Lanigan, Richard L.
For most of the 20th century, Roman Jakobson's name will have been synonymous with the definition of communication as a human science, i.e., communicology. Jakobson is the modern source of most of what communication scholars theorize about and practice as human communication, and he will be the source of how communication scholars shall come to…
Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.
Every language has some way of reporting what someone else has said. To express what Jakobson [Jakobson, R., 1990. "Shifters, categories, and the Russian verb. Selected writings". "Word and Language". Mouton, The Hague, Paris, pp. 130-153] called "speech within speech", the speaker can use their own words, recasting the original text as their own,…
This collection of 14 papers and articles by Roman Jakobson contains works written and published between 1931 and 1970 which deal either with global aspects of language or with specific grammatical issues. The collection emphasizes Jakobson's concern for finding the links between form and meaning in language. The text is entirely in German with…
Gaines, Billie D.
The evolution of one-stem verb theory since Roman Jakobson's 1948 study of Russian conjugation is outlined, and adaptations of his one-stem conjugation methodology for current classroom use are discussed and compared. (MSE)
Hatfield, Frances M.
The paper surveys contribution of A. Luria to aphasiology, emphasizing unique extent to which he integrated theory and therapeutic practice. Luria's view of primary defects underlying main forms of aphasia is summarized; this is followed by brief account of his application of certain notions of structural linguists, including R. Jakobson's…
Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders among school-age children, occurring in 3 percent to 12 percent of adolescents in the United States (Jakobson & Kirkas, 2007; Shulman, 2008). Recognizing and understanding the disorder is complicated by the fact that between 10 percent and 20 percent of people…
Describes in some detail the structure of metaphor and metonymy, reviewing three main structures of metaphor--supposition, extension, and apposition--and proposing a comprehensive definition of metaphor taking all three structures into account. Draws on Roman Jakobson when explaining Jacques Lacan's claim that condensation is metaphor and…
Taylor, N. M.; Jakobson, L. S.; Maurer, D.; Lewis, T. L.
Young children born very prematurely show elevated thresholds for global motion and global form [Atkinson, J. & Braddick, O. (2007). "Visual and visuocognitive development in children born very prematurely." "Progress in Brain Research, 164." 123-149; MacKay, T. L., Jakobson, L. S., Ellemberg, D., Lewis, T. L., Maurer, D., & Casiro, O. (2005).…
This French text of selected articles, lectures, and writings from Bally to Jakobson presents a typology of literary styles, complementing an introductory book on the theory and readings in stylistics by dealing with the problems and methods of stylistic analysis. Seeking to arrive at a description of the inner structure of literary texts, it…
In an attempt to explain first language attrition in emigrant populations, this paper investigates the explanatory power of a framework that has--until now--received little attention: the regression hypothesis (Jakobson, 1941). This hypothesis predicts that the order of attrition is the reverse of the order of acquisition. The regression…
Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara
Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems,…
Myers, David Gershom
When Vladimir Nabokov was up for a chair in literature at Harvard, the linguist Roman Jakobson protested: "What's next? Shall we appoint elephants to teach zoology?" That anecdote, with which D. G. Myers begins "The Elephants Teach", perfectly frames the issues this book tackles. Myers explores more than a century of debate over how writing should…
Kluge, Nikita J
Among mountain species of Heptageniidae from Central Asia, six species belonging to the taxa Cinygmula McDunnough 1933, Himalogena Kluge 2004 and Caucasiron Kluge 1997 have all claws of the winged stages (subimago and imago) pointed. In this area Cinygmula is represented by two species: C. hutchinsoni (Traver 1939) (with pointed claws) and C. joosti Braasch 1977 (with the more typical ephemeropteroid claws); for both species all stages of both sexes associated by rearing are redescribed. The Central Asian mountain taxon Himalogena includes seven species: Rhithrogena (Himalogena) tianshanica Brodsky 1930, Rh. (H.) pamirica sp. n., Rh. (H.) carnivora sp. n., Rh. (H.) semicarnivora sp. n., Rh. (H.) stackelbergi Sinitshenkova 1973, Rh. (H.) gunti sp. n. and Rh. (H.) nepalensis Braasch 1984; for five of them, all stages of both sexes associated by rearing are redescribed; Rh. (H.) semicarnivora is known as male imagoes reared from larvae; Rh. (H.) nepalensis formerly known only as larvae, is redescribed based on an anomalous female imago (with gynandromorphism caused by helminth in abdomen) reared from the larval stage. Among these species, Rh. (H.) tianshanica, Rh. (H.) pamirica, Rh. (H.) carnivora and Rh. (H.) semicarnivora have mandibles and the labrum modified for carnivorism, while the other three species have the usual Rhithrogena mouth apparatus. Imagoes and subimagoes of Rh. (H.) pamirica, Rh. (H.) carnivora, Rh. (H.) gunti and Rh. (H.) nepalensis, have both claws of each leg pointed, while the other species have ephemeropteroid claws. Corrections to the description of Rh. minima Sinitshenkova 1973 claw denticulation and to original figure references are given. The taxon Ironopsis/g1 is represented by two species in the Central Asian mountains: Epeorus (Caucasiron) guttatus (Braasch & Soldán 1979) (with pointed claws) and Epeorus (Ironopsis) rheophilus (Brodsky 1930) (with ephemeropteroid claws); for both species all stages of both sexes associated by rearing
This article proposes an analysis of the phenomenon of self-injury through the prism of current linguistic theories. The author uses the clinical distinctions made by Roman Jakobson between metonymic and metaphoric aphasia to suggest that the psychological community and those who harm themselves are participating in separate "language games." While the clinical "language game" is characterized by the dominance of metaphor and a conception stressing the hierarchy between metaphor and metonymy, the "language game" of self-mutilators is dominated by metonymy. The author explores the clinical implications of understanding the language game of those who injure themselves as metonymic. PMID:25247287
Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara
Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems, both drawings and spoken responses provide rich evidence of their understanding of the connections between science drawings and verbal explanations. In this forum contribution, we present several theoretical connections between everyday language and science communication and argue that building communication skills in science are essential. We also discuss how young participants should be valued and supported in research. Finally we discuss the need for multimodal research methods when the research participants are young.
Hajit, Mohammad; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
We have proposed a formulation for the large eddy simulation of dilute bubbly flows by converting the governing equations to a more loosely-coupled form. This formulation provides an efficient numerical procedure for two-way coupling of bubbly flows at low gas holdups. Subgrid-scale turbulence modeling is based on the dynamic procedure of Germano for the liquid phase and the Jakobson approach for the gas phase. Wall-modeling is implemented using the method of Cabot & Moin. Our approach is employed to simulate flow over aerating hydrofoils at different angles of attack. A structured body-fitted C-grid is employed for domain discretization. Validation of our computational code, for C-grids, is carried out by simulating single-phase flows over a NACA0012 airfoil (20° AOA) with laminar flow and an E387 airfoil (6° AOA) with turbulent flow. Comparisons with available computational and experimental data in terms of time averaged drag coefficient, lift coefficient, separation bubble length, and reattachment point proves the validity of our computational code. The aerating hydrofoil simulation utilizes a NACA0015 hydrofoil, for which experiments were carried out at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory. Comparisons between computational and experimental datasets show promising results. This work is supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy and the Hydro Reasearch Foundation.
Stevens, Kenneth N.
Three events that occurred 50 or 60 years ago shaped the study of acoustic phonetics, and in the following few decades these events influenced research and applications in speech disorders, speech development, speech synthesis, speech recognition, and other subareas in speech communication. These events were: (1) the source-filter theory of speech production (Chiba and Kajiyama; Fant); (2) the development of the sound spectrograph and its interpretation (Potter, Kopp, and Green; Joos); and (3) the birth of research that related distinctive features to acoustic patterns (Jakobson, Fant, and Halle). Following these events there has been systematic exploration of the articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual bases of phonological categories, and some quantification of the sources of variability in the transformation of this phonological representation of speech into its acoustic manifestations. This effort has been enhanced by studies of how children acquire language in spite of this variability and by research on speech disorders. Gaps in our knowledge of this inherent variability in speech have limited the directions of applications such as synthesis and recognition of speech, and have led to the implementation of data-driven techniques rather than theoretical principles. Some examples of advances in our knowledge, and limitations of this knowledge, are reviewed.
Taylor, N M; Jakobson, L S; Maurer, D; Lewis, T L
Young children born very prematurely show elevated thresholds for global motion and global form [Atkinson, J. & Braddick, O. (2007). Visual and visuocognitive development in children born very prematurely. Progress in Brain Research, 164, 123-149; MacKay, T. L., Jakobson, L. S., Ellemberg, D., Lewis, T. L., Maurer, D., & Casiro, O. (2005). Deficits in the processing of local and global motion in very low birthweight children. Neuropsychologia, 43, 1738-1748]. In adolescence, those with white matter pathology show reduced sensitivity to biological motion [Pavlova, M., Sokolov, A., Staudt, M., Marconato, F., Birbaumer, N., & Krageloh-Mann, I. (2005). Recruitment of periventricular parietal regions in processing cluttered point-light biological motion. Cerebral Cortex, 15, 594-601; Pavlova, M., Staudt, M., Sokolov, A., Birbaumer, N., & Krageloh-Mann, I. (2003). Perception and production of biological movement in patients with early periventricular brain lesions. Brain, 126, 692-701]. Here, we measured sensitivity to global form, global motion, and biological motion in a sample of 23, five- to nine-year-old children born at <32 weeks gestation, and in 20 full-term controls matched to the clinical sample in age, socioeconomic status, and estimated Verbal IQ. As a group, premature children showed reduced sensitivity, relative to controls, on all three tasks (F>4.1, p<0.05). By computing a deficit score for each task (the ratio between a premature child's threshold and the mean threshold for three age-matched controls) we were able to compare performance across tasks directly. Mean deficit scores were significantly greater than 1 (indicating some level of impairment) for biological motion and global motion (ps<0.03). In contrast, the mean deficit score for global form was not significantly different from 1 (indicating no impairment, relative to age-matched control children). Rates of impairment (deficit score>or=2) were four times higher for global motion than for global