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Sample records for jacobi-davidson type methods

  1. Parallel two-level domain decomposition based Jacobi-Davidson algorithms for pyramidal quantum dot simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tao; Hwang, Feng-Nan; Cai, Xiao-Chuan

    2016-07-01

    We consider a quintic polynomial eigenvalue problem arising from the finite volume discretization of a quantum dot simulation problem. The problem is solved by the Jacobi-Davidson (JD) algorithm. Our focus is on how to achieve the quadratic convergence of JD in a way that is not only efficient but also scalable when the number of processor cores is large. For this purpose, we develop a projected two-level Schwarz preconditioned JD algorithm that exploits multilevel domain decomposition techniques. The pyramidal quantum dot calculation is carefully studied to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Numerical experiments confirm that the proposed method has a good scalability for problems with hundreds of millions of unknowns on a parallel computer with more than 10,000 processor cores.

  2. The trace minimization method for the symmetric generalized eigenvalue problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameh, Ahmed; Tong, Zhanye

    2000-11-01

    In this paper, the trace minimization method for the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problems proposed by Sameh and Wisniewski [35] is reviewed. Convergence of an inexact trace minimization algorithm is established and a variant of the algorithm that uses expanding subspaces is introduced and compared with the block Jacobi-Davidson algorithm.

  3. Using generalized Cayley transformations within an inexact rational Krylov sequence method.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, R. B.; Meerbergen, K.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Utrecht Univ.

    1999-01-01

    The rational Krylov sequence (RKS) method is a generalization of Arnoldi's method. It constructs an orthogonal reduction of a matrix pencil into an upper Hessenberg pencil. The RKS method is useful when the matrix pencil may be efficiently factored. This article considers approximately solving the resulting linear systems with iterative methods. We show that a Cayley transformation leads to a more efficient and robust eigensolver than the usual shift-invert transformation when the linear systems are solved inexactly within the RKS method. A relationship with the recently introduced Jacobi--Davidson method is also established.

  4. Software for computing eigenvalue bounds for iterative subspace matrix methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, Ron; Minkoff, Michael; Zhou, Yunkai

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes software for computing eigenvalue bounds to the standard and generalized hermitian eigenvalue problem as described in [Y. Zhou, R. Shepard, M. Minkoff, Computing eigenvalue bounds for iterative subspace matrix methods, Comput. Phys. Comm. 167 (2005) 90-102]. The software discussed in this manuscript applies to any subspace method, including Lanczos, Davidson, SPAM, Generalized Davidson Inverse Iteration, Jacobi-Davidson, and the Generalized Jacobi-Davidson methods, and it is applicable to either outer or inner eigenvalues. This software can be applied during the subspace iterations in order to truncate the iterative process and to avoid unnecessary effort when converging specific eigenvalues to a required target accuracy, and it can be applied to the final set of Ritz values to assess the accuracy of the converged results. Program summaryTitle of program: SUBROUTINE BOUNDS_OPT Catalogue identifier: ADVE Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVE Computers: any computer that supports a Fortran 90 compiler Operating systems: any computer that supports a Fortran 90 compiler Programming language: Standard Fortran 90 High speed storage required:5m+5 working-precision and 2m+7 integer for m Ritz values No. of bits in a word: The floating point working precision is parameterized with the symbolic constant WP No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2452 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 281 543 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: The computational solution of eigenvalue problems using iterative subspace methods has widespread applications in the physical sciences and engineering as well as other areas of mathematical modeling (economics, social sciences, etc.). The accuracy of the solution of such problems and the utility of those errors is a fundamental problem that is of

  5. Hybrid Lanczos-type product methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ressel, K.J.

    1996-12-31

    A general framework is proposed to construct hybrid iterative methods for the solution of large nonsymmetric systems of linear equations. This framework is based on Lanczos-type product methods, whose iteration polynomial consists of the Lanczos polynomial multiplied by some other arbitrary, {open_quotes}shadow{close_quotes} polynomial. By using for the shadow polynomial Chebyshev (more general Faber) polynomials or L{sup 2}-optimal polynomials, hybrid (Chebyshev-like) methods are incorporated into Lanczos-type product methods. In addition, to acquire spectral information on the system matrix, which is required for such a choice of shadow polynomials, the Lanczos-process can be employed either directly or in an QMR-like approach. The QMR like approach allows the cheap computation of the roots of the B-orthogonal polynomials and the residual polynomials associated with the QMR iteration. These roots can be used as a good approximation for the spectrum of the system matrix. Different choices for the shadow polynomials and their construction are analyzed. The resulting hybrid methods are compared with standard Lanczos-type product methods, like BiOStab, BiOStab({ell}) and BiOS.

  6. Projection preconditioning for Lanczos-type methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bielawski, S.S.; Mulyarchik, S.G.; Popov, A.V.

    1996-12-31

    We show how auxiliary subspaces and related projectors may be used for preconditioning nonsymmetric system of linear equations. It is shown that preconditioned in such a way (or projected) system is better conditioned than original system (at least if the coefficient matrix of the system to be solved is symmetrizable). Two approaches for solving projected system are outlined. The first one implies straightforward computation of the projected matrix and consequent using some direct or iterative method. The second approach is the projection preconditioning of conjugate gradient-type solver. The latter approach is developed here in context with biconjugate gradient iteration and some related Lanczos-type algorithms. Some possible particular choices of auxiliary subspaces are discussed. It is shown that one of them is equivalent to using colorings. Some results of numerical experiments are reported.

  7. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to compare typing methods, individually and combined, to use in the routine surveillance of Campylobacter in broiler carcasses. C. jejuni (n=94) and C. coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler carcasses were characterized using different typing methods: multilocus sequen...

  8. A Method for Predicting Protein-Protein Interaction Types

    PubMed Central

    Silberberg, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) govern basic cellular processes through signal transduction and complex formation. The diversity of those processes gives rise to a remarkable diversity of interactions types, ranging from transient phosphorylation interactions to stable covalent bonding. Despite our increasing knowledge on PPIs in humans and other species, their types remain relatively unexplored and few annotations of types exist in public databases. Here, we propose the first method for systematic prediction of PPI type based solely on the techniques by which the interaction was detected. We show that different detection methods are better suited for detecting specific types. We apply our method to ten interaction types on a large scale human PPI dataset. We evaluate the performance of the method using both internal cross validation and external data sources. In cross validation, we obtain an area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve ranging from 0.65 to 0.97 with an average of 0.84 across the predicted types. Comparing the predicted interaction types to external data sources, we obtained significant agreements for phosphorylation and ubiquitination interactions, with hypergeometric p-value = 2.3e−54 and 5.6e−28 respectively. We examine the biological relevance of our predictions using known signaling pathways and chart the abundance of interaction types in cell processes. Finally, we investigate the cross-relations between different interaction types within the network and characterize the discovered patterns, or motifs. We expect the resulting annotated network to facilitate the reconstruction of process-specific subnetworks and assist in predicting protein function or interaction. PMID:24625764

  9. n-Type diamond and method for producing same

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    A new n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed, which is doped with n-type dopant atoms. Such diamond is advantageously formed by chemical vapor deposition from a source gas mixture comprising a carbon source compound for the diamond, and a volatile hot wire filament for the n-type impurity species, so that the n-type impurity atoms are doped in the diamond during its formation. A corresponding chemical vapor deposition method of forming the n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed. The n-type semiconducting diamond of the invention may be usefully employed in the formation of diamond-based transistor devices comprising pn diamond junctions, and in other microelectronic device applications.

  10. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracting methods and contract type. 235.006 Section 235.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.006 Contracting methods and...

  11. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting methods and contract type. 235.006 Section 235.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.006 Contracting methods and...

  12. Method for identifying type I diabetes mellitus in humans

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Thomas O [Kennewick, WA; Qian, Weijun [Richland, WA; Jacobs, Jon M [Pasco, WA

    2011-04-12

    A method and system for classifying subject populations utilizing predictive and diagnostic biomarkers for type I diabetes mellitus. The method including determining the levels of a variety of markers within the serum or plasma of a target organism and correlating this level to general populations as a screen for predisposition or progressive monitoring of disease presence or predisposition.

  13. Challenges for standardization of Clostridium difficile typing methods.

    PubMed

    Huber, Charlotte A; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V; Paterson, David L

    2013-09-01

    Typing of Clostridium difficile facilitates understanding of the epidemiology of the infection. Some evaluations have shown that certain strain types (for example, ribotype 027) are more virulent than others and are associated with worse clinical outcomes. Although restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis have been widely used in the past, PCR ribotyping is the current method of choice for typing of C. difficile. However, global standardization of ribotyping results is urgently needed. Whole-genome sequencing of C. difficile has the potential to provide even greater epidemiologic information than ribotyping. PMID:23784128

  14. Solving inverse problems of identification type by optimal control methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhart, S.; Protopopescu, V.; Yong, J.

    1997-05-01

    Inverse problems of identification type for nonlinear equations are considered within the framework of optimal control theory. The rigorous solution of any particular problem depends on the functional setting, type of equation, and unknown quantity (or quantities) to be determined. Here we present only the general articulations of the formalism. Compared to classical regularization methods (e.g. Tikhonov coupled with optimization schemes), our approach presents several advantages, namely: (i) a systematic procedure to solve inverse problems of identification type; (ii) an explicit expression for the approximations of the solution; and (iii) a convenient numerical solution of these approximations. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Solving inverse problems of identification type by optimal control methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhart, S.; Protopopescu, V.; Jiongmin Yong

    1997-06-01

    Inverse problems of identification type for nonlinear equations are considered within the framework of optimal control theory. The rigorous solution of any particular problem depends on the functional setting, type of equation, and unknown quantity (or quantities) to be determined. Here the authors present only the general articulations of the formalism. Compared to classical regularization methods (e.g. Tikhonov coupled with optimization schemes), their approach presents several advantages, namely: (i) a systematic procedure to solve inverse problems of identification type; (ii) an explicit expression for the approximations of the solution; and (iii) a convenient numerical solution of these approximations.

  16. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Alexandra; Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Miller, William G; De Zutter, Lieven; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Dierick, Katelijne; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different typing methods, individually and combined, for use in the monitoring of Campylobacter in food. Campylobacter jejuni (n=94) and Campylobacter coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler meat carcasses were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), flagellin gene A restriction fragment length polymorphism typing (flaA-RFLP), antimicrobial resistance profiling (AMRp), the presence/absence of 5 putative virulence genes; and, exclusively for C. jejuni, the determination of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) class. Discriminatory power was calculated by the Simpson's index of diversity (SID) and the congruence was measured by the adjusted Rand index and adjusted Wallace coefficient. MLST was individually the most discriminative typing method for both C. jejuni (SID=0.981) and C. coli (SID=0.957). The most discriminative combination with a SID of 0.992 for both C. jejuni and C. coli was obtained by combining MLST with flaA-RFLP. The combination of MLST with flaA-RFLP is an easy and feasible typing method for short-term monitoring of Campylobacter in broiler meat carcass. PMID:26996762

  17. A PCR-RFLP method for typing human papillomavirus type 16 variants.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Trampe, Ángel; Trujillo-Murillo, Karina del C; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Barboza-Cerda, Maria del C; Lugo-Trampe, José de J; Hernández-Ramirez, Laura C; Canseco-Avila, Luis M; Espinoza-Ruiz, Marisol; Domínguez-Arrevillaga, Sergio; Delgado-Enciso, Iván

    2013-02-01

    Infection with some types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is required for cervical cancer development, being HPV type 16 (HPV 16) the most common type in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. DNA sequencing has revealed the existence of intratypic variants of HPV 16 whose genotyping is clinically useful for distinguishing between persistent and recurrent infections. From the epidemiological perspective, the frequency of diverse HPV 16 variants in several populations could correlate with the presence of precursor high-risk lesions in different anatomical locations. Currently, the "gold standard" method for identifying HPV 16 variants involves the sequencing of genomic regions to identify characteristic polymorphic sites. Although some other methods have been described, they require specialized or high-cost equipment. In this study, a robust and low cost procedure is described for HPV 16 variant typing, based on the long control region of the virus. PMID:23124001

  18. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-reimbursement contracts is usually appropriate (see subpart 16.3). The nature of development work often requires... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.006 Contracting methods and..., performance objectives, and specifications for the work can be defined will largely determine the type...

  19. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-reimbursement contracts is usually appropriate (see subpart 16.3). The nature of development work often requires... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.006 Contracting methods and..., performance objectives, and specifications for the work can be defined will largely determine the type...

  20. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-reimbursement contracts is usually appropriate (see subpart 16.3). The nature of development work often requires... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.006 Contracting methods and..., performance objectives, and specifications for the work can be defined will largely determine the type...

  1. New method for removing type 2 copper from Rhus laccase.

    PubMed

    Klemens, A S; McMillin, D R

    1990-02-01

    A new procedure is described for preparing tree laccase that is missing the type 2 copper. The derivative has only about 5% of the activity of the native enzyme, and some, or all, of the residual activity could be due to traces of holoprotein. The type 1 copper is fully oxidized in the purified type-2-depleted protein, while the type 3 site is reduced to the extent of at least 85%. However, the type 3 coppers can be reoxidized by treatment with excess H2O2. Reconstitution is achieved by incubation with Cu(I), and the remetalated protein exhibits the activity and the spectral properties of the native enzyme. The type 2 copper is removed by dialysis against a redox buffer containing ferri- and ferrocyanide ions as well as EDTA. More than 25% of the total copper is removed from laccase during the procedure, but the type-2-depleted fraction is readily isolated by means of an ion-exchange column. The practical advantages of this procedure are described. Finally, the simplicity of the method raises hopes that the mechanism of depletion can be defined. PMID:2324732

  2. Strain Typing Methods and Molecular Epidemiology of Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Patricia; Nevez, Gilles; Hauser, Philippe M.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Lundgren, Bettina

    2004-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) caused by the opportunistic fungal agent Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly P. carinii) continues to cause illness and death in HIV-infected patients. In the absence of a culture system to isolate and maintain live organisms, efforts to type and characterize the organism have relied on polymerase chain reaction–based approaches. Studies using these methods have improved understanding of PCP epidemiology, shedding light on sources of infection, transmission patterns, and potential emergence of antimicrobial resistance. One concern, however, is the lack of guidance regarding the appropriateness of different methods and standardization of these methods, which would facilitate comparing results reported by different laboratories. PMID:15504257

  3. Analytical methods applied to diverse types of Brazilian propolis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Propolis is a bee product, composed mainly of plant resins and beeswax, therefore its chemical composition varies due to the geographic and plant origins of these resins, as well as the species of bee. Brazil is an important supplier of propolis on the world market and, although green colored propolis from the southeast is the most known and studied, several other types of propolis from Apis mellifera and native stingless bees (also called cerumen) can be found. Propolis is usually consumed as an extract, so the type of solvent and extractive procedures employed further affect its composition. Methods used for the extraction; analysis the percentage of resins, wax and insoluble material in crude propolis; determination of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and heavy metal contents are reviewed herein. Different chromatographic methods applied to the separation, identification and quantification of Brazilian propolis components and their relative strengths are discussed; as well as direct insertion mass spectrometry fingerprinting. Propolis has been used as a popular remedy for several centuries for a wide array of ailments. Its antimicrobial properties, present in propolis from different origins, have been extensively studied. But, more recently, anti-parasitic, anti-viral/immune stimulating, healing, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activities of diverse types of Brazilian propolis have been evaluated. The most common methods employed and overviews of their relative results are presented. PMID:21631940

  4. Weighted Wilcoxon-type Smoothly Clipped Absolute Deviation Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    Summary Shrinkage-type variable selection procedures have recently seen increasing applications in biomedical research. However, their performance can be adversely influenced by outliers in either the response or the covariate space. This paper proposes a weighted Wilcoxon-type smoothly clipped absolute deviation (WW-SCAD) method, which deals with robust variable selection and robust estimation simultaneously. The new procedure can be conveniently implemented with the statistical software R. We establish that the WW-SCAD correctly identifies the set of zero coefficients with probability approaching one and estimates the nonzero coefficients with the rate n−1/2. Moreover, with appropriately chosen weights the WW-SCAD is robust with respect to outliers in both the x and y directions. The important special case with constant weights yields an oracle-type estimator with high efficiency at the presence of heavier-tailed random errors. The robustness of the WW-SCAD is partly justified by its asymptotic performance under local shrinking contamination. We propose a BIC-type tuning parameter selector for the WW-SCAD. The performance of the WW-SCAD is demonstrated via simulations and by an application to a study that investigates the effects of personal characteristics and dietary factors on plasma beta-carotene level. PMID:18647294

  5. Prototyping method for Bragg-type atom interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, Brandon; Krygier, Michael; Heward, Jeffrey; Edwards, Mark; Clark, Charles W.

    2011-10-15

    We present a method for rapid modeling of new Bragg ultracold atom-interferometer (AI) designs useful for assessing the performance of such interferometers. The method simulates the overall effect on the condensate wave function in a given AI design using two separate elements. These are (1) modeling the effect of a Bragg pulse on the wave function and (2) approximating the evolution of the wave function during the intervals between the pulses. The actual sequence of these pulses and intervals is then followed to determine the approximate final wave function from which the interference pattern can be calculated. The exact evolution between pulses is assumed to be governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation whose solution is approximated using a Lagrangian variational method to facilitate rapid estimation of performance. The method presented here is an extension of an earlier one that was used to analyze the results of an experiment [J. E. Simsarian et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2040 (2000)], where the phase of a Bose-Einstein condensate was measured using a Mach-Zehnder-type Bragg AI. We have developed both 1D and 3D versions of this method and we have determined their validity by comparing their predicted interference patterns with those obtained by numerical integration of the 1D GP equation and with the results of the above experiment. We find excellent agreement between the 1D interference patterns predicted by this method and those found by the GP equation. We show that we can reproduce all of the results of that experiment without recourse to an ad hoc velocity-kick correction needed by the earlier method, including some experimental results that the earlier model did not predict. We also found that this method provides estimates of 1D interference patterns at least four orders-of-magnitude faster than direct numerical solution of the 1D GP equation.

  6. Prototyping method for Bragg-type atom interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Brandon; Krygier, Michael; Heward, Jeffrey; Edwards, Mark; Clark, Charles W.

    2011-10-01

    We present a method for rapid modeling of new Bragg ultracold atom-interferometer (AI) designs useful for assessing the performance of such interferometers. The method simulates the overall effect on the condensate wave function in a given AI design using two separate elements. These are (1) modeling the effect of a Bragg pulse on the wave function and (2) approximating the evolution of the wave function during the intervals between the pulses. The actual sequence of these pulses and intervals is then followed to determine the approximate final wave function from which the interference pattern can be calculated. The exact evolution between pulses is assumed to be governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation whose solution is approximated using a Lagrangian variational method to facilitate rapid estimation of performance. The method presented here is an extension of an earlier one that was used to analyze the results of an experiment [J. E. Simsarian , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.85.2040 85, 2040 (2000)], where the phase of a Bose-Einstein condensate was measured using a Mach-Zehnder-type Bragg AI. We have developed both 1D and 3D versions of this method and we have determined their validity by comparing their predicted interference patterns with those obtained by numerical integration of the 1D GP equation and with the results of the above experiment. We find excellent agreement between the 1D interference patterns predicted by this method and those found by the GP equation. We show that we can reproduce all of the results of that experiment without recourse to an ad hoc velocity-kick correction needed by the earlier method, including some experimental results that the earlier model did not predict. We also found that this method provides estimates of 1D interference patterns at least four orders-of-magnitude faster than direct numerical solution of the 1D GP equation.

  7. Luminex-Based Methods in High-Resolution HLA Typing.

    PubMed

    Testi, Manuela; Andreani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Luminex-based technology has been applied to discriminate between the different Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) alleles. The typing method consists in a reverse-SSO assay: Target DNA is PCR-amplified using biotinylated group-specific primers. A single PCR reaction is used for each HLA locus. The biotinylated PCR product is chemically denatured using a pH change and allowed to rehybridize to complementary DNA probes conjugated to microspheres. These beads are characterized by two internal fluorescent dyes that create a unique combination of color, make them identifiable. Washes are performed to eliminate any additional PCR product that does not exactly match the sequence detected by the probe. The biotinylated PCR product bound to the microsphere is labelled with streptavidin conjugated with R-phycoerythrin (SAPE). A flow analyzer identifies the fluorescent intensity SAPE on each microsphere. Software is used to assign positive or negative reactions based on the strength of the fluorescent signal. The assignment of the HLA typing is based on positive and negative probe reactions compared with published HLA gene sequences. Recently kits characterized by an extensive number of probes/beads designed to potentially reduce the number of ambiguities or to directly lead to an allele level typing, have been made available. PMID:26024639

  8. The Movable Type Method Applied to Protein-Ligand Binding.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zheng; Ucisik, Melek N; Merz, Kenneth M

    2013-12-10

    Accurately computing the free energy for biological processes like protein folding or protein-ligand association remains a challenging problem. Both describing the complex intermolecular forces involved and sampling the requisite configuration space make understanding these processes innately difficult. Herein, we address the sampling problem using a novel methodology we term "movable type". Conceptually it can be understood by analogy with the evolution of printing and, hence, the name movable type. For example, a common approach to the study of protein-ligand complexation involves taking a database of intact drug-like molecules and exhaustively docking them into a binding pocket. This is reminiscent of early woodblock printing where each page had to be laboriously created prior to printing a book. However, printing evolved to an approach where a database of symbols (letters, numerals, etc.) was created and then assembled using a movable type system, which allowed for the creation of all possible combinations of symbols on a given page, thereby, revolutionizing the dissemination of knowledge. Our movable type (MT) method involves the identification of all atom pairs seen in protein-ligand complexes and then creating two databases: one with their associated pairwise distant dependent energies and another associated with the probability of how these pairs can combine in terms of bonds, angles, dihedrals and non-bonded interactions. Combining these two databases coupled with the principles of statistical mechanics allows us to accurately estimate binding free energies as well as the pose of a ligand in a receptor. This method, by its mathematical construction, samples all of configuration space of a selected region (the protein active site here) in one shot without resorting to brute force sampling schemes involving Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms or molecular dynamics simulations making the methodology extremely efficient. Importantly, this method explores the free

  9. Improved methods for typing nontypeable isolates of group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Benson, Jeffrey A; Flores, Aurea E; Baker, Carol J; Hillier, Sharon L; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2002-06-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are classified by capsular polysaccharide (CPS) type and by cell surface-expressed proteins (c and R). Isolates lacking detectable CPS are considered nontypeable (NT) although they frequently express surface proteins. Immunological and genetic methods were used to study 91 NT GBS isolates collected during surveillance studies for invasive disease or colonization in pregnant or non-pregnant women and neonates less than seven days of age. CPS production was upregulated by the addition of glucose and sodium phosphate to Todd-Hewitt broth (THB) and cells were extracted using hot HCl or mutanolysin. Extracts were tested with antisera for specific CPS types Ia, Ib, and II - VIII by double immunodiffusion (DD) in agarose. By mutanolysin extraction, 12 (13.2%) of the 91 isolates were typeable. In contrast, only four of these 12 newly typeable isolates tested positive for CPS with the HCl extracts of cells grown in modified THB. DNA was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI restriction with NT isolates grouped by protein profile to facilitate analysis. PFGE results of the NT isolates were compared to DNA profiles of typeable isolates and were correlated with the DD results. The DNA profiles of the newly typeable isolates were similar to profiles of isolates with corresponding defined CPS type. Of the remaining 78 NT isolates digested by SmaI, 63 (80.8%) had DNA profiles that resembled those of specific types of GBS. These approaches will be useful for classification of NT isolates in continued epidemiological surveillance associated with GBS vaccine trials. PMID:12139427

  10. The Movable Type Method Applied to Protein-Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Ucisik, Melek N.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Accurately computing the free energy for biological processes like protein folding or protein-ligand association remains a challenging problem. Both describing the complex intermolecular forces involved and sampling the requisite configuration space make understanding these processes innately difficult. Herein, we address the sampling problem using a novel methodology we term “movable type”. Conceptually it can be understood by analogy with the evolution of printing and, hence, the name movable type. For example, a common approach to the study of protein-ligand complexation involves taking a database of intact drug-like molecules and exhaustively docking them into a binding pocket. This is reminiscent of early woodblock printing where each page had to be laboriously created prior to printing a book. However, printing evolved to an approach where a database of symbols (letters, numerals, etc.) was created and then assembled using a movable type system, which allowed for the creation of all possible combinations of symbols on a given page, thereby, revolutionizing the dissemination of knowledge. Our movable type (MT) method involves the identification of all atom pairs seen in protein-ligand complexes and then creating two databases: one with their associated pairwise distant dependent energies and another associated with the probability of how these pairs can combine in terms of bonds, angles, dihedrals and non-bonded interactions. Combining these two databases coupled with the principles of statistical mechanics allows us to accurately estimate binding free energies as well as the pose of a ligand in a receptor. This method, by its mathematical construction, samples all of configuration space of a selected region (the protein active site here) in one shot without resorting to brute force sampling schemes involving Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms or molecular dynamics simulations making the methodology extremely efficient. Importantly, this method explores the

  11. An Object-Based Method for Chinese Landform Types Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hu; Tao, Fei; Zhao, Wufan; Na, Jiaming; Tang, Guo'an

    2016-06-01

    Landform classification is a necessary task for various fields of landscape and regional planning, for example for landscape evaluation, erosion studies, hazard prediction, et al. This study proposes an improved object-based classification for Chinese landform types using the factor importance analysis of random forest and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). In this research, based on 1km DEM of China, the combination of the terrain factors extracted from DEM are selected by correlation analysis and Sheffield's entropy method. Random forest classification tree is applied to evaluate the importance of the terrain factors, which are used as multi-scale segmentation thresholds. Then the GLCM is conducted for the knowledge base of classification. The classification result was checked by using the 1:4,000,000 Chinese Geomorphological Map as reference. And the overall classification accuracy of the proposed method is 5.7% higher than ISODATA unsupervised classification, and 15.7% higher than the traditional object-based classification method.

  12. Design method for four-reflector type beam waveguide systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betsudan, S.; Katagi, T.; Urasaki, S.

    1986-01-01

    Discussed is a method for the design of four reflector type beam waveguide feed systems, comprised of a conical horn and 4 focused reflectors, which are used widely as the primary reflector systems for communications satellite Earth station antennas. The design parameters for these systems are clarified, the relations between each parameter are brought out based on the beam mode development, and the independent design parameters are specified. The characteristics of these systems, namely spillover loss, crosspolarization components, and frequency characteristics, and their relation to the design parameters, are also shown. It is also indicated that design parameters which decide the dimensions of the conical horn or the shape of the focused reflectors can be unerringly established once the design standard for the system has been selected as either: (1) minimizing the crosspolarization component by keeping the spillover loss to within acceptable limits, or (2) minimizing the spillover loss by maintaining the crossover components below an acceptable level and the independent design parameters, such as the respective sizes of the focused reflectors and the distances between the focussed reflectors, etc., have been established according to mechanical restrictions. A sample design is also shown. In addition to being able to clarify the effects of each of the design parameters on the system and improving insight into these systems, the efficiency of these systems will also be increased with this design method.

  13. Methods to distinguish various types of protein phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigan, D.L.; Shriner, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To distinguish the action of protein Tyr(P) and protein Ser(P)/Thr(P) phosphatases on /sup 32/P-labeled phosphoproteins in subcellular fractions different inhibitors and activators are utilized. Comparison of the effects of added compounds provides a convenient, indirect method to characterize dephosphorylation reactions. Protein Tyr(P) phosphatases are specifically inhibited by micromolar Zn2+ or vanadate, and show maximal activity in the presence of EDTA. The other class of cellular phosphatases, specific for protein Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues, are inhibited by fluoride and EDTA. In this class of enzymes two major functional types can be distinguished: those sensitive to inhibition by the heat-stable protein inhibitor-2 and not stimulated by polycations, and those not sensitive to inhibition and stimulated by polycations. Preparation of /sup 32/P-labeled Tyr(P) and Ser(P) phosphoproteins also is presented for the direct measurement of phosphatase activities in preparations by the release of acid-soluble (/sup 32/P)phosphate.

  14. THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD FOR TYPE II PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares E, Felipe; Hamuy, Mario; Pignata, Giuliano; Maza, Jose; Bersten, Melina; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrel, Nidia I.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Matheson, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we study the 'standardized candle method' using a sample of 37 nearby (redshift z < 0.06) Type II plateau supernovae having BVRI photometry and optical spectroscopy. An analytic procedure is implemented to fit light curves, color curves, and velocity curves. We find that the V-I color toward the end of the plateau can be used to estimate the host-galaxy reddening with a precision of {sigma}(A{sub V}) = 0.2 mag. The correlation between plateau luminosity and expansion velocity previously reported in the literature is recovered. Using this relation and assuming a standard reddening law (R{sub V} = 3.1), we obtain Hubble diagrams (HDs) in the BVI bands with dispersions of {approx}0.4 mag. Allowing R{sub V} to vary and minimizing the spread in the HDs, we obtain a dispersion range of 0.25-0.30 mag, which implies that these objects can deliver relative distances with precisions of 12%-14%. The resulting best-fit value of R{sub V} is 1.4 {+-} 0.1.

  15. Module Based Differential Coexpression Analysis Method for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lin; Zheng, Chun-Hou; Xia, Jun-Feng; Huang, De-Shuang

    2015-01-01

    More and more studies have shown that many complex diseases are contributed jointly by alterations of numerous genes. Genes often coordinate together as a functional biological pathway or network and are highly correlated. Differential coexpression analysis, as a more comprehensive technique to the differential expression analysis, was raised to research gene regulatory networks and biological pathways of phenotypic changes through measuring gene correlation changes between disease and normal conditions. In this paper, we propose a gene differential coexpression analysis algorithm in the level of gene sets and apply the algorithm to a publicly available type 2 diabetes (T2D) expression dataset. Firstly, we calculate coexpression biweight midcorrelation coefficients between all gene pairs. Then, we select informative correlation pairs using the “differential coexpression threshold” strategy. Finally, we identify the differential coexpression gene modules using maximum clique concept and k-clique algorithm. We apply the proposed differential coexpression analysis method on simulated data and T2D data. Two differential coexpression gene modules about T2D were detected, which should be useful for exploring the biological function of the related genes. PMID:26339648

  16. High Molecular Weight Typing with MALDI-TOF MS - A Novel Method for Rapid Typing of Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Rizzardi, Kristina; Åkerlund, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile strains were typed by a newly developed MALDI-TOF method, high molecular weight typing, and compared to PCR ribotyping. Among 500 isolates representing 59 PCR ribotypes a total of 35 high molecular weight types could be resolved. Although less discriminatory than PCR ribotyping, the method is extremely fast and simple, and supports for cost-effective screening of isolates during outbreak situations. PMID:25923527

  17. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., performance objectives, and specifications for the work can be defined will largely determine the type of contract employed. The contract type must be selected to fit the work required. (c) Because the absence of...-reimbursement contracts is usually appropriate (see subpart 16.3). The nature of development work often...

  18. Methods for Differentiating Prion Types in Food-Producing Animals.

    PubMed

    Gough, Kevin C; Rees, Helen C; Ives, Sarah E; Maddison, Ben C

    2015-01-01

    Prions are an enigma amongst infectious disease agents as they lack a genome yet confer specific pathologies thought to be dictated mainly, if not solely, by the conformation of the disease form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)). Prion diseases affect humans and animals, the latter including the food-producing ruminant species cattle, sheep, goats and deer. Importantly, it has been shown that the disease agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. Current diagnostic tests can distinguish different prion types and in food-producing animals these focus on the differentiation of BSE from the non-zoonotic agents. Whilst BSE cases are now rare, atypical forms of both scrapie and BSE have been reported, as well as two types of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Typing of animal prion isolates remains an important aspect of prion diagnosis and is now becoming more focused on identifying the range of prion types that are present in food-producing animals and also developing tests that can screen for emerging, novel prion diseases. Here, we review prion typing methodologies in light of current and emerging prion types in food-producing animals. PMID:26580664

  19. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... development contract or a fixed-price type contract for the lead ship of a class, when the value of the work... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT... production option on a development contract for a major weapon system reasonably in advance of the...

  20. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... development contract or a fixed-price type contract for the lead ship of a class, when the value of the work... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT... production option on a development contract for a major weapon system reasonably in advance of the...

  1. 48 CFR 235.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... award a fixed-price type contract for a development program effort unless— (1) The level of program risk... allocation of program risk between the Government and the contractor; and (3) A written determination that... contract for the lead ship of a class; (2) A reduction in the amount of work under a fixed-price...

  2. Interactions between Personality Type and the Experimental Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; Taylor, Beck A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors bring together two research streams in the literature that examine separately the effectiveness of using experiments in the principles classroom and the relationship between different personality types and student achievement. Using a sample of 255 principles of microeconomics students, 48 of whom were enrolled in sections that relied…

  3. Preference for Instructional Methods and MBTI Personality Types in Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Carol Fowler

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personality type and preference for instructional methodologies (lecture, online and simulation). The sample consisted of 94 practicing gerontology nurses (RNs and LPNs) who attended a continuing education workshop on the care of the acutely ill elder at a public university in the…

  4. Suicide Methods in Singapore (2000-2004): Types and Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Boon-Hock; Franzco, Audrey Chia; Ng, Wai-Yee; Tai, Bee-Choo

    2011-01-01

    The choice of suicide methods varies between countries. Common methods used in Singapore between 2000 and 2004 were jumping (72.4%), hanging (16.6%), and poisoning (5.9%). Those who jumped were more likely to be young, single, female, and to have had a major mental illness. By comparison, those who hung themselves were more likely to be older (OR…

  5. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.006 Contracting methods and... projects when the objectives of the research are well defined and there is sufficient confidence in...

  6. Prototyping method for Bragg-type atom interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Brandon; Krygier, Michael; Heward, Jeffrey; Edwards, Mark; Clark, Charles

    2012-02-01

    We present a method for rapid modeling of new Bragg ultracold atom-interferometer (AI) designs useful for assessing the performance of such interferometers. The method simulates the overall effect on the condensate wave function in a given AI design using two separate elements. These are (1) modeling the effect of a Bragg pulse on the wave function and (2) approximating its evolution during the intervals between the pulses. The actual sequence of these pulses and intervals is then followed to determine the approximate final wave function from which the interference pattern can be calculated. The exact evolution between pulses is assumed to be governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE). We have developed both 1D and 3D versions of this method and have determined their validity by comparing their predicted interference patterns with those obtained by numerical integration of the 1D GPE and with the results of an experiment performed at NIST. We find good agreement between the 1D interference patterns predicted by this method and those found by the GPE. We show that we can reproduce the results of the NIST experiment and that this method provides estimates of 1D interference patterns 10,000 times faster than direct integration of the GPE.

  7. 48 CFR 1335.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 1335.006 Contracting methods and... is exempt from the requirements of 15 CFR part 27 and does not require Institutional Review Board... research involving human subjects to be carried out in performance of the award is exempt from 15 CFR...

  8. 48 CFR 1335.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 1335.006 Contracting methods and... is exempt from the requirements of 15 CFR part 27 and does not require Institutional Review Board... research involving human subjects to be carried out in performance of the award is exempt from 15 CFR...

  9. Synoptic typing: interdisciplinary application methods with three practical hydroclimatological examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, C. M.; Leathers, D. J.; Levia, D. F.

    2016-01-01

    Synoptic classification is a methodology that represents diverse atmospheric variables and allows researchers to relate large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns to regional- and small-scale terrestrial processes. Synoptic classification has often been applied to questions concerning the surface environment. However, full applicability has been under-utilized to date, especially in disciplines such as hydroclimatology, which are intimately linked to atmospheric inputs. This paper aims to (1) outline the development of a daily synoptic calendar for the Mid-Atlantic (USA), (2) define seasonal synoptic patterns occurring in the region, and (3) provide hydroclimatological examples whereby the cascading response of precipitation characteristics, soil moisture, and streamflow are explained by synoptic classification. Together, achievement of these objectives serves as a guide for development and use of a synoptic calendar for hydroclimatological studies. In total 22 unique synoptic types were identified, derived from a combination of 12 types occurring in the winter (DJF), 13 in spring (MAM), 9 in summer (JJA), and 11 in autumn (SON). This includes six low pressure systems, four high pressure systems, one cold front, three north/northwest flow regimes, three south/southwest flow regimes, and five weakly defined regimes. Pairwise comparisons indicated that 84.3 % had significantly different rainfall magnitudes, 86.4 % had different rainfall durations, and 84.7 % had different rainfall intensities. The largest precipitation-producing classifications were not restricted to low pressure systems, but rather to patterns with access to moisture sources from the Atlantic Ocean and easterly (on-shore) winds, which transport moisture inland. These same classifications resulted in comparable rates of soil moisture recharge and streamflow discharge, illustrating the applicability of synoptic classification for a range of hydroclimatological research objectives.

  10. Matrix-valued polynomials in Lanczos type methods

    SciTech Connect

    Simoncini, V.; Gallopoulos, E.

    1994-12-31

    It is well known that convergence properties of iterative methods can be derived by studying the behavior of the residual polynomial over a suitable domain of the complex plane. Block Krylov subspace methods for the solution of linear systems A[x{sub 1},{hor_ellipsis}, x{sub s}] = [b{sub 1},{hor_ellipsis}, b{sub s}] lead to the generation of residual polynomials {phi}{sub m} {element_of} {bar P}{sub m,s} where {bar P}{sub m,s} is the subset of matrix-valued polynomials of maximum degree m and size s such that {phi}{sub m}(0) = I{sub s}, R{sub m} := B - AX{sub m} = {phi}{sub m}(A) {circ} R{sub 0}, where {phi}{sub m}(A) {circ} R{sub 0} := R{sub 0} - A{summation}{sub j=0}{sup m-1} A{sup j}R{sub 0}{xi}{sub j}, {xi}{sub j} {element_of} R{sup sxs}. An effective method has to balance adequate approximation with economical computation of iterates defined by the polynomial. Matrix valued polynomials can be used to improve the performance of block methods. Another approach is to solve for a single right-hand side at a time and use the generated information in order to update the approximations of the remaining systems. In light of this, a more general scheme is as follows: A subset of residuals (seeds) is selected and a block short term recurrence method is used to compute approximate solutions for the corresponding systems. At the same time the generated matrix valued polynomial is implicitly applied to the remaining residuals. Subsequently a new set of seeds is selected and the process is continued as above, till convergence of all right-hand sides. The use of a quasi-minimization technique ensures a smooth convergence behavior for all systems. In this talk the authors discuss the implementation of this class of algorithms and formulate strategies for the selection of parameters involved in the computation. Experiments and comparisons with other methods will be presented.

  11. New doping method to obtain n-type silicon ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. A.; Platte, B.; Brito, M. C.; Serra, J. M.

    2015-10-01

    A method to dope silicon ribbons is presented. The method consists on the spraying of the ribbons with a phosphoric acid solution followed by a recrystallization in an optical heating furnace. During the sample heating, as phosphoric acid is dehydrated the resulting phosphorous compounds are either evaporated or serve as source for phosphorous diffusion. Phosphorous is efficiently incorporated in silicon by solid-state diffusion during heating and directly mixed in the melted silicon. Experimental results show significant incorporation gradients along the samples' length. The origin of the incorporation gradient is analysed, by testing the effect of experimental parameters such as the argon flux and the recrystallization velocity and direction. It is shown that samples recrystallized in a downward direction have homogeneous doping profiles over most of the length.

  12. Dispersion type zirconium matrix fuels fabricated by capillary impregnation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, A.; Konovalov, I.; Vatulin, A.; Morozov, A.; Orlov, V.; Uferov, O.; Ershov, S.; Laushkin, A.; Kulakov, G.; Maranchak, S.; Petrova, Z.

    2007-05-01

    Several novel dispersion fuel compositions with a high uranium content fuel (U9Mo, U5Zr5Nb, U3Si) and a zirconium alloy matrix with low melting point (1063-1133 K) have been developed at A.A. Bochvar Institute using a capillary impregnation fabrication method. The capillary impregnation method introduces fuel granules and granules of a zirconium alloy into a fuel element followed by a short-term anneal at a temperature above the melting temperature of alloy. The alloy melts down and under capillary forces moves into the joints between the fuel element components to form metallurgical bonds. The volume ratios between the components are: 55-65% fuel, 10-20% matrix, and 15-30% pores. Fuel elements produced by capillary impregnation method have a high uranium content (9-10 g cm-3) and a high thermal conductivity (18-22 W m-1 K-1), which, when used as PWR or BWR fuels allow the fuel temperature to be lowered to 723-773 K. They also feature porosity to accommodate swelling. The metallurgical fuel-cladding bond makes the fuel elements serviceable in power transients. The primary advantages for PWR, BWR and CANDU use of these fuels elements, would be the high uranium content, low fuel temperature and serviceability under transient conditions. Consideration is given to their applicability in Floating Nuclear Power Plants (FNPP) as well as for the feasibility of burning civil and weapon grade plutonium.

  13. Study on Winding Method to Reduce the Residual Current of Track Type (Oval Type) ZCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Fumio; Ibe, Masayuki; Ninohei, Koichiro; Okamura, Seiichiro

    ZCT (Zero-phase-sequence Current Transformer) is used widely for the detection of the ground fault current in low or high voltage distribution power line. Especially, the use of pole air switches equipped with ZCT is increasing to prevent the extended accident caused by the ground fault. The accurate detection of low level ground fault is needed from the view of early stage discovery. The internal residual current of ZCT must be small as possible for the detection of low level ground fault. Generally, the magnetic shield around the core of ZCT is used to reduce the internal residual current. Also, the core material and shield effect is related to the reduction of the internal residual current. In this paper, the reducing method of the internal residual current is proposed by using new winding method of the core. In new winding method, the secondary and tertiary windings are provided, and each winding is divided into two or three sections with parallel connection. The leakage magnetic flux caused by the primary current is changed to the cross current in parallel winding. This cross current is used to offset the leakage magnetic flux caused by the primary current. It is observed by the examination that the cross current is effective to reduce the internal residual current without influence to the zero phase current detection.

  14. Discriminatory Indices of Typing Methods for Epidemiologic Analysis of Contemporary Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Marcela; Hogan, Patrick G.; Satola, Sarah W.; Crispell, Emily; Wylie, Todd; Gao, Hongyu; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Fritz, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Historically, a number of typing methods have been evaluated for Staphylococcus aureus strain characterization. The emergence of contemporary strains of community-associated S. aureus, and the ensuing epidemic with a predominant strain type (USA300), necessitates re-evaluation of the discriminatory power of these typing methods for discerning molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics, essential to investigations of hospital and community outbreaks. We compared the discriminatory index of 5 typing methods for contemporary S. aureus strain characterization. Children presenting to St. Louis Children's Hospital and community pediatric practices in St. Louis, Missouri (MO), with community-associated S. aureus infections were enrolled. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (repPCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal protein A (spa), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing were performed on 200 S. aureus isolates. The discriminatory index of each method was calculated using the standard formula for this metric, where a value of 1 is highly discriminatory and a value of 0 is not discriminatory. Overall, we identified 26 distinct strain types by repPCR, 17 strain types by PFGE, 30 strain types by MLST, 68 strain types by spa typing, and 5 strain types by SCCmec typing. RepPCR had the highest discriminatory index (D) of all methods (D = 0.88), followed by spa typing (D = 0.87), MLST (D = 0.84), PFGE (D = 0.76), and SCCmec typing (D = 0.60). The method with the highest D among MRSA isolates was repPCR (D = 0.64) followed by spa typing (D = 0.45) and MLST (D = 0.44). The method with the highest D among MSSA isolates was spa typing (D = 0.98), followed by MLST (D = 0.93), repPCR (D = 0.92), and PFGE (D = 0.89). Among isolates designated USA300 by PFGE, repPCR was most discriminatory, with 10 distinct strain types identified (D = 0.63). We

  15. A fast method for computing the centroid of a type-2 fuzzy set.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Jung; Su, Yao-Lung; Lee, Shie-Jue

    2012-06-01

    Type reduction does the work of computing the centroid of a type-2 fuzzy set. The result is a type-1 fuzzy set from which a corresponding crisp number can then be obtained through defuzzification. Type reduction is one of the major operations involved in type-2 fuzzy inference. Therefore, making type reduction efficient is a significant task in the application of type-2 fuzzy systems. Liu introduced a horizontal slice representation, called the α-plane representation, and proposed a type-reduction method for a type-2 fuzzy set. By exploring some useful properties of the α-plane representation and of the type reduction for interval type-2 fuzzy sets, a fast method is developed for computing the centroid of a type-2 fuzzy set. The number of computations and comparisons involved is greatly reduced. Convergence in each iteration can then speed up, and type reduction can be done much more efficiently. The effectiveness of the proposed method is analyzed mathematically and demonstrated by experimental results. PMID:22180511

  16. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  20. High performance p-type thermoelectric materials and methods of preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alexander (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in high performance p-type thermoelectric materials having enhanced thermoelectric properties and the methods of preparing such materials. In one aspect of the invention, p-type semiconductors of formula Zn4-xAxSb3-yBy wherein 0?x?4, A is a transition metal, B is a pnicogen, and 0?y?3 are formed for use in manufacturing thermoelectric devices with substantially enhanced operating characteristics and improved efficiency. Two methods of preparing p-type Zn4Sb3 and related alloys of the present invention include a crystal growth method and a powder metallurgy method.

  1. A simple method for gene expression and chromatin profiling of individual cell types within a tissue

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Roger B.; Henikoff, Steven

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the production and function of specialized cells during development requires the isolation of individual cell types for analysis, but this is currently a major technical challenge. Here we describe a method for cell type-specific RNA and chromatin profiling that circumvents many of the limitations of current methods for cell isolation. We used in vivo biotin labeling of a nuclear envelope protein in individual cell types followed by affinity isolation of labeled nuclei to measure gene expression and chromatin features of the hair and non-hair cell types of the Arabidopsis root epidermis. We identified hundreds of genes that are preferentially expressed in each cell type and show that genes with the largest expression differences between hair and non-hair cells also show differences between cell types in the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysines 4 and 27. This method should be applicable to any organism that is amenable to transformation. PMID:20627084

  2. Optimum selection of mechanism type for heavy manipulators based on particle swarm optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Chen, Genliang; Wang, Hao; Lin, Zhongqin

    2013-07-01

    The mechanism type plays a decisive role in the mechanical performance of robotic manipulators. Feasible mechanism types can be obtained by applying appropriate type synthesis theory, but there is still a lack of effective and efficient methods for the optimum selection among different types of mechanism candidates. This paper presents a new strategy for the purpose of optimum mechanism type selection based on the modified particle swarm optimization method. The concept of sub-swarm is introduced to represent the different mechanisms generated by the type synthesis, and a competitive mechanism is employed between the sub-swarms to reassign their population size according to the relative performances of the mechanism candidates to implement the optimization. Combining with a modular modeling approach for fast calculation of the performance index of the potential candidates, the proposed method is applied to determine the optimum mechanism type among the potential candidates for the desired manipulator. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated through a case study on the optimum selection of mechanism type of a heavy manipulator where six feasible candidates are considered with force capability as the specific performance index. The optimization result shows that the fitness of the optimum mechanism type for the considered heavy manipulator can be up to 0.578 5. This research provides the instruction in optimum selection of mechanism types for robotic manipulators.

  3. Fast and simple epidemiological typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the double-locus sequence typing (DLST) method.

    PubMed

    Basset, P; Blanc, D S

    2014-06-01

    Although the molecular typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is important to understand the local epidemiology of this opportunistic pathogen, it remains challenging. Our aim was to develop a simple typing method based on the sequencing of two highly variable loci. Single-strand sequencing of three highly variable loci (ms172, ms217, and oprD) was performed on a collection of 282 isolates recovered between 1994 and 2007 (from patients and the environment). As expected, the resolution of each locus alone [number of types (NT) = 35-64; index of discrimination (ID) = 0.816-0.964] was lower than the combination of two loci (NT = 78-97; ID = 0.966-0.971). As each pairwise combination of loci gave similar results, we selected the most robust combination with ms172 [reverse; R] and ms217 [R] to constitute the double-locus sequence typing (DLST) scheme for P. aeruginosa. This combination gave: (i) a complete genotype for 276/282 isolates (typability of 98%), (ii) 86 different types, and (iii) an ID of 0.968. Analysis of multiple isolates from the same patients or taps showed that DLST genotypes are generally stable over a period of several months. The high typability, discriminatory power, and ease of use of the proposed DLST scheme makes it a method of choice for local epidemiological analyses of P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the possibility to give unambiguous definition of types allowed to develop an Internet database ( http://www.dlst.org ) accessible by all. PMID:24326699

  4. Solving the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation using the ranking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurhakimah Ab.; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-07-01

    Polynomial equations with trapezoidal and triangular fuzzy numbers have attracted some interest among researchers in mathematics, engineering and social sciences. There are some methods that have been developed in order to solve these equations. In this study we are interested in introducing the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation and solving it using the ranking method of fuzzy numbers. The ranking method concept was firstly proposed to find real roots of fuzzy polynomial equation. Therefore, the ranking method is applied to find real roots of the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation. We transform the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation to a system of crisp interval type-2 fuzzy polynomial equation. This transformation is performed using the ranking method of fuzzy numbers based on three parameters, namely value, ambiguity and fuzziness. Finally, we illustrate our approach by numerical example.

  5. Capsular Typing Method for Streptococcus agalactiae Using Whole-Genome Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Alison; Jones, Nicola; Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Efstratiou, Androulla; Patel, Darshana; Walker, A. Sarah; Berkley, James A.; Crook, Derrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) capsular serotypes are major determinants of virulence and affect potential vaccine coverage. Here we report a whole-genome-sequencing-based method for GBS serotype assignment. This method shows strong agreement (kappa of 0.92) with conventional methods and increased serotype assignment (100%) to all 10 capsular types. PMID:26962081

  6. Capsular Typing Method for Streptococcus agalactiae Using Whole-Genome Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Anna E; Vaughan, Alison; Jones, Nicola; Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Efstratiou, Androulla; Patel, Darshana; Walker, A Sarah; Berkley, James A; Crook, Derrick W; Seale, Anna C

    2016-05-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) capsular serotypes are major determinants of virulence and affect potential vaccine coverage. Here we report a whole-genome-sequencing-based method for GBS serotype assignment. This method shows strong agreement (kappa of 0.92) with conventional methods and increased serotype assignment (100%) to all 10 capsular types. PMID:26962081

  7. Boundary Value Technique for Initial Value Problems Based on Adams-Type Second Derivative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jator, S. N.; Sahi, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we propose a family of second derivative Adams-type methods (SDAMs) of order up to 2k + 2 ("k" is the step number) for initial value problems. The methods are constructed through a continuous approximation of the SDAM which is obtained by multistep collocation. The continuous approximation is used to obtain initial value methods,…

  8. Sol-gel method of p-type zinc oxide films preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Armen R.; Li, XiaoNan; Manukyan, Alexandr L.; Grigoryan, Stepan G.; Vardanyan, Eduard S.

    2007-09-01

    Both n-type and p-type ZnO will be required for development of homojunction light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. It is easy to obtain strong n-type ZnO, but very difficult to create consistent, reliable, high-conductivity p-type material. Here we present our investigations of p-type ZnO thin film preparation by sol-gel method using single Li doping and Ga(Al)+N codoping technique. ZnO thin films with c-axis orientation have been prepared on glass substrates. Zn acetate dihydrate, gallium nitrate and acetamide were used as zinc, gallium and nitrogen precursors respectively. SEM, X-ray diffraction, electric conductivity and Hall effect measurements were carried out. The results show that p-type conducting ZnO films with hole concentrations as high as 5x10 17 cm -3 were obtained by this method.

  9. A Method of Forest Type Classification Using PolInSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinshuang; Chen, Erxue; Li, Zengyuan; Yao, Wangqiang; Li, Wenmei; Li, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Forest type mapping is of great significance for regional forest carbon estimation as forest types distribution information is always the critical prior input information to forest carbon stock mapping model using remote sensing. Polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar (Pol-InSAR) data acquired by DLR airborne SAR system (ESAR) in the Traunstein test site in Germany was used to study forest type classification method in this paper. A new unsupervised PolInSAR classification method based on coherent optimization R matrix was proposed to distinguish coniferous forest, deciduous forest and other land cover types. It not only considers the full polarimetric information of single Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) data set but also the coherent information of a pair of PolSAR data. The results show that the classification algorithm proposed in this paper is the best method with higher accuracy comparing with the classical method based on T6 matrix.

  10. What's in a Name? A Comparison of Methods for Classifying Predominant Type of Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, A.S.; Leeb, R.T.; English, D.; Graham, J.C.; Briggs, E.C.; Brody, K.E.; Marshall, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The primary aim of the study was to identify a classification scheme, for determining the predominant type of maltreatment in a child's history that best predicts differences in developmental outcomes. Method:: Three different predominant type classification schemes were examined in a sample of 519 children with a history of alleged…

  11. On spectral methods for Volterra-type integro-differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ying-Jun

    2009-08-01

    This paper considers the spectral methods for a Volterra-type integro-differential equation. Firstly, the Volterra-type integro-differential equation is equivalently restated as two integral equations of the second kind. Secondly, a Legendre-collocation method is used to solve them. Then the error analysis is conducted based on the L[infinity]-norm. In addition, numerical results are presented to confirm our analysis.

  12. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Spain: molecular epidemiology and utility of different typing methods.

    PubMed

    Vindel, Ana; Cuevas, Oscar; Cercenado, Emilia; Marcos, Carmen; Bautista, Verónica; Castellares, Carol; Trincado, Pilar; Boquete, Teresa; Pérez-Vázquez, Maria; Marín, Mercedes; Bouza, Emilio

    2009-06-01

    In a point-prevalence study performed in 145 Spanish hospitals in 2006, we collected 463 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in a single day. Of these, 135 (29.2%) were methicillin (meticillin)-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed by a microdilution method, and mecA was detected by PCR. The isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SmaI digestion, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, agr typing, spa typing with BURP (based-upon-repeat-pattern) analysis, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The 135 MRSA isolates showed resistance to ciprofloxacin (93.3%), tobramycin (72.6%), gentamicin (20.0%), erythromycin (66.7%), and clindamycin (39.3%). Among the isolates resistant to erythromycin, 27.4% showed the M phenotype. All of the isolates were susceptible to glycopeptides. Twelve resistance patterns were found, of which four accounted for 65% of the isolates. PFGE revealed 36 different patterns, with 13 major clones (including 2 predominant clones with various antibiotypes that accounted for 52.5% of the MRSA isolates) and 23 sporadic profiles. Two genotypes were observed for the first time in Spain. SCCmec type IV accounted for 6.7% of the isolates (70.1% were type IVa, 23.9% were type IVc, 0.9% were type IVd, and 5.1% were type IVh), and SCCmec type I and SCCmec type II accounted for 7.4% and 5.2% of the isolates, respectively. One isolate was nontypeable. Only one of the isolates produced the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. The isolates presented agr type 2 (82.2%), type 1 (14.8%), and type 3 (3.0%). spa typing revealed 32 different types, the predominant ones being t067 (48.9%) and t002 (14.8%), as well as clonal complex 067 (78%) by BURP analysis. The MRSA clone of sequence type 125 and SCCmec type IV was the most prevalent throughout Spain. In our experience, PFGE, spa typing, SCCmec typing, and MLST presented good correlations for the majority of the MRSA strains; we suggest the

  13. Methods for improving n-type photoconductivity of electrodeposited Cu2O thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalubowila, K. D. R. N.; Gunawardhana, L. K. A. D. D. S.; Wijesundera, R. P.; Siripala, W.

    2014-07-01

    Electrodeposition technique is very useful for depositing n-type Cu2O thin films on various substrates. However, most of the reported n-type Cu2O thin film electrodes exhibit not only n-type photoactivity but also p-type photoactivity in photoelectrochemical cells. In this study, current-voltage characteristics and zero bias spectral response measurements were employed to investigate the possibilities to remove/minimize this unwanted p-type behaviour of n-type Cu2O thin films electrodeposited on Ti substrate. For this, prior deposition of Cu thin films on Ti substrate, low temperature annealing of Cu2O films in air and optimization of deposition bath pH were investigated. Growth of a very thin Cu film improved the n-type photosignal significantly and reduced the p-type photoresponse of the films. Films electrodeposited using an acetate bath of pH 6.1 produced only the n-type photoresponse. Low temperature annealing of Cu2O films in air improved the n-type photoresponse and it was found that annealing at 100 °C for 24 h produces the best result. These methods will be very useful to obtain electrodeposited Cu2O thin film with improved n-type photoactivity suitable for applications in thin film solar cells and other devices.

  14. [Development of an accelerated method of determining the antibiotic sensitivity of Cl. perfringens type A].

    PubMed

    Zemlianitskaia, E P; Kurbanova, I Z; Sergeeva, T I

    1979-02-01

    An express method for determination of antibiotic sensitivity in the strains of Cl. perfringens of type A using Soviet dry nutrient media and antibiotics is proposed. The criteria for estimation of the level of the antibiotic sensitivity of the causative agent of gas gangrene in short periods on the basis of comparison of the data of the antibiotic agar diffusion procedure and the antibiotic MIC were worked out. Twelve antibiotics and 45 collection strains of Cl. perfringens of type A were used in the experiment. The antibiotic agar diffusion method with the use of the nutrient media, microbial load and cultivation conditions developed by the authors is recommended for tentative determination of the antibiotic sensitivity in Cl. perfringens of type A for 4 hours. The use of the agar diffusion method and determination of the antibiotic MIC provided complete estimation of tha antibiotic sensitivity of Cl. perfringens of type A within not more than 24 hours. PMID:219770

  15. Overview of molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sabat, A J; Budimir, A; Nashev, D; Sá-Leão, R; van Dijl, J m; Laurent, F; Grundmann, H; Friedrich, A W

    2013-01-01

    Typing methods for discriminating different bacterial isolates of the same species are essential epidemiological tools in infection prevention and control. Traditional typing systems based on phenotypes, such as serotype, biotype, phage-type, or antibiogram, have been used for many years. However, more recent methods that examine the relatedness of isolates at a molecular level have revolutionised our ability to differentiate among bacterial types and subtypes. Importantly, the development of molecular methods has provided new tools for enhanced surveillance and outbreak detection. This has resulted in better implementation of rational infection control programmes and efficient allocation of resources across Europe. The emergence of benchtop sequencers using next generation sequencing technology makes bacterial whole genome sequencing (WGS) feasible even in small research and clinical laboratories. WGS has already been used for the characterisation of bacterial isolates in several large outbreaks in Europe and, in the near future, is likely to replace currently used typing methodologies due to its ultimate resolution. However, WGS is still too laborious and time-consuming to obtain useful data in routine surveillance. Also, a largely unresolved question is how genome sequences must be examined for epidemiological characterisation. In the coming years, the lessons learnt from currently used molecular methods will allow us to condense the WGS data into epidemiologically useful information. On this basis, we have reviewed current and new molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance of bacterial pathogens in clinical practice, aiming to give an overview of their specific advantages and disadvantages. PMID:23369389

  16. A new Liu-Storey type nonlinear conjugate gradient method for unconstrained optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li

    2009-03-01

    Although the Liu-Storey (LS) nonlinear conjugate gradient method has a similar structure as the well-known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) and Hestenes-Stiefel (HS) methods, research about this method is very rare. In this paper, based on the memoryless BFGS quasi-Newton method, we propose a new LS type method, which converges globally for general functions with the Grippo-Lucidi line search. Moreover, we modify this new LS method such that the modified scheme is globally convergent for nonconvex minimization if the strong Wolfe line search is used. Numerical results are also reported.

  17. A description of Lax type integrable dynamical systems via the Marsden-Weinstein reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prykarpatsky, Yarema A.

    2013-09-01

    A Lie-algebraic approach to constructing nonlinear Lax type integrable dynamical systems of modern mathematical and theoretical physics, based on the Marsden-Weinstein reduction method on canonically symplectic manifolds with group symmetry, is proposed. Its natural relationship with the well known Adler-Kostant-Souriau-Berezin-Kirillov method and the associated R-matrix approach is analyzed.

  18. Evaluation of simplified DNA extraction methods for emm typing of group A streptococci.

    PubMed

    Jose, J J M; Brahmadathan, K N

    2006-04-01

    Simplified methods of DNA extraction for amplification and sequencing for emm typing of group A streptococci (GAS) can save valuable time and cost in resource crunch situations. To evaluate this, we compared two methods of DNA extraction directly from colonies with the standard CDC cell lysate method for emm typing of 50 GAS strains isolated from children with pharyngitis and impetigo. For this, GAS colonies were transferred into two sets of PCR tubes. One set was preheated at 94 degrees C for two minutes in the thermal cycler and cooled while the other set was frozen overnight at -20 degrees C and then thawed before adding the PCR mix. For the cell lysate method, cells were treated with mutanolysin and hyaluronidase before heating at 100 degrees C for 10 minutes and cooling immediately as recommended in the CDC method. All 50 strains could be typed by sequencing the hyper variable region of the emm gene after amplification. The quality of sequences and the emm types identified were also identical. Our study shows that the two simplified DNA extraction methods directly from colonies can conveniently be used for typing a large number of GAS strains easily in relatively short time. PMID:16687865

  19. Typing methods used in the molecular epidemiology of microbial pathogens: a how-to guide.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Reza; Karami, Ali; Farshad, Shohreh; Giammanco, Giovanni M; Mammina, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Microbial typing is often employed to determine the source and routes of infections, confirm or rule out outbreaks, trace cross-transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens, recognize virulent strains and evaluate the effectiveness of control measures. Conventional microbial typing methods have occasionally been useful in describing the epidemiology of infectious diseases. However, these methods are generally considered too variable, labour intensive and time-consuming to be of practical value in epidemiological investigations. Moreover, these approaches have proved to be insufficiently discriminatory and poorly reproducible. DNA-based typing methods rely on the analysis of the genetic material of a microorganism. In recent years, several methods have been introduced and developed for investigation of the molecular epidemiology of microbial pathogens. Each of them has advantages and limitations that make them useful in some studies and restrictive in others. The choice of a molecular typing method therefore will depend on the skill level and resources of the laboratory and the aim and scale of the investigation. This study reviews the most popular DNA-based molecular typing methods used in the epidemiology of bacterial pathogens together with their advantages and limitations. PMID:24531166

  20. Lattice Boltzmann Method of Different BGA Orientations on I-Type Dispensing Method

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Z. L.; Ishak, M. H. H.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Khor, Soon Fuat

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the three dimensional (3D) simulation of fluid flows through the ball grid array (BGA) to replicate the real underfill encapsulation process. The effect of different solder bump arrangements of BGA on the flow front, pressure and velocity of the fluid is investigated. The flow front, pressure and velocity for different time intervals are determined and analyzed for potential problems relating to solder bump damage. The simulation results from Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) code will be validated with experimental findings as well as the conventional Finite Volume Method (FVM) code to ensure highly accurate simulation setup. Based on the findings, good agreement can be seen between LBM and FVM simulations as well as the experimental observations. It was shown that only LBM is capable of capturing the micro-voids formation. This study also shows an increasing trend in fluid filling time for BGA with perimeter, middle empty and full orientations. The perimeter orientation has a higher pressure fluid at the middle region of BGA surface compared to middle empty and full orientation. This research would shed new light for a highly accurate simulation of encapsulation process using LBM and help to further increase the reliability of the package produced. PMID:27454872

  1. Lattice Boltzmann Method of Different BGA Orientations on I-Type Dispensing Method.

    PubMed

    Abas, Aizat; Gan, Z L; Ishak, M H H; Abdullah, M Z; Khor, Soon Fuat

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the three dimensional (3D) simulation of fluid flows through the ball grid array (BGA) to replicate the real underfill encapsulation process. The effect of different solder bump arrangements of BGA on the flow front, pressure and velocity of the fluid is investigated. The flow front, pressure and velocity for different time intervals are determined and analyzed for potential problems relating to solder bump damage. The simulation results from Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) code will be validated with experimental findings as well as the conventional Finite Volume Method (FVM) code to ensure highly accurate simulation setup. Based on the findings, good agreement can be seen between LBM and FVM simulations as well as the experimental observations. It was shown that only LBM is capable of capturing the micro-voids formation. This study also shows an increasing trend in fluid filling time for BGA with perimeter, middle empty and full orientations. The perimeter orientation has a higher pressure fluid at the middle region of BGA surface compared to middle empty and full orientation. This research would shed new light for a highly accurate simulation of encapsulation process using LBM and help to further increase the reliability of the package produced. PMID:27454872

  2. Method of Asteroid S/C Type Classification Using Color Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jia-hui; Zhao, Hai-bin; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The color indices obtained from multi-color photometry have important significance of reference in the S/C type classification of asteroids, and the color parameter a derived from the principal component analysis of color indices is a key parameter of classification. Two methods, the direct demarcation at a = 0 and the cluster analysis of a-parameters, are applied to the asteroid S/C type classifications of the SDSSMOC4 and XSTPS-GAC (Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey of the Galactic Anti-Center) multi-color data samples, respectively. The results show that the two methods are effective and consistent in the case of large samples, and well consistent with the Carvano's result of S/C type classification, and that the a = 0 demarcation method is sensitive to the variation of sample space, but the method of cluster analysis is more stable.

  3. High performance P-type thermoelectric materials and methods of preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alexander (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in high performance p-type thermoelectric materials having enhanced thermoelectric properties and the methods of preparing such materials. In one aspect of the invention, p-type semiconductors of formula Zn.sub.4-x A.sub.x Sb.sub.3-y B.sub.y wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4, A is a transition metal, B is a pnicogen, and 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.3 are formed for use in manufacturing thermoelectric devices with substantially enhanced operating characteristics and improved efficiency. Two methods of preparing p-type Zn.sub.4 Sb.sub.3 and related alloys of the present invention include a crystal growth method and a powder metallurgy method.

  4. Extended RKN-type methods for numerical integration of perturbed oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongli; Wu, Xinyuan; You, Xiong; Fang, Yonglei

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, extended Runge-Kutta-Nyström-type methods for the numerical integration of perturbed oscillators with low frequencies are presented, which inherit the framework of RKN methods and make full use of the special feature of the true flows for both the internal stages and the updates. Following the approach of J. Butcher, E. Hairer and G. Wanner, we develop a new kind of tree set to derive order conditions for the extended Runge-Kutta-Nyström-type methods. The numerical stability and phase properties of the new methods are analyzed. Numerical experiments are accompanied to show the applicability and efficiency of our new methods in comparison with some well-known high quality methods proposed in the scientific literature.

  5. SYBR Green Real-Time PCR Method To Detect Clostridium botulinum Type A▿

    PubMed Central

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio; De Medici, Dario; Delibato, Elisabetta; Aureli, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are classically produced by Clostridium botulinum but rarely also from neurotoxigenic strains of Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum. BoNT type A (BoNT/A), BoNT/B, BoNT/E, and very rarely BoNT/F are mainly responsible for human botulism. Standard microbiological methods take into consideration only the detection of C. botulinum. The presumptive identification of the toxigenic strains together with the typing of BoNT has to be performed by mouse bioassay. The development of PCR-based methods for the detection and typing of BoNT-producing clostridia would be an ideal alternative to the mouse bioassay. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and robust real-time PCR method for detecting C. botulinum type A. Four different techniques for the extraction and purification of DNA from cultured samples were initially compared. Of the techniques used, Chelex 100, DNeasy tissue kit, InstaGene matrix DNA, and boiling, the boiling technique was significantly less efficient than the other three. These did not give statistically different results, and Chelex 100 was chosen because it was less expensive than the others. In order to eliminate any false-negative results, an internal amplification control was synthesized and included in the amplification mixture according to ISO 22174. The specificity of the method was tested against 75 strains of C. botulinum type A, 4 strains of C. botulinum type Ab, and 101 nontarget strains. The detection limit of the reaction was less than 6 × 101 copies of C. botulinum type A DNA. The robustness of the method was confirmed using naturally contaminated stool specimens to evaluate the tolerance of inhibitor substances. SYBR green real-time PCR showed very high specificity for the detection of C. botulinum types A and Ab (inclusivity and exclusivity, 100%). PMID:17369349

  6. SYBR green real-time PCR method to detect Clostridium botulinum type A.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio; De Medici, Dario; Delibato, Elisabetta; Aureli, Paolo

    2007-05-01

    Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are classically produced by Clostridium botulinum but rarely also from neurotoxigenic strains of Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum. BoNT type A (BoNT/A), BoNT/B, BoNT/E, and very rarely BoNT/F are mainly responsible for human botulism. Standard microbiological methods take into consideration only the detection of C. botulinum. The presumptive identification of the toxigenic strains together with the typing of BoNT has to be performed by mouse bioassay. The development of PCR-based methods for the detection and typing of BoNT-producing clostridia would be an ideal alternative to the mouse bioassay. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and robust real-time PCR method for detecting C. botulinum type A. Four different techniques for the extraction and purification of DNA from cultured samples were initially compared. Of the techniques used, Chelex 100, DNeasy tissue kit, InstaGene matrix DNA, and boiling, the boiling technique was significantly less efficient than the other three. These did not give statistically different results, and Chelex 100 was chosen because it was less expensive than the others. In order to eliminate any false-negative results, an internal amplification control was synthesized and included in the amplification mixture according to ISO 22174. The specificity of the method was tested against 75 strains of C. botulinum type A, 4 strains of C. botulinum type Ab, and 101 nontarget strains. The detection limit of the reaction was less than 6 x 10(1) copies of C. botulinum type A DNA. The robustness of the method was confirmed using naturally contaminated stool specimens to evaluate the tolerance of inhibitor substances. SYBR green real-time PCR showed very high specificity for the detection of C. botulinum types A and Ab (inclusivity and exclusivity, 100%). PMID:17369349

  7. Application of neutron transmutation doping method to initially p-type silicon material.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myong-Seop; Kang, Ki-Doo; Park, Sang-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The neutron transmutation doping (NTD) method was applied to the initially p-type silicon in order to extend the NTD applications at HANARO. The relationship between the irradiation neutron fluence and the final resistivity of the initially p-type silicon material was investigated. The proportional constant between the neutron fluence and the resistivity was determined to be 2.3473x10(19)nOmegacm(-1). The deviation of the final resistivity from the target for almost all the irradiation results of the initially p-type silicon ingots was at a range from -5% to 2%. In addition, the burn-up effect of the boron impurities, the residual (32)P activity and the effect of the compensation characteristics for the initially p-type silicon were studied. Conclusively, the practical methodology to perform the neutron transmutation doping of the initially p-type silicon ingot was established. PMID:19318259

  8. CFD-based method of determining form factor k for different ship types and different drafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinbao; Yu, Hai; Zhang, Yuefeng; Xiong, Xiaoqing

    2016-07-01

    The value of form factor k at different drafts is important in predicting full-scale total resistance and speed for different types of ships. In the ITTC community, most organizations predict form factor k using a low-speed model test. However, this method is problematic for ships with bulbous bows and transom. In this article, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based method is introduced to obtain k for different type of ships at different drafts, and a comparison is made between the CFD method and the model test. The results show that the CFD method produces reasonable k values. A grid generating method and turbulence model are briefly discussed in the context of obtaining a consistent k using CFD.

  9. Comparative analysis of codeword representation by clustering methods for the classification of histological tissue types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygili, Ahmet; Uysal, Gunalp; Bilgin, Gokhan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the classification of several histological tissue types, i.e., muscles, nerves, connective and epithelial tissue cells, is studied in high resolutional histological images. In the feature extraction step, bag of features method is utilized to reveal distinguishing features of each tissue cell types. Local small blocks of sub-images/patches are extracted to find discriminative patterns for followed strategy. For detecting points of interest in local patches, Harris corner detection method is applied. Afterwards, discriminative features are extracted using the scale invariant feature transform method using these points of interests. Several code word representations are obtained by clustering approach (using k-means fuzzy c-means, expectation maximization method, Gaussian mixture models) and evaluated in comparative manner. In the last step, the classification of the tissue cells data are performed using k-nearest neighbor and support vector machines methods.

  10. Gaussian Beam Propagation in a Kerr Type Metamaterial Medium Using ABCD Matrix Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz, A.; Naseri, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a split step ABCD matrix method is suggested to investigate Gaussian beam propagation in a Kerr type metamaterial medium. This method is based on dividing the medium interval into subsequent steps. Meanwhile, Gaussian beam profile in every step is obtained by finding the ABCD matrix of that particular step, and is used to find the ABCD matrix of the next step. Results of the suggested matrix method have been compared with the results of numerical split-step Fourier method for a Kerr medium, which indicates a good agreement. Then, we use the ABCD matrix to investigate Gaussian beams propagation in a Kerr type metamaterial, which is also in agreement with pervious results by other methods.

  11. Implementation of integrated care for type 2 diabetes: a protocol for mixed methods research

    PubMed Central

    Busetto, Loraine; Luijkx, Katrien Ger; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While integrated care for diabetes mellitus type 2 has achieved good results in terms of intermediate clinical and process outcomes, the evidence-based knowledge on its implementation is scarce, and insights generalisable to other settings therefore remain limited. Objective This study protocol provides a description of the design and methodology of a mixed methods study on the implementation of integrated care for type 2 diabetes. The aim of the proposed research is to investigate the mechanisms by which and the context in which integrated care for type 2 diabetes has been implemented, which outcomes have been achieved and how the context and mechanisms have affected the outcomes. Methods This article describes a convergent parallel mixed methods research design, including a systematic literature review on the implementation of integrated care for type 2 diabetes as well as a case study on two Dutch best practices on integrated care for type 2 diabetes. Discussion The implementation of integrated care for diabetes type 2 is an under-researched area. Insights from this study could be applied to other settings as well as other chronic conditions to strengthen the evidence on the implementation of integrated care. PMID:25550689

  12. A qPCR method to characterize the sex type of the cell strains from rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Junbei; Li, Zhilin; Wan, Qian; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Mianxue; Jiang, Xiaohui; Xie, Linfeng

    2016-10-01

    A simple and fast method was established to identify the sex types of the rat-derived cell strains. The single copy X-chromosome-linked gene AR and the single copy Y-chromosome-linked gene Sry were both detected with qPCR for the rat genomic DNA sample and the AR/Sry ratio was calculated. According to the law of the AR/Sry ratio, a new method to identify the sex types of the rat-derived cell strains was developed. The new assay was proved effective. The new assay showed advantages over the traditional sex type identification PCR methods, which detected only the Sry gene. Moreover, the new method was used to identify the sex types of two rat-derived cell strains unknown for the sex types and the results were confirmed with the in situ hybridization. Finally, the problem of the cross contamination between the female and the male samples was addressed and discussed extensively. PMID:27316703

  13. Evaluation of molecular typing methods for identification of outbreak-associated Neisseria meningitidis isolates.

    PubMed

    Törös, Bianca; Hedberg, Sara T; Jacobsson, Susanne; Fredlund, Hans; Olcén, Per; Mölling, Paula

    2013-06-01

    It is essential in an outbreak investigation that strain characterization of Neisseria meningitidis is performed in a rapid and accurate manner. This study evaluated two new molecular typing methods, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) (DiversiLab; bioMérieux) and compared them with current recommended methodologies. This retrospective study included 36 invasive N. meningitidis serogroup C isolates collected in Sweden 2001 through 2009 and previously subjected to outbreak investigation. All strains were typed with highly variable-MLVA (HV-MLVA) and rep-PCR. The isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequencing of the fetA, fHbp, penA, porA and porB genes. The results showed that HV-MLVA had the highest index of diversity (0.99) and rep-PCR had the highest congruence (40%) with the currently recommended typing methods. The HV-MLVA correlated best to the spatiotemporal connections and had the overall highest Adjusted Wallace coefficients, suggesting that HV-MLVA can predict the results of the other typing methods in the study. We therefore suggest that after initial confirmation of species, serogroup and genosubtype, HV-MLVA should be used as the most discriminatory method for first hand investigation of N. meningitidis serogroup C isolates. PMID:23216005

  14. Clostridium difficile infection: Early history, diagnosis and molecular strain typing methods.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, C; Van Broeck, J; Taminiau, B; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2016-08-01

    Recognised as the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains high despite efforts to improve prevention and reduce the spread of the bacterium in healthcare settings. In the last decade, many studies have focused on the epidemiology and rapid diagnosis of CDI. In addition, different typing methods have been developed for epidemiological studies. This review explores the history of C. difficile and the current scope of the infection. The variety of available laboratory tests for CDI diagnosis and strain typing methods are also examined. PMID:27238460

  15. Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate method for differential equations with local fractional derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Srivastava, H. M.; He, Ji-Huan; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2013-10-01

    In this Letter, we propose to use the Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate method in order to investigate a family of local fractional differential operators on Cantor sets. Some testing examples are given to illustrate the capability of the proposed method for the heat-conduction equation on a Cantor set and the damped wave equation in fractal strings. It is seen to be a powerful tool to convert differential equations on Cantor sets from Cantorian-coordinate systems to Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate systems.

  16. Look-ahead procedures for Lanczos-type product methods based on three-term recurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Gutknecht, M.H.; Ressel, K.J.

    1996-12-31

    Lanczos-type product methods for the solution of large sparse non-Hermitian linear systems either square the Lanczos process or combine it with a local minimization of the residual. They inherit from the underlying Lanczos process the danger of breakdown. For various Lanczos-type product methods that are based on the Lanczos three-term recurrence, look-ahead versions are presented, which avoid such breakdowns or near breakdowns with a small computational overhead. Different look-ahead strategies are discussed and their efficiency is demonstrated in several numerical examples.

  17. Type-2 fuzzy set extension of DEMATEL method combined with perceptual computing for decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Mitra Bokaei; Tarokh, Mohammad Jafar

    2013-05-01

    Most decision making methods used to evaluate a system or demonstrate the weak and strength points are based on fuzzy sets and evaluate the criteria with words that are modeled with fuzzy sets. The ambiguity and vagueness of the words and different perceptions of a word are not considered in these methods. For this reason, the decision making methods that consider the perceptions of decision makers are desirable. Perceptual computing is a subjective judgment method that considers that words mean different things to different people. This method models words with interval type-2 fuzzy sets that consider the uncertainty of the words. Also, there are interrelations and dependency between the decision making criteria in the real world; therefore, using decision making methods that cannot consider these relations is not feasible in some situations. The Decision-Making Trail and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method considers the interrelations between decision making criteria. The current study used the combination of DEMATEL and perceptual computing in order to improve the decision making methods. For this reason, the fuzzy DEMATEL method was extended into type-2 fuzzy sets in order to obtain the weights of dependent criteria based on the words. The application of the proposed method is presented for knowledge management evaluation criteria.

  18. Domain decomposition methods for nonconforming finite element spaces of Lagrange-type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowsar, Lawrence C.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, we consider the application of three popular domain decomposition methods to Lagrange-type nonconforming finite element discretizations of scalar, self-adjoint, second order elliptic equations. The additive Schwarz method of Dryja and Widlund, the vertex space method of Smith, and the balancing method of Mandel applied to nonconforming elements are shown to converge at a rate no worse than their applications to the standard conforming piecewise linear Galerkin discretization. Essentially, the theory for the nonconforming elements is inherited from the existing theory for the conforming elements with only modest modification by constructing an isomorphism between the nonconforming finite element space and a space of continuous piecewise linear functions.

  19. Solutions of interval type-2 fuzzy polynomials using a new ranking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurhakimah Ab.; Abdullah, Lazim; Ghani, Ahmad Termimi Ab.; Ahmad, Noor'Ani

    2015-10-01

    A few years ago, a ranking method have been introduced in the fuzzy polynomial equations. Concept of the ranking method is proposed to find actual roots of fuzzy polynomials (if exists). Fuzzy polynomials are transformed to system of crisp polynomials, performed by using ranking method based on three parameters namely, Value, Ambiguity and Fuzziness. However, it was found that solutions based on these three parameters are quite inefficient to produce answers. Therefore in this study a new ranking method have been developed with the aim to overcome the inherent weakness. The new ranking method which have four parameters are then applied in the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomials, covering the interval type-2 of fuzzy polynomial equation, dual fuzzy polynomial equations and system of fuzzy polynomials. The efficiency of the new ranking method then numerically considered in the triangular fuzzy numbers and the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. Finally, the approximate solutions produced from the numerical examples indicate that the new ranking method successfully produced actual roots for the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomials.

  20. Current Methods in the Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Other Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    van Ingen, Jakko; Dziadek, Jarosław; Mazur, Paweł K.; Bielecki, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    In the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases, as in all infectious diseases, the key issue is to define the source of infection and to disclose its routes of transmission and dissemination in the environment. For this to be accomplished, the ability of discerning and tracking individual Mycobacterium strains is of critical importance. Molecular typing methods have greatly improved our understanding of the biology of mycobacteria and provide powerful tools to combat the diseases caused by these pathogens. The utility of various typing methods depends on the Mycobacterium species under investigation as well as on the research question. For tuberculosis, different methods have different roles in phylogenetic analyses and person-to-person transmission studies. In NTM diseases, most investigations involve the search for environmental sources or phylogenetic relationships. Here, too, the type of setting determines which methodology is most suitable. Within this review, we summarize currently available molecular methods for strain typing of M. tuberculosis and some NTM species, most commonly associated with human disease. For the various methods, technical practicalities as well as discriminatory power and accomplishments are reviewed. PMID:24527454

  1. A Gram-Negative Bacterial Secreted Protein Types Prediction Method Based on PSI-BLAST Profile

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of secreted protein types based solely on sequence data remains to be a challenging problem. In this study, we extract the long-range correlation information and linear correlation information from position-specific score matrix (PSSM). A total of 6800 features are extracted at 17 different gaps; then, 309 features are selected by a filter feature selection method based on the training set. To verify the performance of our method, jackknife and independent dataset tests are performed on the test set and the reported overall accuracies are 93.60% and 100%, respectively. Comparison of our results with the existing method shows that our method provides the favorable performance for secreted protein type prediction. PMID:27563663

  2. Comparison of mineral resources calculation methods for different genetic types of gravel and sand deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patashova, T.

    2009-04-01

    Calculation of mineral resources and their proper assessment is relevant, since the stock of resources determines the economic independence of the state. I would like present the work wherein discusses gravel and sand deposits of different genetic type (kames, eskers, marginal glaciofluvial ridges, sandurs, glaciofluvial deltas and redrifted glaciofluvial aeolian formations). Their geological structure and formation conditions have been assessed; quality characteristics of mineral resources have been analysed; calculation of resources has been performed by applying most popular resources calculating methods used in Lithuania up to now, such as those of geological blocks, profiles and isolines, as well as the up-to-date GRID method created on the basis of triangle method in GIS environment. Comparison of resources assessed by different methods has revealed their advantages and disadvantages, their availability subject to deposits‘genetic types.

  3. Comparison of pencil-type ionization chamber calibration results and methods between dosimetry laboratories.

    PubMed

    Hourdakis, Costas J; Büermann, Ludwig; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Csete, Istvan; Delis, Harry; Gomola, Igor; Persson, Linda; Novak, Leos; Petkov, Ivailo; Toroi, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of calibration results and procedures in terms of air kerma length product, PKL, and air kerma, K, was conducted between eight dosimetry laboratories. A pencil-type ionization chamber (IC), generally used for computed tomography dose measurements, was calibrated according to three calibration methods, while its residual signal and other characteristics (sensitivity profile, active length) were assessed. The results showed that the "partial irradiation method" is the preferred method for the pencil-type IC calibration in terms of PKL and it could be applied by the calibration laboratories successfully. Most of the participating laboratories achieved high level of agreement (>99%) for both dosimetry quantities (PKL and K). Estimated relative standard uncertainties of comparison results vary among laboratories from 0.34% to 2.32% depending on the quantity, beam quality and calibration method applied. Detailed analysis of the assigned uncertainties have been presented and discussed. PMID:26508013

  4. Improvement of the Owner Distinction Method for Healing-Type Pet Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Hara, Mirai; Abe, Koji; Tajima, Takuya

    In order to decrease human stress, Animal Assisted Therapy which applies pets to heal humans is attracted. However, since animals are insanitary and unsafe, it is difficult to practically apply animal pets in hospitals. For the reason, on behalf of animal pets, pet robots have been attracted. Since pet robots would have no problems in sanitation and safety, they are able to be applied as a substitute for animal pets in the therapy. In our previous study where pet robots distinguish their owners like an animal pet, we used a puppet type pet robot which has pressure type touch sensors. However, the accuracy of our method was not sufficient to practical use. In this paper, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of the distinction. The proposed method can be applied for capacitive touch sensors such as installed in AIBO in addition to pressure type touch sensors. Besides, this paper shows performance of the proposed method from experimental results and confirms the proposed method has improved performance of the distinction in the conventional method.

  5. Method of Multiple Scales and Travelling Wave Solutions for (2+1)-Dimensional KdV Type Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhan, Burcu; Özer, M. Naci; Bekir, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we applied the method of multiple scales for Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type equations and we derived nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) type equations. So we get a relation between KdV type equations and NLS type equations. In addition, exact solutions were found for KdV type equations. The ( G'} over G )-expansion methods and the ( {G'} over G, {1 over G}} )-expansion methods were proposed to establish new exact solutions for KdV type differential equations. We obtained periodic and hyperbolic function solutions for these equations. These methods are very effective for getting travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs).

  6. A New Method for Non-Invasive Estimation of Human Muscle Fiber Type Composition

    PubMed Central

    Baguet, Audrey; Everaert, Inge; Hespel, Peter; Petrovic, Mirko; Achten, Eric; Derave, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been established that excellence in sports with short and long exercise duration requires a high proportion of fast-twitch (FT) or type-II fibers and slow-twitch (ST) or type-I fibers, respectively. Until today, the muscle biopsy method is still accepted as gold standard to measure muscle fiber type composition. Because of its invasive nature and high sampling variance, it would be useful to develop a non-invasive alternative. Methodology Eighty-three control subjects, 15 talented young track-and-field athletes, 51 elite athletes and 14 ex-athletes volunteered to participate in the current study. The carnosine content of all 163 subjects was measured in the gastrocnemius muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Muscle biopsies for fiber typing were taken from 12 untrained males. Principal Findings A significant positive correlation was found between muscle carnosine, measured by 1H-MRS, and percentage area occupied by type II fibers. Explosive athletes had ∼30% higher carnosine levels compared to a reference population, whereas it was ∼20% lower than normal in typical endurance athletes. Similar results were found in young talents and ex-athletes. When active elite runners were ranked according to their best running distance, a negative sigmoidal curve was found between logarithm of running distance and muscle carnosine. Conclusions Muscle carnosine content shows a good reflection of the disciplines of elite track-and-field athletes and is able to distinguish between individual track running distances. The differences between endurance and sprint muscle types is also observed in young talents and former athletes, suggesting this characteristic is genetically determined and can be applied in early talent identification. This quick method provides a valid alternative for the muscle biopsy method. In addition, this technique may also contribute to the diagnosis and monitoring of many conditions and diseases that are

  7. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from southwest of Iran using spa and SCCmec typing methods.

    PubMed

    Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood; Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad; Marashifard, Masoud; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali Asghar; Parhizgari, Najmeh; Yazdanpanah, Mahboobeh; Gharibpour, Farzaneh; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Sharifi, Bahman; Haeili, Mehri

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus remains a major cause of nosocomial infection worldwide. Characterization of S. aureus isolates circulating in the southwest of Iran will contribute to understand and control the spread of the strains in this area. spa and SCCmec typing methods were used for genotyping of 125 S. aureus isolates obtained from two teaching hospitals in Ahvaz. Drug susceptibility testing was performed by using disk diffusion method. Frequency of the methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates was 39% (n = 34) and 27% (n = 10) in Emam Khomeini and Golestan hospitals, respectively. Except for Erythromycin, MRSA strains showed high rate of resistance to antimicrobial agents including penicillin (100%), norfloxacine (80%), azitromycin (80%), ciprofloxacin (80%), gentamycin (77%), cotrimoxazole (75%), cephotaxime. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin. Out of 44 MRSA strains, 39 (88.5%) were SCCmec III, three (7%) were IVc and two (4.5%) of them were nontypeable. spa types t037 (26 isolates; 59%), and t1149 (25 isolates; 31%) were the most dominant types found in MRSA and methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains, respectively. We found SCCmec type III as the most prominent type indicating that most of the studied bacterial population had hospital origin. spa type t037, the most frequent genotype in this study were significantly (100%) associated with MRSA. For the first time we are reporting spa types t692, t706 and t018 from Iran and t342, t704, t2622, t5598, t11270 and t2864 from Asia. Moreover we are reporting types t6871 and t2684 for the second time in the world. PMID:27392699

  8. [New methods of type II tympanoplasty in erosion of the long incus process].

    PubMed

    Maassen, M M; Lüdtke, R; Lehner, R; Reischl, G; Zenner, H P

    1997-03-01

    Reliable methods of reconstruction of the ossicular chain in the situation of an isolated errosion of the long process of the incus using a tympanoplasty type II have not been available until recently. Instead, the tympanoplasty type III has been generally performed with the interposition of an autologous incus. In this presentation, we are describing two methods for reconstruction of the ossicular chain between the in-situ residing incus and the stapes on the other side so that the direct connection eventually will result in a tympanoplasty type II. In the first case, we used ionomeric cement in a way that features two characteristics: the direct connection between the stapes and the long process of the incus could be achieved as well as an articulation that was created on the head of the stapes. Hence, a too stiff connection between the head of the stapes and the long process of the incus could be avoided. In addition, a new method for precise microapplication of cooled bone cement (IONOCAP LV) with a syringe will be presented. In the second method titanium-gold-angle prostheses have been crimped to the long process of the incus and positioned onto the head of the stapes in the way of an articulation. So far, comparison of the audiological results of those two methods of a tympanoplasty type II reveal in average better results than postoperative conductive hearing thresholds of the conventional tympanoplasty type III. If the achieved results can be reproduced on a larger number of patients, the expected audiological results are likely to resemble those of stapes surgery. PMID:9417436

  9. A De-identification method for bilingual clinical texts of various note types.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Park, Yu Rang; Shin, Yongdon; Choi, Hyo Joung; Park, Jihyun; Lyu, Yongman; Lee, Moo-Song; Choi, Chang-Min; Kim, Woo-Sung; Lee, Jae Ho

    2015-01-01

    De-identification of personal health information is essential in order not to require written patient informed consent. Previous de-identification methods were proposed using natural language processing technology in order to remove the identifiers in clinical narrative text, although these methods only focused on narrative text written in English. In this study, we propose a regular expression-based de-identification method used to address bilingual clinical records written in Korean and English. To develop and validate regular expression rules, we obtained training and validation datasets composed of 6,039 clinical notes of 20 types and 5,000 notes of 33 types, respectively. Fifteen regular expression rules were constructed using the development dataset and those rules achieved 99.87% precision and 96.25% recall for the validation dataset. Our de-identification method successfully removed the identifiers in diverse types of bilingual clinical narrative texts. This method will thus assist physicians to more easily perform retrospective research. PMID:25552878

  10. Comparison of traditional and molecular methods of typing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Tenover, F C; Arbeit, R; Archer, G; Biddle, J; Byrne, S; Goering, R; Hancock, G; Hébert, G A; Hill, B; Hollis, R

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-nine Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 1 isolate of Staphylococcus intermedius were typed by investigators at eight institutions by using either antibiograms, bacteriophage typing, biotyping, immunoblotting, insertion sequence typing with IS257/431, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, restriction analysis of plasmid DNA, pulsed-field or field inversion gel electrophoresis, restriction analysis of PCR-amplified coagulase gene sequences, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing by using four staphylococcal genes as probes, or ribotyping. Isolates from four well-characterized outbreaks (n = 29) and a collection of organisms from two nursing homes were mixed with epidemiologically unrelated stock strains from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Several isolates were included multiple times either within or between the sets of isolates to analyze the reproducibilities of the typing systems. Overall, the DNA-based techniques and immunoblotting were most effective in grouping outbreak-related strains, recognizing 27 to 29 of the 29 outbreak-related strains; however, they also tended to include 3 to 8 epidemiologically unrelated isolates in the same strain type. Restriction fragment length polymorphism methods with mec gene-associated loci were less useful than other techniques for typing oxacillin-susceptible isolates. Phage typing, plasmid DNA restriction analysis, and antibiogram analysis, the techniques most readily available to clinical laboratories, identified 23 to 26 of 29 outbreak-related isolates and assigned 0 to 6 unrelated isolates to outbreak strain types. No single technique was clearly superior to the others; however, biotyping, because it produced so many subtypes, did not effectively group outbreak-related strains of S. aureus. PMID:7908673

  11. Development of a neutronics calculation method for designing commercial type Japanese sodium-cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, T.; Shimazu, Y.; Hibi, K.; Fujimura, K.

    2012-07-01

    Under the R and D project to improve the modeling accuracy for the design of fast breeder reactors the authors are developing a neutronics calculation method for designing a large commercial type sodium- cooled fast reactor. The calculation method is established by taking into account the special features of the reactor such as the use of annular fuel pellet, inner duct tube in large fuel assemblies, large core. The Verification and Validation, and Uncertainty Qualification (V and V and UQ) of the calculation method is being performed by using measured data from the prototype FBR Monju. The results of this project will be used in the design and analysis of the commercial type demonstration FBR, known as the Japanese Sodium fast Reactor (JSFR). (authors)

  12. Runge-Kutta type methods with special properties for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogiratou, Z.; Monovasilis, Th.; Psihoyios, G.; Simos, T. E.

    2014-03-01

    In this work we review single step methods of the Runge-Kutta type with special properties. Among them are methods specially tuned to integrate problems that exhibit a pronounced oscillatory character and such problems arise often in celestial mechanics and quantum mechanics. Symplectic methods, exponentially and trigonometrically fitted methods, minimum phase-lag and phase-fitted methods are presented. These are Runge-Kutta, Runge-Kutta-Nyström and Partitioned Runge-Kutta methods. The theory of constructing such methods is given as well as several specific methods. In order to present the performance of the methods we have tested 58 methods from all categories. We consider the two dimensional harmonic oscillator, the two body problem, the pendulum problem and the orbital problem studied by Stiefel and Bettis. Also we have tested the methods on the computation of the eigenvalues of the one dimensional time independent Schrödinger equation with the harmonic oscillator, the doubly anharmonic oscillator and the exponential potentials.

  13. Bovine Papillomavirus in Brazil: Detection of Coinfection of Unusual Types by a PCR-RFLP Method

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, R. F.; Sakata, S. T.; Giovanni, D. N. S.; Mori, E.; Brandão, P. E.; Richtzenhain, L. J.; Pozzi, C. R.; Arcaro, J. R. P.; Miranda, M. S.; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J.; Melo, T. C.; Comenale, G.; Assaf, S. L. M. R.; Beçak, W.; Stocco, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is recognized as a causal agent of benign and malignant tumors in cattle. Thirteen types of BPV are currently characterized and classified into three distinct genera, associated with different pathological outcomes. The described BPV types as well as other putative ones have been demonstrated by molecular biology methods, mainly by the employment of degenerated PCR primers. Specifically, divergences in the nucleotide sequence of the L1 gene are useful for the identification and classification of new papillomavirus types. On the present work, a method based on the PCR-RFLP technique and DNA sequencing was evaluated as a screening tool, allowing for the detection of two relatively rare types of BPV in lesions samples from a six-year-old Holstein dairy cow, chronically affected with cutaneous papillomatosis. These findings point to the dissemination of BPVs with unclear pathogenic potential, since two relatively rare, new described BPV types, which were first characterized in Japan, were also detected in Brazil. PMID:23865043

  14. An overview of various typing methods for clinical epidemiology of the emerging pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, Giovanni; Creti, Roberta; Pompilio, Arianna; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Typing of bacterial isolates has been used for decades to study local outbreaks as well as in national and international surveillances for monitoring newly emerging resistant clones. Despite being recognized as a nosocomial pathogen, the precise modes of transmission of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in health care settings are unknown. Due to the high genetic diversity observed among S. maltophilia clinical isolates, the typing results might be better interpreted if also environmental strains were included. This could help to identify preventative measures to be designed and implemented for decreasing the possibility of outbreaks and nosocomial infections. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview on the most common typing methods used for clinical epidemiology of S. maltophilia strains, such as PCR-based fingerprinting analyses, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis, and multilocus sequence type. Application of the proteomic-based mass spectrometry by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight is also described. Improvements of typing methods already in use have to be achieved to facilitate S. maltophilia infection control at any level. In the near future, when novel Web-based platforms for rapid data processing and analysis will be available, whole genome sequencing technologies will likely become a highly powerful tool for outbreak investigations and surveillance studies in routine clinical practices. PMID:25592000

  15. Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium intracellulare Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis, Mycobacteria Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Typing, and Multilocus Sequence Typing: Molecular Characterization and Comparison of Each Typing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Semi; Lim, Nara; Kwon, Seungjik; Shim, Taesun; Park, Misun; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Seonghan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Mycobacterium intracellulare is the major causative agent of nontuberculous mycobacteria-related pulmonary infections. The strain typing of M. intracellulare is important for the treatment and control of its infections. We compared the discrimination capacity and effective value of four different molecular typing methods. Methods Antibiotic susceptibility testing, hsp65 and rpoB sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), mycobacteria interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR), and VNTR assay targeting 44 M. intracellulare isolates obtained from patients with pulmonary infections were performed. Results All the antibiotic susceptibility patterns had no association with the molecular and sequence types tested in this study; however, the molecular and sequence types were related with each other. PFGE gave best results for discriminatory capacity, followed by VNTR, MLST, and MIRU-VNTR. Conclusion The high discriminatory power of PFGE, VNTR, and MLST is enough for differentiating between reinfection and relapse, as well as for other molecular epidemiological usages. The MLST could be regarded as a representative classification method, because it showed the clearest relation with the sequence types. PMID:25180144

  16. Applicability of meteor radiant determination methods depending on orbit type. I. High-eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoren, J.; Neslusan, L.; Porubcan, V.

    1993-07-01

    It is evident that there is no uniform method of calculating meteor radiants which would yield reliable results for all types of cometary orbits. In the present paper an analysis of this problem is presented, together with recommended methods for various types of orbits. Some additional methods resulting from mathematical modelling are presented and discussed together with Porter's, Steel-Baggaley's and Hasegawa's methods. In order to be able to compare how suitable the application of the individual radiant determination methods is, it is necessary to determine the accuracy with which they approximate real meteor orbits. To verify the accuracy with which the orbit of a meteoroid with at least one node at 1 AU fits the original orbit of the parent body, we applied the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion (Southworth, R.B., Hawkins, G.S.: 1963, Smithson. Contr. Astrophys 7, 261). D<=0.1 indicates a very good fit of orbits, 0.10.2 the fit is rather poor and the change of orbit unrealistic. The optimal methods with the smallest values of D for given types of orbits are shown in two series of six plots. The new method of rotation around the line of apsides we propose is very appropriate in the region of small inclinations. There is no doubt that Hasegawa's omega-adjustment method (Hasegawa, I.: 1990, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 42, 175) has the widest application. A comparison of the theoretical radiants with the observed radiants of seven known meteor showers is also presented.

  17. Research on insulation design method of a cold dielectric type superconducting cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwag, D. S.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. W.; Kim, S. H.

    2008-09-01

    It is important that study on cryogenic electrical insulation design to develop the cold dielectric (CD) type high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable because the cable is operated under the high-voltage environment in cryogenic temperature. Therefore, this paper describes a design method for the electrical insulation layer of the CD type HTS cable adopting the partial discharge (PD)-free design under ac stress, based on the experimental results such a partial discharge inception stress (PDIE) and V- t characteristics, and an impulse breakdown strength of liquid nitrogen (LN 2)/laminated polypropylene paper (LPP) composite insulation system in which the mini-model cable is immersed into pressurized LN 2.

  18. Axisymmetric analysis of a tube-type acoustic levitator by a finite element method.

    PubMed

    Hatano, H

    1994-01-01

    A finite element approach was taken for the study of the sound field and positioning force in a tube-type acoustic levitator. An axisymmetric model, where a rigid sphere is suspended on the tube axis, was introduced to model a cylindrical chamber of a levitation tube furnace. Distributions of velocity potential, magnitudes of positioning force, and resonance frequency shifts of the chamber due to the presence of the sphere were numerically estimated in relation to the sphere's position and diameter. Experiments were additionally made to compare with the simulation. The finite element method proved to be a useful tool for analyzing and designing the tube-type levitator. PMID:18263265

  19. Standardization of Type 2 Diabetes Outpatient Expenditure with Bundled Payment Method in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Chao; Luo, Yun; Li, Qian; Wu, Meng-Fan; Zhou, Zi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Chinese population has been increasing by years, directly leading to an average annual growth rate of 19.90% of medical expenditure. Therefore, it is urgent to work on strategies to control the growth of medical expenditure on type 2 diabetes on the basis of the reality of China. Therefore, in this study, we explored the feasibility of implementing bundled payment in China through analyzing bundled payment standards of type 2 diabetes outpatient services. Methods: This study analyzed the outpatient expenditure on type 2 diabetes with Beijing Urban Employee's Basic Medical Insurance from 2010 to 2012. Based on the analysis of outpatient expenditure and its influential factors, we adopted decision tree approach to conduct a case-mix analysis. In the end, we built a case-mix model to calculate the standard expenditure and the upper limit of each combination. Results: We found that age, job status, and whether with complication were significant factors that influence outpatient expenditure for type 2 diabetes. Through the analysis of the decision tree, we used six variables (complication, age, diabetic foot, diabetic nephropathy, cardiac-cerebrovascular disease, and neuropathy) to group the cases, and obtained 11 case-mix groups. Conclusions: We argued that it is feasible to implement bundled payment on type 2 diabetes outpatient services. Bundled payment is effective to control the increase of outpatient expenditure. Further improvements are needed for the implementation of bundled payment reimbursement standards, together with relevant policies and measures. PMID:27064041

  20. Damage identification in beam type structures based on statistical moment using a two step method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dansheng; Xiang, Wei; Zhu, Hongping

    2014-02-01

    This paper defines a novel damage index-strain statistical moment, and formulates the fourth strain statistical moment (FSSM) of beam-type structures under white noise excitation. Based on this newly defined strain statistical moment index and the least square optimization algorithm, a two-step damage identification method is proposed. This two-step method is operated like this: first use the difference curves of FSSMs before and after damage to locate damage elements; then for those identified damage elements, employ the model updating method based on the least square algorithm to assess their damage severity. Numerical studies on a simply supported beam and a two-span continuous beam are performed and the study results show that the newly defined index is effective to locate damages, even when the noise intensity is as high as 15 percent. Integrating with the least square-based model updating technique, the damage severities of beam-type structures can also be determined quantitatively. In this way, the proposed two-step method is verified and found to be capable of identifying damage positions and severities of beam-type structures and insensitive to measurement noise.

  1. A second order operator splitting method for Allen-Cahn type equations with nonlinear source terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Geun; Lee, June-Yub

    2015-08-01

    Allen-Cahn (AC) type equations with nonlinear source terms have been applied to a wide range of problems, for example, the vector-valued AC equation for phase separation and the phase-field equation for dendritic crystal growth. In contrast to the well developed first and second order methods for the AC equation, not many second order methods are suggested for the AC type equations with nonlinear source terms due to the difficulties in dealing with the nonlinear source term numerically. In this paper, we propose a simple and stable second order operator splitting method. A core idea of the method is to decompose the original equation into three subequations with the free-energy evolution term, the heat evolution term, and a nonlinear source term, respectively. It is important to combine these three subequations in proper order to achieve the second order accuracy and stability. We propose a method with a half-time free-energy evolution solver, a half-time heat evolution solver, a full-time midpoint solver for the nonlinear source term, and a half-time heat evolution solver followed by a final half-time free-energy evolution solver. We numerically demonstrate the second order accuracy of the new numerical method through the simulations of the phase separation and the dendritic crystal growth.

  2. Influence of consolidation method on structure/properties of rapidly solidified Type 304 SS powders

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.; Wright, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The structure/properties of consolidated, centrifugally atomized (CA) Type 304 SS powders containing approx.8 appM helium entrapped during powder processing were evaluated. Three powder consolidation methods were used in the study: hot extrusion, hot isostatic pressing (HIPping), and dynamic (using explosives). In addition, cold-rolled 50% HIPped material was included in the evaluation. The four forms of consolidated powders were fully dense and possessed good bond strengths. The bond strength of the HIPped powders was the lowest. The consolidated materials were subjected to 1 h heat treatments and their grain growth, tensile, and creep behaviors were compared with those of wrought ingot metallurgy Type 304 SS materials. Grain growth of the CA Type 304 SS consolidated powders was substantially lower than for the wrought material. Similarly, significant strengthening was observed for the powder materials. The apparent microstructure stability and strengthening observed for the consolidated powder materials is attributed to the entrapped helium. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Methods and automatic procedures for processing images based on blind evaluation of noise type and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Vladimir V.; Abramov, Sergey K.; Ponomarenko, Nikolay N.; Uss, Mikhail L.; Zriakhov, Mikhail; Vozel, Benoit; Chehdi, Kacem; Astola, Jaakko T.

    2011-01-01

    In many modern applications, methods and algorithms used for image processing require a priori knowledge or estimates of noise type and its characteristics. Noise type and basic parameters can be sometimes known in advance or determined in an interactive manner. However, it occurs more and more often that they should be estimated in a blind manner. The results of noise-type blind determination can be false, and the estimates of noise parameters are characterized by certain accuracy. Such false decisions and estimation errors have an impact on performance of image-processing techniques that is based on the obtained information. We address some issues of such a negative influence. Possible structures of automatic procedures are presented and discussed for several typical applications of image processing as remote sensing data preprocessing and compression.

  4. Molecular Analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated in Lebanon Using Four Different Typing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rafei, Rayane; Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Eveillard, Matthieu; Lemarié, Carole; Gaultier, Marie-Pierre; Mallat, Hassan; Moghnieh, Rima; Husni-Samaha, Rola; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Kempf, Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed 42 Acinetobacter baumannii strains collected between 2009–2012 from different hospitals in Beyrouth and North Lebanon to better understand the epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms in our collection and to compare the robustness of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and blaOXA-51 sequence-based typing (SBT). Among 31 carbapenem resistant strains, we have detected three carbapenem resistance genes: 28 carried the blaOXA-23 gene, 1 the blaOXA-24 gene and 2 strains the blaOXA-58 gene. This is the first detection of blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-24 in Lebanon. PFGE identified 11 types and was the most discriminating technique followed by rep-PCR (9 types), blaOXA-51 SBT (8 types) and MLST (7 types). The PFGE type A'/ST2 was the dominant genotype in our collection present in Beyrouth and North Lebanon. The clustering agreement between all techniques was measured by adjust Wallace coefficient. An overall agreement has been demonstrated. High values of adjust Wallace coefficient were found with followed combinations: PFGE to predict MLST types  = 100%, PFGE to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 100%, blaOXA-51 SBT to predict MLST = 100%, MLST to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 84.7%, rep-PCR to predict MLST = 81.5%, PFGE to predict rep-PCR = 69% and rep-PCR to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 67.2%. PFGE and MLST are gold standard methods for outbreaks investigation and population structure studies respectively. Otherwise, these two techniques are technically, time and cost demanding. We recommend the use of blaOXA-51 SBT as first typing method to screen isolates and assign them to their corresponding clonal lineages. Repetitive sequence-based PCR is a rapid tool to access outbreaks but careful interpretation of results must be always performed. PMID:25541711

  5. New types of multisoliton solutions of some integrable equations via direct methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burde, Georgy I.

    2016-06-01

    Exact explicit solutions, which describe new multisoliton dynamics, have been identified for some KdV type equations using direct methods devised for this purpose. It is found that the equations, having multi-soliton solutions in terms of the KdV-type solitons, possess also an alternative set of multi-soliton solutions which include localized static structures that behave like (static) solitons when they collide with moving solitons. The alternative sets of solutions include the steady-state solution describing the static soliton itself and unsteady solutions describing mutual interactions in a system consisting of a static soliton and several moving solitons. As distinct from common multisoliton solutions those solutions represent combinations of algebraic and hyperbolic functions and cannot be obtained using the traditional methods of soliton theory.

  6. Conjugate gradient type methods for linear systems with complex symmetric coefficient matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    We consider conjugate gradient type methods for the solution of large sparse linear system Ax equals b with complex symmetric coefficient matrices A equals A(T). Such linear systems arise in important applications, such as the numerical solution of the complex Helmholtz equation. Furthermore, most complex non-Hermitian linear systems which occur in practice are actually complex symmetric. We investigate conjugate gradient type iterations which are based on a variant of the nonsymmetric Lanczos algorithm for complex symmetric matrices. We propose a new approach with iterates defined by a quasi-minimal residual property. The resulting algorithm presents several advantages over the standard biconjugate gradient method. We also include some remarks on the obvious approach to general complex linear systems by solving equivalent real linear systems for the real and imaginary parts of x. Finally, numerical experiments for linear systems arising from the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  7. An integrated structural strength analysis method for Spar type floating wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jin

    2016-04-01

    An integrated structural strength analysis method for a Spar type floating wind turbine is proposed in this paper, and technical issues related to turbine structure modeling and stress combination are also addressed. The NREL-5MW "Hywind" Spar type wind turbine is adopted as study object. Time-domain dynamic coupled simulations are performed by a fully-coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool, FAST, on the purpose of obtaining the dynamic characteristics of the floating wind turbine, and determining parameters for design load cases of finite element calculation. Then design load cases are identified, and finite element analyses are performed for these design load cases. The structural stresses due to wave-induced loads and wind-induced loads are calculated, and then combined to assess the structural strength of the floating wind turbine. The feasibility of the proposed structural strength analysis method for floating wind turbines is then validated.

  8. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Yan, Yanfa; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Dehart, Clay M.

    2009-04-14

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  9. Method and apparatus for checking the stability of a setup for making reflection type holograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, H. G. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for checking the stability of a setup for recording reflection-type (white light) holograms. Two sets of interference fringes are simultaneously obtained, one giving information about coherence and stability of the setup alone and the other demonstrating coherence of the entire system, including the holographic recording plate. Special emphasis is given to the stability of the plate, due to the fact that any minute vibration might severely degrade or completely destroy the recording.

  10. Legendre spectral-collocation method for solving some types of fractional optimal control problems.

    PubMed

    Sweilam, Nasser H; Al-Ajami, Tamer M

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the Legendre spectral-collocation method was applied to obtain approximate solutions for some types of fractional optimal control problems (FOCPs). The fractional derivative was described in the Caputo sense. Two different approaches were presented, in the first approach, necessary optimality conditions in terms of the associated Hamiltonian were approximated. In the second approach, the state equation was discretized first using the trapezoidal rule for the numerical integration followed by the Rayleigh-Ritz method to evaluate both the state and control variables. Illustrative examples were included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed techniques. PMID:26257937

  11. A ROBUST ARBITRARILY HIGH ORDER TRANSPORT METHOD OF THE CHARACTERISTIC TYPE FOR UNSTRUCTURED TETRAHEDRAL GRIDS

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Ferrer; Y. Y. Azmy

    2009-05-01

    We present a robust arbitrarily high order transport method of the characteristic type for unstructured tetrahedral grids. Previously encountered difficulties have been addressed through the reformulation of the method based on coordinate transformations, evaluation of the moments balance relation as a linear system of equations involving the expansion coefficients of the projected basis, and the asymptotic expansion of the integral kernels in the thin cell limit. The proper choice of basis functions for the high-order spatial expansion of the solution is discussed and its effect on problems involving scattering discussed. Numerical tests are presented to illustrate the beneficial effect of these improvements, and the improved robustness they yield.

  12. Comparative experimental biomechanical study of different types of stabilization methods of the lower cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Kalff, R; Ulrich, C; Claes, L; Wilke, H J; Grote, W

    1992-01-01

    In a comparative experimental biodynamic study using thirty-two human cervical spines of cadavers the primary stabilization effect of different types of spondylodesis was examined. Whereas in flexion stress all methods showed a sufficient stability, the rotation tests proved, that in case of a dorsal instability of the lower cervical spine, posterior interlaminar wiring or anterior plate stabilization showed no reliable stabilization effect. However, the compression clamps by ROOSEN and TRAUSCHEL as well as the hook-plates by MAGERL are suitable dorsal stabilization methods with excellent rotation stability. In case of dorsal instability of the lower cervical spine a posterior spondylodesis is necessary and sufficient. PMID:1480272

  13. A mathematical model of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) method for mixed type rock

    SciTech Connect

    Sitnikov, A.A.; Eremin, N.A.; Ibattulin, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with the microbial enhanced oil recovery method. It covers: (1) Mechanism of microbial influence on the reservoir was analyzed; (2) The main groups of metabolites affected by the hydrodynamic characteristics of the reservoir were determined; (3) The criterions of use of microbial influence method on the reservoir are defined. The mathematical model of microbial influence on the reservoir was made on this basis. The injection of molasse water solution with Clostridium bacterias into the mixed type of rock was used in this model. And the results of calculations were compared with experimental data.

  14. System identification of a truss type space structure using the multiple boundary condition test (MBCT) method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, C. P.; Wada, B. K.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental results on the application of the multiple boundary condition test (MBCT) method to experimental hardware have validated its usefulness in the ground testing of large flexible space structures. Excellant results were obtained with a beam with a uniform cross-section and with a beam consisting of two different cross-sections alternately located. The MBCT method is then applied to a 12 bay MAST type structure which is part of the NASA COFS program, and the cross-sectional area of the updated mathematical model was found to be within 4.5 percent of the true value.

  15. A decoupling control method of reluctance type bearingless motors considering magnetic saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Michioka, Chikara; Sakamoto, Tomokazu; Ichikawa, Osamu; Fukao, Tadashi; Chiba, Akira

    1995-12-31

    The interference of torque component current of the motor to the radial position control of reluctance type bearingless motors is investigated. In order to cancel this interference, a decoupling control method has been proposed. With this method, machine parameters identification of radial force production is very important. It is shown that the radial force constants exhibit significant variations in accordance with the torque component current due to magnetic saturation. The parameter tuning of the decoupling compensator taking into account of the magnetic saturation is found to realize very stable operation in radial rotor position control.

  16. Vertically resolved separation of dust and other aerosol types by a new lidar depolarization method.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tao; Wang, Zhien; Ferrare, Richard A; Hostetler, Chris A; Yuan, Renmin; Zhang, Damao

    2015-06-01

    This paper developed a new retrieval framework of external mixing of the dust and non-dust aerosol to predict the lidar ratio of the external mixing aerosols and to separate the contributions of non-spherical aerosols by using different depolarization ratios among dust, sea salt, smoke, and polluted aerosols. The detailed sensitivity tests and case study with the new method showed that reliable dust information could be retrieved even without prior information about the non-dust aerosol types. This new method is suitable for global dust retrievals with satellite observations, which is critical for better understanding global dust transportation and for model improvements. PMID:26072778

  17. Comparison of mineral resources calculation methods for different genetic types of gravel and sand deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patašova, Tatjana; Jurgaitis, Algirdas

    2008-01-01

    Calculation of mineral resources and their proper assessment is relevant, since the stock of resources determines the economic independence of the state. The present work discusses gravel and sand deposits of different genetic type (kames, eskers, marginal glaciofluvial ridges, sandurs, glaciofluvial deltas and redrifted glaciofluvial aeolian formations). Their geological structure and formation conditions have been assessed; quality characteristics of mineral resources have been analysed; calculation of resources has been performed by applying old methods used in Lithuania up to now, such as those of geological blocks, profiles and isolines, as well as the up-to-date GRID method created on the basis of the triangle method in GIS environment. Comparison of resources assessed by different methods has revealed their advantages and disadvantages.

  18. A new measurement method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by aircraft type panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical basis for and experimental validation of a measurement method for separating airborne and structure borne noise radiated by aircraft type panels are presented. An extension of the two microphone, cross spectral, acoustic intensity method combined with existing theory of sound radiation of thin shell structures of various designs, is restricted to the frequency range below the coincidence frequency of the structure. Consequently, the method lends itself to low frequency noise problems such as propeller harmonics. Both an aluminum sheet and two built up aircraft panel designs (two aluminum panels with frames and stringers) with and without added damping were measured. Results indicate that the method is quick, reliable, inexpensive, and can be applied to thin shell structures of various designs.

  19. Simulating Univariate and Multivariate Burr Type IIII and Type XII Distributions through the Method of L-Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pant, Mohan Dev

    2011-01-01

    The Burr families (Type III and Type XII) of distributions are traditionally used in the context of statistical modeling and for simulating non-normal distributions with moment-based parameters (e.g., Skew and Kurtosis). In educational and psychological studies, the Burr families of distributions can be used to simulate extremely asymmetrical and…

  20. Strain typing of acetic acid bacteria responsible for vinegar production by the submerged elaboration method.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; Torres, Carmen; Sanz, Susana; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2010-12-01

    Strain typing of 103 acetic acid bacteria isolates from vinegars elaborated by the submerged method from ciders, wines and spirit ethanol, was carried on in this study. Two different molecular methods were utilised: pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of total DNA digests with a number of restriction enzymes, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) - PCR analysis. The comparative study of both methods showed that restriction fragment PFGE of SpeI digests of total DNA was a suitable method for strain typing and for determining which strains were present in vinegar fermentations. Results showed that strains of the species Gluconacetobacter europaeus were the most frequent leader strains of fermentations by the submerged method in the studied vinegars, and among them strain R1 was the predominant one. Results showed as well that mixed populations (at least two different strains) occurred in vinegars from cider and wine, whereas unique strains were found in spirit vinegars, which offered the most stressing conditions for bacterial growth. PMID:20832673

  1. [Method of Remote Sensing Identification for Mineral Types Based on Multiple Spectral Characteristic Parameters Matching].

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Ming, Yan-fang; Han, Liu-sheng; Ren, Zhong-liang; Guo, Ya-min

    2015-10-01

    The traditional mineral mapping methods with remote sensing data, based on spectral reflectance matching techniques, shows low accuracy, for obviously being affected by the image quality, atmospheric and other factors. A new mineral mapping method based on multiple types of spectral characteristic parameters is presented in this paper. Various spectral characteristic parameters are used together to enhanced the stability in the situation of atmosphere and environment background affecting. AVIRIS (Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data of Nevada Cuprite are selected to determine the mineral types with this method. Typical mineral spectral data are also obtained from USGS (United States Geological Survey) spectral library to calculate the spectral characteristic parameters. A mineral identification model based on multiple spectral characteristic parameters is built by analyzing the various characteristic parameters, and is applied in the mineral mapping experiment in Cuprite area. The mineral mapping result produced by Clark et al. in 1995 is used to evaluate the effect of this method, results show, that mineral mapping results with this method can obtain a high precision, the overall mineral identification accuracy is 78.96%. PMID:26904833

  2. Epidemiology of Candida infection. II. Application of biochemical methods for typing of Candida albicans strains.

    PubMed

    Budak, A

    1990-01-01

    Biochemical profiles of 350 C. albicans isolates from five towns in Poland and from Freiburg in Germany were determined on the basis of nine biochemical tests of Odds and Abbott method. API 20 C AUX system and additionally a resistogram. The analysis of the strains according to Odds' and Abbotts's system showed that investigated strains can be typed into 9 profile codes of common biochemical patterns. There were some differences among the profiles according to their geographical origin and anatomical sources of the isolation. On the basis of the ability C. albicans strains to assimilate of carbon sources, 350 isolates were categorised into 13 separate auxotrophic profiles with the major one: 2,576,174 accounting for 81% of the total. The majority of the investigated isolates were susceptible to antifungal agents (83%). A disproportionate distribution of auxotrophic profiles limited the use of resistogram method and API 20 C AUX as systems for typing C. albicans strains. On the other hand, the method of Odds and Abbott provides valuable criteria for typing of C. albicans. PMID:2130802

  3. Evaluation of different DNA-based fingerprinting methods for typing Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Monique; Avendaño-Herrera, Rubén; Zaccone, R; Toranzo, Alicia E; Magariños, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of three different molecular techniques, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) for rapid typing of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida strains isolated from different species of marine fish and geographic areas. The results obtained by the three methods showed that RAPD and ERIC-PCR were more discriminative for suitable rapid typing of Ph. damselae ssp. piscicida than REP-PCR. The analysis of DNA banding patterns generated by both molecular methods (RAPD and ERIC-PCR) clearly separated the strains into two main groups that strongly correlated with their geographic origin. Moreover, the REP-PCR analysis was less reproducible than the RAPD and ERIC-PCR methods and does not allow the establishment of genetic groups. RAPD and ERIC-PCR constitute valuable tools for molecular typing of Ph. damselae ssp. piscicida strains, which can be used in epidemiological studies of photobacteriosis infections. PMID:17657358

  4. A method for implementing Dirichlet and third-type boundary conditions in PTRW simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J.; Nowak, W.

    2014-02-01

    We present an efficient and accurate numerical method for implementing Dirichlet boundary conditions in particle tracking random walk (PTRW) simulations of advective-dispersive transport. This is a challenge, because defining concentrations for Dirichlet boundary conditions requires invoking control volumes of some kind, which are not natural to the Lagrangian-based PTRW concept. Our method performs a Galerkin projection of PTRW-based particle densities onto control volumes that discretize the boundary. Thus, we obtain concentration values at the boundary condition and can control the particle release rates such that the prescribed boundary values are met. This allows for complex-shaped internal and external boundaries, where concentration values are fixed to prescribed values. Third-type boundary conditions can be addressed as well. We test and illustrate the properties and behavior of our method in a series of test cases. The results are benchmarked against the conceptually related semianalytical method MASST (multiple analytical source superposition technique) and to those of a finite element method (FEM). While MASST is restricted to uniform velocity fields due to the underlying analytical solutions, FEM is limited in heterogeneous velocity fields at large Péclet numbers by numerical dispersion in the feasible discretization range. The results demonstrate that our proposed method performs better than the other methods in both regimes.

  5. Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities. Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract. The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract. The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information. First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model. Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  6. Linear augmented Slater-type orbital method for free standing clusters.

    PubMed

    Kang, K S; Davenport, J W; Glimm, J; Keyes, D E; McGuigan, M

    2009-06-01

    We have developed a Scalable Linear Augmented Slater-Type Orbital (LASTO) method for electronic-structure calculations on free-standing atomic clusters. As with other linear methods we solve the Schrödinger equation using a mixed basis set consisting of numerical functions inside atom-centered spheres and matched onto tail functions outside. The tail functions are Slater-type orbitals, which are localized, exponentially decaying functions. To solve the Poisson equation between spheres, we use a finite difference method replacing the rapidly varying charge density inside the spheres with a smoothed density with the same multipole moments. We use multigrid techniques on the mesh, which yields the Coulomb potential on the spheres and in turn defines the potential inside via a Dirichlet problem. To solve the linear eigen-problem, we use ScaLAPACK, a well-developed package to solve large eigensystems with dense matrices. We have tested the method on small clusters of palladium. PMID:18988248

  7. Molecular typing of uropathogenic E. coli strains by the ERIC-PCR method

    PubMed Central

    Ardakani, Maryam Afkhami; Ranjbar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most common cause of urinary infections in hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ERIC-PCR method for molecular typing of uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated from hospitalized patients. Methods In a cross sectional study, 98 E. coli samples were collected from urine samples taken from patients admitted to Baqiyatallah Hospital from June 2014 to January 2015. The disk agar diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic sensitivity. DNA proliferation based on repetitive intergenic consensus was used to classify the E. coli strains. The products of proliferation were electrophoresed on 1.5% agarose gel, and their dendrograms were drawn. The data were analyzed by online Insillico software. Results The method used in this research proliferated numerous bands (4–17 bands), ranging from 100 to 3000 base pairs. The detected strains were classified into six clusters (E1–E6) with 70% similarity between them. Conclusion In this study, uropathogenic E. coli strains belonged to different genotypic clusters. It was found that ERIC-PCR had good differentiation power for molecular typing of uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated from the patients in the study. PMID:27280007

  8. A piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Shao, Shubao; Chen, Jie; Xu, Minglong

    2015-11-01

    Under certain application conditions like nanoindentation technology and the mechanical property measurement of soft materials, the elastic deformation of strain-type load sensors affects their displacement measurement accuracy. In this work, a piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors that compensates for this elastic deformation is presented. The piezoelectric material-based deformation compensation method is proposed. An Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik GmbH (HBM) Z30A/50N load sensor acts as the foundation of the method presented in this work. The piezoelectric stack is selected based on its size, maximum deformation value, blocking force and stiffness. Then, a clamping and fixing structure is designed to integrate the HBM sensor with the piezoelectric stack. The clamping and fixing structure, piezoelectric stack and HBM load sensor comprise the sensing part of the enhanced load sensor. The load-deformation curve and the voltage-deformation curve of the enhanced load sensor are then investigated experimentally. Because a hysteresis effect exists in the piezoelectric structure, the relationship between the control signal and the deformation value of the piezoelectric material is nonlinear. The hysteresis characteristic in a quasi-static condition is studied and fitted using a quadratic polynomial, and its coefficients are analyzed to enable control signal prediction. Applied arithmetic based on current theory and the fitted data is developed to predict the control signal. Finally, the experimental effects of the proposed method are presented. It is shown that when a quasi-static load is exerted on this enhanced strain-type load sensor, the deformation is reduced and the equivalent stiffness appears to be almost infinite.

  9. Automatic recognition of coronal type II radio bursts: The ARBIS 2 method and first observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, Vasili; Cairns, Iver; Robinson, Peter; Steward, Graham; Patterson, Garth

    Major space weather events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompa-nied by solar radio bursts, which can potentially be used for real-time space weather forecasts. Type II radio bursts are produced near the local plasma frequency and its harmonic by fast electrons accelerated by a shock wave moving through the corona and solar wind with a typi-cal speed of 1000 km s-1 . The coronal bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency gradually falling with time and durations of several minutes. We present a new method developed to de-tect type II coronal radio bursts automatically and describe its implementation in an extended Automated Radio Burst Identification System (ARBIS 2). Preliminary tests of the method with spectra obtained in 2002 show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ˜ 80%, while the probability of false positives is reasonably low, with one false positive per 100-200 hr for high solar activity and less than one false event per 10000 hr for low solar activity periods. The first automatically detected coronal type II radio bursts are also presented. ARBIS 2 is now operational with IPS Radio and Space Services, providing email alerts and event lists internationally.

  10. Mass Spectrometry-based PhyloProteomics (MSPP): A novel microbial typing Method

    PubMed Central

    Erich Zautner, Andreas; Omurwa Masanta, Wycliffe; Weig, Michael; Groß, Uwe; Bader, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    MALDI-TOF-MS of microorganisms, which identifies microbes based on masses of high abundant low molecular weight proteins, is rapidly advancing to become another standard method in clinical routine laboratory diagnostics. Allelic isoforms of these proteins result in varying masses of detectable biomarker ions. These variations give rise to a novel typing method for microorganisms named mass spectrometry-based phyloproteomics (MSPP). The base of MSPP is an amino acid sequence list of allelic isoforms caused by non-synonymous mutations in biomarker genes, which were detectable as mass shifts in an overlay of calibrated MALDI-TOF spectra. Thus, for each isolate a combination of amino acid sequences can be deduced from the scheme of recordable biomarker masses. Performing comparably to laborious multilocus and whole genome sequence typing (wgMLST)-approaches it is feasible to build phyloproteomic dendrograms using hierarchical cluster analysis. MSPP bears a high potential especially for identification of chromosomal localised virulence or antimicrobial resistance factors associated with evolutionary relatedness. In this study the principle of MSPP-typing was demonstrated on a Campylobacter jejuni ssp. jejuni isolate collection and MSPP was compared to MLST. PMID:26303099

  11. Novel Method for Differentiating Histological Types of Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma, a single heterogeneous disease with multiple epidemiological and histopathological characteristics, accounts for approximately 10% of cancers worldwide. It is categorized into four histological types: papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC), tubular adenocarcinoma (TAC), mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC), and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRC). Effective differentiation of the four types of adenocarcinoma will greatly improve the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma to increase its five-year survival rate. We reported here the differentiation of the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma from the molecularly structural viewpoint of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In total, 79 patients underwent laparoscopic or open radical gastrectomy during 2008-2011: 21 for signet ring cell carcinoma, 21 for tubular adenocarcinoma, 14 for papillary adenocarcinoma, 6 for mucinous carcinoma, and 17 for normal gastric mucosas obtained from patients underwent operation for other benign lesions. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical charts, and Raman data were processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two-dimensional plots of PCA and LDA clearly demonstrated that the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma could be differentiated, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy provides potentially a rapid and effective method for differentiating SRC and MAC from TAC or PAC. PMID:27472385

  12. Novel Method for Differentiating Histological Types of Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma, a single heterogeneous disease with multiple epidemiological and histopathological characteristics, accounts for approximately 10% of cancers worldwide. It is categorized into four histological types: papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC), tubular adenocarcinoma (TAC), mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC), and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRC). Effective differentiation of the four types of adenocarcinoma will greatly improve the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma to increase its five-year survival rate. We reported here the differentiation of the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma from the molecularly structural viewpoint of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In total, 79 patients underwent laparoscopic or open radical gastrectomy during 2008–2011: 21 for signet ring cell carcinoma, 21 for tubular adenocarcinoma, 14 for papillary adenocarcinoma, 6 for mucinous carcinoma, and 17 for normal gastric mucosas obtained from patients underwent operation for other benign lesions. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical charts, and Raman data were processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two-dimensional plots of PCA and LDA clearly demonstrated that the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma could be differentiated, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy provides potentially a rapid and effective method for differentiating SRC and MAC from TAC or PAC. PMID:27472385

  13. JPPRED: Prediction of Types of J-Proteins from Imbalanced Data Using an Ensemble Learning Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Chengjin; Gao, Rui; Yang, Runtao

    2015-01-01

    Different types of J-proteins perform distinct functions in chaperone processes and diseases development. Accurate identification of types of J-proteins will provide significant clues to reveal the mechanism of J-proteins and contribute to developing drugs for diseases. In this study, an ensemble predictor called JPPRED for J-protein prediction is proposed with hybrid features, including split amino acid composition (SAAC), pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC), and position specific scoring matrix (PSSM). To deal with the imbalanced benchmark dataset, the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) and undersampling technique are applied. The average sensitivity of JPPRED based on above-mentioned individual feature spaces lies in the range of 0.744–0.851, indicating the discriminative power of these features. In addition, JPPRED yields the highest average sensitivity of 0.875 using the hybrid feature spaces of SAAC, PseAAC, and PSSM. Compared to individual base classifiers, JPPRED obtains more balanced and better performance for each type of J-proteins. To evaluate the prediction performance objectively, JPPRED is compared with previous study. Encouragingly, JPPRED obtains balanced performance for each type of J-proteins, which is significantly superior to that of the existing method. It is anticipated that JPPRED can be a potential candidate for J-protein prediction. PMID:26587542

  14. Numerical investigation of performance of vane-type propellant management device by VOF methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. T.; Zhou, C.; Wu, Y. L.; Zhuang, B. T.; Li, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The orbital propellant management performance of the vane-type tank is so important for the propellant system and it determines the lifetime of the satellite. The propellant in the tank can be extruded by helium gas. To study the two phase distribution in the vane-type surface tension tank and the capability of the vane-type propellant management device (PMD), a large volume vane-type surface tension tank is analysed using 3-D unsteady numerical simulations. VOF methods are used to analyse the location of the interface of the two phase. Performances of the propellant acquisition vanes and propellant refillable reservoir in the tank are investigated. The flow conductivity of the propellant acquisition vanes and the liquid storage capacity of propellant refillable reservoir can be affected by the value of the gravity and the volume of the propellant in the tank. To avoid the large resistance causing by surface tension in an outflow of a small hole, the design of the vanes in a propellant refillable reservoir should have suitable space.

  15. Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Amanda J.; Harnly, James M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Risch, Adam; Mayne, Susan T.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. Objectives One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Methods Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Results Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Conclusions Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome. PMID:23459329

  16. Fabrication of Lotus-Type Porous Aluminum through Thermal Decomposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. Y.; Park, J. S.; Nakajima, H.

    2009-04-01

    Lotus-type porous aluminum with cylindrical pores was fabricated by unidirectional solidification through thermal decomposition of calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, or titanium hydride. The pore-forming gas decomposed from calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, and titanium hydride is identified as hydrogen. The elongated pores are evolved due to the solubility gap between liquid and solid when the melt dissolving hydrogen is solidified unidirectionally. The porosity of lotus aluminum is as high as 20 pct despite the type of the compounds. The pore size decreases and the pore density increases with increasing amount of calcium hydroxide, which is explained by an increase in the number of pore nucleation sites. The porosity and pore size in lotus aluminum fabricated using calcium hydroxide decrease with increasing argon pressure, which is explained by Boyle’s law. It is suggested that this fabrication method is simple and safe, which makes it superior to the conventional technique using high-pressure hydrogen gas.

  17. An extended affinity propagation clustering method based on different data density types.

    PubMed

    Zhao, XiuLi; Xu, WeiXiang

    2015-01-01

    Affinity propagation (AP) algorithm, as a novel clustering method, does not require the users to specify the initial cluster centers in advance, which regards all data points as potential exemplars (cluster centers) equally and groups the clusters totally by the similar degree among the data points. But in many cases there exist some different intensive areas within the same data set, which means that the data set does not distribute homogeneously. In such situation the AP algorithm cannot group the data points into ideal clusters. In this paper, we proposed an extended AP clustering algorithm to deal with such a problem. There are two steps in our method: firstly the data set is partitioned into several data density types according to the nearest distances of each data point; and then the AP clustering method is, respectively, used to group the data points into clusters in each data density type. Two experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of our algorithm: one utilizes an artificial data set and the other uses a real seismic data set. The experiment results show that groups are obtained more accurately by our algorithm than OPTICS and AP clustering algorithm itself. PMID:25685144

  18. Practical Thermal Evaluation Methods For HAC Fire Analysis In Type B Radiaoactive Material (RAM) Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, Glenn; Hensel, Stephen J; Gupta, Narendra K.

    2013-03-28

    Title 10 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR Part 71.73) requires that Type B radioactive material (RAM) packages satisfy certain Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) thermal design requirements to ensure package safety during accidental fire conditions. Compliance with thermal design requirements can be met by prototype tests, analyses only or a combination of tests and analyses. Normally, it is impractical to meet all the HAC using tests only and the analytical methods are too complex due to the multi-physics non-linear nature of the fire event. Therefore, a combination of tests and thermal analyses methods using commercial heat transfer software are used to meet the necessary design requirements. The authors, along with his other colleagues at Savannah River National Laboratory in Aiken, SC, USA, have successfully used this 'tests and analyses' approach in the design and certification of several United States' DOE/NNSA certified packages, e.g. 9975, 9977, 9978, 9979, H1700, and Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This paper will describe these methods and it is hoped that the RAM Type B package designers and analysts can use them for their applications.

  19. Study on the rotor design method for a small propeller-type wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Yasuyuki; Yamashita, Yusuke; Inagaki, Terumi

    2016-08-01

    Small propeller-type wind turbines have a low Reynolds number, limiting the number of usable airfoil materials. Thus, their design method is not sufficiently established, and their performance is often low. The ultimate goal of this research is to establish high-performance design guidelines and design methods for small propeller-type wind turbines. To that end, we designed two rotors: Rotor A, based on the rotor optimum design method from the blade element momentum theory, and Rotor B, in which the chord length of the tip is extended and the chord length distribution is linearized. We examined performance characteristics and flow fields of the two rotors through wind tunnel experiments and numerical analysis. Our results revealed that the maximum output tip speed ratio of Rotor B shifted lower than that of Rotor A, but the maximum output coefficient increased by approximately 38.7%. Rotors A and B experienced a large-scale separation on the hub side, which extended to the mean in Rotor A. This difference in separation had an impact on the significant decrease in Rotor A's output compared to the design value and the increase in Rotor B's output compared to Rotor A.

  20. An advanced method for classifying atmospheric circulation types based on prototypes connectivity graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagouras, Athanassios; Argiriou, Athanassios A.; Flocas, Helena A.; Economou, George; Fotopoulos, Spiros

    2012-11-01

    Classification of weather maps at various isobaric levels as a methodological tool is used in several problems related to meteorology, climatology, atmospheric pollution and to other fields for many years. Initially the classification was performed manually. The criteria used by the person performing the classification are features of isobars or isopleths of geopotential height, depending on the type of maps to be classified. Although manual classifications integrate the perceptual experience and other unquantifiable qualities of the meteorology specialists involved, these are typically subjective and time consuming. Furthermore, during the last years different approaches of automated methods for atmospheric circulation classification have been proposed, which present automated and so-called objective classifications. In this paper a new method of atmospheric circulation classification of isobaric maps is presented. The method is based on graph theory. It starts with an intelligent prototype selection using an over-partitioning mode of fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm, proceeds to a graph formulation for the entire dataset and produces the clusters based on the contemporary dominant sets clustering method. Graph theory is a novel mathematical approach, allowing a more efficient representation of spatially correlated data, compared to the classical Euclidian space representation approaches, used in conventional classification methods. The method has been applied to the classification of 850 hPa atmospheric circulation over the Eastern Mediterranean. The evaluation of the automated methods is performed by statistical indexes; results indicate that the classification is adequately comparable with other state-of-the-art automated map classification methods, for a variable number of clusters.

  1. The Amadori rearrangement as glycoconjugation method: Synthesis of non-natural C-glycosyl type glycoconjugates

    PubMed Central

    Adanitsch, Florian; Stütz, Arnold E

    2012-01-01

    Summary The Amadori rearrangement was investigated as a potential method for the conjugation of carbohydrate moieties to suitable amino components. Starting from selected aldoheptoses, which are readily available by means of the Kiliani–Fischer C-elongation reaction of the corresponding aldohexoses, glycoconjugates presenting D-gluco, D-manno and D-galacto as well as GlcNAc motifs have been synthesised. Following this strategy, non-natural C-glycosyl type glycoconjugates, which can be utilised as building blocks for the composition of larger molecular constructions, are available by a very short synthetic approach. PMID:23209494

  2. Dimension-optimizing design method for annular-type cooling channel of thrust chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie

    1995-05-01

    The new-generation liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant liquid fuel rocket engine will use a high-pressure combustion chamber arrangement. In this case, cooling the thrust chamber becomes a key technical problem. The article presents a design scheme for the geometric-dimension optimization of annular-type regenerative cooling channels. The aim of the optimization is minimum pressure losses as coolant passes through the cooling channel. As shown in typical computations and experiments, application of this optimizing design method can reduce 50 percent of pressure losses. In other words, the optimization design is advantageous in solving the cooling problem in high-pressure thrust chambers.

  3. A numerical method for systems of conservation laws of mixed type admitting hyperbolic flux splitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Chi-Wang

    1992-01-01

    The present treatment of elliptic regions via hyperbolic flux-splitting and high order methods proposes a flux splitting in which the corresponding Jacobians have real and positive/negative eigenvalues. While resembling the flux splitting used in hyperbolic systems, the present generalization of such splitting to elliptic regions allows the handling of mixed-type systems in a unified and heuristically stable fashion. The van der Waals fluid-dynamics equation is used. Convergence with good resolution to weak solutions for various Riemann problems are observed.

  4. Discrete element method for emergency flow of pedestrian in S-type corridor.

    PubMed

    Song, Gyeongwon; Park, Junyoung

    2014-10-01

    Pedestrian flow in curved corridor should be modeled before design because this type of corridor can be most dangerous part during emergency evacuation. In this study, this flow is analyzed by Discrete Element Method with psychological effects. As the turning slope of corridor increases, the evacuation time is linearly increases. However, in the view of crashed death accident, the case with 90 degree turning slope can be dangerous because there are 3 dangerous points. To solve this matter, the pedestrian gathering together in curved part should be dispersed. PMID:25942811

  5. Principles and applications of Ligation Mediated PCR methods for DNA-based typing of microbial organisms.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Beata; Kur, Józef; Stojowska-Swędrzyńska, Karolina; Śpibida, Marta

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of DNA-based techniques has been introduced into the field of microorganisms' characterization and taxonomy. These genomic fingerprinting methods were developed to detect DNA sequence polymorphisms by using general principles, such as restriction endonuclease analysis, molecular hybridization, and PCR amplification. In recent years, some alternative techniques based on ligation of oligonucleotide adapters before DNA amplification by PCR, known as Ligation-Mediated PCR methods (LM PCR), have been successfully applied for the typing of microorganisms below the species level. These molecular methods include: Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), Amplification of DNA fragments Surrounding Rare Restriction Sites (ADSRRS), PCR Melting Profiles (PCR MP), Ligation Mediated PCR/Shifter (LM PCR/Shifter), Infrequent-Restriction-Site Amplification (IRS PCR), double digestion Ligation Mediated Suppression PCR (ddLMS PCR). These techniques are now applied more and more often because they involve less time, are comparably inexpensive, and require only standard lab equipment. Here, we present a general review of this group of methods showing their possibilities and limitations. We also identify questions and propose solutions which may be helpful in choosing a particular LM PCR method for the achievement of the required goal. PMID:26885774

  6. High-Speed Coating Method for Photovoltaic Textiles with Closed-Type Die Coater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Takahiko; Shibayama, Norihisa; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Shiraishi, Kenji; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Toshihiro

    2013-06-01

    We developed a closed-type die-coating method to fabricate thin films for electronic devices. We succeeded in the die-coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) water dispersions and regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solution to fabricate thin films of these organic materials with extremely high speeds of 5 and 20 m/min, respectively. The film thicknesses were evaluated by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The deviations of the film thicknesses from our target values were less than 5%. We fabricated Al/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) textiles as an example of an application of the method, and the photovoltaic characteristic of the devices was confirmed.

  7. A Type of Low-Latency Data Gathering Method with Multi-Sink for Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Sha, Chao; Qiu, Jian-Mei; Li, Shu-Yan; Qiang, Meng-Ye; Wang, Ru-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    To balance energy consumption and reduce latency on data transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), a type of low-latency data gathering method with multi-Sink (LDGM for short) is proposed in this paper. The network is divided into several virtual regions consisting of three or less data gathering units and the leader of each region is selected according to its residual energy as well as distance to all of the other nodes. Only the leaders in each region need to communicate with the mobile Sinks which have effectively reduced energy consumption and the end-to-end delay. Moreover, with the help of the sleep scheduling and the sensing radius adjustment strategies, redundancy in network coverage could also be effectively reduced. Simulation results show that LDGM is energy efficient in comparison with MST as well as MWST and its time efficiency on data collection is higher than one Sink based data gathering methods. PMID:27338401

  8. A Type of Low-Latency Data Gathering Method with Multi-Sink for Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Chao; Qiu, Jian-mei; Li, Shu-yan; Qiang, Meng-ye; Wang, Ru-chuan

    2016-01-01

    To balance energy consumption and reduce latency on data transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), a type of low-latency data gathering method with multi-Sink (LDGM for short) is proposed in this paper. The network is divided into several virtual regions consisting of three or less data gathering units and the leader of each region is selected according to its residual energy as well as distance to all of the other nodes. Only the leaders in each region need to communicate with the mobile Sinks which have effectively reduced energy consumption and the end-to-end delay. Moreover, with the help of the sleep scheduling and the sensing radius adjustment strategies, redundancy in network coverage could also be effectively reduced. Simulation results show that LDGM is energy efficient in comparison with MST as well as MWST and its time efficiency on data collection is higher than one Sink based data gathering methods. PMID:27338401

  9. Novel method of separating macroporous arrays from p-type silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobo, Peng; Fei, Wang; Tao, Liu; Zhenya, Yang; Lianwei, Wang; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a novel method to fabricate separated macroporous silicon using a single step of photo-assisted electrochemical etching. The method is applied to fabricate silicon microchannel plates in 100 mm p-type silicon wafers, which can be used as electron multipliers and three-dimensional Li-ion microbatteries. Increasing the backside illumination intensity and decreasing the bias simultaneously can generate additional holes during the electrochemical etching which will create lateral etching at the pore tips. In this way the silicon microchannel can be separated from the substrate when the desired depth is reached, then it can be cut into the desired shape by using a laser cutting machine. Also, the mechanism of lateral etching is proposed.

  10. Using the spring constant method to analyze arterial elasticity in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study tests the validity of a newly-proposed spring constant method to analyze arterial elasticity in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods The experimental group comprised 66 participants (36 men and 30 women) ranging between 46 and 86 years of age, all with diabetes mellitus. In the experimental group, 21 participants suffered from atherosclerosis. All were subjected to the measurements of both the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and the spring constant method. The comparison (control) group comprised 66 normal participants (37 men and 29 women) with an age range of 40 to 80 years who did not have diabetes mellitus. All control group members were subjected to measurement by the spring constant method. Results Statistical analysis of the experimental and control groups indicated a significant negative correlation between the spring constant and the cfPWV (P < .001; r = - 0.824 and – 0.71). Multivariate analysis similarly indicated a close relationship. The Student’s t test was used to examine the difference in the spring constant parameter between the experimental and control groups. A P-value less than .05 confirmed that the difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant. In receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the Area Under Curve (AUC, = 0.85) indicates good discrimination. These findings imply that the spring constant method can effectively identify normal versus abnormal characteristics of elasticity in normal and diabetic participants. Conclusions This study verifies the use of the spring constant method to assess arterial elasticity, and found it to be efficient and simple to use. The spring constant method should prove useful not only for improving clinical diagnoses, but also for screening diabetic patients who display early evidence of vascular disease. PMID:22531211

  11. Concordance between two methods in measuring treatment adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    López-Simarro, Flora; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Aguado-Jodar, Alba; Cols-Sagarra, Cèlia; Miravet-Jiménez, Sònia

    2016-01-01

    Objective We analyzed the concordance between two methods for measuring treatment adherence (TA) and studied the determinants of TA in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in a primary care center, involving 320 diabetic patients. TA was measured using the Haynes–Sackett (H–S) adherence test during the patient interview and based on pharmacy refill data. TA was calculated globally and by drug groups (antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic drugs). Results Poor TA as measured by the H–S test was observed in 11.2% of the patients. Based on pharmacy refill data, there was a poor global TA rate of 30.3%, which was 33.3%, 26.6%, and 34.2% for oral antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering drugs, respectively. Concordance between the two methods was poor. There was no relationship between the degree of disease control and TA as measured by the H–S test. Good TA measured based on pharmacy refill data for antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs was associated with lower glycosylated hemoglobin and diastolic blood pressure values, respectively. Patients with good global TA showed lower glycosylated hemoglobin, diastolic blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values. The multivariate analysis found good oral antidiabetic adherence to be associated to free pharmacy service; good antihypertensive drug adherence to the existence of comorbidities; and good lipid-lowering drug adherence to a history of ischemic heart disease, and a more experienced physician and/or female physician. Conclusion Concordance between the two methods in assessing TA was low. Approximately one-third of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented poor TA in relation to antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic medication. An improved TA was associated with a better control of the studied parameters. Comorbidities, such as ischemic heart disease and access to free pharmacy service

  12. A comparative study of single reference correlation methods of the coupled-pair type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wennmohs, Frank; Neese, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Several variants of coupled electron pair type approximations are compared with respect to their accuracy in the prediction of bond distances, harmonic vibrational frequencies and anharmonic corrections for a range of closed-shell diatomic molecules. In the first part of the paper the coupled-electron pair (CEPA) methods (CEPA/1,2,3) are discussed. Extensions of these methods allow the derivation of the correlation energy from the stationarization of a correlation energy functional (CPF/1,2,3 methods). All methods are formulated as diagonally dressed configuration-interaction with single- and double-excitations (CISD) eigenvalue problems. Averaging the diagonal shifts of the CPF methods in various ways lead to the ACPF and AQCC methods. Several small modifications of the shifts for the single excitations are proposed that enhance the stability of the methods (NCPF/1,2,3, NCEPA/1,2,3, NACPF). The reduced shifts are justified by linear response arguments. The implementation of the methods for a closed-shell ground state is described. In the application part, we first tested the size-consistency, exactness for two-electron systems and unitary invariance of the methods. Extensive numerical studies with polarized quadruple- ζ basis sets are employed to test the accuracy of the coupled pair approaches relative to the more elaborate quadratic CI (QCISD) and coupled-cluster (CCSD and CCSD(T)) approaches. Not surprisingly, the CCSD(T) method is the most accurate approach on average. However, the proposed NCPF/1 variant led to even smaller average errors for bond distances (˜0.2 pm relative to ˜0.3 pm for CCSD(T)) while predicting still accurate harmonic frequencies (av. Error ˜25 cm -1 for NCPF/1, ˜8 cm -1 for CCSD(T) and ˜45 cm -1 for CCSD). All coupled pair methods are more accurate than present day DFT approaches (BP86, B3LYP). The exception is the recently proposed double-hybrid B2PLYP functional that approaches the coupled pair performance. Some more difficult

  13. Potential of Three-Way Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis as a Typing Method for Twelve Salmonella Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Soto, S. M.; Guerra, B.; González-Hevia, M. A.; Mendoza, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of a three-way randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) procedure (RAPD typing) for typing Salmonella enterica strains assigned to 12 serotypes was analyzed. The series of organisms used included 235 strains (326 isolates) collected mainly from clinical samples in the Principality of Asturias and 9 reference strains. RAPD typing was performed directly with broth cultures of bacteria by using three selected primers and optimized PCR conditions. The profiles obtained with the three primers were used to define RAPD types and to evaluate the procedure as a typing method at the species and serotype levels. The typeability was 100%; the reproducibility and in vitro stability could be considered good. The concordance of RAPD typing methods with serotyping methods was 100%, but some profiles obtained with two of the three primers were obtained with strains assigned to different serotypes. The discrimination index (DI) within the series of organisms was 0.94, and the DI within serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Virchow were 0.72, 0.52, and 0.66, respectively. Within these serotypes the most common RAPD types were differentiated into phage types and vice versa; combining the types identified by the two procedures (RAPD typing and phage typing) resulted in further discrimination (DI, 0.96, 0.74, and 0.87, respectively). The efficiency, rapidity, and flexibility of the RAPD typing method support the conclusion that it can be used as a tool for identifying Salmonella organisms and as a typing method that is complementary to serotyping and phage typing methods. PMID:10543793

  14. Automatic Recognition of Coronal Type II Radio Bursts: The Method for ARBIS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, V.; Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, P. A.; Steward, G.; Paterson, G.

    2009-12-01

    The major space weather events like solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompanied by solar radio bursts, which can be used for a real-time space weather forecast. Type II radio bursts are produced near the local electron plasma frequency and near its harmonic by fast electrons accelerated by a shock wave moving through the corona and solar wind with a typical speed of ~1000 km/s. These bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency gradually falling with time (~0.25 MHz s-1), the duration of the coronal burst being several minutes. This paper presents a new method developed to detect coronal radio bursts automatically and describes its implementation in an Automated Radio Burst Identification System (ARBIS 2). The central idea of the implementation is to use the Hough transform for more objective detection of the type II bursts. Preliminary tests of the method with the use of the spectra obtained in 2002 show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ~80%, while the probability of false positives is reasonably low, 0.004-0.010 false positives per hour. Prospects for improvements are discussed.

  15. A Method and Tool for Fact Type Reuse in the DOGMA Ontology Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debruyne, Christophe; de Leenheer, Pieter; Meersman, Robert

    In the DOGMA approach to ontology engineering, the construction of an ontology starts from a "Lexon Base", a possibly very large and un-interpreted base of plausible elementary fact types called lexons. Lexons - mined from various linguistic sources such as schemas, texts or domain experts - are used to create ontological commitments by selecting or reusing a meaningful set of lexons and together with constraints so that the intended conceptualization is well approximated. All too often, the same or similar lexons are entered in the Lexon Base, which causes heterogeneity among different ontological commitments. Due to this heterogeneity, meaning negotiation to agree upon a common commitment becomes more difficult. Encouraging lexon reuse by providing knowledge engineers and domain experts an automated process for finding relevant lexons in the Lexon Base or existing ontological commitments can tackle this problem. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to fact type reuse that we will apply to DOGMA MESS, a state-of-the-art collaborative ontology engineering methodology. The method we propose uses several heuristics that reside in one of the six semiotic levels described by Ronald Stamper's semiotic ladder and adds a pragmatic and social layer onto the current methodology and tools. We provide a proof of concept by implementing our method in a tool for finding relevant lexons while building an ontological commitment in a production environment called DOGMA Studio Workbench.

  16. A simple method for MR elastography: a gradient-echo type multi-echo sequence.

    PubMed

    Numano, Tomokazu; Mizuhara, Kazuyuki; Hata, Junichi; Washio, Toshikatsu; Homma, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel MR elastography (MRE) technique based on a conventional gradient-echo type multi-echo MR sequence which does not need additional bipolar magnetic field gradients (motion encoding gradient: MEG), yet is sensitive to vibration. In a gradient-echo type multi-echo MR sequence, several images are produced from each echo of the train with different echo times (TEs). If these echoes are synchronized with the vibration, each readout's gradient lobes achieve a MEG-like effect, and the later generated echo causes a greater MEG-like effect. The sequence was tested for the tissue-mimicking agarose gel phantoms and the psoas major muscles of healthy volunteers. It was confirmed that the readout gradient lobes caused an MEG-like effect and the later TE images had higher sensitivity to vibrations. The magnitude image of later generated echo suffered the T2 decay and the susceptibility artifacts, but the wave image and elastogram of later generated echo were unaffected by these effects. In in vivo experiments, this method was able to measure the mean shear modulus of the psoas major muscle. From the results of phantom experiments and volunteer studies, it was shown that this method has clinical application potential. PMID:25311570

  17. A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan

    2013-02-01

    One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.

  18. Systematic selection of analogue redesign method for forward-type digital power converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cave-Ayland, Kim; Becerra, Victor M.; Potter, Benjamin; Shirsavar, Seyed

    2014-05-01

    This article proposes a systematic approach to determine the most suitable analogue redesign method to be used for forward-type converters under digital voltage mode control. The focus of the method is to achieve the highest phase margin at the particular switching and crossover frequencies chosen by the designer. It is shown that at high crossover frequencies with respect to switching frequency, controllers designed using backward integration have the largest phase margin; whereas at low crossover frequencies with respect to switching frequency, controllers designed using bilinear integration with pre-warping have the largest phase margins. An algorithm has been developed to determine the frequency of the crossing point where the recommended discretisation method changes. An accurate model of the power stage is used for simulation and experimental results from a Buck converter are collected. The performance of the digital controllers is compared to that of the equivalent analogue controller both in simulation and experiment. Excellent closeness between the simulation and experimental results is presented. This work provides a concrete example to allow academics and engineers to systematically choose a discretisation method.

  19. Mercury analysis of various types of coal using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jae Young Park; Jong Hyun Won; Tai Gyu Lee

    2006-12-15

    The mercury contents of various types of coal currently consumed in Korea were analyzed using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods. The results of analysis by acid extraction and pyrolysis methods were compared and discussed. Generally, high mercury concentrations of 105.6 to 434.5 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 125.7 to 475.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis) were obtained for tested anthracite coals in this study. For bituminous coals, the mercury contents were 11.5-48 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 12.5-52.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis). For coal samples, much simpler and far less time-consuming pyrolysis method tends to give higher values for the Hg concentration than the acid extraction method (by less than 10%) because of the interference from a UV absorption by SOx generated during thermal destruction of coal matrix. Also, further analysis shows that coals with higher densities have higher mercury contents and that the sulfur and mercury contents of coals are positively correlated with each other. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Effect of the carbohydrate counting method on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of achieving and maintaining an appropriate metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) has been established in many studies aiming to prevent the development of chronic complications. The carbohydrate counting method can be recommended as an additional tool in the nutritional treatment of diabetes, allowing patients with DM1 to have more flexible food choices. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of nutrition intervention and the use of multiple short-acting insulin according to the carbohydrate counting method on clinical and metabolic control in patients with DM1. Methods Our sample consisted of 51 patients with DM1, 32 females, aged 25.3 ± 1.55 years. A protocol of nutritional status evaluation was applied and laboratory analysis was performed at baseline and after a three-month intervention. After the analysis of the food records, a balanced diet was prescribed using the carbohydrate counting method, and short-acting insulin was prescribed based on the total amount of carbohydrate per meal (1 unit per 15 g of carbohydrate). Results A significant decrease in A1c levels was observed from baseline to the three-month evaluation after the intervention (10.40 ± 0.33% and 9.52 ± 0.32%, respectively, p = 0.000). It was observed an increase in daily insulin dose after the intervention (0.99 ± 0.65 IU/Kg and 1.05 ± 0.05 IU/Kg, respectively, p = 0.003). No significant differences were found regarding anthropometric evaluation (BMI, waist, hip or abdominal circumferences and waist to hip ratio) after the intervention period. Conclusions The use of short-acting insulin based on the carbohydrate counting method after a short period of time resulted in a significant improvement of the glycemic control in patients with DM1 with no changes in body weight despite increases in the total daily insulin doses. PMID:20716374

  1. Implicit high-order discontinuous Galerkin method with HWENO type limiters for steady viscous flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen-Hua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian

    2013-08-01

    Two types of implicit algorithms have been improved for high order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to solve compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on triangular grids. A block lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BLU-SGS) approach is implemented as a nonlinear iterative scheme. And a modified LU-SGS (LLU-SGS) approach is suggested to reduce the memory requirements while retain the good convergence performance of the original LU-SGS approach. Both implicit schemes have the significant advantage that only the diagonal block matrix is stored. The resulting implicit high-order DG methods are applied, in combination with Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) limiters, to solve viscous flow problems. Numerical results demonstrate that the present implicit methods are able to achieve significant efficiency improvements over explicit counterparts and for viscous flows with shocks, and the HWENO limiters can be used to achieve the desired essentially non-oscillatory shock transition and the designed high-order accuracy simultaneously.

  2. Free Energy-Based Conformational Search Algorithm Using the Movable Type Sampling Method.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li-Li; Zheng, Zheng; Wang, Ting; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we extend the movable type (MT) sampling method to molecular conformational searches (MT-CS) on the free energy surface of the molecule in question. Differing from traditional systematic and stochastic searching algorithms, this method uses Boltzmann energy information to facilitate the selection of the best conformations. The generated ensembles provided good coverage of the available conformational space including available crystal structures. Furthermore, our approach directly provides the solvation free energies and the relative gas and aqueous phase free energies for all generated conformers. The method is validated by a thorough analysis of thrombin ligands as well as against structures extracted from both the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). An in-depth comparison between OMEGA and MT-CS is presented to illustrate the differences between the two conformational searching strategies, i.e., energy-based versus free energy-based searching. These studies demonstrate that our MT-based ligand conformational search algorithm is a powerful approach to delineate the conformational ensembles of molecular species on free energy surfaces. PMID:26605406

  3. MFI-type boroaluminosilicate: A comparative study between the direct synthesis and the templating method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Wei; Zhang Shiyu; Hao Xiangying; Guo Hao; Zhang Cui; Zhang Yinqing; Liu Shuangxi . E-mail: sxliu@nankai.edu.cn

    2006-03-15

    Boroaluminosilicate with MFI zeotype (henceforth B-ZSM-5) was synthesized both via the direct synthesis where ZSM-5 was employed as crystal seed and the templating method by using TPABr as the structure-directing agent (SDA). Characterization based on its structure, bonding, surface acidity, and morphology was performed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), {sup 11}B MAS NMR spectrometry, FT-IR spectrometry, pyridine-chemisorption IR spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of the prepared zeolites was determined by ICP-AES; the zeolite framework stability was investigated by steam treatment. The differences in the physicochemical properties of B-ZSM-5 prepared by the two methods were compared and discussed. In the direct synthesis, increasing initial boron-substitution ratio concomitantly brings about increasing difficulty to prepare pure B-ZSM-5 and, MFI-type borosilicate (free of aluminum) cannot be synthesized; the highest SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio=70.64 is received. B-ZSM-5 prepared by the templating method shows remarkable hydrothermal stability than its counterpart prepared by the direct synthesis.

  4. Method of fabricating n-type and p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1990-02-02

    A method of fabricating doped microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material which includes a band gap widening element through a glow discharge deposition process by subjecting a precursor mixture which includes a diluent gas to an a.c. glow discharge in the absence of a magnetic field of sufficient strength to induce electron cyclotron resonance.

  5. Comparison of Methods for Renal Risk Prediction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (ZODIAC-36)

    PubMed Central

    Riphagen, Ineke J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Drion, Iefke; Alkhalaf, Alaa; van Diepen, Merel; Cao, Qi; Groenier, Klaas H.; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Navis, Gerjan; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes are at high risk of death prior to reaching end-stage renal disease, but most models predicting the risk of kidney disease do not take this competing risk into account. We aimed to compare the performance of Cox regression and competing risk models for prediction of early- and late-stage renal complications in type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the observational ZODIAC study were included. Prediction models for (micro)albuminuria and 50% increase in serum creatinine (SCr) were developed using Cox regression and competing risk analyses. Model performance was assessed by discrimination and calibration. Results During a total follow-up period of 10 years, 183 out of 640 patients (28.6%) with normoalbuminuria developed (micro)albuminuria, and 22 patients (3.4%) died without developing (micro)albuminuria (i.e. experienced the competing event). Seventy-nine out of 1,143 patients (6.9%) reached the renal end point of 50% increase in SCr, while 219 (19.2%) died without developing the renal end point. Performance of the Cox and competing risk models predicting (micro)albuminuria was similar and differences in predicted risks were small. However, the Cox model increasingly overestimated the risk of increase in SCr in presence of a substantial number of competing events, while the performance of the competing risk model was quite good. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that, in case of substantial numbers of competing events, it is important to account for the competing risk of death in renal risk prediction in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25775414

  6. The application of the barrier-type anodic oxidation method to thickness testing of aluminum films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Xiao, Ruihua; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Baofu; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The thickness of the active metal oxide film formed from a barrier-type anodizing process is directly proportional to its formation voltage. The thickness of the consumed portion of the metal film is also corresponding to the formation voltage. This principle can be applied to the thickness test of the metal films. If the metal film is growing on a dielectric substrate, when the metal film is exhausted in an anodizing process, because of the high electrical resistance of the formed oxide film, a sudden increase of the recorded voltage during the anodizing process would occur. Then, the thickness of the metal film can be determined from this voltage. As an example, aluminum films are tested and discussed in this work. This method is quite simple and is easy to perform with high precision. PMID:25273741

  7. The application of the barrier-type anodic oxidation method to thickness testing of aluminum films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Xiao, Ruihua; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Baofu; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The thickness of the active metal oxide film formed from a barrier-type anodizing process is directly proportional to its formation voltage. The thickness of the consumed portion of the metal film is also corresponding to the formation voltage. This principle can be applied to the thickness test of the metal films. If the metal film is growing on a dielectric substrate, when the metal film is exhausted in an anodizing process, because of the high electrical resistance of the formed oxide film, a sudden increase of the recorded voltage during the anodizing process would occur. Then, the thickness of the metal film can be determined from this voltage. As an example, aluminum films are tested and discussed in this work. This method is quite simple and is easy to perform with high precision.

  8. New methods for accelerating the convergence of molecular electronic integrals over exponential type orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safouhi, Hassan; Hoggan, Philip

    2003-01-01

    This review on molecular integrals for large electronic systems (MILES) places the problem of analytical integration over exponential-type orbitals (ETOs) in a historical context. After reference to the pioneering work, particularly by Barnett, Shavitt and Yoshimine, it focuses on recent progress towards rapid and accurate analytic solutions of MILES over ETOs. Software such as the hydrogenlike wavefunction package Alchemy by Yoshimine and collaborators is described. The review focuses on convergence acceleration of these highly oscillatory integrals and in particular it highlights suitable nonlinear transformations. Work by Levin and Sidi is described and applied to MILES. A step by step description of progress in the use of nonlinear transformation methods to obtain efficient codes is provided. The recent approach developed by Safouhi is also presented. The current state of the art in this field is summarized to show that ab initio analytical work over ETOs is now a viable option.

  9. Monte Carlo methods for neutrino transport in type-II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janka, Hans-Thomas

    Neutrinos play an important role in the type-II supernova scenario. Numerous approaches have been made in order to treat the generation and transport of neutrinos and the interactions between neutrinos and matter during stellar collapse and the shock propagation phase. However, all computationally fast methods have in common the fact that they cannot avoid simplifications in describing the interactions and, furthermore, have to use parameterizations in handling the Boltzmann transport equation. In order to provide an instrument for calibrating these treatments and for calculating neutrino spectra emitted from given stellar configurations, a Monte Carlo transport code was designed. Special attention was paid to an accurate computation of scattering kernels and source functions. Neutrino spectra for a hydrostatic stage of a 20 solar mass supernova simulation were generated and conclusions drawn concerning a late time revival of the stalled shock by neutrino heating.

  10. Spin transport through n-type doped silicon using electrical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, H.-Jae; Huang, Biqin; Appelbaum, Ian

    2008-03-01

    In this presentation, we report on all-electrical injection, transport, and detection of spin-polarized electrons through a 3um n-type Phosphorus-doped single-crystal silicon device. Using our hot-electron methods, we demonstrate both spin-valve behavior in an in-plane magnetic field and spin precession in a perpendicular magnetic field. Voltage spectroscopy reveals the effects of charge screening and band bending in the spin transport layer which are not evident in the operation of our previously-studied undoped silicon devices [1,2]. References [1] Ian Appelbaum et al. Nature 447, 295 (2007). [2] Biqin Huang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 177209 (2007).

  11. Superconvergence and recovery type a posteriori error estimation for hybrid stress finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, YanHong; Wu, YongKe; Xie, XiaoPing

    2016-09-01

    Superconvergence and a posteriori error estimators of recovery type are analyzed for the 4-node hybrid stress quadrilateral finite element method proposed by Pian and Sumihara (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engrg., 1984, 20: 1685-1695) for linear elasticity problems. Uniform superconvergence of order $O(h^{1+\\min\\{\\alpha,1\\}})$ with respect to the Lam\\'{e} constant $\\lambda$ is established for both the recovered gradients of the displacement vector and the stress tensor under a mesh assumption, where $\\alpha>0$ is a parameter characterizing the distortion of meshes from parallelograms to quadrilaterals. A posteriori error estimators based on the recovered quantities are shown to be asymptotically exact. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results.

  12. Scale space methods for analysis of type 2 diabetes patients' blood glucose values.

    PubMed

    Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Godtliebsen, Fred

    2011-01-01

    We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to reveal important features of unevenly sampled data, and useful for identifying medically relevant features for use both by patients as part of their self-management process, and provide useful information for physicians. PMID:21436873

  13. Scale Space Methods for Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes Patients' Blood Glucose Values

    PubMed Central

    Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Godtliebsen, Fred

    2011-01-01

    We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to reveal important features of unevenly sampled data, and useful for identifying medically relevant features for use both by patients as part of their self-management process, and provide useful information for physicians. PMID:21436873

  14. Support of Wheelchairs Using Pheromone Information with Two Types of Communication Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Koji; Nitta, Katsumi

    In this paper, we propose a communication framework which combined two types of communication among wheelchairs and mobile devices. Due to restriction of range of activity, there is a problem that wheelchair users tend to shut themselves up in their houses. We developed a navigational wheelchair which loads a system that displays information on a map through WWW. However, this wheelchair is expensive because it needs a solid PC, a precise GPS, a battery, and so on. We introduce mobile devices and use this framework to provide information to wheelchair users and to facilitate them to go out. When a user encounters other users, they exchange messages which they have by short-distance wireless communication. Once a message is delivered to a navigational wheelchair, the wheelchair uploads the message to the system. We use two types of pheromone information which represent trends of user's movement and existences of a crowd of users. First, when users gather, ``crowd of people pheromone'' is emitted virtually. Users do not send these pheromones to the environment but carry them. If the density exceeds the threshold, messages that express ``people gethered'' are generated automatically. The other pheromone is ``movement trend pheromone'', which is used to improve probability of successful transmissions. From results of experiments, we concluded that our method can deliver information that wheelchair users gathered to other wheelchairs.

  15. Synthesis of Zr-based perovskite-type alloy phosphors by polymerized complex method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komagata, Hiroki; Kato, Riku; Kato, Ariyuki

    2014-02-01

    To demonstrate the fabrication of inorganic electroluminescent (EL) devices using perovskite-type oxide phosphors by electrophoretic deposition (EPD), AZrO3:RE (A = Ca, Sr, Ba; RE = Eu, Tb) were synthesized by the polymerized complex method. AZrO3:Eu showed orange or red emissions and AZrO3:Tb showed blue-green or green emissions depending on their crystal structures. The emission intensity was found to be enhanced by introducing strains to the host matrices by Mg codoping or alloying. Inorganic EL devices prepared by EPD using BaZrO3:Eu and SrZrO3:Eu as the phosphor layers showed orange and blue emissions that were observable under room light, respectively, which is the first observation of EL emission from the devices prepared by EPD to the best of our knowledge. The combination of perovskite-type oxide phosphors and EPD was found to be a promising way to fabricate inorganic EL devices.

  16. Further development of multiplex single nucleotide polymorphism typing method, the DigiTag2 assay.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Nao; Tanabe, Tetsuya; Takasu, Miwa; Suyama, Akira; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2007-05-01

    A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are considered to be candidate susceptibility or resistance genetic factors for multifactorial disease. Genome-wide searches for disease susceptibility regions followed by high-resolution mapping of primary genes require cost-effective and highly reliable technology. To accomplish successful and low-cost typing for candidate SNPs, new technologies must be developed. We previously reported a multiplex SNP typing method, designated the DigiTag assay, that has the potential to analyze nearly any SNP with high accuracy and reproducibility. However, the DigiTag assay requires multiple washing steps in manipulation and uses genotyping probes modified with biotin for each target SNP. Here we describe the next version of the assay, DigiTag2, which works with simple protocols and uses unmodified genotyping probes. We investigated the feasibility of the DigiTag2 assay by genotyping 96 target SNPs spanning a 610-kb region of human chromosome 5. The DigiTag2 assay is suitable for genotyping an intermediate number of SNPs (tens to hundreds of sites) with a high conversion rate (>90%), high accuracy, and low cost. PMID:17359929

  17. The influence of methods of bariatric surgery for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bužga, Marek; Maresova, Petra; Seidlerova, Adela; Zonča, Pavel; Holéczy, Pavol; Kuča, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    The constantly growing incidence of obesity represents a risk of health complications for individuals, and is a growing economic burden for health care systems and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bariatric surgery, specifically laparoscopic greater curve plication, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The effect of bariatric surgery on the changes in blood pressure before, and 12 months after, surgery and in pharmacotherapy in the 12 months after surgery was analyzed. For achieving this purpose, 74 patients from the Obesity and Surgery Department of Vitkovice Hospital in Ostrava in the Czech Republic, were monitored. They were operated in 2011 and 2012. The Bonferroni method was used to test hypotheses about the impact of surgery on blood pressure and pharmacotherapy. One year after the surgery, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values decreased, both with no statistically significant difference between surgery types. Improvement was observed in 68% of cases, with 25% of patients discontinuing pharmacotherapy entirely. PMID:27143901

  18. A Method for Measuring Active Region Filling Factors on Solar-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampapa, Mark Steven; Andretta, Vincenzo; Beeck, Benjamin; Reiners, Ansgar; Schussler, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    Radiative diagnostics of “activity” in the Sun and solar-type stars are spatially associated with sites of emergent magnetic flux. The magnetic fields themselves are widely regarded as the surface manifestations of a dynamo mechanism. The further development of both dynamo theory and models of the non-radiative heating of outer stellar atmospheres requires a knowledge of stellar magnetic field properties. In this context, it becomes important to determine the surface distribution, or at least the fractional coverage of, magnetic active regions as one critical constraint for dynamo models. But, while information on the spatial distribution of activity on stellar surfaces can be gathered in some special cases (mostly rapid rotators), such measurements have always been elusive in more solar-like stars. We discuss the challenges and results obtained from a method that relies on the non-linear response of the two principal He I triplet lines (at 1083 nm and 587.6 nm) to infer useful constraints on the fractional area coverage of magnetic active regions on solar-type stars.

  19. Hydrogen Isotope Behavior in Type 316 Stainless Steel Sorbed by Various Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Oya, Y.; Onishi, Y.; Okuno, K.; Kawano, T.; Asakura, Y.; Uda, T.; Tanaka, S.

    2005-07-15

    Typical materials for components, type 316 stainless steel (316-SS), were chosen as a sample and hydrogen isotope was charged by various methods, water adsorption, electrolysis and ion irradiation to elucidate hydrogen isotope behavior on/in SS. The chemical states of SS surface were studied by XPS and the hydrogen isotope retention and its desorption behavior were analyzed by TDS. Two types of surface finish, namely non-pretreated sample and pretreated sample by polish and annealing were prepared. It was found that the oxy-hydroxide and hydroxide were formed on the surface layer. The hydrogen isotope desorption stages consisted of three stages, namely the desorption stages from oxy-hydroxide, hydroxide and bulk hydrogen. A large amount of deuterium was trapped by the oxy-hydroxide layer for the non-pretreated sample with electrolysis. The hydrogen isotope trapping by this layer would have a large influence on the hydrogen isotope retention. The surface finish would be one of the effective improvement for decreasing its retention on SS.

  20. The Influence of Polymerization Type and Reinforcement Method on Flexural Strength of Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Kasuya, Amanda Vessoni Barbosa; Favarão, Isabella Negro; Naves, Lucas Zago; Hoeppner, Márcio Grama

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of acrylic resin bars by varying the types of resin polymerization and reinforcement methods. Fourteen groups (N = 10) were created by the interaction of factors in study: type of resin (self-cured (SC) or heat-cured (HC)) and reinforcement method (industrialized glass fiber (Ind), unidirectional glass fiber (Uni), short glass fiber (Short), unidirectional and short glass fiber (Uni-Short), thermoplastic resin fiber (Tpl), and steel wire (SW)). Reinforced bars (25 × 2 × 2 mm) were tested in flexural strength (0.5 mm/min) and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data (MPa) were submitted to factorial analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey and T-student tests (a = 5%) showing significant interaction (P = 0.008), for SC: Uni (241.71 ± 67.77)a, Uni-Short (221.05 ± 71.97)a, Ind (215.21 ± 46.59)ab, SW (190.51 ± 31.49)abc, Short (156.31 ± 28.76)bcd, Tpl (132.51 ± 20.21)cd, Control SC (101.47 ± 19.79)d and for HC: Ind (268.93 ± 105.65)a, Uni (215.14 ± 67.60)ab, Short (198.44 ± 95.27)abc, Uni-Short (189.56 ± 92.27)abc, Tpl (161.32 ± 62.51)cd, SW (106.69 ± 28.70)cd, and Control HC (93.39 ± 39.61)d. SEM analysis showed better fiber-resin interaction for HC. Nonimpregnated fibers, irrespective of their length, tend to improve fracture strength of acrylics. PMID:25879079

  1. Using phenological metrics and the multiple classifier fusion method to map land cover types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianhong; Pan, Yaozhong; Zhu, Xiufang; Zhu, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection and multiple classifier fusion (MCF) are effective approaches to improve land cover classification accuracy. In this study, we combined phenological metrics and the MCF method to map land cover types in Jiangsu province of China during the second crop growing season using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer time-series data. Eight phenological metrics were developed and calculated, and a MCF scheme was proposed by combining a simple majority vote and the measurement of posterior probabilities. The four base classifiers (i.e., the maximum likelihood classifier, the Mahalanobis distance classifier, the support vector machine classifier, and the neural networks classifier) and the MCF method were used in classifications using two spectral indices from the original satellite data (direct classification) and the computed metric data (metrics-based classification). Accuracy assessments indicated that the overall accuracies and kappa coefficients of the metrics-based classifications were all higher than those of direct classifications. The average overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of metrics-based classifications were 8.36% and 0.1 higher than that of direct classifications, respectively. Similarly, the overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of MCF generally were close to or exceeded the highest accuracy among all the base classifiers. The highest overall accuracy and kappa coefficient was achieved by classification with the MCF method based on phenological metrics (m-MCF), which were 88% and 0.85, respectively. Our results suggested that combining phenological metrics and MCF in classification is a promising method for land cover mapping in regions where strong phenological signals can be detected.

  2. An improved method for the preparation of type I collagen from skin.

    PubMed

    Pacak, Christina A; MacKay, Allison A; Cowan, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    Soluble type 1 collagen (COL1) is used extensively as an adhesive substrate for cell cultures and as a cellular scaffold for regenerative applications. Clinically, this protein is widely used for cosmetic surgery, dermal injections, bone grafting, and reconstructive surgery. The sources of COL1 for these procedures are commonly nonhuman, which increases the potential for inflammation and rejection as well as xenobiotic disease transmission. In view of this, a method to efficiently and quickly purify COL1 from limited quantities of autologously-derived tissues would circumvent many of these issues; however, standard isolation protocols are lengthy and often require large quantities of collagenous tissues. Here, we demonstrate an efficient COL1 extraction method that reduces the time needed to isolate and purify this protein from about 10 days to less than 3 hr. We chose the dermis as our tissue source because of its availability during many surgical procedures. This method uses traditional extraction buffers combined with forceful agitation and centrifugal filtration to obtain highly-pure, soluble COL1 from small amounts of corium. Briefly, dermal biopsies are washed thoroughly in ice-cold dH2O after removing fat, connective tissue, and hair. The skin samples are stripped of noncollagenous proteins and polysaccharides using 0.5 M sodium acetate and a high speed bench-top homogenizer. Collagen from residual solids is subsequently extracted with a 0.075 M sodium citrate buffer using the homogenizer. These extracts are purified using 100,000 MW cut-off centrifugal filters that yield COL1 preparations of comparable or superior quality to commercial products or those obtained using traditional procedures. We anticipate this method will facilitate the utilization of autologously-derived COL1 for a multitude of research and clinical applications. PMID:24473107

  3. Distance determinations using type II supernovae and the expanding photosphere method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, L.; Hillier, D. J.

    2005-08-01

    Due to their high intrinsic brightness, caused by the disruption of the progenitor envelope by the shock-wave initiated at the bounce of the collapsing core, hydrogen-rich (type II) supernovae (SN) can be used as lighthouses to constrain distances in the Universe using variants of the Baade-Wesselink method. Based on a large set of CMFGEN models (Hillier & Miller 1998) covering the photospheric phase of type II SN, we study the various concepts entering one such technique, the Expanding Photosphere Method (EPM). We compute correction factors ξ needed to approximate the synthetic Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) with that of a blackbody at temperature T. Our ξ, although similar, are systematically greater, by ~0.1, than the values obtained by Eastman et al. (1996) and translate into a systematic enhancement of 10-20% in EPM-distances. We find that line emission and absorption, not directly linked to color temperature variations, can considerably alter the synthetic magnitude: in particular, line-blanketing attributable to Fe ii and Ti ii is the principal cause for above-unity correction factors in the B and V bands in hydrogen-recombining models. Following the dominance of electron-scattering opacity in type II SN outflows, the blackbody SED arising at the thermalization depth is diluted, by a factor of approximately 0.2 to 0.4 for fully- or partially-ionized models, but rising to unity as hydrogen recombines for effective temperatures below 9000 K. For a given effective temperature, models with a larger spatial scale, or lower density exponent, have a larger electron-scattering optical depth at the photosphere and consequently suffer enhanced dilution. We also find that when lines are present in the emergent spectrum, the photospheric radius in the corresponding wavelength range can be enhanced by a factor of 2-3 compared to the case when only continuum opacity is considered. Lines can thus nullify the uniqueness of the photosphere radius and invalidate the

  4. Hyperspectral imaging based method for fast characterization of kidney stone types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Francisco; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Havel, Josef; Valiente, Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The formation of kidney stones is a common and highly studied disease, which causes intense pain and presents a high recidivism. In order to find the causes of this problem, the characterization of the main compounds is of great importance. In this sense, the analysis of the composition and structure of the stone can give key information about the urine parameters during the crystal growth. But the usual methods employed are slow, analyst dependent and the information obtained is poor. In the present work, the near infrared (NIR)-hyperspectral imaging technique was used for the analysis of 215 samples of kidney stones, including the main types usually found and their mixtures. The NIR reflectance spectra of the analyzed stones showed significant differences that were used for their classification. To do so, a method was created by the use of artificial neural networks, which showed a probability higher than 90% for right classification of the stones. The promising results, robust methodology, and the fast analytical process, without the need of an expert assistance, lead to an easy implementation at the clinical laboratories, offering the urologist a rapid diagnosis that shall contribute to minimize urolithiasis recidivism.

  5. Convergence of Godunov type methods for a conservation law with a spatially varying discontinuous flux function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimurthi; Mishra, Siddhartha; Gowda, G. D. Veerappa

    2007-09-01

    We deal with single conservation laws with a spatially varying and possibly discontinuous coefficient. This equation includes as a special case single conservation laws with conservative and possibly singular source terms. We extend the framework of optimal entropy solutions for these classes of equations based on a two-step approach. In the first step, an interface connection vector is used to define infinite classes of entropy solutions. We show that each of these classes of solutions is stable in L^1 . This allows for the possibility of choosing one of these classes of solutions based on the physics of the problem. In the second step, we define optimal entropy solutions based on the solution of a certain optimization problem at the discontinuities of the coefficient. This method leads to optimal entropy solutions that are consistent with physically observed solutions in two-phase flows in heterogeneous porous media. Another central aim of this paper is to develop suitable numerical schemes for these equations. We develop and analyze a set of Godunov type finite volume methods that are based on exact solutions of the corresponding Riemann problem. Numerical experiments are shown comparing the performance of these schemes on a set of test problems.

  6. Optimal protein extraction methods from diverse sample types for protein profiling by using Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2DE).

    PubMed

    Tan, A A; Azman, S N; Abdul Rani, N R; Kua, B C; Sasidharan, S; Kiew, L V; Othman, N; Noordin, R; Chen, Y

    2011-12-01

    There is a great diversity of protein samples types and origins, therefore the optimal procedure for each sample type must be determined empirically. In order to obtain a reproducible and complete sample presentation which view as many proteins as possible on the desired 2DE gel, it is critical to perform additional sample preparation steps to improve the quality of the final results, yet without selectively losing the proteins. To address this, we developed a general method that is suitable for diverse sample types based on phenolchloroform extraction method (represented by TRI reagent). This method was found to yield good results when used to analyze human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), Vibrio cholerae, Cryptocaryon irritans cyst and liver abscess fat tissue. These types represent cell line, bacteria, parasite cyst and pus respectively. For each type of samples, several attempts were made to methodically compare protein isolation methods using TRI-reagent Kit, EasyBlue Kit, PRO-PREP™ Protein Extraction Solution and lysis buffer. The most useful protocol allows the extraction and separation of a wide diversity of protein samples that is reproducible among repeated experiments. Our results demonstrated that the modified TRI-reagent Kit had the highest protein yield as well as the greatest number of total proteins spots count for all type of samples. Distinctive differences in spot patterns were also observed in the 2DE gel of different extraction methods used for each type of sample. PMID:22433892

  7. A multi-wavelength classification method for polar stratospheric cloud types using infrared limb spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, Reinhold; Hoffmann, Lars; Höpfner, Michael; Griessbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf; Pitts, Michael C.; Orr, Andrew M. W.; Riese, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument on board the ESA Envisat satellite operated from July 2002 until April 2012. The infrared limb emission measurements represent a unique dataset of daytime and night-time observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) up to both poles. Cloud detection sensitivity is comparable to space-borne lidars, and it is possible to classify different cloud types from the spectral measurements in different atmospheric windows regions. Here we present a new infrared PSC classification scheme based on the combination of a well-established two-colour ratio method and multiple 2-D brightness temperature difference probability density functions. The method is a simple probabilistic classifier based on Bayes' theorem with a strong independence assumption. The method has been tested in conjunction with a database of radiative transfer model calculations of realistic PSC particle size distributions, geometries, and composition. The Bayesian classifier distinguishes between solid particles of ice and nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), as well as liquid droplets of super-cooled ternary solution (STS). The classification results are compared to coincident measurements from the space-borne lidar Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument over the temporal overlap of both satellite missions (June 2006-March 2012). Both datasets show a good agreement for the specific PSC classes, although the viewing geometries and the vertical and horizontal resolution are quite different. Discrepancies are observed between the CALIOP and the MIPAS ice class. The Bayesian classifier for MIPAS identifies substantially more ice clouds in the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex than CALIOP. This disagreement is attributed in part to the difference in the sensitivity on mixed-type clouds. Ice seems to dominate the spectral behaviour in the limb infrared spectra and may cause an overestimation in ice occurrence

  8. [Is intensive functional insulin therapy the method of choice in newly diagnosed type-1 diabetes mellitus?].

    PubMed

    Araszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Zozulińska, Dorota; Trepińska, Magdalena; Wierusz-Wysocka, Bogna

    2004-11-01

    The aim of our study was a prospective evaluation of type 1 diabetic patients treated with intensive insulin therapy. We recruited 100 patients (62 males and 38 females) aged 24.3+/-6.2 years with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. The mean observation period was 5.2+/-1.5 years. Parameters of diabetes metabolic balance, occurrence of chronic complications and patients' knowledge about the disease and the methods of its treatment were evaluated. 68% of the patients controlled their glycaemia regularly before main meals and 53% of them had a diabetic diary. In the knowledge test 20% of the subjects reached < or = 11 points, 62% 11-17 points and 18% > 17 points (mean 14.4+/-3.2 points of maximal 20 to achieve). The mean result in the questionnaire of knowledge about the disease was 28.1+/-4.9 points. Fasting glycaemia was 7.2+/-3.4 mmol/l, 2h postprandial glycaemia 9.4+/-3.6 mmol/l, HbA1c 7.5+/-1.4%, the mean C-peptide level 0.9+/-0.4 ng/ml and the number of hypoglycaemic episodes was 6/individual/month. We observed a statistically significant correlation between the level of patients' knowledge and HbA1c (r=-0.31, p<0.05). Retinopathy and nephropathy were detected in 8 (9%) and 6 (6.8%) subjects respectively. The risk of microangiopathy was connected with low knowledge (RR: 5.67; 95% CI: 2.02-15.82, p<0.0002). The study confirms the crucial role of intensive insulin therapy and systematic patients' education concerning the disease in maintaining a good metabolic control and thus reducing the risk of diabetic vascular complications. PMID:15754632

  9. Illustration of a Common Framework for Relating Multiple Typing Methods by Application to Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes†

    PubMed Central

    Carriço, J. A.; Silva-Costa, C.; Melo-Cristino, J.; Pinto, F. R.; de Lencastre, H.; Almeida, J. S.; Ramirez, M.

    2006-01-01

    The studies that correlate the results obtained by different typing methodologies rely solely on qualitative comparisons of the groups defined by each methodology. We propose a framework of measures for the quantitative assessment of correspondences between different typing methods as a first step to the global mapping of type equivalences. A collection of 325 macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolates associated with pharyngitis cases in Portugal was used to benchmark the proposed measures. All isolates were characterized by macrolide resistance phenotyping, T serotyping, emm sequence typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), using SmaI or Cfr9I and SfiI. A subset of 41 isolates, representing each PFGE cluster, was also characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The application of Adjusted Rand and Wallace indices allowed the evaluation of the strength and the directionality of the correspondences between the various typing methods and showed that if PFGE or MLST data are available one can confidently predict the emm type (Wallace coefficients of 0.952 for both methods). In contrast, emm typing was a poor predictor of PFGE cluster or MLST sequence type (Wallace coefficients of 0.803 and 0.655, respectively). This was confirmed by the analysis of the larger data set available from http://spyogenes.mlst.net and underscores the necessity of performing PFGE or MLST to unambiguously define clones in S. pyogenes. PMID:16825375

  10. Noninvasive method to estimate anaerobic threshold in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While several studies have identified the anaerobic threshold (AT) through the responses of blood lactate, ventilation and blood glucose others have suggested the response of the heart rate variability (HRV) as a method to identify the AT in young healthy individuals. However, the validity of HRV in estimating the lactate threshold (LT) and ventilatory threshold (VT) for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been investigated yet. Aim To analyze the possibility of identifying the heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) by considering the responses of parasympathetic indicators during incremental exercise test in type 2 diabetics subjects (T2D) and non diabetics individuals (ND). Methods Nine T2D (55.6 ± 5.7 years, 83.4 ± 26.6 kg, 30.9 ± 5.2 kg.m2(-1)) and ten ND (50.8 ± 5.1 years, 76.2 ± 14.3 kg, 26.5 ± 3.8 kg.m2(-1)) underwent to an incremental exercise test (IT) on a cycle ergometer. Heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and expired gas concentrations were measured at the end of each stage. HRVT was identified through the responses of root mean square successive difference between adjacent R-R intervals (RMSSD) and standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability (SD1) by considering the last 60 s of each incremental stage, and were known as HRVT by RMSSD and SD1 (HRVT-RMSSD and HRVT-SD1), respectively. Results No differences were observed within groups for the exercise intensities corresponding to LT, VT, HRVT-RMSSD and HHVT-SD1. Furthermore, a strong relationship were verified among the studied parameters both for T2D (r = 0.68 to 0.87) and ND (r = 0.91 to 0.98) and the Bland & Altman technique confirmed the agreement among them. Conclusion The HRVT identification by the proposed autonomic indicators (SD1 and RMSSD) were demonstrated to be valid to estimate the LT and VT for both T2D and ND. PMID:21226946

  11. A novel quantitative method for diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy assessment in type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chon, Ki H; Yang, Bufan; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Siu, Kin L; Rolle, Marsha; Brink, Peter; Birzgalis, Aija; Moore, Leon C

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we used a sensitive and noninvasive computational method to assess diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) from pulse oximeter (photoplethysmographic; PPG) recordings from mice. The method, which could be easily applied to humans, is based on principal dynamic mode (PDM) analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Unlike the power spectral density, PDM has been shown to be able to separately identify the activities of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems without pharmacological intervention. HRV parameters were measured by processing PPG signals from conscious 1.5- to 5-month-old C57/BL6 control mice and in Akita mice, a model of insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes, and compared with the gold-standard Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The PDM results indicate significant cardiac autonomic impairment in the diabetic mice in comparison to the controls. When tail-cuff PPG recordings were collected and analyzed starting from 1.5 months of age in both C57/Bl6 controls and Akita mice, onset of DCAN was seen at 3 months in the Akita mice, which persisted up to the termination of the recording at 5 months. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses also showed a reduction in nerve density in Akita mice at 3 and 4 months as compared to the control mice, thus, corroborating our PDM data analysis of HRV records. Western blot analysis of autonomic nerve proteins corroborated the PPG-based HRV analysis via the PDM approach. In contrast, traditional HRV analysis (based on either the power spectral density or time-domain measures) failed to detect the nerve rarefaction. PMID:25097056

  12. A Novel Quantitative Method for Diabetic Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Assessment in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bufan; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F.; Siu, Kin L.; Rolle, Marsha; Brink, Peter; Birzgalis, Aija; Moore, Leon C.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we used a sensitive and noninvasive computational method to assess diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) from pulse oximeter (photoplethysmographic; PPG) recordings from mice. The method, which could be easily applied to humans, is based on principal dynamic mode (PDM) analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Unlike the power spectral density, PDM has been shown to be able to separately identify the activities of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems without pharmacological intervention. HRV parameters were measured by processing PPG signals from conscious 1.5- to 5-month-old C57/BL6 control mice and in Akita mice, a model of insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes, and compared with the gold-standard Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The PDM results indicate significant cardiac autonomic impairment in the diabetic mice in comparison to the controls. When tail-cuff PPG recordings were collected and analyzed starting from 1.5 months of age in both C57/Bl6 controls and Akita mice, onset of DCAN was seen at 3 months in the Akita mice, which persisted up to the termination of the recording at 5 months. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses also showed a reduction in nerve density in Akita mice at 3 and 4 months as compared to the control mice, thus, corroborating our PDM data analysis of HRV records. Western blot analysis of autonomic nerve proteins corroborated the PPG-based HRV analysis via the PDM approach. In contrast, traditional HRV analysis (based on either the power spectral density or time-domain measures) failed to detect the nerve rarefaction. PMID:25097056

  13. Effects of Carbohydrate Counting Method on Metabolic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gökşen, Damla; Atik Altınok, Yasemin; Özen, Samim; Demir, Günay; Darcan, Şükran

    2014-01-01

    Ob­jec­ti­ve: Medical nutritional therapy is important for glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Carbohydrate (carb) counting, which is a more flexible nutritional method, has become popular in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carb counting on metabolic control, body measurements and serum lipid levels in children and adolescents with T1DM. Methods: T1DM patients aged 7-18 years and receiving flexible insulin therapy were divided into carb counting (n=52) and control (n=32) groups and were followed for 2 years in this randomized, controlled study. Demographic characteristics, body measurements, insulin requirements, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum lipid levels at baseline and at follow-up were evaluated. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in mean HbA1c values in the year preceding the study or in age, gender, duration of diabetes, puberty stage, total daily insulin dose, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) and serum lipid values. While there were no differences in BMI SDS, daily insulin requirement, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride values between the two groups (p>0.05) during the follow-up, annual mean HbA1c levels of the 2nd year were significantly lower in the carb counting group (p=0.010). The mean values of high-density lipoprotein were also significantly higher in the first and 2nd years in the carb counting group (p=0.02 and p=0.043, respectively). Conclusion: Carb counting may provide good metabolic control in children and adolescents with T1DM without causing any increase in weight or in insulin requirements. PMID:24932599

  14. Simulation method for transmission-type radio-frequency single-electron transistor (RF-SET) operation by SPICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun Seop; Oh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hee Tae; Kim, Yong Gyu; Son, Seung Hun; Choi, Bum Ho; Hwang, Sung Woo; Ahn, Doyel

    2009-02-01

    An efficient simulation method for transmission-type radio-frequency single-electron transistors (RF-SETs) is developed. By introducing equivalent circuits of propagating microwaves through RF cables, we solve the master equation for RF-SETs self-consistently by using the conventional circuit simulator SPICE together with the SET current model. By examining transmitted waves from the transmission-type RF-SET, we show that the developed method successfully reproduces the numerical reference methods (calculated self- consistently). We also show that our method provides simple and fast ways to simulate and analyze RF-SETs even under complicated circuit geometry and in high frequencies over GHz. Based on the developed simulation method, we introduce the modulation technique to estimate the charge sensitivity of the transmission-type RF-SET.

  15. Using Qualitative Methods to Evaluate a Family Behavioral Intervention for Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Sweenie, Rachel; Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Holmes, Clarissa; Streisand, Randi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objectives of this study were to qualitatively evaluate a dyadic adolescent-parent type 1 diabetes (T1D) program developed to prevent deterioration in diabetes care among adolescents with T1D and provide recommendations for program refinement. Method Thirteen adolescent-parent dyads who participated in the larger RCT, the TeamWork Project, were interviewed regarding their perceptions of their participation in the program and current T1D challenges. Interviews were transcribed and coded to establish broad themes. Results Adolescents and parents thought the TeamWork Project sessions were helpful and taught them new information. Five themes catalog findings from the qualitative interviews: TeamWork content, TeamWork structure, transition of responsibility, current and future challenges, and future intervention considerations. Discussion Addressing T1D challenges as a parent-adolescent dyad via a behavioral clinic program is helpful to families during adolescence. Findings highlight the utility of qualitative evaluation to tailor interventions for the unique challenges related to pediatric chronic illness. PMID:24269281

  16. A comparison of three therapy methods for children with different types of developmental phonological disorder.

    PubMed

    Dodd, B; Bradford, A

    2000-01-01

    Treatment case studies of three children whose speech was characterized by non-developmental errors are described. Three therapy methods were trialed with each child: phonological contrast; core vocabulary and PROMPT. The accuracy and intelligibility of the children's connected speech improved throughout the course of the programme. Intervention that focused on teaching a rule about the contrastive use of phonemes was most successful for a child who consistently made non-developmental errors. Children making inconsistent errors received most benefit from the core vocabulary approach that markedly enhanced consistency of production. However, once consistency was established, one child benefited from phonological contrast therapy. While the results of the study should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size and the cumulative effects of intervention, the findings suggest that different parts of a child's phonological and phonetic system may respond to various types of treatment approaches that target different aspects of speech production. The implication drawn is that just as no single treatment approach is appropriate for all children with disordered phonology, management of some children may involve selecting and sequencing a range of different approaches. PMID:10912251

  17. Godunov-type numerical methods for a model of granular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimurthi, A.; Aggarwal, Aekta; Veerappa Gowda, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze finite volume Godunov type methods based on discontinuous flux for a 2 × 2 system of non-linear partial differential equations proposed by Hadeler and Kuttler to model the dynamics of growing sandpiles generated by a vertical source on a flat bounded rectangular table. The scheme is made well-balanced by modifying the flux function locally by including source term as a part of the convection term. Its extension to multi-dimensions is not straightforward for which an approach has been introduced here based on Transport Rays. This approach is compared with another approach for inclusion of source term which uses the idea of inverting the divergence operator relying on the Curl-free component of the Helmholtz decomposition of the source term. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme for both unsteady and steady state calculations and to make comparisons with the previously studied finite difference and semi-Lagrangian approaches by Falcone and Finzi Vita.

  18. Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method using a new type of WENO limiters on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhong, Xinghui; Shu, Chi-Wang; Qiu, Jianxian

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we generalize a new type of limiters based on the weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite volume methodology for the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) methods solving nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws, which were recently developed in [32] for structured meshes, to two-dimensional unstructured triangular meshes. The key idea of such limiters is to use the entire polynomials of the DG solutions from the troubled cell and its immediate neighboring cells, and then apply the classical WENO procedure to form a convex combination of these polynomials based on smoothness indicators and nonlinear weights, with suitable adjustments to guarantee conservation. The main advantage of this new limiter is its simplicity in implementation, especially for the unstructured meshes considered in this paper, as only information from immediate neighbors is needed and the usage of complicated geometric information of the meshes is largely avoided. Numerical results for both scalar equations and Euler systems of compressible gas dynamics are provided to illustrate the good performance of this procedure.

  19. Influence of starting zeolite on synthesis of RUT type zeolite by interzeolite conversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itakura, Masaya; Ota, Kai; Shibata, Shohei; Inoue, Takayuki; Ide, Yusuke; Sadakane, Masahiro; Sano, Tsuneji

    2011-01-01

    In this study, hydrothermal conversions of *BEA and FAU type zeolites using various structure-directing agents were carried out. Highly crystalline and pure RUT type zeolites were obtained from both zeolites in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide. There were no major differences between the characteristics of the RUT type zeolites obtained from the two starting zeolites. However, the Si/Al ratio and the crystallization rate of the RUT type zeolites were strongly dependent on both the framework structure and the Si/Al ratio of the starting zeolite. That is, the crystallization rate of the RUT type zeolite from the *BEA type zeolite did not depend on the Si/Al ratio of the starting *BEA type zeolite, whereas the crystallization rate of the RUT type zeolite from the FAU type zeolite was dependent on the Si/Al ratio of the starting FAU type zeolite. This suggests that the chemical structure and the concentration of locally ordered aluminosilicate species produced by the decomposition/dissolution of the starting zeolite can be altered by changing the framework structure of the zeolite.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with food poisoning outbreaks in France: comparison of different molecular typing methods, including MLVA

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Sophie; Felix, Benjamin; Vingadassalon, Noémie; Grout, Joël; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Guillier, Laurent; Brisabois, Anne; Auvray, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks (SFPOs) are frequently reported in France. However, most of them remain unconfirmed, highlighting a need for a better characterization of isolated strains. Here we analyzed the genetic diversity of 112 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 76 distinct SFPOs that occurred in France over the last 30 years. We used a recently developed multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) protocol and compared this method with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing and carriage of genes (se genes) coding for 11 staphylococcal enterotoxins (i.e., SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI, SEJ, SEP, SER). The strains known to have an epidemiological association with one another had identical MLVA types, PFGE profiles, spa-types or se gene carriage. MLVA, PFGE and spa-typing divided 103 epidemiologically unrelated strains into 84, 80, and 50 types respectively demonstrating the high genetic diversity of S. aureus strains involved in SFPOs. Each MLVA type shared by more than one strain corresponded to a single spa-type except for one MLVA type represented by four strains that showed two different-but closely related-spa-types. The 87 enterotoxigenic strains were distributed across 68 distinct MLVA types that correlated all with se gene carriage except for four MLVA types. The most frequent se gene detected was sea, followed by seg and sei and the most frequently associated se genes were sea-seh and sea-sed-sej-ser. The discriminatory ability of MLVA was similar to that of PFGE and higher than that of spa-typing. This MLVA protocol was found to be compatible with high throughput analysis, and was also faster and less labor-intensive than PFGE. MLVA holds promise as a suitable method for investigating SFPOs and tracking the source of contamination in food processing facilities in real time. PMID:26441849

  1. Flatbed-type 3D display systems using integral imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Yuzo; Nagatani, Hiroyuki; Saishu, Tatsuo; Fukushima, Rieko; Taira, Kazuki

    2006-10-01

    We have developed prototypes of flatbed-type autostereoscopic display systems using one-dimensional integral imaging method. The integral imaging system reproduces light beams similar of those produced by a real object. Our display architecture is suitable for flatbed configurations because it has a large margin for viewing distance and angle and has continuous motion parallax. We have applied our technology to 15.4-inch displays. We realized horizontal resolution of 480 with 12 parallaxes due to adoption of mosaic pixel arrangement of the display panel. It allows viewers to see high quality autostereoscopic images. Viewing the display from angle allows the viewer to experience 3-D images that stand out several centimeters from the surface of the display. Mixed reality of virtual 3-D objects and real objects are also realized on a flatbed display. In seeking reproduction of natural 3-D images on the flatbed display, we developed proprietary software. The fast playback of the CG movie contents and real-time interaction are realized with the aid of a graphics card. Realization of the safety 3-D images to the human beings is very important. Therefore, we have measured the effects on the visual function and evaluated the biological effects. For example, the accommodation and convergence were measured at the same time. The various biological effects are also measured before and after the task of watching 3-D images. We have found that our displays show better results than those to a conventional stereoscopic display. The new technology opens up new areas of application for 3-D displays, including arcade games, e-learning, simulations of buildings and landscapes, and even 3-D menus in restaurants.

  2. A reddening-free method to estimate the 56Ni mass of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, S.; Leibundgut, B.; Spyromilio, J.; Blondin, S.

    2016-04-01

    The increase in the number of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has demonstrated that the population shows greater diversity than has been assumed in the past. The reasons (e.g. parent population, explosion mechanism) for this diversity remain largely unknown. We investigated a sample of SNe Ia near-infrared light curves and correlated the phase of the second maximum with the bolometric peak luminosity. The peak bolometric luminosity is related to the time of the second maximum (relative to the B light curve maximum) as follows: Lmax(1043 erg s-1) = (0.039 ± 0.004) × t2(J)(days) + (0.013 ± 0.106). 56Ni masses can be derived from the peak luminosity based on Arnett's rule, which states that the luminosity at maximum is equal to the instantaneous energy generated by the nickel decay. We checked this assumption against recent radiative-transfer calculations of Chandrasekhar-mass delayed detonation models and find this assumption is valid to within 10% in recent radiative-transfer calculations of Chandrasekhar-mass delayed detonation models. The Lmax vs. t2 relation is applied to a sample of 40 additional SNe Ia with significant reddening (E(B - V) > 0.1 mag), and a reddening-free bolometric luminosity function of SNe Ia is established. The method is tested with the 56Ni mass measurement from the direct observation of γ-rays in the heavily absorbed SN 2014J and found to be fully consistent. Super-Chandrasekhar-mass explosions, in particular SN 2007if, do not follow the relations between peak luminosity and second IR maximum. This may point to an additional energy source contributing at maximum light. The luminosity function of SNe Ia is constructed and is shown to be asymmetric with a tail of low-luminosity objects and a rather sharp high-luminosity cutoff, although it might be influenced by selection effects.

  3. Selection of method is crucial for the diagnosis of porcine circovirus type 2 associated reproductive failures.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mette S; Hjulsager, Charlotte K; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Haugegaard, Svend; Dupont, Kitt; Høgedal, Peter; Kunstmann, Lars; Larsen, Lars E

    2010-07-29

    During a 2-month period a newly repopulated Danish pig herd experienced an increase in numbers of stillborn and mummies, caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) associated reproductive failure. Based on recordings of data over time, the progression of the clinical outbreak was studied and the diagnostic value of different techniques was evaluated. Foetal hearts (38 cases and 13 controls) were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of PCV2; and total immunoglobulin G (IgG) was measured in pleura cavity fluid. PCV2 IHC was positive in 14/38 of the case foetuses, which were delivered during a 9 days period early in the outbreak. On the basis of the results obtained by IHC and PCR, the foetuses were divided into 3 categories: PCV2 negative; moderately positive (10(4) to 10(7) copies per 500 ng DNA); and massively positive for PCV2 (>10(7) copies per 500 ng DNA). All control- and IHC positive foetuses were included in the negative and massively positive groups, respectively. Ten case foetuses had elevated IgG levels, which did not correlate with the IHC or PCR results. Based on the clustering of the IHC positive foetuses, it is suggested that IHC only is suited for diagnosing acute stages of reproductive failure, whereas quantitative PCR can be used as a sensitive diagnostic method within a wider time span. It seems that IgG measurements are unpredictable as indication of intrauterine infection with PCV2. PMID:20097019

  4. A new type of descent conjugate gradient method with exact line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajar, Nurul; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd.; Jusoh, Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, conjugate gradient (CG) methods are impressive for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems. In this paper, a new CG method is proposed and analyzed. This new CG method satisfies descent condition and its global convergence is established using exact line search. Numerical results show that this new CG method substantially outperforms the previous CG methods. This new CG method is considered robust, efficient and provided faster and stable convergence.

  5. New PCR-Based Open Reading Frame Typing Method for Easy, Rapid, and Reliable Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii International Epidemic Clones without Performing Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Hosoba, Eriko; Matsui, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance issues have become a global health concern. The rapid identification of multidrug-resistant microbes, which depends on microbial genomic information, is essential for overcoming growing antimicrobial resistance challenges. However, genotyping methods, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), for identifying international epidemic clones of Acinetobacter baumannii are not easily performed as routine tests in ordinary clinical laboratories. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel genotyping method that can be performed in ordinary microbiology laboratories. Several open reading frames (ORFs) specific to certain bacterial genetic lineages or species, together with their unique distribution patterns on the chromosomes showing a good correlation with the results of MLST, were selected in A. baumannii and other Acinetobacter spp. by comparing their genomic data. The distribution patterns of the ORFs were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis after multiplex PCR amplification and digitized. A. baumannii sequence types (STs) corresponding to international clones I and II were successfully discriminated from other STs and Acinetobacter species by detecting the distribution patterns of their ORFs using the multiplex PCR developed here. Since bacterial STs can be easily expressed as digitized numeric data with plus (+) expressed as 1 and minus (−) expressed as 0, the results of the method can be easily compared with those obtained by different tests or laboratories. This PCR-based ORF typing (POT) method can easily and rapidly identify international epidemic clones of A. baumannii and differentiate this microbe from other Acinetobacter spp. Since this POT method is easy enough to be performed even in ordinary clinical laboratories, it would also contribute to daily infection control measures and surveillance. PMID:24899031

  6. Improvement of minority carrier life time in N-type monocrystalline Si by the Czochralski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Sungsun; Pang, Ilsun; Kim, Jaemin; Kim, Kwanghun

    2016-07-01

    The installation amount of solar power plants increases every year. Multi-crystalline Si solar cells comprise a large share of the market of solar power plants. Multi-crystalline and single-crystalline Si solar cells are competing against one another in the market. Many single-crystalline companies are trying to develop and produce n-type solar cells with higher cell efficiency than that of p-type. In n-type wafers with high cell efficiency, wafer quality has become increasingly important. In order to make ingots with higher MCLT, the effects of both poly types related to metal impurities and pull speeds related to vacancy concentration on minority carrier life time were studied. In the final part of ingots, poly types related to the metal impurities are a dominant factor on MCLT. In the initial part of ingots, pull speeds related to vacancy concentration are a dominant factor on MCLT. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Typing multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: conflicting epidemiological data produced by genotypic and phenotypic methods clarified by phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, M; Givney, R; Pegler, M; Vickery, A; Funnell, G

    1996-01-01

    An outbreak of an unusual tetracycline-sensitive, rifampicin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain at a large teaching hospital was investigated. Two typing methods, phage typing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (RFLP-PFGE), gave conflicting results which were clarified by phylogenetic analysis. Phage typing identified all the "epidemic-associated" strains as identical, while RFLP-PFGE further divided these strains into four pulsotypes. Phylogenetic analysis showed these four pulsotypes were related genetically and also recognized a second strain of MRSA causing a continuing cross-infection problem. Variation in the RFLP-PFGE pattern was shown to occur following lysogenization of phage-sensitive MRSA. These results indicate that in analyzing outbreaks caused by subgroups of clonal organisms like MRSA, it is necessary to use at least two typing methods and that conflicts between these could be resolved by phylogenetic analysis. PMID:8789023

  8. On conjugate gradient type methods and polynomial preconditioners for a class of complex non-Hermitian matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland

    1988-01-01

    Conjugate gradient type methods are considered for the solution of large linear systems Ax = b with complex coefficient matrices of the type A = T + i(sigma)I where T is Hermitian and sigma, a real scalar. Three different conjugate gradient type approaches with iterates defined by a minimal residual property, a Galerkin type condition, and an Euclidian error minimization, respectively, are investigated. In particular, numerically stable implementations based on the ideas behind Paige and Saunder's SYMMLQ and MINRES for real symmetric matrices are proposed. Error bounds for all three methods are derived. It is shown how the special shift structure of A can be preserved by using polynomial preconditioning. Results on the optimal choice of the polynomial preconditioner are given. Also, some numerical experiments for matrices arising from finite difference approximations to the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  9. First web space post-burn contracture types: contracture elimination methods.

    PubMed

    Grishkevich, Viktor M

    2011-03-01

    First web space adduction contractures are a common consequence of hand burns. Many reconstructive techniques are used and investigation for more effective methods continues. Effective hand reconstruction usually considers anatomy as its foundation. Based on the experience of over 500 web space contracture elimination cases, three anatomical types of thumb adduction contractures were identified: edge, medial and total. Edge contractures (80% of all thumb adduction contractures) are caused by a fold in which only one sheet is scarred, either the palmar or dorsal surface. The contraction is caused by a trapeze-shaped length deficiency of the scar sheet, which has a surface surplus in width. Reconstruction consists of surface deficiency compensation with trapezoid flap prepared from the non-scarred side and skin-fat tissues of the web space. In most cases, the small scar-fat trapezoid flaps should be prepared from the non-scarred side to cover the donor wounds on both sides of the main flap. Medial contractures (10% of thumb adduction contractures) are caused by the fold, both sheets of which are scarred and have trapeze-shaped surface deficiency in length and surplus in width. Both fold sheets are converted into one or several pairs of trapezoid scar-fat flaps by radial incisions. The oppositely located flaps are transposed towards each other. As a result of the counter flaps transposition, the contracture is eliminated; the web space's shape and depth are restored by the use of flaps alone or in combination with skin grafting. The trapeze-flap plasty is very simple and effective with the length gain of up to 100-200%. Neither flap loss nor re-contracture occurs. Total contractures (about 10% of all) have no fold. Reconstruction consists of the creation of the central zone of the first web space depth with the rectangular subdermal pedicle flap; the wounds on both sides of the flap are skin grafted. The flap sustains normal web depth and prevents the contracture

  10. A SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR EVALUATING THE LIQUEFACTION OF SANDY SOIL CONFINED BY A LATTICE-TYPE DEEP MIXING WALL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Akira; Shamoto, Yasuhiro; Jang, Gjiho; Kimura, Takumi

    A simplified method for evaluating the liquefaction of sandy soil confined by a lattice-type deep mixing wall is proposed in this paper. The method calculates the accumulative excess pore water pressure from the initial shear strain using an equivalent shear-stiffness model by homogenization method. The method uses only parameters that are clear in their physical meaning, and can evaluate not only the effect of variations in the external forces, but also the physical properties of the ground. This paper first explains the proposed idea and then presents a specific calculation procedure using an actual site plan.

  11. Modeling of Non-equilibrium Processes in Oil Trunk Pipeline Using Godunov Type Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumskoi, S. I.; Sverchkov, A. M.

    The Article presents the numerical method of solving the system of one-dimensional non-stationary equations describing oil movement in the oil pipeline. The method is aimed at modeling the non-equilibrium and transitional processes in the oil pipelines in the normal and emergency modes. This new developed method can be applied for relaxation non-equilibrium flow case, that can't be modeling using another methods. Also this method is aimed at modeling the non-equilibrium and transitional processes in the liquefied hydrocarbon pipelines in the normal and emergency modes. Phase non-equilibrium flow is considered for boiling liquids transporting pipeline.

  12. A comparison of three types of pulse tube refrigerators - New methods for reaching 60 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radebaugh, Ray; Zimmerman, James; Smith, David R.; Louie, Beverly

    1986-01-01

    The three types of pulse tube refrigerator, namely the resonant, basic, and orifice designs, are compared with each other and with such common refrigerators as the Joule-Thomson and Stirling types, using an apparatus able to measure their intrinsic behavior from 30 to 300 K. Orifice pulse tubes are found capable of reaching 60 K temperature drops in a single stage. Additional advantages of the type are (1) a single, room-temperature moving part, (2) the use of moderate pressures and pressure ratios, (3) good intrinsic efficiency, and (4) the ability to operate several stages from the same pressure wave generator. The low refrigeration rate/unit mass flow means, however, that better regenerator units are required.

  13. Strain typing of Zygosaccharomyces yeast species using a single molecular method based on polymorphism of the intergenic spacer region (IGS).

    PubMed

    Wrent, Petra; Rivas, Eva-María; Peinado, José M; de Silóniz, María-Isabel

    2010-08-15

    Unlike previously reported methods that need a combination of several typing techniques, we have developed a single method for strain typing of the Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Z. mellis and Z. rouxii spoilage species. Strains belonging to other species have also been included for comparison. We have demonstrated that the IGS-PCR RFLP method has a high discriminative power. Considering the three endonucleases used in this work, we have obtained a variability of 100% for Z. mellis and Z. rouxii strains and up to 70% for Z. bailii. We have also detected two misidentified Z. mellis strains (CBS 711 and CBS 7412) which have RFLP patterns with a set of bands characteristic of Z. rouxii strains. Sequencing of 26S rDNA D1/D2 domains and the 5.8-ITS rDNA region confirmed these strains as Z. rouxii. The method also groups three certified hybrid strains of Zygosaccharomyces in a separate cluster. PMID:20619910

  14. Simulation of magnetization process of Pure-type superconductor magnet undulator based on T-method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deri, Yi; Kawaguchi, Hideki; Tsuchimoto, Masanori; Tanaka, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    For the next generation Free Electron Laser, Pure-type undulator made of high Tc superconductors (HTSs) was considered to achieve a small size and high intensity magnetic field undulator. In general, it is very difficult to adjust the undulator magnet alignment after the HTS magnetization since the entire undulator is installed inside a cryostat. The appropriate HTS alignment has to be determined in the design stage. This paper presents the development of a numerical simulation code for magnetization process of the Pure-type HTS undulator to assist the design of the optimal size and alignment of the HTS magnets.

  15. Carotenoid profiling from 27 types of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) with different colors, shapes, and cultivation methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; An, Chul Geon; Park, Jong-Suk; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Suna

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we investigated carotenoid profiles and contents from 27 types of paprika with different colors (red, orange, and yellow), shapes (blocky and conical), and cultivation methods (soil and soilless). We simultaneously analyzed 12 kinds of carotenoids using UPLC equipped with an HSS T3 column for 30 min, and we identified six kinds of carotenoids in red paprika and nine types in orange and yellow paprika. Zeaxanthin concentrations in orange paprika were in the range of 85.06±23.37-151.39±5.94 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), which shows that orange paprika is a great source of zeaxanthin. Generally, red paprika is a great source of capsanthin. However, a new cultivar, 'Mini Goggal Red', contained large amounts of zeaxanthin (121.41±30.10 mg/100 g dw) even though its visible color is red. This is very meaningful considering that consumers have a preference for red color and the potent functional value of zeaxanthin. Carotenoid profiles and concentrations in blocky and conical type paprika were not significantly different in red paprika except the 'Mini Goggal Red' cultivar and yellow paprika. Blocky type orange paprika contains plenty of zeaxanthin, unlike conical type orange paprika. Three new cultivars of the conical type were cultivated in both soil culture and soilless culture in the same province, and carotenoid profiles and concentrations were similar, showing that both cultivations methods can be used. PMID:26868549

  16. Method for the typing of Clostridium difficile based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tabaqchali, S.; O'Farrell, S.; Holland, D.; Silman, R.

    1986-01-01

    A typing method for Clostridium difficile based on the incorporation of (/sup 35/S)methionine into cellular proteins, their separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their visualization by autoradiography is described. On analysis of the radiolabeled-protein profiles, nine distinct groups were observed (A to E and W to Z). The method, which is simple, reproducible, and readily expandable, has been applied in epidemiological studies to demonstrate cross-infection and hospital acquisition of C. difficile.

  17. A Laboratory Exercise to Determine Human ABO Blood Type by Noninvasive Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael P.; Detzel, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and their association with diseases and nondisease phenotypes is of growing importance in human biology studies. In this laboratory exercise, students determine the genetic basis for their ABO blood type; however, no blood is drawn. Students isolate genomic DNA from buccal mucosa cells that are present…

  18. The Optimal Conditions for Form-Focused Instruction: Method, Target Complexity, and Types of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-eun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates optimal conditions for form-focused instruction (FFI) by considering effects of internal (i.e., timing and types of FFI) and external (i.e., complexity and familiarity) variables of FFI when it is offered within a primarily meaning-focused context of adult second language (L2) learning. Ninety-two Korean-speaking…

  19. Many Tests of Significance: New Methods for Controlling Type I Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keselman, H. J.; Miller, Charles W.; Holland, Burt

    2011-01-01

    There have been many discussions of how Type I errors should be controlled when many hypotheses are tested (e.g., all possible comparisons of means, correlations, proportions, the coefficients in hierarchical models, etc.). By and large, researchers have adopted familywise (FWER) control, though this practice certainly is not universal. Familywise…

  20. An instrumental method to identify electric charge types with a simple device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isik, Hakan

    2015-07-01

    In this study, an easy and enjoyable activity to determine the type of electric charge is presented, using a readymade electronic test screw. A four-way usage of the tester is explained with an electroscope. In the activity, ebonite and glass rods are negatively and positively charged by rubbing with paper sheets, respectively.

  1. Flexible n-Type High-Performance Thermoelectric Thin Films of Poly(nickel-ethylenetetrathiolate) Prepared by an Electrochemical Method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanhui; Qiu, Lin; Tang, Liangpo; Geng, Hua; Wang, Hanfu; Zhang, Fengjiao; Huang, Dazhen; Xu, Wei; Yue, Peng; Guan, Ying-Shi; Jiao, Fei; Sun, Yimeng; Tang, Dawei; Di, Chong-An; Yi, Yuanping; Zhu, Daoben

    2016-05-01

    Flexible thin films of poly(nickel-ethylenetetrathiolate) prepared by an electrochemical method display promising n-type thermoelectric properties with the highest ZT value up to 0.3 at room temperature. Coexistence of high electrical conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient in this coordination polymer is attributed to its degenerate narrow-bandgap semiconductor behavior. PMID:26928813

  2. On the Iterative Methods of Linearization, Decrease of Order and Dimension of the Karman-Type PDEs

    PubMed Central

    Krysko, A. V.; Awrejcewicz, J.; Pavlov, S. P.; Zhigalov, M. V.; Krysko, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    Iterative methods to achieve a suitable linearization as well as a decrease of the order and dimension of nonlinear partial differential equations of the eighth order into the biharmonic and Poisson-type differential equations with their simultaneous linearization are proposed in this work. Validity and reliability of the obtained results are discussed using computer programs developed by the authors. PMID:24757437

  3. Type analysis of the oligosaccharide chains on microheterogeneous components of bovine pancreatic DNAase by the lectin-nitrocellulose sheet method.

    PubMed Central

    Kijimoto-Ochiai, S; Katagiri, Y U; Hatae, T; Okuyama, H

    1989-01-01

    The oligosaccharide chains of microheterogeneous bovine pancreatic DNAases were characterized by the lectin-nitrocellulose sheet method. The active fractions of the DNAases from column chromatography showed four major and several minor spots on a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel. They were transferred on to nitrocellulose sheets and treated with glycosidases (neuraminidase, endo-beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase H or F, or peptide N-glycosidase F) and treated with peroxidase-coupled lectins (concanavalin A, Ricinus communis agglutinin or wheat-germ agglutinin). From the results, the most probable oligosaccharide types were proposed to be as follows: the four major spots contained components which had high-mannose type or hybrid-type oligosaccharides, such as those susceptible to endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. In addition, spot 1 contained a complex-type biantennary oligosaccharide without sialic acid and spot 3 contained a tri- or tetra-antennary complex-type oligosaccharide with sialic acid. The component corresponding to spot 2 had a hybrid-type oligosaccharide chain with a 'bisecting' acetylglucosamine, linked 1-4 to the beta-mannose residue of the trimannosyl core, and the component corresponding to spot 4 had a high-mannose-type oligosaccharide chain. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2920025

  4. Mathematics Learning with Multiple Solution Methods: Effects of Types of Solutions and Learners' Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Große, Cornelia S.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly suggested to mathematics teachers to present learners different methods in order to solve one problem. This so-called "learning with multiple solution methods" is also recommended from a psychological point of view. However, existing research leaves many questions unanswered, particularly concerning the effects of…

  5. Effects of Learning Method and Word Type on Acquiring Vocabulary in an Unfamiliar Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotto, Lorella; de Groot, M. B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the roles of learning method, word frequency, and cognate status in the learning of 80 Italian words by 56 adult Dutch learners previously unfamiliar with Italian. Two learning methods were contrasted: word learning, where the Italian word was presented with its translation in Dutch, and picture learning, where it was presented with a…

  6. The development of a normalization method for comparing nerve regeneration effectiveness among different graft types

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei; DeVince, Jeffrey; Green, Gabriella; Shah, Munish B.; Johns, Michael S.; Meng, Yan; Yu, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    The inability to compare directly different nerve grafts has been a significant factor hindering the advance of nerve graft development. Due to the abundance of variables that exist in nerve graft construction and multiple assessment types, there has been limited success in comparing nerve graft effectiveness among experiments. Using mathematical techniques on nerve conduction velocity (NCV) autograft data, a normalization function was empirically derived that normalizes differences in gap lengths. Further analysis allowed for the development of the Relative Regeneration Ratio (RRR). The RRR function allows researchers to directly compare nerve graft results based on the NCV data from their respective studies as long as the data was collected at the same post-operation time. This function also allows for comparisons between grafts tested at different gap lengths. Initial testing of this RRR function provided confidence that the function is accurate for a continuum of gap lengths and different nerve graft types. PMID:24118184

  7. Invader plus method detects herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid and simultaneously differentiates types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Allawi, Hatim T; Li, Haijing; Sander, Tamara; Aslanukov, Azamat; Lyamichev, Victor I; Blackman, Amondrea; Elagin, Slava; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2006-09-01

    We report here on the development and validation of a prototype Invader Plus method for the qualitative detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The method combines PCR and Invader techniques in a single, closed-tube, continuous-reaction format that gives an analytical sensitivity of approximately 10 copies per reaction. The clinical sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 98.6%, respectively, when the results of the method were validated against the results obtained with a PCR colorimetric microtiter plate system by use of clinical CSF specimens. PMID:16954297

  8. A method for interface shape control during Bridgman type crystal growth of HgCdTe alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for interface shape control of Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys during Bridgman-type crystal growth. The authors have used this method for several years to obtain the flat or convex interface shapes required for simultaneously reducing radial compositional variations and crystal defects. The method turns to advantage the thick-walled, fused-silica ampules required for growing these alloys. A proper combination of furnace geometry (two isothermal zones separated by a thin barrier), upper- and lower-zone temperatures, and growth rate is required. Examples of results are reported.

  9. Laryngeal cleft type I: a novel method of repair using Bioplastique.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, S; Pothier, D; Philpott, J; Sengupta, P; Frosh, A

    2004-08-01

    The authors report a novel treatment of a case of type I laryngeal cleft diagnosed in an adult. They describe a technique of endoscopic obliteration of the posterior commissure defect. Initially, a test implant of starch and adrenaline was used, followed by permanent staged injections of Bioplastique to the posterior commissure. This rare congenital anomaly usually presents in childhood but late presentation should be considered when adults present with lifelong dysphonia especially when associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. PMID:15453945

  10. On Differential form Method to Find Lie Symmetries of two Types of Toda Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Qi; Tian, Shou-Fu

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate Lie symmetries of the (1 + 1)-dimensional celebrated Toda lattice and the (2 + 1)-dimensional modified semidiscrete Toda lattice by using the extended Harrison and Estabrook's geometric approach. Two closed ideals written in terms of a set of differential forms are constructed for Toda lattices. Moreover, commutation relations of a Kac-Moody-Virasoro type Lie algebra are obtained by direct computation.