Science.gov

Sample records for jam ten years

  1. ESEA Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Samuel

    1975-01-01

    Achievements cited for ESEA include that it broke the log jam on federal aid to education, spotted the needs of children, fueled other movements toward equality of educational opportunity, recruited quality personnel, promoted public-nonpublic cooperation, promoted parental and community involvement, and the evaluation/accountability movement.…

  2. Ten years of PAMELA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillantini, Piero

    2016-07-01

    Pamela experiment has been designed as a cosmic ray observatory at 1 AU, dedicated to the precise and high statistics study of CR fluxes on a three decades energy range, form a few tens MeV up to several hundred GeV region. It is the last step of the 'Russian-Italian Mission' (RIM) program born in 1992 between several Italian and Russian institutes and with the participation of the Royal Institute of Technology of Stockholm (Sweden) and the Siegen University (German). Launched the 16 June 2006 from Baikonur cosmodrome on board of the Resurs-DK1 Russian satellite by a Soyuz rocket in an elliptical (350-610 km) quasi polar orbit (70° inclination) it was activated on 21 June 2006, afterword has been in a continuous data taking mode for ten years. The Pamela program pays particular attention to the study of particles (protons and electrons) and antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) energy spectra. It also includes search for possible signals of dark matter annihilation, search for primordial antimatter (antihelium), search for new Matter in the Universe (Strangelets?), study of cosmic-ray propagation, solar physics and solar modulation, terrestrial magnetosphere. This program is made possible thanks to the outstanding performance of the instrument, the low energy threshold, the quasi-polar orbit, the 10 years duration of the observation. Protons and helium nuclei are the most abundant components of the cosmic radiation and the precise measurements of their fluxes allow understanding the acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Their spectral shapes cannot be well described by a single power law: at 230-240 GV they exhibit an abrupt spectral hardening. They challenge the current paradigm of cosmic-ray acceleration in supernova remnants followed by diffusive propagation in the Galaxy. Of paramount importance is the discover of the anomalous increase of the positron flux at energies higher that 50 GeV (the so called 'Pamela anomaly'). The review of

  3. Ten Years of Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    We celebrated the 10-th anniversary of the Launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory on July 13, 2009. During these 10 years data from this Great Observatory have had a profound impact on 21st century astrophysics. With its unrivaled capability to produce sub-arcsecond images, the Observatory has enabled astronomers to make new discoveries in topics as diverse as comets and cosmology. We shall review some of the highlights, discuss the current status, and future plans.

  4. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    SciTech Connect

    Benford, G. California Univ., Irvine, CA . Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ . Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. ); Pasqualetti, M.J. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ )

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Gunshot residue, ten years later.

    PubMed

    Wilber, C G; Lantz, R K; Sulik, P L

    1991-09-01

    Gunshot residues may be central to a competent reconstruction of a shooting incident. When a young boy was shot in the neck by a playmate using a .22-caliber single-action revolver, permanent paralysis from mid-thorax downward ensued. Ten years later the victim sued the importer, the vendor, the German manufacturer, and the shooter's family. Investigative reports indicated "horseplay" and questionable emergency medical team care. Depositions were contradictory. The entry wound, removed at surgery, was fixed and processed for slides. The histopathologist referred to "black pigment granules" in the wound track. The 10-year-old slides and block were retrieved. The coverslip was removed from a representative slide that was examined under the scanning, x-ray dispersive microscope. The black granules contained amounts of lead, barium, and antimony far beyond any normal range. The firing range had to have been no greater than 6-12 in (15.24-30.48 cm). The case was promptly settled out of court. PMID:1750390

  6. Ten Years of Grid Cells.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David C; Roudi, Yasser; Moser, May-Britt; Moser, Edvard I

    2016-07-01

    The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) creates a neural representation of space through a set of functionally dedicated cell types: grid cells, border cells, head direction cells, and speed cells. Grid cells, the most abundant functional cell type in the MEC, have hexagonally arranged firing fields that tile the surface of the environment. These cells were discovered only in 2005, but after 10 years of investigation, we are beginning to understand how they are organized in the MEC network, how their periodic firing fields might be generated, how they are shaped by properties of the environment, and how they interact with the rest of the MEC network. The aim of this review is to summarize what we know about grid cells and point out where our knowledge is still incomplete. PMID:27023731

  7. Preparing Future Faculty: Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sean P.; Aiossa, Elizabeth; Winter, Mary Mugica

    2010-01-01

    When Sean Murphy designed the Graduate Student Internship Program at the College of Lake County (CLC), his 2001 TETYC article about the then two-year-old program detailed his programmatic response to the job market. Ten years later, the CLC-DePaul University partnership remains the strongest of the original dozen cross-sector relationships CLC…

  8. The AJAE: Preoccupations through Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This survey is a retrospective analysis of ten years of articles published in the Australian Journal of Adult Education. The years 1970-1979 were chosen to cover the decade of the seventies: a decade that was significant for adult education in a number of ways. (SSH)

  9. The Currie Report: Ten Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, John L.

    1972-01-01

    The Currie Report, or the Report of the Commission on Education in New Zealand, which appeared in 1962, has been generating changes on a broad front within the New Zealand educational system throughout the last ten years. Eight areas of concern were identified by that Commission. The "most clamant" was the recruitment and training of teachers.…

  10. Intonation Comprehension in Ten-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruttenden, Alan

    1985-01-01

    Investigates the comprehension of nine intonational contrasts in ten-year-olds and adults. Overall performance on the tasks was much lower among the children than among the adults. Results indicate that hypotheses concerning the chronological order of development of meanings dependent on groupings, nucleus placements, and tones are too simplistic.…

  11. Ten year planetary ephemeris: 1986-1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, F.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate geocentric positions are tabulated at five day intervals for the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune during the ten year period 1986 through 1995. The apparent angular diameters, radial velocities, declinations and mean times of meridian transit of the seven planets and the Sun are graphically depicted for each year in the interval. Appendices are included which discuss the theory of planetary orbits and a FORTRAN program for calculating planetary ephemerides.

  12. Ten Years of Infrasound Observation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Il; Che, Il-Young; Kim, Tae Sung

    2010-05-01

    Over the ten years after the installation of our first seismo-acoustic array station (CHNAR) in September 1999, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has been continuously observing infrasound with an infrasound array network, named KIN (Korean Infrasound Network) in Korea. This network consists of seven seismo-acoustic arrays (BRDAR, KMPAR, CHNAR, YAGAR, KSGAR, ULDAR and TJIAR). The aperture size of the smallest array (KMPAR and TJIAR) is about 300m and the largest is about 1.4km. The number of acoustic gauges are between 4 (TJIAR) and 18 (YAGAR), and 1 or 5 seismometers are collocated at the center of the acoustic array. All seismic and infrasonic signals of the arrays are digitized at 40 samples/sec and transmitted to KIGAM in real time. Many interesting infrasound signals associated with different kind of anthropogenic source as well as natural one are detected by KIN. Ten years of seismo-acoustic data are analyzed by using PMCC program, and identified more than five thousand of infrasonic events and catalogued in our infrasound database. This database is used to study characteristics of seasonally dependent propagation of the infrasound wave in local scale, as well as to better understand how atmospheric condition affects the detection ratio at a specific station throughout the year. It also played a valuable role in discriminating the anthropogenic events such as the second nuclear test on 25 May 2009 in North Korea, from natural earthquakes, which is important in estimating the seismicity in Korea.

  13. Ten years of the Spanish Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, E.

    2015-05-01

    The main objective of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is to guarantee an easy and efficient access and analysis of the information hosted in astronomical archives. The Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) is a project that was born in 2004 with the goal of promoting and coordinating the VO-related activities at national level. SVO is also the national contact point for the international VO initiatives, in particular the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) and the Euro-VO project. The project, led by Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), is structured around four major topics: a) VO compliance of astronomical archives, b) VO-science, c) VO- and data mining-tools, and d) Education and outreach. In this paper I will describe the most important results obtained by the Spanish Virtual Observatory in its first ten years of life as well as the future lines of work.

  14. Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Wallace

    2004-01-01

    The meeting "Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After" took place at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, CA June 27-28, 2003. The meeting was sponsored by the Committee on the Status of Women of the American Astronomical Society and was attended by about 155 participants. The purpose of the meeting was: "To review the current status of women in astronomy, understand their work environment, assess development since the 1992 Baltimore conference, and recommend future actions that will improve the environment for all astronomers." A description of the meeting and its background can be found at http://www.aas.org/%7Ecswa/WIA2003.html. The proceedings are being edited by Profs. Meg Urry (Yale University) and Ran Bagenal (University of Colorado). The principal outcome of WIAII was a series of recommendations, "The Pasadena Recommendations", which have been approved by the AAS Council and which can be found at http://www.aas.org/%7Ecswa/.

  15. Ten Years of ENA Imaging from Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pontus; Mitchell, Donald; Westlake, Joseph; Carbary, James; Paranicas, Christopher; Mauk, Barry; Krimigis, Stamatios

    2014-05-01

    In this presentation we will provide a detailed review of the science highlights of the ENA observations obtained by The Ion Neutral Camera (INCA) on board Cassini. Since the launch of Cassini, INCA has unveiled an invisible world of hot plasma and neutral gas of the two biggest objects of our solar system: the giant magnetosphere of Jupiter and Saturn. Although more than ten years ago, INCA captured the first ENA images of the Jovian system revealing magnetospheric dynamics and an asymmetric Europa neutral gas torus. Approaching Saturn, INCA observed variability of Saturn's magnetospheric activity in response to changes in solar wind dynamic pressure, which was contrary to expectations and current theories. In orbit around Saturn, INCA continued the surprises including the first imaging and global characterization of Titan's exosphere extended out to its gravitational Hill sphere; recurring injections correlating with periodic Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) bursts and magnetic field perturbations; and the discovery of energetic ionospheric outflow. Perhaps most significant, and the focal point of this presentation, is INCA's contribution to the understanding of global magnetospheric particle acceleration and transport, where the combination between ENA imaging and in-situ measurements have demonstrated that transport and acceleration of plasma is likely to occur in a two-step process. First, large-scale injections in the post-midnight sector accelerate and transport plasma in to about 12 RS up to energies of several hundreds of keV. Second, centrifugal interchange acts on the plasma inside of this region and provides further heating and transport in to about 6RS. We discuss this finding in the context of the two fundamental types of injections (or ENA intensifications) that INCA has revealed during its ten years of imaging. The first type is large-scale injections appearing beyond 12 RS in the post-midnight sector that have in many cases had an inward component

  16. The first ten years of Swift supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Milne, Peter A.

    2015-09-01

    The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer has proven to be an incredible platform for studying the multiwavelength properties of supernova explosions. In its first ten years, Swift has observed over three hundred supernovae. The ultraviolet observations reveal a complex diversity of behavior across supernova types and classes. Even amongst the standard candle type Ia supernovae, ultraviolet observations reveal distinct groups. When the UVOT data is combined with higher redshift optical data, the relative populations of these groups appear to change with redshift. Among core-collapse supernovae, Swift discovered the shock breakout of two supernovae and the Swift data show a diversity in the cooling phase of the shock breakout of supernovae discovered from the ground and promptly followed up with Swift. Swift observations have resulted in an incredible dataset of UV and X-ray data for comparison with high-redshift supernova observations and theoretical models. Swift's supernova program has the potential to dramatically improve our understanding of stellar life and death as well as the history of our universe.

  17. Ten years of Lusi: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi mud eruption has continued uninterrupted for ten years, settling into its current steady-state as a quasi-periodic geyser system. Many past, current, and future studies aim to quantify this system, which increasing evidence suggests is a new-born, tectonic scale hydrothermal system linked to the nearby volcano complex. The debate about whether the triggering of Lusi was a natural event of rather caused by drilling continues, but evidence mounts from the behavior of this system that an anthropogenic cause is highly unlikely. Understanding this system is very important because of its social and economic impact on the surrounding communities, and whether it poses future geohazards in the region from future eruptions. A large effort of infrastructures and constant maintenance activity has been and is being conducted inside the 7km2 mud flooded area. This region is framed by a tall embankment that contains the erupted mud and protects the surrounding settlements. This system is also very important for understanding at a larger scale volcanic hydrothermal systems, and to determine whether this new geothermal resource might be exploited. A large effort is underway from an EU-grant supporting the Lusi-Lab project (CEED, University of Oslo) and an SNF grant supporting the University of Neuchatel to study this system from geochemical, geophysical, and modeling perspectives. This review talk summarizes what is known, what is still unclear, and will revisit the behavior of Lusi since its inception.

  18. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Screening Research Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some women with breast ... took it for 5 years. (See the table.) Breast Cancer Recurrence and Death 5 to 14 Years after ...

  19. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  20. The Next Ten Years in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Chris

    A person's beliefs about the future are very powerful in shaping his or her actions. The issue of what image of the next 10 years is most appropriate for educators today can be examined metaphorically with differing visions of what education can become. By using a series of predictions and by consolidating forecasts from futures research,…

  1. Ten-year space launch technology plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document is the response to the National Space Policy Directive-4 (NSPD-4), signed by the President on 10 Jul. 1991. Directive NSPD-4 calls upon the Department of Defense (DoD), the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to coordinate national space launch technology efforts and to jointly prepare a 10-year space launch technology plan. The nation's future in space rests on the strength of its national launch technology program. This plan documents our current launch technology efforts, plans for future initiatives in this arena, and the overarching philosophy that links these activities into an integrated national technology program.

  2. Redefining Assessment? The First Ten Years of Assessment in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadfoot, Patricia; Black, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The completion of the first ten years of this journal is an occasion for review and reflection. The main issues that have been addressed over the ten years are summarized in four main sections: Purposes, International Trends, Quality Concerns and Assessment for Learning. Each of these illustrates the underlying significance of the themes of…

  3. Firework injuries: a ten-year study.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vinita; Mahendru, Sanjay; Rana, Roshani; Deshpande, Manish

    2009-09-01

    Fireworks are used worldwide to celebrate popular events (e.g. festivals, official celebrations, weddings). The festival of lights (Diwali) is celebrated with fireworks in India. During this period, many patients from all age groups present to hospital with injuries due to fireworks. Prevalence, period of occurrence, sex and age variation, adult supervision, causative fireworks, mode of lighting, age groups prone to injury, patterns of injury caused by individual fireworks, and the body parts injured were studied. One hundred and fifty-seven cases (92 retrospective, 65 prospective) with injury due to fireworks presenting to the Department of Plastic Surgery at KEM Hospital between 1997 and 2006 were studied. The prevalence of injuries has decreased steadily over the last 10 years (41 cases in 1997, 3 cases in 2006). The maximum number of injuries (35%) was seen in the age group 5-14 years; 92% of these children were unsupervised. The commonest cause of injury was firework misuse (41% of cases), followed by device failure (35%). Device failure was commonest with flares/fountains (ground firework emitting sparks upwards) and aerial devices. Flare/fountains caused most injury (39%), sparklers the least (0.6%). Flare/fountains, ground spinners, sparklers, and gunpowder (explosive material from cracker, obtained by tearing paper wrapper and obtaining chemicals) caused only soft tissue burns; stringbombs (high-intensity fire cracker made by wrapping chemicals with jute strings/coir in layers) and rockets (aerial device that zooms upwards and bursts) caused blast injuries, leading to soft tissue disruption and bony injuries. Emergency surgery was done if indicated: tendon and/or neurovascular repair, fracture fixation, flap cover or amputation. Superficial burns were treated with dressings. Certain wounds needed only thorough cleansing of the wound and primary suturing. We concluded that, over a 10-year period, the prevalence of firework injury decreased due to increased

  4. The Virtual Physiological Human: Ten Years After.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter

    2016-07-11

    Biomedical research and clinical practice are struggling to cope with the growing complexity that the progress of health care involves. The most challenging diseases, those with the largest socioeconomic impact (cardiovascular conditions; musculoskeletal conditions; cancer; metabolic, immunity, and neurodegenerative conditions), are all characterized by a complex genotype-phenotype interaction and by a "systemic" nature that poses a challenge to the traditional reductionist approach. In 2005 a small group of researchers discussed how the vision of computational physiology promoted by the Physiome Project could be translated into clinical practice and formally proposed the term Virtual Physiological Human. Our knowledge about these diseases is fragmentary, as it is associated with molecular and cellular processes on the one hand and with tissue and organ phenotype changes (related to clinical symptoms of disease conditions) on the other. The problem could be solved if we could capture all these fragments of knowledge into predictive models and then compose them into hypermodels that help us tame the complexity that such systemic behavior involves. In 2005 this was simply not possible-the necessary methods and technologies were not available. Now, 10 years later, it seems the right time to reflect on the original vision, the results achieved so far, and what remains to be done. PMID:27420570

  5. Minimally invasive thyroidectomy: a ten years experience

    PubMed Central

    Viani, Lorenzo; Montana, Chiara Montana; Cozzani, Federico; Sianesi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background The conventional thyroidectomy is the most frequent surgical procedure for thyroidal surgical disease. From several years were introduced minimally invasive approaches to thyroid surgery. These new procedures improved the incidence of postoperative pain, cosmetic results, patient’s quality of life, postoperative morbidity. The mini invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a minicervicotomy to treat thyroidal diseases. Methods We present our experience on 497 consecutively treated patients with MIVAT technique. We analyzed the mean age, sex, mean operative time, rate of bleeding, hypocalcemia, transitory and definitive nerve palsy (6 months after the procedure), postoperative pain scale from 0 to 10 at 1 hour and 24 hours after surgery, mean hospital stay. Results The indications to treat were related to preoperative diagnosis: 182 THYR 6, 184 THYR 3–4, 27 plummer, 24 basedow, 28 toxic goiter, 52 goiter. On 497 cases we have reported 1 case of bleeding (0,2%), 12 (2,4%) cases of transitory nerve palsy and 4 (0,8%) definitive nerve palsy. The rate of serologic hypocalcemia was 24.9% (124 cases) and clinical in 7.2% (36 cases); 1 case of hypoparathyroidism (0.2%). Conclusions The MIVAT is a safe approach to surgical thyroid disease, the cost are similar to CT as the adverse events. The minicervicotomy is really a minimally invasive tissue dissection. PMID:27294036

  6. Ten Years of the Armenian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Astsatryan, H. V.; Knyazyan, A. V.; Magakian, T. Yu.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Erastova, L. K.; Hovhannisyan, L. R.; Sargsyan, L. A.; Sinamyan, P. K.

    2016-06-01

    Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) was created 10 years ago, in 2005, when after the accomplishment of the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) we had enough resources to run a VO project and contribute in the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA, www.ivoa.net). ArVO is a project of Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) aimed at construction of a modern system for data archiving, extraction, acquisition, reduction, use and publication. ArVO technical and research projects include Global Spectroscopic Database, which is being built based on DFBS. Quick optical identification of radio, IR or X-ray sources will be possible by plotting their positions in the DFBS or other spectroscopic plate and matching all available data. Accomplishment of new projects by combining data is so important that the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) recently created World Data System (WDS, www.icsu-wds.org/) for unifying data coming from all science areas, and BAO has also joined it due to DFBS and ArVO projects.

  7. Ten years of leptin replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Paz-Filho, G; Wong, M-L; Licinio, J

    2011-05-01

    Leptin is a pleiotropic cytokine-like hormone that is involved in the regulation of energy intake and expenditure, neuroendocrine function, immunity and lipid and glucose metabolism. The few humans with genetically based leptin deficiency provide a unique model to assess those effects. We have identified five Turkish patients (one male and two female adults; one boy and one girl) with congenital leptin deficiency due to a missense mutation in the leptin gene. Four of these patients were treated with physiological doses of recombinant methionyl human leptin. Body composition, brain structure and function, behaviour, immunity and endocrine and metabolic parameters were evaluated before and during treatment. Our results showed that leptin has peripheral, hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic effects. Within the endocrine system, leptin regulates the circadian rhythms of cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. In the brain, leptin controls energy balance and body weight, and plays a role on neurogenesis and brain function. Leptin is a key element of the adiposinsular axis, enhances immune response, and regulates inflammation, coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation. Our 10-year experience in treating these unique patients provided valuable data on the peripheral and central effects of leptin. Those results can be taken into account for the development of leptin-based therapies for other diseases. PMID:21410864

  8. Ten Commandments Revisited: A Ten-Year Perspective on the Industrial Application of Formal Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Jonathan P.; Hinchey, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    Ten years ago, our 1995 paper Ten Commandments of Formal Methods suggested some guidelines to help ensure the success of a formal methods project. It proposed ten important requirements (or "commandments") for formal developers to consider and follow, based on our knowledge of several industrial application success stories, most of which have been reported in more detail in two books. The paper was surprisingly popular, is still widely referenced, and used as required reading in a number of formal methods courses. However, not all have agreed with some of our commandments, feeling that they may not be valid in the long-term. We re-examine the original commandments ten years on, and consider their validity in the light of a further decade of industrial best practice and experiences.

  9. Ten Take Home Lessons from the First Ten Years of the CTN and Ten Recommendations for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Ball, Samuel A.; Jackson, Ron; Martino, Steve; Petry, Nancy M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2011-01-01

    The first ten years of the National Institute on Drug Abuse’s Clinical Trials Network (CTN) yielded a wealth of data on the effectiveness of a number of behavioral, pharmacologic, and combined approaches in community based settings. As an introduction to this Special Issue on the CTN, we summarize some of the methodological contributions and lessons learned from the behavioral trials conducted during its first ten years, including the capacity and enormous potential of this national research infrastructure; contributions to the methodology of effectiveness research; new insights from secondary analyses; the extent to which approaches with strong evidence bases, such as contingency management, extend their effectiveness to real world clinical settings; new data on ‘standard treatment’ as actually practiced in community programs, the extent to which retention remains a major issue in the field; important data on the safety of specific behavioral therapies for addiction; and heightened the importance of continued sustained attention to bridging the gap between treatment and research. Possible areas of focus for the CTN’s future include defining common outcome measures to be used in treatment outcome studies for illicit drugs; incorporating performance indicators and measures of clinical significance; conducting comparative outcome studies; contributing to the understanding of effective treatments of comorbidity; reaching underserved populations; building implementation science; understanding long-term outcomes of current treatments and sustaining treatment effects; and conducting future trials more efficiently. PMID:21854269

  10. Reference Success: What Has Changed over the Past Ten Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lynda M.; Field, Judith J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study that replicated two earlier studies to determine whether environmental factors of reference departments and behavioral characteristics of references staff members had changed over the past ten years. Results emphasize the need for more and better education and training in conducting reference interviews and providing client…

  11. The First Ten Years. National Sea Grant College Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, E. W. Seabrook

    Detailed are the first ten years of the Sea Grant Program through 1976. The review is divided into three parts. Part I, Sea Grant Origin and Process, traces the historical development of the program and cites the program's philosophy. Part II, Sea Grant in Action, discusses marine resource development, marine technology, research and development,…

  12. Ten Years after Columbine: The Tragedy of Youth Deepens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2009-01-01

    For young people it just gets worse. Ten years after the Columbine tragedy, the debate over school safety has clearly shown that educators, parents, politicians, and the mainstream media have created the conditions in which young people have increasingly become the victims of adult mistreatment, indifference, neglect, even violence. The tragic…

  13. Inclusive Education in Australia Ten Years after Salamanca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    While many states and territories in Australia were initially a little slow to develop a strong momentum towards inclusive educational practices, this has been addressed quite dramatically in the past ten years. Acknowledging that each jurisdiction in Australia has its own department of education and determines its own educational directions this…

  14. Lessons learned from ten years of distance learning outreach*

    PubMed Central

    Locatis, Craig; Gaines, Cynthia; Liu, Wei-Li; Gill, Michael; Ackerman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study tested the efficacy of providing distance learning with real-time videoconferencing to broaden high school student knowledge of health careers. Methods: A pilot program was tried out and extended over ten years to include other schools in four different time zones and the National Library of Medicine. Survey results, site visits, and continued school participation were used as effectiveness indicators. Student ratings, site visits, and ongoing discussions were used to evaluate critical factors in the program. Results: Nine program factors contributed to success. Conclusions: Synchronous communication can be effective for outreach to special populations given appropriate infrastructure, technology, program design, and implementation. PMID:25918486

  15. Ten Years of GLAPHI Method Developing Scientific Research Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector R.

    2006-12-01

    During the past ten years we had applied our method, GLAPHI, to teach how to do scientific research. The method has been applied from freshman students up to PhD professionals. The method is based in the search and analysis of scientific literature, the scientific question or problem, the approach of hypothesis and objetive, the estimation of the project cost and the timetable. It also includes statistics for research, author rights, ethics in research, publication of scientific papers, writting scientific reports and meeting presentations. In this work success and fails of GLAPHI methods will be discussed. Work partially supported by CONACyT (Mexico) under contract: SEP-2004-C01-46893

  16. Results in Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis: A Ten-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Querido, Sara; Branco, Patrícia Quadros; Costa, Elisabete; Pereira, Sara; Gaspar, Maria Augusta; Barata, José Diogo

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims. Peritoneal dialysis is a successful renal replacement therapy (RRT) for old and dependent patients. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of an assisted peritoneal dialysis (aPD) program developed in a Portuguese center. Methods. Retrospective study based on 200 adult incident patients admitted during ten years to a PD program. We included all 17 patients who were under aPD and analysed various parameters, including complications with the technique, hospitalizations, and patient and technique survival. Results. The global peritonitis rate was lower in helped than in nonhelped patients: 0.4 versus 0.59 episodes/patient/year. The global hospitalization rate was higher in helped than in nonhelped patients: 0.67 versus 0.45 episodes/patient/year (p = NS). Technique survival in helped patients versus nonhelped patients was 92.3%, 92.3%, 83.1%, and 72.7% versus 91.9%, 81.7%, and 72.1%, and 68.3%, at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively (p = NS), and patient survival in helped patients versus nonhelped patients was 93.3%, 93.3%, 93.3%, and 74.7% versus 95.9% 93.7%, 89%, and 82% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively (p = NS). Conclusions. aPD offers an opportune, reliable, and effective home care alternative for patients with no other RRT options. PMID:26600950

  17. Results in Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis: A Ten-Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Querido, Sara; Branco, Patrícia Quadros; Costa, Elisabete; Pereira, Sara; Gaspar, Maria Augusta; Barata, José Diogo

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims. Peritoneal dialysis is a successful renal replacement therapy (RRT) for old and dependent patients. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of an assisted peritoneal dialysis (aPD) program developed in a Portuguese center. Methods. Retrospective study based on 200 adult incident patients admitted during ten years to a PD program. We included all 17 patients who were under aPD and analysed various parameters, including complications with the technique, hospitalizations, and patient and technique survival. Results. The global peritonitis rate was lower in helped than in nonhelped patients: 0.4 versus 0.59 episodes/patient/year. The global hospitalization rate was higher in helped than in nonhelped patients: 0.67 versus 0.45 episodes/patient/year (p = NS). Technique survival in helped patients versus nonhelped patients was 92.3%, 92.3%, 83.1%, and 72.7% versus 91.9%, 81.7%, and 72.1%, and 68.3%, at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively (p = NS), and patient survival in helped patients versus nonhelped patients was 93.3%, 93.3%, 93.3%, and 74.7% versus 95.9% 93.7%, 89%, and 82% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively (p = NS). Conclusions. aPD offers an opportune, reliable, and effective home care alternative for patients with no other RRT options. PMID:26600950

  18. Past ten years of noise control in the electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitzky, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    During the past ten years, electric utility industry noise abatement activities have focused on quantifying noise emissons from proposed facilities and on abating noise from new facilities. Several studies have been undertaken in order to achieve these goals by the following electric utility organizations: The Edison Electric Institute (EEI), the principal association of investor owned American utilities; Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), an organization founded by American electric utilities to develop and manage a technology program for improving electric power production, distribution and utilization; and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO), a research organization sponsored by the investor owned utilities in New York State. Presented in this paper are summaries of several studies sponsored by electric utility industry groups that have contributed to increasing the available information on electric utility noise emissions and the abatement of those emissions.

  19. Ten years of progress in the Superfund Program

    SciTech Connect

    Clay, D.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Superfund celebrated its tenth anniversary in December 1990. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - popularly known as Superfund - was passed into law in December 1980 in the wake of such incidents as Love Canal and the Valley of the Drums. The program was designed to clean up uncontrolled hazardous waste sites and, during the past ten years, thousands of actions have been taken to protect human health and the environment from the hazards posed by those sites. EPA believes that goal is best met by its strategy: make sites safer - control immediate threats; enforce aggressively; make sites cleaner - worst problems at worst sites first; bring new technology to bear on the problem.

  20. EU orphan regulation--ten years of application.

    PubMed

    Michaux, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    In April 2000, European Regulation (EC) No 141/2000 on Orphan Medicinal Products, which, following the U.S. example, had been adopted to boost the research, development, and marketing of medicinal products for rare diseases, became effective. Ten years later, figures prove that, with an average of more than 70 orphan designations per year, the European orphan regulation is a success. To date, the key issue is no longer research and development but effective market access. Less than 10% of the orphan designated products are approved for marketing and even less products are actually placed on the European national markets due to pricing and reimbursement obstacles. The article examines the European orphan regime, focusing on its two cornerstones--orphan designation and exclusivity--and highlighting the concepts that are still unclear and the issues that have not yet been addressed. The European Orphan Regulation has been proved to work well, but it would be even more successful if orphan designation was easier and orphan incentives were more attractive. The article concludes on the changes to be made to the European orphan legal regime that would encourage even more the research and development of orphan products. PMID:24479246

  1. Use of interactive lecture demonstrations: A ten year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manjula D.; Johnston, Ian D.; Johnston, Helen; Varvell, Kevin; Robertson, Gordon; Hopkins, Andrew; Stewart, Chris; Cooper, Ian; Thornton, Ronald

    2010-07-01

    The widely held constructivist view of learning advocates student engagement via interactivity. Within the physics education research community, several specific interactive strategies have been developed to enhance conceptual understanding. One such strategy, the Interactive Lecture Demonstration (ILD) is designed for large lecture classes and, if measured using specific conceptual surveys, is purported to provide learning gains of up to 80%. This paper reports on learning gains for two different Projects over ten years. In Project 1, the ILDs were implemented from 1999 to 2001 with students who had successfully completed senior high school physics. The learning gains for students not exposed to the ILDs were in the range 13% to 16% while those for students exposed to the ILDs was 31% to 50%. In Project 2, the ILDs were implemented from 2007 to 2009 with students who had not studied senior high school physics. Since the use of ILDs in Project 1 had produced positive results, ethical considerations dictated that all students be exposed to ILDs. The learning gains were from 28% to 42%. On the one hand it is pleasing to note that there is an increase in learning gains, yet on the other, we note that the gains are nowhere near the claimed 80%. This paper also reports on teacher experiences of using the ILDs, in Project 2.

  2. Ten years in the library: new data confirm paleontological patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A comparison is made between compilations of times of origination and extinction of fossil marine animal families published in 1982 and 1992. As a result of ten years of library research, half of the information in the compendia has changed: families have been added and deleted, low-resolution stratigraphic data been improved, and intervals of origination and extinction have been altered. Despite these changes, apparent macroevolutionary patterns for the entire marine fauna have remained constant. Diversity curves compiled from the two data bases are very similar, with a goodness-of-fit of 99%; the principal difference is that the 1992 curve averages 13% higher than the older curve. Both numbers and percentages of origination and extinction also match well, with fits ranging from 83% to 95%. All major events of radiation and extinction are identical. Therefore, errors in large paleontological data bases and arbitrariness of included taxa are not necessarily impediments to the analysis of pattern in the fossil record, so long as the data are sufficiently numerous.

  3. Ten Years of Real-Time Earthquake Loss Alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.

    2013-12-01

    The priorities of the most important parameters of an earthquake disaster are: Number of fatalities, number of injured, mean damage as a function of settlement, expected intensity of shaking at critical facilities. The requirements to calculate these parameters in real time are: 1) Availability of reliable earthquake source parameters within minutes. 2) Capability of calculating expected intensities of strong ground shaking. 3) Data sets on population distribution and conditions of building stock as a function of settlements. 4) Data on locations of critical facilities. 5) Verified methods of calculating damage and losses. 6) Personnel available on a 24/7 basis to perform and review these calculations. There are three services available that distribute information about the likely consequences of earthquakes within about half an hour of the event. Two of these calculate losses, one gives only general information. Although, much progress has been made during the last ten years improving the data sets and the calculating methods, much remains to be done. The data sets are only first order approximations and the methods bare refinement. Nevertheless, the quantitative loss estimates after damaging earthquakes in real time are generally correct in the sense that they allow distinguishing disastrous from inconsequential events.

  4. Chern-Simons gauge theory: Ten years after

    SciTech Connect

    Labastida, J. M. F.

    1999-07-13

    A brief review on the progress made in the study of Chern-Simons gauge theory since its relation to knot theory was discovered ten years ago is presented. Emphasis is made on the analysis of the perturbative study of the theory and its connection to the theory of Vassiliev invariants. It is described how the study of the quantum field theory for three different gauge fixings leads to three different representations for Vassiliev invariants. Two of these gauge fixings lead to well known representations: the covariant Landau gauge corresponds to the configuration space integrals while the non-covariant light-cone gauge to the Kontsevich integral. The progress made in the analysis of the third gauge fixing, the non-covariant temporal gauge, is described in detail. In this case one obtains combinatorial expressions, instead of integral ones, for Vassiliev invariants. The approach based on this last gauge fixing seems very promising to obtain a full combinatorial formula. We collect the combinatorial expressions for all the Vassiliev invariants up to order four which have been obtained in this approach.

  5. A Ten Year Record of Space Based Lightning Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Hardin, D. M.; Goodman, M.; Blakeslee, R.; Graves, S.; Jones, S.; Harrison, S.; Drewry, M.; Nair, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) is a space based instrument used to detect the distribution and variability of total lightning (cloud-to-cloud, intracloud, and cloud-to-ground lightning) that occurs in the tropical regions of the globe. LIS was launched in November 1997 aboard NASA’s Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The LIS sensor contains a staring imager which is optimized to locate and detect lightning with storm-scale resolution of 3-6 km (3 at nadir, 6 at limb) over a large region (550-550 km) of the Earth's surface. The field of view (FOV) is sufficient to observe a point on the Earth or a cloud for 80 seconds, adequate to estimate the flashing rate of many storms. The instrument records the time of occurrence of a lightning event, measures the radiant energy, and estimates the location. The excellent performance of LIS has lead to numerous scientific discoveries such as: The global lightning flash rate is on the order of 40 flashes per second as compared to the commonly accepted value of 100, an estimate that dates back to 1925. Seventy percent of all lightning activity occurs in the tropics, with the global distribution dominated by the summertime lightning activity over the N. Hemisphere land masses. A new understanding on the interplay among the intensification of updraft, lightning bursts, and the onset of severe weather lead to establishment of a validation campaign that further explored relationships between lightning and severe weather. Findings to date indicate that high flash rate storms have a high probability of becoming severe. A ten year global lightning data archive has been developed from the Lightning Imaging Sensor. This archive is maintained at the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) in Huntsville Alabama, one of NASA’s Earth science data centers, managed by the Information Technology and Systems Center of UAHuntsville. This is the most comprehensive global lightning data archive ever produced and is noteworthy for its

  6. Ten-Year Retrospective on the Pinatubo Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhall, C. G.; Punongbayan, R. S.

    2001-12-01

    The 1991-92 eruption of Pinatubo Volcano, Philippines was a signal event in the annals of volcanology. For the first time, modern monitoring captured the pre-, syn-, and post-eruption signatures of a sulfur-rich, plinian, caldera-forming eruption. Approximately 5 km3 of magma was erupted, of which slightly more than half became pyroclastic flows, and the balance became tephra fall. Only a negligible percentage of the magma fed early and final-stage lava domes. Ten years later, more than half of the debris on Pinatubo's slopes has been washed by lahars and sediment-laden streamflow into the surrounding lowlands, adding to Pinatubo's broad alluvial fans. Other papers in this symposium will give details of the magma, volatiles, eruption dynamics, lahars, atmospheric effects, and other features of the eruption. Here, we reflect on just four lessons. First, the magma of a long-plugged volcano may be saturated with respect to water and other volatiles even at depth, and, when disturbed by regional strain or other change, can rise quickly. Second, up until just before the eruption itself, only the geologic record foretold of how large it would be. Third, because few observatories will monitor dormant volcanoes and few residents will heed long-range warnings, public safety will hinge on a short, urgent campaign of warning and education. Videos, simple alert schemes, and a willingness of both scientists and public officials to move decisively despite uncertainty are essential to win cooperation from a skeptical public. Fourth, post-eruption hydrologic hazards can equal or exceed those of an eruption itself.

  7. Looking back at a US desalting forecast - ten years later

    SciTech Connect

    Rothermel, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    Forecasts made a decade ago of US desalting capacity by 1980 achieved mixed success when compared to the most recent Desalting Plants Inventory. Projections of national brackish water were right on the button. The forecast of new brackish capacity for 1965 to 1980 was 105 Mgd. The Inventory indicates that 106 Mgd was installed. Seawater desalting forecasts, however, were just as overly optimistic as the projected costs upon which they were based: 191 Mgd was forecasted for 1965 to 1980; only 10 Mgd actually went on-stream. Forecasts were also made of desalting waste-waters for reuse. The recent emergence of this desalting application was reflected in a forecast of 5 Mgd, which was still less than the 23 Mgd found in the Inventory. These forecasts were made with a dynamic simulation model of the water demand and supply situations in 100 subregions of the United States. This computerized model was built under the sponsorship of the US Department of the Interior to provide a basis for estimating the benefits of federally sponsored desalting research. The model also promises valuable planning insights for regulatory and research programs in broader water resources activities. The most recent Desalting Plants Inventory is certainly unfair to forecasters by systematically tracking actual installations of desalting capacity. This article compares data in the Inventory to forecasts developed over ten years ago. That work was sponsored by the former Office of Saline Water (OSW) and its successor, the Office of Water Research and Technology (OWRT). These forecasts were created from a simulation model of the national water situation. 5 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  8. Ten Years Timing of Millisecond Pulsars at Kalyazin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyasov, Yu. P.; Oreshko, V. V.

    2006-08-01

    Precise timing of millisecond binary pulsars has been started at Kalyazin radio astronomical observatory since 1995. (Tver' region, Russia). Binary pulsars: J0613-02, J1020+10, J1640+22, J1643-12, J1713+07, J2145-07 and isolated millisecond pulsar B1937+21 have been included among the Kalayazin Pulsar Timing Array (KPTA). The Backer's pulsar B1937+21 is being monitored at Kalyazin observatory (0.6 GHz) and Kashima space research centre of the National Institute of Communication Technology (NICT, Japan) (2.2 GHz) simultaneously from 1996, as well. .At Kalyazin pulsars are observed at 0.6 GHz by a full steerable 64-m dish radio telescope RT-64 of the Special Research Bureau of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute. Filter-bank receiver of PRAO Lebedev Physical Institute is used for observations in two circular polarizations by 80 channels per each. Bandwidth per channel is 40 kHz, so total band is 3.2 MHz and time resolution is about 10 μs per channel. Now a perfect data base of pulses Time of Arrival (TOA) are collected with refer to the Solar system barycenter for about 10 years period. Main aim is: a) to study Pulsar Time and to establish a long-term standard of time based on pulsars ensemble as space long life clock alternative to atomic standards; b) to detect gravitational waves extremely low frequency belong to the Gravity Wave Background - GWB. After ten years monitoring of B1937+21 its timing noise is looking as "white phase noise" with RMS about 1.8 μs.( Fractional instability is about 6.10^-15). After these data and timing results of binary pulsar J1640+22 gravitational natural GWB upper limit should be reduced till to less than Ω[g]h^2 <10^-7-10^ -9 . Secular changes of DM toward millisecond pulsar B1937+21 was revealed after long time two frequency timing observations (Kalyazin -0,6 and Kashima -2.3).

  9. Secondary School Science Curricula Practices: A Ten-Year Longitudinal Study of Schools in Ten States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Hussein Bashir

    This study was designed to identify: (1) status of science teaching and science teachers' and principals' attitudes toward change in science curricula and school practices during the 1979/80 school year in 100 public secondary schools (grades 7-12) that participated in a previous study in 1970/71, and (2) changes that have occurred in science…

  10. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Cancer.gov

    Taking adjuvant tamoxifen for 10 years after primary treatment leads to a greater reduction in breast cancer recurrences and deaths than taking the drug for only 5 years, according to the results of a large international clinical trial.

  11. Ten Years On: Assessing Multimedia Distance-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant-Sirdey, Christine

    This paper is a presentation of a 10-year experiment in multimedia distance learning in English for specific purposes within the general framework of a 3-year management diploma in the French higher education system. It defines, analyzes, and rationalizes key elements in the technical evolution against a background of epistemological and present…

  12. Dynamic shear jamming in granular suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Ivo; Majumdar, Sayantan; Jaeger, Heinrich

    2014-11-01

    Jamming by shear allows a frictional granular packing to transition from an unjammed state into a jammed state while keeping the system volume and average packing fraction constant. Shear jamming of dry granular media can occur quasi-statically, but boundaries are crucial to confine the material. We perform experiments in aqueous starch suspension where we apply shear using a rheometer with a large volume (400 ml) cylindrical Couette cell. In our suspensions the packing fraction is sufficiently low that quasi-static deformation does not induce a shear jammed state. Applying a shock-like deformation however, will turn the suspension into a jammed solid. A fully jammed state is reached within tens of microseconds, and can be sustained for at least several seconds. High speed imaging of the initial process reveals a jamming front propagating radially outward through the suspension, while the suspension near the outer boundary remains quiescent. This indicates that granular suspensions can be shear jammed without the need of confining solid boundaries. Instead, confinement is most likely provided by the dynamics in the front region.

  13. A Ten-Year Look at State Park Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, W. Donald

    1986-01-01

    State park agencies have weathered some adverse conditions during the last decade. Financial operations, park acreage and facilities, attendance, personnel and salaries, as well as per-visitor expenditures and revenues over the past 10 years are discussed. (MT)

  14. Ten years of Nature Physics: Numerical models come of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, E.; Millis, A. J.

    2015-10-01

    When Nature Physics celebrated 20 years of high-temperature superconductors, numerical approaches were on the periphery. Since then, new ideas implemented in new algorithms are leading to new insights.

  15. Ten-Year Study of a Wilson's Disease Dysarthric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda Susan; Parnell, Martha M.

    1987-01-01

    The 10-year longitudinal case study describes the history, speech therapy program, and treatment results for an adult male with Wilson's disease, a genetically based metabolic progressive neurological disorder which includes severe speech problems. (DB)

  16. Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Barder, Helene E.; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn R.; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan O.; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor K.; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan I.; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year longitudinal neurocognitive development in a sample of FEP patients, and explore whether the trajectories of cognitive course are related to presence of relapse to psychosis, especially within the first year, with a focus on the course of verbal memory. Method: Forty-three FEP subjects (51% male, 28 ± 9 years) were followed-up neurocognitively over five assessments spanning 10 years. The test battery was divided into four neurocognitive indices; Executive Function, Verbal Learning, Motor Speed, and Verbal Fluency. The sample was grouped into those relapsing or not within the first, second and fifth year. Results: The four neurocognitive indices showed overall stability over the 10 year period. Significant relapse by index interactions were found for all indices except Executive Function. Follow-up analyses identified a larger significant decrease over time for the encoding measure within Verbal Memory for patients with psychotic relapse in the first year [F(4, 38) = 5.8, p = 0.001, η2 = 0.40]. Conclusions: Main findings are long-term stability in neurocognitive functioning in FEP patients, with the exception of verbal memory in patients with psychotic relapse or non-remission early in the course of illness. We conclude that worsening of specific parts of cognitive function may be expected for patients with on-going psychosis, but that the majority of patients do not show significant change in cognitive performance during the first 10 years after being diagnosed. PMID:24109449

  17. Ten-year follow-up of a giant prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Vera; Santos, Maria Joana; Almeida, Rui; Marques, Olinda

    2015-01-01

    Giant prolactinomas are rare pituitary tumours of which management can be a challenge. A 28-year-old man presented with headaches, visual impairment and behavioural changes. Clinically, the patient was found to have hypogonadism and bitemporal hemianopsia. A MRI demonstrated a pituitary tumour 76 mm in diameter and blood tests revealed a serum prolactin of 158,700 µU/mL (reference range 58-254). Initially, a craniotomy was performed. Immunohistochemistry of the tumour identified a prolactinoma with a high proliferative index and the patient was started on treatment with a dopamine agonist. A year later, neurological symptoms worsened due to regrowth of the lesion's cystic component, and so further surgery was performed. After 10 years of treatment with dopamine agonists, the prolactin levels decreased by 96.8%, there was an effective reduction in tumour size, and the neurological signs and symptoms resolved. PMID:26590188

  18. The Higher Education Prison Program: The First Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Patricia L.

    The first 10 years of operation of the college-in-prison program in Massachussetts and characteristics of participating offenders were assessed. College credit courses have been offered to inmates in adult corrections facilities by The University of Massachusetts at Boston through a program called the Higher Education Prison Program (HEPP).…

  19. National Core Indicators: Ten Years of Collaborative Performance Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Valerie J.; Moseley, Chas

    2007-01-01

    In the past 10 years, people have witnessed significant changes in the nature and extent of the publicly financed systems of services and supports for individuals with developmental disabilities and their families. Growing service needs, declining state revenues, mounting pressures on federal and state Medicaid budgets, and heightened federal…

  20. Reflections on Ten Years of the Commonwealth of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhanarajan, Gajaraj

    This document reviews the 10-year history of the Commonwealth of Learning (COL), which is an intergovernmental organization that was created by Commonwealth of Nations heads of government to encourage the development and sharing of open learning and distance education knowledge, resources, and technologies. The following are among the topics…

  1. Chandra: Ten Years of Amazing Science with a Great Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    We review briefly review the history of the development of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, highlighting certain details that many attendees of this Conference might not be aware of. We then present a selection of scientific highlights of the first 10 years of this remarkable and unique mission.

  2. Ten Years down the Road: Predictors of Driving Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Bart, Edward; O'Connor, Melissa L.; Cissell, Gayla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Recent prospective studies have found that cognition is a more salient predictor of driving cessation than physical performance or demographic factors among community-dwelling older adults. However, these studies have been limited to 5 years of follow-up. The current study used data from the Maryland Older Drivers Project to examine…

  3. Computing Trends in Small Liberal Arts Colleges: Ten Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter

    Forty-one small liberal arts colleges were visited during the 1997-98 school year in order to talk to key information technology staff and to see computing facilities. A survey containing 15 factual and 10 open-ended questions was used to gather information. This paper presents findings in the following areas and comparison with results of a…

  4. Ten Years of Cybertech: The Educational Benefits of Bullfighting Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernando, M.; Galan, R.; Navarro, I.; Rodriguez-Losada, D.

    2011-01-01

    After 10 years of organizing the Cybertech robotics competition, this paper presents this unique and innovative educational experience of teaching engineering at Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Spain. Cybertech is not only a well-known robotic contest in Spain due to the "Robotaurus" bullfighting, but is also a whole academic activity…

  5. Reculturing Educational Leadership: The ISLLC Standards Ten Years Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    Over the last 25 years, the field of school administration has experienced turmoil as it has struggled to grow out of its adolescence. A good deal of energy has been invested in coming to grips with the question of what ideas should shape school administration. This paper chronicles the role of one of the most significant reshaping initiatives to…

  6. Ten Years Later: Locating and Interviewing Children of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggerty, Kevin P.; Fleming, Charles B.; Catalano, Richard F.; Petrie, Renee S.; Rubin, Ronald J.; Grassley, Mary H.

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal studies require high follow-up rates in order to maintain statistical power, reduce bias, and enhance the generalizability of results. This study reports on locating and survey completion for a 10-year follow-up of the Focus on Families project, an investigation of 130 families headed by parents who were enrolled in methadone…

  7. Ten years after the embargo: efficiency versus recession

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year review of the ''Energy Crisis'' years focuses primarily on the issue of energy conservation. The paper stresses the changing definition of the energy crisis from oil import insecurity to economic insecurity, and explores in each energy-consuming sector of the economy the major trends of energy demand over the last decade and the special impact of our changing energy climate on the poor. The report concludes that the US has made significant progress towards adjusting to a new era of expensive energy, but that progress is small relative to the potential for cost-effective energy conservation investments and energy savings. The major challenge still involves stimulating the marketplace to capture these savings through investments rather than through reductions in our standard of living or economic growth. The need remains to assist those who lack the funds for such investments so they can reduce the financial drain of energy waste. 31 tables.

  8. The medicine and public health initiative ten years later.

    PubMed

    Beitsch, Leslie M; Brooks, Robert G; Glasser, Jay H; Coble, Yank D

    2005-08-01

    The Medicine and Public Health Initiative (MPHI) was created jointly 10 years ago by the American Medical Association and the American Public Health Association to bridge the nearly century-wide gulf between the respective disciplines. We review the history of MPHI and its growing significance in light of recent terrorism events. We report on current MPHI activities by examining three bellwether states-California, Florida, and Texas-as well as international sites. Upon its inception, MPHI was rapidly embraced and nationally disseminated. Sustainability 10 years later in the post-911 world requires renewed commitment by all collaborators. In order to meet the numerous health challenges facing our nation, from terrorism to chronic disease, and for MPHI to be successful, medicine and public health must work in tandem. PMID:16005812

  9. Scientific achievements from ten years of lunar laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    In the 10 years since lunar laser ranging became a reality the need to analyze the observations has motivated improvements in several aspects of the mathematical model of earth-moon dynamics. Application of the data to improved estimates of the physical parameters of the earth-moon system has yielded significant astronomical, selenophysical, geophysical, and cosmological results. The scientific impact, both in improved theories and in numerical applications, is surveyed. The underlying physics and major difficulties are discussed, as well as the scientific results.

  10. Ten years of Developing International Volcanology Graduate Study Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, W. I.

    2010-12-01

    In 2000 I reported at this symposium about multi-institutional graduate field trips to IAVCEI events, such as the Bali meeting and its importance in building international collegiality and awareness among the volcanology doctoral students. NSF was an enthusiastic supporter of these field sessions and this support has continued through the highly successful Pucon and Reykjavik sessions. International volcanology graduate program development began with several exchange programs. EHaz was a highly successful program (McGill, Simon Fraser, Michigan Tech, Buffalo, UNAM and Universidad de Colima) funded by the Department of Education (FIPSE) that moved students across North America where dozens of graduate students spent semesters of their study abroad and shared annual field trips and online student led graduate seminar classes. Michigan Tech’s volcanology graduate program started a Masters International program that combined Peace Corps service with hazards mitigation graduate study and students were placed by Peace Corps in countries with prominent natural hazards. The new program funded 2 year residences in foreign environments, principally in Pacific Latin America. NSF strongly supported this program from its inception, and eventually it gained NSF PIRE support. Dozens of students have initiated the 3 year program (15 completed) to date. A similar PIRE developed at UAF with a link to volcanology in the Russian Far East. One gain is the development of many socially-conscious research selections. Beginning this year transatlantic dual degree masters programs in volcanology are being offered by a consortium of US and European volcanology programs (Michigan Tech, Buffalo, Clermont Ferrand and University of Milan Bicocca), again aided by FIPSE funding. Students have dual advisors on both sides of the Atlantic and spend about half of their two year programs in Europe and half in US. Faculty also travel in the program and the four campuses are increasingly linked by

  11. The Catholic School under Scrutiny: Ten Years of Research in Italy (1998-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malizia, Guglielmo; Cicatelli, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book delineates the evolution of the Study Centre for Catholic Schools (CSSC) in its first ten years of existence since its foundation in 1998 by the Italian Bishops' Conference. The volume is divided into three main sections. The first outlines the context and the activity of the CSSC during ten years: the role, the functions, the tasks and…

  12. Methadone-related deaths. A ten year overview.

    PubMed

    Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Morini, Luca; Pozzi, Fulvia; Groppi, Angelo

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 10 years we have registered in our district (about 500,000 inhabitants) 36 cases of fatal methadone poisoning, involving both patients on treatment and naive subjects: this is a significant increase of deaths due to methadone use, misuse or abuse compared with previous years. Twenty-four patients (66.7%) were on methadone maintenance programs for heroin detoxification, while 12 (33.3%) were taking the drug without a medical prescription. The average blood concentration of methadone in patients undergoing a maintenance program was 1.06 mg/L (0.21-3.37 mg/L), against 0.79 mg/L (0.2-3.15 mg/L) in those taking the non-prescribed drug. Since 111 heroin-related deaths were recorded in our district in the same period, the fact that there appear to be many methadone deaths (about a third of heroin-related deaths) cannot be overlooked. The aim of this work is to understand the possible reasons for such a large number of methadone-related deaths. On this subject, we have noticed that risks associated with methadone intake are often underestimated by clinicians prescribing the drug: sometimes methadone is prescribed without taking into account patient's tolerance to opiates, and a large number of subjects enrolled in methadone maintenance programs in Italy, have also been given take-home doses, thus increasing the risk of abuse and diversion. PMID:26360592

  13. Alcohol Intoxication in Pediatric Age: Ten-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bitunjac, Kristina; Saraga, Marijan

    2009-01-01

    Aim To examine the changes in the number of children younger than 18 who were hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Split, from November 1, 1997 to October 31, 2007. Methods Data on children hospitalized due to intoxication were retrieved from hospital medical records. Children were classified into 4 age groups: 0-5, 6-9, 10-13, and 14-18 years, and their sex and type of intoxication were recorded. For children with alcohol intoxication, data on time of intoxication, reason for drinking, presence of injuries or suspected suicide attempts, and possible presence of other drugs in the organism were collected. Results Out of 29 506 hospitalized children, 594 were hospitalized due to intoxications. Out of these, 239 (40.2%) were hospitalized due to intoxication by alcohol. More boys than girls were hospitalized (71.1%). The proportion of alcohol intoxication cases among all types of intoxication cases increased from 16.7% in 1997/98 to 66.3% in 2006/07. The proportion of patients hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication increased from 0.3% of all hospitalized children in the first year to 1.7% in the last year of the study (P = 0.015, z test for comparison of two proportions). Eighty two per cent of cases of alcohol intoxication were in the 14-18 age-group. The number of alcohol intoxication cases increased among girls from 1 case (6.3% of all intoxication cases among girls) in 1997/98 to 15 cases (45.5%) in 2006/07, while among boys it increased from 6 cases (23.1% of all intoxicated boys) in 1997/98 to 44 cases (78.6%) in 2006/07. Children usually drank outside their homes (79.4%) and mostly on weekends and holidays (73.2%). Conclusion The alarming increase in the number of hospitalizations due to alcohol intoxication in children, especially among girls and in the adolescent age group, represents a serious problem, which requires further attention and research. PMID:19399948

  14. Ten years of HPV vaccines: State of art and controversies.

    PubMed

    Angioli, Roberto; Lopez, Salvatore; Aloisi, Alessia; Terranova, Corrado; De Cicco, Carlo; Scaletta, Giuseppe; Capriglione, Stella; Miranda, Andrea; Luvero, Daniela; Ricciardi, Roberto; Montera, Roberto; Plotti, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) represents one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and it has been related to cervical cancer. The HPV vaccines prevent infection with certain species of HPV associated with the development of cervical cancer or genital warts. We carried out a PubMed search up to 2015 evaluating all randomized studies published in literature. This review discusses the current status of HPVs vaccines on the global market, efficacy, safety profiles, controversies and future vaccine developments. Three HPVs vaccines are currently on the global market: bivalent, quadrivalent and ninevalent. Bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines can protect against almost 70% of cervical HPV-related cancerous and precancerous conditions and the ninevalent vaccine, instead, provides a protection against almost 90%. The use of vaccinations raised several controversies in the last years and, currently, is not possible to establish which type of vaccine is most effective, however all of them are safe. PMID:27066937

  15. [After ten years of AIDS, a vision emanating from feminism].

    PubMed

    Liguori, A L

    1991-01-01

    AIDS and the economic crisis in Mexico are threatening the epidemiologic transition in which infectious diseases ceased to be the only major cause of death and chronic degenerative diseases began to account for a growing proportion of deaths. Many factors combined to produce the sexual, gay, and women's liberation movements beginning in the 1970s. At the beginning of the feminist movement, women proposed different kinds of interpersonal relations both between women and with men. Women together realized their rights to control their own bodies, to sexual enjoyment, to abortion, and to free themselves of feelings of shame and guilt. The weight of moral pressures was lessened and the personal desires of the woman assumed a greater role in selection of sexual partners. Conservative forces grew stronger in the 1980s, and the proliferation of sexually transmitted diseases began to imperil the sexual revolution. But these setbacks were minor compared to AIDS. Now, 10 years after its appearance, it is clear that AIDS is not limited to homosexual men. The number of cases in Mexico increased from none 10 years ago to some 10,000 estimated cases reported and unreported today. 1/6 of the cases are in women. Many women and heterosexuals felt immune from AIDS in the beginning, and some still do, but many more have become aware of the danger. Women now fear contracting AIDS, but they also fear confronting their partners to suggest that they use condoms. Denial may play a role, but deeply rooted cultural factors that women may recognize but fee powerless to change may also be at play. Many women over 30 have difficulty taking the initiative in sexual matters. They are embarrassed to buy condoms and even more embarrassed to propose their use. They imagine that men will consider them "loose" if they carry condoms. Mexican women are poorly prepared to tell their men explicitly what they want sexually, and Mexican men are also poorly equipped to ask what women want, accustomed as they

  16. Chernobyl and Bhopal ten years on comparisons and contrasts

    SciTech Connect

    Grimston, M.C.

    1997-03-01

    Within eighteen months in mid- 1980s, two of the most serious industrial accidents in history occurred. At Bhopal, capital of Madhya Pradesh in central India, in the early hours of December 3, 1984, an explosion occurred at Union Carbide of India Ltd (UCIL)`s methyl isocyanate plant. Some 40 tonnes of a complex chemical mixture were released, causing several thousand deaths and hundreds of thousands of injuries. At Chernobyl in the north of Ukraine, then part of the USSR, in the early hours of April 26, 1986, an explosion at a state-owned nuclear power plant caused the release of some 6 tonnes (possibly more) of radioactive materials. The {open_quote}immediate{close_quote} death toll was much lower than at Bhopal. The usually-quoted figure of 30, all of whom were on site in the immediate aftermath of the explosion, includes two who died on site from burns and falling masonry and 28 who died within the following few weeks from Acute Radiation Syndrome. (Another person on site died of a heart attack, which it is difficult to associate directly with the accident.) However, the effects of the accident were widespread, especially in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and theoretical calculations suggest that further illness and premature deaths are to be expected for several years to come. This paper compares and contrasts these two accidents. There are striking similarities.

  17. [Ten years of nucleic acid testing: lessons and prospects].

    PubMed

    Morel, P

    2011-04-01

    Nucleic acid testing has been routinely performed in all blood donations in France since July 1st 2001. This is the story of a controversial decision. "The unacceptable HIV risk" in the context of the early 2000s influenced the decision. The results achieved over these past 10 years are analyzed given the expected progress of this new screening tool for infectious agents in transfusion. They confirm the relevance of models used by experts in 2000. Out of 22.3 million donations over the period (2001-2009), 22 donations have been rejected because of nucleic acid testing positive for hepatitis C virus (n=11) and human immunodeficiency virus (n=11). Nucleic acid testing has contributed to improve the functioning of the transfusion chain activities in order to ensure the availability of blood products. In terms of reactivity against emerging infectious agents, its role in the West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak is exemplary, but it did not play a similar role in crises of the same order. ALT determination has been stopped thanks to nucleic acid testing. The risk of contamination of the method by amplification products has been confirmed and caution is still required. Nucleic acid testing is being maintained and reached a new milestone in 2010 with the implementation of a full automated system, meanwhile pool screening was given up and hepatitis B virus screening became widespread. Nucleic acid tests will probably be revised when all blood products are pathogen-inactivated. PMID:21397544

  18. Ten year clinical experience with stroke and cerebral vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Kempster, Peter A; McLean, Catriona A; Phan, Thanh G

    2016-05-01

    Angiitis of the central nervous system (CNS) is difficult to diagnose but potentially fatal. When stroke occurs in a younger individual or is associated with multiple infarcts on imaging, clinicians must decide how far to pursue a possible diagnosis of vasculitis. The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of primary and secondary cerebral angiitis among patients presenting with stroke. Hospital attendances over a 10year period were surveyed by searching for diagnostic codes and key words specific for cerebral vasculitis/angiitis. Case notes were reviewed by the authors using two sets of criteria for angiitis of the CNS. Thirty-two patients were initially considered likely to have cerebral angiitis by treating physicians. Thirteen had been admitted to hospital with stroke. During this period, there were 7475 admissions for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Six patients had a final diagnosis of vasculitic stroke but only one had definite CNS angiitis with a first presentation as ischaemic stroke (0.02%). Most patients who did have cerebral vasculitis developed multifocal or subacute neurological deficits, or already had an immunological disorder known to be associated with secondary CNS angiitis. Of 19 patients given an alternative final diagnosis, the most common were atherosclerotic/embolic cerebrovascular disease (n=9) and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (n=7). Stroke is rarely the first manifestation of cerebral vasculitis. Our findings suggest that routine screening for angiitis in stroke patients may not be warranted. PMID:26778046

  19. Ten-years experience of laser use in aesthetic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulev, Valerii S.; Dobrjakova, Olga B.; Dobrjakov, Boris S.

    2001-10-01

    A collaboration of the laser physicist and aesthetic surgeons has started 10 years ago. Within the period 1992 - 2000 we have carried out the investigation of the influence of the pulsed radiation, emitted by lasers having as active mediums crystals of the aluminum-yttrium garnet and alexandrite, on the cultures of the alive tissue and the fibrosis capsules around foreign bodies in the animals. Besides, we have studied the clinical protocol: in majority, patients were women after mammary augmentation. The laser tatoo non-invasive removals were marked at the beginning of the pulse of the Q-switch neodymium yttrium-aluminum garnet laser radiation used in human. It was obtained that this laser radiation broke the cell proliferation without any mutations and morphology changes. It was also noticed much evidence that the high functional fibroblast activities were registered in fibrosis capsules of not exposed animals to the laser radiation. It was also noticed that the use of laser radiation affected the speed and quality of the productive inflammation. The softening of the fibrous capsule around the mammary implant and the reduction of the pronounced rubbers were the clinical effects of the laser radiation.

  20. Ten years on: generating innovative responses to avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Forster, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Since 2006, the number of recorded H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks has declined globally, but at mid-2012 the disease was enzootic in six countries in Asia and Africa, and sporadic outbreaks continue over a wide area. It is now accepted that it will take decades to eliminate the H5N1 virus in poultry and 'unconventional' response approaches have been called for. Drawing on increased understandings of the epizoosis over the last 10 years, this paper investigates what conditions are required if such innovative approaches are to be generated. It argues that addressing the spread and persistence of avian influenza is primarily a political matter, and if approaches appropriate for enzooticity are to be devised, the social, political, and economic dynamics of the disease and responses to it need to be identified and prioritised. A dominant response strategy focused on outbreak events, containment and eradication has obscured these important dynamics. If innovative 'unconventional' responses are to be generated, a wider range of perspectives and expertise needs to be engaged. This will result in political processes of negotiation, which the technically led, development-orientated institutions directing and funding the global response are ill-equipped to facilitate. PMID:24337506

  1. Embryo stem cell research: ten years of controversy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, John A

    2010-01-01

    This overview of 10 years of stem cell controversy reviews the moral conflict that has made ESCs so controversial and how this conflict plays itself out in the legal realm, focusing on the constitutional status of efforts to ban ESC research or ESC-derived therapies. It provides a history of the federal funding debate from the Carter to the Obama administrations, and the importance of the Raab memo in authorizing federal funding for research with privately derived ESCs despite the Dickey-Wicker ban on federal funding of embryo research. It also reviews the role that scientists themselves have played in developing regulations for ESC research, the emergence of ESCROs as special review bodies for ESC research, and the thorough consent requirements for donation of IVF embryos to ESC research. With research now transitioning from the lab to the clinic, the article reviews the challenges of ensuring safety and consent in translational research. It concludes with a call for respecting those persons who have to using or working with ESC products and an account of how obtaining stem cells from a person's own cells will alleviate some but not all of the controversy surrounding ESC research. PMID:20579242

  2. Ten years of tiotropium: clinical impact and patient perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yohannes, Abebaw M; Connolly, Martin J; Hanania, Nicola A

    2013-01-01

    Tiotropium bromide is an anticholinergic agent that has gained worldwide acceptance as a first-line, once daily maintenance therapy for patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the evidence base in the past 10 years on the development of tiotropium and its efficacy compared to other able interventions such as long-acting beta agonists (LABAs), as well as to assess its safety profile and its effects on health-related outcomes in patients with COPD. Treatment with tiotropium bromide has generally improved patients’ health-related quality of life, reduced the number of patients suffering from acute exacerbations, decreased the number of hospitalizations, improved dyspnea, and reduced adverse events compared to placebo. In the past decade, several studies have examined the safety and efficacy of tiotropium in comparison to placebo and to LABAs (salmeterol, formoterol, and indacaterol) over periods ranging from 3 months to 48 months of follow-up. Head-to-head comparisons of tiotropium 18 μg (once daily) with salmeterol 50 μg (twice daily) in well-controlled trials demonstrated that tiotropium was superior in reducing acute exacerbation events and in improving quality of life. In a few short-term studies, indacaterol was comparable to tiotropium in its efficacy in improving health-related outcomes. Although the safety record of tiotropium has been exemplary in comparison to placebo, anticholinergic events such as dry mouth can be encountered in some patients. While the long-term safety of tiotropium when delivered in the HandiHaler® has been well documented, its delivery using the Respimat® Soft Mist Inhaler™ was associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular complications, including increased mortality when compared to placebo. The exact mechanism for this is not known but is being investigated in a large multinational study that will evaluate the long-term safety of different doses

  3. Radiation therapy of penile cancer: six to ten-year follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Grabstald, H.; Kelley, C.D.

    1980-06-01

    Ten patients with penile cancer were treated with radiation therapy between 1968 and 1973. Nine of ten remain free of disease though in 1 patient a new penile primary developed eight years after the radiation therapy and was treated by partial penectomy. One patient died following surgery for ''bleeding ulcer.'' He was free of penile cancer five years after radiation. The most common complication is urethral stricture and skin telangiectasia.

  4. Network analyzer for nonstatic jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Unjeng

    1989-06-01

    The survivability of a packet radio network (PRNET) under jamming attack is an important issue. The goal of this research is to develop the analytical methods for understanding as well as predicting the behavior of PRNETs under various jamming conditions. Jamming can be stationary or nonstationary. For the stationary jamming, the jamming strategy is fixed, but it can be described stochastically. For instance, we may say that a node is jammed with probability 0.5 in each slot. Therefore, although the jamming strategy is fixed, the actual jamming pattern changes from slot to slot. A subclass of the stationary jamming is the static jamming, where the jamming pattern is fixed. For the nonstationary jamming, the jamming strategy changes from time to time. A subclass of the nonstationary jamming is the nonstatic jamming, where a fixed jamming pattern is applied in each block of time, but the jamming pattern changes from block to block. We analyzed the behavior of PRNETs under static jamming attack in our previous report. In this report, we introduce a method of analyzing the PRNET behavior under the nonstatic jamming attack. The analytical results for the static jamming attack scenario were presented in our previous report for both the transmitter-based code and the receiver-based code networks. The numerical results were given only for the receiver-based code case. Simulations were performed to verify the accuracy of the analytical approach.

  5. Jamming in Vertical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, G. William; Steel, Fiona

    2011-03-01

    We study jamming of low aspect-ratio cylindrical Delrin grains in a vertical channel. Grain heights are less than their diameter so the grains resemble antacid tablets, coins, or poker chips. These grains are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section where the channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. Grains are sometimes observed to form jams, stable structures supported by the channel walls with no support beneath them. The probability of jam occurrence and the strength or robustness of a jam is effected by grain and channel sizes. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability and jam strength in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories. Supported by an Undergraduate Research Grant from Penn State Erie, The Behrend College.

  6. Jamming in Vertical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, G. William; McCausland, Jeffrey; Steel, Fiona

    2010-03-01

    We experimentally study jamming of cylindrical grains in a vertical channel. The grains have a low aspect-ratio (height/diameter < 1) so their shape is like antacid tablets or poker chips. They are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section. The channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. It is observed that grains sometimes jam in this apparatus. In a jam, grains form a stable structure from one side of the channel to the other with nothing beneath them. Jams may be strong enough to support additional grains above. The probability of a jam occurring is a function of the grain height and diameter. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.

  7. Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    "Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education" in the United States is the tenth annual report on the state of online learning in U.S. higher education. The survey is designed, administered and analyzed by the Babson Survey Research Group. Data collection is conducted in partnership with the College Board. This year's study, like those…

  8. DITTY - a computer program for calculating population dose integrated over ten thousand years

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.

    1986-03-01

    The computer program DITTY (Dose Integrated Over Ten Thousand Years) was developed to determine the collective dose from long term nuclear waste disposal sites resulting from the ground-water pathways. DITTY estimates the time integral of collective dose over a ten-thousand-year period for time-variant radionuclide releases to surface waters, wells, or the atmosphere. This document includes the following information on DITTY: a description of the mathematical models, program designs, data file requirements, input preparation, output interpretations, sample problems, and program-generated diagnostic messages.

  9. Jamitons: Phantom Traffic Jams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowszun, Jorj

    2013-01-01

    Traffic on motorways can slow down for no apparent reason. Sudden changes in speed by one or two drivers can create a chain reaction that causes a traffic jam for the vehicles that are following. This kind of phantom traffic jam is called a "jamiton" and the article discusses some of the ways in which traffic engineers produce…

  10. Indirect composite restorations luted with two different procedures: A ten years follow up clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Preti, Alessandro; Vano, Michele; Derchi, Giacomo; Mangani, Francesco; Cerutti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate posterior indirect composite resin restoration ten years after placement luted with two different procedures. Study Design: In 23 patients 22 inlays/onlays (Group A) were luted using a dual-cured resin composite cement and 26 inlays/onlays (Group B) were luted using a light cured resin composite for a total of 48 Class I and Class II indirect composite resin inlays and onlays. The restorations were evaluated at 2 time points: 1) one week after placement (baseline evaluation) and 2) ten years after placement using the modified USPHS criteria. The Mann-Whitney and the Wilcoxon tests were used to examine the difference between the results of the baseline and 10 years evaluation for each criteria. Results: Numerical but not statistically significant differences were noted on any of the recorded clinical parameters (p>0.05) between the inlay/onlays of Group A and Group B. 91% and 94 % of Group A and B respectively were rated as clinically acceptable in all the evaluated criteria ten years after clinical function. Conclusions: Within the limits of the study the results showed after ten years of function a comparable clinical performance of indirect composite resin inlays/onlays placed with a light cure or dual cure luting procedures. Key words:Light curing composite, dual curing composite, indirect composite restoration, inlays/onlays, clinical trial. PMID:25810842

  11. Theory-Based Evaluation: Reflections Ten Years On. Theory-Based Evaluation: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Patricia J.; Weiss, Carol H.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter begins with a brief introduction by Rogers, in which she highlights the continued salience of Carol Weiss's decade-old questions about theory-based evaluation. Theory-based evaluation has developed significantly since Carol Weiss's chapter was first published ten years ago. In 1997 Weiss pointed to theory-based evaluation being mostly…

  12. Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

  13. Educational Virtual Environments: A Ten-Year Review of Empirical Research (1999-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Natsis, Antonis

    2011-01-01

    This study is a ten-year critical review of empirical research on the educational applications of Virtual Reality (VR). Results show that although the majority of the 53 reviewed articles refer to science and mathematics, researchers from social sciences also seem to appreciate the educational value of VR and incorporate their learning goals in…

  14. TOJDE: Electronic Publishing and a Review of Ten Years' Experience in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozarslan, Yasin; Balaban-Sali, Jale; Demiray, Ugur

    2012-01-01

    This review examines "The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education" (TOJDE) over a ten years period from 2000-2010. The study provides an opportunity to examine publishing activities such as number of published articles, authors, research topics and methods, and analyses of TOJDE's website such as time users stay on site and user profiles.…

  15. Teacher Professional Development in "Teaching and Teacher Education" over Ten Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalos, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    A review of publications in "Teaching and Teacher Education" over ten years (2000-2010) on teacher professional development is the subject of the paper. The first part synthesises production referred to learning, facilitation and collaboration, factors influencing professional development, effectiveness of professional development and issues…

  16. "Ten Years On": Making Children Visible in Teacher Education and Ways of Reading Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Catherine; Cunningham, Peter

    2011-01-01

    "Ten Years On" is a 30-minute video documentary discovered in the course of researching progressive primary education, school architecture and pedagogy. It was locally produced for professional rather than commercial use at a significant historical moment for educational politics and primary practice. Here, we explore the possibilities of using…

  17. Quality of Life in South Africa--The First Ten Years of Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    South Africa celebrated ten years of democracy in 2004. This special issue of "Social Indicators Research" ("SIR") reviews developments that have impacted on the quality of life of ordinary South Africans during the transition period. The issue updates an earlier volume of "SIR" (Volume 41) published in 1997 and as a stand-alone volume. The…

  18. Ten Years on: Does Graduate Student Promise Predict Later Scientific Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, Nick; Laham, Simon M.

    2009-01-01

    We examined publication records of 60 social psychologists to determine whether publication record at the time of the PhD (t0) predicted scientific achievement (publication quantity, quality, and impact) ten years later (t10). Publication quantity and quality each correlated moderately across this time-span. Productivity and impact at t10 were…

  19. Adoption of Educational Technology Ten Years after Setting Strategic Goals: A Canadian University Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, George; Xu, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Through surveys, focus groups and interviews, this study examines technology adoption at a large Canadian university ten years after setting a strategic plan, explores the interplay between instructors' concepts of teaching and use of technology, and searches for the best solutions to help them use technology more effectively. Results showed that…

  20. Over Ten Years after the Implementation of the Teacher's Law: Watching and Expecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yin

    2006-01-01

    It has been over ten years since the "Teacher's Law" took effect on January 1, 1994, and its promulgation and implementation have somewhat helped in protecting teachers' legal rights and interests. Undeniably, however, the "Teacher's Law" is defective in many aspects, such as the absence of teachers' legal identity, its failure to safeguard a…

  1. Mathematical Skills in Undergraduate Students. A Ten-Year Survey of a Plant Physiology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llamas, A.; Vila, F.; Sanz, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the health and life sciences and many other scientific disciplines, problem solving depends on mathematical skills. However, significant deficiencies are commonly found in this regard in undergraduate students. In an attempt to understand the underlying causes, and to improve students' performances, this article describes a ten-year survey…

  2. A rare suicidal case of a ten-year-old child stabbing himself in the throat.

    PubMed

    Hasekura, H; Fukushima, H; Yonemura, I; Ota, M

    1985-10-01

    A rare case is reported of a ten-year-old boy who committed suicide by stabbing himself in the throat with a pointed knife. Possibility of an accidental injury was excluded by the autopsy findings; suspicion of a homicide by his father was cleared through the deposition of his sister. The reason of suicide was attributed directly to his father's severe scolding and indirectly to his mother's death two years before. PMID:4067552

  3. Ten years of replantation surgery at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Charles University Hospital, Prague.

    PubMed

    Kletenský, J; Nejedlý, A; Pros, Z; Svoboda, S; Tvrdek, M

    1994-01-01

    The authors present results of the ten years replantation surgery centre at the department of plastic surgery in Prague. The presented series of patients includes 393 persons operated on because of amputation or ischaemic injury to the region of the upper extremity. The number of replantations and revascularisations in the individual years is analysed, as well as the age of the patients, type of injury, mechanism of injury and operation results. PMID:7618394

  4. Propellant/material compatibility program and results: Ten-year milestones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, C.; Bjorkland, R.

    1982-01-01

    The analyses and results of a test program to establish the effects of long term (10 years or more) contact of materials with earth-storable propellants for the purpose of designing chemical propulsion system components which are used for current as well as future planetary spacecraft are described. The period from the publication of JPL TM 33-779 IN 1976 through the testing accomplished in 1981 is covered. The following propellants are reported herein: hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Materials included the following: aluminum alloys, corrosion resistant steels and a titanium alloy. The results of the testing of more than 80 specimens are included. Material ratings relative to the ten year milepost were assigned. Some evidence of propellant decomposition was found. Titanium is rated as acceptable for ten year applications. Aluminum and stainless steel alloys are also rated as acceptable with few restrictions.

  5. Ten-year results of a press-fit, porous-coated acetabular component.

    PubMed

    Grobler, G P; Learmonth, I D; Bernstein, B P; Dower, B J

    2005-06-01

    We retrospectively reviewed, ten years after surgery, 100 consecutive total hip replacements in which the Duraloc 300 cup had been used. Post-operative radiographs were analysed for placement of the cup and interface gaps and follow-up radiographs for lucent lines, osteolysis, wear and migration. All the components were found to be stable with no evidence of loosening. The mean rate of wear was 0.12 mm/year. Three hips developed acetabular osteolysis at the level of the apex hole. Two have successfully undergone bone grafting without removal of the implants and one patient is awaiting surgery. The Duraloc 300 cup has a survival of 100% at ten years with no aseptic loosening and a low incidence of pelvic osteolysis. PMID:15911659

  6. Fragile granular jamming

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, Michael K; Ecke, Robert E; Bandi, Mahesh M; Kzakala, Florent

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that the route to a jammed state for a set of bi-dispersed frictional disks, subjected to uni-axial compression from a random initial unjammed state, consists of a consolidation state, a fragile jammed state, and finally a rigid jammed state. In the consolidation regime, the pressure on the sides increases very slowly with the packing fraction {phi} and there are no detectable stress chains. In the fragile jammed state, stress chains are visible, the pressure increases exponentially with {phi}, and the fraction of moving disks drops exponentially. Eventually, a final regime where particle displacements are below our resolution and the pressure varies approximately linearly with {phi} is reached. We argue that this scenario is generic for ather mal frictional compressed particles.

  7. Contamination Control Changes to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program: A Ten Year Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushman, David M.

    1998-01-01

    During the post Challenger period, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Thiokol implemented changes to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) contract to include provisions for contamination control to enhance the production environment. During the ten years since those agreements for contamination controls were made, many changes have taken place in the production facilities at Thiokol. These changes have led to the production of much higher quality shuttle solid rocket motors and improved cleanliness and safety of operations in the production facilities. The experience in contamination control over this past decade highlights the value these changes have brought to the RSRM program, and how the system can be improved to meet the challenges the program will face in the next ten years.

  8. [Ten years of literature review in general internal medicine--a first assessment].

    PubMed

    Pasche, O; Senn, N; Bugnon, O; Cornuz, J; Bodenmann, P

    2015-01-21

    A group of family physicians in an outpatient clinic in Switzerland prospectively followed scientific literature for ten years. What to remember among the numerous articles retrieved and which paper really changed our practice? If many readings are quickly forgotten, some of them marked our minds and changed our habits. This article is a summary of our efforts to keep the essential tools in clinical practice. PMID:25831612

  9. Massachusetts Health Reform At Ten Years: Great Progress, But Coverage Gaps Remain.

    PubMed

    Long, Sharon K; Skopec, Laura; Shelto, Audrey; Nordahl, Katharine; Walsh, Kaitlyn Kenney

    2016-09-01

    Massachusetts's 2006 health reform legislation was intended to move the state to near-universal health insurance coverage and to improve access to affordable health care. Ten years on, a large body of research demonstrates sustained gains in coverage. But many vulnerable populations and communities in the state have high uninsurance rates, and among those with coverage, gaps in access and affordability persist. PMID:27605643

  10. 78 FR 46552 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Colorado Springs AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Colorado Springs area for the carbon monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS)....

  11. Idaho National Laboratory 2013-2022 Ten-Year Site Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin Ozaki; Sheryl L. Morton; Elizabeth A. Connell; William T. Buyers; Craig L. Jacobson; Charles T. Mullen; Christopher P. Ischay; Ernest L. Fossum; Robert D. Logan

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Ten-Year Site Plan (TYSP) describes the strategy for accomplishing the long-term objective of transforming the laboratory to meet Department of Energy (DOE) national nuclear research and development (R&D) goals, as outlined in DOE strategic plans. The plan links R&D mission goals and INL core capabilities with infrastructure requirements (single- and multi-program), establishs the 10-year end-state vision for INL complexes, and identifies and prioritizes infrastructure needs and capability gaps. The TYSP serves as the basis for documenting and justifying infrastructure investments proposed as part of the FY 2013 budget formulation process.

  12. Analysis of web-related threats in ten years of logs from a scientific portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Rafael D. C.; Grégio, André R. A.; Raddick, Jordan; Vattki, Vamsi; Szalay, Alex

    2012-06-01

    SkyServer is an Internet portal to data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the largest online archive of astronomy data in the world. provides free access to hundreds of millions of celestial objects for science, education and outreach purposes. Logs of accesses to SkyServer comprise around 930 million hits, 140 million web services accesses and 170 million SQL submitted queries, collected over the past 10 years. These logs also contain indications of compromise attempts on the servers. In this paper, we show some threats that were detected in ten years of stored logs, and compare them with known threats in those years. Also, we present an analysis of the evolution of those threats over these years.

  13. Ten-year forecasts of water quality in Lake Michigan using a deterministic eutrophication model

    SciTech Connect

    Lesht, B.M.

    1984-03-01

    A dynamic, deterministic lake eutrophication model was used to forecast changes in Lake Michigan water quality over a ten-year simulation period. Emphasis was placed on changes in epiliminon phytoplankton biomass and in whole-lake total phosphorus concentration in response to changes in input phosphorus loads and to variations in winter conditions. Constant-condition simulations corresponding to current, increased, and reduced loads and to mild, average, and severe winters were used to establish bounds for the projected changes in water quality. Monte Carlo-type simulations were used to estimate the variance associated with the projections. Given the assumptions and limitations inherent in the modeling process, water quality in Lake Michigan is projected to improve slightly (reduced concentrations of phytoplankton and total phosphorus) over the next ten years. Year-to-year variations are significant, however, and will depend on loading and winter conditions. The variation in the projected values associated with the assumed fluctuations in loads and winter conditions is approximately 20 percent. 25 references, 20 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Ten-Year Program Plan Fiscal Year 2005, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-01

    As reflected in the U.S. ''National Energy Policy'', nuclear energy has a strong role to play in satisfying our nation's future energy security and environmental quality needs. The desirable environmental, economic, and sustainability attributes of nuclear energy give it a cornerstone position, not only in the U.S. energy portfolio, but also in the world's future energy portfolio. Accordingly, on September 20, 2002, U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced that, ''The United States and nine other countries have agreed to develop six Generation IV nuclear energy concepts''. The Secretary also noted that the systems are expected to ''represent significant advances in economics, safety, reliability, proliferation resistance, and waste minimization''. The six systems and their broad, worldwide research and development (R&D) needs are described in ''A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'' (hereafter referred to as the Generation IV Roadmap). The first 10 years of required U.S. R&D contributions to achieve the goals described in the Generation IV Roadmap are outlined in this Program Plan.

  15. Ten-year change in plasma amyloid β levels and late-life cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Okereke, Olivia I.; Xia, Weiming; Selkoe, Dennis J.; Grodstein, Francine

    2009-01-01

    Background Plasma levels of the amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) are potential biomarkers of early cognitive impairment and decline, and of Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. Objective To relate mid-life plasma Aβ measures, and ten-year change in plasma Aβ since mid-life, to later-life cognitive decline. Design, setting, participants Plasma Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 levels were measured in 481 Nurses’ Health Study participants in late mid-life (mean age=63.6 years) and again 10 years later (mean age=74.6 years). Cognitive testing also began 10 years after the initial blood draw. Participants completed three repeated telephone-based assessments (average span=4.1 years). Multivariable linear mixed effects models were used to estimate relations of mid-life plasma Aβ-40:Aβ-42 ratios and Aβ-42 levels to later-life cognitive decline, and to relate ten-year change in Aβ-40:Aβ-42 and Aβ-42 to cognitive decline. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcomes were: the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS); a global score averaging all tests (TICS, immediate and delayed verbal recall, category fluency, and attention); and a verbal memory score averaging four tests of verbal recall. Results Higher mid-life plasma Aβ-40:Aβ-42 ratio was associated with worse later-life decline on the global score (p-trend=0.04). Furthermore, an increase in Aβ-40:Aβ-42 since mid-life predicted greater decline on the global score (p-trend=0.03) and the TICS (p-trend=0.02). There was no association between mid-life plasma Aβ-42 levels alone – or change in Aβ-42 since mid-life – and cognitive decline. Conclusions In this large community-dwelling sample, higher plasma Aβ-40:Aβ-42 ratios in late mid-life, and increases in Aβ-40:Aβ-42 ten years later, were significantly associated with greater decline in global cognition at late-life. PMID:19822780

  16. 76 FR 9786 - NIOSH Dose Reconstruction Program Ten-Year Review-Phase I Report on Customer Service; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH Dose Reconstruction Program Ten-Year... review and comment on the draft publication, ``NIOSH Dose Reconstruction Program Ten-Year Review--Phase...

  17. Dopa-Responsive Dystonia in a Ten-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Venkatesh; Mohammed, Hussain Sadiq; Riyas, Ebrahim; Murugesan, Karuppasamy

    2012-01-01

    Children with recent onset dystonia and gait abnormalities may pose a diagnostic challenge. A ten-year-old, developmentally normal girl, presented with a six-month history of gait abnormality and dystonia. Her complaint worsened as the day progressed. In view of typical diurnal variation of dystonia, a therapeutic challenge with levodopa/carbidopa was given and there was a dramatic response. Hence, a diagnosis of dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) was made. DRD is an inherited disorder characterized by dystonia with diurnal variation and favorable response to levodopa/carbidopa. The inheritance is usually autosomal dominant, however, in some cases, autosomal-recessive inheritance is also seen. PMID:24479026

  18. Frequency of serial sexual homicide victimization in Virginia for a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    McNamara, James J; Morton, Robert J

    2004-05-01

    The frequency of serial sexual murder has been widely discussed, and estimates of the number of victims in the United States range from 500 to 6000 per year. This study attempted to quantify the number of serial sexual murder victims in Virginia for a ten-year period. Multiple sources of data were utilized, including Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) case files, FBI's Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (ViCAP) reports, Virginia State Police ViCAP reports, Virginia Homicide Investigators Association, and the Virginia Division of Forensic Science DNA database, to effectively cull out all the known serial sexual murder victims for the given time period. Review of these records revealed a total of 28 victims of serial sexual murder, compared with a total of 5183 murder victims for the same ten-year period. The frequency of serial sexual victimization was 0.5% of all homicides for the given period. These results highlight the unusual frequency of serial sexual murder. PMID:15171171

  19. Scientific publications in pediatrics over the last ten years in Turkey and worldwide.

    PubMed

    Altun, Demet; Dabak, Orçun; Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu Övünç

    2015-01-01

    In keeping with the large area of interest comprised within the field of pediatrics, the number and diversity of publications in this field has gradually increased over the last ten years in our country as well as worldwide. The objective of this paper is to offer an analysis of the status of pediatrics publications during those ten years. The publications analyzed were listed in the Thomson Reuters Web of Science and/or published in journals included in the Science Citation Index, the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Sciences Citation Index. All of these publications appeared in journals in which at least one pediatrics specialist published between the years 2004 and 2013. It may be seen that Turkey is in fifth place worldwide in terms of the number of studies published in these journals, with 6,134 such publications. The conclusion is that it is necessary for more Turkish studies to be multicenter, to involve international participation and to receive more citations; importance must be attached to the objective of transforming of the knowledge produced by Turkish researchers into a greater number of publications of increased quality. PMID:26690590

  20. Aboveground production does not increase after ten years of elevated CO2 in the Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newingham, B. A.; Vanier, C. H.; Charlet, D.; Zitzer, S. F.; Smith, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) is assumed to increase primary production, particularly in desert systems through stimulatory effects on plant water-use efficiency. We examined the effects of elevated [CO2] at the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-air CO2 Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in an intact Mojave Desert ecosystem. At the NDFF, ambient and elevated [CO2] levels were 360 and 550 μmol mol-1 [CO2], respectively. CO2 treatments were applied continuously from 1997-2007 in intact plots 25 m in diameter. While other studies focused on soil and root responses to elevated [CO2], our study focused on aboveground production of annuals and perennial plants. In 1997, diameters and heights of all perennial individuals were recorded and mapped. In 2007, diameters and heights were re-measured and aboveground biomass was harvested for every mapped perennial individual. Harvest data were used to construct regressions for twenty perennial species to predict starting biomass based on diameters and heights. Annual plants were harvested yearly at peak biomass from permanent transects. We found no significant effect of elevated [CO2] on total perennial plant biomass or cover at the end of the experiment. Regardless of [CO2] treatment, perennial cover increased while total biomass did not change over the ten years of the experiment. Perennial biomass allocation to vegetative, twig and woody biomass was not differentially affected by elevated [CO2], although leaf area index increased under elevated [CO2]. Similarly, there was no consistent elevated [CO2] effect on yearly production of annual (ephemeral) plants, although an exotic grass (Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens) exhibited a higher relative stimulation in production at elevated [CO2] than did native dicot and grass species. Other studies in our research group have shown that increases in production are only seen in wet years during the ten-year period of CO2 treatments at the NDFF, and so future effects of rising [CO2] may primarily

  1. Shocks near Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; van Hecke, Martin; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they jam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit a vanishing rigidity and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are dynamically compressed and demonstrate that the elementary excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than ordinary phonons. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a surprisingly simple analytical model.

  2. Five and Ten Year Follow-up on Intradiscal Ozone Injection for Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Buric, Josip; Rigobello, Luca; Hooper, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Disc herniation is the most common cause for spinal surgery and many clinicians employ epidural steroid injections with limited success. Intradiscal injection of ozone gas has been used as an alternative to epidural steroids and surgical discectomy. Early results are positive but long-term data are limited. Methods One hundred and eight patients with confirmed contiguous disc herniation were treated with intradiscal injection of ozone in 2002-2003. One-hundred seven patients were available for telephone follow-up at 5 years. Sixty patients were available for a similar telephone follow-up at ten years. Patients were asked to describe their clinical outcome since the injection. Surgical events were documented. MRI images were reviewed to assess the reduction in disc herniation at six months. Results MRI films demonstrated a consistent reduction in the size of the disc herniation. Seventy-nine percent of patients had a reduction in herniation volume and the average reduction was 56%. There were 19 patients that ultimately had surgery and 12 of them occurred in the first six months after injection. One of these 12 was due to surgery at another level. Two surgeries involved an interspinous spacer indicated by stenosis or DDD. All other surgeries were discectomies. Of the patients that avoided surgery 82% were improved at 5 years and 88% were improved at 10 years. Other than subsequent surgeries, no spine-related complications were experienced. Conclusions/Level of Evidence We conclude that ozone is safe and effective in approximately 75% of patients with disc herniation and the benefit is maintained through ten years. This is a retrospective review and randomized trials are needed. Clinical Relevance Intradiscal ozone injection may enable patients to address their pain without multiple epidural injections and surgery. The benefit of ozone is durable and does not preclude future surgical options. The risk reward profile for this treatment is favorable. PMID

  3. Idaho National Laboratory 2015-2023 Ten-Year Site Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sheryl Morton; Elizabeth Connell; Bill Buyers; John Reisenauer; Rob Logan; Chris Ischay; Ernest Fossum; Paul Contreras; Joel Zarret; Steve Hill; Jon Tillo

    2013-09-01

    This Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Ten-Year Site Plan (TYSP) describes the strategy for accomplishing the long-term objective of sustaining the INL infrastructure to meet the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) mission: to promote nuclear power as a resource capable of making major contributions in meeting the nation’s energy supply, environmental and energy security needs. This TYSP provides the strategy for INL to accomplish its mission by: (1) linking R&D mission goals to core capabilities and infrastructure requirements; (2) establishing a ten-year end-state vision for INL facility complexes; (3) identifying and prioritizing infrastructure needs and capability gaps; (4) establishing maintenance and repair strategies that allow for sustainment of mission-critical (MC) facilities; and (5) applying sustainability principles to each decision and action. The TYSP serves as the infrastructure-planning baseline for INL; and, though budget formulation documents are informed by the TYSP, it is not itself a budget document.

  4. ``Long-life`` aluminium brazing alloys for automotive radiators -- a ten-year retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.C.; Woods, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    A class of corrosion-resistant brazing sheet materials, generally referred to as ``long-life alloys,`` has been in widespread use in brazed aluminum automobile radiators for over ten years. K319 tube material was initially introduced in 1986 to address the problem of road-salt-induced, outside-in corrosion of tubes in vacuum-brazed aluminum radiators, The development history, metallurgy, and field performance of long-life radiator brazing sheet are reviewed. This material utilizes the familiar sacrificial layer concept to improve corrosion resistance; however, it is unusual in that the layer is not introduced by conventional cladding means during sheet manufacture, but rather develops in situ by metallurgical transformations which occur during the brazing cycle. The sacrificial layer, about 25 mV anodic to the core alloy, increases by an order of magnitude the time-to-perforation of radiator tube sheet tested in cyclic acidified salt spray (SWAAT), which mimics the corrosion morphology observed in the field. Radiators examined after ten years of field service show excellent corrosion resistance, as predicted by SWAAT.

  5. A Ten Year Retrospective on Environmental Justice: What Have We Learned?

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Jaksch, John A.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2005-03-01

    Beginning in 1994, Executive Order 12898 has directed federal executive agencies to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high and adverse health or environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority and low income populations. The policy behind the Executive Order was to prevent minority and low income groups from bearing disproportionate adverse environmental consequences of federal actions. During the last ten years, federal agencies have implemented Executive Order 12898, and some also have developed explicit procedures or guidance for the steps that need to be taken during the preparation of environmental impact statements. Based on the authors’ experience, the paper examines how environmental justice practice has evolved in the ten years since the original Executive Order was issued. This evolution has been both procedural and substantive. The paper examines how the actual practice of environmental justice analysis has progressed in federal agencies that deal with waste management issues. Reference is made to changes in case law and agency practice. The 2000 Census of Population and the ongoing development of geographic information systems in particular have made it easier to identify minority and low-income populations at risk. At the same time, a number of stakeholder groups have taken positions over specific federal actions that have given rise to novel issues and challenges for analysts. The paper discusses how NEPA practice is evolving to deal with these issues and challenges.

  6. Functional capacity and rehabilitation of recipients with a functioning renal allograft for ten years or more.

    PubMed

    Flechner, S M; Novick, A C; Braun, W E; Popowniak, K L; Steinmuller, D

    1983-06-01

    Forty-nine renal transplant recipients who had a single functioning allograft for ten or more years are reviewed. There were 17 cadaver recipients and 32 living-related recipients. Most patients have enjoyed excellent long-term renal function with stable mean daily dosages of azathioprine and prednisone. Fifty-three percent of patients never experienced a rejection episode, and 24% of patients experienced only one rejection episode. Five recipients (10%) developed malignancy following transplantation. Based on the Karnofsky activity scale, 80% of patients enjoyed unrestricted activity at ten years posttransplant. The two major factors contributing to declining activity were progression of systemic diseases such as atherosclerosis or diabetes, and declining allograft function. Following transplantation, all patients developed renewed interest in sexual activity, all men were potent, and all women experienced regular menses. Nine men achieved fatherhood and five women underwent successful pregnancy. Currently, 46 recipients are alive with a functioning allograft. These data confirm the ability of recipients with a long-term functioning renal allograft to return to the work force, participate in preillness levels of activity, and enjoy sexual activity and parenthood. PMID:6408771

  7. Ten years of photonics education at the college level in Ontario: results and by-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantel, Marc

    2010-08-01

    In 2000, there was no way for an Ontario student to obtain a credential in optics, laser or photonics without going through graduate school. This was in, arguably, the world-leading jurisdiction in photonics-enabled telecommunications industry. To alleviate this problem and supply the job market with highly-qualified people in the field of optics and photonics, the Ontario Centres of Excellence - then as Photonics Research Ontario - partnered with Algonquin College (Ottawa) and Niagara College (Welland) to establish over the past decade a suite of programs: a 1-year Certificate in Advanced Lasers, a 2-year Diploma for Photonics Engineering Technician, a 3-year Diploma for Photonics Engineering Technologists and a 4-year Bachelor of Applied Technology - Photonics. Much has been learnt along the way - the crucial need for industrial partner and government support, for example - and many course corrections had to be made (telecom bust, anyone?). The author will share the results of this 10-year journey so far, the lessons learnt, and a view to the next ten years for these programs and photonics education in Ontario in general.

  8. Sediment Movement Near a Tropical Wood Jam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadol, D.; Wohl, E.

    2008-12-01

    One mechanism by which wood interacts with sediment transport is the trapping of sediment behind jams. In tropical streams, higher discharge per unit of contributing area and higher microbial diversity relative to temperate zones are likely to cause in-stream wood to be more transient. This may reduce the residence time of jams, also reducing wood-induced sediment storage. To begin to evaluate this possibility, tracer clasts, scour chains, and wood pieces were surveyed four times from June 2007 to June 2008 at a wood jam in a stream in Costa Rica. At the study site the moderate gradient (3.2%) stream drains 1.6 km2 of preserved old-growth tropical wet forest of La Selva Biological Station. The mean grain size of the bed material is 205 mm, ranging from coarse sand to boulders, with discontinuous bedrock outcrops on both banks. Distance traveled by the tracer clasts was positively correlated with both maximum and average daily rainfall during the time between surveys. Between the first two surveys, a new accumulation of wood in the jam blocked the thalweg and redirected the majority of flow around the side of the jam. A 15-cm-thick wedge of sediment was deposited behind the blockage, and gravel bars adjacent to and immediately downstream of the jam were scoured by as much as 30 cm. The majority of the gravel sized tracer clasts placed upstream of the jam were not recovered and were presumably incorporated into the sediment wedge. Tracer clasts placed in the portion of the channel affected by the redirected flow were transported downstream as much as 47 m. Clasts larger than D55 (220 mm) were not transported in the course of the study. The jam and key pieces persisted for the entire study period, and the number of pieces in the jam stayed nearly constant. However, the structure was modified and only 46% of the original pieces were retained for the full year. The clast transport distance was positively correlated with wood turnover rate for the three inter

  9. Couples groups for parents of preschoolers: ten-year outcomes of a randomized trial*

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Cowan, Philip A.; Barry, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a 10-year follow-up of two variations of a couples group preventive intervention offered to couples in the year before their oldest child made the transition to kindergarten. 100 couples were randomly assigned to (1) a low-dose control condition, (2) a couples group meeting for 16 weeks that focused more on couple relationship issues among other family topics, or (3) a couples group meeting for 16 weeks that focused more on parenting issues among other family issues, with an identical curriculum to condition (2). Earlier papers reported that both variations of the intervention produced positive results on parent-child relationships and on the children’s adaptation to kindergarten and 1st grade, and that the groups emphasizing couple relationships also had additional positive effects on couple interaction quality. The present paper uses growth curve analyses to examine intervention effects extending from the children’s transition to kindergarten to the transition to high school – ten years after the couples groups ended. There were 6-year positive effects of the pre-kindergarten interventions on observed couple interaction and 10-year positive effects on both parents’ marital satisfaction and the children’s adaptation (hyperactivity and aggression). Discussion includes a focus on the implications of these results for family policy, clinical practice, and the need to include a couples focus in preventive interventions to strengthen family relationships and enhance children’s adaptation to school. PMID:21480703

  10. A ten-year history of the demography and productivity of an Arctic wolf pack

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    A pack of two to eight adult wolves (Canis lupus arctos) and their pups was observed during ten summers (1986-95) on Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. The author habituated the wolf pack to his presence in the first summer and reinforced the habituation each summer thereafter. The first alpha female produced four to six pups each year between 1986 and 1989. However, her daughter, who succeeded her as the alpha female, produced only one to three pups each year between 1990 and 1992 and in 1994, and apparently did not whelp in 1993 or in 1995. The tenure of the first alpha male was at least two years, and his successor was alpha male for the remaining eight years of the study. The wolf pack was characterized by highly variable annual productivity. The second alpha male-and-female breeding pair likely was an older brother and a younger sister. Early survival of wolf pups was high and constant, with all pups surviving through August of their first year. The pack's demography was consistent with what is known for wolf packs in other regions of North America, but its productivity was more typical of arctic packs.

  11. Myelin Avoids the JAM.

    PubMed

    Follis, Rose M; Carter, Bruce D

    2016-08-17

    In this issue of Neuron, Redmond et al. (2016) identify junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2) as an inhibitor of somatodendritic myelination in spinal cord neurons, thereby elucidating how myelin forms on axons but avoids dendrites and cell bodies. PMID:27537479

  12. The Classroom Traffic Jam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Arthur W.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of energy conservation is developed in this simulation. Children draw an automobile and then are asked to drive it through the classroom roadways. When a traffic jam results, students offer ways to eliminate it. The importance of mass transportation and car pools is stressed by the teacher. (MA)

  13. Analyzing the study of using acupuncture in delivery in the past ten years in china.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingru; Zhang, Xuekai; Fang, Yigong; Yang, Jinsheng

    2014-01-01

    The use of acupuncture in inducing delivery has a long history in China. With progress over time, it has been applied in many aspects. For further study of acupuncture in delivery, this paper analyzed the papers using acupuncture in delivery in the past ten years in mainland China. 87 literatures were picked out by searching relevant electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant journals. The analysis showed randomized controlled trials that were the major type of research, while preclinical researches and literature reviews only account for around ten percent, respectively. Clinical researches indicated that acupuncture can relieve labor pain, promote maternal uterine contraction, shorten birth process, and treat postpartum disorders. Preclinical researches found that acupuncture can adjust certain hormones and improve uterus contraction of late-stage pregnant rats. However, due to lack of large multicenter randomized controlled clinical trials, standardized evaluations of clinical effects in clinical researches and detailed mechanism study in preclinical researches and unequivocal conclusions about the effectiveness, efficacy, and mechanisms of acupuncture in this field cannot be obtained from those researches yet. Further clinical and preclinical studies about the use of acupuncture in delivery with improved methodology is still needed. PMID:24688593

  14. Analyzing the Study of Using Acupuncture in Delivery in the Past Ten Years in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingru; Zhang, Xuekai; Fang, Yigong; Yang, Jinsheng

    2014-01-01

    The use of acupuncture in inducing delivery has a long history in China. With progress over time, it has been applied in many aspects. For further study of acupuncture in delivery, this paper analyzed the papers using acupuncture in delivery in the past ten years in mainland China. 87 literatures were picked out by searching relevant electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant journals. The analysis showed randomized controlled trials that were the major type of research, while preclinical researches and literature reviews only account for around ten percent, respectively. Clinical researches indicated that acupuncture can relieve labor pain, promote maternal uterine contraction, shorten birth process, and treat postpartum disorders. Preclinical researches found that acupuncture can adjust certain hormones and improve uterus contraction of late-stage pregnant rats. However, due to lack of large multicenter randomized controlled clinical trials, standardized evaluations of clinical effects in clinical researches and detailed mechanism study in preclinical researches and unequivocal conclusions about the effectiveness, efficacy, and mechanisms of acupuncture in this field cannot be obtained from those researches yet. Further clinical and preclinical studies about the use of acupuncture in delivery with improved methodology is still needed. PMID:24688593

  15. Ten years of the UW high spectral resolution global IR land surface emissivity (UWIREMIS) database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borbas, E. E.; Knuteson, R. O.

    2012-12-01

    The monthly, UW/CIMSS Baseline Fit (BF) global infrared land surface emissivity database has been developed based on combination of the MODIS/MYD11C3 operational emissivity products and some selected laboratory measurements. The database has been available for distribution since 2006 at the http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/iremis/ website and includes data from October 2002 at ten wavelengths (3.6, 4.3, 5.0, 5.8, 7.6, 8.3, 9.3, 10.8, 12.1, and 14.3 microns) with 0.05 degree spatial resolution. To derive high spectral resolution emissivity spectra, the UW High Spectral Resolution (HSR) IR Emissivity Algorithm was also developed. This algorithm uses a principal component analysis (PCA) regression from a combination of high spectral resolution laboratory measurements of selected materials, and the above-mentioned UW/CIMSS Baseline Fit (BF) Global Infrared Land Surface Emissivity Database to provide a 5 wavenumber resolution emissivity database at 416 wavenumbers. Applying the UW HSR Emissivity Algorithm to the UW BF emissivity data makes it possible to create a monthly instrument specific emissivity spectrum for any application involving forward model calculations such as retrieval methods and NWP assimilation or for use in studies of surface energy and water balance. This poster introduces the latest updates and results focusing on the ten year-long available dataset.

  16. Ten-year outcome of enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase beta in patients with Fabry disease

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Dominique P; Charrow, Joel; Desnick, Robert J; Guffon, Nathalie; Kempf, Judy; Lachmann, Robin H; Lemay, Roberta; Linthorst, Gabor E; Packman, Seymour; Scott, C Ronald; Waldek, Stephen; Warnock, David G; Weinreb, Neal J; Wilcox, William R

    2015-01-01

    Background Fabry disease results from deficient α-galactosidase A activity and globotriaosylceramide accumulation causing renal insufficiency, strokes, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and early demise. We assessed the 10-year outcome of recombinant α-galactosidase A therapy. Methods The outcomes (severe clinical events, renal function, cardiac structure) of 52/58 patients with classic Fabry disease from the phase 3 clinical trial and extension study, and the Fabry Registry were evaluated. Disease progression rates for patients with low renal involvement (LRI, n=32) or high renal involvement (HRI, n=20) at baseline were assessed. Results 81% of patients (42/52) did not experience any severe clinical event during the treatment interval and 94% (49/52) were alive at the end of the study period. Ten patients reported a total of 16 events. Patients classified as LRI started therapy 13 years younger than HRI (mean 25 years vs 38 years). Mean slopes for estimated glomerular filtration rate for LRI and HRI were −1.89 mL/min/1.73 m2/year and −6.82 mL/min/1.73 m2/year, respectively. Overall, the mean left ventricular posterior wall thickness and interventricular septum thickness remained unchanged and normal. Patients who initiated treatment at age ≥40 years exhibited significant increase in left ventricular posterior wall thickness and interventricular septum thickness. Mean plasma globotriaosylceramide normalised within 6 months. Conclusions This 10-year study documents the effectiveness of agalsidase beta (1 mg/kg/2 weeks) in patients with Fabry disease. Most patients remained alive and event-free. Patients who initiated treatment at a younger age and with less kidney involvement benefited the most from therapy. Patients who initiated treatment at older ages and/or had advanced renal disease experienced disease progression. PMID:25795794

  17. Perspective: The first ten years of broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, G Barratt; Field, Robert W

    2016-05-28

    Since its invention in 2006, the broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer has transformed the field of microwave spectroscopy. The technique enables the collection of a ≥10 GHz bandwidth spectrum in a single shot of the spectrometer, which allows broadband, high-resolution microwave spectra to be acquired several orders of magnitude faster than what was previously possible. We discuss the advantages and challenges associated with the technique and look back on the first ten years of chirped pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy. In addition to enabling faster-than-ever structure determination of increasingly complex species, the technique has given rise to an assortment of entirely new classes of experiments, ranging from chiral sensing by three-wave mixing to microwave detection of multichannel reaction kinetics. However, this is only the beginning. Future generations of microwave experiments will make increasingly creative use of frequency-agile pulse sequences for the coherent manipulation and interrogation of molecular dynamics. PMID:27250271

  18. Health evaluation of the 2nd International "Quit and Win" Antinicotine Campaign participants ten years later.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Alina; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Krakowiak, Jan; Rzeźnicki, Adam; Pikala, Małgorzata; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Drygas, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most often noticed types of negative behaviour among the Poles. In the work, the results of the health evaluation are presented of the participants of the 'Quit and Win' competition ten years after making a decision to refrain from smoking, also the dependency between this evaluation and behaviour connected with smoking among the people living in big cities and small towns and villages was analysed. Among the 648 respondents, majority, which is 302 people (46.6%) evaluated their health as good, 236 (36.4%) as average, and 76 of the questioned (11.7%) as very good, 29 people (4.5%) as bad, and 5 of the questioned (0.8%) as very bad. The respondents most often evaluated negatively their health in the group of the still smoking living in the big cities, and the least often in the group of the non-smokers living in small towns and villages. PMID:19189564

  19. Perspective: The first ten years of broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, G. Barratt; Field, Robert W.

    2016-05-01

    Since its invention in 2006, the broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer has transformed the field of microwave spectroscopy. The technique enables the collection of a ≥10 GHz bandwidth spectrum in a single shot of the spectrometer, which allows broadband, high-resolution microwave spectra to be acquired several orders of magnitude faster than what was previously possible. We discuss the advantages and challenges associated with the technique and look back on the first ten years of chirped pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy. In addition to enabling faster-than-ever structure determination of increasingly complex species, the technique has given rise to an assortment of entirely new classes of experiments, ranging from chiral sensing by three-wave mixing to microwave detection of multichannel reaction kinetics. However, this is only the beginning. Future generations of microwave experiments will make increasingly creative use of frequency-agile pulse sequences for the coherent manipulation and interrogation of molecular dynamics.

  20. FCC reactor product-catalyst separation: Ten years of commercial experience with closed cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.B.; Johnson, T.E.; Santner, C.R.; Avidan, A.A.; Johnson, D.L.

    1995-09-01

    FCC reactor closed cyclones were first commercialized ten years ago and have now been installed in over 22 FCC units worldwide. Cumulative commercial experience has shown significant yield benefits, in some cases higher than first estimated, and excellent reliability. By nearly eliminating post-riser cracking, they reduce dry gas make and produce higher yields of desirable liquid products. Trouble-free operation with closed cyclones is attributed to proper design, instrumentation, and operating procedures. The Mobil-Kellogg Closed Cyclone technology is the only design offered for license which uses the positive-pressure riser cyclone system which has proven to be least sensitive to upsets. This paper traces the development and commercialization of closed cyclones, discusses differences between competing closed cyclone designs, and documents the benefits which have been observed for Mobil-Kellogg Closed Cyclones.

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Ten-Year Site Plan Project Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2012-03-01

    This document describes the currently active and proposed infrastructure projects listed in Appendix B of the Idaho National Laboratory 2013-2022 Ten Year Site Plan (DOE/ID-11449). It was produced in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List I.06. The projects delineated in this document support infrastructure needs at INL's Research and Education Campus, Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor Complex and the greater site-wide area. The projects provide critical infrastructure needed to meet current and future INL opereational and research needs. Execution of these projects will restore, rebuild, and revitalize INL's physical infrastructure; enhance program execution, and make a significant contribution toward reducing complex-wide deferred maintenance.

  2. NGF deprivation-induced gene expression: after ten years, where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Freeman, Robert S; Burch, Robert L; Crowder, Robert J; Lomb, David J; Schoell, Matthew C; Straub, Jennifer A; Xie, Liang

    2004-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is required for the survival of developing sympathetic and sensory neurons. In the absence of NGF, these neurons undergo protein synthesis-dependent apoptosis. Ten years have gone by since the first reports of specific genes being upregulated during NGF deprivation-induced cell death. Over the last decade, a few additional genes (DP5, Bim, SM-20) have been added to a list that began with cyclin D1 and c-jun. In this chapter, we discuss the evidence that these genes act as regulators of neuronal cell death. We also suggest a hypothesis for how one gene, SM-20, may function to suppress a self-protection mechanism in NGF-deprived neurons. PMID:14699960

  3. Introduction to "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Volume II."

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty papers on the study of tsunamis and respective tsunamigenic earthquakes are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami". The papers presented in this second of two special volumes of Pure and Applied Geophysics reflect the state of tsunami science during this time, including five papers devoted to new findings specifically in the Indian Ocean. Two papers compile results from global observations and eight papers cover Pacific Ocean studies, focusing mainly on the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. Remaining papers in this volume describe studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and tsunami source studies. Overall, the volume not only addresses the pivotal 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis, but also examines the tsunami hazard posed to other critical coasts in the world.

  4. Evaluation of Nutritional Biochemical Parameters in Haemodialysis Patients over a Ten-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, AIQ; Castillo, RF; Jimenez, FJ Gomez; Negrillo, AM Nuñez

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: Protein-energy malnutrition as well as systemic inflammation and metabolic disorders are common in patients with chronic kidney failure who require renal replacement therapy (haemodialysis). Such malnutrition is a factor that significantly contributes to their morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated the nutritional status of haemodialysis patients by assessing biochemical and anthropometric parameters in order to determine whether these patients suffered disorders reflecting nutritional deterioration directly related to time on haemodialysis. Subjects and Method: This research comprised 90 patients of both genders with chronic kidney failure, who regularly received haemodialysis at our unit over a period of ten years. The patients' blood was tested quarterly for plasma albumin, total cholesterol and total proteins, and tested monthly for transferrin. The patients' weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were monitored. Body mass index was calculated using the formula: weight (kg)/height (m2) and classified in one of the following categories defined in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Database on Body Mass Index: (i) underweight [BMI < 18.50], (ii) normal [BMI 18.50 – 24.99], (iii) overweight [BMI 25 – 29.99], (iv) obese [BMI ≥ 30]. Results: In the ten-year period of the study, the patients experienced a substantial decline in their biochemical parameters. Nevertheless, their BMI did not show any significant changes despite the patients' state of malnutrition. Conclusions: The prevalence of malnutrition in haemodialysis patients was evident. Nevertheless, the BMI of the subjects did not correspond to the biochemical parameters measured. Consequently, the results showed that the nutritional deterioration of these patients was mainly reflected in their biochemical parameters rather than in their anthropometric measurements. PMID:26426172

  5. Deep Vadose Zone Characterization at the Hanford Site: Accomplishments from the Last Ten Years

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.F.; Serne, R.J.

    2008-07-01

    The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments collected within/adjacent to the twelve single-shell tank farms contained within Hanford's Central Plateau region. This work has been performed under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Program and is associated with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. While there are many facets to the laboratory studies employed by PNNL, the four primary objectives of this work are to: identify the type and quantity of contamination present, understand the physical processes that affect the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone sediments, when practical, identify the source(s) of the contamination found in the sediment samples, and when practical, determine if a link can be made between the vadose zone contamination observed and any known groundwater contaminants in the vicinity. Since its inception in 1997, PNNL's Vadose Zone Characterization Project has evolved to better meet these four key objectives. The single-largest adaptation of the Vadose Zone Characterization Project over its ten years of operation was the advent of a tiered sample analysis approach. Use of a tiered approach allows resources to be focused on those samples/tests that provide the largest amount of scientific information to best meet the four key project objectives within the budget available. Another significant, but more recent, adaptation has been the implementation of a rapid turnaround characterization process in which sediment samples are analyzed in near real-time to aid drilling activities within the tank farms. This paper highlights details of the characterization activities performed as well

  6. Deep Vadose Zone Characterization at the Hanford Site: Accomplishments from the Last Ten Years

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-02-28

    The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments collected within/adjacent to the twelve single-shell tank farms contained within Hanford’s Central Plateau region. This work has been performed under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Program and is associated with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. While there are many facets to the laboratory studies employed by PNNL, the four primary objectives of this work are to: identify the type and quantity of contamination present, understand the physical processes that affect the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone sediments, when practical, identify the source(s) of the contamination found in the sediment samples, and when practical, determine if a link can be made between the vadose zone contamination observed and any known groundwater contaminants in the vicinity. Since its inception in 1997, PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project has evolved to better meet these four key objectives. The single-largest adaptation of the Vadose Zone Characterization Project over its ten years of operation was the advent of a tiered sample analysis approach. Use of a tiered approach allows resources to be focused on those samples/tests that provide the largest amount of scientific information to best meet the four key project objectives within the budget available. Another significant, but more recent, adaptation has been the implementation of a rapid turnaround characterization process in which sediment samples are analyzed in near real-time to aid drilling activities within the tank farms. This paper highlights details of the characterization activities performed as

  7. Chronic myeloid leukemia relapsing ten years after allogenic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hino, Yutaro; Doki, Noriko; Yamamoto, Keita; Senoo, Yasushi; Sasajima, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Hattori, Keiichiro; Kaito, Satoshi; Kurosawa, Shuhei; Harada, Kaito; Ikegawa, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Daisuke; Hagino, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Kosuke; Watakabe, Kyoko; Igarashi, Aiko; Najima, Yuho; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Ohashi, Kazuteru

    2016-05-01

    A 58-year-old female was diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis (BC) in 2004. The patient received imatinib, which quickly induced molecular remission, and subsequently underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from an unrelated human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical donor. The post-transplant clinical course was essentially uneventful. In 2014, ten years after the BMT, the patient was admitted to our hospital complaining of lymphadenopathy, and blasts were observed in peripheral blood. The patient was diagnosed as having a CML relapse in myeloid BC, with leukemic infiltration in lymph nodes, and was treated with dasatinib. Subsequently, pleural effusion developed and nilotinib was administered, which induced normal blood counts without blasts and partial cytogenetic remission, one month after administration. Six months after the relapse, this patient underwent a second BMT from an HLA-matched unrelated donor. Recent studies have demonstrated the cumulative incidence of CML relapse more than five years after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) to be higher than in acute myeloid leukemia. Although rare, the possibility of late relapse should be considered in patients diagnosed with CML after allo-HSCT. PMID:27263786

  8. Ten-year results after cementless THA with a sandwich-type alumina ceramic bearing.

    PubMed

    Park, Youn-Soo; Park, Se-Jun; Lim, Seung-Jae

    2010-11-01

    We analyzed the long-term results of a single-surgeon series of 102 cementless total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed using a sandwich-type alumina ceramic bearing. The prostheses involved a porous-coated acetabular socket, a polyethylene-alumina composite liner, a 28-mm alumina head, and a grit-blasted titanium-alloy stem. Mean patient age at the time of THA was 39 years (range, 18-66 years), and 76% of the patients were younger than 50 years. All procedures were performed with use of the same surgical technique and the same implant at a single center. Mean follow-up was 115 months (range, 84-133 months). When failure was defined as revision of either the acetabular or the femoral component for any reason, Kaplan-Meier survival probability at 10 years was 95.3% (95% confidence interval, 89.5%-100%). Mean Harris Hip Score improved from 47 points (range, 16-70 points) preoperatively to 95 points (range, 85-100 points) at final follow-up. No radiographically detectable osteolysis around the acetabular or femoral component was observed in any hip. No patient reported squeaking in the operated hip. During the follow-up period, 3 hips (3%) required revision surgery; 2 underwent acetabular revision because of a ceramic liner fracture and 1 underwent revision for early loosening of the acetabular cup. Ten-year results of cementless THA with a sandwich-type alumina ceramic bearing were encouraging, and no great increase in ceramic failure rate was observed, which contrasts with the findings of previously reported short-term follow-up studies. PMID:21053885

  9. A Vision for the Next Ten Years for Integrated Ocean Observing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Z. S.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean observing has come a long way since the Ocean Sciences Decadal Committee met over a decade ago. Since then, our use of the ocean and coast and their vast resources has increased substantially - with increased shipping, fishing, offshore energy development and recreational boating. That increased use has also spearheaded advances in observing systems. Cutting-edge autonomous and remotely operated vehicles scour the surface and travel to depths collecting essential biogeochemical data for better managing our marine resources. Satellites enable the global mapping of practically every physical ocean variable imaginable. A nationally-integrated coastal network of high-frequency radars lines the borders of the U.S. feeding critical navigation, response, and environmental information continuously. Federal, academic, and industry communities have joined in unique partnerships at regional, national, and global levels to address common challenges to monitoring our ocean. The 2002 Workshop, Building Consensus: Toward an Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observing System laid the framework for the current United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS). Ten years later, U.S. IOOS has moved from concept to reality, though much work remains to meet the nation's ocean observing needs. Today, new research and technologies, evolving users and user requirements, economic and funding challenges, and diverse institutional mandates all influence the future growth and implementation of U.S. IOOS. In light of this new environment, the Interagency Ocean Observation Committee (IOOC) will host the 2012 Integrated Ocean Observing System Summit in November 2012, providing a forum to develop a comprehensive ocean observing vision for the next decade, utilizing the knowledge and expertise gained by the IOOS-wide community over the past ten years. This effort to bring together ocean observing stakeholders at the regional, national, and global levels to address these challenges

  10. Ten-year helium anomaly prior to the 2014 Mt Ontake eruption.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yuji; Kagoshima, Takanori; Takahata, Naoto; Nishio, Yoshiro; Roulleau, Emilie; Pinti, Daniele L; Fischer, Tobias P

    2015-01-01

    Mt Ontake in central Japan suddenly erupted on 27(th) September 2014, killing 57 people with 6 still missing. It was a hydro-volcanic eruption and new magmatic material was not detected. There were no precursor signals such as seismicity and edifice inflation. It is difficult to predict hydro-volcanic eruptions because they are local phenomena that only affect a limited area surrounding the explosive vent. Here we report a long-term helium anomaly measured in hot springs close to the central cone. Helium-3 is the most sensitive tracer of magmatic volatiles. We have conducted spatial surveys around the volcano at once per few years since November 1981. The (3)He/(4)He ratios of the closest site to the cone stayed constant until June 2000 and increased significantly from June 2003 to November 2014, while those of distant sites showed no valuable change. These observations suggest a recent re-activation of Mt Ontake and that helium-3 enhancement may have been a precursor of the 2014 eruption. We show that the eruption was ultimately caused by the increased input of magmatic volatiles over a ten-year period which resulted in the slow pressurization of the volcanic conduit leading to the hydro-volcanic event in September 2014. PMID:26286468

  11. Ten-year helium anomaly prior to the 2014 Mt Ontake eruption

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Yuji; Kagoshima, Takanori; Takahata, Naoto; Nishio, Yoshiro; Roulleau, Emilie; Pinti, Daniele L.; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2015-01-01

    Mt Ontake in central Japan suddenly erupted on 27th September 2014, killing 57 people with 6 still missing. It was a hydro-volcanic eruption and new magmatic material was not detected. There were no precursor signals such as seismicity and edifice inflation. It is difficult to predict hydro-volcanic eruptions because they are local phenomena that only affect a limited area surrounding the explosive vent. Here we report a long-term helium anomaly measured in hot springs close to the central cone. Helium-3 is the most sensitive tracer of magmatic volatiles. We have conducted spatial surveys around the volcano at once per few years since November 1981. The 3He/4He ratios of the closest site to the cone stayed constant until June 2000 and increased significantly from June 2003 to November 2014, while those of distant sites showed no valuable change. These observations suggest a recent re-activation of Mt Ontake and that helium-3 enhancement may have been a precursor of the 2014 eruption. We show that the eruption was ultimately caused by the increased input of magmatic volatiles over a ten-year period which resulted in the slow pressurization of the volcanic conduit leading to the hydro-volcanic event in September 2014. PMID:26286468

  12. Naive (commonsense) geography and geobrowser usability after ten years of Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamerlinck, J. D.

    2016-04-01

    In 1995, the concept of ‘naive geography’ was formally introduced as an area of cognitive geographic information science representing ‘the body of knowledge that people have about the surrounding geographic world’ and reflecting ‘the way people think and reason about geographic space and time, both consciously and subconsciously’. The need to incorporate such commonsense knowledge and reasoning into design of geospatial technologies was identified but faced challenges in formalizing these relationships and processes in software implementation. Ten years later, the Google Earth geobrowser was released, marking the beginning of a new era of open access to, and application of, geographic data and information in society. Fast-forward to today, and the opportunity presents itself to take stock of twenty years of naive geography and a decade of the ubiquitous virtual globe. This paper introduces an ongoing research effort to explore the integration of naive (or commonsense) geography concepts in the Google Earth geobrowser virtual globe and their possible impact on Google Earth's usability, utility, and usefulness. A multi-phase methodology is described, combining usability reviews and usability testing with use-case scenarios involving the U.S.-Canadian Yellowstone to Yukon Initiative. Initial progress on a usability review combining cognitive walkthroughs and heuristics evaluation is presented.

  13. Ten-year helium anomaly prior to the 2014 Mt Ontake eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Yuji; Kagoshima, Takanori; Takahata, Naoto; Nishio, Yoshiro; Roulleau, Emilie; Pinti, Daniele L.; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2015-08-01

    Mt Ontake in central Japan suddenly erupted on 27th September 2014, killing 57 people with 6 still missing. It was a hydro-volcanic eruption and new magmatic material was not detected. There were no precursor signals such as seismicity and edifice inflation. It is difficult to predict hydro-volcanic eruptions because they are local phenomena that only affect a limited area surrounding the explosive vent. Here we report a long-term helium anomaly measured in hot springs close to the central cone. Helium-3 is the most sensitive tracer of magmatic volatiles. We have conducted spatial surveys around the volcano at once per few years since November 1981. The 3He/4He ratios of the closest site to the cone stayed constant until June 2000 and increased significantly from June 2003 to November 2014, while those of distant sites showed no valuable change. These observations suggest a recent re-activation of Mt Ontake and that helium-3 enhancement may have been a precursor of the 2014 eruption. We show that the eruption was ultimately caused by the increased input of magmatic volatiles over a ten-year period which resulted in the slow pressurization of the volcanic conduit leading to the hydro-volcanic event in September 2014.

  14. Highlighting ten years of physics education research in the upper division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrose, Bradley

    2015-04-01

    The field of Physics Education Research (PER) has for over thirty years provided insights into student thinking and guided the development and assessment of reformed teaching strategies and practices in introductory physics courses. In the last decade or so, researchers have expanded the domain of such investigations to upper-division courses where undergraduate majors study more advanced content and begin to see themselves as future physicists. The upcoming Focused Collection on Upper Division PER brings together work from researchers active in these new frontiers of PER. In this presentation we provide an overview of the studies in this collection, which offer to the PER and greater physics education communities: new insights about the thinking, behavior, and beliefs of students in the upper division; new tools to innovate instruction, assess student learning, and evaluate teaching effectiveness; and groundbreaking studies of identity development and ``thinking like a physicist'' among physics majors. In this session we also recognize the ten-year anniversary of Physical Review Special Topics: Physics Education Research, an occasion that we will celebrate with an informal reception immediately following the conclusion of this invited session.

  15. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: our experience after ten years of patient's surgical follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bervar, M

    2003-01-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans has a high rate of recurrence, presumably as a consequence of persistent residual tumour. This is probably the main reason why repeated surgical treatment is frequently required. In the article we present our experience of surgical treatment of such malignancy on the neck and shoulder in the elder male after ten years follow-up period. The case is interesting because we started with aggressive treatment relatively late in the unfavourable, fully-developed stage of the disease, with multiple satellite nodules spreading and signs of partial myxoid degeneration of the largest tumour mass itself. Despite initial wide excision, five local recurrences--fortunately without regional or distant metastases--were observed during the first eight years. The recurrences appeared mostly in the region of greatest tumour degeneration and infiltration and where the excision margins were less than 2 cm apart from the visible tumour mass. A sufficiently wide excision, long-term follow-up and good co-operation between surgeon and experienced pathologist are crucial for the strategy of treatment and the prognosis of this unusual malignancy. PMID:12921258

  16. Eclampsia-scenario in a hospital--a ten years study.

    PubMed

    Pal, A; Bhattacharyya, R; Adhikari, S; Roy, A; Chakrabarty, D; Ghosh, P; Banerjee, C

    2011-08-01

    This cross sectional record based institutional study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Burdwan Medical College, Burdwan over ten years (1999-2008) aiming analysis of eclamptic mothers for evaluation of maternal and perinatal outcome with different anticonvulsant medications. Total 5991 pregnant mothers with eclampsia admitted in the inpatient department of the tertiary care teaching hospital were recruited for the study, irrespective of their previous antenatal check up history. Subjects with known seizure disorders were excluded from the study. The subjects were managed according to standard regimens (Menon, Ph-sodium, diazepam & magnesium sulphate) and results were documented in standardised format. Case fatality rate, mean induction delivery time & birth-weight, perinatal mortality rates were recorded. Study reveals that the incidence of eclampsia <20 years was 6.97% and majority (5.41%) came from rural areas. Eclampsia was noted primarily in primigravida (7.43%) and unbooked (6.41%) mothers. Ante partum eclampsia predominated (64%) and incidence of caesarean section was 22.25%.The overall case fatality rate was 6.05% and eclampsia contributed 27.85% of all maternal deaths during the last two years of the study period. The overall incidence of low birth weight baby was 26.96% and perinatal mortality was 30.33% (1411/4651).The incidence of perinatal mortality and low birth weight babies are lower in the last 4 years when compared to earlier studies. Proper socio-demographic assessment of pregnancy with eclampsia, planned delivery, shorter induction delivery interval, good control of convulsion by magnesium sulphate, intensive intranatal monitoring causes less maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:21877608

  17. Jamming in hierarchical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiang; Boettcher, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    We study the Biroli-Mezard model for lattice glasses on a number of hierarchical networks. These networks combine certain lattice-like features with a recursive structure that makes them suitable for exact renormalization group studies and provide an alternative to the mean-field approach. In our numerical simulations here, we first explore their equilibrium properties with the Wang-Landau algorithm. Then, we investigate their dynamical behavior using a grand-canonical annealing algorithm. We find that the dynamics readily falls out of equilibrium and jams in many of our networks with certain constraints on the neighborhood occupation imposed by the Biroli-Mezard model, even in cases where exact results indicate that no ideal glass transition exists. But while we find that time-scales for the jams diverge, our simulations cannot ascertain such a divergence for a packing fraction distinctly above random close packing. In cases where we allow hopping in our dynamical simulations, the jams on these networks generally disappear.

  18. Ten years of negotiating rights around maternal health in Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Preventable maternal mortality and morbidity have been globally recognized as human rights issues. Maternal mortality in India is among the highest in the world, and reflects inequity in access to healthcare: women from certain states as well as poorer women and less literate women appear to be significantly disadvantaged. The government of India has been attempting to improve maternal outcomes through a cash transfer within the National Rural Health Mission to encourage women to come to hospitals for childbirth. Methods This paper reviews documents of the last ten years describing the experiences of a Non-Governmental Organisation, SAHAYOG, in working with a civil society platform, the Healthwatch Forum, to develop ‘rights based’ strategies around maternal health. The paper builds an analysis using recent frameworks on accountability and gendered rights claiming to examine these experiences and draw out lessons regarding rights claiming strategies for poor women. Results The examination of documents over the last ten years indicates defined phases of development in the evolution of SAHAYOG’s understanding and of the shifts in strategy among SAHAYOG and its close allies, and responses by the state. The first three stages depict the deepening of SAHAYOG’s understanding of the manner in which poor and marginalized women negotiate their access to health care; the fourth stage explores a health system intervention and the challenges of working from within civil society in alliance with poor and marginalized women. Conclusion The findings from SAHAYOG’s experiences with poor Dalit women in Uttar Pradesh reveal the elements of social exclusion within the health system that prevent poor and marginalized women from accessing effective lifesaving care. Creating a voice for the most marginalised and carving space for its articulation impacts upon the institutions and actors that have a duty to meet the claims being made. However, given the accountability

  19. Medical School Attrition-Beyond the Statistics A Ten Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical school attrition is important - securing a place in medical school is difficult and a high attrition rate can affect the academic reputation of a medical school and staff morale. More important, however, are the personal consequences of dropout for the student. The aims of our study were to examine factors associated with attrition over a ten-year period (2001–2011) and to study the personal effects of dropout on individual students. Methods The study included quantitative analysis of completed cohorts and qualitative analysis of ten-year data. Data were collected from individual student files, examination and admission records, exit interviews and staff interviews. Statistical analysis was carried out on five successive completed cohorts. Qualitative data from student files was transcribed and independently analysed by three authors. Data was coded and categorized and key themes were identified. Results Overall attrition rate was 5.7% (45/779) in 6 completed cohorts when students who transferred to other medical courses were excluded. Students from Kuwait and United Arab Emirates had the highest dropout rate (RR = 5.70, 95% Confidence Intervals 2.65 to 12.27;p < 0.0001) compared to Irish and EU students combined. North American students had a higher dropout rate than Irish and EU students; RR = 2.68 (1.09 to 6.58;p = 0.027) but this was not significant when transfers were excluded (RR = 1.32(0.38, 4.62);p = 0.75). Male students were more likely to dropout than females (RR 1.70, .93 to 3.11) but this was not significant (p = 0.079). Absenteeism was documented in 30% of students, academic difficulty in 55.7%, social isolation in 20%, and psychological morbidity in 40% (higher than other studies). Qualitative analysis revealed recurrent themes of isolation, failure, and despair. Student Welfare services were only accessed by one-third of dropout students. Conclusions While dropout is often multifactorial, certain red

  20. Ten years after : the status of the saw-tooth pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynadier, L.; Valet, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    One of the most surprising and exciting result emerging from paleomagnetic analyses of long sequences from the ODP Leg 138 in the eastern equatorial Pacific was the asymmetrical saw-toothed shape of the field intensity variations. The curves published ten years ago provided the first continuous record of relative paleointensity which covered the past 4 Ma across a long succession of geomagnetic reversals. Several controversies have been raised up regarding the fact that the field would decrease slowly before reversals and exhibit very fast recovery immediately after the transitions. The first one assumes that cumulative unremoved viscous components would be responsible for the observed decrease during most of the polarity intervals. A second possibility is to envisage a progressive reorientation of the magnetic grains caused by differential compaction. We will review the present status of these scenarii and show that, if the first hypothesis can be reasonably ruled out completely, there is yet no firm and definite observation that allows us to discard the second scenario. Ten years after, there is still no duplicate of the entire ODP sequence, but several individual records restricted to shorter time intervals show a similar saw-toothed pattern while some others do not. Because changes in the amplitude depend also on changes in the reponse function of the sediment (which we do not control) a clearer view should emerge by stacking a large number of records within the same time intervals (e.g. the period encompassing the most recent reversals). Records of paleointensity by other techniques are evidently necessary to validate the observations derived from sediments. All detailed records of absolute paleointensity obtained so far from sequences of overlying lava flows show the existence of weak field intensities before the transitions and very high values accompanying the post-transitional dipole recovery. Unfortunately, uncertainties in chronology do not allow us to

  1. Organisation and Management of a Complete Bachelor Degree Offered Online at the University of Milan for Ten Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milani, Manuela; Papini, Sabrina; Scaccia, Daniela; Scarabottolo, Nello

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting some reflections on organisation and management of SSRI online: an e-learning initiative started at the University of Milan (Italy) in the academic year 2004/05 and offered to students over the last ten years. The initiative consisted in implementing the online version of an already existing three-year bachelor…

  2. OPEN PELVIC FRACTURES: THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE MEDICAL CENTER AT KNOXVILLE EXPERIENCE OVER TEN YEARS

    PubMed Central

    Black, Emily Anne; Lawson, Christy M; Smith, Scott; Daley, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Open fractures of the pelvis remain a devastating injury with a high mortality and morbidity. Such injuries require an aggressive treatment plan and the coordination of trauma and orthopaedic surgeons to achieve the best outcomes. We report our experience at the University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville with open pelvic fractures over the last ten years. Methods After IRB and institutional approval, we reviewed patients admitted with a diagnosis of open fracture of the pelvis from 1999 to 2009. Demographic and admission data were recorded in the trauma registry (TRACS) of the Level I Trauma Center, serving the 1.2 million people living in the regions of east Tennessee, western North Carolina and southeastern Kentucky. Data on fractures were obtained from review of the medical records and radiographs within the chart Results There were 3053 pelvic fractures from January 1999 to December 2009. There were 231 deaths in this group (6%) and ages ranged from 18 to 89 years old and Injury Severity Scores ranged from 4 to 75, with a mean of 18.3. Seventy five percent of patients were able to be discharged home. Fifty-two fractures were open. There were 43 men and the mean age was 39 years old. Average ISS was 23 and ranged from 5 to 50. There were 10 deaths (19%) and eight patients underwent an-gioembolization for control of bleeding (3 deaths). Motorcycle crashes were the most frequent cause of an open fracture, with lateral compression injuries representing 71%. A defined algorithm for fracture management has been in place and employed to assure adequate resuscitation and fracture care and is presented. Discussion Open pelvic fractures are usually the result of a high energy transfer, and convey a high morbidity and mortality. A defined resuscitation and fixation strategy improves outcome from historical reports. Injuries from penetrating mechanisms are associated with less morbidity and lower mortality. PMID:22096441

  3. [Phenology of forest vegetation in northeast of China in ten years using remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Hou, Xue-Hui; Niu, Zheng; Gao, Shuai

    2014-02-01

    Plant phenology is the best indicator of terrestrial ecosystem response to climate change and it becomes a hot issue in the study of global change. The forest in northeast of China plays an important part in global forest ecosystem. In this paper, yearly integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of forest vegetation in northeast China was calculated based on Spot Vegetation datasets from 2001-2010, which has been filtered using Savtiky-Galoy method. And then, the yearly integrated NDVI profile was fitted using a logistic model. Two key parameters of forest phenology (start of season, SOS; end of season, EOS) were extracted according to the greatest rate of curvature of fitted cumulative NDVI and the length of forest phenology (length of season, LOS) was also analyzed. The main conclusions of this paper are (1) SOS mainly occurs in the 110th-140th day and EOS in 260th and 290th day. SOS displays a marked delayed from south to north while EOS gradually advances. However, the changes of SOS and EOS in ten years are not obvious. (2) Corresponding to the SOS and EOS, LOS of forest in study area mainly occurs in the 120th-160th day; however, it is spatially heterogeneous. LOS of forest in Greater Khingan Mountains is shorter (about 120-140 day) than forests in Xiao Hinggan Ling and Changbai Mountains (about 160 day). The results in this paper are concordant with records of phenology in situ measurements and previous researches in the same area. It indicates that forest phenophases using method in this paper from Spot Vegetation dataset is feasible. PMID:24822431

  4. Ten years of RELEA: achievements and challenges for astronomy education development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Jafelice, Luiz Carlos; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    When an area of education, and more particularly the research within this area, is aimed to development, a basic requirement is the existence of a regular publication that accounts for the scientific production in that area. This study aims to analyze 10 years of Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA). Publishing policies of the RELEA and their context are discussed in relation to submission, refereeing and publication. The 75 articles published in 18 editions are analyzed and classified by: year of publication, edition, the authors' institutions, school level, study focus and content. The results present trends and shortcomings of the production. A comparison with the number of articles published in other Brazilian journals of education and an analysis of the international scene in relation to other type publications along these ten years is made. Given that this journal is now consolidated, its future prospects in the international landscape are further considered. The challenges related to article submission are discussed: how to increase their number, the submission of Latin American countries, and how to bring in the issues and subjects not addressed until now. It is also considered the possibility of encouraging graduate studies, new lines of research in astronomy education, and dissemination of material in schools and universities for teachers and students. Finally, future possibilities are discussed given the IAU development programs. For example, more article submission from Portuguese-speaking countries with the support of Regional Nodes and Language Expertise Centers, and opportunities for volunteer IAU members and global projects for the development of astronomy education.

  5. A ten-year water balance of a mountainous semi-arid watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flerchinger, G. N.; Cooley, K. R.

    2000-10-01

    Quantifying water balance components, which is particularly challenging in snow-fed, semi-arid regions, is crucial to understanding the basic hydrology of a watershed. In this study, a water balance was computed using 10 years of data collected at the Upper Sheep Creek Watershed, a 26-ha semi-arid mountainous sub-basin within the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho, USA. The approach computed a partial water balance for each of three landscape units and then computed an aggregated water balance for the watershed. Runoff and change in ground water storage were not distinguishable between landscape units. Precipitation, which occurs predominantly as snow, was measured within each landscape unit directly and adjusted for drifting. Spatial variability of effective precipitation was shown to be greater during years with higher precipitation. Evapotranspiration, which accounted for nearly 90% of the effective precipitation, was estimated using the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) Model and validated with measurements from Bowen ratio instruments. Runoff from the watershed was correlated to precipitation above a critical threshold of approximately 450 mm of precipitation necessary to generate runoff ( r2=0.52). The average water balance error was 46 mm, or approximately 10% of the estimated effective precipitation for the ten-year period. The error was largely attributed to deep percolation losses through fractures in the basalt underlying the watershed. Simulated percolation of the water beyond the root zone correlated extremely well with measured runoff ( r2=0.90), which is derived almost entirely from subsurface flow. Above a threshold of 50 mm, approximately 67% of the water percolating beyond the root zone produces runoff. The remainder was assumed to be lost to deep percolation through the basalt. This can have important ramifications in addressing subsurface flow and losses when applying a snowmelt runoff model to simulate runoff and

  6. Clinical characteristics of renal cancer in Malaysia : a ten year review.

    PubMed

    Singam, Praveen; Ho, Christopher; Hong, Goh Eng; Mohd, Azrif; Tamil, Azmi Md; Cheok, Lee Boon; Zainuddin, Zulkifli

    2010-01-01

    Renal cancer is rare and its incidence is 1.9 per 100,000 in the Malaysian population, which consists of three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indians). A retrospective study was her conducted to identify clinical characteristics and ethnic background influences on presentation. The study included all renal cancer patients from a single medical institution over ten years, with a total of 75 cases. Seventy-three patients underwent surgery while 2 received only radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The male to female ratio was 2.75:1. Incidence was equal among the Malay (49.3%) and Chinese ethnic groups (45.3%). Mean age of patients were 57.1 (18-93) years old. There were 26 (37.4%) patients with Stage I disease, 14 (18.7%) at Stage II, 23 (30.7%) at Stage III and 12 (16%) at Stage IV. The Chinese race presented at mean older age (p= 0.02) and later stage of disease (p= 0.046). Patients above 40 years old had more advanced stage disease (p= 0.023). Tumour histology were clear cell (72%), urothelial cell (13.3%), sarcomatoid cell and nephroblastoma each contributed 2.7%. The mean tumour size was 8.1 (2-20) cm. There was substantial agreement between the pre and post operative staging (kappa 0.691). In conclusion we observed significant influences of age and race in the clinical presentation of renal cancer in our institution based population. There was larger male to female ratio and mean tumour size as compared to previous epidemiology studies. PMID:20843141

  7. Trans-Northern Pipelines upgrades ten-year-old SCADA system

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.; West, T.

    1996-02-01

    Trans-Northern Pipelines Inc. (TNPI) recently completed a major upgrade program to modernize its supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. When compared to the in-place, ten year-old SCADA system, the upgraded system provides enhanced connectivity, safety and efficiency. TNPI`s rationale for installing a new SCADA system was based on a number of economic and other factors. On the cost side, the high upgrade expenses associated with the dated hardware and software of the existing system created a strong justification for replacing the system. Apart from leak detection and batch tracking, a major focus of the upgrade was to consolidate points of measurement on the pipelines for ticketing, billing and EDI transfer to other organizations. TNPI decided at the specification stage that full functionality for each operator at product delivery points and centralized offices was needed. This fully automated an operator`s daily duties, increased accuracy of transportation and communicated valuable SCADA data to the people and processes that would need it. This paper describes the design, performance, and the design making process that went into this system.

  8. Reflection on the Process of Open Sourcing Software Based on Ten Years of Development of RAPID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Yang, Z. L.; Habets, F.; Maidment, D.

    2015-12-01

    As the number and size of geoscience datasets persist in their constant rise, geoscientists increasingly express their yearning for further sharing of their data and software, and for facilitation of the associated academic credits. We present here our experience based on the open source development of an Earth System Model focusing on the propagation of water flow waves in large river networks: the Routing Application for Parallel computatIon of Discharge (RAPID). Since inception of RAPID ten years ago in January 2006, the community of its users has grown slowly but steadily, and now includes researchers in industry, academia, and government organizations. This growth of the RAPID users community can be explained - at least in part - by its open availability. However, despite an increasing support for open science (software and data), the mechanics of sharing still remain mysterious to many geoscientists… as they were for the authors. The purpose of this presentation is therefore to shed light on the steps involved in opening software and data based on a decade of experience related to the development and release of an Earth System Model. Three distinct steps of open sourcing are highlighted here: opening, exposing, and automatic testing. Each one of these steps is presented as an independent and tractable increment at various stages of development that is justified based on the size of the users community. Topics covered include software and data licenses, code and data repositories, unit testing, and continuous integration.

  9. Ten years of publicly funded biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Ashley M; Proudman, Susanna M; Vitry, Agnes I; Sorich, Michael J; Cleland, Leslie G; Wiese, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment were among the first high-cost medicines to be subsidised in Australia. High-cost medicines pose several challenges to the Australian National Medicines Policy, which aims to provide timely access to effective medicines at a cost individuals and the community can afford. Thus, novel restriction criteria were developed to encourage cost-effective use of bDMARDs. Government expenditure on bDMARD subsidies for RA treatment grew to about $383 million in 2014. Evidence that initiation and continuation criteria for bDMARDs meet usually applied cost-benefit criteria is lacking. The combined expenditure on tocilizumab, certolizumab pegol and golimumab (added to the Australian Government's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme in 2010) was $93 million in 2014, which is 210% over the initial estimate. Present and future challenges with regard to bDMARDs for RA and other high-cost drugs include improved expenditure predictions, monitoring of cost-effectiveness in relation to actual use and strategic development, regulation and use of biosimilars. Ten years of documentation on clinical and laboratory findings indicating eligibility to initiate and continue on bDMARDs remains un-used. These data represent an untapped opportunity to promote quality of use of bDMARDs and biosimilars and to improve cost predictions for high-cost drugs. PMID:26821102

  10. Dinosaurs in decline tens of millions of years before their final extinction.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Manabu; Benton, Michael J; Venditti, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Whether dinosaurs were in a long-term decline or whether they were reigning strong right up to their final disappearance at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event 66 Mya has been debated for decades with no clear resolution. The dispute has continued unresolved because of a lack of statistical rigor and appropriate evolutionary framework. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we apply a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to model the evolutionary dynamics of speciation and extinction through time in Mesozoic dinosaurs, properly taking account of previously ignored statistical violations. We find overwhelming support for a long-term decline across all dinosaurs and within all three dinosaurian subclades (Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha, and Theropoda), where speciation rate slowed down through time and was ultimately exceeded by extinction rate tens of millions of years before the K-Pg boundary. The only exceptions to this general pattern are the morphologically specialized herbivores, the Hadrosauriformes and Ceratopsidae, which show rapid species proliferations throughout the Late Cretaceous instead. Our results highlight that, despite some heterogeneity in speciation dynamics, dinosaurs showed a marked reduction in their ability to replace extinct species with new ones, making them vulnerable to extinction and unable to respond quickly to and recover from the final catastrophic event. PMID:27092007

  11. Dinosaurs in decline tens of millions of years before their final extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Manabu; Benton, Michael J.

    2016-05-01

    Whether dinosaurs were in a long-term decline or whether they were reigning strong right up to their final disappearance at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event 66 Mya has been debated for decades with no clear resolution. The dispute has continued unresolved because of a lack of statistical rigor and appropriate evolutionary framework. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we apply a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to model the evolutionary dynamics of speciation and extinction through time in Mesozoic dinosaurs, properly taking account of previously ignored statistical violations. We find overwhelming support for a long-term decline across all dinosaurs and within all three dinosaurian subclades (Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha, and Theropoda), where speciation rate slowed down through time and was ultimately exceeded by extinction rate tens of millions of years before the K-Pg boundary. The only exceptions to this general pattern are the morphologically specialized herbivores, the Hadrosauriformes and Ceratopsidae, which show rapid species proliferations throughout the Late Cretaceous instead. Our results highlight that, despite some heterogeneity in speciation dynamics, dinosaurs showed a marked reduction in their ability to replace extinct species with new ones, making them vulnerable to extinction and unable to respond quickly to and recover from the final catastrophic event.

  12. Ten-year results of quality assurance in radiotherapy chart round

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) initiated a unique instrument to audit the quality of patient notes and radiotherapy prescriptions. We present our experience collected over ten years from the use of the RANZCR audit instrument. Methods In this study, the results of data collected prospectively from January 1999 to June 2009 through the audit instrument were assessed. Radiotherapy chart rounds were held weekly in the uro-oncology tumour stream and real time feedback was provided. Electronic medical records were retrospectively assessed in September 2009 to see if any omissions were subsequently corrected. Results In total 2597 patients were audited. One hundred and thirty seven (5%) patients had one hundred and ninety nine omissions in documentation or radiotherapy prescription. In 79% of chart rounds no omissions were found at all, in 12% of chart rounds one omission was found and in 9% of chart rounds two or more omissions were found. Out of 199 omissions, 95% were of record keeping and 2% were omissions in the treatment prescription. Of omissions, 152 (76%) were unfiled investigation results of which 77 (51%) were subsequently corrected. Conclusions Real-time audit with feedback is an effective tool in assessing the standards of radiotherapy documentation in our department, and also probably contributed to the high level of attentiveness. A large proportion of omissions were investigation results, which highlights the need for an improved system of retrieval of investigation results in the radiation oncology department. PMID:23617328

  13. The Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS): a ten-year appraisal.

    PubMed

    Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Agüera, Antonio; Broyer, Claude De; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS) is a marine species database that manages an authoritative taxonomic list of species occurring in the Southern Ocean. RAMS links with several other initiatives managing biogeographic or genomics information. The current paper aims to briefly present RAMS and provides an updated snapshot of its contents, in the form of a DarwinCore checklist (available through http://ipt.biodiversity.aq/resource.do?r=rams) and illustrative barplots. Moreover, this article presents a ten year appraisal (since the creation of RAMS). This appraisal first focuses on RAMS bibliometrics. We observed that RAMS was cited (Google Scholar) in 50 distinct publications among which 32 were peer-reviewed in 18 different journals. Three journals (Antarctic Science, Polar Biology, ZooKeys) represent almost 40% of these peer-review publications. The second appraisal focuses on the evolution of new RAMS records. We observed an important decrease in data additions since 2011. As a case study, we focused on an original dataset for a specific group (Asteroidea, Echinodermata). It appears that around one hundred species of asteroids are lacking in RAMS despite the relatively high availability of these data. This suggests that the users' community (or collaborative projects such as AquaRES) could be helpful in order to maintain the RAMS database over the long term. PMID:26478709

  14. Greater ecosystem carbon in the Mojave Desert after ten years exposure to elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R. D.; Koyama, A.; Sonderegger, D. L.; Charlet, T. N.; Newingham, B. A.; Fenstermaker, L. F.; Harlow, B.; Jin, V. L.; Ogle, K.; Smith, S. D.; Nowak, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas inducing climate change. Increased global CO2 emissions, estimated at 8.4 Pg C yr-1 at present, have accelerated from 1% yr-1 during 1990-1999 to 2.5% yr-1 during 2000-2009 (ref. ). The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems is the greatest unknown in the global C budget because the actual magnitude, location and causes of terrestrial sinks are uncertain; estimates of terrestrial C uptake, therefore, are often based on the residuals between direct measurements of the atmospheric sink and well-constrained models of ocean uptake of CO2 (ref. ). Here we report significant terrestrial C accumulation caused by CO2 enhancement to net ecosystem productivity in an intact, undisturbed arid ecosystem following ten years of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2. Results provide direct evidence that CO2 fertilization substantially increases ecosystem C storage and that arid ecosystems are significant, previously unrecognized, sinks for atmospheric CO2 that must be accounted for in efforts to constrain terrestrial and global C cycles.

  15. Ten years of solar power plant operation in the Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, G.E.; Frier, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    Nine Solar Electric Generating Systems (SEGS), ranging from 13.8 to 80 MWe of rated name plate capacity, have been operating on a commercial basis in the Mojave desert of southern California since the mid-1980s. Each facility was developed as an Independent Power Producer (IPP) which sells power to the Southern California Edison Company (SCE). The nine SEGS plants provide a combined capacity of 354 MWe, and produce over 90% of the solar electric generation in the world. The SEGS plants utilize large fields of parabolic trough Solar Collector Assemblies (SCAs) supplying thermal energy to produce steam for a Rankine steam turbine/generator cycle. The parabolic trough SCAs have silvered low-iron glass reflectors which focus direct solar radiation on an efficient evacuated receiver, or Heat Collection Element (HCE). After reviewing the technology and plant characteristics, this paper will describe the trends in performance and operating experience over the last ten years. As part of the plant improvements, the paper will also describe the cost-shared program for SEGS III-VII between Sandia National Laboratories and KJC Operating Company (KJC OC). Functioning since 1992, this program is intended to reduce operating and maintenance cost by developing new management methods and technical improvements.

  16. A ten-year study of tick biting in Mississippi: implications for human disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Jerome

    2002-01-01

    To determine exactly which tick species bit people in Mississippi, information was gathered on ticks involved in human biting cases for the ten-year period, January 1, 1990-December 31, 1999. Specimens were identified by the author and, in most cases, confirmed by personnel at the Institute of Arthropodology and Parasitology, Georgia Southern University. A total of 119 ticks were recovered from 73 humans during the study period. Seven tick species were represented; most common included the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, the gulf coast tick, A. maculatum, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the black-legged deer tick, Ixodes scapularis. Interestingly, no immature Ixodes scapularis were collected. there were several unusual records. Twelve larvae of Amblyomma tuberculatum, a species associated with the gopher tortoise, were removed from a patient. Two Dermacentor albipictus larvae were collected from an elderly woman with no travel history except her backyard. One Dermacentor sp. nymph, removed from a man in central MS, was not even a North American species. One adult female Dermacentor variabilis was involved in a clinical case of tick paralysis. These findings indicate that, although we know which tick species are common human biters, unusual/unreported tick-human interactions may be more common than we think. PMID:12853269

  17. Modeling the Office of Science Ten Year Facilities Plan: The PERI Architecture Team

    SciTech Connect

    de Supinski, Bronis R.; Alam, Sadaf R; Bailey, David; Carrington, Laura; Daley, Christopher; Dubey, Anshu; Gamblin, Todd; Gunter, Dan; Hovland, Paul; Jagode, Heike; Karavanic, Karen; Marin, Gabriel; Mellor-Crummey, John; Moore, Shirley; Norris, Boyana; Oliker, Leonid; Olschanowsky, Cathy; Roth, Philip C; Schulz, Martin; Shende, Sameer; Snavely, Allan; Spea, Wyatt; Tikir, Mustafa; Vetter, Jeffrey S; Worley, Patrick H; Wright, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The Performance Engineering Institute (PERI) originally proposed a tiger team activity as a mechanism to target significant effort optimizing key Office of Science applications, a model that was successfully realized with the assistance of two JOULE metric teams. However, the Office of Science requested a new focus beginning in 2008: assistance in forming its ten year facilities plan. To meet this request, PERI formed the Architecture Tiger Team, which is modeling the performance of key science applications on future architectures, with S3D, FLASH and GTC chosen as the first application targets. In this activity, we have measured the performance of these applications on current systems in order to understand their baseline performance and to ensure that our modeling activity focuses on the right versions and inputs of the applications. We have applied a variety of modeling techniques to anticipate the performance of these applications on a range of anticipated systems. While our initial findings predict that Office of Science applications will continue to perform well on future machines from major hardware vendors, we have also encountered several areas in which we must extend our modeling techniques in order to fulfilll our mission accurately and completely. In addition, we anticipate that models of a wider range of applications will reveal critical differences between expected future systems, thus providing guidance for future Office of Science procurement decisions, and will enable DOE applications to exploit machines in future facilities fully.

  18. Modeling the Office of Science Ten Year FacilitiesPlan: The PERI Architecture Tiger Team

    SciTech Connect

    de Supinski, B R; Alam, S R; Bailey, D H; Carrington, L; Daley, C

    2009-05-27

    The Performance Engineering Institute (PERI) originally proposed a tiger team activity as a mechanism to target significant effort to the optimization of key Office of Science applications, a model that was successfully realized with the assistance of two JOULE metric teams. However, the Office of Science requested a new focus beginning in 2008: assistance in forming its ten year facilities plan. To meet this request, PERI formed the Architecture Tiger Team, which is modeling the performance of key science applications on future architectures, with S3D, FLASH and GTC chosen as the first application targets. In this activity, we have measured the performance of these applications on current systems in order to understand their baseline performance and to ensure that our modeling activity focuses on the right versions and inputs of the applications. We have applied a variety of modeling techniques to anticipate the performance of these applications on a range of anticipated systems. While our initial findings predict that Office of Science applications will continue to perform well on future machines from major hardware vendors, we have also encountered several areas in which we must extend our modeling techniques in order to fulfill our mission accurately and completely. In addition, we anticipate that models of a wider range of applications will reveal critical differences between expected future systems, thus providing guidance for future Office of Science procurement decisions, and will enable DOE applications to exploit machines in future facilities fully.

  19. Modeling the Office of Science Ten Year Facilities Plan: The PERI Architecture Tiger Team

    SciTech Connect

    de Supinski, Bronis R.; Alam, Sadaf; Bailey, David H.; Carrington, Laura; Daley, Chris; Dubey, Anshu; Gamblin, Todd; Gunter, Dan; Hovland, Paul D.; Jagode, Heike; Karavanic, Karen; Marin, Gabriel; Mellor-Crummey, John; Moore, Shirley; Norris, Boyana; Oliker, Leonid; Olschanowsky, Catherine; Roth, Philip C.; Schulz, Martin; Shende, Sameer; Snavely, Allan; Spear, Wyatt; Tikir, Mustafa; Vetter, Jeff; Worley, Pat; Wright, Nicholas

    2009-06-26

    The Performance Engineering Institute (PERI) originally proposed a tiger team activity as a mechanism to target significant effort optimizing key Office of Science applications, a model that was successfully realized with the assistance of two JOULE metric teams. However, the Office of Science requested a new focus beginning in 2008: assistance in forming its ten year facilities plan. To meet this request, PERI formed the Architecture Tiger Team, which is modeling the performance of key science applications on future architectures, with S3D, FLASH and GTC chosen as the first application targets. In this activity, we have measured the performance of these applications on current systems in order to understand their baseline performance and to ensure that our modeling activity focuses on the right versions and inputs of the applications. We have applied a variety of modeling techniques to anticipate the performance of these applications on a range of anticipated systems. While our initial findings predict that Office of Science applications will continue to perform well on future machines from major hardware vendors, we have also encountered several areas in which we must extend our modeling techniques in order to fulfill our mission accurately and completely. In addition, we anticipate that models of a wider range of applications will reveal critical differences between expected future systems, thus providing guidance for future Office of Science procurement decisions, and will enable DOE applications to exploit machines in future facilities fully.

  20. The Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS): a ten-year appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Agüera, Antonio; Broyer, Claude De; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS) is a marine species database that manages an authoritative taxonomic list of species occurring in the Southern Ocean. RAMS links with several other initiatives managing biogeographic or genomics information. The current paper aims to briefly present RAMS and provides an updated snapshot of its contents, in the form of a DarwinCore checklist (available through http://ipt.biodiversity.aq/resource.do?r=rams) and illustrative barplots. Moreover, this article presents a ten year appraisal (since the creation of RAMS). This appraisal first focuses on RAMS bibliometrics. We observed that RAMS was cited (Google Scholar) in 50 distinct publications among which 32 were peer-reviewed in 18 different journals. Three journals (Antarctic Science, Polar Biology, ZooKeys) represent almost 40% of these peer-review publications. The second appraisal focuses on the evolution of new RAMS records. We observed an important decrease in data additions since 2011. As a case study, we focused on an original dataset for a specific group (Asteroidea, Echinodermata). It appears that around one hundred species of asteroids are lacking in RAMS despite the relatively high availability of these data. This suggests that the users’ community (or collaborative projects such as AquaRES) could be helpful in order to maintain the RAMS database over the long term. PMID:26478709

  1. SPIE Smart Structures Product Implementation Award: a review of the first ten years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eric H.; Sater, Janet M.

    2007-04-01

    The research field of smart materials and structures has been a distinct entity for two decades. Over the past ten years, the SPIE Industrial and Commercial Applications Conference has presented a Smart Structures Product Implementation Award at its annual symposium. This paper revisits the nine winning entries to date (1998-2007) and updates their status. The paper begins with a brief description of the original and current intent of the award and follows with a short overview of the evolution of smart structures, from research to products. The winning teams and their respective products are then described. The current status of the products is discussed based on publicly available information and input from the respective companies. Note however that it is not the purpose of the paper to rank the product winners in terms of success or sales. The paper concludes with an assessment of the larger trends in productization of smart structures technologies. The application "form" for the award as well as the evaluation criteria and suggestions for improving award application packages can be found in the appendix.

  2. Jam-resistant speech encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, M. A.; Rifkin, R.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes techniques that provide increased jam resistance for digitized speech. Methods for increasing the jam resistance of pulse code modulated data are analyzed and evaluated in listener tests. Special emphasis is placed on new voice encoding approaches that take advantage of a spread spectrum system with a variable (or multiple)-data-rate/variable (or multiple)-AJ capability. Methods for matching a source to a channel in a jamming environment are investigated. Several techniques that provide about a 4 dB increase in jam resistance have been identified.

  3. Outcomes of Open Carpal Tunnel Release at a Minimum of Ten Years

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Dexter L.; Earp, Brandon E.; Collins, Jamie E.; Losina, Elena; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Black, Eric M.; Simmons, Barry P.; Blazar, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is little research on the long-term outcomes of open carpal tunnel release. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the functional and symptomatic outcomes of patients at a minimum of ten years postoperatively. Methods: Two hundred and eleven patients underwent open carpal tunnel release from 1996 to 2000 performed by the same hand fellowship-trained surgeon. Follow-up with validated self-administered questionnaire instruments was conducted an average of thirteen years after surgery. The principal outcomes included the Levine-Katz symptom and function scores, ranging from 1 point (best) to 5 points (worst), and satisfaction with the results of surgery. The patients self-reported current comorbidities. Results: After a mean follow-up of thirteen years (range, eleven to seventeen years), 92% (194) of 211 patients were located. They included 140 who were still living and fifty-four who had died. Seventy-two percent (113) of the 157 located, surviving patients responded to the questionnaire. The mean Levine-Katz symptom score (and standard deviation) was 1.3 ± 0.5 points, and 13% of patients had a poor symptom score (≥2 points). The mean Levine-Katz function score was 1.6 ± 0.8 points, and 26% had a poor function score (≥2 points). The most common symptom-related complaint was weakness in the hand, followed by diurnal pain, numbness, and tingling. The least common symptoms were nocturnal pain and tenderness at the incision. Eighty-eight percent of the patients were either completely satisfied or very satisfied with the surgery. Seventy-four percent reported their symptoms to be completely resolved. Thirty-three percent of men were classified as having poor function compared with 23% of women. Two (1.8%) of 113 patients underwent repeat surgery. Conclusions: At an average of thirteen years after open carpal tunnel release, the majority of patients are satisfied and free of symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Level of Evidence

  4. Porous-coated acetabular components with screw fixation. Five to ten-year results.

    PubMed

    Latimer, H A; Lachiewicz, P F

    1996-07-01

    The results of 136 consecutive primary total hip arthroplasties performed by one surgeon with the Harris-Galante-I porous-coated acetabular component were reviewed at a mean of seven years (range, five to ten years). In all hips, the outer diameter of the acetabular component was the same as the diameter of the final reamer used in the preparation of the acetabulum. However, this reamer was used only briefly at the rim of the acetabulum, and therefore the components had so-called press-fit stability. A mean of four screws (range, three to six screws) were used for additional fixation of the component. The clinical evaluation was performed with use of the Harris hip score. Standardized anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis were assessed for migration of the component, radiolucent and radiodense lines, linear wear of the polyethylene, and osteolysis. No acetabular component had been revised for loosening and none were radiographically loose at the time of the most recent follow-up evaluation. There were no complications related to the use of the screws, and no screw had bent or broken. A non-progressive radiolucent line was seen in one acetabular zone in thirty-four hips (25 per cent) and in two acetabular zones in six hips (4 per cent). No hip had a radiolucent line in all three acetabular zones. The mean rate of linear wear of the polyethylene was 0.1 millimeter per year. There was no dissociation of the acetabular liner from the metal shell. Two hips (1 per cent) had asymptomatic osteolysis in the ischium and adjacent to the rim of the acetabular component; this was treated with grafting at the site of the lesion and exchange of the femoral head and the worn polyethylene liner. Five femoral components inserted without cement and one inserted with cement were revised because of loosening. The data suggest that, at a mean of seven years, fixation of this porous-coated component was uniformly excellent. The low prevalence of radiolucent lines and the absence of

  5. 1994-2004 : Ten years of European effort for education in Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virieux, J.; Zollo, A.; Lomax, A.; Berenguer, J.; Laj, C.; Bobbio, A.

    2004-12-01

    Following trends of the pioneer PEPP project in USA, an European group has investigated since 1994 how to promote physics and earth sciences and, more specifically, how to educate scientifically and socially young generations to environmental hazards. Seismology has been selected as the vehicle for a prototypical ten-years experience of teaching and learning sciences in European high schools accounting for the specificity and differencies of educational systems in each country. This general purpose has required competences and strong interactions of both teachers, researchers and high school students. Over ten years of continuous activities, these people have found that the target was very ambitious and that both high-tech efforts as well as very focused teaching procedures must be set on. Dedicated instruments were developped in two years through interactions between researchers,teachers and students in order to fit both the scientific quality but also pedagogical features and were installed in different parts of Europe. The sequence of Colfiorito Earthquakes in September-October 1997 was the first data collected simultaneously in different European schools. Since then, more thant 50 stations have been deployed over Europe and data have been made available for education purposes. Data from these seismic stations have been used as the back-bone for interactions between students/pupils, teachers and researchers leading to the development of dedicated teaching and learning materials as software tools for data analysis, simple experimentations and so on. The framework for such an European initiative has been provided by Italian and French national funds and put together under the banner of the so-called EDUSEIS projet. This EDUcational SEISmological European Network (http://www.eduseis.org/) has shown that indeed environmental education is possible with its typical feature of long-term efforts. Funding through Europe will certainly increase the cohesion of this

  6. Ten-Year Comparisons of Problems and Competencies for National Samples of Youth: Self, Parent, and Teacher Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achenbach, Thomas M.; Dumenci, Levent; Rescorla, Leslie A.

    2002-01-01

    This study compared national samples of United States' 11- to 18- year-olds assessed in 1989 and 1999. Parent, teacher and self-report sources showed small improvements in competencies and adaptive functioning and small declines in problems over ten years. No significant differences on any scales were found for youths assessed shortly before and…

  7. Saturn’s Tropospheric Temperatures and Para-Hydrogen Distribution from Ten Years of Cassini Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Irwin, Patrick G.; Sinclair, James; Giles, Rohini; Barstow, Joanna; Achterberg, Richard K.; Orton, Glenn S.

    2014-11-01

    Cassini/CIRS observations of Saturn’s 10-1400 cm-1 spectrum have been inverted to construct a global record of tropospheric temperature and para-hydrogen variability over the ten-year span of the Cassini mission. The data record the slow reversal of seasonal asymmetries in tropospheric conditions from northern winter (2004, Ls=293), through northern spring equinox (2009, Ls=0) to the present day (2014, Ls=60). Mid-latitude tropospheric temperatures have cooled by approximately 4-6 K in the south and warmed by 2-4 K in the north, with the seasonal contrast decreasing with depth. CIRS detected the north polar minimum 100-mbar temperatures 6-8 years after winter solstice, whereas the south polar maximum occurred 1-2 years after summer solstice, consistent with the lag times predicted by radiative equilibrium models. Warm polar cyclones and the northern hexagon persist throughout the mission, suggesting that they are permanent features of Saturn’s tropospheric circulation. The 200-mbar thermal enhancement (“knee”) that was strongest in the summer but weak or absent in winter in 2004-2006 (Fletcher et al., 2007, Icarus 189, p.457-478) has now shifted northward and is present globally in 2014, suggestive of radiative heating in Saturn’s tropospheric haze layer. Saturn’s para-H2 fraction, which serves as a tracer of both tropospheric mixing and the efficiency of re-equilibration between the ortho- and para-hydrogen states, is slowly altering: super-equilibrium conditions (para-H2 fraction exceeding equilibrium expectations and suggestive of subsiding airmasses) that dominated the southern summer hemisphere are now weakening, whereas the sub-equilibrium conditions (suggestive of uplift) of the northern winter are being replaced by equilibrium or super-equilibrium conditions in spring. The thermal ‘knee’ and the para-H2 distribution are tracking both the increased spring illumination and the increasing tropospheric haze opacity of the springtime hemisphere

  8. Ten-year trends in quality and spending for depression: 1996-2005

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Catherine A.; Busch, Alisa B.; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; McGuire, Thomas G.; Epstein, Arnold M.

    2016-01-01

    Context Over the past decade, the introduction of generic versions of newer antidepressants and the release of FDA-warnings regarding suicidality in children, adolescents, and young adults may have had an impact on cost and quality of depression treatment. Objectives To examine longitudinal trends in service use, spending, and treatment quality for depression. Design Observational, trend study. Setting Florida, Medicaid enrollees from July 1996 to June 2006. Subjects Annual cohorts aged 18-64 diagnosed with depression. Main Outcome Measures Mental-health spending adjusted for inflation and case mix and components of mental-health spending, including inpatient, outpatient, and medication expenditures. Quality measures included measures of medication adherence, psychotherapy, and follow-up visits. Results Mental-health spending increased from an average of $2802 per enrollee to $3610 over this time period (29% increase). This increase occurred despite a mean decrease in inpatient spending (from $641 per enrollee to $373) and was driven primarily by an increase in pharmaceutical spending (up 110%) the bulk of which was due to spending on antipsychotics (up 949%). The percentage of enrollees with depression who were hospitalized decreased from 57% to 37% and the percentage using psychotherapy decreased from 9% to 5%. Antidepressant use increased from 82% to 87%, anxiety medication use was unchanged at 64%, and antipsychotic use increased from 27% to 42%. Changes in treatment quality were mixed, with measures of antidepressant use improving slightly, measures examining follow-up visits decreasing, and measures of psychotherapy utilization fluctuating. Conclusions Over a ten-year period, we found a substantial increase in spending for enrollees with depression associated with minimal improvements in quality of care. Antipsychotic use contributed significantly to the increase in spending while contributing little to traditional measures of quality. PMID:22147841

  9. Laparoscopic adrenal surgery: ten-year experience in a single institution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Minimal invasive adrenalectomy has become the procedure of choice to treat adrenal tumors with a benign appearance, ≤ 6 cm in diameter and weighing < 100 g. Authors evaluated medium- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA), performed for ten years in a single endocrine surgery unit. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 88 consecutive patients undergone LA for lesions of adrenal glands from 2003 to 2013. The first 30 operations were considered part of the learning curve. Doxazosin was preoperatively administered in case of pheochromocytoma (PCC), while spironolactone and potassium were employed to treat Conn's disease. Perioperative cardiovascular status modifications and surgical and medium- and long-term results were analyzed. Results Forty nine (55.68%) functioning tumors, and one (1.13%) bilateral adrenal disease were identified. In 2 patients (2.27%) a supposed adrenal metastasis was postoperatively confirmed, while in no patients a diagnosis of incidental primitive malignancy was performed. There was no mortality or major post operative complication. The mean operative time was higher during the learning curve. Conversion and morbidity rates were respectively 1.13% and 5.7%. Intraoperative hypertensive crises (≥180/90 mmHg) were observed in 23.5% (4/17) of PCC patients and were treated pharmacologically with no aftermath. There was no influence of age, size and operative time on the occurrence of PCC intraoperative hypertensive episodes. Surgery determined a normalization of the endocrine profile. One single PCC persistence was observed, while in a Conn's patient, just undergone right LA, a left sparing adrenalectomy was performed for a contralateral metachronous aldosteronoma. Conclusions LA, a safe, effective and well tolerated procedure for the treatment of adrenal neoplasms ≤ 6 cm, is feasible for larger lesions, with a similar low morbidity rate. Operative time has improved along with the increase of the experience and of

  10. Nonconvex optimization and jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallus, Yoav

    Recent work on the jamming transition of particles with short-range interactions has drawn connections with models based on minimization problems with linear inequality constraints and a concave objective. These properties reduce the continuous optimization problem to a discrete search among the corners of the feasible polytope. I will discuss results from simulations of models with and without quenched disorder, exhibiting critical power laws, scaling collapse, and protocol dependence. These models are also well-suited for study using tools of algebraic topology, which I will discuss briefly. Supported by an Omidyar Fellowship at the Santa Fe Institute.

  11. Offsite source recovery project - ten years of sealed source recovery and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, Julia Rose; Pearson, Mike; Witkowski, Ioana; Wald - Hopkins, Mark; Cuthbertson, A

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources for ten years. In January 2009, GTRI announced that the project had recovered 20,000 sealed radioactive sources (this number has since increased to more than 23,000). This project grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program. Decades later, these sources began to exceed their special form certifications or fall out of regular use. As OSRP has collected and stored sealed sources, initially using 'No Path Forward' waste exemptions for storage within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, it has consistently worked to create disposal pathways for the material it has recovered. The project was initially restricted to recovering sealed sources that would meet the definition of Greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste, assisting DOE in meeting its obligations under the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act Amendments (PL 99-240) to provide disposal for this type of waste. After being transferred from DOE-Environmental Management (EM) to the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, OSRP's mission was expanded to include not only material that would be classified as GTCC when it became waste, but also any other materials that might constitute a 'national security consideration.' It was recognized at the time that the GTCC category was a waste designation having to do with environmental consequence, rather than the threat posed by deliberate or accidental misuse. The project faces barriers to recovery in many areas, but disposal continues to be one of the more difficult to overcome. This paper discusses OSRP's disposal efforts over its 10-year history. For sources meeting the DOE definition of

  12. Ten years of ice hockey-related-injuries in the German Ice Hockey Federation - A Ten Year Prospective Study/523 International Games -.

    PubMed

    Gröger, A

    2001-12-01

    Since January 1986 all injuries in players of the German national hockey teams (juniors A/B and seniors A/B), which have occurred during international competitions, have been registrated and evaluated by using a strict definition of injury, standardized reporting strategies and diagnosis by the team physician. Patterns of injury have been identified and correlations between position, zone and cause of injury could be analysed and, as a consequence, measures were taken to prevent them. A total of 147 injuries forcing a consecutive absence from the game during 523 international games of the German national teams were reported. During the 10 year period there was a marked decrease of the total number and incidence of injuries. In addition, injury rate and average absence from game time improved. There were more frequent concussions of the brain but the total number of facial injuries dropped after the introduction of a visor and the full face mask especially in junior hockey. The forward was the position most at risk to be injured and most injuries were caused by players contact. PMID:11753779

  13. Cause-Specific Mortality in HIV-Positive Patients Who Survived Ten Years after Starting Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    May, Margaret T.; Vehreschild, Janne; Obel, Niels; Gill, Michael John; Crane, Heidi; Boesecke, Christoph; Samji, Hasina; Grabar, Sophie; Cazanave, Charles; Cavassini, Matthias; Shepherd, Leah; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Smit, Colette; Saag, Michael; Lampe, Fiona; Hernando, Vicky; Montero, Marta; Zangerle, Robert; Justice, Amy C.; Sterling, Timothy; Miro, Jose; Ingle, Suzanne; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate mortality rates and prognostic factors in HIV-positive patients who started combination antiretroviral therapy between 1996–1999 and survived for more than ten years. Methods We used data from 18 European and North American HIV cohort studies contributing to the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration. We followed up patients from ten years after start of combination antiretroviral therapy. We estimated overall and cause-specific mortality rate ratios for age, sex, transmission through injection drug use, AIDS, CD4 count and HIV-1 RNA. Results During 50,593 person years 656/13,011 (5%) patients died. Older age, male sex, injecting drug use transmission, AIDS, and low CD4 count and detectable viral replication ten years after starting combination antiretroviral therapy were associated with higher subsequent mortality. CD4 count at ART start did not predict mortality in models adjusted for patient characteristics ten years after start of antiretroviral therapy. The most frequent causes of death (among 340 classified) were non-AIDS cancer, AIDS, cardiovascular, and liver-related disease. Older age was strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality, injecting drug use transmission with non-AIDS infection and liver-related mortality, and low CD4 and detectable viral replication ten years after starting antiretroviral therapy with AIDS mortality. Five-year mortality risk was <5% in 60% of all patients, and in 30% of those aged over 60 years. Conclusions Viral replication, lower CD4 count, prior AIDS, and transmission via injecting drug use continue to predict higher all-cause and AIDS-related mortality in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy for over a decade. Deaths from AIDS and non-AIDS infection are less frequent than deaths from other non-AIDS causes. PMID:27525413

  14. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  15. Creative Climate: A global ten-year communications, research and learning project about environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, M. A.; Smith, J.

    2010-12-01

    The next ten years have been described by influential science and policy figures as ‘the most important in human history’. Many believe that the actions taken will decide whether we catastrophically change the atmosphere and eradicate our fellow species or find an alternative, less-damaging development path. But communications and public engagement initiatives have tended to focus on near term impacts or debates - whether they emphasise hazards, or trumpet ‘solutions’. There are signs of diminishing returns on communications and public engagement efforts, and serious obstacles to engaging around 40% of publics in e.g. the US and the UK. The Creative Climate web project takes a new approach, inviting people to see humanity’s intellectual and practical journey with these issues as an inspiring, dynamic and unfolding story. We are inviting people to join us in building a huge living archive of experiences and ideas that respond to these issues. The website will collect thoughts and stories from doorstep to workplace, from lab to garden; from international conference to community meeting - from all over the world. The body of diaries lie at the core of the project, but these are supplemented by the offer of free online learning resources and broadcast-quality audio and video materials. The project is experimental in terms of its scope, its approach to environmental communications and debate and in its use of media. It works with formal partners, including the BBC, yet also makes the most of the opportunities for user generated content to create a rich multimedia resource that can support research, learning and engagement. The design of the project is informed by environmental social science and communications research, and by an awareness of the unfolding potential of Internet based communications to support social change. It is also intended that the Creative Climate platform will develop so as to serve researchers by offering an open resource of qualitative

  16. Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance in Peru: a ten-year observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are food-borne pathogens of great importance and feature prominently in the etiology of developing world enteritis and travellers’ diarrhoea. Increasing antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter prevalence has been described globally, yet data from Peru is limited. Our objective was to describe the prevalence trends of fluoroquinolone and macrolide-resistant C. jejuni and C. coli stool isolates from three regions in Peru over a ten-year period. Methods Surveillance for enteric pathogens was conducted in Lima, Iquitos and Cusco between 2001 and 2010. Campylobacter stool isolates were tested for susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin. Susceptibilities were reviewed for 4652 isolates from Lima ( n = 3419), Iquitos ( n = 625) and Cusco ( n = 608). Results Comparing the study periods of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010, prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni isolates rose in the study areas of Lima (73.1% to 89.8%, p < 0.001) and Iquitos (24.1% to 48.9%, p < 0.001). Ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli rates also increased in Lima (48.1% to 87.4%, p < 0.001) and Cusco (10.0% to 65.9%, p = 0.005). Small but significant increases in azithromycin-resistant and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni prevalence were noted in Iquitos (2.2% to 14.9%, p < 0.001; 3.2% to 14.9%, p = 0.002), and erythromycin-resistant C. coli rates increased in Lima (0.0% to 5.3%, p = 0.038). The prevalence of C. jejuni isolates resistant to both ciprofloxacin and azithromycin increased in Iquitos (0.3% to 14.9%, p < 0.001) and Lima (0.3% to 1.6%, p = 0.011), and prevalence of C. jejuni isolates resistant to both ciprofloxacin and erythromycin rose in Iquitos (0.0% to 14.9%, p < 0.001). Ciprofloxacin and erythromycin resistant C. coli prevalence increased in Lima (0.0% to 5.3%, p = 0.034). Conclusions These results have implications for the empirical management of

  17. The Ten Most Important Reading Research Studies Published during the Last 25 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Gordon

    The ten reading research studies published since 1955 and deemed by the author "most important" in terms of quality, originality, and applicability to elementary reading instruction are described in this report. Discussed are studies on reading approaches by Russell Stauffer and by Neville Bennett; a study on reading readiness by Audrey…

  18. Negotiating with Development Partners: Ten-Year Plan for the Development of Basic Education in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ki, Bourema Jacques; Ouedraogo, Louis-Honore; Luisoni, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the ten-year plan for the development of basic education in Burkina Faso. Burkina Faso has to meet a major challenge, which consists of reducing poverty among the population, reducing exposure to crises of all kinds, and reducing inequality between regions and between different socio-economic sectors. In order to achieve…

  19. A Study in Critical Listening Using Eight to Ten Year Olds in an Analysis of Commercial Propaganda Emanating from Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jimmie Ellis

    Selected eight to ten year old Maryland children were used in this study measuring the effect of lessons in becoming aware of propaganda employed by commercial advertisers in television programs. Sixteen 45-minute lessons directed to the propaganda techniques of Band Wagon, Card Stacking, Glittering Generalities, Name Calling, Plain Folks,…

  20. 78 FR 56185 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Fort Collins AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  1. 78 FR 46861 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Greeley AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  2. The Fate of Ten Scientist-Science Educator Teams Three Years After Participation in a Leadership Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Mary Budd

    Ten two-person teams made up the primary target population for the Leadership Training Program (LTP) described in this report. The back home activities of the team members were studied for nearly three years following the LTP. A brief resume of the design and conduct of the LTP is given. Training of the college teams took three weeks and included…

  3. Ten Years of Youth Programs at the American Museum of Natural History: An Independent Perspective and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Becky

    2008-01-01

    In this report, the author shares her perspective on ten years of science-rich programming for high school youth at the American Museum of Natural History. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the theory of action and the rationale that underlies the AMNH youth programs; (2) A description of three of the programs that have been offered and…

  4. Shear jamming in granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-01

    For frictionless particles with purely repulsive interactions, there is a critical packing fraction ϕJ below which no jammed states exist. Recent experiments have shown that applying shear to a stress-free initial state can generate states which are either fragile or shear jammed depending on the way the force-network is percolated (Bi et al. Nature 2011). The nature of the jamming transition however is obscured because the existence of friction between the system and the third dimension. A new apparatus at SJTU has been designed to completely eliminate this friction by letting the particles float on the surface of a shallow water layer, which allows a study of the more detailed nature of the shear-jammed states and the transition from an unjammed state to a shear-jammed state. In this study, we also use high-precision force sensors to monitor the dynamical changes near the jamming transition. We further combine numerical simulations with the experiments to diagnose the nature of this jamming transition and its possible dependence on certain particle properties. The work at SJTU is in collaboration with Ling Zhang and Jie Zheng. The numerical simulations are in collaboration with Maobin Hu at Univ. of Sci. & Tech. of China.

  5. Estuarine River Data for the Ten Thousand Islands Area, Florida, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, Michael J.; Patino, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected stream discharge, stage, salinity, and water-temperature data near the mouths of 11 tributaries flowing into the Ten Thousand Islands area of Florida from October 2004 to June 2005. Maximum positive discharge from Barron River and Faka Union River was 6,000 and 3,200 ft3/s, respectively; no other tributary exceeded 2,600 ft3/s. Salinity variation was greatest at Barron River and Faka Union River, ranging from 2 to 37 ppt, and from 3 to 34 ppt, respectively. Salinity maximums were greatest at Wood River and Little Wood River, each exceeding 40 ppt. All data were collected prior to the commencement of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to establish a more natural flow regime to the tributaries of the Ten Thousand Islands area.

  6. Comparing simulated wildfire effects to jam distribution and habitat quality in an intermediate-sized stream 10 years after a high intensity fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, S. L.; Eaton, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    Large wood governs channel morphology and determines the quality and distribution of aquatic habitat in many forested river networks. This is particularly true in streams that contain both key pieces large enough to form morphologically effective jams, as well as smaller mobile wood. In these streams, jams create spawning habitat by retaining sediment, increase rearing and over-wintering habitat by forming pools, and force avulsions which create side channels. To explore the effects of wildfire-induced increases in wood loading on channel morphology and aquatic habitat we have applied the stochastic reach-scale channel simulator (RSCS) to a case study of Fishtrap Creek, an intermediate-sized stream in the interior of British Columbia which experienced a high intensity fire in 2003. As predicted by model simulations, high quality spawning, rearing, and over-wintering habitats, as well as multi-thread channels, are found exclusively in association with wood, while plane-bed morphologies dominate where wood is absent. However, valley confinement and glacial legacy exert an important control on the magnitude of the impacts of the fire-derived wood; where the stream is confined, wood is suspended and morphologically ineffective, while un-confined segments contain high effective wood loads, multi-thread channels, and abundant aquatic habitat. These findings suggest that the morphologic effects of wood are highly dependent on valley geometry, which is in turn dictated by glacial legacy throughout much of North America, and that the impacts of valley confinement on the effectiveness of introduced wood must be considered in future model iterations. Plane bed morphology typical of reaches without large wood present Complex forced pool-riffle morphology typical of reaches with high wood loading

  7. Clinical characteristics and prognosis of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: a ten-year retrospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoli; Huang, Dongsheng; Zhao, Weihong; Sun, Liming; Xiong, Hao; Zhang, Yi; Jin, Mei; Zhang, Dawei; Huang, Cheng; Wang, Huanmin; Zhang, Weiping; Sun, Ning; He, Lejian; Tang, Jingyan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma in children. We have retrospectively explored the treatment results of childhood RMS and identified prognostic factors in multicenter in China, in order to lay the foundation for further multicenter study. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out analyzing the medical records of 161 patients with the pathological diagnosis of RMS from January, 2001 to February, 2014 at 5 large cancer centers in China. The data was reviewed clinico-epidemiological factors. Age, gender, histology type, primary site, tumor size, intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study (IRS) group and results of treatments were evaluated. Patients were followed up to Dec 31, 2014. Results: The median age of our patients was 51 months. 10.5% of our patients were infants. The genitourinary system was the most common primary site of tumor (43.5%). The proportion of primary site of head and neck except parameningeal, at 28.2% (42 cases), while the proportion of parameningeal region was 4.6% (7 cases). The histological findings were as follows: 130 cases (80.7%) with embryonal, 19 cases (11.9%) with alveolar and 5 cases (3.1%) with botryoid type. According to the classification system of the IRS group, 1 case (0.6%) was group I, 54 cases (33.5%) were group II, 46 cases (28.6%) were group III and 60 cases (37.3 %) were group IV. 149 patients were treated and followed-up regularly, Patients in Beijing children’s hospital (n=95) were enrolled in IRS-II/COG-D9803, D9802 protocols. while the other patients (n=54) started on treatment according to Chinese Anti-cancer Association protocol. There were median time of 51 months for following up, 60 occurred event. The ten-year event free survival rate was 53.4±5.1%, overall survival was 65.3±6.3%. The relations between outcome and age (0.046), primary site (0.022), pathologic subtype (0.013), tumor size (0.008) and IRS group (P=0.000) were associated significantly with event free survival

  8. Jamming vs Caging in Three Dimensional Jamming Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokef, Yair; Segall, Nimrod; Teomy, Eial

    We study a three-dimensional kinetically-constrained lattice-gas model, in which the ability of a particle to move depends on the occupation of neighboring sites in an orientational manner. The kinetic rules are constructed such that chains of permanently-frozen particles reach an infinite length at the critical density of directed percolation. Thus at this critical density the system undergoes a jamming transition, above which there is a finite fraction of jammed particles. We demonstrate that the three-dimensional mesh-like structure of the one-dimensional jammed chains enables the free particles to propagate through the holes in this mesh. This diffusive motion is terminated at a second critical density above which all particles are caged. The largest and second largest clusters of dynamically-connected sites exhibit singularities at both densities. Thus our model assists in separating between the two distinct phenomena of jamming and caging.

  9. Biophysics: Life in a jam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Shreyas; Gore, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Jammed states in growing yeast populations share intriguing similarities with amorphous solids, despite being generated through self-replication. The impact this behaviour has on cell division highlights one way that physical forces regulate biological function.

  10. The simplest model of jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Silvio; Parisi, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    We study a well known neural network model—the perceptron—as a simple statistical physics model of jamming of hard objects. We exhibit two regimes: (1) a convex optimization regime where jamming is hypostatic and non-critical; (2) a non-convex optimization regime where jamming is isostatic and critical. We characterize the critical jamming phase through exponents describing the distribution laws of forces and gaps. Surprisingly we find that these exponents coincide with the corresponding ones recently computed in high dimensional hard spheres. In addition, modifying the perceptron to a random linear programming problem, we show that isostaticity is not a sufficient condition for singular force and gap distributions. For that, fragmentation of the space of solutions (replica symmetry breaking) appears to be a crucial ingredient. We hypothesize universality for a large class of non-convex constrained satisfaction problems with continuous variables.

  11. [The top ten researches of Chinese ocular trauma research in recent five years].

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    Ten researches that may represent the progress in Chinese ocular trauma related studies were selected through voting by specialists from Chinese Ocular Trauma Society. These researches focused on the following fields: new strategies for the treatment of ocular trauma, study of vitreoretinal surgery and new technique application for severe ocular trauma, establishment of animal modal for basic research of ocular trauma, prevention of infectious endophthalmitis, clinical and basic study of ocular chemical burn, establishment of the public service and research platform of ocular trauma. These studies represented the level and influence of Chinese ocular trauma specialists in the international academic community and they were the landmark studies of our areas of expertise. PMID:26696578

  12. [Ten years of therapy resistant intercostal neuralgia-suspected postherpetic neuralgia following herpes zoster sine herpete.].

    PubMed

    Zwölfer, W; Hartmann, T; Spacek, A; Grubhofer, G; Porges, P

    1993-09-01

    We report the case of a 65 year old man who has been suffering from segmental back pain for 10 years. The diagnosis postherpetic neuralgia following herpes zoster sine herpete was fixed 9 years after the beginning of pain. All treatments prior to ours were ineffective. Acupuncture and the use of homeopathic drugs led to success at last. PMID:18415405

  13. Effectiveness of different methods to control legionella in the water supply: ten-year experience in an Italian university hospital.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, I; Marchegiano, P; Bargellini, A; Cencetti, S; Frezza, G; Miselli, M; Borella, P

    2011-01-01

    We report our ten-year experience of hyperchlorination, thermal shock, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, boilers and point-of-use filters for controlling legionella contamination in a hospital hot water distribution system. Shock disinfections were associated with a return to pre-treatment contamination levels within one or two months. We found that chlorine dioxide successfully maintained levels at <100 cfu/L, whilst preliminary experiments gave satisfactory results with monochloramine. No contamination was observed applying point-of-use filters and electric boilers at temperatures of >58°C and no cases of nosocomial legionellosis were detected in the ten-year observation period. Our performance ranking in reducing legionella contamination was filter, boiler, chlorine dioxide, hyperchlorination and thermal shock. Chlorine dioxide was the least expensive procedure followed by thermal shock, hyperchlorination, boiler and filter. We suggest adopting chlorine dioxide and electric boilers in parallel. PMID:21131100

  14. Ten-Year Comparison of Oxidized Zirconium and Cobalt-Chromium Femoral Components in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Justin; Vioreanu, Mihai; Salmon, Lucy; Waller, Alison; Pinczewski, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if oxidized zirconium femoral components had better outcomes than cobalt-chromium in vivo at medium and long term and if the use of oxidized zirconium components had clinical adverse effects. Methods: Forty consecutive patients (eighty knees) underwent simultaneous bilateral cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis from January 2002 to December 2003. For each patient, the knees were randomized to receive the oxidized zirconium femoral component, with the contralateral knee receiving the cobalt-chromium component. Outcome measures included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Knee Society score, and British Orthopaedic Association patient satisfaction scale. Radiographic outcomes include the Knee Society total knee arthroplasty roentgenographic evaluation and scoring system and measurement of radiographic wear. Patients and assessors were blinded to the treatment groups and results. Results: There were no significant differences in clinical, subjective, and radiographic outcomes between the two implants at ten years postoperatively. Ten years following surgery, 36% of the patients preferred the cobalt-chromium knee compared with 11% who preferred the oxidized zirconium knee (p = 0.02) and 53% had no preference. Conclusions: Ten-year outcomes after total knee arthroplasty with oxidized zirconium and cobalt-chromium femoral components showed no significant differences in clinical, subjective, and radiographic outcomes. Patients had no preference or preferred the cobalt chromium prosthesis to the oxidized zirconium prosthesis. There were no adverse effects associated with the use of oxidized zirconium femoral implants.

  15. Ten-Year Changes in Fusional Vergence, Phoria, and Nearpoint of Convergence in Myopic Children

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Heather; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fern, Karen D.; Manny, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify longitudinal changes in fusional vergence ranges and their relationship to other clinical measures in young myopic subjects. Methods Measurements were collected annually for 10 years on 114 subjects from the University of Houston Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial cohort. Subject age was 7 to 13 years at year 1 of follow-up. Measurements included refractive error, distance and near phoria, interpupillary distance (IPD), prism bar fusional vergence ranges, and nearpoint of convergence (NPC). Multilevel modeling was used to determine baseline and rate of change for fusional vergence ranges and the impact of phoria, IPD, and NPC on these measures. Results Year 1 mean distance base-out (BO) break was 20 prism diopters (pd) and decreased 5.6 pd over 10 years (p <0.001). Mean near BO break was 30 pd at year 1 and decreased 9.4 pd over 10 years (p < 0.001). Greater esophoria was significantly related to greater BO break (p < 0.02) and receded NPC was significantly related to lower magnitude BO break at near (p < 0.001). Distance IPD increased 3 mm over 10 years (p < 0.001) but was unrelated to the magnitude of the BO ranges (p > 0.2). Mean distance base-in (BI) break was 7 pd at year 1 and increased 0.5 pd in 10 years (p = 0.04). Mean near BI break was 13 pd at year 1 and did not significantly change. Mean distance phoria was 0.1 pd exophoria at year 1 and did not change, whereas near phoria was 2.4 pd esophoria at year 1 and became more exophoric (4 pd in 10 years, p < 0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that for myopic children convergence ranges decrease for both distance and near viewing during the school years as near phoria becomes more exophoric. These findings could have clinical implications given that compensating convergence ranges decrease as near phoria becomes more divergent. PMID:21623250

  16. Ten-year literature review of global endometrial ablation with the NovaSure® device

    PubMed Central

    Gimpelson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the peer-reviewed literature describing prospective studies that report amenorrhea rates, patient satisfaction, and surgical reintervention rates following the NovaSure® endometrial ablation procedure. A search of the English-language literature published from 2000 to 2011 was conducted using PubMed. Ten prospective studies, six single-arm NovaSure trials, and four randomized controlled trials comparing the NovaSure procedure with other global endometrial ablation modalities met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 60 months. Amenorrhea rates for the NovaSure procedure ranged from 30.0% to 75.0%. Patients who reported being satisfied with the NovaSure procedure ranged from 85.0% to 94.0%. In randomized controlled trials with other global endometrial ablation modalities, amenorrhea rates at 12 months with the NovaSure procedure ranged from 43.0% to 56.0%, while other modalities ranged from 8% to 24%. In addition, this manuscript reviews the following: the NovaSure technology; use of the NovaSure procedure in the office setting; intraoperative and postoperative pain; effects on premenstrual syndrome (PMS); dysmenorrhea; special circumstances, including presence of uterine disease, history of cesarean delivery, coagulopathy, or use of anticoagulant medication; post-procedure uterine cavity assessment and cancer risk; contraception and pregnancy; and safety. PMID:24648771

  17. Ten years of invasion: Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Helen E; Brown, Peter M J

    2015-01-01

    1. Harmonia axyridis was first recorded in Britain in 2004. Two subsequent earlier records were received from 2003. 2. The UK Ladybird Survey, a citizen science initiative involving online recording, was launched in 2005 to encourage people across Britain to track the spread of H. axyridis. Tens of thousands of people have provided records of H. axyridis and other species of ladybirds, creating an invaluable dataset for large-scale and long-term research. Declines in the distribution of seven (of eight assessed) native species of ladybird have been demonstrated, and correlated with the arrival of H. axyridis, using the records collated through the UK Ladybird Survey. 3. Experimental research and field surveys have also contributed to our understanding of the ecology of H. axyridis and particularly the process of invasion. Harmonia axyridis arrived in Britain through dispersal and introduction events from regions in which it was deliberately released as a biological control agent. The rapid spread of this species has been attributed to its high natural dispersal capability by means of both flight and anthropogenic transport. A number of factors have contributed to the successful establishment and indeed dominance of this polymorphic species within aphidophagous guilds, including high reproductive capacity, intra-guild predation, eurytopic nature, high resistance to natural enemies within the invaded range, and potentially phenotypic plasticity. 4. The global invasion by H. axyridis and subsequent research on this species has contributed to the general understanding of biological invasions. PMID:26435571

  18. The lack of technical basis for requiring a ten thousand year prediction for nuclear waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1993-11-10

    There is no technical basis for setting a time limit of 10,000 years on the regulated performance of a nuclear waste repository. First, accurate prediction of releases for such periods is not possible. Second, there is nothing unique about 10,000 years. Third, equally toxic materials, which never transform to non-toxic substances by radioactive decay, have no long-term requirements. And fourth, over a 10,000 year time frame, social and natural disasters will dwarf the worst possible outcomes of repository placement. Analyses could be required to extend as long as doses above current radiation protection guidelines are possible (perhaps several million years), but these results should be recognized as qualitative information rather than evidence of quantitative compliance with exact numerical limits. Concern for what will happen over long times can be addressed for the next several hundred years by maintaining waste retrievability. At that time, uncertainty about future performance should have been reduced significantly.

  19. Review of ten-years presence of Aedes albopictus in Spain 2004-2014: known distribution and public health concerns.

    PubMed

    Collantes, Francisco; Delacour, Sarah; Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Delgado, Juan Antonio; Torrell-Sorio, Antonio; Bengoa, Mikel; Eritja, Roger; Miranda, Miguel Ángel; Molina, Ricardo; Lucientes, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Ten years have gone by since the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus was recorded for the first time in Spain. In this paper, all relevant published information about this vector in Spain for the period 2004-2014 is reviewed. The known distribution for 2014 is provided, including all historical records (published and unpublished data) and the results from samplings of the last year. The consequences on public health about the presence of the Asian tiger mosquito in Spain are also highlighted. Further, legal aspects and control plans related to the management and diseases transmitted by this invasive vector species are also discussed. PMID:26694818

  20. College Education and Police Job Performance: A Ten-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truxillo, Donald M.; Bennett, Suzanne R.; Collins, Michelle L.

    1998-01-01

    A 10-year study of the relationship between measures of college education and work performance for police officers (n=84) showed a significant relationship with promotions and supervisory ratings. There was an inconsistent relationship with measures of disciplinary action. (JOW)

  1. Ten-Year Follow-up of Patients with Epidemic Post Infectious Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Sergio Wyton L.; Mastroianni-Kirsztajn, Gianna; Sesso, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Scarce information on outcomes of epidemic post infectious glomerulonephritis is available. This is a 10-year follow-up of the patients that developed acute glomerulonephritis in an epidemic outbreak caused by group C Streptococcus zooepidemicus in Brazil in 1998, that were also previously evaluated 2 and 5 years after the acute episode. Methods In this prospective study 60 cases (out of 134 in 1998) were reevaluated after 10 years, as well as community controls matched by gender and age. They underwent clinical and renal function evaluation, including serum creatinine and cystatin C, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria and hematuria. Results Comparisons of clinical and renal function aspects of 60 patients and 48 community controls have not shown significant differences (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or albuminuria >30mg/g creatinine: 13.8% vs. 12.2%, respectively, p = 0.817) except for a higher frequency of hypertension in the cases (45.0% vs. 20.8%, p = 0.009). Comparing the same patients affected in the acute episode, 2, 5 and 10 years later, it was observed an improvement of median eGFR levels at 2 years and a trend toward subsequent stabilization in these levels, associated with decrease in albuminuria and increased hypertension rates in the last survey. At 10 years it was not observed additional reduction of renal function using serum creatinine, eGFR and cystatin C. Conclusions During the acute episode of epidemic GN a considerable proportion of patients presented hypertension and reduced renal function; after 2 years and particularly at this 10-year follow-up survey there was no worsening of renal function parameters, except for persistent higher frequency of hypertension. Nevertheless, a longer follow up is necessary to confirm that progressive loss of renal function will not occur. PMID:25962068

  2. Prediction of geomagnetic activity on time scales of one to ten years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.; Gu, X. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The long-term prediction of geomagnetic indices that characterize the state of the magnetosphere is discussed. While a prediction of the yearly average sunspot number is simultaneously a prediction of the yearly number of sudden-commencement storms, it is not a prediction of the number of disturbed or quiet half days. Knowledge of the sunspot cycle phase leads to a good estimate of the correlation expected between activity during one 27-day solar rotation period and the next.

  3. Ten years' experience using an integrated workers' compensation management system to control workers' compensation costs.

    PubMed

    Bernacki, Edward J; Tsai, Shan P

    2003-05-01

    This work presents 10 years of experience using an Integrated Workers' Compensation Claims Management System that allows safety professionals, adjusters, and selected medical and nursing providers to collaborate in a process of preventing accidents and expeditiously assessing, treating, and returning individuals to productive work. The hallmarks of the program involve patient advocacy and customer service, steerage of injured employees to a small network of physicians, close follow-up, and the continuous dialogue between parties regarding claims management. The integrated claims management system was instituted in fiscal year 1992 servicing a population of approximately 21,000 individuals. The system was periodically refined and by the 2002 fiscal year, 39,000 individuals were managed under this paradigm. The frequency of lost-time and medical claims rate decreased 73% (from 22 per 1000 employees to 6) and 61% (from 155 per 1000 employees to 61), respectively, between fiscal year 1992 and fiscal year 2002. The number of temporary/total days paid per 100 insureds decreased from 163 in fiscal year 1992 to 37 in fiscal year 2002, or 77%. Total workers' compensation expenses including all medical, indemnity and administrative, decreased from $0.81 per $100 of payroll in fiscal year 1992 to $0.37 per $100 of payroll in fiscal year 2002, a 54% decrease. More specifically, medical costs per $100 of payroll decreased 44% (from $0.27 to $0.15), temporary/total, 61% (from $0.18 to $0.07), permanent/partial, 63% (from $0.19 to $0.07) and administrative costs, 48% ($0.16 to $0.09). These data suggests that workers' compensation costs can be reduced over a multi-year period by using a small network of clinically skilled health care providers who address an individual workers' psychological, as well as physical needs and where communication between all parties (e.g., medical care providers, supervisors, and injured employees) is constantly maintained. Furthermore, these results

  4. Radiological progression and lung function in silicosis: a ten year follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, T P; Chan, S L; Lam, K P

    1987-01-01

    Chest radiographs and spirometric tests were performed on 81 patients who had silicosis from two granite quarries in 1975, 73 of whom were followed up for two to 10 (mean 7.2) years. Each patient's initial and most recent chest radiographs were assessed independently by three experienced readers, and the yearly declines in forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity were estimated from two to four (mean 3.45) serial spirometric readings. Estimates of individual dust exposure were based on extensive historical data on hygiene. All but 11 patients were no longer exposed to dust by the start of follow up, but 24 (45%) of 53 patients who had simple silicosis and 11 (55%) of 20 who had the complicated disease showed radiological evidence of disease progression. In patients who had simple silicosis and showed no radiological progression the yearly declines in forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity were modest (64 ml/year and 59 ml/year, respectively), whereas significantly greater declines in lung function were seen in those who showed radiological evidence of progression (97 ml/year and 95 ml/year, respectively). In addition to radiological progression the previous average dust concentration to which patients had been exposed also influenced declines in both forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity after allowing for the effects of age, smoking, duration of exposure, history of tuberculosis, initial state of disease, and baseline lung function. The probability of radiological progression was most strongly influenced by the average dust concentration previously exposed to. The progression of simple silicosis is thus accompanied by appreciable declines in lung function and is strongly affected by previous levels of exposure to dust. PMID:3115361

  5. Ten years of Nature Reviews Neuroscience: insights from the highly cited

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Liqun; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Jerbi, Karim; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Martinerie, Jacques; Corbetta, Maurizio; Shulman, Gordon L.; Piomelli, Daniele; Turrigiano, Gina G.; Nelson, Sacha B.; Joëls, Marian; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Holsboer, Florian; Amodio, David M.; Frith, Chris D.; Block, Michelle L.; Zecca, Luigi; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.; Craig, A. D. (Bud)

    2012-01-01

    To celebrate the first 10 years of Nature Reviews Neuroscience, we invited the authors of the most cited article of each year to look back on the state of their field of research at the time of publication and the impact their article has had, and to discuss the questions that might be answered in the next 10 years. This selection of highly cited articles provides interesting snapshots of the progress that has been made in diverse areas of neuroscience. They show the enormous influence of neuroimaging techniques and highlight concepts that have generated substantial interest in the past decade, such as neuroimmunology, social neuroscience and the `network approach' to brain function. These advancements will pave the way for further exciting discoveries that lie ahead. PMID:20852655

  6. Ten-Year Changes in the Hepatitis B Prevalence in the Birth Cohorts in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Jung, Kyu-Won; Oh, Chang-Mo; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To compare the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection over a 10-year period in terms of population-level trends, we established hypothetical birth cohorts that represented each 10-year interval age group. We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 1998 to 2001 and 2008 to 2011. Trends in the HBV infection were calculated using data from individuals aged 20 to 59 years in 1998 to 2001 and those aged 30 to 69 years in 2008 to 2011. In 2008 to 2011, the prevalence of HBV infection, as measured using serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence, among participants aged 30 to 69 years was 4.2% (95% CI = 3.7–4.7%), which represents a 1.3% absolute change and 20% change in prevalence ratio, which was significant compared with the prevalence among those aged 20 to 59 years in 1998 to 2001 (5.5%, 95% CI = 4.7–6.3%). The prevalence of HBV infection decreased most in the lowest income group, with marginal significance in males (P = 0.06) and significance in females (P = 0.03). In terms of education, females with at least a high school education showed a significant decrease (P = 0.03). Using a birth cohort approach, the prognosis for HBV infection in terms of death or hospitalization, or resolution upon antiviral treatment of their HBV infections, identified by a decrease in the HBsAg seroprevalence was worse in the lower income group and in females with higher education. We postulate that these socioeconomic inequalities were caused by alcohol consumption, disparities in liver cancer surveillance, and access to antiviral treatment because of cost and reimbursement guidelines. PMID:26469890

  7. Ten years of vegetation assembly after a North American mega fire.

    PubMed

    Abella, Scott R; Fornwalt, Paula J

    2015-02-01

    Altered fuels and climate change are transforming fire regimes in many of Earth's biomes. Postfire reassembly of vegetation--paramount to C storage and biodiversity conservation--frequently remains unpredictable and complicated by rapid global change. Using a unique data set of pre and long-term postfire data, combined with long-term data from nearby unburned areas, we examined 10 years of understory vegetation assembly after the 2002 Hayman Fire. This fire was the largest wildfire in recorded history in Colorado, USA. Resistance (initial postfire deviance from prefire condition) and resilience (return to prefire condition) declined with increasing fire severity. However, via both resistance and resilience, 'legacy' species of the prefire community constituted >75% of total plant cover within 3 years even in severely burned areas. Perseverance of legacy species, coupled with new colonizers, created a persistent increase in community species richness and cover over prefire levels. This was driven by a first-year increase (maintained over time) in forbs with short life spans; a 2-3-year delayed surge in long-lived forbs; and a consistent increase in graminoids through the 10th postfire year. Burning increased exotic plant invasion relative to prefire and unburned areas, but burned communities always were >89% native. This study informs debate in the literature regarding whether these increasingly large fires are 'ecological catastrophes.' Landscape-scale severe burning was catastrophic from a tree overstory perspective, but from an understory perspective, burning promoted rich and productive native understories, despite the entire 10-year postfire period receiving below-average precipitation. PMID:25200376

  8. Ten 10-Year Trends for the Future of Healthcare: Implications for Academic Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Garson, Arthur; Levin, Steven A.

    2001-01-01

    The threat to the United States' Academic Health Centers (AHCs) has been reported for the past decade, signified most importantly by the decrease in the perceived value of patient care delivered and a significant reduction in direct payments to physicians in AHCs. These reductions have required AHCs to become more efficient and increased pressures to become more productive in both patient care and research. The U.S. healthcare system continues to evolve in response to these challenges and the additional pressures of increasing costs and the increasing numbers of uninsured. Ten trends for the next decade are evident: 1) more patients, 2) more technology, 3) more information, 4) the patient as the ultimate consumer, 5) development of a different delivery model, 6) innovation driven by competition, 7) increasing costs, 8) increasing numbers of uninsured, 9) less pay for providers, and 10) the continued need for a new healthcare system. In response to these trends, AHCs will have to continue to improve efficiency by increasing cooperation between researchers, clinicians, and educators while demonstrating how they are “different” and “better” than the competition. The AHC has the tools and the personnel not only to improve patient care processes but also to understand how to decrease costs while maintaining quality. AHCs also have the size and expertise to establish control over geographic market share with services not available elsewhere. Such programs must be able to evolve and respond to market pressures, and the AHC must be an engine of innovation, continuously regenerating new knowledge and programs with “Centers of Excellence” and appropriate industry partnerships. Such progress is driven by better communication and greater sharing of information and collaboration at all levels, including building better physician referral networks. These accomplishments, driven by technology, will allow AHCs to improve quality of care and increase efficiency even

  9. Celebrating Ten Years. Foundation for Individual Rights in Education Annual Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the annual report of the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) for 2009. The year 2009 was momentous for FIRE, for it marked its tenth anniversary. In the last decade, FIRE has been remarkably successful at fighting to secure basic rights of free speech and conscience on college campuses. It has fought for…

  10. [Benefit of a geriatric mobile team in the emergency departments: a ten-year review].

    PubMed

    Natali, Jean-Philippe; Schwald, Nathalie; Bach, Frédérique; Bourgouin, Gaëlle; Chiffray, Dominique; Bloch, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    A geriatric mobile team was created in the emergency department of Cochin Hospital in Paris, in 2005. This key player in the multi-disciplinary management of elderly patients in the emergency department and in the geriatric care pathway, showed, during its 10-year of existence, its utility. PMID:26574128

  11. The Fundacion Universidad Empresa of Madrid, Ten Years of Experience in University-Industry Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenz de Miera, Antonio

    1983-01-01

    The first 10 years of Spain's leading organization designed to promote the establishment of relationships between universities and industry are discussed. Its activities in scientific and technical research projects and funding, continuing education programs, and coordination of employment opportunities are outlined. (MSE)

  12. Case Study: Youth Transitions Task Force--A Ten-Year Retrospective, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Jennifer; d'Entremont, Chad; Culbertson, Nina

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Boston Public Schools reported that more than 8% of its students dropped out of school that year. The city faced a crisis. Thousands of students were failing to earn a high-school diploma, a necessary credential for entrance into postsecondary education and/or the twenty-first century workforce. Factors driving students' decisions to…

  13. The Development of Writing Habitus: A Ten-Year Case Study of a Young Writer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Peter, an African American writer from a low-income community, is followed across a 10-year period as he progresses from first grade through high school. Drawing on writing samples and interviews, the author identifies a set of interrelated dispositions that contribute to his development of "habitus" as a writer. This article considers…

  14. Alternatives to Custody: A Ten-Year Review of a Community-Based Program in Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Barbara Christine

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of a community forensic psychology service during its first 10 years of service. Service emphasizes cooperation among psychologists, probation officers, and others in establishing alternatives to custody for sex offenders, shoplifters, drug and alcohol abusers, and young criminals. Discusses theoretical orientation of the…

  15. Ten Years of Using Presentations at a Student Conference as a Final Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The final assessment for all psychology courses in the department of interdisciplinary studies, MMU Cheshire programmes, in the past 10 years has been a presentation of project work at an undergraduate conference. It is argued that this acts as an "authentic" assessment method which helps prepare students for future experiences. Alumni…

  16. Ten-Year Research Update Review: Psychiatric Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…

  17. Ten Year Plan for the Redevelopment of Intellectual Disability Services: Consumers' Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilson Associates Pty. Ltd., Melbourne (Australia).

    This consumers' guide provides an easily understandable, large print summary of the recommendations in a 10-year plan for changes in services to people with intellectual disabilities in Victoria, Australia. Twenty of the 250 recommendations of the plan are given in simplified language accompanied by illustrations, including recommendations for:…

  18. Developing Leadership in a Multitype Library Consortium: Ten Years of SEFLIN Sun Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Elizabeth A.; Smithee, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The Southeast Florida Library and Information Network (SEFLIN) has presented the Sun Seeker Leadership Institute biennially since 1997. SEFLIN, a multitype library consortium headquartered in Boca Raton, Florida, was one of the first groups to sponsor a library leadership institute held as a monthly series of events over the period of a year. One…

  19. Ten-Year Trends in Physical Dating Violence Victimization?among?US?Adolescent?Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Wang, Min Q.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study provides 10-year trend data on the psychosocial correlates of physical dating violence (PDV) victimization among females who participated in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys of US high school students between 1999 and 2009. Methods: The dependent variable was PDV. Independent variables included 4 dimensions: violence,…

  20. What a Difference Ten Years Can Make: Research Possibilities for the Future of Media Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee

    2011-01-01

    This essay reviews the progress achieved in media literacy education over the past decade and emphasizes the importance of assessment, interdisciplinarity in furthering developing the field. The author says that it's nearly impossible to predict what may be possible for the future of the field over the next 10 years. In another publication, she…

  1. The Boston Marathon Medical Care Team: A Ten-Year Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adner, Marvin M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The composition, ojbectives, and perceptions of the medical care team which has evolved over the last 10 years to provide acute care for injured persons at the finish line of the Boston Marathon are described, as well as as an ancillary group which maintains medical records and defines injury patterns. (Author/CB)

  2. Puerto Ricans in Children's Literature and History Texts: A Ten-Year Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This is a collection of articles in which the treatment of Puerto Ricans in published children textbooks over the past 10 years is reviewed. The collection is preceded by an editorial responding to an "American Educator" article branding the Council on Interracial Books for Children as a "leftist extremist" organization. The articles which follow…

  3. Eritrean Voices: Indigenous Views on the Development of the Curriculum Ten Years after Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1991, the Eritrean government has put into place an education system which had already been developed in the liberated areas during the years of struggle against Ethiopia. Little has been written on Eritrean education policy, and in particular the voices of educationalists responsible for its implementation have remained silent. In this…

  4. Ten Years of Research on Adolescent Literacy, 1994-2004: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    There has been a shift in the field of adolescent literacy in the past 10 years. The focus on cognitive strategy instruction as a way to further the literacy development of adolescents and to "remediate" older, struggling readers has been supplemented with an appreciation of sociocultural influences that shape the literacy practices of an…

  5. Catholic Schools Still Make a Difference: Ten Years of Research, 1991-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Thomas C., Ed.; Joseph, Ellis A., Ed.; Nuzzi, Ronald J., Ed.

    The collection of articles in this publication offers a review of the research on Catholic schools during the past decade, and as such, represents an update of "Catholic Schools Make a Difference: Twenty-Five Years of Research." Following the "Introduction," the volume is divided into five sections: (1) "Catholic Schools and the Broader Church"…

  6. The Effects of Mnemonic Training on Five- and Ten-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyakawa, Hiroko; Restaino, Lillian C. R.

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of mnemonic training upon 5- and 10-year-old children's learning and retention of patterns at varying intervals. Subjects were 172 middle class children evenly distributed across the two age groups. Experiment I investigated the effects of individual strategies (perceptual exploration, organization of…

  7. Credits and Attainment: Returns to Postsecondary Education Ten Years after High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Brian; Dawson, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Studied the earnings of young adults who have some college but no postsecondary degree. Explored associations of earnings with demographic and family background, high school preparation, postsecondary experience, and early work experience. The analysis examined 16 student characteristics and their association with earnings 10 years after high…

  8. A Content Analysis of LGBTQ Qualitative Research in Counseling: A Ten-Year Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Shelton, Kimber

    2011-01-01

    This content analysis examines the qualitative methodology used in counseling research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues published over the last 10 years (1998-2008) in 4 counseling and counseling psychology journals ("Journal of Counseling & Development," "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of LGBT Issues…

  9. Ten-year recovery outcomes for clients with co-occurring schizophrenia and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Drake, Robert E; McHugo, Gregory J; Xie, Haiyi; Fox, Melinda; Packard, Joan; Helmstetter, Barbara

    2006-07-01

    The long-term courses of people with schizophrenia and of those with substance use disorder have been studied separately and extensively. The long-term course of clients with co-occurring schizophrenic and substance use disorders has, however, not been examined. This article reports 10-year outcomes for 130 clients with co-occurring schizophrenic and substance use disorders in the New Hampshire Dual Diagnosis Study. In addition, we report on 6 "recovery outcomes," identified by dual diagnosis clients, as examples of positive coping behaviors. Longitudinal data were modeled using generalized estimating equation (GEE) methods. Participants improved steadily over 10 years in the outcome domains of symptoms, substance abuse, institutionalization, functional status, and quality of life. Further, at the 10-year follow-up, substantial proportions were above cutoffs selected by dual diagnosis clients as indicators of recovery: 62.7% were controlling symptoms of schizophrenia; 62.5% were actively attaining remissions from substance abuse; 56.8% were in independent living situations; 41.4% were competitively employed; 48.9% had regular social contacts with non-substance abusers; and 58.3% expressed overall life satisfaction. These 6 outcomes were only weakly interrelated over time, suggesting that recovery, as defined by clients, is a multidimensional concept. Overall, the 10-year findings on recovery outcomes provide a hopeful long-term perspective for dual diagnosis clients. PMID:16525088

  10. Performance status of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder ten years after launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Broberg, Steve; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Elliott, Denis; Manning, Evan; Strow, Larrabee

    2012-11-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft, launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS has 2378 infrared channels ranging from 3.7 μm to 15.4 μm and a 13.5 km footprint at nadir. The AIRS is a "facility" instrument developed by NASA as an experimental demonstration of advanced technology for remote sensing and the benefits of high resolution infrared spectra to science investigations. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles and trace gas amounts for CO2, CO, SO2, O3 and CH4. AIRS data are used for weather forecasting, climate process studies and validating climate models. The AIRS instrument has far exceeded its required design life of 5 years, with over 10 years of operations as of September 2012. While the instrument has performed exceptionally well, with little signs of wear, the AIRS Project continues to monitor and maintain the health of AIRS, characterize its behavior and improve performance where possible. Radiometric stability has been monitored and trending shows better than 16 mK/year stability. Spectral calibration stability is better than 1 ppm/year, and a new gain table was recently uploaded to recover 100 significantly degraded or dead channels by switching to their redundant counterpart. At this time we expect the AIRS to continue to perform well for the next decade.

  11. Environmental Education as a Compensatory Device: A Review of BEE in the First Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone, Hilary

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the Bulletin of Environmental Education's (BEE) contributions to the development of environmental education during the first 10 years of its publication. Focuses on main areas of interest referred to in BEE's articles and suggests possible areas for future development. (Author/JN)

  12. Ten Years in the Trenches: Faculty Perspectives on Sustaining Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the perceptions of faculty 10 years after participating and sustaining their involvement in academic service-learning. Issues explored include why participants became involved in service-learning, the perceived impact on the promotion and tenure process, the challenges and rewards reaped by participants, and what sustained them…

  13. Ten-Year Cumulative Author Index Volume 2001, 36(1) through 2010, 45(4)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Stanley H.; Hassert, Silva

    2011-01-01

    This cumulative author index was developed as a service for the readership of Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities. It was prepared as a resource for scholars wishing to access the 391 articles published in volumes 36-45 of this journal. It also serves as a timely supplement to the 25-year (1966-1990) cumulative author…

  14. Ten-Year Recovery Outcomes for Clients With Co-Occurring Schizophrenia and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Robert E.; McHugo, Gregory J.; Xie, Haiyi; Fox, Melinda; Packard, Joan; Helmstetter, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The long-term courses of people with schizophrenia and of those with substance use disorder have been studied separately and extensively. The long-term course of clients with co-occurring schizophrenic and substance use disorders has, however, not been examined. This article reports 10-year outcomes for 130 clients with co-occurring schizophrenic and substance use disorders in the New Hampshire Dual Diagnosis Study. In addition, we report on 6 “recovery outcomes,” identified by dual diagnosis clients, as examples of positive coping behaviors. Longitudinal data were modeled using generalized estimating equation (GEE) methods. Participants improved steadily over 10 years in the outcome domains of symptoms, substance abuse, institutionalization, functional status, and quality of life. Further, at the 10-year follow-up, substantial proportions were above cutoffs selected by dual diagnosis clients as indicators of recovery: 62.7% were controlling symptoms of schizophrenia; 62.5% were actively attaining remissions from substance abuse; 56.8% were in independent living situations; 41.4% were competitively employed; 48.9% had regular social contacts with non–substance abusers; and 58.3% expressed overall life satisfaction. These 6 outcomes were only weakly interrelated over time, suggesting that recovery, as defined by clients, is a multidimensional concept. Overall, the 10-year findings on recovery outcomes provide a hopeful long-term perspective for dual diagnosis clients. PMID:16525088

  15. Self-Report Stability of Adolescent Cigarette Use across Ten Years of Panel Study Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Reed, Mark B.; Clapp, John D.

    2010-01-01

    This study is the first to examine adolescent cigarette report stability over 10 years. Six waves of data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. This study examined internal/logical consistency and external consistency. Report stability was higher for lifetime use reports than the age of onset reports. Wave-by-wave…

  16. A TEN-YEAR WATER BALANCE OF A MOUNTAINOUS SEMI-ARID WATERSHED. (R824784)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantifying water balance components, which is particularly challenging in snow-fed, semi-arid regions, is crucial to understanding the basic hydrology of a watershed. In this study, a water balance was computed using 10 years of data collected at the Upper Sheep Creek Water...

  17. Ten years of Cassini Discoveries in the Saturn System and More Excitement to Come

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Edgington, Scott; Altobelli, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    Cassini’s findings have revolutionized our understanding of Saturn, its complex rings, the amazing assortment of moons and the planet’s dynamic magnetic environment. The robotic spacecraft arrived in 2004 after a 7-year flight from Earth, dropped a parachuted probe named Huygens to study the atmosphere and surface of Saturn’s big moon Titan, and commenced making astonishing discoveries that continue today. Icy jets shoot from the tiny moon Enceladus; Titan’s hydrocarbon lakes and seas are dominated by liquid ethane and methane, and complex pre-biotic chemicals form in the atmosphere and rain to the surface; 3-dimensional structures rise above Saturn’s rings, and a giant Saturn storm circled the entire planet. Cassini’s findings at Saturn have also fundamentally altered many of our concepts of how planets form around stars. The Solstice Mission continues to provide fundamental new science as Cassini observes seasonal and temporal changes, and addresses new questions that have arisen during the mission thus far. Cassini is now 4 years into its 7-year Solstice Mission. The mission’s grand finale occurs in 2017, with 22 inclined orbits between the innermost D ring and the upper portions of Saturn’s atmosphere, enabling unique gravity and magnetic field measurements of the planet, unprecedented determination of the ring mass, some of the highest resolution measurements of the rings and Saturn, and in situ observations in a completely new region around the planet. Highlights from 10 years of Cassini’s ambitious inquiry at Saturn will be presented along with the remarkable science that will be collected in the next three years.Cassini-Huygens is a cooperative undertaking by NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian space agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, ASI).This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2014 California Institute of Technology

  18. Corneal Graft Rejection Ten Years after Penetrating Keratoplasty in the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Steven P.; Gal, Robin L.; Kollman, Craig; Raghinaru, Dan; Dontchev, Mariya; Blanton, Christopher L.; Holland, Edward J; Lass, Jonathan H.; Kenyon, Kenneth R.; Mannis, Mark J; Mian, Shahzad I.; Rapuano, Christopher J.; Stark, Walter J.; Beck, Roy W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of donor and recipient factors on corneal allograft rejection and evaluate whether a rejection event was associated with graft failure. Methods 1,090 subjects undergoing penetrating keratoplasty for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema) were followed for up to 12 years. Associations of baseline recipient and donor factors with the occurrence of a rejection event were assessed in univariate and multivariate proportional hazards models. Results Among 651 eyes with a surviving graft at 5 years, the 10-year graft failure (± 99% CI) rates were 12% ± 4% among eyes with no rejection events in the first 5 years, 17% ± 12% in eyes with at least one probable, but no definite rejection event, and 22% ± 20% in eyes with at least one definite rejection event. The only baseline factor significantly associated with a higher risk of definite graft rejection was a preoperative history of glaucoma, particularly when prior glaucoma surgery had been performed and glaucoma medications were being used at time of transplant (10-year incidence 35% ± 23% compared with 14% ± 4% in eyes with no history of glaucoma/intraocular pressure treatment, p=0.008). Conclusion Those patients who experienced a definite rejection event frequently went on to graft failure raising important questions as to how we might change acute and long-term corneal graft management. Multivariate analysis indicated that the prior use of glaucoma medications and glaucoma filtering surgery was a significant risk factor related to a definite rejection event. PMID:25119961

  19. Ten-year transient luminous events and Earth observations of FORMOSAT-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Rock Jeng-Shing; Lin, Shin-Fa; Wu, An-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the enormous contributions of FS2 (FORMOSAT-2 or Formosa satellite #2) in both Earth and transient luminous events (TLEs) observations in 10 years. As a small satellite operated for 10 years (20 May 2004 to 20 May 2014) in orbit, FS2 keeps its two unique characteristics: (1) to orbit 14 revolutions around the Earth per day with daily revisit capability, and (2) to provide the capabilities of Earth observation in sunlight time and TLEs observation in eclipsed time every day. It carries two payloads: the remote sensing instrument (RSI) for Earth imaging in satellite's day time and the imager of sprites and upper atmospheric lightning instrument (ISUAL) for scientific observations in satellite's night time, respectively. Daily revisit capability provides changes of events on Earth in either short time (several days) or long term (several years). Examples include: Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami (December 2004), disintegration of Wilkins Ice Shelf in Antarctica region (2006-2014, long term), Sichuan earthquake (May 2008), Tohoku earthquake and tsunami (March 2011), polar regions (2006-2014, long term), etc. In the TLEs observation, ISUAL had recorded more than 35,000 events in 10 years with 73.93% elves, 6.54% red sprites, 5.81% halos, 13.42% blue jets and 0.30% gigantic jets. Major contributions of FS2 in this specific scientific area are presented. In particular, current and future research topics on TLEs are discussed. Also, major contributions of FS2's RSI to the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT) and Group of Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) are summarized. This paper also addresses briefly the health status of FS2 after working 10 years in orbit.

  20. Implementation and Refinement of a Problem-based Learning Model: A Ten-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Brian L.; Theilman, Gary D.; Ross, Brendan S.; Cleary, John D.; Byrd, H. Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of a problem-based learning (PBL) model implemented in 1995 at the University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy. Design The third-professional (P3) year curriculum was reoriented from a faculty-centered model of teaching to a student-centered model of learning. Didactic lectures and structured classroom time were diminished. Small student groups were organized and a faculty facilitator monitored each group's discussions and provided individual student assessments. At the end of each 8-week block, students were assessed on group participation, disease and drug content knowledge, and problem-solving abilities. Faculty and student input was solicited at the end of each year to aid programmatic improvement. In 2000, a formal 5-year review of the PBL program was conducted. Assessment Recommendations for improvement included clarifying course objectives, adopting a peer-review process for examination materials, refining the group assessment instruments, and providing an opportunity for student remediation after a course was failed. A weekly case conference presided over by a faculty content expert was also recommended. Ongoing critical evaluation during the following 5-year period was provided by graduates of the program, faculty participants, and accreditation reviews. Conclusion Over our 10-year experience with a PBL model of P3 education, we found that although the initial challenges of increased demands on personnel and teaching space were easily overcome, student acceptance of the program depended on their acknowledgment of the practical benefits of active learning and on the value afforded their input on curricular development. PMID:17429517

  1. Protocol dependence of the jamming transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Thibault; Behringer, Robert P.; Chakraborty, Bulbul; O'Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a theoretical framework for predicting the protocol dependence of the jamming transition for frictionless spherical particles that interact via repulsive contact forces. We study isostatic jammed disk packings obtained via two protocols: isotropic compression and simple shear. We show that for frictionless systems, all jammed packings can be obtained via either protocol. However, the probability to obtain a particular jammed packing depends on the packing-generation protocol. We predict the average shear strain required to jam initially unjammed isotropically compressed packings from the density of jammed packings, shape of their basins of attraction, and path traversed in configuration space. We compare our predictions to simulations of shear strain-induced jamming and find quantitative agreement. We also show that the packing fraction range, over which shear strain-induced jamming occurs, tends to zero in the large system limit for frictionless packings with overdamped dynamics.

  2. Ten Years and Counting: Moving Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 Inhibitors to the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    West, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    The burden that Parkinson's disease (PD) exacts on the population continues to increase year after year. Though refinement of symptomatic treatments continues at a reasonable pace, no accepted therapies are available to slow or prevent disease progression. The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene was identified in PD genetic studies and offers new hope for novel therapeutic approaches. The evidence linking LRRK2 kinase activity to PD susceptibility is presented, as well as seminal discoveries relevant to the prosecution of LRRK2 kinase inhibition. Finally, suggestions are made for predictive preclinical modeling and successful first-in-human trials. © 2014 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:25448543

  3. [Ten years of protection of the maternity leave of women working in Pistoia].

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, M; Panzone, I; Genovese, P; Fedi, A; Ciapini, C; Innocenti, A

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed 1175 interventions about pregnant women who came, from 1997 to 2006, to our public occupational health service, asked for the advance the abstention of work during pregnancy. Requests for advance the abstention of work during pregnancy came from service sector (welfare, school and cleaning--29%), shoe industry (14.4%), textile and clothing industry (11.4%), commerce (characterized by prolonged standing straight 13%), health service (8.7%), tourism (8%). The first seven years (1997-2003) the prevailing risks have been the muscular effort and the postures, while the last three years (2004-2006) have increased biological and chemical risks. The most important principles of labour protection for pregnant women is the agreement with every subject, and the information of the social parties, but above all the direct information of the women. PMID:18409735

  4. Ten years of asthma admissions to adult critical care units in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Gibbison, Ben; Griggs, Kathryn; Mukherjee, Mome; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the patient demographics, outcomes and trends of admissions with acute severe asthma admitted to adult critical care units in England and Wales. Design 10-year, retrospective analysis of a national audit database. Setting Secondary care: adult, general critical care units in the UK. Participants 830 808 admissions to adult, general critical care units. Primary and secondary outcome measures Demographic data including age and sex, whether the patient was invasively ventilated or not, length of stay (LOS; both in the critical care unit and acute hospital), survival (both critical care unit and acute hospital) and time trends across the 10-year period. Results Over the 10-year period, there were 11 948 (1.4% of total) admissions with asthma to adult critical care units in England and Wales. Among them 67.5% were female and 32.5% were male (RR F:M 2.1; 95% CI 2.0 to 2.1). Median LOS in the critical care unit was 1.8 days (IQR 0.9–3.8). Median LOS in the acute hospital was 7 days (IQR 4–14). Critical care unit survival rate was 95.5%. Survival at discharge from hospital was 93.3%. There was an increase in admissions to adult critical care units by an average of 4.7% (95% CI 2.8 to 6.7)/year. Conclusions Acute asthma represents a modest burden of work for adult critical care units in England and Wales. Demographic patterns for admission to critical care unit mirror those of severe asthma in the general adult community. The number of critical care admissions with asthma are rising, although we were unable to discern whether this represents a true increase in the incidence of acute asthma or asthma severity. PMID:24056484

  5. Individual manifestations of Parkinson's disease after ten or more years of levodopa.

    PubMed

    Klawans, H L

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease, who had been on levodopa for 10 or more years, were studied. Over the 12.9 years of treatment, the average Northwestern Disability Score had increased from 9.6 to 18.9. By this measure, 24 of 25 patients were worse, and one was unchanged. The progression of disability did not involve all pretreatment parkinsonian features equally in any of the patients studied. Instead a distinctive pattern of deterioration was seen: postural reflexes worsened in 24/25, speech in 24/25, and gait in 22/25. In contrast, rigidity was improved or unchanged in 17/25, tremor was improved or unchanged in 17/17, while handwriting was improved or unchanged in 21/22. Finger dexterity which was improved in 5/25, unchanged in 15/25, and worse in 5/25 which seemed to be between these two extremes. These observations demonstrate that some signs of parkinsonism can remain quite responsive to levodopa for more than 10 years while at the same time other manifestations of the disease are no longer as responsive to this form of treatment. PMID:3504244

  6. Ten-year-old children strategies in mental addition: A counting model account.

    PubMed

    Thevenot, Catherine; Barrouillet, Pierre; Castel, Caroline; Uittenhove, Kim

    2016-01-01

    For more than 30 years, it has been admitted that individuals from the age of 10 mainly retrieve the answer of simple additions from long-term memory, at least when the sum does not exceed 10. Nevertheless, recent studies challenge this assumption and suggest that expert adults use fast, compacted and unconscious procedures in order to solve very simple problems such as 3+2. If this is true, automated procedures should be rooted in earlier strategies and therefore observable in their non-compacted form in children. Thus, contrary to the dominant theoretical position, children's behaviors should not reflect retrieval. This is precisely what we observed in analyzing the responses times of a sample of 42 10-year-old children who solved additions with operands from 1 to 9. Our results converge towards the conclusion that 10-year-old children still use counting procedures in order to solve non-tie problems involving operands from 2 to 4. Moreover, these counting procedures are revealed whatever the expertise of children, who differ only in their speed of execution. Therefore and contrary to the dominant position in the literature according to which children's strategies evolve from counting to retrieval, the key change in development of mental addition solving appears to be a shift from slow to quick counting procedures. PMID:26402647

  7. Ten years of life in compost: temporal and spatial variation of North German Caenorhabditis elegans populations

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Carola; Saebelfeld, Manja; Barbosa, Camilo; Pees, Barbara; Hermann, Ruben Joseph; Schalkowski, Rebecca; Strathmann, Eike Andreas; Dirksen, Philipp; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a central laboratory model system in almost all biological disciplines, yet its natural life history and population biology are largely unexplored. Such information is essential for in-depth understanding of the nematode's biology because its natural ecology provides the context, in which its traits and the underlying molecular mechanisms evolved. We characterized natural phenotypic and genetic variation among North German C. elegans isolates. We used the unique opportunity to compare samples collected 10 years apart from the same compost heap and additionally included recent samples for this and a second site, collected across a 1.5-year period. Our analysis revealed significant population genetic differentiation between locations, across the 10-year time period, but for only one location a trend across the shorter time frame. Significant variation was similarly found for phenotypic traits of likely importance in nature, such as choice behavior and population growth in the presence of pathogens or naturally associated bacteria. Phenotypic variation was significantly influenced by C. elegans genotype, time of isolation, and sampling site. The here studied C. elegans isolates may provide a valuable, genetically variable resource for future dissection of naturally relevant gene functions. PMID:26380661

  8. Traffic jam at adjustable tollgates controlled by line length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We present the stochastic model for the jam formation at the tollgates of which the number is adjusted by synchronizing with the jam's length. We study the jam formation and its fluctuation in front of the adjustable tollgates on a highway. Controlling the number of tollgates has an important effect on the jam formation. The jams are classified into three kinds: (a) localized jam, (b) synchronized jam, and (c) growing jam. The jamming transitions from the localized jam, through the synchronized jam, to the growing jam occur with increasing inflow probability. At an intermediate inflow, the jam fluctuates largely by synchronizing with the number of tollgates. When the inflow probability is higher than the sum of outflow probabilities at tollgates, the jam continues to grow and diverge with time. The dependence of the fluctuating jam on the inflow probability is clarified.

  9. Hidden geometry of traffic jamming.

    PubMed

    Andjelković, Miroslav; Gupte, Neelima; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2015-05-01

    We introduce an approach based on algebraic topological methods that allow an accurate characterization of jamming in dynamical systems with queues. As a prototype system, we analyze the traffic of information packets with navigation and queuing at nodes on a network substrate in distinct dynamical regimes. A temporal sequence of traffic density fluctuations is mapped onto a mathematical graph in which each vertex denotes one dynamical state of the system. The coupling complexity between these states is revealed by classifying agglomerates of high-dimensional cliques that are intermingled at different topological levels and quantified by a set of geometrical and entropy measures. The free-flow, jamming, and congested traffic regimes result in graphs of different structure, while the largest geometrical complexity and minimum entropy mark the edge of the jamming region. PMID:26066222

  10. Ten years of measured UV Index from the Spanish UVB Radiometric Network.

    PubMed

    Utrillas, M P; Marín, M J; Esteve, A R; Estellés, V; Gandía, S; Núnez, J A; Martínez-Lozano, J A

    2013-08-01

    An analysis is made of the UV Index (UVI) obtained from the ultraviolet erythemal solar radiation (UVER) data measured by the Spanish UVB Radiometric Network between the years 2000 and 2009. Previously, the daily UVI has been evaluated using two different criteria: (a) the value corresponding to solar noon; and (b) the daily maximum value. The mean percentage of agreement is 92% if we consider the cases for which the difference is zero or one UVI unit. These results are similar to those obtained in a previous work where only 2 years were analyzed. In all the stations the UVI reaches very high values (8-10) in spring-summer, and the very high and extreme (≥ 11) UVI values are more dependent on the continental effect than on the latitude effect. From the UVI values it is possible to classify the stations into four groups: Coastal stations, Continental stations (more than 200 km from the coast), Southern stations (Coastal stations but with similar values of UVI as the Continental ones due to their low latitude) and Canary Islands stations (1400 km southwest from the Iberian Peninsula thus lower latitude). The monthly mean maximum of UVI is reached in July due to the annual evolution of the total ozone column. This value corresponds, for a skin phototype II, to three times the minimal erythemal dose (MED) in an hour in a Coastal station, 3.5 MEDs in an hour measured in a Continental or Southern station and up five MEDs in an hour in the Izaña station (Canary Islands). The cumulative dose on a horizontal plane over an average year has been calculated for each station. More than 40% of the annual dose is received in summer, about 35% in spring, more than 11% in autumn and less than 10% in winter except for the stations in the Canary Islands where the difference between seasons is less significant. PMID:23685479

  11. Cassini-Huygens Science Highlights: Ten years of Surprises in the Saturn System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda; Esposito, Larry W.; Matson, Dennis L.; Edgington, Scott; Altobelli, Nicolas

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has greatly enhanced our understanding of the Saturn system. Fundamental discoveries have altered our views of Saturn, its retinue of icy moons including Titan, the dynamic rings, and the system’s complex magnetosphere. Cassini has orbited Saturn for 10 years, delivering the Huygens probe to its Titan landing in 2005. It is now three years into its 7-year Solstice mission, returning science in a previously unobserved seasonal phase. As it watches the approach of northern summer, long-dark regions throughout the system become sunlit, allowing Cassini’s science instruments to probe as-yet unsolved mysteries. Key Cassini-Huygens discoveries include icy jets of material streaming from tiny Enceladus’ south pole, lakes of liquid hydrocarbons and methane rain on giant Titan, three-dimensional structures in Saturn’s rings, and curtain-like aurorae flickering over Saturn’s poles. The Huygens probe sent back amazing images of Titan’s surface, and made detailed measurements of the atmospheric composition, structure and winds. Key Cassini-Huygens science highlights will be presented. The Solstice Mission continues to provide new science as Cassini observes seasonal and temporal changes, and addresses new questions that have arisen during the mission thus far. The mission’s grand finale occurs in 2017, with 22 inclined orbits between the innermost D ring and the upper portions of Saturn’s atmosphere, enabling unique gravity and magnetic field measurements of the planet, unprecedented determination of the ring mass, some of the highest resolution measurements of the rings and Saturn, and in situ observations in a completely new region around the planet. Cassini-Huygens is a cooperative undertaking by NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian space agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, ASI). This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA

  12. Ten-Year Recurrence Rates in Young Women With Breast Cancer by Locoregional Treatment Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, Beth M.; Woodward, Wendy A. Tucker, Susan L.; Outlaw, Elesyia D.; Allen, Pamela K.; Oh, Julia L.; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Tereffe, Welela; Yu, T.-K.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Litton, Jennifer K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Young women with breast cancer have higher locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates than older patients. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of locoregional treatment strategy, breast-conserving therapy (BCT), mastectomy alone (M), or mastectomy with adjuvant radiation (MXRT), on LRR for patients 35 years or younger. Methods and Materials: Data for 668 breast cancers in 652 young patients with breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed; 197 patients were treated with BCT, 237 with M, and 234 with MXRT. Results: Median follow-up for all living patients was 114 months. In the entire cohort, 10-year actuarial LRR rates varied by locoregional treatment: 19.8% for BCT, 24.1% for M, and 15.1% for MXRT (p = 0.05). In patients with Stage II disease, 10-year actuarial LRR rates by locoregional treatment strategy were 17.7% for BCT, 22.8% for M, and 5.7% for MXRT (p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, M (hazard ratio, 4.45) and Grade III disease (hazard ratio, 2.24) predicted for increased LRR. In patients with Stage I disease, there was no difference in LRR rates based on locoregional treatment (18.0% for BCT, 19.8% for M; p = 0.56), but chemotherapy use had a statistically significant LRR benefit (13.5% for chemotherapy, 27.9% for none; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Young women have high rates of LRR after breast cancer treatment. For patients with Stage II disease, the best locoregional control rates were achieved with MXRT. For patients with Stage I disease, similar outcomes were achieved with BCT and mastectomy; however, chemotherapy provided a significant benefit to either approach.

  13. Ten-Year Review of Major Birth Defects in VLBW Infants

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Nellie I.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bell, Edward F.; Boghossian, Nansi S.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Walsh, Michele C.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Das, Abhik; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Ball, M. Bethany; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Stoll, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Birth defects (BDs) are an important cause of infant mortality and disproportionately occur among low birth weight infants. We determined the prevalence of BDs in a cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants cared for at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NRN) centers over a 10-year period and examined the relationship between anomalies, neonatal outcomes, and surgical care. METHODS: Infant and maternal data were collected prospectively for infants weighing 401 to 1500 g at NRN sites between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2007. Poisson regression models were used to compare risk of outcomes for infants with versus without BDs while adjusting for gestational age and other characteristics. RESULTS: A BD was present in 1776 (4.8%) of the 37 262 infants in our VLBW cohort. Yearly prevalence of BDs increased from 4.0% of infants born in 1998 to 5.6% in 2007, P < .001. Mean gestational age overall was 28 weeks, and mean birth weight was 1007 g. Infants with BDs were more mature but more likely to be small for gestational age compared with infants without BDs. Chromosomal and cardiovascular anomalies were most frequent with each occurring in 20% of affected infants. Mortality was higher among infants with BDs (49% vs 18%; adjusted relative risk: 3.66 [95% confidence interval: 3.41–3.92]; P < .001) and varied by diagnosis. Among those surviving >3 days, more infants with BDs underwent major surgery (48% vs 13%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of BDs increased during the 10 years studied. BDs remain an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality among VLBW infants. PMID:23733791

  14. Ten-Year Incidence of Chagas Cardiomyopathy Among Asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi–Seropositive Former Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Sabino, Ester C.; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Salemi, Vera M.C.; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudio; Antunes, Andre P.; Menezes, Marcia M.; Ianni, Barbara M.; Nastari, Luciano; Fernandes, Fabio; Patavino, Giuseppina M.; Sachdev, Vandana; Capuani, Ligia; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, David; Kavounis, Katherine; Goncalez, Thelma T.; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P.; Murphy, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Very few studies have measured disease penetrance and prognostic factors of Chagas cardiomyopathy among asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi–infected persons. Methods and Results We performed a retrospective cohort study among initially healthy blood donors with an index T cruzi–seropositive donation and age-, sex-, and period-matched seronegatives in 1996 to 2002 in the Brazilian cities of São Paulo and Montes Claros. In 2008 to 2010, all subjects underwent medical history, physical examination, ECGs, and echocardiograms. ECG and echocardiogram results were classified by blinded core laboratories, and records with abnormal results were reviewed by a blinded panel of 3 cardiologists who adjudicated the outcome of Chagas cardiomyopathy. Associations with Chagas cardiomyopathy were tested with multivariate logistic regression. Mean follow-up time between index donation and outcome assessment was 10.5 years for the seropositives and 11.1 years for the seronegatives. Among 499 T cruzi seropositives, 120 (24%) had definite Chagas cardiomyopathy, and among 488 T cruzi seronegatives, 24 (5%) had cardiomyopathy, for an incidence difference of 1.85 per 100 person-years attributable to T cruzi infection. Of the 120 seropositives classified as having Chagas cardiomyopathy, only 31 (26%) presented with ejection fraction <50%, and only 11 (9%) were classified as New York Heart Association class II or higher. Chagas cardiomyopathy was associated (P<0.01) with male sex, a history of abnormal ECG, and the presence of an S3 heart sound. Conclusions There is a substantial annual incidence of Chagas cardiomyopathy among initially asymptomatic T cruzi–seropositive blood donors, although disease was mild at diagnosis. PMID:23393012

  15. Ten-Year Experience With Bowel Transplantation at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital.

    PubMed

    Chang, H K; Kim, S Y; Kim, J I; Kim, S I; Whang, J K; Choi, J Y; Park, J M; Jung, E S; Rha, S E; Kim, D G; Moon, I S; Lee, M D

    2016-03-01

    A retrospective review of intestinal transplantation (ITx) at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital was made by collecting clinical data over the past 10 years. Fifteen consecutive cases from 2004 were analyzed. Five children and 10 adults (6 months to 69 years of age) were included. Primary diseases in adults included 4 mesenteric vessel thromboses, 2 strangulations, and 1 each of visceral myopathy, malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), mesenteric lymphangiectasis, and injury. Pediatric cases involved 2 Hirschsprung disease, 2 visceral myopathy, and 1 necrotizing enterocolitis. Three of 7 stomas were closed using a serial transverse enteroplasty procedure before transplantation. The ITx were performed using 3 living-donor Itx, 12 deceased-donor ITx, 14 isolated Itx, and 1 modified multivisceral transplantation. Daclizumab, basiliximab, alemtusumab, or basiliximab with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) was used for the induction; tacrolimus monotherapy was used as the basic maintenance immunosuppressant; and m-TOR inhibitor was used for renal dysfunction patients. Seven cases of acute cellular rejection were treated with rATG. Three cases of antibody-mediated rejection were treated with rituximab alone or with rituximab and bortezomib combination. There were 4 cases of early mortality within 6 months after Itx. Causes of death were declamping shock, cardiac tamponade with acute cellular rejection, dysmotility, and sepsis. Surgical complications consisted of 1 feeding jejunostomy displacement, and a minor leakage at a colo-colostomy site. One-year survival of the patient and graft was 73.33% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve). Although the total number of ITx is small, its social impact has been remarkable in changing the related laws and reimbursement policy in Korea. PMID:27109981

  16. Death in Community Australian Football: A Ten Year National Insurance Claims Report

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F.

    2016-01-01

    While deaths are thought to be rare in community Australian sport, there is no systematic reporting so the frequency and leading causes of death is unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and cause of deaths associated with community-level Australian Football (AF), based on insurance-claims records. Retrospective review of prospectively collected insurance-claims for death in relation to community-level AF activities Australia-wide from 2004 to 2013. Eligible participants were aged 15+ years, involved in an Australian football club as players, coaches, umpires or supporting roles. Details were extracted for: year of death, level of play, age, sex, anatomical location of injury, and a descriptive narrative of the event. Descriptive data are presented for frequency of cases by subgroups. From 26,749 insurance-claims relating to AF, 31 cases were in relation to a death. All fatalities were in males. The initial event occurred during on-field activities of players (football matches or training) in 16 cases. The remainder occurred to people outside of on-field football activity (n = 8), or non-players (n = 7). Road trauma (n = 8) and cardiac conditions (n = 7) were the leading identifiable causes, with unconfirmed and other causes (including collapsed or not yet determined) comprising 16 cases. Although rare, fatalities do occur in community AF to both players and people in supporting roles, averaging 3 per year in this setting alone. A systematic, comprehensive approach to data collection is urgently required to better understand the risk and causes of death in participants of AF and other sports. PMID:27467365

  17. Shigellosis in the United States: ten-year review of nationwide surveillance, 1964-1973.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M L; Weissman, J B; Gangarosa, E J; Reller, L B; Beasley, R P

    1976-11-01

    In the 10 years 1964-1973, 105,832 isolations of shigellae were reported to the Center for Disease Control through a nationwide surveillance system. The number reported increased by approximately 13% annually, from 5852 in 1964, when only 17 centers reported all 4 quarters; to 16,797 in 1973, when 52 centers reported each quarter. The rate of reported isolations varied from 4.6 per 100,000 persons in 1965 to 9.1 per 100,000 in 1973. Shigella sonnei accounted for 64% of all these isolates and for more than 80% of isolates in 1973. The majority of reported cases of shigellosis occurred in young children and in women of childbearing age. During the 10-year surveillance period, 35 epidemics in 25 states were investigated. Two-thirds of these outbreaks were the result of person-to-person spread; investigations of common-source outbreaks showed the importance of both water and foodstuffs, especially salads, as potential vehicles of contamination. Indian reservations, custodial institutions, and day-care centers were identified as special high-risk settings for the transmission of shigellosis. The emergence of R-factor-mediated antimicrobial-resistance patterns in recent years has necessitated antibiotic sensitivity testing to determine the drug of choice for treatment of individual cases. Initial testing of oral vaccines suggests these vaccines will have only limited usefulness in protecting certain high-risk populations. Public health education coupled with improvements in water and sewerage systems remains the most satisfactory means of control. PMID:790947

  18. Death in Community Australian Football: A Ten Year National Insurance Claims Report.

    PubMed

    Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    While deaths are thought to be rare in community Australian sport, there is no systematic reporting so the frequency and leading causes of death is unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and cause of deaths associated with community-level Australian Football (AF), based on insurance-claims records. Retrospective review of prospectively collected insurance-claims for death in relation to community-level AF activities Australia-wide from 2004 to 2013. Eligible participants were aged 15+ years, involved in an Australian football club as players, coaches, umpires or supporting roles. Details were extracted for: year of death, level of play, age, sex, anatomical location of injury, and a descriptive narrative of the event. Descriptive data are presented for frequency of cases by subgroups. From 26,749 insurance-claims relating to AF, 31 cases were in relation to a death. All fatalities were in males. The initial event occurred during on-field activities of players (football matches or training) in 16 cases. The remainder occurred to people outside of on-field football activity (n = 8), or non-players (n = 7). Road trauma (n = 8) and cardiac conditions (n = 7) were the leading identifiable causes, with unconfirmed and other causes (including collapsed or not yet determined) comprising 16 cases. Although rare, fatalities do occur in community AF to both players and people in supporting roles, averaging 3 per year in this setting alone. A systematic, comprehensive approach to data collection is urgently required to better understand the risk and causes of death in participants of AF and other sports. PMID:27467365

  19. Long term compatibility of nitrogen tetroxide with metals - Results at the ten-year milestone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, C. M.; Bjorklund, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Analyses and results are reported of a test program to establish the effects of long-term (10 years or more) contact of materials with nitrogen textroxide MON-1 for the purpose of designing chemical propulsion system components which can be used for current as well as future planetary spacecraft. The test materials included aluminum alloy, corrosion-resistant steel, titanium alloy, and nickel. The weight and appearance of each specimen were observed, including the presence of deposits, etching, pitting, and cracking. Aluminum alloy and steel were rated satisfactory with minor reservations, titanium alloy was satisfactory, and nickel was unsatisfactory. Criteria for ratings are shown.

  20. Fear Extinction as a Model for Translational Neuroscience: Ten Years of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Milad, Mohammed R.; Quirk, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    The psychology of extinction has been studied for decades. Approximately 10 years ago, however, there began a concerted effort to understand the neural circuits of extinction of fear conditioning, in both animals and humans. Progress during this period has been facilitated by an unusual degree of coordination between rodent and human researchers examining fear extinction. This successful research program could serve as a model for translational research in other areas of behavioral neuroscience. Here we review the major advances and highlight new approaches to understanding and exploiting fear extinction. PMID:22129456

  1. Ten Years of MISR Observations from Terra: Looking Back, Ahead, and in Between

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Braverman, Amy J.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Chopping, Mark J.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Davies, Roger; Di Girolamo, Larry; Kahn, Ralph A.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Liu, Yang; Marchand, Roger; Martonchik, John V.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Nolin, Anne W.; Pinty, Bernard; Verstraete, Michel M.; Wu, Dong L.; Garay, Michael J.; Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Davis, Anthony B.; Davis, Edgar S.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument has been collecting global Earth data from NASA's Terra satellite since February 2000. With its nine along-track view angles, four visible/near-infrared spectral bands, intrinsic spatial resolution of 275 m, and stable radiometric and geometric calibration, no instrument that combines MISR's attributes has previously flown in space. The more than 10-year (and counting) MISR data record provides unprecedented opportunities for characterizing long-term trends in aerosol, cloud, and surface properties, and includes 3-D textural information conventionally thought to be accessible only to active sensors.

  2. Ten years of genetics and genomics: what have we achieved and where are we heading?

    PubMed Central

    Heard, Edith; Tishkoff, Sarah; Todd, John A.; Vidal, Marc; Wagner, Günter P.; Wang, Jun; Weigel, Detlef; Young, Richard

    2010-01-01

    To celebrate the first 10 years of Nature Reviews Genetics, we asked eight leading researchers for their views on the key developments in genetics and genomics in the past decade and the prospects for the future. Their responses highlight the incredible changes that the field has seen, from the explosion of genomic data and the many possibilities it has opened up to the ability to reprogramme adult cells to pluripotency. The way ahead looks similarly exciting as we address questions such as how cells function as systems and how complex interactions among genetics, epigenetics and the environment combine to shape phenotypes. PMID:20820184

  3. The Fund for Astrophysical Research: Ten Years of the Small Grants Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upgren, A. R.; Aller, L. H.; Dunham, W. B.; Philip, A. G. Davis

    1996-12-01

    The Fund for Astrophysical Research, Inc. is a non-profit research corporation, incorporated under the laws of New York State in 1936. It was founded in that year by Charles G. Thompson and Alice Bemis Thompson, to advance research in astrophysics. Theodore Dunham, Jr. served as its scientific director from its founding until his death in 1984. In 1985, the FAR created a program to distribute small research grants among the North American community of astronomers. The grants were named in honor of Dunham. This paper summarizes the results of the first decade of the program.

  4. Trends in types of dermatology books available over the last ten years.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J

    2009-01-01

    Shifts in interest toward cosmetic and surgical dermatology and away from medical and academic dermatology have been observed in recent years. We hypothesized that this trend would be evident in the types of books available for purchase from a major medical textbook supplier. Books published from 1998-2008 were categorized by type and statistical testing was performed to determine if this trend has been reflected in books published. The percentage of medical dermatology books decreased over time, whereas the percentage of cosmetic and surgical dermatology books increased over time. PMID:19723488

  5. Breeding Bird Community Continues to Colonize Riparian Buffers Ten Years after Harvest

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems integrate aquatic and terrestrial communities and often contain unique assemblages of flora and fauna. Retention of forested buffers along riparian habitats is a commonly employed practice to reduce potential negative effects of land use on aquatic systems. However, very few studies have examined long-term population and community responses to buffers, leading to considerable uncertainty about effectiveness of this practice for achieving conservation and management outcomes. We examined short- (1–2 years) and long-term (~10 years) avian community responses (occupancy and abundance) to riparian buffer prescriptions to clearcut logging silvicultural practices in the Pacific Northwest USA. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact experimental approach and temporally replicated point counts analyzed within a Bayesian framework. Our experimental design consisted of forested control sites with no harvest, sites with relatively narrow (~13m) forested buffers on each side of the stream, and sites with wider (~30m) and more variable width unharvested buffer. Buffer treatments exhibited a 31–44% increase in mean species richness in the post-harvest years, a pattern most evident 10 years post-harvest. Post-harvest, species turnover was much higher on both treatments (63–74%) relative to the controls (29%). We did not find evidence of local extinction for any species but found strong evidence (no overlap in 95% credible intervals) for an increase in site occupancy on both Narrow (short-term: 7%; long-term 29%) and Wide buffers (short-term: 21%; long-term 93%) relative to controls after harvest. We did not find a treatment effect on total avian abundance. When assessing relationships between buffer width and site level abundance of four riparian specialists, we did not find strong evidence of reduced abundance in Narrow or Wide buffers. Silviculture regulations in this region dictate average buffer widths on small and large permanent streams that range

  6. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  7. Fear extinction as a model for translational neuroscience: ten years of progress.

    PubMed

    Milad, Mohammed R; Quirk, Gregory J

    2012-01-01

    The psychology of extinction has been studied for decades. Approximately 10 years ago, however, there began a concerted effort to understand the neural circuits of extinction of fear conditioning, in both animals and humans. Progress during this period has been facilitated by a high degree of coordination between rodent and human researchers examining fear extinction. Here we review the major advances and highlight new approaches to understanding and exploiting fear extinction. Research in fear extinction could serve as a model for translational research in other areas of behavioral neuroscience. PMID:22129456

  8. Ten-Year Echo/Doppler Determination of the Benefits of Aerobic Exercise after the Age of 65 Years

    PubMed Central

    Muster, Alexander J.; Kim, Hyunggun; Kane, Bonnie; McPherson, David D.

    2011-01-01

    As the human lifespan becomes progressively extended, potential health-related effects of intense aerobic exercise after age 65 need evaluation. This study evaluates the cardiovascular (CV), pulmonary, and metabolic effects of competitive distance running on age-related deterioration in men between 69 (±3) and 77 (±2) years (mean ±SD). Twelve elderly competitive distance runners (ER) underwent oxygen consumption and echo/Doppler treadmill stress testing (Balke protocol) for up to 10 years. Twelve age-matched sedentary controls (SC) with no history of CV disease were similarly tested and the results compared for the initial three series of the study. CV data clearly separated the ER from SC. At entry, resting and maximal heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, peak oxygen consumption (VO2max), and E/A ratio of mitral inflow were better in the ER (P < 0.05 vs. SC). With aging, ER had a less deterioration of multiple health parameters. Exceptions were VO2max and left ventricular diastolic function (E/A, AFF, IVRT) that decreased (P < 0.05, Year 10 vs. Year 1). Health advantages of high-level aerobic exercise were demonstrated in the ER when compared to SC. Importantly, data collected in ER over 10 years confirm the benefit of intensive exercise for slowing several negative effects of aging. However, the normative drop of exercise capacity in the seventh and eighth decades reduces the potential athleticism plays in prevention of CV events. PMID:19765066

  9. Ten-year echo/doppler determination of the benefits of aerobic exercise after the age of 65 years.

    PubMed

    Muster, Alexander J; Kim, Hyunggun; Kane, Bonnie; McPherson, David D

    2010-01-01

    As the human lifespan becomes progressively extended, potential health-related effects of intense aerobic exercise after age 65 need evaluation. This study evaluates the cardiovascular (CV), pulmonary, and metabolic effects of competitive distance running on age-related deterioration in men between 69 (+/-3) and 77 (+/-2) years (mean +/- SD). Twelve elderly competitive distance runners (ER) underwent oxygen consumption and echo/Doppler treadmill stress testing (Balke protocol) for up to 10 years. Twelve age-matched sedentary controls (SC) with no history of CV disease were similarly tested and the results compared for the initial three series of the study. CV data clearly separated the ER from SC. At entry, resting and maximal heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, peak oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), and E/A ratio of mitral inflow were better in the ER (P < 0.05 vs. SC). With aging, ER had a less deterioration of multiple health parameters. Exceptions were VO(2max) and left ventricular diastolic function (E/A, AFF, IVRT) that decreased (P < 0.05, Year 10 vs. Year 1). Health advantages of high-level aerobic exercise were demonstrated in the ER when compared to SC. Importantly, data collected in ER over 10 years confirm the benefit of intensive exercise for slowing several negative effects of aging. However, the normative drop of exercise capacity in the seventh and eighth decades reduces the potential athleticism plays in prevention of CV events. PMID:19765066

  10. Ten years of science in Philosophical Transactions A: with the University Research Fellows.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J Michael T

    2007-12-15

    In this brief paper, I review my 10 years as the Editor of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. I look at the content of the journal over the years, relating it to a full classification of the physical sciences based on the interests of fellows and research fellows of the Royal Society. I show that the journal has performed well in terms of downloads, citations and impact factors. Innovations such as the Millennium and Christmas Issues for young scientists have stimulated a close and enjoyable interaction with the Society's research fellows. In addition to authoring papers and organizing themes, they have always been keen to help with the refereeing processes. They provided exciting demonstrations for a Summer Science exhibit that I organized to highlight the work of the journal, and five of the research fellows now sit on the Editorial Board. Looking to the future, I describe the new subject clusters that are being introduced as the journal steps up its publication rate from one issue per month to two, starting in January 2008. PMID:17855215

  11. [Ten-years records of organic arsenic (diphenylarsinic acid) poisoning: epidemiology, clinical feature, metabolism, and toxicity].

    PubMed

    Ishi, Kazuhiro; Tamaoka, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We report here the symptoms of diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) poisoning recorded over 10 years since the DPAA contamination of the potable well water was first detected in the Kamisu City, Ibaraki Prefecture, in 2003. The poisoning symptoms associated with the cerebellum and brainstem included nystagmus, tremors, myoclonus, and cerebellar ataxia as well as the symptoms associated with the temporal and occipital lobes such as memory impairment, sleep disorder, and visual disturbance. Some of the affected children exhibited mental retardation. Moreover, reduced blood flow and reduced glucose metabolism in the cerebella, brainstem, and temporal and occipital lobes persisted for several years among the DPAA-exposed persons. Based on the animal studies for DPAA intoxication, the target organs for the DPAA toxicity were determined to be the central nervous system (CNS), liver, and biliary system. In particular, DPAA tends to persist in the brain for a long time, resulting in long-term impacts on the brain. The cerebral blood flow and brain glucose metabolism, which can be measured by positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), respectively, are useful objective clinical markers to determine the effect of DPAA on CNS. We believe that continuous monitoring of the DPAA-exposed people may promote the effect of carcinogen and accelerate brain aging. PMID:25585431

  12. Mental retardation in ten-year-old children in relation to their mothers' employment during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Decouflé, P; Murphy, C C; Drews, C D; Yeargin-Allsopp, M

    1993-11-01

    We conducted a case-control study to examine relationships between potential risk factors in women's prenatal occupational histories and subsequent mental retardation in their 10-year-old children. Children with mental retardation (intelligence quotient less than 71) were identified from special education records maintained by the public school systems in the metropolitan Atlanta area and from records of various medical and social service agencies serving children with special needs. Control children were chosen from the rosters of 10-year-olds who were enrolled in regular education classes in the local public school systems. To obtain occupational histories, sociodemographic data, and other information, we interviewed 352 natural mothers (67%) of 525 case children and 408 natural mothers (64%) of 636 control children. We computed odds ratios for each of 25 selected occupation, industry, and agent categories controlling for maternal education, birth order, and race. Most comparisons yielded odds ratios that were not indicative of unusual risks, but we did find lower than expected risks among children of teachers and health-care professionals. We also found a strong, positive association between mental retardation and maternal employment in the textile and apparel industries. The findings are useful for planning the direction of future studies of childhood cognitive ability to focus on specific parental occupations or industries. PMID:8266932

  13. [Ten years of emergency attendances for cocaine-users in Spain].

    PubMed

    Galicia, Miguel; Nogué, Santiago; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo

    2014-10-01

    Cocaine is the second most consumed illegal drug in the western world, following cannabis. Since 1998, it is also the drug that more attendances generate in different emergency devices, and it is responsible for more of 60% of the emergencies directly related to drug consumption. This work reviews the main Spanish scientific articles published in the last 10 years, in which different factors related to the use of this drug have been analyzed in relation to the use of emergency by cocaine users. A total of 8,795 patients were included (interval 57-1,755), with an average age of 32.64 years (SD 3.02), and an average percentage of positives to cocaine of 54.78% (SD 47.03); there were 7 works with 100% of subjects being positive to cocaine. Males predominated with an average of 78.69% (SD 12). They presented cardiovascular symptoms in 30% cases (SD 22.7), neurological symptoms in 11.6% cases (SD 4.28) and psychiatric symptoms in 49.32% cases (SD 23.87). There was a multiple consumption in 49.02% of patients (interval 4.3-76.2), fundamentally associated with alcohol (57.78%, SD 6.18) and cannabis (21.56%, SD 10.72). Two hundred and forty-six patients (2.8%) needed admission and 8 died (0.09%). PMID:24461737

  14. Infrapatellar Fat Pad Para-Articular Osteochondroma: A Ten-Year Follow-up and Review

    PubMed Central

    Bombaci, Hasan; Bilgin, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Para-articular masses are not clear enough in terms of their etiology and nomenclature. Although surgical removal of the mass is the preferred treatment, long term follow-up after surgical treatment has not been reported yet. The current study presents a patient with the osteo-cartilaginous mass of infrapatellar region, diagnosed after a trauma. This case has the longest follow-up period in the literature. Case Presentation: A 52-year-old female patient referred after falling down on her right knee. Lateral radiographs of the knee revealed a mass in the infrapatellar area. The case was treated surgically by total excision of the mass. The mass was extra-capsular with lobular and irregular shape. After mass removal the clinical course was uneventful and at the 10-year follow-up, no signs of recurrence were evident clinically or radiologically. Conclusions: Tumor-like lesions within the infrapatellar fat pad should remind the para-articular osteochondroma. Although its etiology has not yet been elicited, operative removal of the mass is the preferred treatment of choice and also curative in long-term follow-up. PMID:26566510

  15. Ten-year trends in adolescents' self-reported emotional and behavioral problems in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Duinhof, Elisa L; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2015-09-01

    Changes in social, cultural, economic, and governmental systems over time may affect adolescents' development. The present study examined 10-year trends in self-reported emotional and behavioral problems among 11- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. In addition, gender (girls versus boys), ethnic (Dutch versus non western) and educational (vocational versus academic) differences in these trends were examined. By means of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, trends in emotional and behavioral problems were studied in adolescents belonging to one of five independent population representative samples (2003: n = 6,904; 2005: n = 5,183; 2007: n = 6,228; 2009: n = 5,559; 2013: n = 5,478). Structural equation models indicated rather stable levels of emotional and behavioral problems over time. Whereas some small changes were found between different time points, these changes did not represent consistent changes in problem levels. Similarly, gender, ethnic and educational differences in self-reported problems on each time point were highly comparable, indicating stable mental health inequalities between groups of adolescents over time. Future internationally comparative studies using multiple measurement moments are needed to monitor whether these persistent mental health inequalities hold over extended periods of time and in different countries. PMID:25534927

  16. Ten year observations of gravity waves from thunderstorms in western Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, E.; Farges, T.; Le Pichon, A.; Heinrich, P.

    2014-06-01

    A new study of gravity waves produced by thunderstorms was performed using continuous recordings at the IS17 (Ivory Coast) infrasound station of the International Monitoring System developed for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. A typical case study is presented for a large thunderstorm on 10-11 April 2006 lasting near 14 h. Comparison with cloud temperature measured by the Meteosat 6 satellite shows that wave activity is large when the cloud temperature is low inside convection cells located over the station. Statistics based on 10 year data show that the wave activity is intense throughout the year with peak periods in May and October and less intense activity in January, in good agreement with the local keraunic level. The seasonal variations of the wave azimuth highlight clear trends from northward direction from February to August to southward direction from August to December. Lightning flashes, observed from space, show a similar motion confirming that thunderstorms are the main sources of the gravity wave activity. The gravity wave azimuth follows the seasonal motion of the tropical rain belt partly related to the Intertropical Convergence Zone of the winds. The contribution of other possible sources, such as wind over relief, is weak because surface winds are weak in this region and only oceans are present south of the station. We conclude that the large observed wave activity is mainly produced by convection associated to thunderstorms.

  17. Ego-resiliency development from late adolescence to emerging adulthood: A ten-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Milioni, Michela

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the development of ego-resiliency from late adolescence to emerging adulthood, using a 10-year cohort-sequential design. Participants were 335 Italian adolescents (173 females and 162 males), living, at the time of the study, in Genzano, a small city near to Rome. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that the developmental trajectory of ego-resiliency from 15 to 25 years is adequately described by a piecewise model that included separate growth profiles corresponding to different developmental stages. Essentially, ego-resiliency remained remarkably stable until the end of high school, and then encountered a phase of relative increase. Moreover, the trajectory of ego-resiliency from ages 15 to 19 was predicted by self-efficacy beliefs in managing negative emotions, and the trajectory from age 19 to 25 was predicted by experienced familial support and self-efficacy beliefs in expressing positive emotions at age 15. Experienced stressful life events also accounted for individuals' deviation from the typical ego-resiliency trajectory. PMID:27236209

  18. Ten-year follow-up of the non-porous Allofit cementless acetabular component.

    PubMed

    Zenz, P; Stiehl, J B; Knechtel, H; Titzer-Hochmaier, G; Schwagerl, W

    2009-11-01

    Cementless acetabular fixation has demonstrated superior long-term durability in total hip replacement, but most series have studied implants with porous metal surfaces. We retrospectively evaluated the results of 100 consecutive patients undergoing total hip replacement where a non-porous Allofit component was used for primary press-fit fixation. This implant is titanium alloy, grit-blasted, with a macrostructure of forged teeth and has a biradial shape. A total of 81 patients (82 hips) were evaluated at final follow-up at a mean of 10.1 years (8.9 to 11.9). The Harris Hip Score improved from a mean 53 points (23 to 73) pre-operatively to a mean of 96 points (78 to 100) at final review. The osseointegration of all acetabular components was radiologically evaluated with no evidence of loosening. The survival rate with revision of the component as the endpoint was 97.5% (95% confidence interval 94 to 100) after 11.9 years. Radiolucency was found in one DeLee-Charnley zone in four acetabular components. None of the implants required revision for aseptic loosening. Two patients were treated for infection, one requiring a two-stage revision of the implant. One femoral stem was revised for osteolysis due to the production of metal wear debris, but the acetabular shell did not require revision. This study demonstrates that a non-porous titanium acetabular component with adjunct surface fixation offers an alternative to standard porous-coated implants. PMID:19880887

  19. Ten Years of Patient Surveys in Accredited Breast Centers in North Rhine-Westphalia

    PubMed Central

    Ansmann, L.; Kowalski, C.; Pfaff, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patient surveys are an established tool for quality control in healthcare organizations. This report looks at the design and development of the annual patient surveys carried out among breast cancer patients treated in the Breast Centers of North Rhine-Westphalia and discusses selected findings from 10 consecutive years. Material and Methods: Since 2006 the Institute for Medical Sociology, Health Services Research and Rehabilitation Science (IMVR) of the University of Cologne has carried out an annual survey of breast cancer patients using the Cologne Patient Questionnaire for Breast Cancer. The patients included in the survey have been diagnosed with primary breast cancer and undergo surgery between February and July in one of the Breast Centers in North Rhine-Westphalia accredited by the medical association of Westphalia-Lippe. The questionnaire and the type of feedback given to the Breast Centers were comprehensively revised in 2014. Selected results collected over the survey period were analyzed descriptively. Results: The survey period of 10 years provides information on the actual medical care delivered in the Breast Centers based on the data obtained in this period from around 40 000 patients. Some areas showed positive developments over time. Conclusion: The approach used to survey patients, the Cologne Patient Questionnaire for Breast Cancer 2.0 and the benchmark-focused feedback provide an impetus for organizational learning in Breast Centers. The concept could also be used in other healthcare organizations to stimulate learning and improve healthcare services. PMID:26855439

  20. Combined First-Trimester Screening in Northern Finland: Experiences of the First Ten Years

    PubMed Central

    Merilainen, Anna; Peuhkurinen, Sini; Honkasalo, Timppa; Laitinen, Paivi; Kokkonen, Hannaleena; Ryynanen, Markku; Marttala, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of first trimester combined screening for Down’s syndrome in Northern Finland during the first 10 years of practice. METHODS During 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2011, 47,896 women participated voluntarily in combined screening during first trimester. The risk cutoff was 1:250. The study period was divided into two time periods; 2002–2006 and 2007–2011. RESULTS During the first half of the study period, the detection rate (DR) was 77.3% with a 4.9% false-positive rate (FPR). During the latter half, the DR was 77.1% with a 2.8% FPR. CONCLUSIONS An important issue is the number of invasive procedures needed to detect one case of Down’s syndrome. The screening performance improved markedly in the latter five years period since the FPR lowered from 4.9% to 2.8% and the number of invasive procedures needed to detect one case of Down’s syndrome lowered from 15 to 11. PMID:25140118

  1. Building bridges between human vision and electronic imaging: a ten-year retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Allebach, Jan P.

    1998-07-01

    The Conference on Human Vision and Electronic Imaging had its origins as three sessions in the 1988 SPIE/SPSE Symposium on Electronic Imaging Devices and Systems. These sessions brought together visual psychophysicists and imaging scientists and engineers to explore the relevance of human vision to the design of imaging systems. In the early years of the conference, the focus was on display technology and low-level image coding and rendering. The scope of the conference has grown with the evolution of electronic imaging technology, and the conference today includes papers on visualization, machine vision, digital image libraries, and art. Over the years, the conference has become more focused on truly integrating perception and engineering. We have been proud to see how our community has applied knowledge of perceptual systems to create novel engineering designs, and how knowledge of engineering challenges has led to the identification of novel directions for vision research. This paper will examine the progress of this multidisciplinary field as seen through the lens of this conference, and will speculate on where we are headed.

  2. Ten years' experience with an elemental diet in the management of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Teahon, K; Bjarnason, I; Pearson, M; Levi, A J

    1990-01-01

    The immediate and longterm outcome of treating patients with acute Crohn's disease with an elemental diet was studied retrospectively. Successful diet induced remission was achieved in 96 of 113 patients (85%) regardless of age, sex, site or severity of disease, or associated complications of strictures, fistula, or perianal disease. Treatment was unsuccessful in 17 patients (15%), but there were no features at the outset of treatment that distinguished these patients from those who had successful remission. The longterm outcome of treatment was assessed over a five year period by analysis of life tables and survival curves. Twenty two per cent of the patients relapsed within six months of treatment and thereafter the annual relapse rate was 8-10%. Patients with disease complicated by fistula or perianal involvement had early relapse, approaching 100% for the latter. A further retrospective comparison of longterm outcome of diet v steroid induced remissions showed no significant difference in the relapse rates between the two groups at one, three, and five years. PMID:2083858

  3. Ten-year follow-up of anorexia nervosa: clinical course and outcome.

    PubMed

    Eckert, E D; Halmi, K A; Marchi, P; Grove, W; Crosby, R

    1995-01-01

    The clinical course and outcome of anorexia nervosa are presented in a 10-year follow-up study of 76 severely ill females with anorexia nervosa who met specific diagnostic criteria and had participated in a well-documented hospital treatment study. Information was obtained on 100% of the subjects. A comprehensive assessment was made in 93% of the living subjects in specific categories of weight, eating and weight control behaviours, menstrual function, anorexic attitudes, and psychological, sexual, social and vocational adjustment. Five subjects had died, which gives a crude mortality rate of 6.6%. Standardized mortality rates demonstrated an almost 13-fold increase in mortality in the anorexia nervosa subjects. Only eighteen (23.7%) were fully recovered. Sixty-four per cent developed binge-eating at some time during their illness, 57% at least weekly. Twenty-nine (41%) were still bulimic at follow-up. The high frequency and chronicity of the bulimic symptoms plus the high rate of weight relapse (42% during the first year after hospital treatment) suggest that intensive intervention is needed to help anorexics restore and maintain their weight within a normal range and to decrease abnormal eating and weight control behaviours. PMID:7792349

  4. Duration of Sexual Harassment and Generalized Harassment in the Workplace Over Ten Years: Effects on Deleterious Drinking Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    While harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a ten year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking. PMID:21745045

  5. Magnetorheological Shear Flow Near Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vågberg, Daniel; Tighe, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Flow in magnetorheological (MR) fluids and systems near jamming both display hallmarks of complex fluid rheology, including yield stresses and shear thinning viscosities. They are also tunable, which means that both phenomena can be used as a switching mechanism in ``smart'' fluids, i.e. fluids where properties can be tuned rapidly and reversibly by changing external parameters. We use numerical simulations to investigate the rheological properties of MR fluids close to the jamming transition as a function of the applied field and volume fraction. We are especially interested in the crossover region where both phenomena are needed to describe the observed dynamics. Funded by the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).

  6. Ten-Year Retrospective Longitudinal-Study of Student Perspectives on Value of REU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    For more than two decades, federal agencies have been enthusiastically supporting summer research experiences for undergraduates. These REU programs are tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. Numerous authors (viz., Laursen, Lopatto, Dolan, among many others) have enthusiastically described positive impacts of summer REU programs from exit interview data. These results include enhanced persistence to pursue STEM careers and confirmed desire to attend graduate school in the field targeted by a particular REU. Perhaps surprisingly, negative student experiences are rarely described in the scholarly literature, but do appear in more informal publications (viz., Gueterma, 2007). One wonders how REU alumni, looking back over their entire collective portfolio of experiences, now perceive the educational value of their REU experience relative to their other educational experiences. To obtain a backwards-looking, reflective description from REU alumni on the value of their REU experiences, we conducted a 10-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single geoscience sub-discipline. The first phase was an ex post facto longitudinal analysis of data, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over a 10-year period. This analysis informed the second phase, a clinical interview. Over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to reflect on a wide variety of educational experiences. Results from the interviews, done many years after their REU experience, indicate that the interviewees' REU did not provide a substantive educational

  7. Ten years optically pumped semiconductor lasers: review, state-of-the-art, and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannengiesser, Christian; Ostroumov, Vasiliy; Pfeufer, Volker; Seelert, Wolf; Simon, Christoph; von Elm, Rüdiger; Zuck, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers - OPSLs - have been introduced in 2001. Their unique features such as power scalability and wavelength flexibility, their excellent beam parameters, power stability and reliability opened this pioneering technology access to a wide range of applications such as flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, sequencing, medical diagnosis and therapy, semiconductor inspection, graphic arts, forensic, metrology. This talk will introduce the OPSL principles and compare them with ion, diode and standard solid state lasers. It will revue the first 10 years of this exciting technology, its current state and trends. In particular currently accessible wavelengths and power ranges, frequency doubling, ultra-narrow linewidth possibilities will be discussed. A survey of key applications will be given.

  8. GEO And LEO Life Tests Of Saft Lithium Ion Batteries After Ten Years Of Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, G.; Hendel, B.; Borthomieu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    In the period 1999 - 2000 several life tests were started to support the qualification of the SAFT VES140 S lithium ion cell for GEO and LEO applications. Most are still continuing and all have demonstrated excellent performance. For example a real-time GEO test after the equivalent of 10 years in orbit shows a cell internal resistance increase of less than 20% and the cell capacity and energy are still higher than the values measured after the first season.Accelerated GEO tests have reached 90 seasons. A real-time LEO test has exceeded 48000 cycles at 30% depth of discharge (DoD) and 108000 cycles under an accelerated variable DoD profile of between 10 and 30 %. The evolution of performance will be described and in particular measurements of cell internal resistance and can strain.

  9. Ten year change in forest succession and composition measured by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G.; Botkin, Daniel B.; Strebel, Donald E.; Woods, Kerry K.; Goetz, Scott J.

    1987-01-01

    Vegetation dynamics and changes in ecological patterns were measured by remote sensing over a 10 year period (1973 to 1983) for 148,406 landscape elements, covering more than 500 sq km in a protected forested wilderness. Quantitative measurements were made possible by methods to detect ecologically meaningful landscape units; these allowed measurement of ecological transition frequencies and calculation of expected recurrence times. Measured ecological transition frequencies reveal boreal forest wilderness as spatially heterogeneous and highly dynamic, with one-sixth of the area in clearings and early successional stages, consistent with recent postulates about the spatial and temporal patterns of natural ecosystems. Differences between managed forest areas and a protected wilderness allow assessment of different management regimes.

  10. Vascular Pythiosis of the Lower Extremity in Northern Thailand: Ten Years' Experience.

    PubMed

    Reanpang, Termpong; Orrapin, Saritphat; Orrapin, Saranat; Arworn, Supapong; Kattipatanapong, Thanate; Srisuwan, Tanop; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Lekawanvijit, Suree P; Rerkasem, Kittipan

    2015-09-01

    Pythiosis is a disease caused by Pythium insidiosum, a fungus-like organism. P. insidiosum is pathogenic in mammals, particularly in horses, dogs, and humans. Human pythiosis can be classified into 4 types: (1) cutaneous/subcutaneous, (2) ocular, (3) vascular, and (4) disseminated pythiosis. Vascular pythiosis is a rare disease but a serious limb- and life-threatening infection. We reviewed 22 cases over a 10-year period in Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai/Chiang Mai University Hospital. The survival rate was around 63.6% during our follow-up period. The only effective treatment was complete excision of the infected tissue, which was done mainly by major amputation, such as above-knee amputation. This report raises awareness of this disease, which needs preemptive diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:26286930

  11. Ten years of the Three Gorges Dam: a call for policy overhaul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiankun; Lu, X. X.

    2013-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the world’s largest source of ‘clean’ hydroelectric power (Shen and Xie 2004), has entered its tenth year after the first turbine went into operation in June 2003. The dam, with a generating capacity 20 times that of the United States’ Hoover Dam, has been hailed as a crucial part of a solution to China’s energy crisis. Despite great benefits, however, major concerns have been voiced over the disastrous environmental and social consequences of this massive engineering project (Stone 2011). In this paper, we review the benefits and impacts learned from the controversial megadam over the past decade and discuss perspective quests on policy overhaul for future environmental protection.

  12. Ten-year retrospective assessment of the performance of the Food Contact Notification (FCN) programme.

    PubMed

    Neal-Kluever, April; Cooper, Jessica; Zebovitz, Thomas C; Butts, Kyla M

    2015-01-01

    The Food Contact Notification (FCN) programme was authorised by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) Modernization Act of 1997. Manufacturers may file FCNs for food contact substances (FCSs) not already authorised or pre-sanctioned by the USFDA by demonstrating a reasonable certainty of no harm for their intended uses. The Division of Food Contact Notifications (DFCN) 10-year Retrospective Assessment Group was formed to collect and develop metrics associated with the first decade of the FCN Programme and determine the extent selected aspects of the review process contributed to the effective FCN. Comparative analysis of 924 FCNs revealed that 76% become effective, 23% were withdrawn and 1% received a not accepted status. The focus of the Group was to identify factors impacting the likelihood of an FCN becoming effective. PMID:25529924

  13. Ten Years of Vegetation Change in Northern California Marshlands Detected using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) methodology was applied to detected changes in perennial vegetation cover at marshland sites in Northern California reported to have undergone restoration between 1999 and 2009. Results showed extensive contiguous areas of restored marshland plant cover at 10 of the 14 sites selected. Gains in either woody shrub cover and/or from recovery of herbaceous cover that remains productive and evergreen on a year-round basis could be mapped out from the image results. However, LEDAPS may not be highly sensitive changes in wetlands that have been restored mainly with seasonal herbaceous cover (e.g., vernal pools), due to the ephemeral nature of the plant greenness signal. Based on this evaluation, the LEDAPS methodology would be capable of fulfilling a pressing need for consistent, continual, low-cost monitoring of changes in marshland ecosystems of the Pacific Flyway.

  14. A ten-year search for synchronous cells: obstacles, solutions, and practical applications

    PubMed Central

    Helmstetter, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    My effort to use synchronously dividing cultures to examine the Escherichia coli cell cycle involved a 10-year struggle with failure after failure punctuated by a few gratifying successes, especially at the end. In this essay, I recount my personal journey in this obsessive experimental pursuit. That narrative is followed by a description of a simplified version of the “baby machine,” a technique that was developed to obtain minimally disturbed, synchronously growing E. coli cells. Subsequent studies with this methodology led to an understanding of the basic properties of the relationship between chromosome replication and cell division. Accordingly, I end this reminiscence with a simple, fool-proof graphical strategy for deducing the pattern of chromosome replication during the division cycle of cells growing at any rate. PMID:25870590

  15. Ten-year Pollution Characteristics of Particulate-associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xianlei; Deng, Changjiang; Biandan, Luobu; Fu, Xianqiang; Mu, Xilong

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well-known air pollutants of health concern. However, they are not listed as routinely measured pollutants in China, in spite of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) being included in the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Thus, very limited continuous measurements are available for PAHs, which would hinder the understanding of long-term pollution characteristics of PAHs in context of rapid development of economy and intensive urbanization in China. To investigate annual variation and its causes of airborne particulate-associated PAHs, a total of 18 PAHs (including 16 USEPA priority species) in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured in Beijing, the capital and one of megacities of China, for a decade (from the year of 2004 to 2013) with meteorological data simultaneously recorded. The long-term measurements of PAHs showed significant annual and seasonal variations for the total concentration of PAHs (ΣPAH18) and individual PAH species. The ΣPAH18 in PM10 was highest in 2010 and lowest in 2006. Likewise, the ΣPAH18 in PM2.5 reached the highest level in 2010 and dropped to the lowest level in 2005. The annual concentration varied insignificantly for 2- and 3-ring PAHs, were relatively high in the year of 2004, 2007 and 2010 for 4-ring PAHs, and increased gradually with year for 5- to 7-ring PAHs, the markers of motor vehicle emission. As for seasonal variation, the concentrations in winter (heating period) was higher than those in summer, while concentrations in spring and autumn ranked in the middle. As for BaP, one of criteria pollutants, its concentration exceeded NAAQS of China in winter. Source apportionment by factor analysis suggested the contributions of coal combustion, vehicle emissions, fugitive dust and straw burning. Especially, the great contributions of coal combustion and vehicle emission were also supported by diagnostic ratios. The backward trajectories showed air mass crossing polluted cities and transporting in low

  16. Ten years of the international review meetings on Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence /CETI/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesek, R.; Billingham, J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of ideas on CETI within the international community over the past five years is reviewed, and the outlook for future CETI activities is discussed. The growth of review sessions on CETI held annually by the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) is considered, with particular attention given to the issue of radio frequency allocation for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. CETI activities outside the IAA are then examined, including the Viking search for life on Mars, Project Orion for the detection of extrasolar planetary systems, SETI programs undertaken in the U.S. and Soviet Union, and the development of multispectral spectrum analyzers and signal processors. The expected future development of CETI strategies, techniques and instrumentation as well as popular and scientific interest in SETI are discussed, and it is noted that the IAA sessions remain the only regular international forum for the exchange of data on all aspects of CETI.

  17. Ten years of software sustainability at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center.

    PubMed

    Berriman, G Bruce; Good, John; Deelman, Ewa; Alexov, Anastasia

    2011-08-28

    This paper presents a case study of an approach to sustainable software architecture that has been successfully applied over a period of 10 years to astronomy software services at the NASA Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Caltech (http://www.ipac.caltech.edu). The approach was developed in response to the need to build and maintain the NASA Infrared Science Archive (http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu), NASA's archive node for infrared astronomy datasets. When the archive opened for business in 1999 serving only two datasets, it was understood that the holdings would grow rapidly in size and diversity, and consequently in the number of queries and volume of data download. It was also understood that platforms and browsers would be modernized, that user interfaces would need to be replaced and that new functionality outside of the scope of the original specifications would be needed. The changes in scientific functionality over time are largely driven by the archive user community, whose interests are represented by a formal user panel. The approach has been extended to support four more major astronomy archives, which today host data from more than 40 missions and projects, to support a complete modernization of a powerful and unique legacy astronomy application for co-adding survey data, and to support deployment of Montage, a powerful image mosaic engine for astronomy. The approach involves using a component-based architecture, designed from the outset to support sustainability, extensibility and portability. Although successful, the approach demands careful assessment of new and emerging technologies before adopting them, and attention to a disciplined approach to software engineering and maintenance. The paper concludes with a list of best practices for software sustainability that are based on 10 years of experience at IPAC. PMID:21768146

  18. Treatment of advanced thyroid cancer with targeted therapies: ten years of experience.

    PubMed

    Viola, David; Valerio, Laura; Molinaro, Eleonora; Agate, Laura; Bottici, Valeria; Biagini, Agnese; Lorusso, Loredana; Cappagli, Virginia; Pieruzzi, Letizia; Giani, Carlotta; Sabini, Elena; Passannati, Paolo; Puleo, Luciana; Matrone, Antonio; Pontillo-Contillo, Benedetta; Battaglia, Valentina; Mazzeo, Salvatore; Vitti, Paolo; Elisei, Rossella

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid cancer is rare, but it is the most frequent endocrine malignancy. Its prognosis is generally favorable, especially in cases of well-differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs), such as papillary and follicular cancers, which have survival rates of approximately 95% at 40 years. However, 15-20% of cases became radioiodine refractory (RAI-R), and until now, no other treatments have been effective. The same problems are found in cases of poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic (ATC) thyroid cancers and in at least 30% of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases, which are very aggressive and not sensitive to radioiodine. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent a new approach to the treatment of advanced cases of RAI-R DTC, MTC, PDTC, and, possibly, ATC. In the past 10 years, several TKIs have been tested for the treatment of advanced, progressive, and RAI-R thyroid tumors, and some of them have been recently approved for use in clinical practice: sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC and PDTC and vandetanib and cabozantinib for MTC. The objective of this review is to present the current status of the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer with the use of innovative targeted therapies by describing both the benefits and the limits of their use based on the experiences reported so far. A comprehensive analysis and description of the molecular basis of these therapies, as well as new therapeutic perspectives, are reported. Some practical suggestions are given for both the choice of patients to be treated and their management, with particular regard to the potential side effects. PMID:27207700

  19. Ten Years Experience With Belatacept-Based Immunosuppression After Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Grannas, Gerrit; Schrem, Harald; Klempnauer, Juergen; Lehner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background Belatacept was approved for prevention of acute rejection in adult kidney transplantation in 2011 based on two randomized, controlled, multicenter phase 3 studies. Long-term experience over 10 years with belatacept-based immunosuppression after kidney transplantation has not been reported before. Patients and Methods Analyzed were 20 patients who had been included into a randomized multicenter phase 2 study by our institution between March 2001 and November 2002. For 10-year follow-up, three different groups could be analyzed: 1) patients with primary calcineurin inhibitor-based (CNI-based) immunosuppression (n = 5), 2) patients with early switch from a belatacept-based to a CNI-based regimen within the first 14 months (n = 8) and 3) patients with completely CNI-free belatacept immunosuppression (n = 7). Results Fifteen patients received primary belatacept-based immunosuppression and five patients primary cyclosporine A (CyA). Five patients are still on belatacept. Kidney function measured by serum creatinine levels worsened in the CNI group and the belatacept to CNI switch group during long-term follow-up whereas all patients receiving belatacept throughout follow-up showed stable creatinine values. Acute rejections occurred predominantly in the first 12 months after transplantation and were responsible for four of seven switches from belatacept- to CNI-based immunosuppression within the first 14 months. Five of the 20 patients died. Conclusions Belatacept is effective and safe in renal transplant patients and was not associated with graft loss due to chronic allograft nephropathy. Belatacept was well tolerated in all patients and caused less nephrotoxic side effects and was well accepted in most patients. PMID:24578751

  20. Ten years of satellite observations reveal highly variable sulphur dioxide emissions at Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Brendan; Popp, Christoph; Andrews, Benjamin; Cottrell, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    Satellite remote sensing enables continuous multiyear observations of volcanic activity in remote settings. Anatahan (Mariana Islands) is a remote volcano in the western North Pacific. Available ground-based measurements of sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas emissions at Anatahan place it among thelargest volcanic SO2 sources worldwide. These ground-based measurements, however, are restricted to eruptive intervals. Anatahan's activity since 2003 has been dominated temporally by prolonged periods of quiescence. Using 10 years of satellite observations from OMI, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2, we report highly variable SO2 emissions within and between eruptive and quiescent intervals at Anatahan. We find close correspondence between levels of activity reported at the volcano and levels of SO2 emissions detected from space. Eruptive SO2 emission rates have a mean value of ˜6400 t d-1, but frequently are in excess of 20,000 t d-1. Conversely, SO2 emissions during quiescent intervals are below the detection limit of space-based sensors and therefore are not likely to exceed ˜300 t d-1. We show that while Anatahan occupies a quiescent state for 85% of the past 10 years, only ˜15% of total SO2 emissions over this interval occur during quiescence, with the remaining ˜85% released in short duration but intense syn-eruptive degassing. We propose that the integration of multiyear satellite data sets and activity histories are a powerful complement to targeted ground-based campaign measurements in better describing the long-term degassing behavior of remote volcanoes.

  1. Taking stock of herbicide-resistant crops ten years after introduction.

    PubMed

    Duke, Stephen O

    2005-03-01

    Since transgenic, bromoxynil-resistant cotton and glufosinate-resistant canola were introduced in 1995, planting of transgenic herbicide-resistant crops has grown substantially, revolutionizing weed management where they have been available. Before 1995, several commercial herbicide-resistant crops were produced by biotechnology through selection for resistance in tissue culture. However, non-transgenic herbicide-resistant crops have had less commercial impact. Since the introduction of glyphosate-resistant soybean in 1996, and the subsequent introduction of other glyphosate-resistant crops, where available, they have taken a commanding share of the herbicide-resistant crop market, especially in soybean, cotton and canola. The high level of adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops by North American farmers has helped to significantly reduce the value of the remaining herbicide market. This has resulted in reduced investment in herbicide discovery, which may be problematic for addressing future weed-management problems. Introduction of herbicide-resistant crops that can be used with selective herbicides has apparently been hindered by the great success of glyphosate-resistant crops. Evolution of glyphosate-resistant weeds and movement of naturally resistant weed species into glyphosate-resistant crop fields will require increases in the use of other herbicides, but the speed with which these processes compromise the use of glyphosate alone is uncertain. The future of herbicide-resistant crops will be influenced by many factors, including alternative technologies, public opinion and weed resistance. Considering the relatively few recent approvals for field testing new herbicide-resistant crops and recent decisions not to grow glyphosate-resistant sugarbeet and wheat, the introduction and adoption of herbicide-resistant crops during the next 10 years is not likely to be as dramatic as in the past 10 years. PMID:15660452

  2. Ten-Year Follow-Up of Endovascular Aneurysm Treatment with Talent Stent-Grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Pitton, Michael B. Scheschkowski, Tobias; Ring, Markus; Herber, Sascha; Oberholzer, Katja; Leicher-Dueber, Annegret; Neufang, Achim; Schmiedt, Walther; Dueber, Christoph

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical results, complications, and secondary interventions during long-term follow-up after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and to investigate the impact of endoleak sizes on aneurysm shrinkage. From 1997 to March 2007, 127 patients (12 female, 115 male; age, 73.0 {+-} 7.2 years) with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated with Talent stent-grafts. Follow-up included clinical visits, contrast-enhanced MDCT, and radiographs at 3, 6, and 12 months and then annually. Results were analyzed with respect to clinical outcome, secondary interventions, endoleak rate and management, and change in aneurysm size. There was no need for primary conversion surgery. Thirty-day mortality was 1.6% (two myocardial infarctions). Procedure-related morbidity was 2.4% (paraplegia, partial infarction of one kidney, and inguinal bleeding requiring surgery). Mean follow-up was 47.7 {+-} 34.2 months (range, 0-123 months). Thirty-nine patients died during follow-up; three of the deaths were related to aneurysm (aneurysm rupture due to endoleak, n = 1; secondary surgical reintervention n = 2). During follow-up, a total of 29 secondary procedures were performed in 19 patients, including 14 percutaneous procedures (10 patients) and 15 surgical procedures (12 patients), including 4 cases with late conversion to open aortic repair (stent-graft infection, n = 1; migration, endoleak, or endotension, n = 3). Overall mean survival was 84.5 {+-} 4.7 months. Mean survival and freedom from any event was 66.7 {+-} 4.5 months. MRI depicted significantly more endoleaks compared to MDCT (23.5% vs. 14.3%; P < 0.01). Patients in whom all aneurysm side branches were occluded prior to stent-grafting showed a significantly reduced incidence of large endoleaks. Endoleaks >10% of the aneurysm area were associated with reduced aneurysm shrinkage compared to no endoleaks or <10% endoleaks ({Delta} at 3 years, -1.8% vs. -12.0%; P < 0.05). In conclusion, endovascular

  3. Incidence of primary breast cancer in Iran: Ten-year national cancer registry data report.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad; Saadat, Soheil; Ramezani, Rashid; Kaviani, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the leading type of malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The screening programs and advances in the treatment of patients with breast cancer have led to an increase in overall survival. Cancer registry systems play an important role in providing basic data for research and the monitoring of the cancer status. In this study, the results of the 10-year national cancer registry (NCR) of Iran in breast cancer are reviewed. NCR database records were searched for primary breast cancer records according to ICD-O-3 coding and the cases were reviewed. A total of 52,068 cases were found with the coding of primary breast cancer. Females constituted 97.1% of the cases. Breast cancer was the leading type of cancer in Iranian females, accounting for 24.6% of all cancers. The mean age of the women with breast cancer was 49.6 years (95%CI 49.5-49.6). Most of the cases (95.7%) were registered as having invasive pathologies (behavior code 3). The most common morphology of primary breast cancer was invasive ductal carcinoma (ICD-O 8500/3) followed by invasive lobular carcinoma (ICD-O 8520/3) with relative frequencies of 77.8% and 5.2%, respectively. The average annual crude incidence of primary breast cancer in females was 22.6 (95%CI 22.1-23.1) per 100,000 females, with an age-standardized rate (ASR) of 27.4 (95%CI 22.5-35.9). There were no data on survival, staging or immunohistochemical marker(s) of the breast-cancer-registered cases. The incidence of breast cancer in Iran is lower than in low-middle-income neighboring countries. The NCR data registry of breast cancer is not accurate in monitoring the effect of screening programs or determining the current status of breast cancer in Iran. Screening programs of breast cancer in Iran have failed to enhance the detection of the patients with in situ lesion detection. A quality breast cancer registry and a screening program for breast cancer are both needed. PMID:26070507

  4. Ten-Year Study of Acute Otitis Media in Rochester, NY.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2016-09-01

    This review summarizes a prospective, longitudinal 10-year study in Rochester, NY, involving 760 children where virtually all clinically diagnosed acute otitis media (AOM) was confirmed by bacterial culture of middle ear fluid. This review describes detection of otopathogens in middle ear fluid, nasopharyngeal (NP) otopathogen colonization patterns, AOM risk factor analysis, biomarkers of AOM and antibody responses to NP colonization by otopathogens. After licensure of PCV13, there was an immediate drop in AOM caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) vaccine serotypes and shortly thereafer an increase in nonvaccine types 16, 21 and 35B. When NP co-colonization occurred, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) predominated over Spn to cause AOM, and NTHi and Spn both predominated over Moraxella catarrhalis. Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells identified unique signatures for NTHi AOM compared with Spn AOM. Elevation of 3 cytokines in serum (S100A12, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and interleukin 10) accurately predicted the presence and recovery from AOM and the likely otopathogen. NP colonization was an immunizing event. PMID:27182898

  5. Ten-Year Study of the Stringently Defined Otitis-prone Child in Rochester, NY.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2016-09-01

    This review summarizes a prospective, longitudinal 10-year study in Rochester, NY, with virtually every clinically diagnosed acute otitis media (AOM) confirmed by bacterial culture of middle ear fluid. Children experiencing 3 episodes within 6 months or 4 episodes in 12 months were considered stringently defined otitis prone (sOP). We found stringent diagnosis compared with clinical diagnosis reduced the frequency of children meeting the OP definition from 27% to 6% resulting in 14.8% and 2.4% receiving tympanostomy tubes, respectively. Significantly more often respiratory syncytial virus infection led to AOM in sOP than non-otitis-prone children that correlated with diminished total respiratory syncytial virus-specific serum IgG. sOP children produced low levels of antibody to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae candidate vaccine protein antigens and to routine pediatric vaccines. sOP children generated significantly fewer memory B cells, functional and memory T cells to otopathogens following nasopharyngeal colonization and AOM than non-otitis-prone children and they had defects in antigen-presenting cells. PMID:27273691

  6. Isotopic abundance in the CN coma of comets: Ten years of measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, R.; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Hutsemékers, D.; Arpigny, C.; Cochran, A.; Zucconi, J.-M.; Stüwe, J. A.

    2008-11-01

    Over the past 10 years the isotopic ratios of carbon ( 12C/ 13C) and nitrogen ( 14N/ 15N) have been determined for a dozen comets, bright enough to allow obtaining the required measurements from the ground. The ratios were derived from high-resolution spectra of the CN coma measured in the B 2∑ +-X 2∑ + (0, 0) emission band around 387 nm. The observed comets belong to different dynamical classes, including dynamically new as well as long- and short-period comets from the Halley- and Jupiter-family. In some cases the comets could be observed at various heliocentric distances. All values determined for the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios were consistent within the error margin irrespective of the type of comet or the heliocentric distance at which it was observed. Our investigations resulted in average ratios of 12C/ 13C=91±21 and nitrogen 14N/ 15N=141±29. Whilst the value for the carbon isotopic ratio is in good agreement with the solar and terrestrial value of 89, the nitrogen isotopic ratio is very different from the telluric value of 272.

  7. Cord Blood Banking and Transplantation in China: A Ten Years Experience of a Single Public Bank

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinhui; He, Ji; Chen, Shu; Qin, Fei; Wang, Fang; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun; Yan, Lixing

    2012-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has successfully used for transplantation to treat hematologic malignancies and genetic diseases. Herein, we describe the experience generated in a single public UCB bank at Zhejiang Province in China. Methods Good manufacturing practice and standard operating procedures were used to address donor selection as well as UCB collection, processing, and cryopreservation. Total nucleated cells (TNCs), cellular viability, CD34+ cells, and colony-forming units were determined, and infectious diseases screening test, sterility test, and HLA typing for UCB units were done. Results Only 18.51% of all collected UCB units met storage criteria, and 7,056 UCB units were cryopreserved in 10 years. The volume of UCB units was 95.0 ± 22.0 ml. The number of TNCs before and after processing was 13.32 ± 3.63 × 108 and 10.63 ± 2.80 × 108, respectively, and the recovery rate was 80.71 ± 11.26%. 0.4344 ± 0.1874% of the TNCs were CD34+ cells. The CFU-GM was 32.1 ± 28.0 colonies per 1 × 105 nucleated cells. Based mainly on HLA and nucleated cell content, 26 UCB units were released for transplantation. Conclusions A public UCB bank was successfully established in China; collection and processing of UCB units should be optimized in order to gain maximum volume and cell count. PMID:22896763

  8. Cord Blood Banking and Transplantation in China: A Ten Years Experience of a Single Public Bank.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinhui; He, Ji; Chen, Shu; Qin, Fei; Wang, Fang; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun; Yan, Lixing

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has successfully used for transplantation to treat hematologic malignancies and genetic diseases. Herein, we describe the experience generated in a single public UCB bank at Zhejiang Province in China. METHODS: Good manufacturing practice and standard operating procedures were used to address donor selection as well as UCB collection, processing, and cryopreservation. Total nucleated cells (TNCs), cellular viability, CD34+ cells, and colony-forming units were determined, and infectious diseases screening test, sterility test, and HLA typing for UCB units were done. RESULTS: Only 18.51% of all collected UCB units met storage criteria, and 7,056 UCB units were cryopreserved in 10 years. The volume of UCB units was 95.0 ± 22.0 ml. The number of TNCs before and after processing was 13.32 ± 3.63 × 10(8) and 10.63 ± 2.80 × 10(8), respectively, and the recovery rate was 80.71 ± 11.26%. 0.4344 ± 0.1874% of the TNCs were CD34+ cells. The CFU-GM was 32.1 ± 28.0 colonies per 1 × 10(5) nucleated cells. Based mainly on HLA and nucleated cell content, 26 UCB units were released for transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: A public UCB bank was successfully established in China; collection and processing of UCB units should be optimized in order to gain maximum volume and cell count. PMID:22896763

  9. Heterosexual intimate partner homicide: review of ten years of clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Farooque, Rokeya S; Stout, Ronnie G; Ernst, Frederick A

    2005-05-01

    Most of the literature on intimate partner homicide addresses violence between the two partners, spousal abuse, and family violence. There is less focus on the relationship of mental illness, intellectual functioning, and drug and alcohol abuse to these homicides. We investigated this type of homicide in a collection of forensic cases seen by the first author over a period of 10 years. Twenty-eight patients who underwent forensic psychiatric evaluation for heterosexual intimate partner homicide from August 1993 to June 2003 were studied using a retrospective case review methodology. We found that firearms were used as the method of killing more often by females than by males. We also compared method of killing with substance abuse and intoxication at the time of the homicide. Educational status indicates that this group of accused perpetrators is functioning at higher intellectual levels compared with a previously studied sample of filicides. We also found significant presence of serious mental illness in our sample of accused perpetrators of heterosexual intimate partner homicide. PMID:15932101

  10. A Ten-Year Molecular Survey on Parvoviruses Infecting Carnivores in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Filipov, C; Desario, C; Patouchas, O; Eftimov, P; Gruichev, G; Manov, V; Filipov, G; Buonavoglia, C; Decaro, N

    2016-08-01

    Parvoviruses represent the most important infectious agents that are responsible for severe to fatal disease in carnivores. This study reports the results of a 10-year molecular survey conducted on carnivores in Bulgaria (n = 344), including 262 dogs and 19 cats with gastroenteritis, and 57 hunted wild carnivores. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), followed by virus characterization by minor groove binder (MGB) probe assays, detected 216 parvovirus positive dogs with a predominance of canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a, 79.17%) over CPV-2b (18.52%) and CPV-2c (2.31%). Rottweilers and German shepherds were the most frequent breeds among CPV-positive pedigree dogs (n = 96). Eighteen cats were found to shed parvoviruses in their faeces, with most strains being characterized as FPLV (n = 17), although a single specimen tested positive for CPV-2a. Only two wild carnivores were parvovirus positive, a wolf (Canis lupus) and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes), both being infected by CPV-2a strains. PMID:25382194

  11. Fetal ventriculomegaly: Pregnancy outcomes and follow-ups in ten years.

    PubMed

    Chu, Nan; Zhang, Yueping; Yan, Yingliu; Ren, Yunyun; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Bin

    2016-05-23

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes and prognoses for fetuses with ventriculomegaly. Two hundred and forty-one cases of fetuses with ventriculomegaly were included in this study. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their lateral ventricular width: "Mild Ventriculomegaly" (10 ‒ < 12 mm), "Moderate Ventriculomegaly" (12 ‒ < 15 mm) and "Severe Ventriculomegaly" (≥ 15 mm). Pediatric examination records and telephone interviews were conducted to track the outcomes of children until the age of 9 years. Eight-two cases were Isolated Ventriculomegaly (34.0%), while Non-Isolated Ventriculomegaly was found in 159 cases (66.0%). The pregnancy was terminated in 91 cases, and a higher abortion ratio was found in the NIVM (Non-Isolated Ventriculomegaly) group compared with the IVM (Isolated Ventriculomegaly) group. The fetuses were delivered in 150 cases, and four infants suffered deaths with NIVM. Of the surviving fetuses, 7 with IVM and 9 with NIVM showed significant abnormalities. The Mild and Moderate VM groups had more favorable prognoses compared with the Severe VM group. Regarding the outcomes and progression of lateral ventricular width, 1 out of 42 cases in the regressed group and 19 out of 108 cases in the stable group showed significant abnormalities. This study suggests that the degree and the progression of ventricular dilatation are main factors that affect pregnancy outcomes and prognoses. PMID:27087461

  12. Ten Years of Linear Endobronchial Ultrasound: Evidence of Efficacy, Safety and Cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Mouronte-Roibás, Cecilia; Botana-Rial, Maribel; Ruano-Raviña, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Real-time endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is one of the major landmarks in the history of bronchoscopy. In the 10 years since it was introduced, a vast body of literature on the procedure and its results support the use of this technique in the study of various mediastinal and pulmonary lesions. This article is a comprehensive, systematic review of all the available scientific evidence on the more general indications for this technique. Results of specific studies on efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness available to date are examined. The analysis shows that EBUS-TBNA is a safe, cost-effective technique with a high grade of evidence that is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and mediastinal staging of patients with suspected or confirmed lung cancer. However, more studies are needed to guide decision-making in the case of a negative result. Evidence on the role of EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis and extrathoracic malignancies is also high, but much lower when used in the study of tuberculosis, lymphoma and for the re-staging of lung cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, due to its good safety record and lack of invasiveness compared to surgical techniques, the grade of evidence for recommending EBUS-TBNA as the initial diagnostic test in patients with these diseases is very high in most cases. PMID:26565072

  13. Corals fail to recover at a Caribbean marine reserve despite ten years of reserve designation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, B. E.; Karnauskas, M.; Lirman, D.

    2011-12-01

    The ability of reserves to replenish fish stocks is relatively well documented, but the evidence of their ability to induce positive effects on benthic communities remains inconclusive. Here, we test whether 10 years of reserve designation have translated into positive effects on coral communities in Glover's Reef, Belize. Surveys of 87 patch reefs inside and outside the reserve revealed no clear indication of reserve implementation benefitting coral cover, coral colony size, or abundance of juvenile corals. Furthermore, massive broadcasting coral species exhibited greater losses over time than their smaller-sized counterparts across all sites, suggesting that local management actions have not alleviated the regional trend of high mortality for these species. We detected no difference in herbivorous fish abundances or macroalgal cover between reserve and fished sites, providing a potential explanation for the lack of cascading positive effects on the coral community. We conclude that patterns of regional coral decline are evident at Glover's Reef, including a shift in dominance from broadcasting species to brooding species and declines in mean colony size. Our findings suggest that regional stressors are overwhelming local management efforts and that additional strategies are required to improve local coral condition.

  14. Ten years trends (1984-1993) in the precipitation chemistry in central Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puxbaum, H.; Simeonov, V.; Kalina, M. F.

    Since 1984, wet precipitation samples have been collected from five sampling sites in the eastern Alpine region of Austria. The chemical analysis performed included pH, NH 4+, Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cl -, NO 3- SO 42- and precipitation amount. These data were used to determine the 10 years (1984-1993) trends in precipitation chemistry and deposition for all major ions. The statistical data treatment by the use of least-squares linear regression revealed a significant decrease of sulfate and hydrogen ion concentrations and depositions at all sites in consideration (above 65% for hydrogen ion and over 33% for sulfate concentration and 40% for hydrogen and 36% for sulfate deposition). An effort is made to explain the acidity decrease not only by the parallel decrease of sulfate concentration but by the participation of the other constituents of the wet precipitation events. It has been found that when the hydrogen ion concentration decrease is stronger than that of sulfate ion concentrations a compensation mainly by ammonium ion concentration increase is achieved. On the contrary, when the hydrogen ion concentration decrease is weaker than sulfate concentration decrease, a calcium ion concentration decrease is present for the sites in consideration. The results obtained indicate that the precipitation chemistry in Central Austria follows the global trends of controlled reduction of atmospheric acidity.

  15. Ten Years of Land Cover Change on the California Coast Detected using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Landsat satellite imagery was analyzed to generate a detailed record of 10 years of vegetation disturbance and regrowth for Pacific coastal areas of Marin and San Francisco Counties. The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) methodology, a transformation of Tasseled-Cap data space, was applied to detected changes in perennial coastal shrubland, woodland, and forest cover from 1999 to 2009. Results showed several principal points of interest, within which extensive contiguous areas of similar LEDAPS vegetation change (either disturbed or restored) were detected. Regrowth areas were delineated as burned forest areas in the Point Reyes National Seashore (PRNS) from the 1995 Vision Fire. LEDAPS-detected disturbance patterns on Inverness Ridge, PRNS in areas observed with dieback of tanoak and bay laurel trees was consistent with defoliation by sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum). LEDAPS regrowth pixels were detected over much of the predominantly grassland/herbaceous cover of the Olema Valley ranchland near PRNS. Extensive restoration of perennial vegetation cover on Crissy Field, Baker Beach and Lobos Creek dunes in San Francisco was identified. Based on these examples, the LEDAPS methodology will be capable of fulfilling much of the need for continual, low-cost monitoring of emerging changes to coastal ecosystems.

  16. Ten years after: is it time to revisit the 1994 OSHA indoor air quality rule?

    PubMed

    Ahrens, David

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 20 million nonsmoking workers are employed in workplaces without restrictions on smoking and are potentially exposed to secondhand smoke--a Class A carcinogen. These workers are largely in the service industry, in southern and western states and in non-urban areas. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) 1994 proposal for smoke-free workplaces (withdrawn in 2001) was attacked by many interest groups that may no longer oppose this protection. Federal regulation for smoke-free workplaces is needed for workers, who are not protected by state and local smoke-free laws. This policy could save thousands of lives each year, and prevent significant illness. Twenty-one states have "state plans" that would allow more protective laws. Of the 29 states under OSHA, 11 have comprehensive smoke-free statutes. Changes in the policy environment and in institutions such as unions, restaurant associations, and the tobacco industry since 2001 may improve the prospects for federal action and reduce disparities that currently characterize exposure to secondhand smoke. PMID:21733802

  17. Ten-year rate of longitudinal change in neurocognitive and motor function in prediagnosis Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Andrea C; Stout, Julie C; Weaver, Marjorie; Queller, Sarah; Tomusk, Allison; Whitlock, Kathryn Burr; Hui, Siu L; Marshall, Jeanine; Jackson, Jacqueline Gray; Siemers, Eric R; Beristain, Xabier; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Foroud, Tatiana

    2008-10-15

    Longitudinal studies of neurocognitive function in prediagnosis Huntington disease (pre-HD) have been few, and duration of follow-up has been brief. In this study, 155 individuals at-risk for HD completed a battery of cognitive and motor tasks at two study visits approximately 10 years apart. Participants were classified as: (1) at-risk, without the CAG expansion (healthy controls, NC; n = 112), or (2) CAG expanded (CAG+; n = 43). To examine the rate of decline at different stages of the pre-HD period, participants in the CAG+ group were further characterized as converters (i.e., individuals who developed manifest HD over the course of the study; n = 21) or nonconverters (n = 22), and their performances were compared. The CAG+ group exhibited faster rates of neurocognitive decline over the course of the study, relative to the NC group. In addition, more rapid decline was associated with closer proximity to estimated age of disease onset in the CAG+ group. Faster rates of motor and psychomotor decline were observed in the CAG+ converter group, relative to the nonconverters. These findings suggest that neurocognitive decline in pre-HD, particularly in motor and psychomotor domains, begins insidiously and accelerates as individuals approach disease onset. PMID:18785217

  18. Ten year rate of longitudinal change in neurocognitive and motor function in prediagnosis Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Andrea C.; Stout, Julie C.; Weaver, Marjorie; Queller, Sarah; Tomusk, Allison; Whitlock, Kathryn Burr; Hui, Siu L.; Marshall, Jeanine; Jackson, Jacqueline Gray; Siemers, Eric R.; Beristain, Xabier; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Foroud, Tatiana

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurocognitive function in prediagnosis Huntington disease (pre-HD) have been few, and duration of follow-up has been brief. In the current study, 155 individuals at-risk for HD completed a battery of cognitive and motor tasks at two study visits approximately 10 years apart. Participants were classified as: 1) at-risk, without the CAG expansion (normal controls, NC; n = 112), or 2) CAG expanded (CAG+; n = 43). To examine the rate of decline at different stages of the pre-HD period, participants in the CAG+ group were further characterized as converters (i.e., individuals who developed manifest HD over the course of the study; n = 21) or nonconverters (n = 22), and their performances were compared. The CAG+ group exhibited faster rates of neurocognitive decline over the course of the study, relative to the NC group. In addition, more rapid decline was associated with closer proximity to estimated age of disease onset in the CAG+ group. Faster rates of motor and psychomotor decline were observed in the CAG+ converter group, relative to the nonconverters. These findings suggest that neurocognitive decline in pre-HD, particularly in motor and psychomotor domains, begins insidiously and accelerates as individuals approach disease onset. PMID:18785217

  19. Ten-year climatological features and air origin of midlatitude double tropopauses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue; Lü, Daren

    2015-12-01

    The 10-year climatological features related to midlatitude double tropopause events (DTs) are examined using ERAInterim data from 2003 to 2012. The analysis is based on tropopauses defined by lapse rate. Results show that DTs are permanent or semi-permanent in the midlatitudes, and high DT frequency bands move poleward in winter and equatorward in summer, which is consistent with the seasonal movement of the subtropical jet. Based on our statistics, the second tropopause is found at about 100 hPa in the subtropics and at slightly lower altitudes in sub-polar regions. The thickness between the first and second tropopause is smaller in the subtropics and increases with latitude. Next, the origin of air sandwiched between the first and second tropopause of DTs is studied with a revised version of the UK Universities Global Atmospheric Modelling Programme Offline Trajectory Code (Version 3) diabatic trajectory model. The results show that, in the lower or middle troposphere, air is transported into the DTs from lower latitudes, mainly in the tropics. The dominant source regions are mainly areas of deep convection and steep orography, e.g., the western Pacific and Himalayan Mountains, and they show strong seasonality following the seasonal shift of these strong upwelling regions.

  20. Ten years of preanalytical monitoring and control: Synthetic Balanced Score Card Indicator

    PubMed Central

    López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Santo-Quiles, Ana; Gutierrez, Mercedes; Lugo, Javier; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preanalytical control and monitoring continue to be an important issue for clinical laboratory professionals. The aim of the study was to evaluate a monitoring system of preanalytical errors regarding not suitable samples for analysis, based on different indicators; to compare such indicators in different phlebotomy centres; and finally to evaluate a single synthetic preanalytical indicator that may be included in the balanced scorecard management system (BSC). Materials and methods We collected individual and global preanalytical errors in haematology, coagulation, chemistry, and urine samples analysis. We also analyzed a synthetic indicator that represents the sum of all types of preanalytical errors, expressed in a sigma level. We studied the evolution of those indicators over time and compared indicator results by way of the comparison of proportions and Chi-square. Results There was a decrease in the number of errors along the years (P < 0.001). This pattern was confirmed in primary care patients, inpatients and outpatients. In blood samples, fewer errors occurred in outpatients, followed by inpatients. Conclusion We present a practical and effective methodology to monitor unsuitable sample preanalytical errors. The synthetic indicator results summarize overall preanalytical sample errors, and can be used as part of BSC management system. PMID:25672466

  1. Ten Years of Mixing Cocktails: A Review of Combination Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    In the last 10 years, good evidence has become available to show that the combined effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs) belonging to the same category (e.g., estrogenic, antiandrogenic, or thyroid-disrupting agents) can be predicted by using dose addition. This is true for a variety of end points representing a wide range of organizational levels and biological complexity. Combinations of EDs are able to produce significant effect, even when each chemical is present at low doses that individually do not induce observable effects. However, comparatively little is known about mixtures composed of chemicals from different classes of EDs. Nevertheless, I argue that the accumulated evidence seriously undermines continuation with the customary chemical-by-chemical approach to risk assessment for EDs. Instead, we should seriously consider group-wise regulation of classes of EDs. Great care should be taken to define such classes by using suitable similarity criteria. Criteria should focus on common effects, rather than common mechanisms. In this review I also highlight research needs and identify the lack of information about exposure scenarios as a knowledge gap that seriously hampers progress with ED risk assessment. Future research should focus on investigating the effects of combinations of EDs from different categories, with considerable emphasis on elucidating mechanisms. This strategy may lead to better-defined criteria for grouping EDs for regulatory purposes. Also, steps should be taken to develop dedicated mixtures exposure assessment for EDs. PMID:18174957

  2. The prospects of the Columbus programme ten years after its initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerani, Ernesto

    1992-07-01

    A possible evolution of Columbus, bearing in mind the changes in the situation that have occurred over the last decade, is described. The ultimate goals that the program can realistically achieve in the international exploitation of space are focused upon. The large infrastructures which were conceived many years ago as an area of international cooperation in the conquest of space, and which started at the beginning of the 1980's with the Space Station and Columbus programs, have undergone a difficult development over the last decade and have had to suffer the resulting delays. The economic difficulties which faced the spacefaring nations, including Europe, in this period have led to much replanning and reprogramming which, together with the upheavals in the East, have demanded a rethinking of the strategies to achieve the original goals as fully as possible. The role of the Columbus Attached laboratory, or Attached Pressurized Module, as a European contribution to Space Station Freedom, in its new configuration dictated by the problems the U.S. has had to confront, is highlighted as an area for new strategies. Its basic features and characteristics are described. With regard to the Free Flying Laboratory, the prospects for this element will be the subject of new thinking, especially in the light of new international cooperation.

  3. Ten years of transcriptomics in wild populations: what have we learned about their ecology and evolution?

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Mariano; Schrey, Aaron W; Richards, Christina L

    2015-02-01

    Molecular ecology has moved beyond the use of a relatively small number of markers, often noncoding, and it is now possible to use whole-genome measures of gene expression with microarrays and RNAseq (i.e. transcriptomics) to capture molecular response to environmental challenges. While transcriptome studies are shedding light on the mechanistic basis of traits as complex as personality or physiological response to catastrophic events, these approaches are still challenging because of the required technical expertise, difficulties with analysis and cost. Still, we found that in the last 10 years, 575 studies used microarrays or RNAseq in ecology. These studies broadly address three questions that reflect the progression of the field: (i) How much variation in gene expression is there and how is it structured? (ii) How do environmental stimuli affect gene expression? (iii) How does gene expression affect phenotype? We discuss technical aspects of RNAseq and microarray technology, and a framework that leverages the advantages of both. Further, we highlight future directions of research, particularly related to moving beyond correlation and the development of additional annotation resources. Measuring gene expression across an array of taxa in ecological settings promises to enrich our understanding of ecology and genome function. PMID:25604587

  4. Precipitation Climatology over Mediterranean Basin from Ten Years of TRMM Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Amita V.; Yang, Song

    2008-01-01

    Climatological features of mesoscale rain activities over the Mediterranean region between 5 W-40 E and 28 N-48 N are examined using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 and 2A25 rain products. The 3B42 rainrates at 3-hourly, 0.25 deg x 0.25 deg spatial resolution for the last 10 years (January 1998 to July 2007) are used to form and analyze the 5-day mean and monthly mean climatology of rainfall. Results show considerable regional and seasonal differences of rainfall over the Mediterranean Region. The maximum rainfall (3-5 mm/day) occurs over the mountain regions of Europe, while the minimum rainfall is observed over North Africa (approximately 0.5 mm/day). The main rainy season over the Mediterranean Sea extends from October to March, with maximum rainfall occurring during November-December. Over the Mediterranean Sea, an average rainrate of approximately 1-2 mm/day is observed, but during the rainy season there is 20% larger rainfall over the western Mediterranean Sea than that over the eastern Mediterranean Sea. During the rainy season, mesoscale rain systems generally propagate from west to east and from north to south over the Mediterranean region, likely to be associated with Mediterranean cyclonic disturbances resulting from interactions among large-scale circulation, orography, and land-sea temperature contrast.

  5. Ten years of maintaining and expanding a microbial genome and metagenome analysis system.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Victor M; Chen, I-Min A; Chu, Ken; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-11-01

    Launched in March 2005, the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system is a comprehensive data management system that supports multidimensional comparative analysis of genomic data. At the core of the IMG system is a data warehouse that contains genome and metagenome datasets sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute or provided by scientific users, as well as public genome datasets available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information Genbank sequence data archive. Genomes and metagenome datasets are processed using IMG's microbial genome and metagenome sequence data processing pipelines and are integrated into the data warehouse using IMG's data integration toolkits. Microbial genome and metagenome application specific data marts and user interfaces provide access to different subsets of IMG's data and analysis toolkits. This review article revisits IMG's original aims, highlights key milestones reached by the system during the past 10 years, and discusses the main challenges faced by a rapidly expanding system, in particular the complexity of maintaining such a system in an academic setting with limited budgets and computing and data management infrastructure. PMID:26439299

  6. Nuclear Society of Russia: Ten years in the world nuclear community

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Gagarinski, A.Yu.

    2000-07-01

    A nuclear society, which is a nongovernmental organization of nuclear professionals, appeared in the Soviet Union at the end of the 1980s--when social conditions for such a society had matured. Deep changes in the entire country's social consciousness had promoted the specialists understanding of the need to unite in order to overcome the nuclear community's dissociation, the monopoly of the nuclear ministry, and the secrecy syndrome of all nuclear issues. The new public association announced the guiding principles of its activities to be openness and glasnost and completeness and truthfulness of information supplied to decision makers and to the society as a whole. Important to the information system of the NSR are topical meetings and seminars on quite varied but always actual problems of nuclear energy use, often with foreign participation. The variety of these NSR meeting subjects is illustrated by the titles of several meetings of the last 2 yr: Safety Culture in Nuclear Power, Youth and the Plutonium Challenge, Nuclear Fuel for Mankind, Nuclear Power in Space, Radiation Legacy of the Former-USSR, the Murmansk International Forum Nuclear Fleet and Ecology, and many others. A special place among NSR seminars belongs to the annual meeting, Nuclear Energy and Public Opinion, the Russian analog of the European PIME conference. Starting from distribution of ENS periodicals--the Nuclear Europe Worldscan magazine and Nucleus information sheet--among its members, the NSR soon began publishing its own Informational Bulletin (since 1989). Note that in the first years of the Nuclear Society's existence, it has been possible to publish periodicals, conference proceedings, and even books in English. Unfortunately, financial difficulties of the last years have frozen this most useful activity, which the NSR, however, hopes to resume. In the last period, the materials of the international information agency NucNet, which provides both regular information for the analysis of

  7. Ten-year measurements of gaseous pollutants in urban air by an open-path analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avino, P.; Manigrasso, M.

    2008-06-01

    Object of this study is the versatility of a remote-sensing measurement system through experimental survey of the levels of primary and secondary pollutants in urban areas. For the first time a long-range measurement of different pollutant for a long period are reported in the urban area of Rome. Over 10 years of data collection, levels of NO2, O3, SO2, benzene and toluene are measured and discussed by means of a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system installed at ground level. The period is interesting because it represents one of the most important life-changes in Europe and in Italy: in fact, during the 1990s some significant decrees introduced the catalytic pots and limited the amount of benzene and sulfur dioxide in the fuel. The paper will describe how the main primary and secondary pollutants are changed during all the period: particularly, benzene and SO2 are not over a big social problem for the human health whereas the secondary pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, have the same trends during the period, meaning a no contribution to their evolution from the atmospheric processes. The DOAS technique is resulted very useful and versatile: comparisons with other traditional analyzers (i.e., GC-PID for benzene and toluene investigations) demonstrate how it allows to have information over all the territory saving the qualitative trends and giving a similar quantitative result. In this respect the authors show that the difference is due to the different sampling ways (the traditional analyzers are punctual whereas the DOAS is a remote-sensing technique covering a wide area) and does not influence the atmospheric process interpretation. Finally, it should be considered that the pollutant trends have been interpreted using the concentration measurements of natural radioactivity as tracer of the dynamic properties of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  8. Ten years of bacterial genome sequencing: comparative-genomics-based discoveries.

    PubMed

    Binnewies, Tim T; Motro, Yair; Hallin, Peter F; Lund, Ole; Dunn, David; La, Tom; Hampson, David J; Bellgard, Matthew; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David W

    2006-07-01

    It has been more than 10 years since the first bacterial genome sequence was published. Hundreds of bacterial genome sequences are now available for comparative genomics, and searching a given protein against more than a thousand genomes will soon be possible. The subject of this review will address a relatively straightforward question: "What have we learned from this vast amount of new genomic data?" Perhaps one of the most important lessons has been that genetic diversity, at the level of large-scale variation amongst even genomes of the same species, is far greater than was thought. The classical textbook view of evolution relying on the relatively slow accumulation of mutational events at the level of individual bases scattered throughout the genome has changed. One of the most obvious conclusions from examining the sequences from several hundred bacterial genomes is the enormous amount of diversity--even in different genomes from the same bacterial species. This diversity is generated by a variety of mechanisms, including mobile genetic elements and bacteriophages. An examination of the 20 Escherichia coli genomes sequenced so far dramatically illustrates this, with the genome size ranging from 4.6 to 5.5 Mbp; much of the variation appears to be of phage origin. This review also addresses mobile genetic elements, including pathogenicity islands and the structure of transposable elements. There are at least 20 different methods available to compare bacterial genomes. Metagenomics offers the chance to study genomic sequences found in ecosystems, including genomes of species that are difficult to culture. It has become clear that a genome sequence represents more than just a collection of gene sequences for an organism and that information concerning the environment and growth conditions for the organism are important for interpretation of the genomic data. The newly proposed Minimal Information about a Genome Sequence standard has been developed to obtain this

  9. Catheter Ablation of Pediatric Focal Atrial Tachycardia: Ten-Year Experience Using Modern Mapping Systems.

    PubMed

    Dieks, Jana-K; Müller, Matthias J; Schneider, Heike E; Krause, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Michael; Paul, Thomas; Kriebel, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Experience of catheter ablation of pediatric focal atrial tachycardia (FAT) is still limited. There are data which were gathered prior to the introduction of modern 3D mapping and navigation systems into the clinical routine. Accordingly, procedures were associated with significant fluoroscopy and low success rates. The aim of this study was to present clinical and electrophysiological details of catheter ablation of pediatric FAT using modern mapping systems. Since March 2003, 17 consecutive patients <20 years underwent electrophysiological study (EPS) for FAT using the NavX(®) system (n = 7), the non-contact mapping system (n = 6) or the LocaLisa(®) system (n = 4), respectively. Radiofrequency was the primary energy source; cryoablation was performed in selected patients with a focus close to the AV node. In 16 patients, a total number of 19 atrial foci (right-sided n = 13, left-sided n = 6) could be targeted. In the remaining patient, FAT was not present/inducible during EPS. On an intention-to-treat basis, acute success was achieved in 14/16 patients (87.5 %) with a median number of 11 (1-31) energy applications. Ablation was unsuccessful in two patients due to an epicardial location of a right atrial focus (n = 1) and a focus close to the His bundle (n = 1), respectively. Median procedure time was 210 (84-332) min, and median fluoroscopy time was 13.1 (4.5-22.5) min. In pediatric patients with FAT, 3D mapping and catheter ablation provided improved clinical quality of care. Catheter ablation may be considered early in the course of treatment of this tachyarrhythmia in symptomatic patients. PMID:26538211

  10. Granulomatous Mastitis: A Ten-Year Experience at a University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Korkut, Ercan; Akcay, Mufide Nuran; Karadeniz, Erdem; Subasi, Irmak Durur; Gursan, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study we aimed to define clinical, radiologic and pathological specialties of patients who applied to General Surgery Department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty with granulomatous mastitis and show medical and surgical treatment results. With the help of this study we will be able to make our own clinical algorithm for diagnosis and treatment. Materials and Methods: We searched retrospectively addresses, phone numbers and clinical files of 93 patients whom diagnosed granulomatous mastitis between a decade of January 2001 – December 2010. We noted demographic specialties, ages, gender, medical family history, main complaints, physical findings, radiological and laboratory findings, medical treatments, postoperative complications and surgical procedures if they were operated; morbidity, recurrence and success ratios, complications after treatment for patients discussed above. Results: In this study we evaluated 93 patients, 91 females and 2 males, with granulomatous mastitis retrospectively who applied to General Surgery Department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty between January 2001 and December 2010. Mean age was 34.4 years. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination of the lesions. Seventy three patients had idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis and 20 patients had specific granulomatous mastitis IGM (18 tuberculosis mastitis, 1 alveolar echinococcosis and 1 silk reaction). All the patients had surgical debridement or antibiotic, and anti-inflammatory treatment with results bad clinical response before applied our clinic. Conclusion: Empiric antibiotic therapy and drainage of the breast lesions are not enough for complete remission of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. The lesion must be excised completely. In selected patients, corticosteroid therapy can be useful. In the patients with tuberculous mastitis, abscess drainage and antituberculous therapy can be useful, but wide excision must be chosen for the

  11. Ten Years Clinical Experience with Partial Ileal Bypass in Management of the Hyperlipidemias

    PubMed Central

    Buchwald, Henry; Moore, Richard B.; Varco, Richard L.

    1974-01-01

    The first partial ileal bypass operation specifically for the reduction of plasma lipids was performed by us in 1963. Since then we have operated upon and followed for more than three months 126 hyperlipidemic patients. Clinical metabolic studies, before and after the procedure, have demonstrated a 60% decrease in cholesterol absorption, a 3.8-fold increase in total fecal steroid excretion, a 5.7-fold increase in cholesterol synthesis, a 3-fold increase in cholesterol turnover, and a one-third decrease in the miscible cholesterol pool. Circulating cholesterol levels have been lowered an average 41.1% from the preoperative but postdietary baseline. An average 53% cholesterol reduction has been achieved from a pretreatment baseline using a combination of dietary and surgical management. Plasma triglycerides have been reduced in primary hypertriglyceridemic patients (type IV) an average of 52.6% from their preoperative but postdietary baseline. One patient died in the hospital and there have been 13 late deaths over the past 10 years. Four cases of postoperative bowel obstruction required reoperation. Diarrhea following partial ileal bypass is, as a rule, transistory and not a significant problem. No appreciable weight loss results from partial ileal bypass, which is an obvious distinction from the results of the far more massive jejuno-ileal bypass procedure for obesity. We have not encountered hepatotoxic, lithogenic, or nephrolithiasis complications in our partial ileal bypass patients. Sixty-nine per cent of our patients with preoperative angina pectoris have postoperative improvement or total remission of this symptom complex. Serial appraisal of followup coronary arteriographic studies offers preliminary evidence for lesion regression. It is concluded that partial ileal bypass is the most effective means for lipid reduction available today; it is obligatory in its actions, safe, and associated with minimal side effects. PMID:4416064

  12. Ten-Year Cleft Surgery in Nepal: Achievements and Lessons Learned for Better Cleft Care Abroad

    PubMed Central

    Pape, Hans-Dieter; Koch, Heribert; Koller, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cleft lip and palate surgery abroad is devoid of global consensus regarding standards of therapy, follow-up, and outcome. Cleft surgery in Nepal during a 10-year sustained program provided the opportunity to inform on the need for such standards. Methods: Medical records were evaluated from the cleft clinic at Sushma Koirala Memorial Hospital, Sankhu, Kathmandu, Nepal, from 1997 to 2007. Four groups were identified for analysis: total cohort, total surgical cohort (TSC), primary program patients (PPP; patients had not been operated on before), and nonprimary program patients (non-PPP; patients operated on elsewhere before). Patient demographics, diagnostic, primary and secondary surgery (corrective surgery), and follow-up were evaluated. Results: One thousand forty-five patients were eligible for surgery. Three hundred twenty-three of 1,045 patients (30.9%) did not seek treatment, although scheduled for surgery. One thousand two hundred one procedures were performed in 722 patients [TSC; 845 PPP (70.4%); 356 non-PPP (29.64%)]. Corrective procedures were performed in 257 of 1,201 [3.5% (30 of 845 procedures in 509 patients) PPP vs 63.7% (227 of 356 procedures in 213 patients) non-PPP]. One hundred six lips were completely reoperated on (1 PPP vs 105 non-PPP), and 42 palates underwent a total revision (5 PPP vs 37 non-PPP). The surgical outcome of the TSC group in terms of complication rate was similar to the one in developed countries. Conclusions: The high rate of corrective surgery reveals the need for global regulatory mechanisms and the need for nongovernmental organizations to introduce strategies for delivering sustained cleft care until achieving full rehabilitation. The World Health Organization should establish standards for cleft care delivered in less developed countries. PMID:27579235

  13. Ten-year experience in management of diabetic ketoacidosis and ketosis: 140 episodes at pediatric age.

    PubMed

    Yordam, Nuren; Gönç, E Nazli; Kandemir, Nurgün; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Ozön, Alev

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and forty episodes in 112 patients (58 boys) with diabetic ketoacidosis (96 episodes) and diabetic ketosis (44 episodes) were studied to elucidate the clinical and laboratory risk factors for altered level of consciousness at presentation and to analyze the outcome of a distinct protocol in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. The patients were analyzed according to demographic data and clinical and laboratory findings at admission. The treatment protocol involved use of 0.45% sodium chloride (NaCl) in 2.5% dextrose as the initial fluid therapy following volume expansion. Dextrose content of the fluid was doubled once the serum glucose level fell below 250 mg/dl. The mean ages at presentation with diabetic ketoacidosis and ketosis were 10.3 +/- 4.4 and 10.2 +/- 4.0 years, respectively. Thirty-one percent of patients had altered consciousness at presentation. The level of consciousness correlated negatively with serum bicarbonate level (r=-0.485; p<0.001). A serum bicarbonate level below 15 mmol/L was a risk factor for altered consciousness. There was no correlation between effective osmolality and the level of consciousness. Serum effective osmolality above 320 mOsm/kg H2O did not appear to be a risk factor for altered consciousness. No mortality or any signs of clinical brain edema were observed in patients treated with the distinct treatment protocol. In conclusion, acidosis appears to be the major factor in the pathogenesis of altered consciousness at presentation. Serum effective osmolality does not seem to be a risk factor as suggested previously. Dextrose added to the infusion fluid early in treatment seems to prevent the development of brain edema, and this may be due to a protective effect of higher osmolality in the resultant solution. PMID:16363342

  14. Ten-Year Experience of Cutaneous and/or Subcutaneous Infections Due to Coelomycetes in France

    PubMed Central

    Guégan, Sarah; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Sitbon, Karine; Ahmed, Sarah; Moguelet, Philippe; Dromer, Françoise; Lortholary, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background. Coelomycetes are rarely but increasingly reported in association with human infections involving mostly skin and subcutaneous tissues, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Coelomycetes constitute a heterogeneous group of filamentous fungi with distinct morphological characteristics in culture, namely an ability to produce asexual spores within fruit bodies. Methods. We included all cases of proven primary cutaneous and/or subcutaneous infections due to coelomycetes received for identification at the French National Reference Center for Invasive Mycoses and Antifungals between 2005 and 2014. Eumycetoma, chromoblastomycosis, and disseminated infections were excluded. Results. Eighteen cases were analyzed. The median age was 60.5 years. In all cases, patients originated from tropical or subtropical areas. An underlying immunodepression was present in 89% of cases. Cutaneous and/or subcutaneous lesions, mainly nodules, abscesses, or infiltrated plaques, were observed in distal body areas. Isolates of different genera of coelomycetes were identified: Medicopsis (6), Paraconiothyrium (3), Gloniopsis (3), Diaporthe (3), Peyronellaea (2), Lasiodiplodia (1). Lesion treatment consisted of complete (10) or partial (2) surgical excision and/or the use of systemic antifungal therapy, namely voriconazole (5) and posaconazole (4). Literature review yielded 48 additional cases of cutaneous and/or subcutaneous infections due to coelomycetes. Conclusions. Infectious diseases physicians should suspect coelomycetes when observing cutaneous and/or subcutaneous infections in immunocompromised hosts from tropical areas; a sequence-based approach is crucial for strains identification but must be supported by consistent phenotypic features; surgical treatment should be favored for solitary, well limited lesions; new triazoles may be used in case of extensive lesions, especially in immunocompromised patients. PMID:27419178

  15. Ten-Year Experience of Cutaneous and/or Subcutaneous Infections Due to Coelomycetes in France.

    PubMed

    Guégan, Sarah; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Sitbon, Karine; Ahmed, Sarah; Moguelet, Philippe; Dromer, Françoise; Lortholary, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Background.  Coelomycetes are rarely but increasingly reported in association with human infections involving mostly skin and subcutaneous tissues, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Coelomycetes constitute a heterogeneous group of filamentous fungi with distinct morphological characteristics in culture, namely an ability to produce asexual spores within fruit bodies. Methods.  We included all cases of proven primary cutaneous and/or subcutaneous infections due to coelomycetes received for identification at the French National Reference Center for Invasive Mycoses and Antifungals between 2005 and 2014. Eumycetoma, chromoblastomycosis, and disseminated infections were excluded. Results.  Eighteen cases were analyzed. The median age was 60.5 years. In all cases, patients originated from tropical or subtropical areas. An underlying immunodepression was present in 89% of cases. Cutaneous and/or subcutaneous lesions, mainly nodules, abscesses, or infiltrated plaques, were observed in distal body areas. Isolates of different genera of coelomycetes were identified: Medicopsis (6), Paraconiothyrium (3), Gloniopsis (3), Diaporthe (3), Peyronellaea (2), Lasiodiplodia (1). Lesion treatment consisted of complete (10) or partial (2) surgical excision and/or the use of systemic antifungal therapy, namely voriconazole (5) and posaconazole (4). Literature review yielded 48 additional cases of cutaneous and/or subcutaneous infections due to coelomycetes. Conclusions.  Infectious diseases physicians should suspect coelomycetes when observing cutaneous and/or subcutaneous infections in immunocompromised hosts from tropical areas; a sequence-based approach is crucial for strains identification but must be supported by consistent phenotypic features; surgical treatment should be favored for solitary, well limited lesions; new triazoles may be used in case of extensive lesions, especially in immunocompromised patients. PMID:27419178

  16. Title: Flushed Away: Linking Carbon Storage and Log Jams in Colorado's Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckman, N. D.; Wohl, E. E.

    2011-12-01

    Historical documents and recent field studies suggest that resource use within the Colorado Rockies during the past two centuries has reduced the wood loads and frequency of wood jams along most forested streams. Recent research has also shown that streams play a significant role in the sequestration and transport of organic carbon, and wood jams are a key component of storage and biological processing in mountain headwater streams. Log jams tend to slow the transport of carbon and encourage its uptake in the riverine environment and therefore may have effects which extend beyond streams and into the global carbon cycle. The paper aims to quantify the effects of past and present resource management on instream wood loads and logjam frequency along Colorado's Front Range. We hypothesize that more highly impacted reaches (as measured by recent fire, logging, and high flow regulation) will demonstrate lower wood loads, lower jam densities and lower overall volume of stored sediment. In addition, we hypothesize that soils stored behind log jams will have a higher OM and TC content. If these hypothesis hold true, then by implication areas with younger forests and higher impacts will have higher carbon flux and lower return of carbon and nutrients to the surrounding ecosystem. Wood loads and jam frequency are compared based on stream characteristics, forest age, and flow alteration. In addition, sediment samples from reaches with and without log jams are compared based on organic matter (OM) content and Total Carbon (TC) content. Samples taken from behind log jams are compared to samples taken from other backwater areas along a river reach. Preliminary results of the 2010/2011 field seasons indicate that sediment samples taken from log jams (regardless of forest age) have an overall average of 5% OM, as compared to an average of 1% OM in samples taken from non-jam areas. Samples taken from log jams on streams draining old growth forests (more than 250 years since last

  17. Ten years of anti-smoking programs in Italy: a review.

    PubMed

    Arciti, C; Pistone, M; Persici, P; Barbieri, A; Santi, L

    1995-01-01

    sensitize them not only to the more common tobacco risks but also those regarding pregnancy, oral contraception, and so on. The survey was conducted on a representative sample of 12- to 65-year-old female population groups. It is the first of this kind in Italy to ascertain trends in smoking behavior among Italian women in relation to age, educational achievement, and occupation. PMID:10150721

  18. Ten Years Orbiting Saturn: What Have We Learned about Saturn's Atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoraker, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    In the 10 years that Cassini has been orbiting Saturn, a wealth of observations have been returned that have probed a wide range of altitudes in Saturn's atmosphere from <1 microbar to roughly 3 bars. Radar and 5-micron VIMS images reveal spectacular cloud structure at the 3-bar level. ISS, CIRS, and VIMS probe the upper troposphere where storms originate. CIRS probes the stratosphere and upper troposphere, while UVIS sounds the stratosphere and mesosphere. Some of the highlights include: 1) the Great Northern Storm of 2010-2011. This planet-encircling storm is believed to have originated in the water cloud (P>10 bars) with dramatic effects on the cloud structure in the upper troposphere (0.5 bars), and, quite surprisingly, the generation of localized heated regions in Saturn's stratosphere near 2 mbars. Cassini's full instrument complement was used to study the storm, leading to the detection of fresh ammonia ice in the troposphere and enhanced temperatures and hydrocarbons, such as ethylene, in the stratosphere. 2) The detection of hurricane-like features at both the North and South Pole of Saturn. These exhibit interesting structure at the spatial resolution of ISS and VIMS, while CIRS has detected enhanced temperatures at both poles. 3) The persistence of the Northern Hexagon at 79N. This 6-sided feature was detected by Voyager and it has been studied by the full suite of Cassini remote sensing instruments. It is detectable as a warm region at 100 mbars, but there is no thermal signature in the stratosphere. 4) Seasonal reversal of photochemically produced aerosols. When Cassini arrived at Saturn, the winter northern hemisphere appeared blue, while the southern hemisphere exhibited an orange appearance. Shortly after equinox in 2009, the appearance reversed quite abruptly. During the last stage of the mission in 2016-2017, Cassini will obtain measurements at very high spatial resolution during the F-ring and Proximal orbits. The Ion and Neutral Mass

  19. Ten-year monitoring of high-rise building columns using long-gauge fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glisic, B.; Inaudi, D.; Lau, J. M.; Fong, C. C.

    2013-05-01

    A large-scale lifetime building monitoring program was implemented in Singapore in 2001. The monitoring aims of this unique program were to increase safety, verify performance, control quality, increase knowledge, optimize maintenance costs, and evaluate the condition of the structures after a hazardous event. The first instrumented building, which has now been monitored for more than ten years, is presented in this paper. The long-gauge fiber optic strain sensors were embedded in fresh concrete of ground-level columns, thus the monitoring started at the birth of both the construction material and the structure. Measurement sessions were performed during construction, upon completion of each new story and the roof, and after the construction, i.e., in-service. Based on results it was possible to follow and evaluate long-term behavior of the building through every stage of its life. The results of monitoring were analyzed at a local (column) and global (building) level. Over-dimensioning of one column was identified. Differential settlement of foundations was detected, localized, and its magnitude estimated. Post-tremor analysis was performed. Real long-term behavior of concrete columns was assessed. Finally, the long-term performance of the monitoring system was evaluated. The researched monitoring method, monitoring system, rich results gathered over approximately ten years, data analysis algorithms, and the conclusions on the structural behavior and health condition of the building based on monitoring are presented in this paper.

  20. Ten Years of Chronic Cough in a 64-Year-Old Man With Multiple Pulmonary Nodules.

    PubMed

    Warren, Whittney A; Dalane, Scott S; Warren, Bryce D; Peterson, Paul G; Boyum, Rodney D; Kelly, William

    2016-09-01

    A 64-year-old male former smoker with a history of prostate cancer presented to our pulmonary clinic, complaining of nonproductive cough for 10 years. Prior evaluation included treatment for upper airway cough syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux, stopping angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and initiation of inhaled β-agonists. Esophageal pH monitoring indicated silent reflux, and proton pump inhibitor therapy was started. He continued to cough and complain of dyspnea. Physical examination produced unremarkable results, with no evidence of lymphadenopathy. Pulmonary function tests showed a pseudo-restrictive pattern with air trapping, hyperreactivity, and incomplete bronchodilator responsiveness: FEV1, 2.48 L (69% of predicted); FVC, 3.57 L (75% of predicted); FEV1/FVC, 92%; total lung capacity, 7.00 L (100% of predicted); and residual volume, 3.05 L (136% of predicted). Laboratory studies, including a complete metabolic panel, prostate-specific antigen test, and complete blood count, yielded normal results. PMID:27613994

  1. Ice jam flooding: a location prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, H. A.

    2009-12-01

    Flooding created by ice jamming is a climatically dependent natural hazard frequently affecting cold regions with disastrous results. Basic known physical characteristics which combine in the landscape to create an ice jam flood are modeled on the Cattaraugus Creek Watershed, located in Western New York State. Terrain analysis of topographic features, and the built environment features is conducted using Geographic Information Systems in order to predict the location of ice jam flooding events. The purpose of this modeling is to establish a broadly applicable Watershed scale model for predicting the probable locations of ice jam flooding.location of historic ice jam flooding events

  2. Shear jamming in granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie

    2013-03-01

    For frictionless particles with purely repulsive interactions, there is a critical packing fraction ϕJ below which no jammed states exist. Frictional granular particles in the regime of ϕ <ϕJ act differently under shear: early experiments by Zhang & Behringer at Duke University show jammed states can be created by the application of shear stress. Compared to the states above ϕJ, the shear-jammed states (SJS) are mechanically more fragile, but they can resist shear. Formation of these states requires the anisotropic contact network as a backbone and these new states must be incorporated into a more general jamming picture (Bi et al Nature 2011). If time permits, I will present some new results from recent experiments at SJTU aimed towards understanding the more detailed nature of SJS and the transition from unjammed states to SJS. This work is in collaboration with Bob Behringer at Duke University, Dapeng Bi (now at Syracuse) and Bulbul Chakraborty at Brandeis University. The work at SJTU is in collaboration with Ling Zhang and several undergrads in the physics department.

  3. Ten years after Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, K.

    1996-12-31

    As was amply demonstrated during the EU/IAEA/WHO Summing-up-Conference in Vienna, Austria, April 8-12, 1996, the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident were, fortunately, not as serious as frequently presented in the media: 28 people died from acute radiation syndrome in 1986, 14 more of possibly radiation-related causes since. Of the <1000 thyroid cancers in children, 90 to 95% are curable. There have so far been no other demonstrable increases in the former Soviet Union, as well as in Western Europe, of leukemias, solid cancers, or genetic defects, nor are any to be expected in the future. Even among the {open_quotes}liquidators{close_quotes} with doses {approximately}100 mSv, of the {approximately}150 additional expected leukemias during the 10 yr after the accident, none have been observed. The economical, social, and political consequences, however, both in the former Soviet Union and in Western Europe, have been very substantial. Whole countries developed an hysterical `radiation sickness.` As A. Merkel, the German Minister of Environment and Reactor Safety, who chaired the conference, pointed out, `the radiation sensitivity of societies far exceeds that of individuals.` It is obvious that important groups in Ukraine, Belaurus, and Russia try to blame a large fraction of all economic, social, and health problems during the last decade, which are substantial ({approx} 6 yr less life expectancy, twice the homicides and traffic deaths, increased alcoholism, and so forth), on radiation of the Chernobyl accident in an effort to attract more support. Western scientists refute such claims but admit large non-radiation-related problems caused by the accident.

  4. [Burnout : ten years later.].

    PubMed

    Bibeau, G

    1985-01-01

    The important literature on burn-out or professionnal exhaustion is examined here from three aspects: socio-cultural anthropology, biological anthropology and ethnopsychiatry. On the socio-cultural level, the emergence of burn-out is seen as an epiphenomenon arising conjointly from a new work ethic and a new concept of the person; on the biological level, the burnout is presented in relation to two main areas of study: as an adaptative strategy used by individuals to face particularly demanding situations in their working environment and as a particular modality of the interrelations between physical, psychological and behavioral dimensions in a person; on the ethnopsychiatric level, the burn-out is not interpreted as a new category in the description of illnessess but rather as a model of behavior more socially accepted and as an integrative concept that allows one to give meaning to a diversified group of symptoms. Studies on burn-out indicators, their causes, its neuro-physiology and its definition are explicitly discussed according to three perspectives: socio-cultural, biological and ethnopsychiatric. PMID:17093512

  5. Ten-year interannual and seasonal variability of stream carbon export from a boreal peatland in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, J.; Larsson, A.; Nilsson, M. B.; Laudon, H.

    2015-12-01

    High latitude peatlands constitute about 3% of the global land cover but store almost a third of the global soil carbon pool. The annual net ecosystem carbon balance at high latitude mires results from the balance between net ecosystem exchange, methane emission and stream discharge export. Understanding stream carbon export dynamics is needed to accurately predict how the carbon balance of peatlands will respond to climatic and environmental change. We use a ten year record (2004-2014) of streamflow and dissolved carbon (DOC, DIC, and CH4) measurements to assess interannual and seasonal variability in stream carbon export for a peatland catchment in northern Sweden. Mean annual total carbon export for the ten year period was 11.4 gC/m2, but individual years ranged between 6.1 and 17.2 gC/m2. DOC was the dominant form of carbon being exported, comprising 68% to 76% of total annual exports, and DIC contributed between 24% and 30%. CH4 made up less than 3% of total export. Stream carbon export and streamflow were highly synchronous. The majority of export (30% to 55% of annual totals) occurred during the spring snowmelt period. Exports during the summer and autumn were highly variable (1% to 45% and 9% to 53% of annual totals, respectively) and depended on the timing and magnitude of rain events. Winter periods were characterized by low streamflow conditions and associated low carbon export (0.6% to 10% of annual totals). These results highlight considerable interannual and seasonal variability of stream carbon export driven primarily by rain and snowmelt runoff events.

  6. Ten-Year Effects of the ACTIVE Cognitive Training Trial on Cognition and Everyday Functioning in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Ball, Karlene; Guey, Lin T.; Jones, Richard N.; Kim, Hae-Young; King, Jonathan W.; Marsiske, Michael; Morris, John N.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Willis, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of cognitive training on cognitive abilities and everyday function over 10 years. Design, Setting, and Participants Ten-year follow-up of a randomized, controlled single-blind trial with 3 intervention groups and a no-contact control group. A volunteer sample of 2832 persons (mean baseline age, 73.6 years; 26% African American) living independently in 6 US cities. Interventions Ten-session training for memory, reasoning, or speed-of-processing.; 4-session booster training at 11 and at 35 months after training. Measurements Objectively measured cognitive abilities and self-reported and performance-based measures of everyday function. Results Participants in each intervention group reported less difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) (memory: effect size, 0.48 [99% CI, 0.12-0.84]; reasoning: effect size, 0.38 [99% CI, 0.02-0.74]; speed-of-processing: effect size, 0.36 [99% CI, 0.01-0.72]). At mean age of 82 years, about 60% of trained participants compared to 50% of controls (p<.05) were at or above their baseline level of self-reported IADL function at 10 years. The reasoning and speed-of-processing interventions maintained their effects on their targeted cognitive abilities at 10 years (reasoning: effect size, 0.23 [99% CI, 0.09-0.38]; speed-of-processing: effect size, 0.66 [99% CI, 0.43-0.88]). Memory training effects were no longer maintained for memory performance. Booster training produced additional and durable improvement for the reasoning intervention for reasoning performance (effect size, 0.21 [99% CI, 0.01-0.41]) and the speed-of-processing intervention for speed-of-processing performance (effect size, 0.62 [99% CI, 0.31-0.93]). Conclusions Each ACTIVE cognitive intervention resulted in less decline in self-reported IADL compared with the control group. Reasoning and speed, but not memory, training resulted in improved targeted cognitive abilities for 10 years. PMID:24417410

  7. Reliability of Selected Measures of Movement Control and Force Production on Children Four Through Ten Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heston, Melissa; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish tentative reliability estimates for movement control and force production tasks as the initial phase of a cross-cultural motor-performance study. Ten boys and ten girls for each of seven age groups (ages four through ten) performed four specific tasks. Results are discussed. (MT)

  8. Ten-year fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction incidence in elderly populations in Spain: the EPICARDIAN cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Rafael; Alonso, Margarita; Reviriego, Blanca; Muñiz, Javier; Vega, Saturio; López, Isidro; Novella, Blanca; Suárez, Carmen; Rodríguez-Salvanés, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background In Spain, more than 85% of coronary heart disease deaths occur in adults older than 65 years. However, coronary heart disease incidence and mortality in the Spanish elderly have been poorly described. The aim of this study is to estimate the ten-year incidence and mortality rates of myocardial infarction in a population-based large cohort of Spanish elders. Methods A population-based cohort of 3729 people older than 64 years old, free of previous myocardial infarction, was established in 1995 in three geographical areas of Spain. Any case of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction was investigated until December 2004 using the "cold pursuit method", previously used and validated by the the WHO-MONICA project. Results Men showed a significantly (p < 0.001) higher cumulative incidence of myocardial infarction (7.2%; 95%CI: 5.94-8.54) than women (3.8%; 95%CI: 3.06-4.74). Although cumulative incidence increased with age (p < 0.05), gender-differences tended to narrow. Adjusted incidence rates were higher in men (957 per 100 000 person-years) than in women (546 per 100 000 person-years) (p < 0.001) and increased with age (p < 0.001). The increase was progressive in women but not in men. Adjusted mortality rates were also higher in men than in women (p < 0.001), being three times higher in the age group of ≥ 85 years old than in the age group of 65-74 years old (p < 0.001). Conclusion Incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction is high in the Spanish elderly population. Men show higher rates than women, but gender differences diminish with age. PMID:19778417

  9. The Asia Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Heath (APACPH) the first ten years, from 1984 to 1994.

    PubMed

    Michael, J M

    2005-01-01

    In January of 1984, five deans of schools of public health from Asia and the Pacific came together on the island of Kauai in Hawaii to formally establish the Consortium. The Consortium owes its cohesive strength through those first ten years of operation, to the dedicated faculty members in the fields of public health and community medicine whose overarching desire has been to seek representation of academic public health in the health decision making process affecting the positive promotion of health. By 1994 the Consortium found itself recognized on a world wide basis in the field of global health with what was described as having: "A great potential for extending the effectiveness of community and public health". "The author, a founding Dean feels that the Consortium's commitment is to shape rather than to await the future of health status improvement for the citizens of the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:16425648

  10. Switching To Less-Expensive Blindness Drug Could Save Medicare Part B $18 Billion Over A Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, DW; Newman-Casey, PA; Tavag, M; Zacks, DN; Stein, JD

    2014-01-01

    The biologic drugs bevacizumab and ranibizumab have revolutionized treatment of diabetic macular edema and macular degeneration, leading causes of blindness. Ophthalmologic use of these drugs has increased, now accounting for roughly one-sixth of the Medicare Part B drug budget. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab have similar efficacy and potentially minor differences in adverse event rates, but at $2,023 per dose, ranibizumab costs forty times more than bevacizumab. Using modeling methods, we predict ten-year (2010–2020) population-level costs and health benefits of using bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Our results show that if all patients were treated with the less-expensive bevacizumab instead of current usage patterns, Medicare Part B, patients, and the health care system would save $18 billion, $4.6 billion, and $29 billion, respectively. Altering patterns of use with these therapies by encouraging bevacizumab use and hastening approval of biosimilar therapies would dramatically reduce spending without substantially affecting patient outcomes. PMID:24889941

  11. Surgical Brain Metastases: Management and Outcome Related to Prognostic Indexes: A Critical Review of a Ten-Year Series

    PubMed Central

    Caroli, Manuela; Di Cristofori, Andrea; Lucarella, Francesca; Raneri, Fabio Angelo; Portaluri, Francesco; Gaini, Sergio Maria

    2011-01-01

    Brain metastasis are the most common neoplastic lesions of the nervous system. Many cancer patients are diagnosed on the basis of a first clinical presentation of cancer on the basis of a single or multiple brain lesions. Brain metastases are manifestations of primary disease progression and often determine a poor prognosis. Not all patients with a brain metastases undergo surgery: many are submitted to alternative or palliative treatments. Management of patients with brain metastases is still controversial, and many studies have been developed to determine which is the best therapy. Furthermore, management of patients operated for a brain metastasis is often difficult. Chemotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, panencephalic radiation therapy, and surgery, in combination or alone, are the means most commonly used. We report our experience in the management of a ten-year series of surgical brain metastasis and discuss our results in the preoperative and postoperative management of this complex condition. PMID:22084749

  12. Characteristics of staff victims of patient assault: ten year analysis of the Assaulted Staff Action Program (ASAP).

    PubMed

    Flannery, R B; Stone, P; Rego, S; Walker, A P

    2001-01-01

    Patient assaults on staff have been a continuing risk for inpatient and community-based psychiatric healthcare providers. This study presents a ten-year analysis of the characteristics of staff victims of patient assaults in one public mental health system of care, a period which included the transition to managed care initiatives within this system. Assault data was gathered within the context of the Assaulted Staff Action Program (ASAP), a voluntary, system-wide, peer-help, crisis intervention program that is designed to assist employees with the psychological sequelae of these patient events. In general, the findings were consistent with previously reported inpatient and community studies. Less experienced, less formally trained employees remain at high risk. The impact of managed care initiatives was found in community residences where younger female staff were most at risk. The implications of the findings and possible risk management strategies are discussed. PMID:11467157

  13. Microscopic features of moving traffic jams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.; Hiller, Andreas; Rehborn, Hubert

    2006-04-01

    Empirical and numerical microscopic features of moving traffic jams are presented. Based on a single vehicle data analysis, it is found that within wide moving jams, i.e., between the upstream and downstream jam fronts there is a complex microscopic spatiotemporal structure. This jam structure consists of alternations of regions in which traffic flow is interrupted and flow states of low speeds associated with “moving blanks” within the jam. Moving blanks within a wide moving jam resemble electron holes in the valence band of semiconductors: As the moving blanks that propagate upstream appear due to downstream vehicle motion within the jam, so appearance of electron holes moving with the electric field results from electron motion against the electric field in the valence band of semiconductors. Empirical features of moving blanks are found. Based on microscopic models in the context of the Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory, physical reasons for moving blanks emergence within wide moving jams are disclosed. Microscopic nonlinear effects of moving jam emergence, propagation, and dissolution as well as a diverse variety of hysteresis effects in freeway traffic associated with phase transitions and congested traffic propagation are numerically investigated. Microscopic structure of moving jam fronts is numerically studied and compared with empirical results.

  14. My Journey as a Surgeon-Scientist Ten Years after Receiving the Inaugural Jacobson Promising Investigator Award.

    PubMed

    Longaker, Michael T

    2015-10-01

    The First Joan L and Julius H Jacobson Promising Investigator Awardee, Michael T Longaker MD, FACS In 2005, the research committee of the American College of Surgeons was tasked with selecting the recipient of a newly established award, "The Joan L and Julius H Jacobson Promising Investigator Award." According to the Jacobsons, the $30,000 award funded by Dr Jacobson should be given at least once every 2 years to a surgeon investigator at "the tipping point," who can demonstrate that his/her research shows the promise of leading to a significant contribution to the practice of surgery and patient safety. Every year, the research committee receives many excellent nominations and has the difficult task of selecting 1 awardee. In 2005, the awardee was a young promising investigator, Michael T Longaker, MD, FACS. Ten years later, Dr Longaker, a prominent researcher in the field of "scar formation," presents his journey in research and the impact of the Jacobson award on his career. Dr Longaker is now a national and international figure in the field of wound healing, tissue regeneration, and stem cell research. Kamal MF Itani, MD, FACS and Gail Besner, MD, FACS, on behalf of the Research Committee of the American College of Surgeons. PMID:26304185

  15. Array radars solve communication jams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, H. D.

    1982-04-01

    The possibilities of incorporating mobile radar units as slave stations in communications relay applications during times of disrupted communications is examined. The limitations on uses of search, tracking, and multifunction radars are examined, noting that employment of the mobile system entails some tracking by the master phased-arrays to keep the mobile units in focus. The tracking patterns and dwell times are outlined, and the possibility of 700-1000 dwell times of 1220 microsec duration/sec is mentioned as opening the opportunity for high quality data transmissions. Signal-to-noise ratios are formulated for jamming situations, with offsetting tactical features for the jamming including the directivity and gain of the master antenna, the master station's power aperture product, on-axis to off-axis gain ratio, and antenna positioning ability. A slave station must be equipped with a transponder for communications, which are best achieved with pseudo-random coded waveforms.

  16. Penrose Tilings as Jammed Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenull, Olaf; Lubensky, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    Penrose tilings form lattices, exhibiting fivefold symmetry and isotropic elasticity, with inhomogeneous coordination much like that of the force networks in jammed systems. Under periodic boundary conditions, their average coordination is exactly four. We study the elastic and vibrational properties of rational approximants to these lattices as a function of unit-cell size NS and find that they have of order √NS zero modes and states of self-stress and yet all their elastic moduli vanish. In their generic form, obtained by randomizing site positions, their elastic and vibrational properties are similar to those of particulate systems at jamming with a nonzero bulk modulus, vanishing shear modulus, and a flat density of states.

  17. Statistical Mechanics of Jammed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behringer, Bob

    2009-03-01

    Jammed systems consist of large numbers of macroscopic particles. As such, they are inherently statistical in nature. However, in general, key assumptions of ordinary statistical mechanics need not apply. For instance, energy does not flow in a meaningful way from a thermal bath to such systems. And energy need not be conserved. However, experiments and simulations have shown that there are well defined distributions for such important properties as forces, contact numbers, etc. And new theoretical constructions have been proposed, starting with Edwards et al. The present symposium highlights recent developments for the statistics of jammed matter. This talk reviews the overall field, and highlights recent work in granular systems[1]. Brian Tighe[2] will describe new results from a force ensemble approach proposed recently by Snoeijer et al. Silke Henkes will describe a different force-based ensemble approach that yields a generalized partition function[3]. Eric Corwin will describe state-of-the-art experiments on dense emulsions[4]. And Matthias Schr"oter will present novel experiments on fluidized suspensions that address the issue of jamming and glassy behavior[5]. So, do we have a complete description of jammed matter? Not yet, but these talks, as well as other exciting developments in the field, show that there has been enormous progress, towards that end. [4pt] [1] T. S. Majmudar et al., Nature 435, 1079 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 058001 (2007). [0pt] [2] B. P. Tighe, A. R. T. van Eerd, and T. J. H. Vlugt , Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 238001 (2008). [0pt] [3] S. Henkes, C. O'Hern and B. Chakrabory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 038002 (2007). [0pt] [4] J. Bruji'c et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 248001 (2007). [0pt] [5] M. Schr"ooter, D. I. Goldman, and H. L. Swinney, Phys. Rev. E 71, 030301(R) (2005).

  18. Jamming of Cylindrical Grains in Vertical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, G. William; Spier, Gregory; Barr, Nicholas; Steel, Fiona

    2012-02-01

    We study jamming of low aspect-ratio cylindrical Delrin grains in a vertical channel. These cylindrical grains resemble antacid tablets, poker chips, or coins since their height is less than their diameter. Grains are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section where the channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. Within this channel, grains are sometimes observed to form jams, stable structures supported by the channel walls with no support beneath them. The probability of jam occurrence and the strength or robustness of a jam is effected by the grain dimensions and channel size. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability and jam strength in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.

  19. [1984-1994: Ten years of skin flaps. Development of transfer techniques. New methods of autoplasty described during this period].

    PubMed

    Martin, D

    1995-10-01

    Ten years of flaps represent a little and a lot. It is little compared to the 2600 years since the first flap in plastic surgery: the Susruta Indian flap, but it is a lot in view of the phenomenal acceleration of this speciality since the Second World War. In 1994 alone, more than two hundred references are listed under the heading "new flaps". As it is impossible to be exhaustive, the author has chosen to focus on two main aspects: a theoretical review of new transfer techniques, dealing successively with: the principles of reverse flow flaps, venous flaps, neurocutaneous flaps, so-called "extracorporeal" transfers, reverse flow YV technique; and practical aspects based on a review of eighteen autoplasties or donor sites selected for their surgical value, their reproductibility and their innovative nature. The author's objective is not to present a technical treatise, but rather to make the reader aware of several key points or even, in some cases, the very existence of these autoplasties. This paper is designed to be didactic, with extensive references, in order to act as a practical guide. It also demonstrates, as if there were any need, to what extent plastic surgery is able to create new solutions and the essential value of continuing research. PMID:8579301

  20. Penile cutaneous horn ten years after treatment of verrucous squamous cell carcinoma on penile glans: case report.

    PubMed

    Mokos, Ivica; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Ljubojević, Suzana; Corić, Marijana; Grce, Magdalena; Michal, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Penile cutaneous horn is a clinical term that describes protruding hyperkeratosis, usually conical in shape, located on penile glans. Penile localization of this lesion, predominantly located on sun-exposed areas, is very rare. The association with malignancy on the penis makes proper identification of these lesions essential. We present a 45-year-old man with a cutaneous horn, 25 mm in size, located on the basis of penile glans. The patient had a history of phimosis, pseudoepitheliomatous balanoposthitis, surgical excision of penile verrucous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and postoperative radiotherapy of carcinoma in situ on the same localization, ten years before. Complete surgical removal of the horn with separate excision of the margins and base was done. Pathologic examination revealed squamous hyperplasia with suspicion of carcinoma in situ. Additional negative p16(INK4a) immunohistochemical analysis confirmed benign proliferative lesion. DNA polymerase chain reaction for human papilloma virus infection was negative. These findings suggested sparing surgical procedure in our patient, without indication for partial penile amputation, but with mandatory follow-up. Our case confirmed the association of pseudoepitheliomatous balanoposthitis with verrucous SCC, as well as the possible influence of radiotherapy on the development of penile cutaneous horn. Additionally, we showed the important role p16(INK4a) immunohistochemical analysis in the differential diagnosis of alterations adjacent to invasive SCC of the penis. PMID:22507472

  1. Ten-year longitudinal study of the effect of impulse noise exposure from gunshot on inner ear function.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Ching; Young, Yi-Ho

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated how chronic gunshot noise exposure affects cochlear and saccular function in police officers who engaged in regular target shooting practice using dual protection (ear plugs plus earmuffs) for >10 years. In 1997, 20 male police officers underwent audiometry before and two weeks after shooting. Twelve of the original subjects were re-examined by audiometry coupled with vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test in 2007. Significant deterioration of mean hearing thresholds at frequencies of 500 Hz through 4000 Hz was noted ten years later, affecting both ears. However, only the frequencies of 4000 and 6000 Hz on the left ear revealed significant difference in mean hearing thresholds compared with healthy controls. Abnormal VEMP responses were evident in nine police officers (75%), including absent VEMPs 7 and delayed VEMPs 2. In conclusion, deterioration to hearing may occur after long term exposure to gunshots, even when double hearing protection is used. Further study is in progress regarding how to preserve both cochlear and saccular function during long term gunshot exposure. PMID:19925337

  2. Germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 and ten-year survival for women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Candido-dos-Reis, Francisco J.; Song, Honglin; Goode, Ellen L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Larson, Melissa C.; Alsop, Kathryn; Dicks, Ed; Harrington, Patricia; Ramus, Susan J.; de Fazio, Anna; Mitchell, Gillian; Fereday, Sian; Bolton, Kelly L.; Gourley, Charlie; Michie, Caroline; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Cass, Ilana; Olsson, Håkan; Gore, Martin; Benitez, Javier J.; Garcia, Maria J.; Andrulis, Irene; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Montagna, Marco; Alducci, Elisa; Sadetzki, Siegal; Chetrit, Angela; Kwong, Ava; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Jensen, Allan; Høgdall, Estrid; Neuhausen, Susan; Nussbaum, Robert; Daly, Mary; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Moysich, Kirsten; Toland, Amanda E.; Lambrechts, Diether; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Brenton, James D.; Tischkowitz, Marc; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Gayther, Simon A.; Bowtell, David; Pharoah, Paul D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyse the effect of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 on mortality in ovarian cancer patients up to ten years after diagnosis. Experimental Design We used unpublished survival time data for 2,242 patients from two case-control studies and extended survival-time data for 4,314 patients from previously reported studies. All participants had been screened for deleterious germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Survival time was analysed for the combined data using Cox proportional hazard models with BRCA1 and BRCA2 as time-varying covariates. Competing risks were analysed using Fine and Gray model. Results The combined 10-year overall survival was 30% (95% CI, 28%-31%) for non-carriers, 25% (95% CI, 22%-28%) for BRCA1 carriers, and 35% (95% CI, 30%-41%) for BRCA2 carriers. The hazard ratio for BRCA1 was 0.53 at time zero and increased over time becoming greater than one at ·4.8 years. For BRCA2, the hazard ratio was 0.42 at time zero and increased over time (predicted to become greater than one at 10.5 years). The results were similar when restricted to 3,202 patients with high-grade serous tumors, and to ovarian cancer specific mortality. Conclusions BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with better short-term survival, but this advantage decreases over time and, in BRCA1 carriers is eventually reversed. This may have important implications for therapy of both primary and relapsed disease and for analysis of long-term survival in clinical trials of new agents, particularly those that are effective in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:25398451

  3. The Effect of Donor Diabetes History on Graft Failure and Endothelial Cell Density Ten Years after Penetrating Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lass, Jonathan H.; Riddlesworth, Tonya D.; Gal, Robin L.; Kollman, Craig; Benetz, Beth A.; Price, Francis W.; Sugar, Alan; Terry, Mark A.; Soper, Mark; Beck, Roy W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the long term effect of donor diabetes history on graft failure and endothelial cell density (ECD) after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in the Cornea Donor Study Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing PKP for a moderate risk condition, principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema (PACE), were enrolled by 105 surgeons from 80 clinical sites in the United States. Methods Corneas from donors 12 to 75 years old were assigned by 43 eye banks to participants without respect to recipient factors. Donor and recipient diabetes status was determined from existing medical records. Images of the central endothelium were obtained preoperatively (baseline) and at intervals for ten years postoperatively and analyzed by a central image analysis reading center to determine ECD. Main Outcome Measure(s) Time to graft failure (regraft or cloudy cornea for 3 consecutive months) and ECD. Results There was no statistically significant association of donor diabetes history with 10-year graft failure, baseline ECD, 10-year ECD or ECD values longitudinally over time in unadjusted analyses nor after adjusting for donor age and other significant covariates. The 10-year graft failure rate was 23% in the 199 cases receiving a cornea from a donor with diabetes versus 26% in the 891 cases receiving a cornea from a donor without diabetes (95% confidence interval for the difference: −10% to +6%; unadjusted p = 0.60). Baseline ECD (p=0.71), 10-year ECD (p>0.99), and changes in ECD over 10 years (p=0.86) were similar comparing donor diabetes and no-diabetes groups. Conclusions and Relevance The study results do not suggest an association between donor diabetes and PKP outcome. However, the assessment of donor diabetes was imprecise and based on historical data only. The increasing frequency of diabetes in the aging population in the United States affects the donor pool, thus the

  4. Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of molar pregnancy: Ten years experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Talib, Ayman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of molar pregnancy at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Reviewed medical records of all molar pregnancy cases among all the deliveries at a tertiary care hospital in Dammam from 2005 to 2014, after approval by institutional ethical review committee. Data abstracted included patient's age, parity, presenting symptoms, gestational age at diagnosis, uterine size, ultrasonographic findings, BhCG level at the time of diagnosis and at follow-up after evacuation, and blood loss during evacuation. Data was entered and analyzed using Excel; frequency distribution for categorical variables and descriptive statistics for continuous variables were computed. Results: Of a total of 25,000 deliveries in ten years, 22 cases of complete molar pregnancy were encountered: 0.9 cases of molar pregnancy per 1000 pregnancies. Majority of patients (63.7%) were older than 35 years, and were nulliparous (45.5%). The commonest symptom was vaginal bleeding (86.4%) followed by hyperemesis gravidarum (41.0%); Hyperthyroidism was seen in 1 patient (4.5%). Ovarian enlargement by theca-lutin cyst was seen in 3 patients (13.6%). The majority of patients (63.6%) had normal BhCG within 9 weeks (63 days) after suction curettage. The majority of the cases followed a benign course. Conclusion: Aged older than 35 years seems a risk factor and vaginal bleeding is the commonest presenting symptom. Early booking of pregnant women to antenatal care clinics and routine first trimester ultrasound made diagnosis easier and earlier before complications appear. PMID:27625583

  5. Trends, seasonal variability and dominant NOx source derived from a ten year record of NO2 measured from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der A, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Boersma, K. F.; van Noije, T. P. C.; van Roozendael, M.; de Smedt, I.; Peters, D. H. M. U.; Meijer, E. W.

    2008-02-01

    For the period 1996-2006, global distributions of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been derived from radiances measured with the satellite instruments GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) and SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY). A statistical analysis is applied to derive trends and seasonal variability for this period on a global scale. The time series of the monthly NO2 columns for these ten years have been fitted with a linear function superposed on an annual seasonal cycle on a grid with a spatial resolution of 1° by 1°. We see significant reductions (up to 7% per year) in NO2 in Europe and parts of the eastern United States, and a strong increase in Asia, most particularly in China (up to 29% per year) but also in Iran and Russia. By comparing the data with the cloud information derived from the same satellite observations, the contribution of lightning to the total column of NO2 is estimated. The estimated NO2 from lightning is, especially in the tropics, in good agreement with lightning flash rate observations from space. The satellite observed seasonal variability of NO2 generally correlates well with independent observations and estimates of the seasonal cycle of specific NOx sources. Source categories considered are anthropogenic (fossil fuel and biofuel), biomass burning, soil emissions and lightning. Using the characteristics of the seasonal variability of these source categories, the dominant source of NOx emissions has been identified on a global scale and on a 1° by 1° grid.

  6. JAMS - a software platform for modular hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralisch, Sven; Fischer, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Current challenges of understanding and assessing the impacts of climate and land use changes on environmental systems demand for an ever-increasing integration of data and process knowledge in corresponding simulation models. Software frameworks that allow for a seamless creation of integrated models based on less complex components (domain models, process simulation routines) have therefore gained increasing attention during the last decade. JAMS is an Open-Source software framework that has been especially designed to cope with the challenges of eco-hydrological modelling. This is reflected by (i) its flexible approach for representing time and space, (ii) a strong separation of process simulation components from the declarative description of more complex models using domain specific XML, (iii) powerful analysis and visualization functions for spatial and temporal input and output data, and (iv) parameter optimization and uncertainty analysis functions commonly used in environmental modelling. Based on JAMS, different hydrological and nutrient-transport simulation models were implemented and successfully applied during the last years. We will present the JAMS core concepts and give an overview of models, simulation components and support tools available for that framework. Sample applications will be used to underline the advantages of component-based model designs and to show how JAMS can be used to address the challenges of integrated hydrological modelling.

  7. Intracranial hemorrhage in acute and chronic childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura over a ten-year period: an Egyptian multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Elalfy, Mohsen; Elbarbary, Nancy; Khaddah, Normine; Abdelwahab, Magy; El Rashidy, Farida; Hassab, Hoda; Al-Tonbary, Youssef

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a rare but major cause of death in immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The authors reviewed data of 1,840 patient with ITP, from 5 pediatric hematology centers in Egypt from 1997 to 2007, to study the incidence and risk factors of ICH. Ten cases of ICH were identified with a median age at presentation of 7.5 years; 4 patients had acute ITP, 2 persistent and 4 chronic. The platelet count was <10 x 10(9)/l in 7 cases, and only 1 patient had a history of head trauma. Seven children were on treatment prior to or at the time of occurrence of ICH and all were treated by pharmacotherapy. Two children died shortly afterwards due to late referral to a specialized center. Our results suggest that treatment does not prevent ICH and that it can occur at any time during the course of the disease. Delayed referral can be considered a risk factor for unfavorable outcome of ICH, highlighting the importance of teaching sessions for patients and their parents to minimize subsequent morbidity and mortality of ICH in children with ITP. PMID:19955713

  8. Analysis of Comorbidity of the Patients Affected by Staphylococcal Bacteremia/Sepsis in the Last Ten Years

    PubMed Central

    Lukovac, Enra; Koluder-Cimic, Nada; Hadzovic-Cengic, Meliha; Baljic, Rusmir; Hadzic, Amir; Gojak, Refet

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY CONFLICT OF INTEREST: none declared. Introduction Staphylococcal bacteremia/sepsis is one of the most serious bacterial infections around the world. In individuals with pre-existing diseases, there is always an increased risk of infections occurring due to impaired immune system, a variety of drug therapy, exposure to a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and frequent hospitalizations. Objectives To analyze the prevalence of comorbidity in a patient with the staphylococcal bacteremia/sepsis according to the diagnosis, the site of infection and according to the isolated agent. Patients and methods We analyzed the patients affected by the staphylococcal bacteremia/sepsis and treated in the Clinic for Infectious Diseases during a ten-year period. Results 87 patients were included, out of whom 20 (23%) with clinical signs of the bacteremia and 67 (77%) of sepsis. In the analyzed sample, in 36 (41.4%) were not registered comorbidity. Hospital infections are represented by the previous antibiotic, corticosteroid and chemo therapy, pressure ulcers, and different implants. In all comorbidity, the most common isolated bacteria was S. aureus primarily strain MSSA followed by MRSA strain which is more frequent in patients who were surgically treated (comorbidity–various implants). Conclusion The results suggest the importance of being mindful of the staphylococcal etiology of the bacteremia/sepsis in patients with comorbidities due to the selection of an adequate initial empirical therapy and reducing the risks of the septic shock. PMID:24493989

  9. Ten years water and energy surface balance from the CNR-ISAC micrometeorological station in Salento peninsula (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martano, P.; Elefante, C.; Grasso, F.

    2015-06-01

    Data of surface-atmosphere energy and water transfer from a ten years (2003-2013) period of activity of the ISAC-Lecce micrometeorological station (http://www.basesperimentale.le.isac.cnr.it) have been analyzed: to the authors' knowledge this is the first decadal data set of surface-atmosphere transfer in Salento peninsula. The surface energy budget shows a tendency to a positive bias possibly due to several reasons that require more investigations. Some suitable indices related to the surface water balance, such as the precipitation intensity, the aridity index and the ground water infiltration fraction have been calculated. Possible trends of these annual averages in the decadal period are considered, also taking into account the statistical uncertainty associated to measurement errors and missing data. The results indicate a significant increasing in the precipitation intensity together with an experimental evidence of increasing of the ground water infiltration in the measurement area, that is in agreement with recent estimations for the whole Salento peninsula. On the other hand, recent studies show that seawater intrusion and salinization of the deep underground aquifer keep increasing in the same period.

  10. Titan's Surface at 2.2-Cm Wavelength: Results and Interpretations through the First Ten Years of Observation By Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Le Gall, A. A.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Malaska, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive calibration and mapping of the thermal microwave emission from Titan's surface will be presented, based on radiometric data obtained at 2.2-cm wavelength by the passive radiometer in the Cassini Radar instrument through the nearly ten years following Saturn Orbit Insertion. The data reported were accumulated from Titan passes Ta (October 2004) through T98 (February 2014) and now incorporate emission from all of Titan's surface. The mapping will eventually include data at both low and high spatial resolution, while for the present we concentrate on only the low-resolution data that provide thermal polarization. These data are sufficient to examine not only surface effective dielectric constant but seasonal and diurnal surface temperature variations, which we compare with current CIRS results. The map of effective dielectric constant allows us to explore possible regional variations in surface properties and composition. Finally, these data allow us to understand the nature and magnitude of systematic errors in the map-making process, essential to interpreting both the present maps and the forthcoming high-resolution maps based on these. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Ten-Year Trends In Treatment Services For Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Enrolled In Medicaid.

    PubMed

    Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Kelleher, Kelly; Zima, Bonnie T; Perrin, James M; Bilder, Scott; Crystal, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Closing the gap between evidence-based clinical practice standards and their inclusion in routine practice continues to be a major goal of health policy reforms. This gap is especially large for the care of children with psychiatric disorders-especially those from low-income families, many of whom are insured through Medicaid. To address this gap, we analyzed trends over ten years (2001-10) from Medicaid claims data describing changes over time in medication, psychotherapy, and combined treatment services for children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Over this time, more children received treatments that conformed to practice standards, including the use of combination treatments of medication and psychotherapy. Rates of combined treatment increased by 74 percent, rates of psychotherapy alone more than doubled, and rates of medication alone decreased by 18 percent. Rates of diagnoses without any reimbursed treatment decreased by 39 percent. These trends suggest increasing adherence to clinical practice standards by providers serving children with ADHD in the Medicaid population, although the quality of those services is unknown. PMID:27385243

  12. Ten years of seismicity in the euro-mediterranean region: panorama of the EMSC bulletin 1998-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godey, S.; Bossu, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Center (EMSC) is in charge of collecting seismological parametric data recorded by the local networks of the Euro-Mediterranean region in order to improve data availability for the seismologists and to rapidly produce a comprehensive seismicity bulletin for the region. The aims are to reproduce the seismicity as imaged by the local agencies when events occur within their network and to improve event location in borders regions and off-shore. In this presentation, we show ten years of seismicity that occurred in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Event locations have been obtained in the Euro-Med Bulletin for the period January 1998 to December 2007 by merging parametric data collected from 77 seismological agencies. Thanks to the many contributions, the Euro-Med Bulletin displays a high coverage of the region with the collection of data recorded by 2,625 stations and only two known missing networks. In total, more than 100,000 events are included for the period 1998-2007. We present here the performances of the Euro-Med Bulletin and their evolution over the years. In the spring 2009, the EMSC will produce a specific map of the Euro-Med seismicity. This map, dedicated to a wide audience will require a careful review and didactic selection of data. A special effort is needed to further discard non tectonic events from the current Euro-Med bulletin. This can be achieved by setting up additional collection of event type information (from rockburst to mine activity) with the help of the local networks. Additionally, the currently available bulletin may be recomputed using the global velocity model AK135.

  13. Tabletop Traffic Jams: Modeling Traffic Jams using Self Propelled Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Vikrant; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2015-03-01

    We model behavior of traffic using Self Propelled Particles (SPPs). Granular rods with asymmetric mass distribution confined to move in a circular channel on a vibrated substrate and interact with each other through inelastic collision serve as our model vehicle. Motion of a single vehicle is observed to be composed of 2 parts, a linear velocity in the direction of lighter end of particle and a non-Gaussian random velocity. We find that the collective mean speed of the SPPs is constant over a wide range of line densities before decreasing rapidly as the maximum packing is approached indicating the spontaneous formation of Phantom jams. This decrease in speed is observed to be far greater than any small differences in the mean drift speed of individual SPPs , and occurs as the collision frequency between SPPs increase exponentially with line density. However the random velocity component of SPPs remain super-diffusive over entire range of line densities. While the collective motion at low densities is characterized by caravan following behind the slowest particle leading to clustering, at higher densities we see formation of jamming waves travelling in direction opposite to that of motion of particles.

  14. Ten-Year Follow-Up of Desarthrodesis of the Knee Joint 41 Years after Original Arthrodesis for a Bone Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kassem Abdelaal, Ahmed Hamed; Yamamoto, Norio; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Miwa, Shinji; Inatani, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The main indication for knee arthrodesis in tumor surgery is a tumor that requires an extensive resection in which the joint surface cannot be preserved. We report a patient that had knee desarthrodesis 41 years after giant cell tumor resection followed by a knee arthrodesis. This is the longest reported follow-up after desarthrodesis and conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA), almost ten years. Case Report. A 71-year-old man with a distal femoral giant cell tumor had undergone a resection of the distal femur and knee arthrodesis using Kuntscher nail in 1962. In July 2003 he experienced gradually increasing pain of his left knee. We performed a desarthrodesis and conversion to TKA in 2005. The postoperative period passed uneventfully as his pain and gait improved, with gradually increasing range of motion (ROM) and no infection. He now walks independently, with no brace or contractures. Conclusion. Desarthrodesis of the knee joint and conversion to TKA are a difficult surgical choice with a high complication risk. However, our patient's life style has improved, he has no pain, and he can ascend and descend stairs more easily. The surgeon has to be very meticulous in selecting a patient for knee arthrodesis and counseling them to realize that their expectations may not be achievable. PMID:26688766

  15. Hidden symmetries in jammed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Peter K.; Corwin, Eric I.

    2016-07-01

    There are deep, but hidden, geometric structures within jammed systems, associated with hidden symmetries. These can be revealed by repeated transformations under which these structures lead to fixed points. These geometric structures can be found in the Voronoi tesselation of space defined by the packing. In this paper we examine two iterative processes: maximum inscribed sphere (MIS) inversion and a real-space coarsening scheme. Under repeated iterations of the MIS inversion process we find invariant systems in which every particle is equal to the maximum inscribed sphere within its Voronoi cell. Using a real-space coarsening scheme we reveal behavior in geometric order parameters which is length-scale invariant.

  16. FH/MFSK performance in multitone jamming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of frequency-hopped (FH) M-ary frequency-shift keyed (MFSK) signals in partial-band noise was analyzed in the open literature. The previous research is extended to the usually more effective class of multitone jamming. Some objectives researched are: (1) To categorize several different multitone jamming strategies; (2) To analyze the performance of FH/MSFK signaling, both uncoded with diversity, assuming a noncoherent energy detection metric with linear combining and perfect jamming state side information, in the presence of worst case interference for each of these multitone categories; and (3) To compare the effectiveness of the various multitone jamming techniques, and contrast the results with the partial band noise jamming case.

  17. Similarities between protein folding and granular jamming

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Prasanth P; Andricioaei, Ioan

    2012-01-01

    Grains and glasses, widely different materials, arrest their motions upon decreasing temperature and external load, respectively, in common ways, leading to a universal jamming phase diagram conjecture. However, unified theories are lacking, mainly because of the disparate nature of the particle interactions. Here we demonstrate that folded proteins exhibit signatures common to both glassiness and jamming by using temperature- and force-unfolding molecular dynamics simulations. Upon folding, proteins develop a peak in the interatomic force distributions that falls on a universal curve with experimentally measured forces on jammed grains and droplets. Dynamical signatures are found as a dramatic slowdown of stress relaxation upon folding. Together with granular similarities, folding is tied not just to the jamming transition, but a more nuanced picture of anisotropy, preparation protocol and internal interactions emerges. Results have implications for designing stable polymers and can open avenues to link protein folding to jamming theory. PMID:23093180

  18. A ten-year global record of absorbing aerosols above clouds from OMI's near-UV observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torrres, Omar; Ahn, Changwoo

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction continues to be one of the leading uncertain components of climate models, primarily due to the lack of an adequate knowledge of the complex microphysical and radiative processes associated with the aerosolcloud system. The situations when aerosols and clouds are found in the same atmospheric column, for instance, when light-absorbing aerosols such as biomass burning generated carbonaceous particles or wind-blown dust overlay low-level cloud decks, are commonly found over several regional of the world. Contrary to the cloud-free scenario over dark surface, for which aerosols are known to produce a net cooling effect (negative radiative forcing) on climate, the overlapping situation of absorbing aerosols over cloud can potentially exert a significant level of atmospheric absorption and produces a positive radiative forcing at top-of-atmosphere. The magnitude of direct radiative effects of aerosols above cloud depends directly on the aerosol loading, microphysical-optical properties of the aerosol layer and the underlying cloud deck, and geometric cloud fraction. We help in addressing this problem by introducing a novel product of optical depth of absorbing aerosols above clouds retrieved from near-UV observations made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA's Aura platform. The presence of absorbing aerosols above cloud reduces the upwelling radiation reflected by cloud and produces a strong `color ratio' effect in the near-UV region, which can be unambiguously detected in the OMI measurements. Physically based on this effect, the OMACA algorithm retrieves the optical depths of aerosols and clouds simultaneously under a prescribed state of atmosphere. The algorithm architecture and results from a ten-year global record including global climatology of frequency of occurrence and above-cloud aerosol optical depth, and a discussion on related future field campaigns are presented.

  19. Monitoring of Pb Exposure in Waterfowl Ten Years after a Mine Spill through the Use of Noninvasive Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Haro, Monica; Taggart, Mark A.; Lefranc, Hugues; Martín-Doimeadiós, Rosa C.; Green, Andy J.; Mateo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Lead exposure in waterfowl was studied using noninvasive fecal sampling in the Guadalquivir Marshes in Spain, an area affected by the 1998 Aznalcóllar mine disaster. Feces of greylag geese (Anser anser, n = 191) and purple gallinule (Porphyrio porphyrio, n = 91) were collected from three different impacted sites (Entremuros, Caracoles and Cerro de los Ánsares) during the winters of 2004 to 2008. Lead and aluminium (an indicator of sediment ingestion) and Pb isotope signatures (to discriminate between sources of Pb exposure) were analyzed in freeze-dried, acid digested samples. The concentrations of fecal porphyrins and biliverdin were determined as noninvasive biomarkers to study Pb exposure effects. Results showed a decrease in Pb exposure over time in wintering greylag geese. In contrast, for purple gallinule resident in the Entremuros a clear trend was not evident. For both species, sediment ingestion appeared to be the main source of exposure to Pb. In the Entremuros, some samples from purple gallinule were detected with higher Pb levels than expected for simple soil ingestion, and these had Pb isotopic profiles compatible with mining sludge or Pb shot. Whilst fecal Pb isotopic profiles were effective in differentiating between samples from sites with different levels and sources of pollution, the combined use of element ratios (such as Pb/Al) and other non-traditional stable isotope signatures may also prove worthwhile. Overall, the fecal Pb levels detected were below those described in feces for waterfowl from other uncontaminated areas(<10 µg/g d.w.). Despite this, for both species fecal Pb levels were positively correlated with porphyrin excretion, and for purple gallinule, with the coproporphyrin III/I ratio, suggesting some subtle effects on heme synthesis in birds. Ten years after the mine spill, Pb contamination in birds by this pollution source was still detectable and subtlethal effects may persist. PMID:23437364

  20. Ten-year growth response of young Douglas-fir to variable density varnishleaf ceanothus and herb competition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monleon, V.J.; Newton, M.; Hooper, C.; Tappeiner, J. C., II

    1999-01-01

    The effect of different densities of varnishleaf ceanothus (Ceanothus velutinus var. laevigatus) and herbaceous vegetation control on stem diameter, height, and volume of plantation Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) seedlings was examined during the 10 yr following planting. Initial densities of ceanothus ranged between 0 and 15,000 seedlings/ha and were obtained by interplanting ceanothus germinants or chemical thinning after clearcutting and broadcast-burning. Herbaceous vegetation control was achieved by a single application of glyphosate following planting, with shrub seedlings covered. Ceanothus density in the range of 0 to 6,750 plants/ha did not have an effect on Douglas-fir diameter, height, or volume at age 10; however, Douglas-fir growth was significantly decreased when ceanothus densities reached 15,000 plants/ha. Ten years after planting, Douglas-fir volume in the treatments with 6,750 ceanothus/ha or less was 1.7 times greater than that in the 15,000 ceanothus/ha treatment. On the other hand, removal of herbaceous vegetation after planting significantly increased tree diameter, height, and volume, regardless of ceanothus density. Even 10 yr after the application of the treatment, trees without early herb competition grew faster and had mean dbh, height, and volume that were 1.02 cm, 0.55 m, and 12.98 dm3/tree greater respectively than those with herbs. Thus, a treatment at plantation establishment to control herbaceous vegetation and to reduce ceanothus density to less than 7,000 plants/ha will ensure an increase in growth and stocking for at least 10 yr.

  1. Ten years of health workforce planning in the Netherlands: a tentative evaluation of GP planning as an example

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In many countries, health-care labour markets are constantly being challenged by an alternation of shortage and oversupply. Avoiding these cyclic variations is a major challenge. In the Netherlands, a workforce planning model has been used in health care for ten years. Case description Since 1970, the Dutch government has explored different approaches to determine the inflow in medical schools. In 2000, a simulation model for health workforce planning was developed to estimate the required and available capacity of health professionals in the Netherlands. In this paper, this model is explained, using the Dutch general practitioners as an example. After the different steps in the model are clarified, it is shown how elements can be added to arrive at different versions of the model, or ‘scenarios’. A comparison is made of the results of different scenarios for different years. In addition, the subsequent stakeholder decision-making process is considered. Discussion and evaluation Discussion of this paper shows that workforce planning in the Netherlands is a complex modelling task, which is sensitive to different developments influencing the balance between supply and demand. It seems plausible that workforce planning has resulted in a balance between supply and demand of general practitioners. Still, it remains important that the modelling process is accepted by the different stakeholders. Besides calculating the balance between supply and demand, there needs to be an agreement between the stakeholders to implement the advised training inflow. The Dutch simulation model was evaluated using six criteria to be met by models suitable for policy objectives. This model meets these criteria, as it is a comprehensive and parsimonious model that can include all relevant factors. Conclusion Over the last decade, health workforce planning in the Netherlands has become an accepted instrument for calculating the required supply of health professionals on a

  2. A new SO2 emissions budget for Anatahan volcano (Mariana Islands) based on ten years of satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Brendan; Popp, Christoph; Andrews, Benjamin; Cottrell, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing offers great potential for the study of sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas emissions from volcanoes worldwide. Anatahan is a remote volcano in the Mariana Islands, SW Pacific. Existing SO2 emissions data from Anatahan, from ground-based UV spectrometer measurements, place the volcano among the largest natural SO2 sources worldwide. However, these measurements are limited in number and only available from intervals of eruptive activity. Activity varies widely at Anatahan: over the past decade, records held in the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program Volcanoes of the World database describe the alternation of intense eruptions with long intervals of quiescence, where much lower intensity activity took place. We present ten years of satellite-based measurements of SO2 in the atmosphere over Anatahan, using data from the UV spectrometers OMI, GOME-2, and SCIAMACHY, and the IR spectrometer AIRS. We find Anatahan's emissions to be highly variable both within and between intervals of eruption and quiescence. We demonstrate a close agreement between trends in SO2 emission evident from our remote sensing data and records of activity compiled from a range of other sources and instruments, across daily to annual temporal scales. Mean eruptive SO2 emissions at Anatahan are ~6400 t/d, and range from <1000 to >18000 t/d. Quiescent emissions are below our instrument detection limits and are therefore unlikely to exceed 150-300 t/d. Overall, accounting for both eruptive and quiescent emissions, we calculate a revised decadal mean SO2 emission rate of 1060-1200 t/d. We further calculate a total decadal SO2 yield from Anatahan of 4-5 Mt, significantly lower than the 17-34 Mt calculated if ground-based campaign data are used in isolation. The use of isolated measurements to extrapolate longer term emissions budgets is subject to clear uncertainty, and we argue that our satellite observations, covering a longer interval of Anatahan's history, are better

  3. The 'fine structure' of nutrient dynamics in rivers: ten years of study using high-frequency monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Phil; Melland, Alice; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik; Shortle, Ger; Ryan, David; Crockford, Lucy; Macintosh, Katrina; Campbell, Julie; Arnscheidt, Joerg; Cassidy, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    A complete appraisal of material fluxes in flowing waters is really only possibly with high time resolution data synchronous with measurements of discharge. Defined by Kirchner et al. (2004; Hydrological Processes, 18/7) as the high-frequency wave of the future and with regard to disentangling signal noise from process pattern, this challenge has been met in terms of nutrient flux monitoring by automated bankside analysis. In Ireland over a ten-year period, time-series nutrient data collected on a sub-hourly basis in rivers have been used to distinguish fluxes from different catchment sources and pathways and to provide more certain temporal pictures of flux for the comparative definition of catchment nutrient dynamics. In catchments where nutrient fluxes are particularly high and exhibit a mix of extreme diffuse and point source influences, high time resolution data analysis indicates that there are no satisfactory statistical proxies for seasonal or annual flux predictions that use coarse datasets. Or at least exposes the limits of statistical approaches to catchment scale and hydrological response. This has profound implications for catchment monitoring programmes that rely on modelled relationships. However, using high resolution monitoring for long term assessments of catchment mitigation measures comes with further challenges. Sustaining continuous wet chemistry analysis at river stations is resource intensive in terms of capital, maintenance and quality assurance. Furthermore, big data capture requires investment in data management systems and analysis. These two institutional challenges are magnified when considering the extended time period required to identify the influences of land-based nutrient control measures on water based systems. Separating the 'climate signal' from the 'source signal' in river nutrient flux data is a major analysis challenge; more so when tackled with anything but higher resolution data. Nevertheless, there is scope to lower

  4. What do you want to be in ten years? - Advising meteorology students in the post-Twister era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, J. T.; Hempe, M.

    2012-12-01

    "What do you want to be in ten years?' This is a question we ask our students, freshmen and transfer, when they first arrive in the College student services center. Often the answer is "I don't know. I just want to be in meteorology." This response leads to a discussion of career opportunities in meteorology and related fields, including what might be called faux-careers, such as professional storm chasing and weather tour operations. (Students often have been misled by what they have seen in television shows.) Many students arrive on our doorstep with their heart set on a degree in meteorology, but lack knowledge of what the field is about or how challenging a meteorology degree program really is. We find ourselves spending a great deal of time convincing students that they need to explore the real opportunities in meteorology and related fields, which are many. Fortunately, because of the concentration of University and federal weather organizations in the National Weather Center and private sector weather companies in adjacent buildings, we are able to show concrete examples of real careers by means of tours, job shadowing, and introductions to alumni employed in these organizations. Also, as the students' progress in their studies, they discover the many opportunities for undergraduate employment, research experiences, and internships in these same organizations, through which they gain an appreciation for what constitutes a real career in modern meteorology. Further, many of today's careers in meteorology require a broad, global perspective. Unfortunately, many meteorology students have not traveled widely, but again have only seen what the media provides about distant lands and peoples. Accordingly, we encourage our undergraduate students to take advantage of our unique opportunities for overseas experiences in meteorology. Through arrangements with the met programs at the University of Reading (England), Monash University (Australia), and University of

  5. Ten years of progress in the Hokkaido birth cohort study on environment and children's health: cohort profile--updated 2013.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Reiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi

    2013-11-01

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infectious diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders and perform longitudinal observations of the children's physical development to clarify the causal relationship between these outcomes and environmental chemicals; third, to identify individuals genetically susceptible to environmental chemicals; finally, to identify the additive effects of various environmental factors in our daily life, such as secondhand smoke exposure or low folate intake during early pregnancy. In this paper, we introduce our recent progress in the Hokkaido study with a cohort profile updated in 2013. For the last ten years, we followed pregnant women and their offspring, measuring various environmental chemicals, i.e., PCB, OH-PCB and dioxins, PFCs (Perfluorinated Compounds), Organochlorine pesticides, Phthalates, bisphenol A and mercury. We discovered that the concentration of toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin and other specific congeners of PCDF or PCDD have effects on birth weight, infants' neurodevelopment and immune function. There were significant gender differences in these effects; our results suggest that male infants have more susceptibility to those chemical exposures than female infants. Interestingly, we found maternal genetic polymorphisms in AHR, CYP1A1 or GSTs that significantly modified the dioxin concentrations in maternal blood, suggesting different dioxin accumulations in the bodies of individuals with these genotypes, which would lead to different dioxin exposure levels. These genetic

  6. Effect of Friction on Shear Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ren, Jie; Dijksman, Joshua; Bares, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Shear jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficient μ ~ 0 . 6 (Bi et al. Nature (2011)). Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ϕ between ϕJ (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ϕS for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of force chains, which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. Whether shear jamming occurs for frictionless particles is under debate. The issue we address experimentally is how reducing friction affects shear jamming. We put the Teflon-wrapped photoelastic disks, lowering the friction substantially from previous experiments, in a well-studied 2D shear apparatus (Ren et al. PRL (2013)), which provides a uniform simple shear. Shear jamming is still observed; however, the difference ϕJ -ϕS is smaller with lower friction. We also observe larger anisotropies in fragile states compared to experiments with higher friction particles at the same density. In ongoing work we are studying systems using photoelastic disks with fine gears on the edge to generate very large effective friction. We acknowledge support from NSF Grant DMR1206351, NSF Grant DMS-1248071, NASA Grant NNX10AU01G and William M. Keck Foundation.

  7. Effect of friction on shear jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Bares, Jonathan; Dijksman, Joshua; Ren, Jie; Zheng, Hu; Behringer, Robert

    Shear jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficient μ ~ 0 . 6 (Bi et al. Nature (2011)). Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ϕ between ϕJ (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ϕS for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of force chains, which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. Whether shear jamming occurs for frictionless particles is under debate. The issue we address experimentally is how changing friction affects shear jamming. By applying a homogeneous simple shear, we study the effect of friction by using photoelastic disks either wrapped with Teflon to reduce friction or with fine teeth on the edge to increase friction. Shear jamming is still observed; however, the difference ϕJ -ϕS is smaller with lower friction. We also observe larger fluctuations due to initial configurations both at the lowest and the highest friction systems studied. Ongoing work is to use particles made of gelatin to reduce the friction coefficient to the order of 0.01. We acknowledge support from NSF Grant DMR1206351, NASA Grant NNX15AD38G and the William M. Keck Foundation.

  8. Effect of friction on shear jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Bares, Jonathan; Dijksman, Joshua; Ren, Jie; Zheng, Hu; Behringer, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Shear jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficient μ ~ 0 . 6. Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ϕ between ϕJ (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ϕS for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of force chains, which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. Whether shear jamming occurs for frictionless particles is under debate. The issue we address experimentally is how changing friction affects shear jamming. By applying a homogeneous simple shear, we study the effect of friction by using photoelastic disks either wrapped with Teflon to reduce friction or with fine teeth on the edge to increase friction. Shear jamming is still observed; however, the difference ϕJ -ϕS is smaller with lower friction. We also observe larger fluctuations due to initial configurations both at the lowest and the highest friction systems studied. Ongoing work is to characterize response from different friction systems under shear with information at local scale. We acknowledge support from NSF-DMR1206351, NASA NNX15AD38G and W.M. Keck Foundation.

  9. Electromagnetic anti-jam telemetry tool

    DOEpatents

    Ganesan, Harini; Mayzenberg, Nataliya

    2008-02-12

    A mud-pulse telemetry tool includes a tool housing, a motor disposed in the tool housing, and a magnetic coupling coupled to the motor and having an inner shaft and an outer shaft. The tool may also include a stator coupled to the tool housing, a restrictor disposed proximate the stator and coupled to the magnetic coupling, so that the restrictor and the stator adapted to generate selected pulses in a drilling fluid when the restrictor is selectively rotated. The tool may also include a first anti-jam magnet coupled to the too housing, and an second anti-jam magnet disposed proximate the first anti-jam magnet and coupled to the inner shaft and/or the outer shaft, wherein at least one of the first anti-jam magnet and the second anti-jam magnet is an electromagnet, and wherein the first anti-jam magnet and the second anti-jam magnet are positioned with adjacent like poles.

  10. Topological boundary modes in jammed matter.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Daniel M; Stenull, Olaf; Lubensky, T C

    2016-07-13

    Granular matter at the jamming transition is poised on the brink of mechanical stability, and hence it is possible that these random systems have topologically protected surface phonons. Studying two model systems for jammed matter, we find states that exhibit distinct mechanical topological classes, protected surface modes, and ubiquitous Weyl points. The detailed statistics of the boundary modes shed surprising light on the properties of the jamming critical point and help inform a common theoretical description of the detailed features of the transition. PMID:27345616

  11. Granular jamming transitions for a robotic mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Allen; Aste, Tomaso; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha

    2013-06-01

    The jamming transitions for granules growing field of interest in robotics for use in variable stiffness mechanisms. However, the traditional use of air pressure to control the jamming transition requires heavy vacuums, reducing the mobility of the robot. Thus, we propose the use of water as a hydraulic fluid to control the transition between free and clustered granules. This paper presents comparative studies that show that a hydraulic granular jammed finger joint can both achieve the same stiffness level and maintain the same hysteresis level of a pneumatic system, with only a small volume of fluid.

  12. Let Book Joy Begin @ Your Library[R]!: Ten Years of El Dia de los Ninos/El Dia de los Libros

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene

    2007-01-01

    Ten years ago, in 1996, poet and children's book author, Pat Mora began celebrating "book joy" by founding a children's book and reading day, El Dia de los Ninos/El Dia de los Libros or Children's Day/Book Day. Dia is modeled on National Children's Day Celebrations in Mexico held since 1925 when it was launched in conjunction with a World…

  13. OYSTER POPULATUION ESTIMATION IN SUPPORT OF THE TEN-YEAR GOAL FOR OYSTER RESOTRATION IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY: DEVELOPING STRATEGIES FOR RESTORING AND MANAGING THE EASTERN OYSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mann, Roger, Steve Jordan, Gary Smith, Kennedy Paynter, James Wesson, Mary Christman, Jessica Vanisko, Juliana Harding, Kelly Greenhawk and Melissa Southworth. 2003. Oyster Population Estimation in Support of the Ten-Year Goal for Oyster Restoration in the Chesapeake Bay: Develop...

  14. The Impact of Oral Training on Argumentative Texts Produced by Ten- and Eleven-Year-Old Children: Exploring the Relation between Narration and Argumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auriac-Peyronnet, Emmanuele

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that trained ten and eleven year old children to improve their argumentative abilities. Explores whether didactic sequence with oral exercises and co-operative oral debate affected the children. Explains that the children were required to produce three argumentative texts before and after each training phase. (CMK)

  15. Study on evaluation of photoelectric jamming effectiveness on ranging lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Jinxi; Yang, Haiqiang; Gao, Bo

    2015-11-01

    Lidar (Light Detection and Range) is a brand-new field and research hotspot. Ranging lidar is studied in this paper. Specifically, its basic working principle and photoelectric jamming mechanism are introduced. Then, the ranging error jamming success rate rule is developed for laser distance deception jamming. And the effectiveness evaluation of laser blinding jamming is based on the influence level on ranging accuracy and ranging function. The results have some reference value to evaluation of jamming test effectiveness.

  16. Ice Jams the Ob River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Russia's Ob River flows from south to north, and each summer, it thaws in the same direction. The result is that an ice jam sits downstream from thawed portions of the river, which is laden with heavy runoff from melted snow. On June 29, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the almost completely thawed Ob River. The scene is typical for early summer. South of the ice jam, the Gulf of Ob is swollen with pent-up run-off, and upstream from that, the river is widened as well. Unable to carve through frozen land, the river has little choice but to overflow its banks. For a comparison of early summer and autumn conditions, see Flooding on the Ob River in the Earth Observatory's Natural Hazards section. Besides the annual overflow, this image captures other circumstances of early summer. Sea ice is retreating from the Kara Sea. A lingering line of snow cover snakes its way along the Ob River, to the west. And while the land is lush and green in the south, it appears barren and brown in the north. Near the mouth of the river and the Kara Sea, the land is cold-adapted tundra, with diminutive plants and a short growing season. Just as the ice plugging the river had yet to thaw in the Far North's short summer, the tundra had not yet to greened up either. In this image it still appears lifeless beige. NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center

  17. Scaling theory of the jamming transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Andrea; Goodrich, Carl; Sethna, James; Nagel, Sidney

    The concept of jamming was first introduced at the University of Chicago by Sid Nagel and Tom Witten. By now we know that there is a zero-temperature critical jamming transition that marks the onset of rigidity in packings of soft repulsive spheres. In contrast to the perfect fcc crystal state, which is the maximally stable state for such systems, the jammed state is only marginally stable mechanically, and thus represents an opposite extreme to the perfect crystal. This marginal stability gives rise to power law scalings and diverging length scales at the transition. Here I will discuss recent developments that put the jamming transition in the same place that the Ising transition was when Leo Kadanoff introduced the ideas of coarse-graining and rescaling into critical phenomena. Supported by DOE-DE-FG02-05ER46199.

  18. Effect of friction on shear jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ren, Jie; Dijksman, Joshua; Behringer, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Shear Jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficients μs ~= 0 . 6 . Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ϕS <= ϕ <=ϕJ between ϕJ (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ϕS for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of ``force chains,'' which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. We address experimentally how reducing friction affects shear jamming by using either teflon disks of teflon wrapped photoelastic particles. The teflon disks were placed in a wall driven 2D shear apparatus, in which we can probe shear stresses mechanically. Teflon-wrapped disks were placed in a bottom driven 2D shear apparatus (Ren et al., PRL 2013). Both apparatuses provide uniform simple shear. In all low- μ experiments, the shear jamming occurred, as observed through stress increases on the packing. However, the low- μ differences observed for ϕJ -ϕS were smaller than for higher friction particles. Ongoing work is studying systems using hydrogel disks, which have a lower friction coefficient than teflon. We acknowledge support from NSF Grant No. DMR12-06351, ARO Grant No. W911NF-1-11-0110, and NASA Grant No. NNX10AU01G.

  19. Effect of friction on shear jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ren, Jie; Dijksman, Joshua; Behringer, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Shear Jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficients μs ~= 0 . 6 . Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ϕS <= ϕ <=ϕJ between ϕJ (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ϕS for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of ``force chains,'' which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. The issue that we address experimentally is how reducing friction affects shear jamming. We use photoelastic disks that have been wrapped with Teflon, lowering the friction coefficient substantially from previous experiments. The Teflon-wrapped disks were placed in a well-studied 2D shear apparatus (Ren et al., PRL, 110, 018302 (2013)), which provides uniform simple shear without generating shear bands. Shear jamming is still observed, but the difference ϕJ -ϕS is smaller than for higher friction particles. With Teflon-wrapped disks, we observe larger anisotropies compared to the previous experiment with higher friction particles at the same packing fraction, which indicates force chains tending to be straight in the low friction system. We acknowledge support from NSF Grant No. DMR12-06351, ARO Grant No. W911NF-1-11-0110, and NASA Grant No. NNX10AU01G.

  20. Jamming in Disordered and Ordered States: From RLP to FCC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbert, Leonardo

    2011-03-01

    The concept of jamming was originally introduced in the context of zero-temperature, frictionless sphere packings through which the jamming transition was identified with the more familiar idea of random close packing. More recently, the jamming behaviour for particles with friction has led to a practical definition of the less well-defined random loose packed limit. However, there are a number of subtleties associated with jamming that extend these concepts further. Here we implement a range of protocols to generate jammed packings both with and without friction, and find that the jamming transition actually consists of a finite region in packing fraction depending on the protocol used to create the jammed state. Furthermore, we examine how it is possible to tune the structural properties of jammed packings from the disordered regime through to the ordered face centred cubic lattice, and the subsequent changes in the jamming properties as the structure is manipulated. Supported by NSF CBET-0828359.

  1. Jamming Behavior of Domain Walls in an Antiferromagnetic Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sunil

    2014-03-01

    Over the last few years, attempts have been made to unify many aspects of the freezing behavior of glasses, granular materials, gels, supercooled liquids, etc. into a general conceptual framework of what is called jamming behavior. This occurs when particles reach packing densities high enough that their motions become highly restricted. A general phase diagram has been proposed onto which various materials systems, e.g glasses or granular materials, can be mapped. We will discuss some recent applications of resonant and non-resonant soft X-ray Grazing Incidence Scattering to mesoscopic science, for example the study of magnetic domain wall fluctuations in thin films. For these studies, we use resonant magnetic x-ray scattering with a coherent photon beam and the technique of X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy. find that at the ordering temperature the domains of an antiferromagnetic system, namely Dysprosium metal, behave very much also like a jammed system and their associated fluctuations exhibit behavior which exhibit some of the universal characteristics of jammed systems, such as non-exponential relaxation and Vogel-Fulcher type freezing. Work supported by Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Dept. of Energy under Grant Number: DE-SC0003678.

  2. Alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasty: a concise follow-up, at a minimum of ten years, of a previous report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2010-07-21

    We previously reported the five-to-six-year results of the use of third-generation alumina-on-alumina bearings in a consecutive series of 100 primary cementless total hip arthroplasties. This report presents the longer-term outcomes of these same bearings, at a minimum of ten years postoperatively. Eighty-six of eighty-eight hips available for the study retained the original bearings at the time of the latest follow-up. Thirteen hips were associated with noise, and six hips demonstrated fretting of the femoral neck on radiographs. Two hips required a change of the bearings because of a ceramic head fracture. The ten-year survival rate of the alumina-on-alumina total hip prostheses, with revision of any implant for any reason as the end point, was 99.0%. On the basis of those results, we concluded that the rate of survival of primary cementless total hip prostheses with third-generation alumina-on-alumina bearings is excellent at ten years. However, the risk of ceramic fracture, noise, and impingement between the metal neck and the ceramic liner should be a concern to surgeons, and patients should be informed of these risks before surgery. PMID:20660234

  3. Cultur(ally) Jammed: Culture Jams as a Form of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ulyssa

    2012-01-01

    Does the person become the name or does the name become the person? This question was asked by a participant of my culture jam entitled, "What's my name?" In this culture jam, I asked people to discern the name of a person based solely on their appearance and a list of possible names below their picture. This article aims to show how culture jams…

  4. Fluctuations in flows near jamming.

    PubMed

    Woldhuis, Erik; Chikkadi, Vijayakumar; van Deen, Merlijn S; Schall, Peter; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-09-21

    Bubbles, droplets or particles in flowing complex media such as foams, emulsions or suspensions follow highly complex paths, with the relative motion of the constituents setting the energy dissipation rate. What is their dynamics, and how is this connected to the global rheology? To address these questions, we probe the statistics and spatio-temporal organization of the local particle motion and energy dissipation in a model for sheared disordered materials. We find that the fluctuations in the local dissipation vary from nearly Gaussian and homogeneous at low densities and fast flows, to strongly intermittent for large densities and slow flows. The higher order moments of the relative particle velocities reveal strong evidence for a qualitative difference between two distinct regimes which are nevertheless connected by a smooth crossover. In the critical regime, the higher order moments are related by novel multiscaling relations. In the plastic regime the relations between these moments take on a different form, with higher moments diverging rapidly when the flow rate vanishes. As these velocity differences govern the energy dissipation, we can distinguish two qualitatively different types of flow: an intermediate density, critical regime related to jamming, and a large density, plastic regime. PMID:26244633

  5. Ten-year results with the Morscher press-fit cup: an uncemented, non-modular, porous-coated cup inserted without screws.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Guido; Lübbeke, Anne; Barea, Christophe; Roussos, Constantinos; Peter, Robin; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) with well designed cementless acetabular implants has shown excellent results. The purpose of this study was to assess our clinical and radiological outcomes using an uncemented cup. We conducted a prospective cohort study including all consecutive primary THAs performed with the Morscher press-fit cup, an uncemented non-modular acetabular component, between March 1996 and December 1998. Patients were evaluated at ten years with clinical and radiological follow-up, patient satisfaction and questionnaire assessment using the Harris hip score (HHS), Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score, the UCLA score, the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12) and a visual analog scale. Five hundred sixty-one THAs were performed in 518 patients. At 120 months (± 7.3 months), 303 patients with 335 THAs were still available for follow-up. None of the patients had required cup revision for aseptic loosening. At ten years, the cup survivorship was 98.8% (95% CI 97.4-99.5) with cup revision for any cause as an endpoint. No radiolucencies were seen around the cups, but osteolytic defects involved 21 stems (8.3%). Mean total linear polyethylene wear was 0.9 mm. The Morscher acetabular replacement cup provides excellent results at ten years. There were no revisions for aseptic loosening of the cup, and no osteolytic defects were found around the cup. Patient satisfaction was high and the clinical results were very good. PMID:20524114

  6. Traffic jam driving with NMV avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.

  7. Total body irradiation for stage II-IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: ten-year follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, N.P.; Noyes, W.D.; Million, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Between 1972 and 1977, a prospective study was conducted at the University of Florida on the role of total body irradiation (TBI) in the management of stage II-IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Forty-four consecutive de novo (DN) patients (including ten stage II, 18 stage III, and 16 stage IV), as well as 16 previously treated (PT) patients, were accrued. Twenty of the 44 DN patients were symptomatic at presentation. Complete clinical responses were obtained in 20 of the 27 DN patients with favorable histologies (FH), and six of the 17 with unfavorable histologies (UH). Partial responses were obtained in six patients with FH and 11 patients with UH; only one patient showed no response to TBI. By univariate analysis, PT patients showed a trend for decreased relapse-free survival (P = .066) and decreased survival (P = .093). Multivariate analysis identified the best predictors of response rate to be histology (P = .0146) and marrow involvement (P = .0854); of relapse-free survival, histology (P = .0035), and TBI dose (P = .002); and of absolute survival, age (P = .0012), histology (P = .012), and TBI dose (P = .029). Thirty of the 41 patients who relapsed underwent salvage treatment with either chemotherapy or radiation. Twenty-three of the 30 undergoing salvage therapy obtained a second complete clinical response. There were no treatment-related deaths. The most common complication was thrombocytopenia. The major late complications were myeloproliferative disorders in four patients, which occurred only after cumulative TBI doses in excess of 200 cGy.

  8. A Ten-Year Analysis of the Post-Secondary Outcomes of Students with Disabilities at the Pennsylvania State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Barbara S. S.; Herbert, James T.; Petrin, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    This proposed exploratory study represents the largest and first investigation in the USA that will purposefully analyse and track students who have sought disability services over a 10-year span (academic years 2000-2011). Using "ex post-facto" data on a non-probability purposive sample of approximately 6000 undergraduates, the research team will…

  9. City traffic jam relief by stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, F.; Toledo, B. A.; Muñoz, V.; Rogan, J.; Zarama, R.; Kiwi, M.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2014-06-01

    We simulate traffic in a city by means of the evolution of a row of interacting cars, using a cellular automaton model, in a sequence of traffic lights synchronized by a "green wave". When our initial condition is a small density jammed state, its evolution shows the expected scaling laws close to the synchronization resonance, with a uniform car density along the street. However, for an initial large density jammed state, we observe density variations along the streets, which results in the breakdown of the scaling laws. This spatial disorder corresponds to a different attractor of the system. As we include velocity perturbations in the dynamics of the cars, all these attractors converge to a statistically equivalent system for all initial jammed densities. However, this emergent state shows a stochastic resonance-like behavior in which the average traffic velocity increases with respect to that of the system without noise, for several initial jammed densities. This result may help in the understanding of dynamics of traffic jams in cities.

  10. Familial pheochromocytoma, hypercalcemia, and von Hippel-Lindau disease. A ten year study of a large family.

    PubMed

    Atuk, N O; McDonald, T; Wood, T; Carpenter, J T; Walzak, M P; Donaldson, M; Gillenwater, J Y

    1979-05-01

    Long-term epidemiological and laboratory studies were carried out in a kindred with familial pheochromocytoma associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. Thirteen members were affected by the syndrome and the trait appears to be transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. Of 13 patients, 7 had pheochromocytoma alone. Of the remaining six patients, one had pheochromocytoma combined with von Hippel-Lindau disease, four had pheochromocytoma with retinal disease only, and a single patient had a retinal lesion without pheochromocytoma. In four patients, pheochromocytoma antedated the development of retinal lesions. Ten members also had mild hypercalcemia without accompanying elevations of PTH in the 4 patients in whom this was determined. In all, hypercalcemia was corrected with removal of tumors, and no patient had a return of hypercalcemia in the absence of recurrent increases in urinary catecholamines. The clinical presentations in 12 patients varied markedly, as did their urinary excretion rates of norepinephrine, epinephrine and their metabolites. However, an analysis of the data revealed significant correlations not previously described between the urinary excretion of free catecholamines (norepinephrine plus epinephrine), blood pressure, the free catecholamine content of the tumor and the age of the patient. Urinary excretion of free norepinephrine plus epinephrine appear to be decreased with advancing age (p less than 0.001). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the age of the patient were inversely correlated (p less than 0.01). A significant inverse relationship between the tumor content of free catecholamines and the age of the patients was, although to a lesser degree, also present (p less than 0.05). As a whole, the size of the tumors and their norepinephrine content were not correlated. We present a concept that, in familial pheochromocytoma, the metabolism of catecholamines is altered by the process of aging, and that this change modifies the

  11. Characterization and evaluation of acid rain in East Central Florida from 1978 to 1987: Ten year summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Brooks C.; Dreschel, Thomas W.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1989-01-01

    Rainfall was collected on the University of Central Florida (UCF) campus near Orlando since July 1977 and at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida since August 1977. Since November 1983, the KSC site has been affiliated with the National Atmospheric Deposition Network. Annual volume weighted pH was slightly above the 10 year mean of 4.58 during four of the past five years. Nitrate concentrations have risen somewhat during recent years while excess sulfate concentrations have remained below the 10 year mean during four of the past years. These observations hold for both the UCF and KSC data. The distribution of individual sample pH was nearly identical at UCF and KSC. Stepwise regression suggests that sulfate, nitrate, ammonium ion, and calcium play major roles in the description of rainwater acidity. Annual acid deposition and annual rainfall have varied from 30 to 50 meq/m2-yr and 100 to 180 cm/yr, respectively. Sea salt comprises about 25 percent (UCF) and greater than 50 percent (KSC) of total ionic composition.

  12. Congenital Kyphoscoliosis in Monozygotic Twins: Ten-Year Follow-up Treated by Posterior Vertebral Column Resection (PVCR)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Dong-Gune; Yang, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Suh, Seung-Woo; Ha, Kee-Yong; Suk, Se-Il

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The etiology of congenital scoliosis and its development remains unclear and has not yet been fully identified, even there are theories that congenital scoliosis could be derived from the failure of formation or failure of segmentation, which are etiologically heterogeneous with genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors contributing to their occurrence. We reported a case of long-term follow-up after posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR) in both identical twins with similar congenital kyphoscoliosis at thoracolumbar levels. Twin I had been noticed by his parents to have asymmetry of his back at age 5 years, but no treatment was given. Twin II was first noticed to have a spinal problem at 11 years of age by his parents. Overtime, spine of both twins became further deviated to the left with kyphosis and was referred to our hospital. Both monozygotic twins were treated by PVCR and satisfactory results were demonstrated at 10-year follow-up. This case is the first report on the surgical treatment with PVCR, almost simultaneously, in both identical twins who had similar congenital vertebral anomalies causing kyphoscoliosis. Both identical twins with congenital kyphoscoliosis had undergone surgical correction by PVCR, anterior support with a mesh cage and posterior fusion using pedicle screws at the age of 14 years and achieved a satisfactory correction and a stable spine without curve progression with 10-year follow-up. PMID:27124052

  13. Ten-Year Results From the Natrelle 410 Anatomical Form-Stable Silicone Breast Implant Core Study

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, G. Patrick; Van Natta, Bruce W.; Bengtson, Bradley P.; Murphy, Diane K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Silicone breast implants have long been used for breast augmentation and reconstruction. During this time, these medical devices have gone through a number of modifications to improve their safety, quality, and clinical outcome performance. Objectives The authors conducted a 10-year study to determine the safety and effectiveness of Natrelle 410 silicone breast implants. Methods This prospective, multicenter study enrolled 941 subjects who were undergoing either augmentation, augmentation revision, reconstruction, or reconstruction revision. Data on complications, reoperations, explantations, and subject satisfaction were collected at annual clinic visits, and one-third of subjects underwent biennial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to screen for implant rupture. The authors used the Kaplan-Meier estimator to calculate risk rates for local complications, reoperations, and explantations. Results Capsular contracture rates increased approximately 1% per year from the previously reported 6-year rates. The rates were significantly lower than those from the Natrelle round gel core study. The overall rate of confirmed ruptured implants in subjects who underwent MRI was 5.7%. Eleven late seromas were reported. The most common reason for explantation was a subject requesting a size or style change. Satisfaction rates remained high through 10 years, with most subjects saying they were somewhat or definitely satisfied with their implants. Conclusions This 10-year prospective trial demonstrated the long-term safety and effectiveness of Natrelle 410 anatomical form-stable implants. The complication rates were low and the satisfaction rates were high. Level of Evidence: 1 Therapeutic PMID:25717116

  14. Jamming threshold of dry fine powders.

    PubMed

    Valverde, J M; Quintanilla, M A S; Castellanos, A

    2004-06-25

    We report a novel experimental study on the jamming transition of dry fine powders with controlled attractive energy and particle size. Like in attractive colloids dry fine particles experience diffusion-limited clustering in the fluidlike regime. At the jamming threshold fractal clusters crowd in a metastable state at volume fractions depending on attractive energy and close to the volume fraction of hard nonattractive spheres at jamming. Near the phase transition the stress-(volume fraction) relationship can be fitted to a critical-like functional form for a small range of applied stresses sigma approximately (phi-phi(J))(beta) as measured on foams, emulsions, and colloidal systems and predicted by numerical simulations on hard spheres. PMID:15245067

  15. Pressure-driven suspension flow near jamming.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sangwon; Song, Yi-qiao; Garagash, Dmitry I; Lecampion, Brice; Desroches, Jean

    2015-02-27

    We report here magnetic resonance imaging measurements performed on suspensions with a bulk solid volume fraction (ϕ_{0}) up to 0.55 flowing in a pipe. We visualize and quantify spatial distributions of ϕ and velocity across the pipe at different axial positions. For dense suspensions (ϕ_{0}>0.5), we found a different behavior compared to the known cases of lower ϕ_{0}. Our experimental results demonstrate compaction within the jammed region (characterized by a zero macroscopic shear rate) from the jamming limit ϕ_{m}≈0.58 at its outer boundary to the random close packing limit ϕ_{rcp}≈0.64 at the center. Additionally, we show that ϕ and velocity profiles can be fairly well captured by a frictional rheology accounting for both further compaction of jammed regions as well as normal stress differences. PMID:25768782

  16. Ten Years of Abstinence in Former Opiate Addicts: Medication-Free Non-Patients Compared to Methadone Maintenance Patients.

    PubMed

    Peles, Einat; Sason, Anat; Tene, Oren; Domany, Yoav; Schreiber, Shaul; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-five former opioid addicts who have been methadone maintained patients for 10 or more years and whose urine has tested negative for drugs for 2 or more years were compared to 99 former opioid addicts who have been medication-free for 10 or more years. Groups were comparable in age and education, but the medication-free subjects were younger when having started opioids with more severe addiction scores. Methadone maintained patients presented with a higher proportion of psychiatric comorbidity and chronic pain. Their scores of perceived sleep quality and cognitive state were poorer than the medication-free individuals. Possible explanations of the differences are discussed in this article. PMID:26284418

  17. Ten-Year Safety with Polyacrylamide Gel Used to Correct Facial Lipoatrophy in HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Negredo, Eugenia; Puig, Jordi; Ornelas, Arelly; Echeverría, Patricia; Bonjoch, Anna; Estany, Carla; Higueras, Carmen; Gonzalez-Mestre, Vicente; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2015-08-01

    Long-term results (>5 years) for synthetic substances used to repair facial lipoatrophy have not been published. We performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the 10-year safety of polyacrylamide hydrogel (Aquamid) among the 751 patients from our unit who received facial infiltrations at least 10 years ago. Epidemiological and clinical data such as complications and patient satisfaction were collected. We also identified those patients who presented a facial infection at any time after infiltration. A total of 104 patients had received Aquamid at least 10 years ago. Before infiltrations, 24.0%, 41.3%, and 34.7% presented very severe, severe, and moderate facial lipoatrophy, respectively. After a mean (SD) of 10.3 (0.5) years since the infiltrations, 19.2%, 47.7%, and 31.7% of patients reported moderate, mild, and no signs of facial lipoatrophy. The values reported by physicians for the same categories were 1.9%, 10.6%, and 87.5%. Indurations were detected in 6.7% of patients and nodules in 3.8%. Five patients (4.8%) had a local infection. A further 15 patients with a shorter follow-up (less than 10 years) presented local infections (overall incidence considering the 751 patients who received infiltrations of Aquamid, 2.7%); the product had to be withdrawn in three cases. The majority of patients were highly satisfied (74.8%) or satisfied (23.4%) with the cosmetic results; among patients with severe or very severe lipoatrophy at baseline, 31.4% were satisfied and 65.7% were highly satisfied. Infiltrations with polyacrylamide hydrogel (Aquamid) are a safe strategy for the treatment of facial lipoatrophy in the long term. The rate of severe complications was low, and patient satisfaction with the cosmetic results was high. However, facial infections may appear in the long term. Therefore, HIV-infected patients who received synthetic substances should be carefully monitored over time. PMID:25858612

  18. Cholera ante portas – The re-emergence of cholera in Kinshasa after a ten-year hiatus

    PubMed Central

    Bompangue, Didier; Vesenbeckh, Silvan Manuel; Giraudoux, Patrick; Castro, Marcia; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Kebela Ilunga, Benoît; Murray, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cholera is an endemic disease in certain well-defined areas in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The west of the country, including the mega-city Kinshasa, has been free of cases since mid 2001 when the last outbreak ended. Methods and Findings: We used routinely collected passive surveillance data to construct epidemic curves of the cholera cases and map the spatio-temporal progress of the disease during the first 47 weeks of 2011. We compared the spatial distribution of disease spread to that which occurred in the last cholera epidemic in Kinshasa between 1996 and 2001. To better understand previous determinants of cholera spread in this region, we conducted a correlation analysis to assess the impact of rainfall on weekly health zone cholera case counts between December 1998 and March 2001 and a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) regression analysis to identify factors that have been associated with the most vulnerable health zones within Kinshasa between October 1998 and June 1999. In February 2011, cholera reemerged in a region surrounding Kisangani and gradually spread westwards following the course of the Congo River to Kinshasa, home to 10 million people. Ten sampled isolates were confirmed to be Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba, resistant to trimethoprim-sulfa, furazolidone, nalidixic acid, sulfisoxaole, and streptomycin, and intermediate resistant to Chloramphenicol. An analysis of a previous outbreak in Kinshasa shows that rainfall was correlated with case counts and that health zone population densities as well as fishing and trade activities were predictors of case counts. Conclusion: Cholera is particularly difficult to tackle in the DRC. Given the duration of the rainy season and increased riverine traffic from the eastern provinces in late 2011, we expect further increases in cholera in the coming months and especially within the mega-city Kinshasa. We urge all partners involved in the response to remain

  19. Ten Years Of Subsidence Monitoring With SAR Interferometry And Its Contribution To Risk Management In Aguascalientes, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel, Ruben; Castaneda, Laura; Taud, Hind; Lira, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    A Study involving GPS and differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) monitoring is developed to investigate a subsidence phenomenon in Aguascalientes valley and to obtain displacement models concerned with risk management applications and geodetic purposes. DInSAR study with archived Envisat data allows accumulated displacement mapping yearly, and recent TerraSAR-X data implementation provides a more accurate estimation of displacements, which is used for developing models to correct geodetic positions. The maximum subsidence rate calculated is 15 cm/year with a decreasing rate throughout time in some areas.

  20. A Ten-Year Assessment of a Biomedical Engineering Summer Research Internship within a Comprehensive Cancer Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, A. S.; Wu, X.; Frye, C. A.; Mathur, A. B.; Patrick, C. W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    A Biomedical Engineering Internship Program conducted within a Comprehensive Cancer Center over a 10 year period was assessed and evaluated. Although this is a non-traditional location for an internship, it is an ideal site for a multidisciplinary training program for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students. We made a…

  1. Ten Years Later: Findings from a Replication of a Study of Teacher Evaluation Practices in Our 100 Largest School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loup, Karen S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A follow-up was conducted 10 years after a study of teacher evaluation practices in the 100 largest US school districts to determine changes since 1987. Responses from 68 districts show that teacher evaluation practices and policies at the local level usually still do not incorporate important research findings. (SLD)

  2. Long-Term Effects of Otitis Media a Ten-Year Cohort Study of Alaskan Eskimo Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Gary J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Histories of ear disease, otoscopic examinations, and audiologic, intelligence, and achievement tests were obtained from a cohort of 489 Alaskan Eskimo children, followed through the first 10 years of life, to determine whether otitis media (middle ear inflammation) deleteriously affected intellectual functioning and achievement in school.…

  3. Interpersonal Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Change in Adolescent Substance Use Prevalence over a Ten-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified recent declines in specific types of adolescent substance use. The current study examined whether these declines varied among youth with and without a history of interpersonal victimization or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data for this study come from two distinct samples of youth (12-17 years of…

  4. 78 FR 46816 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... CO NAAQS in 1988 and 1989 (56 FR 56694, November 6, 1991). On September 16, 1997, the Governor of... maintenance plan on March 10, 1999 (64 FR 11775). On June 20, 2003, the Governor of Colorado submitted to EPA... (70 FR 48650). Eight years after an area is redesignated to attainment, CAA section 175A(b)...

  5. 78 FR 78797 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... 1990. See 56 FR 56694, 56705, 56736 (November 6, 1991). EPA approved Colorado's nonattainment area SIP for the Pagosa Springs PM 10 nonattainment area on May 19, 1994 (59 FR 26126). On May 10, 2000, the..., 2001 (66 FR 32556). Eight years after an area is redesignated to attainment, CAA section...

  6. 78 FR 41307 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... upon enactment of the CAA Amendments of 1990. See 56 FR 56694, 56705, 56736 (November 6, 1991). EPA... (58 FR 68036) and its PM 10 contingency measures SIP for the area on December 14, 1994 (59 FR 64332... attainment on May 30, 2000 (65 FR 34399). Eight years after an area is redesignated to attainment,...

  7. 78 FR 57496 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    .... See 56 FR 56694, 56705, 56736 (November 6, 1991). EPA fully approved Colorado's nonattainment area SIP for the Aspen area on September 14, 1994 (59 FR 47088). On November 9, 2001, the Governor of Colorado... plan and redesignation to attainment on May 15, 2003 (68 FR 26212). Eight years after an area...

  8. Transfer Effects in Spelling from Transparent Greek to Opaque English in Seven-to-Ten-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niolaki, Georgia Z.; Masterson, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated single-word spelling performance of 33 English- and 38 Greek-speaking monolingual children, and 46 English- and Greek-speaking bilingual children (age range from 6;7 to 10;1 years). The bilingual children were divided into two groups on the basis of their single-word reading and spelling performance in Greek. In line with…

  9. Credits and Attainment: Returns to Postsecondary Education Ten Years after High School. Statistical Analysis Report. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Brian; Dawson, Royal

    This analysis examined 16 student characteristics and their association with earnings 10 years after high school. The study used data from the High School and Beyond Longitudinal Study (HS&B) and the HS&B Postsecondary Education Transcript (PETS) file. The information in these files was gathered through a nationally representative survey of high…

  10. Ten-year trends in the health of young children in California: 2003 to 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Holtby, Sue; Zahnd, Elaine; Grant, David

    2015-05-01

    This policy brief presents 10-year trends in several key health and wellness indicators for children ages 0-5 in California. These indicators are health insurance coverage; source of medical care; dental visits; overweight-for-age; parents singing and reading to their child and going out with the child; and preschool attendance. The data are from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), the largest state health survey in the U.S. The survey gathers information on a range of health behaviors and health conditions, as well as on access to health care among children, adolescents, and adults in California. A number of these key indicators are compared by income and by racial/ethnic group. This policy brief covers the years 2003 to 2011-2012, a period in which public health efforts for children focused on childhood obesity and improved nutrition, access to low-cost and free dental services, and the expansion of children's health insurance programs. CHIS data show improvement in health insurance coverage and access to dental services for low-income children over the 10-year period. However, the percentage of children who were overweight for their age remained unchanged among those in households with incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty level (FPL). In terms of measures associated with school readiness, preschool attendance dropped overall between 2003 and 2011-2012, but the proportions of parents who sang, read, and went out with their children every day increased significantly during the 10-year period. PMID:26072529

  11. Journal of a Living Experiment: A Documentary History of the First Ten Years of Teachers and Writers Collaborative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopate, Phillip, Ed.

    Intended to celebrate the first 10 years of Teachers and Writers Collaborative (the original organization which sent poets, novelists, and other artists into the schools on a regular basis), this book contains 29 articles, diaries, letters, manifestos, graphics, and memoirs. The book contains the following articles: (1) "Roots and Origins" (P.…

  12. Responding to information about children in adversity: ten years of a differential response model in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Harries, Maria; Cant, Rosemary L; Bilson, Andy; Thorpe, David

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a comprehensive database about children in adversity collected over the 16-year period from 1990 to 2005 in the state of Western Australia. The focus of this interrogation is the effect of major changes in responses to information about children brought to the attention of the Western Australian statutory authority in a 10-year period during this 16 years. The initiative for these changes was termed New Directions, and its associated policy and practice changes were aimed at differentiating information expressing concerns about children and families from allegations of child maltreatment. They emphasized the provision of supportive and empowering services to families experiencing difficulties - a form of differential response to children in adversity. The article covers the period leading up to the policy and practice change and the 10 years during which these changes were implemented. It examines some effects of the new policy and comments on whether the changes resulted in missed opportunities to protect children from harm, which in turn, might have led to higher rates of re-reporting. The authors present an overall picture of the nature of the information accepted by the statutory authority and how the interpretation of that information might have affected subsequent outcomes for children. In doing so, it shows that the policy and consequential practice changes associated with a differential response mechanism had long lasting positive effects that, despite dire warnings, did not compromise the protection of the small group of children identified as requiring protective interventions. PMID:25043920

  13. Roles Male and Female Public Relations Students Hope To Play within Ten Years after Graduation: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Gay

    A pilot study was conducted to address the professional and personal roles male and female public relations students hope to play within 10 years after their graduations and to determine whether any differences were significant enough to warrant more extensive study of this phenomenon. The null hypotheses employed included: (1) there will be no…

  14. Ten-year survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation as a first-line treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Yan, Kun; Goldberg, S Nahum; Ahmed, Muneeb; Lee, Jung-Chieh; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Zhong-Yi; Wang, Song; Chen, Min-Hua

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the long-term survival and prognostic factors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation (RFA) as a first-line treatment. METHODS: From 2000 to 2013, 316 consecutive patients with 404 HCC (1.0-5.0 cm; mean: 3.2 ± 1.1 cm) underwent ultrasonography-guided percutaneous RFA as a first-line treatment. There were 250 males and 66 females with an average age of 60.1 ± 10.8 years (24-87 years). Patients were followed for 1 year to > 10 years after RFA (234, 181, 136, and 71 for 3, 5, 7, and 10 years, respectively). Overall local response rates and long-term survival rates were assessed. Survival results were generated using Kaplan-Meier estimates, and multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox regression model. RESULTS: In total, 548 RFA sessions were performed and major complications occurred in 10 sessions (1.8%). Local tumor progression and/or new tumor development were observed in 43.3% (132/305) of the patients during the follow-up period. Overall 5- and 10-year survival rates were 49.7% and 28.4%, respectively. Based on multivariate analysis, three factors were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival: Child-Pugh classification (HR = 4.054, P < 0.001), portal vein hypertension (HR = 2.743, P = 0.002), and tumor number (HR = 2.693, P = 0.003). The local progression-free 5- and 10-year survival rates were 42.7% and 19.5%. In addition to the Child-Pugh classification and the number of tumors, the number of RFA sessions (HR = 1.550, P = 0.002) was associated with local progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: RFA can achieve acceptable outcomes for HCC patients as a first-line treatment, especially for patients with Child-Pugh class A, patients with a single tumor and patients without portal vein hypertension. PMID:26973395

  15. Ten years of elemental atmospheric metal fallout and Pb isotopic composition monitoring using lichens in north-eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloquet, Christophe; Estrade, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    We report on the chemical and Pb isotopic compositions of epiphytic lichens collected from small tree branches in the urban area of the city of Metz (NE France). Lichens were collected in five different years between 2001 and 2009. The data are first compared year to year in order to document any temporal changes and trends in metal atmospheric fallout. The area studied was then subdivided into different zones on the basis of land-use (urban, suburban, rural and industrial) in order to determine potential spatial gradients. The median concentrations and enrichment factors (EF, normalized to Al) of Pb and other metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe) in lichens from the urban, suburban, and rural zones show no systematic variation between 2001 and 2008. However, the metal EFs show spatial variation and are generally highest in the urban area and lowest in the rural area. Lichens within the industrial zone (collected in 2009), which is dominated by steel industries, are richest in Al, Fe, Cr, Pb, and Zn. Although the Al concentration is high in these lichens, the EFs for the cited metals are several times higher than those measured in lichens from the other three zones. No significant differences were noted for Hg, Cd, Cu and or Ni. Lead isotopic compositions measured in lichens may be highly variable from year to year and from zone to zone. The variation is primarily interpreted to result from mixing between: (i) Pb added to gasoline (and recycled through re-emission of road dust in the atmosphere); (ii) regional industrial Pb from long-range transportation and/or mixed with urban Pb; and (iii) local industrial Pb. The median isotopic compositions of individual zones are distinct, suggesting variable mixing of these three sources. The annual variations show that 2001 was most affected by gasoline Pb, whereas 2003 and 2006 were more affected by the local steel industry.

  16. Recovery potential of a western lowland gorilla population following a major Ebola outbreak: results from a ten year study.

    PubMed

    Genton, Céline; Cristescu, Romane; Gatti, Sylvain; Levréro, Florence; Bigot, Elodie; Caillaud, Damien; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Ménard, Nelly

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the recovery capacity of wildlife populations following demographic crashes is of great interest to ecologists and conservationists. Opportunities to study these aspects are rare due to the difficulty of monitoring populations both before and after a demographic crash. Ebola outbreaks in central Africa have killed up to 95% of the individuals in affected western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) populations. Assessing whether and how fast affected populations recover is essential for the conservation of this critically endangered taxon. The gorilla population visiting Lokoué forest clearing, Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Republic of the Congo, has been monitored before, two years after and six years after Ebola affected it in 2004. This allowed us to describe Ebola's short-term and long-term impacts on the structure of the population. The size of the population, which included around 380 gorillas before the Ebola outbreak, dropped to less than 40 individuals after the outbreak. It then remained stable for six years after the outbreak. However, the demographic structure of this small population has significantly changed. Although several solitary males have disappeared, the immigration of adult females, the formation of new breeding groups, and several birth events suggest that the population is showing potential to recover. During the outbreak, surviving adult and subadult females joined old solitary silverbacks. Those females were subsequently observed joining young silverbacks, forming new breeding groups where they later gave birth. Interestingly, some females were observed joining silverbacks that were unlikely to have sired their infant, but no infanticide was observed. The consequences of the Ebola outbreak on the population structure were different two years and six years after the outbreak. Therefore, our results could be used as demographic indicators to detect and date outbreaks that have happened in other, non-monitored gorilla

  17. Ten years of elemental atmospheric metal fallout and Pb isotopic composition monitoring using lichens in northeastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloquet, Christophe; Estrade, Nicolas; Carignan, Jean

    2015-09-01

    We report on the chemical and Pb isotopic compositions of epiphytic lichens collected from small tree branches in the urban area of the city of Metz (NE France). Lichens were collected in five different years between 2001 and 2009. The data are first compared year to year in order to document any temporal change and trend in metal atmospheric fallout. The area studied was then subdivided into different zones on the basis of land use (urban, suburban, rural and industrial) in order to determine potential spatial gradients. The median concentrations and enrichment factors (EF, normalized to Al) of Pb and other metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe) in lichens from the urban, suburban, and rural zones show no systematic variation between 2001 and 2008. However, the metal EFs show spatial variation and are generally highest in the urban area and lowest in the rural area. Lichens within the industrial zone (collected in 2009), which is dominated by steel industries, are richest in Al, Fe, Cr, Pb, and Zn. Although the Al concentration is high in these lichens, the EFs for the cited metals are several times higher than those measured in lichens from the other three zones. No significant differences were noted for Hg, Cd, Cu and or Ni. Pb isotopic compositions measured in lichens may be highly variable from year to year and from zone to zone. The variation is primarily interpreted to result from mixing between: (i) Pb added to gasoline (and recycled through re-emission of road dust in the atmosphere); (ii) regional industrial Pb from long-range transportation and/or mixed with urban Pb; and (iii) local industrial Pb. The median isotopic compositions of individual zones are distinct, suggesting variable mixing of these three sources. The annual variations show that 2001 was most affected by gasoline Pb, whereas 2003 and 2006 were more affected by the local steel industry.

  18. Recovery Potential of a Western Lowland Gorilla Population following a Major Ebola Outbreak: Results from a Ten Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Sylvain; Levréro, Florence; Bigot, Elodie; Caillaud, Damien; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Ménard, Nelly

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the recovery capacity of wildlife populations following demographic crashes is of great interest to ecologists and conservationists. Opportunities to study these aspects are rare due to the difficulty of monitoring populations both before and after a demographic crash. Ebola outbreaks in central Africa have killed up to 95% of the individuals in affected western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) populations. Assessing whether and how fast affected populations recover is essential for the conservation of this critically endangered taxon. The gorilla population visiting Lokoué forest clearing, Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Republic of the Congo, has been monitored before, two years after and six years after Ebola affected it in 2004. This allowed us to describe Ebola's short-term and long-term impacts on the structure of the population. The size of the population, which included around 380 gorillas before the Ebola outbreak, dropped to less than 40 individuals after the outbreak. It then remained stable for six years after the outbreak. However, the demographic structure of this small population has significantly changed. Although several solitary males have disappeared, the immigration of adult females, the formation of new breeding groups, and several birth events suggest that the population is showing potential to recover. During the outbreak, surviving adult and subadult females joined old solitary silverbacks. Those females were subsequently observed joining young silverbacks, forming new breeding groups where they later gave birth. Interestingly, some females were observed joining silverbacks that were unlikely to have sired their infant, but no infanticide was observed. The consequences of the Ebola outbreak on the population structure were different two years and six years after the outbreak. Therefore, our results could be used as demographic indicators to detect and date outbreaks that have happened in other, non-monitored gorilla

  19. Ten-Year Results of Primary and Revision Condylar-Constrained Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients with Severe Coronal Plane Instability

    PubMed Central

    Camera, Andrea; Biggi, Stefano; Cattaneo, Gabriele; Brusaferri, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Objective : To retrospectively review the results at minimum ten years after surgery of a consecutive series of total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) performed using a constrained condylar implant in patients with severe coronal plane instability. Materials and Methods : The series comprised of 44 patients (45 knees) who received primary (19 knees) or revision (26 knees) TKA with a constrained condylar implant between 2001 and 2003 at a single institution. Results : There were no revisions or any other surgery related complications at a mean implantation time of 11.0 years. In 38 patients (15 knees in the primary group and 24 knees in the revision group) who were available for clinico-radiographic follow-up at a minimum of ten years, there was no sign of radiographic loosening. Two patients showed cortical hypertrophy at the extension stem tip but none complained of pain around the stem tip. According to the TLKSS score grading, 73% of the patients in the primary group had results categorized as good or excellent, while 54% of the patients in the revision group had fair results. Four patients (one (7%) in the primary group and three (13%) in the revision group) had poor results. The median WOMAC Index was 80.2% (interquartile range: 74.0% - 81.2%) and 74.0% (interquartile range: 72.1% - 75.8%) in the primary and in the revision groups, respectively (p=0.010). Conclusion : This study showed satisfactory clinical outcomes with no re-operations at minimum ten years after implantation in patients who had undergone primary or revision TKA with a condylar constrained implant. PMID:26401160

  20. Two to ten years: Developmental trajectories of joint attention in children with ASD who received targeted social communication interventions

    PubMed Central

    Gulsrud, Amanda C.; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Freeman, Stephanny F.N.; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Lay Abstract This study follows 40 children who were participants in a randomized controlled early intervention trial (Kasari et al., 2006, 2008, 2012) from early childhood (2–5 years of age) to elementary school age (8–10 years). The growth trajectories of social-communication and language outcomes in these children were estimated based on 5 time points during that period. The children were grouped by diagnosis at the last follow-up (Autism, ASD, No Diagnosis) and by their original treatment group assignment (Joint attention, Symbolic Play, Control), and differences between these groups evaluated. Results showed that joint attention skills of coordinated joint looking and showing increased over time and pointing to share interest increased over the first year measured and decreased thereafter. These trajectories were influenced by both original treatment assignment and diagnostic status at the follow-up. In addition, a cross-lagged panel analysis suggests a causal relationship between early pointing and later language development. This study highlights the longitudinal and developmental importance of measures of early core deficits in autism and suggests that both treatment and ASD symptomatology may influence growth in these skills over time. Scientific Abstract This study follows 40 children who were participants in a randomized controlled early intervention trial (Kasari et al., 2006, 2008, 2012) from early childhood (2–5 years of age) to elementary school age (8–10 years). To fully utilize the available longitudinal data, the general linear mixed model (GLMM) was the primary analytical approach. The growth trajectories of joint attention skills (pointing, coordinated joint looking and showing) and expressive language outcomes in these children were estimated based on 5 time points during the measurement period. The children were grouped by diagnosis at the last follow-up (Autism, ASD, No Diagnosis) and by their original treatment group assignment

  1. Epidemiological Study of RRT-Treated ESRD in Nanjing - A Ten-Year Experience in Nearly Three Million Insurance Covered Population

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu-Chen; Huang, Han-Ming; Sun, Ling; Tan, Chao-Ming; Gao, Min; Liu, Hong; Tang, Ri-Ning; Wang, Yan-Li; Wang, Bei; Ma, Kun-Ling; Liu, Bi-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background The growing burden of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been a great challenge to the health care system of China. However, the exact epidemiological data for ESRD in China remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of ESRD treated by renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Nanjing based on analysing ten-year data of Nanjing three million insurance covered population. Methods Using the electronic registry system of Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI), we included all subjects insured by UEBMI in Nanjing from 2005 to 2014 and identified subjects who developed ESRD and started RRT in this cohort. Results The UEBMI population in Nanjing increased from 1,301,882 in 2005 to 2,921,065 in 2014, among which a total of 5,840 subjects developed ESRD and received RRT. Over the 10-year period, the adjusted incidence rates of RRT in the UEBMI cohort gradually decreased from 289.3pmp in 2005 to 218.8pmp in 2014. However, the adjusted prevalence rate increased steadily from 891.7pmp in 2005 to 1,228.6pmp in 2014. The adjusted annual mortality rate decreased from 138.4 per 1000 patient-years in 2005 to 97.8 per 1000 patient-years in 2014. The long-term survival rate fluctuated over the past decade, with the 1-year survival rate ranging from 85.1% to 91.7%, the 3-year survival rate from 69.9% to 78.3% and the 5-year survival rate from 58% to 65.4%. Conclusion Nanjing is facing an increasing burden of ESRD with its improvement of medical reform. The ten-year complete registry data on RRT in urban employees in Nanjing provided a unique opportunity to understand the real threat of ESRD confronting China during its process of health care transition. PMID:26889828

  2. Two to ten years: developmental trajectories of joint attention in children with ASD who received targeted social communication interventions.

    PubMed

    Gulsrud, Amanda C; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Freeman, Stephanny F N; Kasari, Connie

    2014-04-01

    This study follows 40 children who were participants in a randomized controlled early intervention trial (Kasari et al.) from early childhood (2-5 years of age) to elementary school age (8-10 years). To fully utilize the available longitudinal data, the general linear mixed model was the primary analytical approach. The growth trajectories of joint attention skills (pointing, coordinated joint looking, and showing) and expressive language outcomes in these children were estimated based on five time points during the measurement period. The children were grouped by diagnosis at the last follow-up (autism, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), no diagnosis) and by their original treatment group assignment (joint attention, symbolic play, control), and differences between these groups were evaluated. Results showed that joint attention skills of coordinated joint looking and showing increased over time, and pointing to share interest increased over the first year measured and decreased thereafter. These trajectories were influenced by both original treatment assignment and diagnostic status at follow-up. In addition, a cross-lagged panel analysis revealed a causal relationship between early pointing and later language development. This study highlights the longitudinal and developmental importance of measures of early core deficits in autism, and suggests that both treatment and ASD symptomatology may influence growth in these skills over time. PMID:24550145

  3. Ten Years' Follow-Up on Combined Palmar and Dorsal Internal Fixation of Complex Distal Radius Fractures.

    PubMed

    Iselin, Lukas Daniel; Massy-Budmiger, Anne-Sophie; Droeser, Raoul A; Mett, Tobias R; Babst, Reto; Rikli, Daniel A

    2016-05-01

    Complex distal intra-articular radial fractures (AO Type C3) are rare, but are life-changing injuries. They are usually related to high-velocity trauma mechanisms in a working male population.We surveyed a cohort of these fractures treated in our institution to assess the functional long-term outcome.Twelve consecutive patients with comminuted intra-articular distal radial fractures were treated at our institution. Osteosynthesis was performed by a single senior surgeon with volar and dorsal extended approaches. The intermediate and final control included conventional X-ray, range of motion (ROM), grip strength, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand index (DASH), as well as the Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) score for functional outcome at 1 and 10 years' of follow-up.At 10 years' follow-up, anatomic reconstruction with a step or gap of <1 mm was achieved in 10 of the 12 above-mentioned patients, whereas 2 patients were lost to follow-up. ROM was good to excellent in 8 patients. Median grip strength was 107% of the contralateral side. Median DASH-Index and PRWE were 2.3 and 6 respectively, at 10 years. Eight patients returned to premorbid heavy labor. One patient was retired at the time of injury.Combined volar and dorsal approaches allow achieving anatomical reconstruction in comminuted intra-articular distal radius fractures and reveal good functional outcomes at intermediate and long-time follow-up. PMID:27149450

  4. Analysis of a single Helicobacter pylori strain over a ten-year period in a primate model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Fero, Jutta B.; Mendez, Melissa; Carpenter, Beth M.; Servetas, Stephanie L.; Rahman, Arifur; Goldman, Matthew D.; Boren, Thomas; Salama, Nina R.; Merrell, D. Scott; Dubois, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori from different individuals exhibits substantial genetic diversity. However, the kinetics of bacterial diversification after infection with a single strain is poorly understood. We investigated evolution of H. pylori following long-term infection in the primate stomach; Rhesus macaques were infected with H. pylori strain USU101 and then followed for 10 years. H. pylori was regularly cultured from biopsies, and single colony isolates were analyzed. At 1-year, DNA fingerprinting showed that all output isolates were identical to the input strain; however, at 5-years, different H. pylori fingerprints were observed. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed that long term persistence of USU101 in the macaque stomach was associated with specific whole gene changes. Further detailed investigation showed that levels of the BabA protein were dramatically reduced within weeks of infection. The molecular mechanisms behind this reduction were shown to include phase variation and gene loss via intragenomic rearrangement, suggesting strong selective pressure against BabA expression in the macaque model. Notably, although there is apparently strong selective pressure against babA, babA is required for establishment of infection in this model as stains in which babA was deleted were unable to colonize experimentally infected macaques. PMID:25804332

  5. [Evaluation of France's contributions to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: Ten years later].

    PubMed

    Kerouedan, D

    2014-01-01

    For 30 years, France has been very committed politically in the international combat against AIDS. The discovery of the AIDS virus at the Pasteur Institute in 1983, the AIDS summit meeting convened by Simone Veil in 1994, the excellence of research by French institutions on its virologic and other aspects as well as the socioeconomic and anthropological issues, and the strong commitment to international technical cooperation against this disease - all these have made (and continue to make) France a major political, technical, and financial participant in this battle against the combined pandemic of AIDS and tuberculosis. More than 10 years after the creation of the Global Fund, 5 years after the first evaluation of this Fund, and 2 years before the schedule for meeting the Millennium Development Goals, an assessment commissioned in 2013 from a French consulting firm of the French contributions is timely. The study was expected. Its results are disappointing. Why? Because the team chosen to conduct the assessment has a limited knowledge of the history of the interventions already funded by France and of the results of earlier assessments. The point was not to repeat the same observations but to move forward to see where they lead. In addition, the current and coming challenges are not considered. The countries to which France is providing cooperation are on the continent that after 30 years remains the most heavily affected by the pandemic. Several transitions are occurring there simultaneously: epidemiologic, demographic and urban. These metamorphoses influencing social values quite substantially, as well as risk factors for transmission of the AIDS virus; at the same time, they facilitate overcrowding and the propagation of tuberculosis. Nor do the authors consider the resistance of these infectious agents to the most commonly used drugs. The effects of the propagation of AIDS, of the expansion of armed conflicts in French-speaking Africa and of the sexual

  6. Ten-Year Locoregional Recurrence Risks in Women With Nodal Micrometastatic Breast Cancer Staged With Axillary Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Lupe, Krystine; Truong, Pauline T.; Alexander, Cheryl; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates in patients with nodal mirometastases (pNmic) with those in patients with node-negative (pN0) and macroscopic node-positive (pNmac) breast cancer; and to evaluate the LRR rates according to locoregional treatment of pNmic disease. Methods and Materials: The subjects were 9,616 women diagnosed between 1989 and 1999 with Stage pT1-T2, pN0, pNmic, or pNmac, M0 breast cancer. All women had undergone axillary dissection. The Kaplan-Meier local recurrence, regional recurrence, and LRR rates were compared among those with pN0 (n = 7,977), pNmic (n = 490) and pNmac (n = 1,149) and according to locoregional treatment. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the significant factors associated with LRR. Results: The median follow-up was 11 years. The 10-year Kaplan-Meier recurrence rate in the pN0, pNmic, and pNmac cohorts was 6.1%, 6.8%, and 8.7% for local recurrence; 3.1%, 6.2%, and 10.3% for regional recurrence; and 8.0%, 11.6%, and 15.2% for LRR, respectively (all p < .001). In the pNmic patients, the 10-year regional recurrence rate was 6.4% with breast-conserving surgery plus breast radiotherapy (RT), 5.4% with breast-conserving surgery plus locoregional RT, 4.6% with mastectomy alone, 11.1% with mastectomy plus chest wall RT, and 10.7% with mastectomy plus locoregional RT. In patients with pNmic disease and age <45 years, Grade 3 histologic features, lymphovascular invasion, nodal ratio >0.25, and estrogen receptor-negative disease, the 10-year LRR rates were 15-20%. On multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, pNmic was associated with greater LRR than Stage pN0 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; p = .002). On multivariate analysis of pNmic patients only, age <45 years was associated with significantly greater LRR (HR, 1.9; p = .03), and trends for greater LRR were observed with a nodal ratio >0.25 (HR, 2.0; p = .07) and lymphovascular invasion (HR, 1.7; p = .07). Conclusion: Women with pNmic had a greater

  7. Research on the laser angle deception jamming technology of laser countermeasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shi-wei; Chen, Wen-jian; Gao, Wei; Duan, Yuan-yuan

    2015-10-01

    In recent years , laser guided weapons behave very well at destroying the military goals in the local wars, the single-shot probability, effective range and hitting precision getting better. And the semi-active laser guided weapons are the most widely used laser guided weapons. In order to improve the viability and protect important military goals, it's necessary to study the technology to against the semi-active guided weapons. This paper studies the working principle, the advantages and disadvantages of the semi-active guided weapons at first, and analyze the possibility of laser angle deception jamming system working. Then it analyzes the working principle and process of laser angle deception jamming technology. Finally it designs a half-real simulation system of laser angle deception jamming, which consists of semi-active laser guided weapons simulation system and laser angle deception jamming system. The simulation system demonstrates the working process of the laser angle deception jamming system. This paper provides fundamental base for the research on the countermeasure technology of semi-active laser guided weapons.

  8. The pollution removal and stormwater reduction performance of street-side bioretention basins after ten years in operation.

    PubMed

    Lucke, Terry; Nichols, Peter W B

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the pollution removal and hydrologic performance of five, 10-year old street-side bioretention systems. The bioretention basins were subjected to a series of simulated rainfall events using synthetic stormwater. Four different pollution concentrations were tested on three of the bioretention basins. The four concentrations tested were: A) no pollution; B) typical Australian urban pollutant loads; C) double the typical pollution loads, and; D) five times the typical pollution loads. Tests were also undertaken to determine the levels of contaminant and heavy metals build-up that occurred in the filter media over the 10 year operational life of the bioretention systems. Although highly variable, the overall hydrological performance of the basins was found to be positive, with all basins attenuating flows, reducing both peak flow rates and total outflow volumes. Total suspended solids removal performance was variable for all tests and no correlation was found between performance and dosage. Total nitrogen (TN) removal was positive for Tests B, C and D. However, the TN removal results for Test A were found to be negative. Total phosphorus (TP) was the only pollutant to be effectively removed from all basins for all four synthetic stormwater tests. The study bioretention basins were found to export pollutants during tests where no pollutants were added to the simulated inflow water (Test A). Heavy metal and hydrocarbon testing undertaken on the bioretention systems found that the pollution levels of the filter media were still within acceptable limits after 10 years in operation. This field study has shown bioretention basin pollution removal performance to be highly variable and dependant on a range of factors including inflow pollution concentrations, filter media, construction methods and environmental factors. Further research is required in order to fully understand the potential stormwater management benefits of these systems. PMID:26254078

  9. Separating physical and biological controls on ten-year evapotranspiration fluctuations in an irrigated cropland in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huimin

    2016-04-01

    The North China Plain, the largest agricultural production area in China, is a water-limited region where more than 50% of the nation's wheat and 33% of its maize production is grown. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of the water balance in this agricultural ecosystem. Thus, hydrological cycle is very sensitive to the seasonal and interannual variability in ET. Understanding the variability in ET at different temporal scales and identifying out the dominant factor among the climatic factors (i.e., physical factors), crop factors (i.e., biological factors), and anthropogenic factors (i.e., irrigation) regulating ET is vital for promoting the development of agro-hydrological modeling. However, little is known about how ecosystem-level ET of irrigated cropland responds to these physical and biological factors over the long term, e.g., greater than 10 years. We have operated an eddy-covariance tower in a winter wheat-summer maize cropland for a 10-year period from 2005 through 2015, providing continuous measurements of ET and its relevant variables. The 10-year measurement period covers episodes of extremely high to low annual precipitation and higher air temperatures. The 10-year dataset provides opportunity to investigate the response of site-specific ecosystem ET to the variability of environmental factors. In this study, we reconcile an agro-hydrological model and the observations, to separate the physical and biological controls on ET fluctuations at different temporal scales. First, the model is calibrated carefully based on the observations. Second, a number of model runs are designed to disentangle the influence of climate, irrigation and biological drivers through constrained simulations. The climate drivers include precipitation, air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation, and the biological drivers include leaf area index and leaf-level stomatal conductance. In addition, the impacts of the variability in irrigation on ET will

  10. A ten year analysis of the traumatic maxillofacial and brain injury patient in Amsterdam: complications and treatment.

    PubMed

    Salentijn, Erik G; Collin, John D; Boffano, Paolo; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-12-01

    Maxillofacial trauma is often associated with injuries to the cranium, especially in high-energy trauma. The management of such cases can be challenging and requires close cooperation between oral and maxillofacial surgery and neurosurgical teams. There are few reports in the current literature describing the complications that develop in patients with maxillofacial trauma and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Complications can be categorized as early or late and/or minor and major. The exact definition of complications and their categorization remains a matter of current debate. We present a 10 year retrospective study of complications and their subsequent management in patients receiving maxillofacial and neurosurgical treatment for maxillofacial trauma associated with TBI. The study population consisted of 47 people, excluded from a maxillofacial trauma population of 579 patients. The severity of the trauma was scored as mild, moderate or severe, using the Glasgow Coma Scale at presentation of the Emergency Department. In total 36 patients (76.6%) developed complications. Patients involved in road traffic collision were most likely to develop complications (92.3%). This was followed by falls (66.7%) as mechanism of the injury. Patients aged 60-69 years experienced the highest complication rate (5), followed by patients aged 20-29 years (4.1) and 30-39 years (3.5). The majority of complications were infection and inflammation (36.4%), followed by neurological deficit (24.0%), physiological dysregulation (11.6%) and facial bone deformity (8.3%). Patients who developed no complications, most often presented with mild TBI (72.7%). The most common treatment modality employed to manage complications was pharmacological, followed by antibiotic treatment, conservative treatment and decompression therapy. The mean hospital stay after the trauma for the patients with complications was 28 days. Thirteen patients (36.1%) were transferred to a rehabilitation centre, a nursing

  11. Flat-plate solar array project of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program: Ten years of progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Elmer

    1985-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, a Government-sponsored photovoltaics project, was initiated in January 1975 (previously named the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project) to stimulate the development of PV systems for widespread use. Its goal then was to develop PV modules with 10% efficiency, a 20-year lifetime, and a selling price of $0.50 per peak watt of generating capacity (1975 dollars). It was recognized that cost reduction of PV solar-cell and module manufacturing was the key achievement needed if PV power systems were to be economically competitive for large-scale terrestrial use.

  12. Personality Effects on Romantic Relationship Quality through Friendship Quality: A Ten-Year Longitudinal Study in Youths

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with different personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) had different friendship quality development throughout adolescence. It also investigated whether personality types were indirectly related to romantic relationship quality in young adulthood, via friendship quality development in adolescence. The study employed six waves of longitudinal questionnaire data from Dutch youths who had a romantic relationship when they were young adults. Two age cohorts were followed, from 12 to 21 years and from 16 to 25 years, respectively. Findings showed that resilients reported higher mean levels of friendship quality during adolescence (i.e., more support from, less negative interaction with and less dominance from their best friend) than both overcontrollers and undercontrollers. Through the mean levels of friendship quality throughout adolescence, resilients indirectly experienced higher romantic relationship quality during young adulthood than both overcontrollers and undercontrollers. Thus, results provide support for a developmental model in which adolescent friendship quality is a mechanism linking personality types with young adulthood romantic relationship quality. PMID:25232964

  13. Prediction of psychopathology and functional impairment by positive and negative schizotypy in the Chapmans' ten-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kwapil, Thomas R; Gross, Georgina M; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined the predictive validity of psychometrically assessed positive and negative schizotypy in the Chapmans' 10-year longitudinal data set. Schizotypy provides a useful construct for understanding the etiology and development of schizophrenia and related disorders. Schizotypy and schizophrenia share a common multidimensional structure that includes positive and negative symptom dimensions. Recent cross-sectional studies have supported the validity of psychometric positive and negative schizotypy; however, the present study is the first to examine the predictive validity of these dimensions. The Chapmans' longitudinal data provided an ideal opportunity because of the large sample size, high reassessment rate, and extended interval between assessments. A total of 534 psychometric high-risk and control participants were initially assessed, and 95% of this sample was reinterviewed 10 years later. As hypothesized, positive and negative schizotypy uniquely predicted the development of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. At the reassessment, both positive and negative schizotypy predicted psychotic-like, schizotypal, and paranoid symptoms, as well as poorer adjustment. The positive dimension was associated with mood and substance use disorders and mental health treatment. Negative schizotypy was associated with schizoid symptoms and social impairment at the follow-up. The results extend the growing validity findings for psychometrically assessed positive and negative schizotypy by demonstrating that they are associated with the development of differential patterns of symptoms and impairment. PMID:24016018

  14. Using Time-on-Task Measurements to Understand Student Performance in a Physics Class: A Ten-Year Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John

    2015-04-01

    The amount of time spent on out-of-class activities such as working homework, reading, and studying for examinations is presented for 10 years of an introductory, calculus-based physics class at a large public university. While the class underwent significant change in the 10 years studied, the amount of time invested by students in weeks not containing an in-semester examination was constant and did not vary with the length of the reading or homework assignments. The amount of time spent preparing for examinations did change as the course was modified. The time spent on class assignments, both reading and homework, did not scale linearly with the length of the assignment. The time invested in both reading and homework per length of the assignment decreased as the assignments became longer. The class average time invested in examination preparation did change with the average performance on previous examinations in the same class, with more time spent in preparation for lower previous examination scores (R2 = 0 . 70).

  15. Trend analysis of performance parameters of pre-packed columns for protein chromatography over a time span of ten years.

    PubMed

    Scharl, Theresa; Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Dürauer, Astrid; Schweiger, Susanne; Schröder, Tim; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-09-23

    Pre-packed small scale chromatography columns are increasingly used for process development, for determination of design space in bioprocess development, and for post-licence process verifications. The packing quality of 30,000 pre-packed columns delivered to customers over a period 10 years has been analyzed by advanced statistical tools. First, the data were extracted and checked for inconsistencies, and then were tabulated and made ready for statistical processing using the programming language Perl (https://www.perl.org/) and the statistical computing environment R (https://www.r-project.org/). Reduced HETP and asymmetry were plotted over time to obtain a trend of packing quality over 10 years. The obtained data were used as a visualized coefficient of variation analysis (VCVA), a process that has often been applied in other industries such as semiconductor manufacturing. A typical fluctuation of reduced HETP was seen. A Tsunami effect in manufacturing, the effect of propagation of manufacturing deviations leading to out-of-specification products, was not observed with these pre-packed columns. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that all packing materials cluster. Our data analysis showed that the current commercially available chromatography media used for biopharmaceutical manufacturing can be reproducibly and uniformly packed in polymer-based chromatography columns, which are designed for ready-to-use purposes. Although the number of packed columns has quadrupled over one decade the packing quality has remained stable. PMID:27575920

  16. Changes in contraceptive practice in a multiracial urban-based community over a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    Raman, S; Kishen, D; Hamidah, K; Ang, E S

    1992-06-01

    There have been changes in the national policy regarding population growth in Malaysia from 1982. This report studies the changes in contraceptive practice among the three racial groups in this country, i.e. Malays, Chinese and Indians, over a 5-year period with an interval of 10 years. This is a retrospective study based on the attendance at the same family planning clinic in an urban setting. The striking change noted is the change in the racial composition of contraceptive usage in the two study periods with a shift from the Chinese being predominant in 1975-1979 to Malays in 1985-1989. There was no change among the numbers of Indians using contraception. The results also reveal a significant trend of change for users of the pill and those undergoing sterilization. There were no significant changes in IUD, condom and injectable usage. The study demonstrates how national policies, level of education and rural urban migration can significantly alter contraceptive practice. PMID:1519495

  17. Ten-Year Follow-up of a Reused Kidney Graft for Transplant Using Sirolimus for Maintenance Immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Baruqui, J; Burke, G W; Guerra, G; Ruiz, P; Ciancio, G

    2015-12-01

    Reused kidney grafts have been transplanted with successful outcomes, though not widely performed in the Unites States. We present the case of a reused kidney graft with 10-year follow-up. The first donation was from a patient who died from a cerebrovascular accident and whose organs were used for a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant. After 5 years, the patient died and kidney was considered for donation and reuse. The patient had a virtual crossmatch with the first donor and a complement-dependent and flow-dependent crossmatch with the second donor. Long-term immune suppression was kept with a calcineurin-inhibitor-free regimen with sirolimus to prevent further damage from the first recipient. Control kidney biopsy showed steady progression of previous CNI toxicity without further damage. We describe the immunological basis of reused graft, the technical aspects of procurement and transplantation, as well as the use of Mammalian target of rapamycin for maintenance immunosuppression with good long-term results. Reused kidney grafts can be a good source of kidney grafts when adequate selection between donor and recipients is made and immunosuppression protocol is tailored to the preexisting damage to the original graft. PMID:26707333

  18. Ten years of OMI observations: scientific highlights and impacts on the new generation of UV/VIS satellite instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levelt, Pieternel; Veefkind, Pepijn; Bhartia, Pawan; Joiner, Joanna; Tamminen, Johanna; OMI Science Team

    2014-05-01

    On July 15, 2004 Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was successfully launched from the Vandenberg military air force basis in California, USA, on NASA's EOS-Aura spacecraft. OMI is the first of a new generation of UV/VIS nadir solar backscatter imaging spectrometers, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 13 x 24 km2. OMI measures solar irradiance and Earth radiances in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm with a spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm. OMI is designed and built by the Netherlands and Finland and is also a third party mission of ESA. The major step that was made in the OMI instrument compared to its predecessors is the use of 2-dimensional detector arrays (CCDs) in a highly innovative small optical design. These innovations enable the combination of a high spatial resolution and a good spectral resolution with daily global coverage. OMI measures a range of trace gases (O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, BrO, OClO, H2O), clouds and aerosols. Albeit OMI is already 5 years over its design lifetime, the instrument is still fully operational. The successor of OMI is TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on the Copernicus Sentinel-5 precursor mission, planned for launch in 2015. OMI's unique capabilities rely in measuring tropospheric trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage. The unprecedented spatial resolution of the instrument revealed for the first time tropospheric pollution maps on a daily basis with urban scale resolution leading to improved air quality forecasts. The OMI measurements also improve our understanding of air quality and the interaction between air quality and climate change by combining measurements of air pollutants and aerosols. In recent years the data are also used for obtaining high-resolution global emission maps using inverse modelling or related techniques, challenging the bottom-up inventories based emission maps. In addition to scientific research, OMI also

  19. Idaho National Laboratory Ten-year Site Plan (2012 through 2021) -- DOE-NE's National Nuclear Capability -- Developing and Maintaining the INL Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Cal Ozaki

    2010-06-01

    To meet long-term objectives to transform the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), we are providing an integrated, long-term vision of infrastructure requirements that support research, development and demonstration (RD&D) goals outlined in the DOE strategic plans, including the NE Roadmap and reports such as Facilities for the Future of Nuclear Energy Research: A Twenty-year Outlook. The goal of the INL Ten-year Site Plan (TYSP) is to clearly link RD&D mission goals and INL core capabilities with infrastructure requirements (single and multi-program), establish the 10-year end-state vision for INL complexes, identify and prioritize infrastructure and capability gaps, as well as the most efficient and economic approaches to closing those gaps.

  20. Endovascular treatment of false-aneurysm ten years after dacron patch aortoplasty for coarctation of the aortic isthmus. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Salvatori, Filippo Maria; Vietri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    False aneurysm degeneration is a known complication of patch aortoplasty for coarctation of the aortic isthmus. Open surgical treatment consists of prosthetic graft repair of the involved aorta, often requires circulatory arrest to achieve a safe proximal aortic control and perform proximal anastomosis, and finally is associated with substantial perioperative morbidity. Endografting of the diseased aorta is a valuable alternative to open repair, when feasible, with good short and long term results. We now report one more case of false aneurysm ten years after Dacron patch aortoplasty for isthmic coarctation in a 26-year-old woman, successfully treated by endovascular repair via the left common iliac artery, and a complete exclusion of the aneurysm at two year follow-up. PMID:23080212

  1. Ten-Year Follow-Up Study of PTSD Diagnosis, Symptom Severity, and Psychosocial Indices in Aging Holocaust Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Schmeidler, James; Labinsky, Ellen; Bell, Amanda; Morris, Adam; Zemelman, Shelly; Grossman, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We performed a longitudinal study of Holocaust survivors with and without PTSD by assessing symptoms and other measures at two intervals, approximately 10 years apart. Method The original cohort consisted of 63 community-dwelling subjects, of whom 40 were available for follow-up. Results There was a general diminution in PTSD symptom severity over time. However, in 10% of the subjects (n=4), new instances of Delayed Onset PTSD developed between the Time 1 and Time 2. Self-report ratings at both assessments revealed a worsening of trauma related symptoms over time in persons without PTSD at Time 1, but an improvement in those with PTSD at Time 1. Conclusion The findings suggest that a nuanced characterization of PTSD trajectory over time is more reflective of PTSD symptomatology than simple diagnostic status at one time. The possibility of Delayed Onset trajectory complicates any simplistic overall trajectory summarizing the longitudinal course of PTSD. PMID:18785948

  2. Haemophilus somnus Infections I. A Ten Year (1969-1978) Retrospective Study of Losses in Cattle Herds in Western Canada

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, J. R.; Thiessen, W. A.; Janzen, E. D.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 838 outbreaks of fatal Haemophilus somnus infections in herds of cattle were diagnosed at provincial veterinary laboratories in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia during the period 1969-1978. The index cases from these outbreaks included 759 cases of thromboembolic meningoencephalitis, 78 cases of fibrinous pneumonia with pleuritis and one case of H. somnus abortion. The epizootics were subdivided on the basis of province, class and age of cattle and seasonal occurrence. Most outbreaks occurred in a feedlot-type of operation, approximately four weeks after arrival of the cattle. There was often a history of respiratory disease prior to an outbreak and in some cases thromboembolic meningoencephalitis had occurred in the herd the preceding year. The average morbidity-mortality ratio was 2.7/1. The average economic loss per herd was $3 190 based on an average of 15 sick animals and five deaths per affected herd. PMID:7397616

  3. Ten-Year Outcomes of First-Episode Psychoses in the MRC ÆSOP-10 Study.

    PubMed

    Revier, Camice J; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Dutta, Rina; Fearon, Paul; Murray, Robin M; Doody, Gillian A; Croudace, Tim; Dazzan, Paola; Heslin, Margaret; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Kravariti, Eugenia; Lappin, Julia; Lomas, Ben; Kirkbride, James B; Donoghue, Kim; Morgan, Craig; Jones, Peter B

    2015-05-01

    It has long been held that schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have a predominately poor course and outcome. We have synthesized information on mortality, clinical and social outcomes from the ÆSOP-10 multicenter study, a 10-year follow-up of a large epidemiologically characterized cohort of 557 people with first-episode psychosis. Symptomatic remission and recovery were more common than previously believed. Distinguishing between symptom and social recovery is important given the disparity between these; even when symptomatic recovery occurs social inclusion may remain elusive. Multiple factors were associated with an increased risk of mortality, but unnatural death was reduced by 90% when there was full family involvement at first contact compared with those without family involvement. These results suggest that researchers, clinicians and those affected by psychosis should countenance a much more optimistic view of symptomatic outcome than was assumed when these conditions were first described. PMID:25900547

  4. Ten Years Evidence-based High-Tech Acupuncture–A Short Review of Centrally Measured Effects* (Part II)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of acupuncture-induced effects on brain function is crucial. Ultrasound-assisted brain function monitoring and bioelectrical methods as well as near infrared spectroscopic procedures and functional magnetic resonance investigations form the basis for the latest scientific examination methods for acupuncture research. The laserneedle acupuncture, which was examined scientifically for the first time in Graz, represents a new painless and non-invasive acupuncture method. In this way, individual combinations of acupuncture points can be stimulated simultaneously according to traditional Chinese medicine. In the context of double-blind studies, effects in the brain could be demonstrated in a reproducible manner for the first time. This second part of the short review article summarizes some of the centrally measured effects of acupuncture obtained at the Medical University of Graz within the last 10 years. PMID:18955280

  5. Ten years and counting: so what do we know about t(4;14)(p16;q32) multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Keats, Jonathan J; Reiman, Tony; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M

    2006-11-01

    Multiple myeloma is a genetically heterogenous disease with a wide variety of characterized genetic aberrations. Until recently, the impact of these aberrations on patient outcome was not known. However, in the last 5-10 years, several genetic markers have been linked to patient outcome. One of the strongest predictors of outcome identified to date is t(4;14)(p16;q32). Although this translocation is tightly linked to chromosome 13 deletions, another poor prognosis marker, it is becoming apparent that the translocation and not the deletion of 13 is the important factor. Unfortunately, despite the known association with outcome, an understanding of the mechanism(s) whereby the translocation contributes to developing and maintaining this aggressive form of myeloma remains elusive. PMID:17107900

  6. Ten-year incidence and risk factors of bone fractures in a cohort of treated HIV1-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Fidéline; Duval, Xavier; Lemoing, Vincent; Piroth, Lionel; Al Kaied, Firas; Massip, Patrice; Villes, Virginie; Chêne, Geneviève; Raffi, François

    2009-01-01

    In the ANRS CO8 APROCO-COPILOTE cohort of patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy since 1997–1999, the incidence density of bone fractures was 3.3 for 1,000 patient-years (95% CI: 2.0–4.6). Rate was 2.9-fold (95% CI: 1.3–6.5) higher among patients with excessive alcohol consumption and 3.6-fold (95% CI: 1.6–8.1) higher in those with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection. Specific monitoring of HCV/HIV-coinfected patients and active promotion of alcohol cessation should be recommended for the prevention of bone fractures. PMID:19300202

  7. Reducing Motor Vehicle-Related Injuries at an Arizona Indian Reservation: Ten Years of Application of Evidence-Based Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Piontkowski, Stephen R; Peabody, Jon S; Reede, Christine; Velascosoltero, José; Tsatoke, Gordon; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hicks, Kenny R

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injury is a significant public health burden for American Indians and Alaska Natives and was the leading cause of death among those aged 1 to 44 years between 1999 and 2004. Of those deaths, motor vehicle-related deaths cause the most mortality, justifying the need for intervention at an American Indian Reservation in Arizona (United States). We describe motor vehicle injury prevention program operations from 2004 through 2013. This community-based approach led by a multidisciplinary team primarily comprised of environmental public health and law enforcement personnel implemented evidence-based strategies to reduce the impact of motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths, focusing on reducing impaired driving and increasing occupant restraint use. Strategies included: mass media campaigns to enhance awareness and outreach; high-visibility sobriety checkpoints; passing and enforcing 0.08% blood alcohol concentration limits for drivers and primary occupant restraint laws; and child car seat distribution and education. Routine monitoring and evaluation data showed a significant 5% to 7% annual reduction of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), nighttime MVCs, MVCs with injuries/fatalities, and nighttime MVCs with injuries/fatalities between 2004 and 2013, but the annual percent change in arrests for driving under the influence (DUI) was not significant. There was also a 144% increase in driver/front seat passenger seat belt use, from 19% in 2011 before the primary occupant restraint law was enacted to 47% during the first full year of enforcement (2013). Car seat checkpoint data also suggested a 160% increase in car seat use, from less than 20% to 52% in 2013. Implementation of evidence-based strategies in injury prevention, along with employment of key program approaches such as strong partnership building, community engagement, and consistent staffing and funding, can narrow the public health disparity gap experienced among American Indian and Alaska Native

  8. Ten-year ground exposure of composite materials used on the Bell Model 206L helicopter flight service program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    Residual strength results are presented for four composite material systems that have been exposed for up to 10 years to the environment at five different locations on the North American continent. The exposure locations are near where the Bell Model 206L helicopters, which participated in a flight service program sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the U.S. Army, were flying in daily commercial service. The composite material systems are (1) Kevlar-49 fabric/F-185 epoxy; (2) Kevlar-49 fabric/LRF-277 epoxy; (3) Kevlar-49 fabric/CE-306 epoxy; and (4) T-300 graphite/E-788 epoxy. Six replicates of each material were removed and tested after 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years of exposure. The average baseline strength was determined from testing six as-fabricated specimens. More than 1700 specimens have been tested. All specimens that were tested to determine their strength were painted with a polyurethane paint. Each set of specimens also included an unpainted panel for observing the weathering effects on the composite materials. A statistically based procedure has been used to determine the strength value above which at least 90 percent of the population is expected to fall with a 95-percent confidence level. The computed compression strengths are 80 to 90 percent of the baseline (no-exposure) strengths. The resulting compression strengths are approximately 8 percent below the population mean strengths. The computed short-beam-shear strengths are 83 to 92 percent of the baseline (no-exposure) strengths. The computed tension strength of all materials is 93 to 97 percent of the baseline (no-exposure) strengths.

  9. Reducing Motor Vehicle-Related Injuries at an Arizona Indian Reservation: Ten Years of Application of Evidence-Based Strategies.

    PubMed

    Piontkowski, Stephen R; Peabody, Jon S; Reede, Christine; Velascosoltero, José; Tsatoke, Gordon; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hicks, Kenny R

    2015-12-01

    Unintentional injury is a significant public health burden for American Indians and Alaska Natives and was the leading cause of death among those aged 1 to 44 years between 1999 and 2004. Of those deaths, motor vehicle-related deaths cause the most mortality, justifying the need for intervention at an American Indian Reservation in Arizona (United States). We describe motor vehicle injury prevention program operations from 2004 through 2013. This community-based approach led by a multidisciplinary team primarily comprised of environmental public health and law enforcement personnel implemented evidence-based strategies to reduce the impact of motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths, focusing on reducing impaired driving and increasing occupant restraint use. Strategies included: mass media campaigns to enhance awareness and outreach; high-visibility sobriety checkpoints; passing and enforcing 0.08% blood alcohol concentration limits for drivers and primary occupant restraint laws; and child car seat distribution and education. Routine monitoring and evaluation data showed a significant 5% to 7% annual reduction of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), nighttime MVCs, MVCs with injuries/fatalities, and nighttime MVCs with injuries/fatalities between 2004 and 2013, but the annual percent change in arrests for driving under the influence (DUI) was not significant. There was also a 144% increase in driver/front seat passenger seat belt use, from 19% in 2011 before the primary occupant restraint law was enacted to 47% during the first full year of enforcement (2013). Car seat checkpoint data also suggested a 160% increase in car seat use, from less than 20% to 52% in 2013. Implementation of evidence-based strategies in injury prevention, along with employment of key program approaches such as strong partnership building, community engagement, and consistent staffing and funding, can narrow the public health disparity gap experienced among American Indian and Alaska Native

  10. Ten-year survival analysis for renal carcinoma patients treated with an autologous tumour lysate vaccine in an adjuvant setting.

    PubMed

    May, Matthias; Brookman-May, Sabine; Hoschke, Bernd; Gilfrich, Christian; Kendel, Friederike; Baxmann, Susann; Wittke, Stefan; Kiessig, Stephan T; Miller, Kurt; Johannsen, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    About 30% of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) will develop recurrence after surgery. Despite evidence for a significantly improved survival by autologous tumour cell vaccination therapy, the procedure has not become standard. Between August 1993 and December 1996, 1,267 RCC patients undergoing radical nephrectomy in 84 German hospitals were subsequently treated by autologous tumour cell vaccination therapy. The study group comprised 692 patients with complete follow-up (stages pT2-3, pNx-2, M0 based on the TNM classification, 4th edition). Subsequent propensity-score matching according to 7 defined criteria with 861 control patients undergoing nephrectomy alone without adjuvant treatment at the Carl-Thiem-Hospital Cottbus, resulted in 495 matched pairs. Overall and stage-specific survival rates were analysed after a median follow-up of 131 months. The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 80.6 and 68.9% in the vaccine group and 79.2 and 62.1% in the control group (p = 0.066). Patients with pT3 stage RCC revealed 5- and 10-year OS rates of 71.3 and 53.6% in the study group and 65.4 and 36.2% in the control group (p = 0.022). In multivariable analysis, patients in the vaccine group showed a significantly improved survival both in the whole study group (HR = 1.28, p = 0.030) and in the subgroup presenting with pT3 stage tumours (HR = 1.67, p = 0.011). Adjuvant treatment with autologous vaccination therapy resulted in a significantly improved overall survival in pT3 stage RCC patients, suggesting benefit especially in this subgroup. However, controlled clinical trials integrating the recent TNM classification and further risk constellations are required to define additional patient groups that may derive benefit from this treatment. PMID:19876628

  11. Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in northern California: results from a ten-year study.

    PubMed

    Padian, N S; Shiboski, S C; Glass, S O; Vittinghoff, E

    1997-08-15

    To examine rates of and risk factors for heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the authors conducted a prospective study of infected individuals and their heterosexual partners who have been recruited since 1985. Participants were recruited from health care providers, research studies, and health departments throughout Northern California, and they were interviewed and examined at various study clinic sites. A total of 82 infected women and their male partners and 360 infected men and their female partners were enrolled. Over 90% of the couples were monogamous for the year prior to entry into the study; < 3% had a current sexually transmitted disease (STD). The median age of participants was 34 years, and the majority were white. Over 3,000 couple-months of data were available for the follow-up study. Overall, 68 (19%) of the 360 female partners of HIV-infected men (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.0-23.3%) and two (2.4%) of the 82 male partners of HIV-infected women (95% CI 0.3-8.5%) were infected. History of sexually transmitted diseases was most strongly associated with transmission. Male-to-female transmission was approximately eight-times more efficient than female-to-male transmission and male-to-female per contact infectivity was estimated to be 0.0009 (95% CI 0.0005-0.001). Over time, the authors observed increased condom use (p < 0.001) and no new infections. Infectivity for HIV through heterosexual transmission is low, and STDs may be the most important cofactor for transmission. Significant behavior change over time in serodiscordant couples was observed. PMID:9270414

  12. Laser jamming technique research based on combined fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Xu; Shanghong, Zhao; Rui, Hou; Shengbao, Zhan; Lei, Shi; Jili, Wu; Shaoqiang, Fang; Yongjun, Li

    2009-06-01

    A compact and light laser jamming source is needed to increase the flexibility of laser jamming technique. A novel laser jamming source based on combined fiber lasers is proposed. Preliminary experimental results show that power levels in excess of 10 kW could be achieved. An example of laser jamming used for an air-to-air missile is given. It shows that the tracking system could complete tracking in only 4 s and came into a steady state with its new tracking target being the laser jamming source.

  13. Ten Years of Black Carbon Measurements in the North Atlantic at the Pico Mountain Observatory, Azores (2225m asl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Fialho, P. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Olsen, S. C.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Dziobak, M.; Kramer, L. J.; Mazzoleni, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Pico Mountain Observatory is located in the summit caldera of the Pico mountain, an inactive volcano on the Pico Island in the Azores, Portugal (38.47°N, 28.40°W, Altitude 2225m asl). The Azores are often impacted by polluted outflows from the North American continent and local sources have been shown to have a negligible influence at the observatory. The value of the station stems from the fact that this is the only permanent mountaintop monitoring station in the North Atlantic that is typically located above the marine boundary layer (average MBL heights are below 1200 m and rarely exceed 1300 m) and often receives air characteristic of the lower free troposphere. Measurements of black carbon (BC) mass have been carried out at the station since 2001, mostly in the summer seasons. Here we discuss the BC decadal dataset (2001-2011) collected at the site by using a seven-wavelength AE31 Magee Aethalometer. Measured BC mass and computed Angstrom exponent (AE) values were analysed to study seasonal and diurnal variations. There was a large day-to-day variability in the BC values due to varied meteorological conditions that resulted in different diurnal patterns for different months. The daily mean BC at this location ranged between 0 and ~430 ngm-3, with the most frequently occurring value in the range 0-100 ngm-3. The overall mean for the 10 year period is ~24 ngm-3, with a coefficient of variation of 150%. The BC values exhibited a consistent annual trend being low in winter months and high in summer months, barring year to year variations. To differentiate between BC and other absorbing particles, we analyzed the wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption coefficient and determined a best-fit exponent i.e., the Ångström exponent, for the whole dataset. Visible Ångström exponent (AE: 470-520-590-660 nm) values ranged between 0 and 3.5, with most frequently occurring values in the range 0.85 to 1.25. By making use of the aethalometer light attenuation

  14. Ten Years of OMI Observations: A Unique Contribution to Air Quality, Ozone Layer and Climate Research from Space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levelt, P.; Veefkind, J. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Joiner, J.; Tamminen, J.

    2014-12-01

    On July 15, 2004 the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was successfully launched on board of NASA's EOS-Aura spacecraft. OMI is the first of a new generation of UV/VIS nadir solar backscatter imaging spectrometers, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 13 x 24 km2. OMI measures solar irradiance and Earth radiances in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm with a spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm. OMI is designed and built by the Netherlands and Finland, and is also a third party mission of ESA. The major step that was made in the OMI instrument compared to its predecessors is the use of 2-dimensional detector arrays (CCDs) in a highly innovative small optical design. These innovations enable the combination of a high spatial resolution and a good spectral resolution with daily global coverage. OMI measures a range of trace gases (O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, BrO, OClO, H2O), clouds and aerosols. Albeit OMI is already 5 years over its design lifetime, the instrument is still fully operational. The successor of OMI is TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on the Copernicus Sentinel-5 precursor mission, planned for launch in 2016. OMI's unique capabilities rely in measuring tropospheric trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage. The unprecedented spatial resolution of the instrument revealed for the first time tropospheric pollution maps on a daily basis with urban scale resolution leading to improved air quality forecasts. The OMI measurements also improve our understanding of air quality and the interaction between air quality and climate change by combining measurements of air pollutants and aerosols. In recent years the data are also used for obtaining high-resolution global emission maps using inverse modelling or related techniques, challenging the bottom-up inventories based emission maps. In addition to scientific research, OMI also contributes to several operational services, including

  15. A ten-year review of lower extremity burns in diabetics: small burns that lead to major problems.

    PubMed

    Barsun, Alura; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus with its resulting neurovascular changes may lead to an increased risk of burns and impaired wound healing. The purpose of this article is to review 10 years of experience with foot and lower leg burns in patients with diabetes at a single adult burn center. Patients with lower extremity burns and diabetes mellitus, between May 1999 and December 2009, were identified in the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons database, and their charts were reviewed for data related to their outcomes. Sixty-eight diabetic patients, 87% male, with a mean age of 54 years, sustained foot or lower extremity burns with 37 having burns resulting from insensate feet. The pathogenesis included walking on a hot or very cold surface (8), soaking feet in hot water (22), warming feet on or near something hot such as a heater (13), or spilling hot water (7). The majority of patients were taking insulin (59.6%) or oral hyperglycemic medications (34.6%). Blood sugar levels were not well controlled (mean glucose, 215.8 mg/dl; mean hemoglobin A1c, 9.08%). Renal disease was common with admission serum blood urea nitrogen (27.5 mg/dl) and creatinine (2.21 mg/dl), and 13 were on dialysis preinjury. Cardiovascular problems were common with 39 (57%) having hypertension or cardiac disease, 3 having peripheral vascular disease, and 9, previous amputations. The mean burn size was 4.2% TBSA (range, 0.5-15%) with 57% being full thickness. Despite the small burn, the mean length of stay was 15.2 days (range, 1-95), with 5.65 days per 1% TBSA. Inability to heal these wounds was evident in 19 patients requiring readmission (one required 10 operative procedures). At least one patient sustained more than one burn. There were 62 complications with 30 episodes of infection (cellulitis, 28; osteomyelitis, 4; deep plantar infections, 2; ruptured Achilles tendon, 1) and 3 deaths. Eleven patients needed amputations (7 below-knee amputations, 4 transmetatarsal amputations, and 20 toe

  16. Dynamic jamming of iceberg-choked fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Ivo R.; Amundson, Jason M.; Cassotto, Ryan; Fahnestock, Mark; Darnell, Kristopher N.; Truffer, Martin; Zhang, Wendy W.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the dynamics of ice mélange by analyzing rapid motion recorded by a time-lapse camera and terrestrial radar during several calving events that occurred at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland. During calving events (1) the kinetic energy of the ice mélange is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the total energy released during the events, (2) a jamming front propagates through the ice mélange at a rate that is an order of magnitude faster than the motion of individual icebergs, (3) the ice mélange undergoes initial compaction followed by slow relaxation and extension, and (4) motion of the ice mélange gradually decays before coming to an abrupt halt. These observations indicate that the ice mélange experiences widespread jamming during calving events and is always close to being in a jammed state during periods of terminus quiescence. We therefore suspect that local jamming influences longer timescale ice mélange dynamics and stress transmission.

  17. Listening to the rumours: What the northern Nigeria polio vaccine boycott can tell us ten years on

    PubMed Central

    Ghinai, Isaac; Willott, Chris; Dadari, Ibrahim; Larson, Heidi J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2003 five northern Nigerian states boycotted the oral polio vaccine due to fears that it was unsafe. Though the international responses have been scrutinised in the literature, this paper argues that lessons still need to be learnt from the boycott: that the origins and continuation of the boycott were due to specific local factors. We focus mainly on Kano state, which initiated the boycotts and continued to reject immunisations for the longest period, to provide a focused analysis of the internal dynamics and complex multifaceted causes of the boycott. We argue that the delay in resolving the year-long boycott was largely due to the spread of rumours at local levels, which were intensified by the outspoken involvement of high-profile individuals whose views were misunderstood or underestimated. We use sociological concepts to analyse why these men gained influence amongst northern Nigerian communities. This study has implications on contemporary policy: refusals still challenge the Global Polio Eradication Initiative; and polio remains endemic to Nigeria (Nigeria accounted for over half of global cases in 2012). This paper sheds light on how this problem may be tackled with the ultimate aim of vaccinating more children and eradicating polio. PMID:24294986

  18. Ten years and 100,000 participants later: occupational and other factors influencing participation in US Gulf War health registries.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler C; Smith, Besa; Ryan, Margaret A K; Gray, Gregory C; Hooper, Tomoko I; Heller, Jack M; Dalager, Nancy A; Kang, Han K; Gackstetter, Gary D

    2002-08-01

    For more than a decade after the Gulf War, there has been concern that wartime exposures have resulted in significant morbidity among Gulf War veterans. After the end of the war, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) initiated health registries to provide systematic clinical evaluations of Gulf War veterans who chose to participate. By September 1999, there were 32,876 participants in the DoD Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program and 70,385 participants in the VA Gulf War Registry Health Examination Program. We identified demographic and military service factors, as well as potential war-related exposures associated with subsequent registry participation after 10 years of observation. Veterans potentially exposed to oil well fire smoke, those near Khamisiyah, Reserve and National Guard, Army veterans, and veterans in the theater of operations during intense combat periods were most likely to elect to participate in a registry. These findings support the hypothesis that certain occupational factors and wartime exposures may influence subsequent health care-seeking behavior. PMID:12185797

  19. Listening to the rumours: what the northern Nigeria polio vaccine boycott can tell us ten years on.

    PubMed

    Ghinai, Isaac; Willott, Chris; Dadari, Ibrahim; Larson, Heidi J

    2013-01-01

    In 2003 five northern Nigerian states boycotted the oral polio vaccine due to fears that it was unsafe. Though the international responses have been scrutinised in the literature, this paper argues that lessons still need to be learnt from the boycott: that the origins and continuation of the boycott were due to specific local factors. We focus mainly on Kano state, which initiated the boycotts and continued to reject immunisations for the longest period, to provide a focused analysis of the internal dynamics and complex multifaceted causes of the boycott. We argue that the delay in resolving the year-long boycott was largely due to the spread of rumours at local levels, which were intensified by the outspoken involvement of high-profile individuals whose views were misunderstood or underestimated. We use sociological concepts to analyse why these men gained influence amongst northern Nigerian communities. This study has implications on contemporary policy: refusals still challenge the Global Polio Eradication Initiative; and polio remains endemic to Nigeria (Nigeria accounted for over half of global cases in 2012). This paper sheds light on how this problem may be tackled with the ultimate aim of vaccinating more children and eradicating polio. PMID:24294986

  20. Ten years of integrated care: backwards and forwards. The case of the province of Québec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Vedel, Isabelle; Monette, Michele; Beland, François; Monette, Johanne; Bergman, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Québec’s rapidly growing elderly and chronically ill population represents a major challenge to its healthcare delivery system, attributable in part to the system’s focus on acute care and fragmented delivery. Description of policy practice Over the past few years, reforms have been implemented at the provincial policy level to integrate hospital-based, nursing home, homecare and social services in 95 catchment areas. Recent organizational changes in primary care have also resulted in the implementation of family medicine groups and network clinics. Several localized initiatives were also developed to improve integration of care for older persons or persons with chronic diseases. Conclusion and discussion Québec has a history of integration of health and social services at the structural level. Recent evaluations of the current reform show that the care provided by various institutions in the healthcare system is becoming better integrated. The Québec health care system nevertheless continues to face three important challenges in its management of chronic diseases: implementing the reorganization of primary care, successfully integrating primary and secondary care at the clinical level, and developing effective governance and change management. Efforts should focus on strengthening primary care by implementing nurse practitioners, developing a shared information system, and achieving better collaboration between primary and secondary care. PMID:21677842