.

    1997-04-01

    Here we report the results of working out an original, simple in control and not requiring expensive equipment MOCVD-method for depositing films of semiconductor compounds A2B6. Dithiocarbamates (DTC) are used as starting materials. The compounds are stable, easily synthesized, cheap and low toxic. Atoms of metal and sulfur in the DTC are strongly bonded. The DTC could be easily dissolved in various organic solvents. The experimental unit for film deposition comprises a spraying apparatus, a substrate heater, and a quartz cylinder for separation of a reaction zone from ambience. The process of film deposition is carried out in air conditions. Films of CdS, bright-yellow, transparent, having mirror smooth surface at thickness less than 2 mkm and rough surface at thickness 8-12 mkm, were deposited by spraying cadmium dithiocarbamate, that is DTC with radical C2H5, solution in pyridine on substrates heated to 240-280 degrees C. Deposition rate was 60-90 nm/min. Films obtained were of hexagonal modification, polycrystalline, textured, with low, at the level of centipercents content of oxygen and carbon. Slit type photodetectors based on CdS and CdS1-xSex of 1.0 mkm thickness have dark conductivity (sigma) d equals 10-9 divided by 10-8 Ohm-1cm-1 and photoconductivity (sigma) ph equals 10-2 divided by 10-1 Ohm-1cm-1 at 200 lux. Industrially suitable technology for production of photopotentiometer on the base of these films was developed. Sandwich-type photodetectors In2S3 - CdS: Cu, Cl - In with 8-12 mkm thickness have the same value of photoconductivity and the light-to-dark ratio is 106 divided by 107. Based on sandwich-type photodetectors, a hybrid structure of pyroelectric-photodetector as a resonant-type coordinate-sensitive detector was developed.

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of Sn-Zn doped BaCo2Z-type hexaferrite powders prepared by citrate precursor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasly, M.; Rashad, M. M.

    2013-07-01

    Polycrystalline Sn-Zn substituted barium Z-type hexagonal ferrites powders Ba3Co2SnxZnxFe24-2XO41 (0≤X≤0.1) have been synthesized using the citrate precursor method. The effect of synthesis conditions on crystal structure, crystallite size, microstructure and magnetic properties was systematically studied. The results revealed that two steps annealing; pre-annealing of the hexaferrite citrate precursor at 600 °C for 4 h then post-annealed at 1250 °C for 5 h was required to form single Co2Z-type phase. Moreover, the critical Sn-Zn concentration, that was not destroy the symmetry of the hexagonal lattice, was found to be X=0.08. The crystallite size of the produced Sn-Zn doped Co2Z-type hexaferrite powders was in the range between 70 and 85 nm. Additionally, the lattice parameters, unit cell volume and the porosity were increased whereas the X-ray and bulk densities were decreased with increasing Sn-Zn concentration. The microstructure of the ferrite powders appeared as a hexagonal platelet-like structure. The saturation magnetization of Sn-Zn substituted Co2Z type hexaferrite was reached the maximum value (Ms=47.8 emu/g) at X=0.06 whereas it was reached the minimum value (Ms=43.4 emu/g) at X=0.1. Meanwhile, the coercivity and the squareness ratio were increased as X value increasing.

  10. A simple and rapid method for measuring unconjugated capsular polysaccharide (PRP) of Haemophilus influenzae type b in PRP-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y Y; Anderson, R; McIver, J; Gupta, R K; Siber, G R

    1998-03-01

    The authors developed a simple and rapid method for quantitation of free capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate, PRP) in PRP-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine based on acid precipitation of tetanus toxoid (TT). Acid hydrolysis of PRP during the assay was not detected. The conditions used in the assay did not precipitate unconjugated PRP or adipic acid dihydrazide derivatized PRP. The method was highly reliable, reproducible and sensitive. The accuracy of the assay was confirmed by spiking known amounts of unconjugated PRP to PRP-TT conjugate preparations. A PRP-TT preparation, incubated at 37 degrees C for 6 months showing most of the PRP as unconjugated (87% determined by this method), was not immunogenic in mice for the PRP component even after two injections. In contrast, the same preparation held at 4 degrees C for 20 months, showing 17% unconjugated PRP, induced IgG antibodies to PRP which were boosted after second injection. Therefore, this method is very useful to evaluate the stability of PRP-TT conjugate vaccine. The assay may be useful for characterizing other polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines. PMID:9637747

  11. Capillary zone electrophoresis method for the separation of glucosidase inhibitors in extracts of Salacia reticulata, a plant used in ayurvedic treatments of type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zandberg, Wesley F; Mohan, Sankar; Kumarasamy, Jayakanthan; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-06-15

    A simple and reproducible capillary-zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the separation and quantitation of sulfonium-ion-containing compounds isolated from plants of the Salacia genus which are traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The method sufficiently resolved four different compounds with confirmed glucosidase inhibitory activity, namely, salacinol, ponkoranol, kotalanol and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol. Separation could be achieved in less than 9 min, and calibration curves showed good linearity. Detection limits were determined to be in the low mug/mL range. This method was used to demonstrate that de-O-sulfonated kotalanol isolated from natural sources has identical ionic mobility to a synthetic standard. Furthermore, new extraction conditions were developed by which the zwitterionic compounds (salacinol, ponkoranol, and kotalanol) could be separated from de-O-sulfonated kotalanol in a single solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extraction gave reproducibly high recoveries and was used to process four commercial Salacia extracts for CZE analysis to reduce the complexity of resulting electropherograms and to facilitate the detection of the four inhibitors in question. De-O-sulfonated kotalanol was detected in two of four Salacia samples while ponkoranol was present in all four. A comparison of all samples tested demonstrated that they had remarkably similar patterns of peaks, suggesting that this CZE method may be useful in the chemical fingerprinting of Salacia-containing products. PMID:20491445

  12. Spin decoherence in n-type GaAs: The effectiveness of the third-body rejection method for electron-electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Gionni; Hodgson, Matthew; D'Amico, Irene

    2014-10-01

    We study the spin decoherence in n-type bulk GaAs for moderate electronic densities at room temperature using the Ensemble Monte Carlo method. We demonstrate that a technique called "third-body rejection method" devised by B. K. Ridley, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 10, 1589 (1977) can be successfully adapted to Ensemble Monte Carlo method and used to tackle the problem of the electron-electron contribution to spin decoherence in the parameter region under study, where the electron-electron interaction can be reasonably described by a Yukawa potential. This scattering technique is employed in a doping region where one can expect that multiple collisions may play a role in carrier dynamics. By this technique, we are able to calculate spin relaxation times which are in very good agreement with the experimental results found by Oertel et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 13 (2008). Through this method, we show that the electron-electron scattering is overestimated in Born approximation, in agreement with previous results obtained by C. A. Kukkonen and H. Smith, Phys. Rev. B 8, 4601 (1973).

  13. Rapid and Accurate Determination of Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen Types in Klebsiella pneumoniae with a Novel PCR-Based O-Genotyping Method

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Yun-Jui; Cheong, Cheng-Man; Yi, Wen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a Gram-negative bacillus that causes life-threatening infections in both hospitalized patients and ambulatory persons, can be classified into nine lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen serotypes. The O-antigen type has important clinical and epidemiological significance. However, K. pneumoniae O serotyping is cumbersome, and the reagents are not commercially available. To overcome the limitations of conventional serotyping methods, we aimed to create a rapid and accurate PCR method for K. pneumoniae O genotyping. We sequenced the genetic determinants of LPS O antigen from serotypes O1, O2a, O2ac, O3, O4, O5, O8, O9, and O12. We established a two-step genotyping scheme, based on the two genomic regions associated with O-antigen biosynthesis. The first set of PCR primers, which detects alleles at the wzm-wzt loci of the wb gene cluster, distinguishes between O1/O2, O3, O4, O5, O8, O9, and O12. The second set of PCR primers, which detects alleles at the wbbY region, further differentiates between O1, O2a, and O2ac. We verified the specificity of O genotyping against the O-serotype reference strains. We then tested the sensitivity and specificity of O genotyping in K. pneumoniae, using the 56 K-serotype reference strains with known O serotypes determined by an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). There is a very good correlation between the O genotypes and classical O serotypes. Three discrepancies were observed and resolved by nucleotide sequencing—all in favor of O genotyping. The PCR-based O genotyping, which can be easily performed in clinical and research microbiology laboratories, is a rapid and accurate method for determining the LPS O-antigen types of K. pneumoniae isolates. PMID:26719438

  14. Spin decoherence in n-type GaAs: The effectiveness of the third-body rejection method for electron-electron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Gionni Hodgson, Matthew D'Amico, Irene

    2014-10-28

    We study the spin decoherence in n-type bulk GaAs for moderate electronic densities at room temperature using the Ensemble Monte Carlo method. We demonstrate that a technique called “third-body rejection method” devised by B. K. Ridley, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 10, 1589 (1977) can be successfully adapted to Ensemble Monte Carlo method and used to tackle the problem of the electron-electron contribution to spin decoherence in the parameter region under study, where the electron-electron interaction can be reasonably described by a Yukawa potential. This scattering technique is employed in a doping region where one can expect that multiple collisions may play a role in carrier dynamics. By this technique, we are able to calculate spin relaxation times which are in very good agreement with the experimental results found by Oertel et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 13 (2008). Through this method, we show that the electron-electron scattering is overestimated in Born approximation, in agreement with previous results obtained by C. A. Kukkonen and H. Smith, Phys. Rev. B 8, 4601 (1973).

  15. An efficient method to capture the impact of total knee replacement on a variety of simulated patient types: A finite element study.

    PubMed

    Conlisk, Noel; Howie, Colin R; Pankaj, Pankaj

    2016-09-01

    Osteoporosis resulting in a reduction in bone stiffness and thinning of the cortex is almost universal in older patients. In this study a novel method to generate computational models of the distal femur which incorporate the effects of ageing and endosteal trabecularisation are presented. Application of this method to pre- and post-knee arthroplasty scenarios is then considered. These computational methods are found to provide a simple yet effective tool for assessing the post-arthroplasty mechanical environment in the knee for different patient types and can help evaluate vulnerability to supracondylar periprosthetic fracture following implantation. Our results show that the stresses in the periprosthetic region increase dramatically with ageing; this is particularly true for higher flexion angles. Stresses in the anterior region of the femoral cortex were also found to increase significantly post-implantation. The most dramatic increases in stresses and strains at these locations were observed in old osteoporotic patients, explaining why this patient group in particular is at greater risk of periprosthetic fractures. PMID:27387906

  16. Preparation of ultrasound microbubbles crosslinked to albumin nanoparticles packaged with tissue-type plasminogen activator gene plasmid and method of in vivo transfection

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Ji; Shang-Yi, Ji; Xia, He; Wen-Ping, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Aims To observe the effect of constructed ultrasound microbubble crosslinked to albium nanoparticles packaged with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) gene plasmid on the in vivo transfection. Methods The rabbits were chosen for all experiments. A highly expressive gene plasmid for tPA was constructed and packaged into a prepared nanoparticle with bovine serum albumin (BSA). This albium nanoparticle packaged with tPA gene plasmid was crosslinked to an ultrasound microbubble prepared with BSA and sucrose to form a nano-targeting vector system for tPA gene transfection. The transfection and effective expression of tPA in heart, liver, leg skeletal muscle and the cervical rib were detected with polyclonal antibodies to tPA using immunohistochemical method; the tPA level and D-dimer content of blood were also tested. Results The expression of tPA could be seen in the tissues mentioned above, with the increase in blood tPA level and D-dimer content from 0.20 ± 0.05 µg/L and 81.76 ± 9.84 µg/L before the operation, to the higher levels of 0.44 ± 0.05 µg/L and 669.28 ± 97.74 µg/L after transfection. Conclusion The nano-targeting vector system for tPA gene was contructed successfully. This provides a new theory and experimental method for the nano-targeted transgene.

  17. Contribution of molecular typing methods and antifungal susceptibility testing to the study of a candidemia cluster in a burn care unit.

    PubMed Central

    Bart-Delabesse, E; van Deventer, H; Goessens, W; Poirot, J L; Lioret, N; van Belkum, A; Dromer, F

    1995-01-01

    We investigated a cluster of cases of Candida septicemia diagnosed in four burn patients. Twenty clinical isolates of Candida albicans and two of Candida parapsilosis, plus eight isolates of C. albicans recovered from nurses' clothes, were analyzed by antifungal susceptibility testing and three genotyping methods (restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with EcoRI and HinfI, arbitrarily primed PCR, and karyotyping). The high MICs of the azoles for all of the C. albicans isolates tested suggest either a natural resistance of the endogenous flora or the transmission of isolates with acquired resistance. The genotyping methods demonstrated the involvement of four different strains, cross-infections with one C. albicans strain and one C. parapsilosis strain, and identity between some of the strains from the patients and nurses. The origins of the strains remain unclear. Our results show that the use of a combination of at least two different methods such as those used in the present study is recommended for C. albicans typing. PMID:8586717

  18. Simple and fast quantification of nitisone (NTBC) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method in plasma of tyrosinemia type 1 patients.

    PubMed

    Davit-Spraul, Anne; Romdhane, Houda; Poggi-Bach, Joséphine

    2012-05-01

    Tyrosinemia type 1, which is caused by a deficiency in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, is successfully treatable with nitisone (NTBC), an inhibitor of 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase. The recommended average dose of NTBC is 1 mg/kg per day. A rapid liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of NTBC in heparinized human plasma. The plasma samples were prepared by precipitation in acetonitrile. NTBC and the internal standard (IS) were chromatographed on a BEH C18 column. Gradient elution was done with a mixture of 10 mM ammonium acetate and methanol. The analyte was analyzed by LC-tandem mass spectrometry with only 2 min run time. Selected reaction monitoring modes for detection of NTBC and the IS were achieved by using m/z 328 > 281 and 234 > 190, respectively. The LC retention times for NTBC and IS were 0.99 and 0.93 min, respectively. The method was linear in the concentration range of 0.75-150 µM with r ≥ 0.998. Thus, this method is suitable for follow-up of patients treated with NTBC, because the current therapeutical concentrations range from 20 to 120 µM. PMID:22511487

  19. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of NTBC (2-(nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)1,3-cyclohexanedione) in plasma of tyrosinemia type 1 patients.

    PubMed

    Herebian, Diran; Spiekerkötter, Ute; Lamshöft, Marc; Thimm, Eva; Laryea, Maurice; Mayatepek, Ertan

    2009-05-15

    In this study, we describe a bioanalytical method for quantification of NTBC in plasma of patients with hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT-1) using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After protein precipitation with acetonitrile including Mesotrione as internal standard, separation of NTBC was achieved by RP-HPLC. Detection was performed by positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. NTBC recovery in the developed method was found to be more than 90%. The lower limit of quantification was calculated to be 0.35 microM. The intra-day and inter-day precision of three different quality control samples (measured as RSD%) was less than 10% and 15%, respectively. The standard calibration curves showed good linearity within the range of 2.5-40 microM and the determined correlation coefficients were r(2)>or=0.995. This presented method is rapid, sensitive, specific and suitable for clinical practice and research. PMID:19345648

  20. The use of partial thickness method and zero wet bulb temperature for discriminating precipitation type during winter months at the Ebro basin in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buisan, S.; Revuelto, J.

    2010-09-01

    environment favouring each precipitation type. This method is a simple technique for discriminating the different precipitation types. It also provides climatology of snowfall events for each airport, showing the differences due to their geographical location and how different synoptic conditions affect each place.. In the middle of Ebro basin, where Zaragoza airport is placed, the critical parameter to determine the precipitation type is the 1000 - 850 mb thickness. It is possible to find many episodes of snowfall with a very thin 1000-850 mb layer within a wide range of zero wet bulb temperature values. This shows the pool of cold air in the valley over which warm and moist air is advected from the Mediterranean Sea. Located close to the Cantabric sea, Pamplona is about 150 km north of Zaragoza. The snow episodes in this location are more related with cold air in all levels together with a narrow range of zero wet bulb temperature values. The results show that the Logroño area, 150 km northwest of Zaragoza, is influenced by both conditions. This method became operational during 2009-2010 winter season showing a high degree of accuracy in discriminating precipitation type.