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1

Transcriptome Sequencing and Annotation for the Jamaican Fruit Bat (Artibeus jamaicensis)  

PubMed Central

The Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) is one of the most common bats in the tropical Americas. It is thought to be a potential reservoir host of Tacaribe virus, an arenavirus closely related to the South American hemorrhagic fever viruses. We performed transcriptome sequencing and annotation from lung, kidney and spleen tissues using 454 and Illumina platforms to develop this species as an animal model. More than 100,000 contigs were assembled, with 25,000 genes that were functionally annotated. Of the remaining unannotated contigs, 80% were found within bat genomes or transcriptomes. Annotated genes are involved in a broad range of activities ranging from cellular metabolism to genome regulation through ncRNAs. Reciprocal BLAST best hits yielded 8,785 sequences that are orthologous to mouse, rat, cattle, horse and human. Species tree analysis of sequences from 2,378 loci was used to achieve 95% bootstrap support for the placement of bat as sister to the clade containing horse, dog, and cattle. Through substitution rate estimation between bat and human, 32 genes were identified with evidence for positive selection. We also identified 466 immune-related genes, which may be useful for studying Tacaribe virus infection of this species. The Jamaican fruit bat transcriptome dataset is a resource that should provide additional candidate markers for studying bat evolution and ecology, and tools for analysis of the host response and pathology of disease. PMID:23166587

Shaw, Timothy I.; Srivastava, Anuj; Chou, Wen-Chi; Liu, Liang; Hawkinson, Ann; Glenn, Travis C.; Adams, Rick; Schountz, Tony

2012-01-01

2

Ontogeny of the larynx and flight ability in jamaican fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) with considerations for the evolution of echolocation.  

PubMed

Echolocating bats have adaptations of the larynx such as hypertrophied intrinsic musculature and calcified or ossified cartilages to support sonar emission. We examined growth and development of the larynx relative to developing flight ability in Jamaican fruit bats to assess how changes in sonar production are coordinated with the onset of flight during ontogeny as a window for understanding the evolutionary relationships between these systems. In addition, we compare the extent of laryngeal calcification in an echolocating shrew species (Sorex vagrans) and the house mouse (Mus musculus), to assess what laryngeal chiropteran adaptations are associated with flight versus echolocation. Individuals were categorized into one of five developmental flight stages (flop, flutter, flap, flight, and adult) determined by drop-tests. Larynges were cleared and stained with alcian blue and alizarin red, or sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Our results showed calcification of the cricoid cartilage in bats, represented during the flap stage and this increased significantly in individuals at the flight stage. Thyroid and arytenoid cartilages showed no evidence of calcification and neither cricoid nor thyroid showed significant increases in rate of growth relative to the larynx as a whole. The physiological cross-sectional area of the cricothyroid muscles increased significantly at the flap stage. Shrew larynges showed signs of calcification along the margins of the cricoid and thyroid cartilages, while the mouse larynx did not. These data suggest the larynx of echolocating bats becomes stronger and sturdier in tandem with flight development, indicating possible developmental integration between flight and echolocation. PMID:24778087

Carter, Richard T; Adams, Rick A

2014-07-01

3

Efficiency of food utilization by fruit bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neotropical fruit bats consume figs (Ficus spp.) and other fruit in small bites which they suck dry and drop as pellets. The swallowed juice transits the short digestive system in 0.5 h or less. The efficiency of this unusual mode of feeding was determined by comparing the nutritional content of pellets, feces and urine of captive Artibeus jamaicensis to that

Douglas W. Morrison

1980-01-01

4

Henipavirus infection in fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus), India.  

PubMed

We tested 41 bats for antibodies against Nipah and Hendra viruses to determine whether henipaviruses circulate in pteropid fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) in northern India. Twenty bats were seropositive for Nipah virus, which suggests circulation in this species, thereby extending the known distribution of henipaviruses in Asia westward by >1,000 km. PMID:18680665

Epstein, Jonathan H; Prakash, Vibhu; Smith, Craig S; Daszak, Peter; McLaughlin, Amanda B; Meehan, Greer; Field, Hume E; Cunningham, Andrew A

2008-08-01

5

Nonecholocating fruit bats produce biosonar clicks with their wings.  

PubMed

Because evolution mostly acts over millions of years, the intermediate steps leading to a functional sensory system remain enigmatic. Accordingly, there is an ongoing debate regarding the evolution of bat echolocation. In search of the origin of bat echolocation, we studied how Old World fruit bats, which have always been classified as nonecholocating, orient in complete darkness. We found that two of these nonecholocating species used click-like sounds to detect and discriminate objects in complete darkness. However, we discovered that this click-based echo sensing is rudimentary and does not allow these bats to estimate distance accurately as all other echolocating bats can. Moreover, unlike all other echolocating bats, which generate pulses using the larynx or the tongue, these bats generated clicks with their wings. We provide evidence suggesting that all Old World fruit bats can click with their wings. Although this click-based echo sensing used by Old World fruit bats may not represent the ancestral form of current (laryngeal) bat echolocation, we argue that clicking fruit bats could be considered behavioral fossils, opening a window to study the evolution of echolocation. PMID:25484290

Boonman, Arjan; Bumrungsri, Sara; Yovel, Yossi

2014-12-15

6

Fruit detection and discrimination by small fruit-eating bats (Phyllostomidae): echolocation call design and olfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the role of echolocation and other sensory cues in two small frugivorous New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae: Artibeus watsoni and Vampyressa pusilla) feeding on different types of fig fruit. To test which cues the bats need to find these fruit, we conducted behavioral experiments in a flight cage with ripe and similar-sized figs where we selectively excluded vision,

Carmi Korine; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko

2005-01-01

7

Hearing in large (Eidolon helvum) and small (Cynopterus brachyotis) non-echolocating fruit bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing the hearing abilities of echolocating and non-echolocating bats can provide insight into the effect of echolocation on more basic hearing abilities. Toward this end, we determined the audiograms of two species of non-echolocating bats, the straw-col- ored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum), a large (230-350 g) African fruit bat, and the dog-faced fruit bat (Cynopterus brachyotis), a small (30- 45

R. S. Heffner; G. Koay; H. E. Heffner

2006-01-01

8

The Status of Fruit Bats on Guam1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of fruit bats are known from Guam in the southern Mariana Islands. Pteropus mariannus mariannushas declined greatly in abun­ dance since the early 1900s. Its numbers decreased from an estimated 3,000 animals in 1958 to fewer than 50 individuals in 1978. However, by 1982, the population of this species incre ased to about 850 to 1,000 bats, probably

GARY J. WILES

9

Contrasting Genetic Structure in Two Co-Distributed Species of Old World Fruit Bat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fulvous fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaulti) and the greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) are two abundant and widely co-distributed Old World fruit bats in Southeast and East Asia. The former species forms large colonies in caves while the latter roots in small groups in trees. To test whether these differences in social organization and roosting ecology are associated with

Jinping Chen; Stephen J. Rossiter; Jonathan R. Flanders; Yanhong Sun; Panyu Hua; Cassandra Miller-Butterworth; Xusheng Liu; Koilmani E. Rajan; Shuyi Zhang; Richard Cordaux

2010-01-01

10

Tropical Secondary Forest Management Influences Frugivorous Bat Composition, Abundance and Fruit Consumption in Chiapas, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H’) was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests’ structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029

Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

2013-01-01

11

Tropical secondary forest management influences frugivorous bat composition, abundance and fruit consumption in Chiapas, Mexico.  

PubMed

Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H') was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests' structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029

Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

2013-01-01

12

Chemical ecology of fruit bat foraging behavior in relation to the fruit odors of two species of paleotropical bat-dispersed figs (Ficus hispida and Ficus scortechinii).  

PubMed

We investigated the fruit odors of two bat-dispersed fig species in the Paleotropics, in relation to the foraging behavior of fruit bats, to test the following hypotheses: 1) fruit odor plays a critical role for detection and selection of ripe figs by fruit bats; 2) bat-dispersed fig species are characterized by the same, or similar, chemical compounds; and 3) total scent production, in bat-dispersed figs, increases when fruits ripen. We performed bioassays to test the effect of both natural and synthetic fig fruit odors on the foraging behavior of the short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus brachyotis)-an important disperser of figs within the study area. Fruit bats responded to both visual and chemical (olfactory) cues when foraging for figs. However, the strongest foraging reaction that resulted in a landing or feeding attempt was almost exclusively associated with the presence of a ripe fruit odor-either in combination with visual cues or when presented alone. Fruit bats also used fruit odors to distinguish between ripe and unripe fruits. By using gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS), a total of 16 main compounds were identified in the ripe fruit odor of Ficus hispida and 13 in the ripe fruit odor of Ficus scortechinii-including alcohols, ketones, esters, and two terpenes. Additional compounds were also recorded in F. hispida, but not identified-four of which also occurred in F. scortechinii. Total scent production increased in both species when fruits ripened. Both natural and synthetic fruit odors resulted in feeding attempts by bats, with no feeding attempts elicited by unscented controls. Reaction rates to natural fruit odors were higher than those to synthetic blends. PMID:17929094

Hodgkison, Robert; Ayasse, Manfred; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Häberlein, Christopher; Schulz, Stefan; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Zubaid, Akbar; Kunz, Thomas H

2007-11-01

13

Artibeus lituratus, the Great Fruit Bat, Feeding on the Infructescences of Cecropia sp.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Artibeus lituratus, the great fruit bat, feeding on the infructescences of Cecropia sp. Species of Artibeus are important dispersers of Cecropia. Morphological and anatomical study has revealed that the dispersal unit of Cecropia is the entire fruit, not just the seed. Bats consume the fleshy floral parts surrounding the fruits and disperse the fruits.

Tuttle, Merlin D.

2004-03-09

14

A COMPARISON OF FRUIT REMOVAL BY BATS AND BIRDS FROM PIPER HISfIDUM SW.  

E-print Network

... ; A COMPARISON OF FRUIT REMOVAL BY BATS AND BIRDS FROM PIPER HISfIDUM SW. (PIPERACEAE. Central AlOOrica (Received: January 5, 1989) ABSTRAC,r I measured fruit removal by bats and birds from in recently distubed second growth habitat during a period of heavy P. hispidum fruiting; plants are e

O'Donnell, Sean

15

The Missing Part of Seed Dispersal Networks: Structure and Robustness of Bat-Fruit Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualistic networks are crucial to the maintenance of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, what we know about seed dispersal networks is based only on bird-fruit interactions. Therefore, we aimed at filling part of this gap by investigating bat-fruit networks. It is known from population studies that: (i) some bat species depend more on fruits than others, and (ii) that some specialized frugivorous

Marco Aurelio Ribeiro Mello; Flávia Maria Darcie Marquitti; Paulo Roberto Guimarães; Elisabeth Klara Viktoria Kalko; Pedro Jordano; Marcus Aloizio Martinez de Aguiar; Anna Traveset

2011-01-01

16

Straight-line climbing flight aerodynamics of a fruit bat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From flight data obtained on a fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, a kinematic model for straight-line flapping motion is extracted and analyzed in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to gain insight into the complexity of bat flight. The intricate functional mechanics and architecture of the bat wings set it apart from other vertebrate flight. The extracted kinematic model is simulated for a range of Reynolds numbers, to observe the effect these phenomena have on the unsteady transient mechanisms of the flow produced by the flapping wings. The Strouhal number calculated from the data is high indicating that the oscillatory motion dominates the flow physics. From the obtained data, the bat exhibits fine control of its mechanics by actively varying wing camber, wing area, torsional rotation of the wing, forward and backward translational sweep of the wing, and wing conformation to dictate the fluid dynamics. As is common in flapping flight, the primary force generation is through the attached unsteady vortices on the wing surface. The bat through varying the wing camber and the wing area modulates this force output. The power requirement for the kinematics is analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic performance.

Viswanath, K.; Nagendra, K.; Cotter, J.; Frauenthal, M.; Tafti, D. K.

2014-02-01

17

Reproduction elevates the corticosterone stress response in common fruit bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in reproductive state or the environment may affect the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-andrenal (HPA) axis.\\u000a However, little is known about the dynamics of the resulting corticosteroid stress response, in particular in tropical mammals.\\u000a In this study, we address the modulation of corticosterone release in response to different reproductive conditions and seasonality\\u000a in 326 free-living common fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis)

Stefan M. Klose; Carolynn L. Smith; Andrea J. Denzel; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko

2006-01-01

18

Is the Egyptian fruit-bat Rousettus aegyptiacus a pest in Israel? An analysis of the bat's diet and implications for its conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Egyptian fruit-bat Rousettus aegyptiacus is regarded as a pest for agriculture. However, no quantitative data on its diet have been collected in Israel or in other Mediterranean areas, and control measures in the past reduced populations of insectivorous bats in Israel. We therefore studied the relative importance of native versus commercially cultivated fruit plants by analysis of bat faeces.

Carmi Korine; Ido Izhaki; Zeev Arad

1999-01-01

19

Subordinate Males in Harem Groups of Jamaican Fruit-Eating Bats (Artibeus jamaicensis): Satellites or Sneaks?  

E-print Network

), males compete to gain dominance over rich territories where females aggregate to feed or to seek refuge). These cases of resource-defence polygyny contrast with those in which females form cohesive groups that, from

Arita, Héctor T.

20

Nutritional and nutraceutical comparison of Jamaican Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) and Psidium guajava (common guava) fruits.  

PubMed

Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) is one of many underutilised edible fruits that grow wild in Jamaica, and could potentially be commercially exploited to yield health and economic benefits. In this study, the total phenolics, proximate contents, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of P. cattleianum and P. guajava (common guava), a well-known species, were compared. Strawberry guavas were found to be superior to common guavas in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, total phenolics and vitamin C content. They also possessed relatively high fibre content (24.9%). The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of strawberry guavas showed cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitory activities of 18.3% and 26.5%, respectively (250 ?g/mL), indicating anti-inflammatory activity. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of P. guajava showed 56.4% (COX-2) and 44.1% (COX-1) inhibitory activity, respectively. Additionally, nine compounds were isolated from strawberry guava fruits, some of which demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. These results indicate that strawberry guavas are beneficial for health. PMID:23107729

McCook-Russell, Kayanne P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Facey, Petrea C; Bowen-Forbes, Camille S

2012-09-15

21

Comparative analysis of the digestive efficiency and nitrogen and energy requirements of the phyllostomid fruit-bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) and the pteropodid fruit-bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) and energy (E) requirements of the phyllostomid fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, and the pteropodid fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus, were measured in adults that were fed on four experimental diets. Mean daily food intake by A. jamaicensis and R. aegyptiacus ranged from 1.1–1.6 times body mass and 0.8–1.0 times body mass, respectively. Dry matter digestibility and metabolizable\\u000a E coefficient

M. Delorme; D. W. Thomas

1999-01-01

22

The role of fruit bats in the transmission of pathogenic leptospires in Australia  

PubMed Central

Although antileptospiral antibodies and leptospiral DNA have been detected in Australian fruit bats, the role of such bats as infectious hosts for the leptospires found in rodents and humans remains unconfirmed. A cohort-design, replicated survey was recently conducted in Far North Queensland, Australia, to determine if the abundance and leptospiral status of rodents were affected by association with colonies of fruit bats (Pteropus conspicillatus spp.) via rodent contact with potentially infectious fruit-bat urine. In each of four study areas, a ‘colony site’ that included a fruit-bat colony and the land within 1500?m of the colony was compared with a ‘control site’ that held no fruit-bat colonies and was >2000?m from the nearest edge of the colony site. Rodents were surveyed, for a total of 2400 trap-nights, over six sampling sessions between September 2007 and September 2008. A low abundance of rodents but a high carriage of leptospires in the rodents present were found to be associated with proximity to a fruit-bat colony. For example, means of 0.4 and 2.3 fawn-footed melomys (Melomys cervinipes) were collected/100 trap-nights at sites with and without fruit-bat colonies, respectively (P<0.001), but the corresponding prevalences of leptospiral carriage were 100% and 3.6% (P<0.001). Such trends were consistent across all of the sampling sessions but not across all of the sampling sites. Leptospires were not isolated from fruit bats by culture, and the role of such bats in the transmission of leptospires to rodents cannot be confirmed. The data collected do, however, indicate the existence of a potential pathway for transmission of leptospires from fruit bats to rodents, via rodent contact with infectious fruit-bat urine. Fruit bats may possibly be involved in the ecology of leptospires (including emergent serovars), as disseminators of pathogens to rodent populations. Stringent quantitative risk analysis of the present and similar data, to explore their implications in terms of disease prevalence and wildlife population dynamics, is recommended. PMID:21294951

Tulsiani, S M; Cobbold, R N; Graham, G C; Dohnt, M F; Burns, M-A; Leung, L K-P; Field, H E; Smythe, L D; Craig, S B

2011-01-01

23

Hearing in large (Eidolon helvum) and small (Cynopterus brachyotis) non-echolocating fruit bats.  

PubMed

Comparing the hearing abilities of echolocating and non-echolocating bats can provide insight into the effect of echolocation on more basic hearing abilities. Toward this end, we determined the audiograms of two species of non-echolocating bats, the straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum), a large (230-350 g) African fruit bat, and the dog-faced fruit bat (Cynopterus brachyotis), a small (30-45 g) bat native to India and Southeast Asia. A conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure with a fruit juice reward was used for testing. At 60 dB SPL, the hearing range of E. helvum extends from 1.38 to 41 kHz with best sensitivity at 8k Hz; the hearing range of C. brachyotis extends from 2.63 to 70 kHz with best sensitivity at 10 kHz. As with all other bats tested so far, neither species was able to hear below 500 Hz, suggesting that they may not use a time code for perceiving pitch. Comparison of the high-frequency hearing abilities of echolocating and non-echolocating bats suggests that the use of laryngeal echolocation has resulted in additional selective pressure to hear high frequencies. However, the typical high-frequency sensitivity of small non-echolocating mammals would have been sufficient to support initial echolocation in the early evolution of bats, a finding that supports the possibility of multiple origins of echolocation. PMID:16982165

Heffner, R S; Koay, G; Heffner, H E

2006-11-01

24

Wing morphology and flight development in the short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postnatal changes in wing morphology, flight development and aerodynamics were studied in captive free-flying short-nosed fruit bats, Cynopterus sphinx. Pups were reluctant to move until 25 days of age and started fluttering at the mean age of 40 days. The wingspan and wing area increased linearly until 45 days of age by which time the young bats exhibited clumsy flight

Vadamalai Elangovan; Elangovan Yuvana Satya Priya; Hanumanth Raghuram; Ganapathy Marimuthu

2007-01-01

25

Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson could be used for any age. My target group is first graders. Most of it is for whole group and the games can be played on the Smartboard or on the computer Click on this to learn all about bats. Bats4kids website Echolocation Movie Movie on echolocation - cute More bat information Creature Feature - Vampire Bats What good are bats? What good are bats - informative website Why are bats scary? Why are bats so scary? - informative with pictures FUN AND GAMES Online bat puzzles Origami bat Bat crafts TEACHER RESOURCES All About Bats worksheet Bat dinner worksheet coloring page Bat book cover Bat book picture paper Bat coloring pages Bat fact worksheet coloring page Bat life cycle with words Bat maze Writing paper - What I learned about bats ...

Stearns, Ms.

2008-10-25

26

Bats.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

27

Fruit secondary compounds mediate the retention time of seeds in the guts of Neotropical fruit bats.  

PubMed

Plants often recruit frugivorous animals to transport their seeds; however, gut passage can have varying effects on plant fitness depending on the physical and chemical treatment of the seed, the distance seeds are transported, and the specific site of deposition. One way in which plants can mediate the effects of gut passage on fitness is by producing fruit secondary compounds that influence gut-retention time (GRT). Using frugivorous bats (Carollia perspicillata: Phyllostomidae) and Neotropical plants in the genus Piper, we compared GRT of seeds among five plant species (Piper colonense, Piper peltatum, Piper reticulatum, Piper sancti-felicis, and Piper silvivagum) and investigated the role of fruit amides (piperine, piplartine and whole fruit amide extracts from P. reticulatum) in mediating GRT. Our results showed interspecific differences in GRT; P. reticulatum seeds passed most slowly, while P. silvivagum and P. colonense seeds passed most rapidly. Piplartine and P. reticulatum amide extracts decreased GRT, while piperine had no effect. In addition, we examined the effects of GRT on seed germination success and speed in laboratory conditions. For germination success, the effects were species specific; germination success increased with GRT for P. peltatum but not for other species. GRT did not influence germination speed in any of the species examined. Plant secondary compounds have primarily been studied in the context of their defensive role against herbivores and pathogens, but may also play a key role in mediating seed dispersal interactions. PMID:25262120

Baldwin, Justin W; Whitehead, Susan R

2015-02-01

28

Population size and natural history of Mariana fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on count results, we estimated the population of Mariana fruit bats (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands, to number 150-200 bats in 1999, 185-235 bats in 2000, and about 300-400 bats in 2001. Our results, plus those of two previous surveys, indicate that bat abundance on the island probably remained relatively stable at about 125-235 animals during much of the period from 1983 to 2000, then increased suddenly in 2001, most likely due to immigration from a neighboring island. Sarigan's population differs from those of larger islands in the archipelago by usually having smaller roost sizes, typically 3-75 bats, and large numbers of solitary bats that at times comprise up to half of the population. Colonies and smaller aggregations were composed primarily of harems with multiple females, whereas a nearly equal sex ratio occurred among solitary animals. Colonies roosted in isolated coconut trees in open grasslands and in native forest stands of various sizes, but avoided dense coconut forest. An estimated 30-50% of harem and solitary females possessed young in July 1999. Bats were recorded feeding on just six species of plants, which partly reflects the island's impoverished flora. We speculate that fruit bat abundance on Sarigan is limited primarily by food availability rather than hunting losses, in contrast to some other islands in the Marianas. Our study supports the contention that populations of P. mariannus in the northern Marianas are usually sedentary, but that interisland movements of larger numbers of bats may occur rarely. ?? 2004 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

Wiles, G.J.; Jonhson, N.C.

2004-01-01

29

Role of fruits, grains, and seafood consumption in blood cadmium concentrations of Jamaican children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder.  

PubMed

Human exposure to cadmium has adverse effects on the nervous system. Utilizing data from 110 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs (220 children) ages 2-8 years in Kingston, Jamaica, we compared the 75(th) percentile of blood cadmium concentrations in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In both univariable and multivariable Quantile Regression Models that controlled for potential confounding factors, we did not find any significant differences between ASD cases and typically developing (TD) controls with respect to the 75(th) percentile of blood cadmium concentrations, (P > 0.22). However, we found a significantly higher 75(th) percentile of blood cadmium concentrations in TD Jamaican children who consumed shellfish (lobsters, crabs) (P <0.05), fried plantain (P <0.01), and boiled dumpling (P <0.01). We also observed that children living in Jamaica have an arithmetic mean blood cadmium concentration of 0.16?g/L which is similar to that of the children in developed countries and much lower than that of children in developing countries. Although our results do not support an association between blood cadmium concentrations and ASD, to our knowledge, this study is the first to report levels of blood cadmium in TD children as well as those with ASD in Jamaica. PMID:25089152

Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Loveland, Katherine A; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Lee, MinJae; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Pearson, Deborah A; Boerwinkle, Eric

2014-09-01

30

Commuting fruit bats beneficially modulate their flight in relation to wind.  

PubMed

When animals move, their tracks may be strongly influenced by the motion of air or water, and this may affect the speed, energetics and prospects of the journey. Flying organisms, such as bats, may thus benefit from modifying their flight in response to the wind vector. Yet, practical difficulties have so far limited the understanding of this response for free-ranging bats. We tracked nine straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) that flew 42.5 ± 17.5 km (mean ± s.d.) to and from their roost near Accra, Ghana. Following detailed atmospheric simulations, we found that bats compensated for wind drift, as predicted under constant winds, and decreased their airspeed in response to tailwind assistance such that their groundspeed remained nearly constant. In addition, bats increased their airspeed with increasing crosswind speed. Overall, bats modulated their airspeed in relation to wind speed at different wind directions in a manner predicted by a two-dimensional optimal movement model. We conclude that sophisticated behavioural mechanisms to minimize the cost of transport under various wind conditions have evolved in bats. The bats' response to the wind is similar to that reported for migratory birds and insects, suggesting convergent evolution of flight behaviours in volant organisms. PMID:24648227

Sapir, Nir; Horvitz, Nir; Dechmann, Dina K N; Fahr, Jakob; Wikelski, Martin

2014-05-01

31

Kinematic Plasticity during Flight in Fruit Bats: Individual Variability in Response to Loading  

PubMed Central

All bats experience daily and seasonal fluctuation in body mass. An increase in mass requires changes in flight kinematics to produce the extra lift necessary to compensate for increased weight. How bats modify their kinematics to increase lift, however, is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of a 20% increase in mass on flight kinematics for Cynopterus brachyotis, the lesser dog-faced fruit bat. We reconstructed the 3D wing kinematics and how they changed with the additional mass. Bats showed a marked change in wing kinematics in response to loading, but changes varied among individuals. Each bat adjusted a different combination of kinematic parameters to increase lift, indicating that aerodynamic force generation can be modulated in multiple ways. Two main kinematic strategies were distinguished: bats either changed the motion of the wings by primarily increasing wingbeat frequency, or changed the configuration of the wings by increasing wing area and camber. The complex, individual-dependent response to increased loading in our bats points to an underappreciated aspect of locomotor control, in which the inherent complexity of the biomechanical system allows for kinematic plasticity. The kinematic plasticity and functional redundancy observed in bat flight can have evolutionary consequences, such as an increase potential for morphological and kinematic diversification due to weakened locomotor trade-offs. PMID:22615790

Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Riskin, Daniel K.; Breuer, Kenneth S.; Swartz, Sharon M.

2012-01-01

32

Effect of tannic acid on iron absorption in straw-colored fruit bats(Eidolon helvum)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Excessive absorption and subsequent storage of dietary iron has been found in a variety of captively held birds and mammals, including fruit bats. It is thought that feeding a diet that is low in iron can prevent the onset of this disease; however, manufacturing a diet with commonly available foodst...

33

Henipavirus neutralising antibodies in an isolated island population of African fruit bats.  

PubMed

Isolated islands provide valuable opportunities to study the persistence of viruses in wildlife populations, including population size thresholds such as the critical community size. The straw-coloured fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, has been identified as a reservoir for henipaviruses (serological evidence) and Lagos bat virus (LBV; virus isolation and serological evidence) in continental Africa. Here, we sampled from a remote population of E. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on Annobón island in the Gulf of Guinea to investigate whether antibodies to these viruses also exist in this isolated subspecies. Henipavirus serological analyses (Luminex multiplexed binding and inhibition assays, virus neutralisation tests and western blots) and lyssavirus serological analyses (LBV: modified Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test, LBV and Mokola virus: lentivirus pseudovirus neutralisation assay) were undertaken on 73 and 70 samples respectively. Given the isolation of fruit bats on Annobón and their lack of connectivity with other populations, it was expected that the population size on the island would be too small to allow persistence of viruses that are thought to cause acute and immunising infections. However, the presence of antibodies against henipaviruses was detected using the Luminex binding assay and confirmed using alternative assays. Neutralising antibodies to LBV were detected in one bat using both assays. We demonstrate clear evidence for exposure of multiple individuals to henipaviruses in this remote population of E. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on Annobón island. The situation is less clear for LBV. Seroprevalences to henipaviruses and LBV in Annobón are notably different to those in E. helvum in continental locations studied using the same sampling techniques and assays. Whilst cross-sectional serological studies in wildlife populations cannot provide details on viral dynamics within populations, valuable information on the presence or absence of viruses may be obtained and utilised for informing future studies. PMID:22253928

Peel, Alison J; Baker, Kate S; Crameri, Gary; Barr, Jennifer A; Hayman, David T S; Wright, Edward; Broder, Christopher C; Fernández-Loras, Andrés; Fooks, Anthony R; Wang, Lin-Fa; Cunningham, Andrew A; Wood, James L N

2012-01-01

34

Oral shedding of marburg virus in experimentally infected egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus).  

PubMed

Abstract Marburg virus (Marburg marburgvirus; MARV) causes sporadic outbreaks of Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) in Africa. The Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) has been identified as a natural reservoir based most-recently on the repeated isolation of MARV directly from bats caught at two locations in southwestern Uganda where miners and tourists separately contracted MHF from 2007-08. Despite learning much about the ecology of MARV through extensive field investigations, there remained unanswered questions such as determining the primary routes of virus shedding and the severity of disease, if any, caused by MARV in infected bats. To answer these questions and others, we experimentally infected captive-bred R. aegyptiacus with MARV under high (biosafety level 4) containment. These experiments have shown infection profiles consistent with R. aegyptiacus being a bona fide natural reservoir host for MARV and demonstrated routes of viral shedding capable of infecting humans and other animals. PMID:25375951

Amman, Brian R; Jones, Megan E B; Sealy, Tara K; Uebelhoer, Luke S; Schuh, Amy J; Bird, Brian H; Coleman-McCray, JoAnn D; Martin, Brock E; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

2015-01-01

35

Demography of straw-colored fruit bats in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Eidolon helvum is widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa where it forms large, dense colonies. The species is migratory and satellite telemetry studies have demonstrated that individuals can migrate over 2,500 km. It is a common source of bush meat in West Africa and evidence of infection with potentially zoonotic viruses has been found in West African colonies. The species, therefore, is of interest to both ecologists and those interested in public health. Despite this, demographic parameters of the species are unknown. We focused our study primarily on a colony of up to 1,000,000 bats that roost in trees in Accra, Ghana to obtain estimates of birth rate and survival probability. Aging of bats by examination of tooth cementum annuli allowed use of life tables to indicate an annual survival probability for juveniles of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.77) and for adults of 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.93). Additionally, an annual adult survival probability of 0.63 (95% CI 0.27–0.88) was estimated by following 98 radiocollared bats over a year; capture–recapture data were analyzed using multistate models to address the confounding factor of emigration. True survival probabilities may be in between the 2 estimates, because permanent emigration may lead to underestimation in the capture–recapture study, and population decline may lead to overestimation in the life table analysis. Birth rates (0.96 young per female per year, 95% CI 0.92–0.98) and colony size changes were also estimated. Estimation of these key parameters will allow future analyses of both infection dynamics within, and harvest sustainability of, E. helvum populations. PMID:23525358

Hayman, David T. S.; McCrea, Rachel; Restif, Olivier; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Wood, James L. N.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus

2012-01-01

36

Novel, Potentially Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses from the African Straw-Colored Fruit Bat Eidolon helvum  

PubMed Central

Bats carry a variety of paramyxoviruses that impact human and domestic animal health when spillover occurs. Recent studies have shown a great diversity of paramyxoviruses in an urban-roosting population of straw-colored fruit bats in Ghana. Here, we investigate this further through virus isolation and describe two novel rubulaviruses: Achimota virus 1 (AchPV1) and Achimota virus 2 (AchPV2). The viruses form a phylogenetic cluster with each other and other bat-derived rubulaviruses, such as Tuhoko viruses, Menangle virus, and Tioman virus. We developed AchPV1- and AchPV2-specific serological assays and found evidence of infection with both viruses in Eidolon helvum across sub-Saharan Africa and on islands in the Gulf of Guinea. Longitudinal sampling of E. helvum indicates virus persistence within fruit bat populations and suggests spread of AchPVs via horizontal transmission. We also detected possible serological evidence of human infection with AchPV2 in Ghana and Tanzania. It is likely that clinically significant zoonotic spillover of chiropteran paramyxoviruses could be missed throughout much of Africa where health surveillance and diagnostics are poor and comorbidities, such as infection with HIV or Plasmodium sp., are common. PMID:23152534

Todd, Shawn; Marsh, Glenn A.; Crameri, Gary; Barr, Jennifer; Kamins, Alexandra O.; Peel, Alison J.; Yu, Meng; Hayman, David T. S.; Nadjm, Behzad; Mtove, George; Amos, Benjamin; Reyburn, Hugh; Nyarko, Edward; Suu-Ire, Richard; Murcia, Pablo R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L. N.

2013-01-01

37

Climbing flight performance and load carrying in lesser dog-faced fruit bats (Cynopterus brachyotis).  

PubMed

The metabolic cost of flight increases with mass, so animals that fly tend to exhibit morphological traits that reduce body weight. However, all flying animals must sometimes fly while carrying loads. Load carrying is especially relevant for bats, which experience nightly and seasonal fluctuations in body mass of 40% or more. In this study, we examined how the climbing flight performance of fruit bats (Cynopterus brachyotis; N=4) was affected by added loads. The body weights of animals were experimentally increased by 0, 7, 14 or 21% by means of intra-peritoneal injections of saline solution, and flights were recorded as animals flew upwards in a small enclosure. Using a model based on actuator disk theory, we estimated the mechanical power expended by the bats as they flew and separated that cost into different components, including the estimated costs of hovering, climbing and increasing kinetic energy. We found that even our most heavily loaded bats were capable of upward flight, but as the magnitude of the load increased, flight performance diminished. Although the cost of flight increased with loading, bats did not vary total induced power across loading treatment. This resulted in a diminished vertical velocity and thus shallower climbing angle with increased loads. Among trials there was considerable variation in power production, and those with greater power production tended to exhibit higher wingbeat frequencies and lower wing stroke amplitudes than trials with lower power production. Changes in stroke plane angle, downstroke wingtip velocity and wing extension did not correlate significantly with changes in power output. We thus observed the manner in which bats modulated power output through changes in kinematics and conclude that the bats in our study did not respond to increases in loading with increased power output because their typical kinematics already resulted in sufficient aerodynamic power to accommodate even a 21% increase in body weight. PMID:21307065

MacAyeal, Leigh C; Riskin, Daniel K; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

2011-03-01

38

Interactions between birds, fruit bats and exotic plants in urban Hong Kong, South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

I observed the use of exotic plant species by native birds and bats in 8 km2 of urban Hong Kong. Twenty-nine plant taxa were used repeatedly. Five species accounted for most interactions with birds:\\u000a Cinnamomum camphora (10 bird species), Ficus religiosa (6), Livistona chinensis (7) and Pyracantha crenulata (6) provided fruits, while Bombax ceiba (6) supplied nectar. Panicum maximum (2)

Richard T. Corlett

2005-01-01

39

Postnatal growth, age estimation and development of foraging behaviour in the fulvous fruit bat Rousettus leschenaulti.  

PubMed

This study documents the postnatal growth, age estimation and development of the foraging behaviour of the fulvous fruit bat Rousettus leschenaulti under captive conditions. At birth, the young were naked and pink with closed eyes and folded pinnae. By day four of age, their eyes had opened and the pups began to move. The mean length of forearm in 5-day-old pups was 24.9 mm and body mass was 10.8 g, equivalent to 32.3% and 14.2% of the values from postpartum females. The length of forearm and body mass increased linearly until 45 and 50 days, respectively, and thereafter maintained an apparent stability. The epiphyseal gap of the fourth metacarpal-phalangeal joint increased until 15 days, then decreased linearly until 75 days and thereafter closed. Age was estimated quantitatively, based on linear changes observed in the length of the forearm and epiphyseal gap. Pups began to roost separately, but adjacent to their mothers when 30 days old and flew clumsily when they were about 40 days old. After attaining clumsy flight, the young bats made independent foraging attempts feebly by biting and licking small fruit pieces. Young bats were engaged in suckling as well as ingesting fruits when they were about 50 days old. Between 55 and 65 days, they flew well and fed on fruits. At the age of 75 days, the young bats were completely weaned and at two months, their foraging behaviour was similar to that of their mothers. There was no significant difference in the growth pattern of the young maintained in captivity compared with those under natural conditions. PMID:12571375

Elangovan, V; Raghuram, H; Satya Priya, E Yuvana; Marimuthu, G

2002-12-01

40

Rodrigues fruit bats ( Pteropus rodricensis , Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae) retain genetic diversity despite population declines and founder events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit bats of the genus Pteropus are important contributors to ecosystem maintenance on islands through their roles as pollinators and seed dispersers. However,\\u000a island faunas are the most prone to extinction and there is a real need to assess the possible genetic implications of population\\u000a reductions in terms of extinction risk. An effective method of ameliorating extinction risk in endangered

John O’Brien; Gary F. McCracken; Ludovic Say; Thomas J. Hayden

2007-01-01

41

Contrasting genetic structure in two co-distributed species of old world fruit bat.  

PubMed

The fulvous fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaulti) and the greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) are two abundant and widely co-distributed Old World fruit bats in Southeast and East Asia. The former species forms large colonies in caves while the latter roots in small groups in trees. To test whether these differences in social organization and roosting ecology are associated with contrasting patterns of gene flow, we used mtDNA and nuclear loci to characterize population genetic subdivision and phylogeographic histories in both species sampled from China, Vietnam and India. Our analyses from R. leschenaulti using both types of marker revealed little evidence of genetic structure across the study region. On the other hand, C. sphinx showed significant genetic mtDNA differentiation between the samples from India compared with China and Vietnam, as well as greater structuring of microsatellite genotypes within China. Demographic analyses indicated signatures of past rapid population expansion in both taxa, with more recent demographic growth in C. sphinx. Therefore, the relative genetic homogeneity in R. leschenaulti is unlikely to reflect past events. Instead we suggest that the absence of substructure in R. leschenaulti is a consequence of higher levels of gene flow among colonies, and that greater vagility in this species is an adaptation associated with cave roosting. PMID:21085717

Chen, Jinping; Rossiter, Stephen J; Flanders, Jonathan R; Sun, Yanhong; Hua, Panyu; Miller-Butterworth, Cassandra; Liu, Xusheng; Rajan, Koilmani E; Zhang, Shuyi

2010-01-01

42

Relative role of olfactory cues and certain non-olfactory factors in foraging of fruit-eating bats.  

PubMed

The proportion of captivated Indian short-nosed fruit bats, Cynopterus sphinx, approaching fruits within a specified duration and the fruit-approaching latency were recorded under various test conditions (involving variations in the olfactory and certain aspects of the physical environment, and the time of food presentation). While alterations in the majority of physical features in the immediate environment of bats failed to affect either of the foraging parameters studied, one or both of them were markedly influenced by the presence of light or source of a novel odour, or a delay of 24 h in the regular feeding time. When paper pieces coated with homogenized fruit pulp were provided instead of the fruit pieces during the regular feeding time, bats responded normally; they, however, did not approach water-wetted papers. Initially the bats did not consume grapes. However, following the supply of grapes coated with homogenate of banana fruits, grapes were approached and consumed in considerable quantities. The results underscore that light has a crucial role in the foraging activity of C. sphinx and they rely extensively on olfactory cues to detect the fruits. In another experiment the bats were daily provided simultaneous access to two adjacent fruit-containing cages; fruits in one of the cages were accessible but those in the other cage were not. Cedar wood oil, source of a strong odour, was placed in either of the cages. Observations revealed that the bats can learn to associate the availability of fruits with the presence of an odour within 3 days. PMID:24896727

Kshitish Acharya, K; Roy, A; Krishna, A

1998-07-01

43

Serologic Evidence of Flavivirus Infection in Bats in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico  

PubMed Central

We captured 140 bats of seven species in Merida City in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico in 2010. Serum was collected from each bat and assayed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using six flaviviruses: West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, and dengue viruses 1–4. Flavivirus-specific antibodies were detected in 26 bats (19%). The antibody-positive bats belonged to three species: the Pallas's long-tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina), Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis), and great fruit-eating bat (Artibeus lituratus), and their flavivirus antibody prevalences were 33%, 24%, and 9%, respectively. The PRNT titers were usually highest for dengue virus 2 or dengue virus 4, but none of the titers exceeded 80. These data could indicate that most of the antibody-positive bats had been infected with dengue virus. However, because all titers were low, it is possible that the bats had been infected with another (perhaps unrecognized) flavivirus not included in the PRNT analysis, possibly a virus more closely related to dengue virus than to other flaviviruses. Each serum sample was assayed for flavivirus RNA by reverse transcription PCR, but all were negative. PMID:23778622

Machain-Williams, Carlos; López-Uribe, Mildred; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes; Carrillo-Navarrete, Jaquelin; Vera-Escalante, Luis; Puerto-Manzano, Fernando; Ulloa, Armando; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Garcia-Rejon, Julián; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba

2013-01-01

44

Flower Bats (Glossophaga soricina) and Fruit Bats (Carollia perspicillata) Rely on Spatial Cues over Shapes and Scents When Relocating Food  

PubMed Central

Background Natural selection can shape specific cognitive abilities and the extent to which a given species relies on various cues when learning associations between stimuli and rewards. Because the flower bat Glossophaga soricina feeds primarily on nectar, and the locations of nectar-producing flowers remain constant, G. soricina might be predisposed to learn to associate food with locations. Indeed, G. soricina has been observed to rely far more heavily on spatial cues than on shape cues when relocating food, and to learn poorly when shape alone provides a reliable cue to the presence of food. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we determined whether G. soricina would learn to use scent cues as indicators of the presence of food when such cues were also available. Nectar-producing plants fed upon by G. soricina often produce distinct, intense odors. We therefore expected G. soricina to relocate food sources using scent cues, particularly the flower-produced compound, dimethyl disulfide, which is attractive even to G. soricina with no previous experience of it. We also compared the learning of associations between cues and food sources by G. soricina with that of a related fruit-eating bat, Carollia perspicillata. We found that (1) G. soricina did not learn to associate scent cues, including dimethyl disulfide, with feeding sites when the previously rewarded spatial cues were also available, and (2) both the fruit-eating C. perspicillata and the flower-feeding G. soricina were significantly more reliant on spatial cues than associated sensory cues for relocating food. Conclusions/Significance These findings, taken together with past results, provide evidence of a powerful, experience-independent predilection of both species to rely on spatial cues when attempting to relocate food. PMID:20520841

Carter, Gerald G.; Ratcliffe, John M.; Galef, Bennett G.

2010-01-01

45

Roosting patterns in a captive colony of short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (Vahl).  

PubMed

Development of roosting patterns under a limited resource was studied in the short-nosed fruit bat C. sphinx in captivity. Spatial fidelity during the resting period (day time) and the individual male bat's presence/absence in the roost (occupancy index) were estimated during the active period (night time). Results show the presence of three groups on the basis of spatial fidelity. The first group was associated with the tent consisting of a harem male and seven females. The second group stayed near to the harem. The third group consisting of two males showed little occupancy index and no spatial fidelity. Female turnover between the first and second groups, and harem male replacement were observed. These findings of male groupings and female loyalty on the basis of "resource", suggest that resource defence polygyny is the primary mating strategy in C. sphinx. PMID:12693703

Gopukumar, N; Manikandan, M; Arivarignan, G

2002-10-01

46

An apparently new virus (family Paramyxoviridae) infectious for pigs, humans, and fruit bats.  

PubMed Central

We isolated an apparently new virus in the family Paramyxoviridae from stillborn piglets with deformities at a piggery in New South Wales, Australia. In 1997, the pregnancy rate and litter size at the piggery decreased markedly, while the proportion of mummified fetuses increased. We found serologic evidence of infection in pigs at the affected piggery and two associated piggeries, in humans exposed to infected pigs, and in fruit bats. Menangle virus is proposed as a common name for this agent, should further studies confirm that it is a newly recognized virus. PMID:9621197

Philbey, A. W.; Kirkland, P. D.; Ross, A. D.; Davis, R. J.; Gleeson, A. B.; Love, R. J.; Daniels, P. W.; Gould, A. R.; Hyatt, A. D.

1998-01-01

47

Role of olfactory bulb serotonin in olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).  

PubMed

The role of olfactory bulb (OB) serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] in olfactory learning and memory was tested in the greater short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (family Pteropodidae). Graded concentrations (25, 40, and 60microg) of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or saline were injected into the OB of bats one day before training to the novel odor. In a behavioral test, 5,7-DHT (60microg) injected bats made significantly fewer feeding attempts and bouts when compared to saline-injected bats during learning and in the memory test. Subsequent biochemical analysis showed that 5-HT level was effectively depleted in the OB of 5,7-DHT injected bats. To test odor-induced 5-HT mediated changes in 5-HT receptors and second messenger cascade in the OB, we examined the expression of 5-HT receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/Erk cascade after training to the novel odor. We found that odor stimulation up-regulated the expression of 5-HT(1A) receptor, Erk1 and Creb1 mRNA, and phosphorylation of ERK1 and CREB1. Odor stimulation failed to induce expression in 5-HT-depleted bats, which is similar to control bats and significantly low compared to saline-treated bats. Together these data revealed that the level of 5-HT in the OB may regulate olfactory learning and memory in C. sphinx through Erk and CREB. PMID:20599808

Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Haupt, Moritz; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

2010-09-17

48

Kinematics of slow turn maneuvering in the fruit bat Cynopterus brachyotis.  

PubMed

Maneuvering abilities have long been considered key factors that influence habitat selection and foraging strategies in bats. To date, however, very little experimental work has been carried out to understand the mechanisms that bats use to perform maneuvers. In the present study, we examined the kinematics of slow-speed turning flight in the lesser short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, to understand the basic mechanics employed to perform maneuvers and to compare them with previous findings in bats and other flying organisms. Four individuals were trained to fly in L-shaped flight enclosure that required them to make a 90 deg. turn midway through each flight. Flights were recorded with three low-light, high-speed videocameras, allowing the three-dimensional reconstruction of the body and wing kinematics. For any flying organisms, turning requires changes of the direction of travel and the reorientation of the body around the center of mass to maintain the alignment with the flight direction. In C. brachyotis, changes in body orientation (i.e. heading) took place during upstroke and preceded the changes in flight direction, which were restricted to the downstroke portion of the wingbeat cycle. Mean change in flight direction was significantly correlated to the mean heading angular velocity at the beginning of the downstroke and to the mean bank angle during downstroke, although only heading velocity was significant when both variables were considered. Body reorientation prior to changes in direction might be a mechanism to maintain the head and body aligned with the direction of travel and, thus, maximizing spatial accuracy in three-dimensionally complex environments. PMID:18931320

Iriarte-Díaz, José; Swartz, Sharon M

2008-11-01

49

The modularity of seed dispersal: differences in structure and robustness between bat– and bird–fruit networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In networks of plant–animal mutualisms, different animal groups interact preferentially with different plants, thus forming\\u000a distinct modules responsible for different parts of the service. However, what we currently know about seed dispersal networks\\u000a is based only on birds. Therefore, we wished to fill this gap by studying bat–fruit networks and testing how they differ from\\u000a bird–fruit networks. As dietary overlap

Marco Aurelio Ribeiro Mello; Flávia Maria Darcie Marquitti; Paulo R. Guimarães; Elisabeth Klara Viktoria Kalko; Pedro Jordano; Marcus Aloizio Martinez de Aguiar

50

Effect of light intensity on food detection in captive great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).  

PubMed

Bats are known for their well-developed echolocation. However, several experiments focused on the bat visual system have shown evidence of the importance of visual cues under specific luminosity for different aspects of bat biology, including foraging behavior. This study examined the foraging abilities of five female great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus, under different light intensities. Animals were given a series of tasks to test for discrimination between a food target against an inedible background, under light levels similar to the twilight illumination (18lx), the full moon (2lx) and complete darkness (0lx). We found that the bats required a longer time frame to detect targets under a light intensity similar to twilight, possibly due to inhibitory effects present under a more intense light level. Additionally, bats were more efficient at detecting and capturing targets under light conditions similar to the luminosity of a full moon, suggesting that visual cues were important for target discrimination. These results demonstrate that light intensity affects foraging behavior and enables the use of visual cues for food detection in frugivorous bats. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. PMID:25153795

Gutierrez, Eduardo de A; Pessoa, Valdir F; Aguiar, Ludmilla M S; Pessoa, Daniel M A

2014-11-01

51

Wing morphology and flight development in the short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.  

PubMed

Postnatal changes in wing morphology, flight development and aerodynamics were studied in captive free-flying short-nosed fruit bats, Cynopterus sphinx. Pups were reluctant to move until 25 days of age and started fluttering at the mean age of 40 days. The wingspan and wing area increased linearly until 45 days of age by which time the young bats exhibited clumsy flight with gentle turns. At birth, C. sphinx had less-developed handwings compared to armwings; however, the handwing developed faster than the armwing during the postnatal period. Young bats achieved sustained flight at 55 days of age. Wing loading decreased linearly until 35 days of age and thereafter increased to a maximum of 12.82 Nm(-2) at 125 days of age. The logistic equation fitted the postnatal changes in wingspan and wing area better than the Gompertz and von Bertalanffy equations. The predicted minimum power speed (V(mp)) and maximum range speed (V(mr)) decreased until the onset of flight and thereafter the V(mp) and V(mr) increased linearly and approached 96.2% and 96.4%, respectively, of the speed of postpartum females at the age of 125 days. The requirement of minimum flight power (P(mp)) and maximum range power (P(mr)) increased until 85 days of age and thereafter stabilised. The minimum theoretical radius of banked turn (r(min)) decreased until 35 days of age and thereafter increased linearly and attained 86.5% of the r(min) of postpartum females at the age of 125 days. PMID:17434300

Elangovan, Vadamalai; Yuvana Satya Priya, Elangovan; Raghuram, Hanumanth; Marimuthu, Ganapathy

2007-01-01

52

Hindlimb motion during steady flight of the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis.  

PubMed

In bats, the wing membrane is anchored not only to the body and forelimb, but also to the hindlimb. This attachment configuration gives bats the potential to modulate wing shape by moving the hindlimb, such as by joint movement at the hip or knee. Such movements could modulate lift, drag, or the pitching moment. In this study we address: 1) how the ankle translates through space during the wingbeat cycle; 2) whether amplitude of ankle motion is dependent upon flight speed; 3) how tension in the wing membrane pulls the ankle; and 4) whether wing membrane tension is responsible for driving ankle motion. We flew five individuals of the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis (Family: Pteropodidae), in a wind tunnel and documented kinematics of the forelimb, hip, ankle, and trailing edge of the wing membrane. Based on kinematic analysis of hindlimb and forelimb movements, we found that: 1) during downstroke, the ankle moved ventrally and during upstroke the ankle moved dorsally; 2) there was considerable variation in amplitude of ankle motion, but amplitude did not correlate significantly with flight speed; 3) during downstroke, tension generated by the wing membrane acted to pull the ankle dorsally, and during upstroke, the wing membrane pulled laterally when taut and dorsally when relatively slack; and 4) wing membrane tension generally opposed dorsoventral ankle motion. We conclude that during forward flight in C. brachyotis, wing membrane tension does not power hindlimb motion; instead, we propose that hindlimb movements arise from muscle activity and/or inertial effects. PMID:24858194

Cheney, Jorn A; Ton, Daniel; Konow, Nicolai; Riskin, Daniel K; Breuer, Kenneth S; Swartz, Sharon M

2014-01-01

53

Relationship between delayed embryonic development and metabolic factors and fat deposition in fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken in the fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx, which breeds twice in quick succession at Varanasi, India. Its gestation period varies significantly in the two successive pregnancies of the year owing to delayed embryonic development during the first (winter) pregnancy. The primary aim of the present study was to determine the role of metabolic factors in delayed embryonic development in the fruit bat C. sphinx. Variation in bodyweight, fat deposition, oxygen (O(2)) consumption rate, basal metabolic rate (BMR), body temperature (Tb) and hepatic succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, along with circulating levels of thyroid hormones (tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine), were examined as metabolic factors during the two successive pregnancies in C. sphinx. The increase in bodyweight observed in November was due to accumulation of white adipose tissue in the posterior abdominal region. A significant decline in O(2) consumption rate, BMR, Tb and SDH activity was found in early winter in November-December, which coincides closely with the period of fat accumulation and with the period of delayed embryonic development in C. sphinx. A significantly higher O(2) consumption rate, BMR, Tb and SDH activity was noted during the second pregnancy in, when embryonic development was relatively faster. Thyroid hormone levels were high during the period of embryonic delay compared with levels during the remaining months. The results of the present study suggest that the delayed embryonic development in C. sphinx during early winter may be due to a low O(2) consumption rate, BMR, Tb and SDH activity in November-December. The energy saved by suppressing embryonic development in this species may be advantageous for fat accumulation. Increased thyroid hormone levels during the early winter period might facilitate fat accumulation in C. sphinx. PMID:17601410

Banerjee, Arnab; Meenakumari, K J; Krishna, Amitabh

2007-01-01

54

Cobalamin inactivation by nitrous oxide produces severe neurological impairment in fruit bats: protection by methionine and aggravation by folates  

SciTech Connect

Nitrous oxide, which inactivates cobalamin when administered to fruit bats, results in severe neurological impairment leading to ataxia, paralysis and death. This occurs after about 6 weeks in animals depleted of cobalamin by dietary restriction, and after about 10 weeks in cobalamin replete bats. Supplementation of the diet with pteroylglutamic acid caused acceleration of the neurological impairment--the first unequivocal demonstration of aggravation of the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency by pteroylglutamic acid. The administration of formyltetrahydropteroylglutamic acid produced similar aggravation of the neurological lesion. Supplementation of the diet with methionine protected the bats from neurological impairment, but failed to prevent death. Methionine supplementation protected against the exacerbating effect of folate, preventing the development of neurological changes. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency may be related to a deficiency in the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine which follows diminished synthesis of methionine.

van der Westhuyzen, J.; Fernandes-Costa, F.; Metz, J.

1982-11-01

55

Ovulation, Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development in the Menstruating Fruit Bat, Carollia perspicillata  

PubMed Central

To characterize periovulatory events, reproductive tracts were collected at 12 hr intervals from captive-bred, short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata, on days 1-3 post coitum and examined histologically. Most bats bred readily. Graafian follicles developed large antra and exhibited preovulatory expansion of the cumulus oophorus. Ovulation had occurred in some on the morning, and in most by the evening, of day 1. The single ovum was released as a secondary oocyte and fertilized in the oviductal ampulla. Ovulated secondary oocytes were loosely associated with their cumulus cells, which were lost around the initiation of fertilization. Supernumerary spermatozoa were occasionally noted attached to the zonae pellucidae of oviductal ova, but never within the perivitelline space. By day 2, most ova had reached the pronuclear stage and by day 3, early cleavage stages. Several lines of evidence indicate that C. perspicillata is a spontaneous ovulator with a functional luteal phase. Most newly-mated females had recently-formed, but regressing corpora lutea, and thickened (albeit menstrual) uteri despite having been housed with males only for brief periods (< 23 days). Menstruation is usually periovulatory in this species. Furthermore, the interval between successive estrus periods in most mated females that failed to establish ongoing pregnancies at the first was 21 – 27 days. Menstruation involved substantial endometrial desquamation, plus associated bleeding, and generally extended to the evening of day 3, the last time point studied. In nearly all females with a recent corpus luteum (n=24/25; 96%), the preovulatory or newly-ruptured follicle was in the opposite ovary. PMID:21337714

Rasweiler IV, John J.; Badwaik, Nilima K.; Mechineni, Kiranmayi V.

2010-01-01

56

Phylogeny and phylogeography of Old World fruit bats in the Cynopterus brachyotis complex.  

PubMed

Taxonomic relationships within the Old World fruit bat genus, Cynopterus, have been equivocal for the better part of a century. While nomenclature has been revised multiple times on the basis of phenotypic characters, evolutionary relationships among taxa representing the entire geographic range of the genus have not been determined. We used mitochondrial DNA sequence data to infer phylogenetic relationships among the three most broadly distributed members of the genus: C. brachyotis, C. horsfieldi, and C. sphinx, and to assess whether C. brachyotis represents a single widespread species, or a complex of distinct lineages. Results clearly indicate that C. brachyotis is a complex of lineages. C. sphinx and C. horsfieldi haplotypes formed monophyletic groups nested within the C. brachyotis species complex. We identified six divergent mitochondrial lineages that are currently referred to C. brachyotis. Lineages from India, Myanmar, Sulawesi, and the Philippines are geographically well-defined, while in Malaysia two lineages, designated Sunda and Forest, are broadly sympatric and may be ecologically distinct. Demographic analyses of the Sunda and Forest lineages suggest strikingly different population histories, including a recent and rapid range expansion in the Sunda lineage, possibly associated with changes in sea levels during the Pleistocene. The resolution of the taxonomic issues raised in this study awaits combined analysis of morphometric characters and molecular data. However, since both the Indian and Malaysian Forest C. brachyotis lineages are apparently ecologically restricted to increasingly fragmented forest habitat, we suggest that reevaluation of the conservation status of populations in these regions should be an immediate goal. PMID:15522802

Campbell, Polly; Schneider, Christopher J; Adnan, Adura M; Zubaid, Akbar; Kunz, Thomas H

2004-12-01

57

Annual reproductive synchronization in ovary and pineal gland function of female short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.  

PubMed

We studied the annual correlation of ovarian activity and pineal gland in relation with seasonal variation and gestation of a tropical zone short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx. Female bats showed bimodal polyestry (February/March and September/October) in their reproductive cycle. Plasma estradiol concentration ran parallel with ovarian activity and had an inverse relation with pineal mass and peripheral melatonin concentration. Due to the delayed embryonic development in the uterus (October-March) of female bats, interestingly, the uterine activity did not show a parallel relation with ovarian activity and estradiol level. Further, compared with normal non-pregnant females, melatonin level was high during gestation and delayed embryonic development phase. This suggests that the reproductive synchrony and annual variation in ovarian activity of this nocturnal flying mammal differ from other common tropical mammals. The delayed embryonic development in bats might be an adaptive strategy for the unfavorable conditions of the seasons and might be regulated by high peripheral estradiol and melatonin concentration. PMID:16730204

Haldar, Chandana; Yadav, Rajesh; Alipreeta

2006-08-01

58

Evidence of increased endometrial vascular permeability at the time of implantation in the short-nosed fruit bat, Cyanopterus sphinx.  

PubMed

Early embryonic development and implantation were studied in tropical short-nosed fruit bat Cyanopterus sphinx. We report preimplantation development and embryo implantation. Different stages of cleavage were observed in embryo by direct microscopic examination of fresh embryos after retrieving them either from the oviduct or the uterus at different days, up to the day of implantation. Generally, the embryos enter the uterus at the 8-cell stage. Embryonic development continued without any delay and blastocyst were formed showing attachment to the uterine epithelium at the mesometrial side of the uterus. A distinct blue band was formed in the uterus. The site of blastocyst attachment was visualized as a blue band following intravenous injection of pontamine blue. Implantation occurred 9+/-0.7 days after mating. This study reports that bat embryonic development can be studied like other laboratory animals and that this bat shows blue dye reaction, indicating the site and exact time of implantation. This blue dye reaction can be used to accurately find post-implantational delay. We prove conclusively that this species of tropical bat does not have any type of embryonic diapause. PMID:17196345

Pakrasi, Pranab Lal; Tiwari, Anjana

2007-09-01

59

Evidence for exploitative competition: Comparative foraging behavior and roosting ecology of short-tailed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chestnut short-tailed bats, Carollia castanea, and Seba's short-tailed bats, C. perspicillata (Phyllostomidae), were radio-tracked (N = 1593 positions) in lowland rain forest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Orellana Province, Ecuador. For 11 C. castanea, mean home range was 6.8 ?? 2.2 ha, mean core-use area was 1.7 ?? 0.8 ha, and mean long axis across home range was 438 ?? 106 m. For three C. perspicillata, mean home range was 5.5 ?? 1.7 ha, mean core-use area was 1.3 ?? 0.6 ha, and mean long axis was 493 ?? 172 m. Groups of less than five C. castanea occupied day-roosts in earthen cavities that undercut banks the Tiputini River. Carollia perspicillata used tree hollows and buildings as day-roosts. Interspecific and intraspecific overlap among short-tailed bats occurred in core-use areas associated with clumps of fruiting Piper hispidum (peppers) and Cecropia sciadophylla. Piper hispidum seeds were present in 80 percent of the fecal samples from C. castanea and 56 percent of samples from C. perspicillata. Carollia perspicillata handled pepper fruits significantly faster than C. castanea; however, C. castanea commenced foraging before C. perspicillata emerged from day-roosts. Evidence for exploitative competition between C. castanea and C. perspicillata is suggested by our observations that 95 percent of ripe P. hispidum fruits available at sunset disappear before sunrise (N = 74 marked fruits). Piper hispidum plants produced zero to 12 ripe infructescences per plant each night during peak production. Few ripe infructescences of P. hispidum were available during the dry season; however, ripe infructescences of C. sciadophylla, remained abundant. ?? 2007 The Author(s) Journal compilation ?? 2007 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

Bonaccorso, F.J.; Winkelmann, J.R.; Shin, D.; Agrawal, C.I.; Aslami, N.; Bonney, C.; Hsu, A.; Jekielek, P.E.; Knox, A.K.; Kopach, S.J.; Jennings, T.D.; Lasky, J.R.; Menesale, S.A.; Richards, J.H.; Rutland, J.A.; Sessa, A.K.; Zhaurova, L.; Kunz, T.H.

2007-01-01

60

Distress calls of the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in conspecifics.  

PubMed

In a stressful situation, greater short-nosed fruit bats (Cynopterus sphinx) emit audible vocalization either to warn or to inform conspecifics. We examined the effect of distress calls on bats emitting the call as well as the bats receiving the distress signal through analysis of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and catacholaminargic systems. We measured the levels of neurotransmitters [serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE)] and stress hormones [(adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT)]. Our results showed that distress call emission elevated the level of ACTH and CORT, as well as 5-HT, DA and NE in the amygdala, for both the call emitting bat and the responding bat. Subsequently, we observed increased activity of glucocorticoid receptor and its steroid receptor co-activator (SRC-1). An expression of SRC-1 was up-regulated in the distress call emitter only, whereas it was at a similar level in both the call responder and silent bats. These findings suggest that bats emitting distress calls and also bats responding to such calls have similar neurotransmitter expression patterns, and may react similarly in response to stress. PMID:23832467

Mariappan, Subramanian; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

2013-09-01

61

Distress call-induced gene expression in the brain of the Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.  

PubMed

Individuals in distress emit audible vocalizations to either warn or inform conspecifics. The Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx, emits distress calls soon after becoming entangled in mist nets, which appear to attract conspecifics. Phase I of these distress calls is longer and louder, and includes a secondary peak, compared to phase II. Activity-dependent expression of egr-1 was examined in free-ranging C. sphinx following the emissions and responses to a distress call. We found that the level of expression of egr-1 was higher in bats that emitted a distress call, in adults that responded, and in pups than in silent bats. Up-regulated cDNA was amplified to identify the target gene (TOE1) of the protein Egr-1. The observed expression pattern Toe1 was similar to that of egr-1. These findings suggest that the neuronal activity related to recognition of a distress call and an auditory feedback mechanism induces the expression of Egr-1. Co-expression of egr-1 with Toe1 may play a role in initial triggering of the genetic mechanism that could be involved in the consolidation or stabilization of distress call memories. PMID:20063102

Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Raghuram, Hanumanthan; Nathan, Parthasarathy T; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

2010-02-01

62

Detection of Nipah virus RNA in fruit bat (Pteropus giganteus) from India.  

PubMed

The study deals with the survey of different bat populations (Pteropus giganteus, Cynopterus sphinx, and Megaderma lyra) in India for highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV), Reston Ebola virus, and Marburg virus. Bats (n = 140) from two states in India (Maharashtra and West Bengal) were tested for IgG (serum samples) against these viruses and for virus RNAs. Only NiV RNA was detected in a liver homogenate of P. giganteus captured in Myanaguri, West Bengal. Partial sequence analysis of nucleocapsid, glycoprotein, fusion, and phosphoprotein genes showed similarity with the NiV sequences from earlier outbreaks in India. A serum sample of this bat was also positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for NiV-specific IgG. This is the first report on confirmation of Nipah viral RNA in Pteropus bat from India and suggests the possible role of this species in transmission of NiV in India. PMID:22802440

Yadav, Pragya D; Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Shete, Anita M; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Mourya, Devendra T

2012-09-01

63

Echolocation call intensity and directionality in flying short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata (Phyllostomidae).  

PubMed

The directionality of bat echolocation calls defines the width of bats' sonar "view," while call intensity directly influences detection range since adequate sound energy must impinge upon objects to return audible echoes. Both are thus crucial parameters for understanding biosonar signal design. Phyllostomid bats have been classified as low intensity or "whispering bats," but recent data indicate that this designation may be inaccurate. Echolocation beam directionality in phyllostomids has only been measured through electrode brain-stimulation of restrained bats, presumably excluding active beam control via the noseleaf. Here, a 12-microphone array was used to measure echolocation call intensity and beam directionality in the frugivorous phyllostomid, Carollia perspicillata, echolocating in flight. The results showed a considerably narrower beam shape (half-amplitude beam angles of approximately 16° horizontally and 14° vertically) and louder echolocation calls [source levels averaging 99 dB sound pressure level (SPL) root mean square] for C. perspicillata than was found for this species when stationary. This suggests that naturally behaving phyllostomids shape their sound beam to achieve a longer and narrower sonar range than previously thought. C. perspicillata orient and forage in the forest interior and the narrow beam might be adaptive in clutter, by reducing the number and intensity of off-axis echoes. PMID:21303022

Brinkløv, Signe; Jakobsen, Lasse; Ratcliffe, John M; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Surlykke, Annemarie

2011-01-01

64

Sound localization acuity and its relation to vision in large and small fruit-eating bats: II. Non-echolocating species, Eidolon helvum and Cynopterus brachyotis.  

PubMed

Passive sound-localization acuity for 100-msec noise bursts was determined behaviorally for two species of non-echolocating bats: the Straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, a large frugivore, and the Dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, a small frugivore. The mean minimum audible angle for two E. helvum was 11.7 degrees, and for two C. brachyotis was 10.5 degrees. This places their passive sound-localization acuity near the middle of the range for echolocating bats as well as the middle of the range for other mammals. Sound-localization acuity varies widely among mammals, and the best predictor of this auditory function remains the width of the field of best vision (r=.89, p<.0001). Among echolocating and non-echolocating bats, as well as among other mammals, the use of hearing to direct the eyes to the source of a sound still appears to serve as an important selective factor for sound localization. Absolute visual acuity and the magnitude of the binaural locus cues available to a species remain unreliable predictors of sound-localization acuity. PMID:18571883

Heffner, R S; Koay, G; Heffner, H E

2008-07-01

65

Home range, territoriality, and flight time budgets in the black-bellied fruit bat, Melonycteris melanops (Pteropodidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on 1,362 radiotelemetry positions, mean home range for 10 adult black-bellied fruit bats, Melonycteris melanops (Pteropodidae), in lowland rainforest at Mount Garbuna, West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea, was 2.3 ha ?? 1.2 SD. Mean core-use area of adults was 0.5 ha ?? 0.4 SD, and mean long axis of home range was 370 m ?? 90 SD. Core-use areas were associated with day-roost shelters or flowering bananas. Means of home range, core-use area, and long axis across home range were significantly larger in subadults than in adults. During the day, M. melanops roosted singly under banana leaves or in subcanopy foliage, often showing extended fidelity to day-roost sites. Adults excluded other same-sex adults from feeding territories around bananas, but mixed-sex pairs overlapped strongly. During the first 2 h of the night, individual bats made 69-99 flights of 2- to 139-s duration. Cumulative flight represented 24-36% of the 2-h sampling periods. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

Bonaccorso, F.J.; Winkelmann, J.R.; Byrnes, D.G.P.

2005-01-01

66

Multiple colonisations of the western Indian Ocean by Pteropus fruit bats (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae): the furthest islands were colonised first.  

PubMed

We investigate the genetic relationships between purported island species of Pteropus fruit bat (Megachiroptera) from the western Indian Ocean islands using mitochondrial DNA sequencing in order to infer the pattern of colonisation of this biogeographic region. Most significantly, our genetic data questions the current taxonomic assignment based on morphology of many of the island species and subspecies, suggesting instead that many of the western Indian Ocean islands harbour 'races' of P. giganteus from mainland India. Our results strongly argue against a single colonisation event from mainland Asia. Evidence is presented for three colonisation events; the first to the western-most extremity of their range (Comoros and Pemba Island), the second to Rodrigues Island; and a third giving rise to the remaining extant island taxa, the latter two events occurring relatively recently and rapidly. PMID:19249376

O'Brien, John; Mariani, Carol; Olson, Link; Russell, Amy L; Say, Ludovic; Yoder, Anne D; Hayden, Tom J

2009-05-01

67

Type I Interferon Reaction to Viral Infection in Interferon-Competent, Immortalized Cell Lines from the African Fruit Bat Eidolon helvum  

PubMed Central

Bats harbor several highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses including Rabies, Marburg, and henipaviruses, without overt clinical symptoms in the animals. It has been suspected that bats might have evolved particularly effective mechanisms to suppress viral replication. Here, we investigated interferon (IFN) response, -induction, -secretion and -signaling in epithelial-like cells of the relevant and abundant African fruit bat species, Eidolon helvum (E. helvum). Immortalized cell lines were generated; their potential to induce and react on IFN was confirmed, and biological assays were adapted to application in bat cell cultures, enabling comparison of landmark IFN properties with that of common mammalian cell lines. E. helvum cells were fully capable of reacting to viral and artificial IFN stimuli. E. helvum cells showed highest IFN mRNA induction, highly productive IFN protein secretion, and evidence of efficient IFN stimulated gene induction. In an Alphavirus infection model, O'nyong-nyong virus exhibited strong IFN induction but evaded the IFN response by translational rather than transcriptional shutoff, similar to other Alphavirus infections. These novel IFN-competent cell lines will allow comparative research on zoonotic, bat-borne viruses in order to model mechanisms of viral maintenance and emergence in bat reservoirs. PMID:22140523

Biesold, Susanne E.; Ritz, Daniel; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Wollny, Robert; Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor M.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Marcel A.

2011-01-01

68

Promiscuous mating in the harem-roosting fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.  

PubMed

Observations on mating behaviours and strategies guide our understanding of mating systems and variance in reproductive success. However, the presence of cryptic strategies often results in situations where social mating system is not reflective of genetic mating system. We present such a study of the genetic mating system of a harem-forming bat Cynopterus sphinx where harems may not be true indicators of male reproductive success. This temporal study using data from six seasons on paternity reveals that social harem assemblages do not play a role in the mating system, and variance in male reproductive success is lower than expected assuming polygynous mating. Further, simulations reveal that the genetic mating system is statistically indistinguishable from promiscuity. Our results are in contrast to an earlier study that demonstrated high variance in male reproductive success. Although an outcome of behavioural mating patterns, standardized variance in male reproductive success (I(m)) affects the opportunity for sexual selection. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary implications of promiscuity for mammals in general, we compared our estimates of I(m) and total opportunity for sexual selection (I(m) /I(f), where I(f) is standardized variance in female reproductive success) with those of other known promiscuous species. We observed a broad range of I(m) /I(f) values across known promiscuous species, indicating our poor understanding of the evolutionary implications of promiscuous mating. PMID:22725709

Garg, Kritika M; Chattopadhyay, Balaji; Doss D, Paramanatha Swami; A K, Vinoth Kumar; Kandula, Sripathi; Ramakrishnan, Uma

2012-08-01

69

Lagos Bat Virus, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Three more isolates of Lagos bat virus were recently recovered from fruit bats in South Africa after an apparent absence of this virus for 13 years. The sporadic occurrence of cases is likely due to inadequate surveillance programs for lyssavirus infections among bat populations in Africa. PMID:16704795

Markotter, Wanda; Randles, Jenny; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Sabeta, Claude T.; Taylor, Peter J.; Wandeler, Alex I.

2006-01-01

70

Genetic consequences of polygyny and social structure in an Indian fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx. I. Inbreeding, outbreeding, and population subdivision.  

PubMed

Population subdivision into behaviorally cohesive kin groups influences rates of inbreeding and genetic drift and has important implications for the evolution of social behavior. Here we report the results of a study designed to test the hypothesis that harem social structure promotes inbreeding and genetic subdivision in a population with overlapping generations. Genetic consequences of harem social structure were investigated in a natural population of a highly polygynous fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), in western India. The partitioning of genetic variance within and among breeding groups was assessed using 10-locus microsatellite genotypes for 431 individually marked bats. Genetic analysis of the C. sphinx study population was integrated with field data on demography and social structure to determine the specific ways in which mating, dispersal, and new social group formation influenced population genetic structure. Microsatellite data revealed striking contrasts in genetic structure between consecutive offspring cohorts and between generations. Relative to the 1998 (dry-season) offspring cohort, the 1997 (wet-season) cohort was characterized by a more extensive degree of within-group heterozygote excess (F(IS) = -0.164 vs. -0.050), a greater degree of among-group subdivision (F(ST) = 0.123 vs. 0.008), and higher average within-group relatedness (r = 0.251 vs. 0.017). Differences in genetic structure between the two offspring cohorts were attributable to seasonal differences in the number and proportional representation of male parents. Relative to adult age-classes, offspring cohorts were characterized by more extensive departures from allelic and genotypic equilibria and a greater degree of genetic subdivision. Generational differences in F-statistics indicated that genetic structuring of offspring cohorts was randomized by natal dispersal prior to recruitment into the breeding population. Low relatedness among harem females (r = 0.002-0.005) was primarily attributable to high rates of natal dispersal and low rates of juvenile survivorship. Kin selection is therefore an unlikely explanation for the formation and maintenance of behaviorally cohesive breeding groups in this highly social mammal. PMID:11475057

Storz, J F; Bhat, H R; Kunz, T H

2001-06-01

71

Cadmium in jamaican bush teas.  

PubMed

Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 µg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04-1.18 µg of Cd and would contribute 0.1-0.3 µg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 µg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

Hoo Fung, L A; Rattray, V R; Lalor, G C

2014-01-01

72

Classification of Bartonella Strains Associated with Straw-Colored Fruit Bats (Eidolon helvum) across Africa Using a Multi-locus Sequence Typing Platform  

PubMed Central

Bartonellae are facultative intracellular bacteria and are highly adapted to their mammalian host cell niches. Straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are commonly infected with several bartonella strains. To elucidate the genetic diversity of these bartonella strains, we analyzed 79 bartonella isolates from straw-colored fruit bats in seven countries across Africa (Cameroon, Annobon island of Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda) using a multi-locus sequencing typing (MLST) approach based on nucleotide sequences of eight loci (ftsZ, gltA, nuoG, ribC, rpoB, ssrA, ITS, and 16S rRNA). The analysis of each locus but ribC demonstrated clustering of the isolates into six genogroups (E1 – E5 and Ew), while ribC was absent in the isolates belonging to the genogroup Ew. In general, grouping of all isolates by each locus was mutually supportive; however, nuoG, gltA, and rpoB showed some incongruity with other loci in several strains, suggesting a possibility of recombination events, which were confirmed by network analyses and recombination/mutation rate ratio (r/m) estimations. The MLST scheme revealed 45 unique sequence types (ST1 – 45) among the analyzed bartonella isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences supported the discrimination of six phylogenetic lineages (E1 – E5 and Ew) corresponding to separate and unique Bartonella species. One of the defined lineages, Ew, consisted of only two STs (ST1 and ST2), and comprised more than one-quarter of the analyzed isolates, while other lineages contained higher numbers of STs with a smaller number of isolates belonging to each lineage. The low number of allelic polymorphisms of isolates belonging to Ew suggests a more recent origin for this species. Our findings suggest that at least six Bartonella species are associated with straw-colored fruit bats, and that distinct STs can be found across the distribution of this bat species, including in populations of bats which are genetically distinct. PMID:25635826

Bai, Ying; Hayman, David T. S.; McKee, Clifton D.; Kosoy, Michael Y.

2015-01-01

73

Iron storage disease in captive Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus): relationship of blood iron parameters to hepatic iron concentrations and hepatic histopathology.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the relationship between blood iron parameters and hepatic iron concentrations, and correlation of histologic findings with hepatic iron concentrations in a captive population of Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) and island flying foxes (Pteropus hypomelanus). Blood samples were collected for complete blood counts, plasma biochemical profiles, serum iron concentrations, total iron-binding capacity, whole-blood lead concentrations, and plasma ferritin assays. Liver samples obtained by laparotomy were divided, with one half processed for histologic examination and the other half frozen and submitted for tissue mineral analysis. The histologic sections were scored by two blinded observers for iron deposition, necrosis, and fibrosis. The Egyptian fruit bats had significantly higher liver iron (mean = 3,669 +/- 1,823 ppm) and lead (mean = 8.9 +/- 5.8 ppm) concentrations than the island flying foxes (mean [Fe] = 174 +/- 173 ppm, mean [Pb] = 1.9 +/- 0.5 ppm). Hepatic iron concentrations significantly correlated with tissue lead concentrations, histologic grading for iron and necrosis, serum iron, transferrin saturation, and plasma ferritin (P < 0.001). Blood lead concentrations negatively correlated with tissue lead concentrations (P < 0.001). When the product of transferrin saturation and serum iron was greater than 51, an individual animal had a high probability of having iron overload. When the product of these two variables was greater than 90, there was a high probability that the animal had hemochromatosis. On the basis of this study, it appears that evaluation of serum iron, transferrin saturation, and plasma ferritin are useful and noninvasive methods for diagnosis of hemochromatosis in Egyptian fruit bats. PMID:17323561

Farina, Lisa L; Heard, Darryl J; LeBlanc, Dana M; Hall, Jeffery O; Stevens, Gary; Wellehan, James F X; Detrisac, Carol J

2005-06-01

74

Jamaican Creole: In the process of becoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions of attitudes and identity are foregrounded in this discussion of Jamaican Creole [JC] as a language of the diaspora. It is presented as a language that challenges the standardizing impulses of modernity, resisting homogeneity in a variable and multi-layered process of change. The article follows the evolutionary path of the language through Africa and the Caribbean to London and

Beverley Bryan

2004-01-01

75

75 FR 15723 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or Fanihi (Pteropus mariannus mariannus...Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or Fanihi (Pteropus mariannus mariannus...provided. This subspecies of the Mariana fruit bat or fanihi (Pteropus mariannus...

2010-03-30

76

Embryonic staging system for the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, a model organism for the mammalian order Chiroptera, based upon timed pregnancies in captive-bred animals.  

PubMed

There are approximately 4,800 extant species of mammals that exhibit tremendous morphological, physiological, and developmental diversity. Yet embryonic development has been studied in only a few mammalian species. Among mammals, bats are second only to rodents with regard to species number and habitat range and are the most abundant mammals in undisturbed tropical regions. Bat development, though, remains relatively unstudied. Here, we describe and illustrate a staging series of embryonic development for the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, based on embryos collected at timed intervals after captive matings. As Carollia can be readily maintained and propagated in captivity and is extremely abundant in the wild, it offers an attractive choice as a chiropteran model organism. This staging system provides a framework for studying Carollia embryogenesis and should prove useful as a guide for embryological studies of other bat species and for comparisons with other orders of mammals. PMID:15861401

Cretekos, Chris J; Weatherbee, Scott D; Chen, Chih-Hsin; Badwaik, Nilima K; Niswander, Lee; Behringer, Richard R; Rasweiler, John J

2005-07-01

77

Jamaican Creole Language Course (For English Speaking Students).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the high incidence of structural similarity between Jamaican Creole and Standard English, many of the important differences between the two languages can be obscured. This fact and that of negative attitudes towards Creole are the principal problems encountered in teaching Creole. The lessons in this course on Jamaican Creole are based…

Bailey, Beryl Loftman

78

The Movement Ecology of the Straw-Colored Fruit Bat, Eidolon helvum, in Sub-Saharan Africa Assessed by Stable Isotope Ratios  

PubMed Central

Flying foxes (Pteropodidae) are key seed dispersers on the African continent, yet their migratory behavior is largely unknown. Here, we studied the movement ecology of the straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, and other fruit bats by analyzing stable isotope ratios in fur collected from museum specimens. In a triple-isotope approach based on samples of two ecologically similar non-migratory pteropodids, we first confirmed that a stable isotope approach is capable of delineating between geographically distinct locations in Sub-Saharan Africa. A discriminant function analysis assigned 84% of individuals correctly to their capture site. Further, we assessed how well hydrogen stable isotope ratios (?2H) of fur keratin collected from non-migratory species (n?=?191 individuals) records variation in ?2H of precipitation water in sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, we found positive, negative and no correlations within the six studied species. We then developed a reduced major axis regression equation based on individual data of non-migratory species to predict where potentially migratory E. helvum (n?=?88) would come from based on their keratin ?2H. Across non-migratory species, ?2H of keratin and local water correlated positively. Based on the isoscape origin model, 22% of E. helvum were migratory, i.e. individuals had migrated over at least 250 km prior to their capture. Migratory individuals came from locations at a median distance of about 860 km from the collection site, four even from distances of at least 2,000 km. Ground-truthing of our isoscape origin model based on keratin ?2H of extant E. helvum (n?=?76) supported a high predictive power of assigning the provenance of African flying foxes. Our study highlights that stable isotope ratios can be used to explain the migratory behavior of flying foxes, even on the isotopically relatively homogenous African continent, and with material collected by museums many decades or more than a century ago. PMID:23029206

Ossa, Gonzalo; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Peel, Alison J.; Scharf, Anne K.; Voigt, Christian C.

2012-01-01

79

Olfactory sensitivity to food odor components in the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata (phyllostomatidae, chiroptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absolute olfactory sensitivity in a frui-teating bat, Carollia perspicillata, was investigated. Eighteen monomolecular food odor components from 3 substance classes were tested using a sniff rate analysis method. Detection thresholds (Table 1) ranged from 3.6 · 1013 to 2.7 · 1010 molecules\\/cm3 air. Interindividual variation (N = 4) for a substance did not exceed one order of magnitude. Significant

Matthias Laska

1990-01-01

80

Egr-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide administration into the olfactory bulb impairs olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.  

PubMed

Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) contain proteins that regulate synaptic transmission. We examined two important examples of these, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PSD-95, in regard to the functional role of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) in regulation of olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (family Pteropodidae). To test whether activation of egr-1 in the olfactory bulb (OB) is required for olfactory memory of these bats, bilaterally canulated individuals were infused with antisense (AS) or non-sense (NS)-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of egr-1, or with phosphate buffer saline (PBS), 2h before the olfactory training. Our results showed that behavioral training significantly up-regulates immediate early gene (IEG) EGR-1 and key synaptic proteins Synaptotagmin-1(SYT-1), CaMKII and PSD-95, and phosphorylation of CaMKII in the OB at the protein level per se. Subsequently, we observed that egr-1 antisense-ODN infusion in the OB impaired olfactory memory and down regulates the expression of CaMKII and PSD-95, and the phosphorylation of CaMKII but not SYT-1. In contrast, NS-ODN or PBS had no effect on the expression of the PSDs CaMKII or PSD-95, or on the phosphorylation of CaMKII. When the egr-1 NS-ODN was infused in the OB after training for the novel odor there was no effect on olfactory memory. These findings suggest that egr-1 control the activation of CaMKII and PSD-95 during the process of olfactory memory formation. PMID:22796292

Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

2012-08-30

81

On the association between environmental gradients and skull size variation in the great fruit-eating bat,  

E-print Network

On the association between environmental gradients and skull size variation in the great fruit in the skull size of the Artibeus lituratus complex was explored to evaluate the association between correlation between morphology and environment. Season- ality was correlated with skull size (canonical r = 0

Strauss, Richard E.

82

Effects of sunlight on behavior and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in two species of Old World fruit bats  

PubMed Central

It has long been accepted that most vertebrate animals meet their vitamin D requirements from exposure of skin to UV-B (UV-B) radiation. Many factors affect this endogenous synthesis of vitamin D, including season, latitude, time of day, age, presence of hair, and degree of skin pigmentation. Most bats roost in dark places by day and forage at night, and thus have little or no potential for sunlight exposure. Notwithstanding, some tropical species are diurnal and are known to roost in the canopy of trees where they may be exposed to sunlight for up to 12 h each day. In this study, two species of captive tropical bats (both species are active at night but one, Rousettus aegyptiacus, roosts in caves, tombs, and buildings, whereas the other, Pteropus hypomelanus, roosts in trees) were evaluated for their ability to endogenously synthesize vitamin D. Following timed periods of sunlight exposure, blood plasma was analyzed using a competitive protein binding assay (CPBA) to determine concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the major circulating vitamin D metabolite. The ability to photoconvert provitamin D (7-dehydrocholesterol, 7-DHC) in the sub-tropical winter was determined using sunlight exposed borosilicate samples of 7-DHC in hourly increments. Finally, both species were evaluated in their preference for a roost site by the release of individuals into sunlight or shade in timed trials. Our results support the hypotheses: (1) when exposed to natural sunlight, both species exhibited an ability to endogenously synthesize vitamin D, although significant differences were found between the two, (2) photoconversion of 7-DHC to previtamin D3 is possible during the mid-day hours of a sub-tropical winter day and (3) captive, cave roosting R. aegyptiacus will choose shaded roost sites while captive P. hypomelanus will show no preference for either shade or sun. PMID:24494054

Southworth, Lizabeth O.; Holick, Michael F.; Chen, Tai C.; Kunz, Thomas H.

2013-01-01

83

Click-based echolocation in bats: not so primitive after all Yossi Yovel Maya Geva-Sagiv Nachum Ulanovsky  

E-print Network

, the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), and that of lingual echolocation, the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus (Rousettus aegyptiacus) Á Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) Abbreviations FM Frequency modulated CF

Ulanovsky, Nachum

84

Bat talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in RealPlayer, introduces students to the research that Maryland biologists are conducting to assess the status of bat populations in their state. Technologies are discussed that help scientists study the often elusive bats. The clip shows that when researchers descend into a cave to survey the number of hibernating bats there, they discover fewer bats are present than in previous years. The clip also notes that efforts to conserve bat populations are needed. Bats contribute significantly to the functioning of ecosystems, but many species are decreasing in numbers nationwide. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE); Maryland Public Television (MPT)

2004-01-01

85

Bat talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in Windows Media Player, introduces students to the research that Maryland biologists are conducting to assess the status of bat populations in their state. Technologies are discussed that help scientists study the often elusive bats. The clip shows that when researchers descend into a cave to survey the number of hibernating bats there, they discover fewer bats are present than in previous years. The clip also notes that efforts to conserve bat populations are needed. Bats contribute significantly to the functioning of ecosystems, but many species are decreasing in numbers nationwide. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE); Maryland Public Television (MPT)

2004-01-01

86

Genetic consequences of polygyny and social structure in an Indian fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx. II. Variance in male mating success and effective population size.  

PubMed

Variance in reproductive success is a primary determinant of genetically effective population size (Ne), and thus has important implications for the role of genetic drift in the evolutionary dynamics of animal taxa characterized by polygynous mating systems. Here we report the results of a study designed to test the hypothesis that polygynous mating results in significantly reduced Ne in an age-structured population. This hypothesis was tested in a natural population of a harem-forming fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), in western India. The influence of the mating system on the ratio of variance Ne to adult census number (N) was assessed using a mathematical model designed for age-structured populations that incorporated demographic and genetic data. Male mating success was assessed by means of direct and indirect paternity analysis using 10-locus microsatellite genotypes of adults and progeny from two consecutive breeding periods (n = 431 individually marked bats). Combined results from both analyses were used to infer the effective number of male parents in each breeding period. The relative proportion of successfully reproducing males and the size distribution of paternal sibships comprising each offspring cohort revealed an extremely high within-season variance in male mating success (up to 9.2 times higher than Poisson expectation). The resultant estimate of Ne/N for the C. sphinx study population was 0.42. As a result of polygynous mating, the predicted rate of drift (1/2Ne per generation) was 17.6% higher than expected from a Poisson distribution of male mating success. However, the estimated Ne/N was well within the 0.25-0.75 range expected for age-structured populations under normal demographic conditions. The life-history schedule of C. sphinx is characterized by a disproportionately short sexual maturation period scaled to adult life span. Consequently, the influence of polygynous mating on Ne/N is mitigated by the extensive overlap of generations. In C. sphinx, turnover of breeding males between seasons ensures a broader sampling of the adult male gamete pool than expected from the variance in mating success within a single breeding period. PMID:11475058

Storz, J F; Bhat, H R; Kunz, T H

2001-06-01

87

WAT BAT WAT BAT WAT BAT WAT BAT  

E-print Network

WAT BAT WAT BAT 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 WAT BAT WAT BAT fatsignalfraction 0.92±0.02 0.51±0.08 0.93±0.02 0.62±0.07 WAT BAT WAT BAT 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 WAT BAT WAT BAT fatsignalfraction 0.92±0.02 0.51±0.08 0.93±0.02 0.62±0.07 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Southern California, University of

88

Bat Echolocation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate how bats use echolocation to navigate. One learner is assigned to be a bat, while the other learners are selected to be either moths or trees. The bat's goal is to use his/her hearing to locate and tag as many moths as possible.

International, Bat C.

2014-01-01

89

Breaking Bat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

2013-01-01

90

Bat Bonanza  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a lesson on bats developed for kindergartners, which uses models of bats to teach about their physiology, diet, and habitat. The lesson uses craft sticks, wax paper, and colored construction paper that kindergarten teachers can use to help their students compare the features of 4 different kinds of bats. The use of online…

Phillips, Amanda J.; Scott, Catherine; Matthews, Catherine E.

2013-01-01

91

Adaptive Evolution of Leptin in Heterothermic Bats  

PubMed Central

Heterothermy (hibernation and daily torpor) is a key strategy that animals use to survive in harsh conditions and is widely employed by bats, which are found in diverse habitats and climates. Bats comprise more than 20% of all mammals and although heterothermy occurs in divergent lineages of bats, suggesting it might be an ancestral condition, its evolutionary history is complicated by complex phylogeographic patterns. Here, we use Leptin, which regulates lipid metabolism and is crucial for thermogenesis of hibernators, as molecular marker and combine physiological, molecular and biochemical analyses to explore the possible evolutionary history of heterothermy in bat. The two tropical fruit bats examined here were homeothermic; in contrast, the two tropical insectivorous bats were clearly heterothermic. Molecular evolutionary analyses of the Leptin gene revealed positive selection in the ancestors of all bats, which was maintained or further enhanced the lineages comprising mostly heterothermic species. In contrast, we found evidence of relaxed selection in homeothermic species. Biochemical assays of bat Leptin on the activity on adipocyte degradation revealed that Leptin in heterothermic bats was more lipolytic than in homeothermic bats. This shows that evolutionary sequence changes in this protein are indeed functional and support the interpretation of our physiological results and the molecular evolutionary analyses. Our combined data strongly support the hypothesis that heterothermy is the ancestral state of bats and that this involved adaptive changes in Leptin. Subsequent loss of heterothermy in some tropical lineages of bats likely was associated with range and dietary shifts. PMID:22110614

Yuan, Lihong; Zhao, Xudong; Lin, Benfu; Rossiter, Stephen J.; He, Lingjiang; Zuo, Xueguo; He, Guimei; Jones, Gareth; Geiser, Fritz; Zhang, Shuyi

2011-01-01

92

The effect of bat ( Rousettus aegyptiacus ) dispersal on seed germination in eastern Mediterranean habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit-bat Rousettus aegyptiacus (Pteropodidae) in Israel consumes a variety of cultivated and wild fruits. The aim of this study was to explore some of its qualities as a dispersal agent for six fruit-bearing plant species. The feeding roosts of the fruit-bat are located an average of 30 m from its feeding trees and thus the bats disperse the seeds

I. Izhaki; C. Korine; Z. Arad

1995-01-01

93

Where Do Jamaican Adolescents Turn for Psychological Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Stigma about mental health is a significant problem in Jamaica and the wider English-speaking Caribbean. In general, negative attitudes and opinions about mental illness have been found to negatively impact psychological help-seeking among several populations. Objective: This study examined Jamaican adolescents' preferential sources of…

Williams, Dahra Jackson

2012-01-01

94

Early deaths in Jamaican children with sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Jamaican children with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease diagnosed at birth two-year survival was 87%, compared with 95% in children with sickle cell-haemoglobin C (CS) disease, and 99% in normal controls. Death among those with SS disease occurred most often between the ages of 6 and 12 months. Principal causes were acute splenic sequestration and pneumococcal infection. Neonatal diagnosis

D W Rogers; J M Clarke; L Cupidore; A M Ramlal; B R Sparke; G R Serjeant

1978-01-01

95

Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help among Jamaican adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the influence of several variables including gender, age, socioeconomic status, opinions about mental illness, and geographical location on Jamaican adolescents' (N = 339) psychological help-seeking attitudes. Results from a structural equation model indicate that decreased authoritarian and socially restrictive beliefs and increased benevolence predicted more positive attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Increased age and being female also

Dahra Nicole Jackson

2006-01-01

96

Use of Binaural Cues for Sound Localization in Two Species of Phyllostomidae: The Greater Spear-Nosed Bat (Phyllostomus hastatus) and the Short-Tailed Fruit Bat (Carollia perspicillata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike humans, not all mammals use both of the binaural cues for sound localization. Whether an animal uses these cues can be determined by testing its ability to localize pure tones; specifically, low frequencies are localized using time-difference cues, and high frequencies are localized using intensity-difference cues. We determined the ability to use binaural cues in 2 New World bats,

Rickye S. Heffner; Gimseong Koay; Henry E. Heffner

2010-01-01

97

Breaking Bat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created by the collision with the ball. The kind of wood that is used plays a role in the manner in which the bat breaks—-its "failure mode." We report on a simple experiment to compare the breaking strength and failure modes of ash and maple dowels. The results illustrate some of the features of breaking bats under game conditions.

Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

2013-02-01

98

Are Bats Dangerous?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many reasons people are afraid of bats but most are myths. Many people are also afraid of bats because they believe all bats are vampire bats, or bats that feed on blood. There are a few species of bats called "vampire" bats;however, these bats are found in Central and South America--there are no vampire bats in the United States or…

Williams, Kim

2004-01-01

99

Evolution of the Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Tas1r2 in Bats Huabin Zhao,1,2  

E-print Network

and fruit eaters. However, Tas1r2 is a pseudogene in all three vampire bat species and the functional relaxation likely started in their common ancestor, probably due to the exclusive feeding of vampire bats roles of sweet perception in different species. Key words: bats, vampire bats, Tas1r2, sweet, taste

Zhang, Jianzhi

100

Geomorpho-tectonic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work applies recent advances in tectonic geomorphology in order to understand the geomorphic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend located along the Caribbean-Gonâve-North American plate boundary. We propose a classification of landscapes according to their erosional stages. The approach is mainly based on the combination of two DEM-based geomorphic indices: the hypsometric integral which highlights elevated surfaces, and the surface roughness which increases when the relief is incised by the drainage network. River longitudinal profiles were also analyzed as the drainage network responds quickly to base-level change triggered by external forcing such as tectonics. Anomalies in river profiles (knickpoints and convex segments) were mapped using stream length-gradient (SL) and normalized steepness (ksn) indices. The results provide new insights for understanding the complex evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend. Three main morphotectonic regions were identified in Jamaica: (1) the Blue Mountain-Wagwater unit located at the eastern tip of the island, (2) the Jamaican highlands plateau which covers most of the northern and central areas and (3) the tilted block province located along the southern part of Jamaica. Each region has a specific morphological signature which marks a different stage in the Late Miocene to present evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend. The evolution of the bend is mainly associated with the western propagation of major E-trending strike-slip faults and NW-trending thrusts. In the western and central parts of Jamaica the present-day motion between the Caribbean plate and the Gonâve microplate is broadly distributed along several structures, while in the easternmost part of the island this motion seems to be almost completely accommodated along the Blue Mountain range and the Plantain-Garden Fault.

Domínguez-González, Leomaris; Andreani, Louis; Stanek, Klaus P.; Gloaguen, Richard

2015-01-01

101

Population structure of an endemic vulnerable species, the Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus; also called Yellow boa) is an endemic species whose natural populations greatly and constantly declined since the late 19th century, mainly because of predation by introduced species, human persecution, and habitat destruction. In-situ conservation of the Jamaican boa is seriously hindered by the lack of information on demographic and ecological parameters as well as by

ATHANASIA C. TZIKA; SUSAN KOENIG; RICARDO MILLER; GERARDO GARCIA

2008-01-01

102

Lagos Bat Virus in Kenya?  

PubMed Central

During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection. PMID:18305130

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Y.; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2008-01-01

103

Jamaican Mothers’ Influences of Adolescent Girls’ Sexual Beliefs and Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which urban Jamaican mothers influence their adolescent daughters’ sexual beliefs and behaviors in order to incorporate them into the design of a family-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention program. Design Focus groups were conducted with 46 14- to 18-year-old adolescent girls and 30 mothers or female guardians of adolescent girls recruited from community-based organizations in and around Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica. Separate focus groups were held with mothers and daughters; each included 6 to 10 participants. Focus group sessions were scripted, led by teams that included trained Jamaican and American facilitators and note-takers, and audio-taped to ensure data accuracy. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Findings Four major maternal influences were identified: mother-daughter relationship quality, mother-daughter sexual communication, monitoring or supervision, and maternal sexual role modeling. Mothers’ and daughters’ reports were consistent; both groups identified positive and negative influences within each category. Conclusions Some maternal influences were positive and health promoting; others were negative and promoted unsafe sexual activity and risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. These influences were incorporated into the design of a culture-specific family-based HIV risk reduction intervention tailored to the needs of urban Jamaican adolescent girls and their mothers. Clinical Relevance In order to be effective, family-based HIV risk reduction interventions should be theory based and tailored to the target audience. The four maternal influences identified in this formative study were incorporated into the subsequent intervention design. PMID:22339731

Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Kahwa, Eulalia; Waldron, Norman; Brown, Cerese Hepburn; Hamilton, Pansy I.; Hewitt, Hermi H.; Aiken, Joyette; Cederbaum, Julie; Alter, Emily; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

2012-01-01

104

Vegetation complexity and bat?plant dispersal in Calakmul, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit production of chiropterochorous plants was studied to test the hypotheses that more complex habitats will harbour: (1) greater plant diversity, (2) higher biomass and density of bat?dispersed plants, and (3) elevated frugivorous bat abundance. We defined habitat complexity as vegetation structural complexity – the degree of structural arrangement of vegetation. As forested environments are more complex than modified environments,

Rodrigo A. Medellín

2009-01-01

105

Molecular Epidemiology of Paramyxoviruses in Frugivorous Eidolon helvum Bats in Zambia  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In this study, we describe the detection of novel paramyxoviruses from the Eidolon helvum species of fruit bats. We extracted RNA from 312 spleen samples from bats captured in Zambia over a period of 4 years (2008–2011). Semi-nested RT-PCR detected a total of 25 (8%) positive samples for paramyxoviruses which were then directly sequenced and analyzed using phylogenetic analysis. Among the positive samples, seven novel paramyxoviruses were detected. Five viruses were closely related to the genus Henipavirus, while two viruses were related to the unclassified Bat paramyxoviruses from Ghana and Congo Brazzaville. Our study identified novel Henipavirus-related and unrelated viruses using RT-PCR in fruit bats from Kansaka National Park and indicated the presence of similar Bat paramyxoviruses originating from wide geographic areas, suggesting the ability of bats to harbor and transmit viruses. The presence of these viruses in fruit bats might pose a public health risk. PMID:24389743

MULEYA, Walter; SASAKI, Michihito; ORBA, Yasuko; ISHII, Akihiro; THOMAS, Yuka; NAKAGAWA, Emiko; OGAWA, Hirohito; HANG’OMBE, Bernard; NAMANGALA, Boniface; MWEENE, Aaron; TAKADA, Ayato; KIMURA, Takashi; SAWA, Hirofumi

2013-01-01

106

Assessment of the bioavailability of cadmium in Jamaican soils.  

PubMed

Extraordinary geogenic concentrations of cadmium (Cd) have been reported for some Jamaican soils. However, the bioavailability of the metal in these soils remains unknown. Here, the bioavailability of Cd in selected Jamaican soils was investigated through the determination of total and sequentially extractable concentrations in paired soil-plant (yam; Dioscorea sp.) samples (n?=?24), using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy as primary analytical techniques. Our results indicate that total soil Cd varied widely (2.2-148.7 mg kg(-1)), and on average, total extractable Cd accounted for ~55 % of the total soil Cd. The exchangeable and oxidizable species averaged 1.5 and 6.4 % of the total Cd, respectively, and, based on Spearman analysis, are the best predictors of yam Cd. There is also good evidence to suggest that variation in the bioavailability of the metal is in part controlled by the geochemical characteristics of the soils analyzed and is best explained by pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and organic matter content (% LOI). PMID:24682640

Spence, Adrian; Hanson, Richard E; Grant, Charles N; Hoo Fung, Leslie; Rattray, Robin

2014-07-01

107

PSC 424: Bats & Owls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Check out the links on this page to learn about bats and owls, including the sounds they make! Click here for the sound a bat makes during echolocation!------- Bat Echolocation Click here for the hooting of a Great Horned Owl!--------- Owl Sound Print out this Bat Book for us to fill out in class as we learn about Bats!--------- My Bat Book Here are some fun bookmarks for you to print about owls!--------- Owl Bookmarks Go ...

Yero, Miss

2011-10-13

108

Experimental Nipah virus infection in pteropid bats (Pteropus poliocephalus).  

PubMed

Seventeen grey-headed fruit bats (Pteropus poliocephalus) were inoculated subcutaneously with an isolate of Nipah virus derived from a fatally infected human. A control group of eight guinea-pigs was inoculated intraperitoneally with the same isolate in order to confirm virulence. Three of eight infected guinea-pigs developed clinical signs 7-9 days post-inoculation. Infected fruit bats developed a subclinical infection characterized by the transient presence of virus within selected viscera, episodic viral excretion and seroconversion. A range of histopathological changes was observed within the tissues of infected bats. Nipah virus was excreted in bat urine while neutralizing antibody was present in serum. This intermittent, low-level excretion of Nipah virus in the urine of bats may be sufficient to sustain the net reproductive value of the virus in a species where there is regular urine contamination of the fur, mutual grooming, and where urine droplets are a feature of the environment. PMID:17498518

Middleton, D J; Morrissy, C J; van der Heide, B M; Russell, G M; Braun, M A; Westbury, H A; Halpin, K; Daniels, P W

2007-05-01

109

Regulation of leptin synthesis in white adipose tissue of the female fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx: role of melatonin with or without insulin.  

PubMed

Factors regulating leptin synthesis during adipogenesis in wild species are not well known. Studies in the female Cynopterus sphinx bat have shown that it undergoes seasonal changes in its fat deposition and serum leptin and melatonin levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hormonal regulation of leptin synthesis by the white adipose tissue during the period of fat deposition in female C. sphinx. This study showed a significant correlation between the seasonal changes in serum melatonin level with the circulating leptin level (r = 0.78; P < 0.05) and with the changes in body fat mass (r = 0.88; P < 0.05) in C. sphinx. A significant correlation between circulating insulin and leptin levels (r = 0.65; P < 0.05) was also found in this species. This in vivo finding suggests that melatonin together with insulin may enhance leptin synthesis by increasing adipose tissue accumulation. The in vitro study showed that melatonin interacts synergistically with insulin in stimulating leptin synthesis by adipose tissue in C. sphinx. The study showed MT(2) receptors in adipose tissue and a stimulatory effect of melatonin on leptin synthesis, which was blocked by treatment with an MT(2) receptor antagonist, suggesting that the effect of melatonin on leptin synthesis by adipose tissue is mediated through the MT(2) receptor in C. sphinx. The in vitro study showed that the synthesis of leptin is directly proportional to the amount of glucose uptake by the adipose tissue. It further showed that melatonin together with insulin synergistically enhanced the leptin synthesis by adipose tissue through phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in C. sphinx. PMID:20971799

Banerjee, A; Udin, S; Krishna, A

2011-02-01

110

Recent transmission of a novel alphacoronavirus, bat coronavirus HKU10, from Leschenault's rousettes to pomona leaf-nosed bats: first evidence of interspecies transmission of coronavirus between bats of different suborders.  

PubMed

Although coronaviruses are known to infect various animals by adapting to new hosts, interspecies transmission events are still poorly understood. During a surveillance study from 2005 to 2010, a novel alphacoronavirus, BatCoV HKU10, was detected in two very different bat species, Ro-BatCoV HKU10 in Leschenault's rousettes (Rousettus leschenaulti) (fruit bats in the suborder Megachiroptera) in Guangdong and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 in Pomona leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros pomona) (insectivorous bats in the suborder Microchiroptera) in Hong Kong. Although infected bats appeared to be healthy, Pomona leaf-nosed bats carrying Hi-BatCoV HKU10 had lower body weights than uninfected bats. To investigate possible interspecies transmission between the two bat species, the complete genomes of two Ro-BatCoV HKU10 and six Hi-BatCoV HKU10 strains were sequenced. Genome and phylogenetic analyses showed that Ro-BatCoV HKU10 and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 represented a novel alphacoronavirus species, sharing highly similar genomes except in the genes encoding spike proteins, which had only 60.5% amino acid identities. Evolution of the spike protein was also rapid in Hi-BatCoV HKU10 strains from 2005 to 2006 but stabilized thereafter. Molecular-clock analysis dated the most recent common ancestor of all BatCoV HKU10 strains to 1959 (highest posterior density regions at 95% [HPDs], 1886 to 2002) and that of Hi-BatCoV HKU10 to 1986 (HPDs, 1956 to 2004). The data suggested recent interspecies transmission from Leschenault's rousettes to Pomona leaf-nosed bats in southern China. Notably, the rapid adaptive genetic change in BatCoV HKU10 spike protein by ~40% amino acid divergence after recent interspecies transmission was even greater than the ~20% amino acid divergence between spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related Rhinolophus bat coronavirus (SARSr-CoV) in bats and civets. This study provided the first evidence for interspecies transmission of coronavirus between bats of different suborders. PMID:22933277

Lau, Susanna K P; Li, Kenneth S M; Tsang, Alan K L; Shek, Chung-Tong; Wang, Ming; Choi, Garnet K Y; Guo, Rongtong; Wong, Beatrice H L; Poon, Rosana W S; Lam, Carol S F; Wang, Sylvia Y H; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2012-11-01

111

Bat Conservation Trust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the folks at the Bat Conservation Trust (BCT) in the UK, "Bats are amazing animals, and an important part of our natural environment." In the UK there are 18 different species of bats, and all of them are protected by law due to rapidly decreasing populations. To start visitors should visit the "About Bats" section found on the toolbar near the top of the page. Here, they will find more information about bats, threats to bats, bats and the law, bats and rabies, and the White-Nose Syndrome plaguing bat populations. Back on the homepage visitors should also check out the "News, Training, & Events" and "Publications & Resources". In addition, you can follow the BCT on Twitter, Facebook, and through their blog.

2010-12-20

112

Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.  

PubMed

Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. PMID:24131776

Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

2013-12-01

113

Bat Conservation International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1982, the mission of Bat Conservation International (BCI) is âÂÂto teach people the value of bats, to protect and conserve critical bat habitats, and to advance scientific knowledge through researchâÂÂ. On their website, visitors will be able to learn about their advocacy and outreach efforts, along with learning more about these fascinating and important creatures. The âÂÂAll About Batsâ section is a fine place to start, as it has a number of illustrated essays that include brief overview of the natural history of bats and suggestions on photographing bats as they fly through the air. Equally compelling is the section is the conservation programs area, which details the various programs BCI operates in various bat habitats, including bridges and caves. Finally, visitors can also elect to send one of a number of electronic bat postcards to friends or colleagues.

2005-01-01

114

Epilepsy awareness in a Jamaican community: driven to change!  

PubMed

There are relatively few published studies on epilepsy-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) from developing countries and none from Jamaica. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study of 320 individuals was performed in a small community in Kingston. Residents and employees were comparable in age, sex, and personal and family history of epilepsy, but differed in attained education and occupation. Persons with postsecondary education were less likely to believe that epilepsy is a mental disorder (9% vs 24.8%, P<0.001), is due to demonic possession (8% vs 18.2%, P<0.01), or is contagious (2.5% vs 23%, P<0.001). Overall, 73% felt that people with epilepsy should not drive. The results of this Jamaican KAP study differ from those in other developing countries. There appears to be less societal stigma in Jamaica; however, there is widespread reluctance to allow PWE to drive. This represents a substantial challenge to the current initiative to change existing driving regulations that currently bar people with epilepsy from driving. PMID:22037205

Ali, Amza; Ali, Tarek E; Kerr, Kyla; Ali, Susanna Bortolusso

2011-12-01

115

Leishmania (L.) mexicana Infected Bats in Mexico: Novel Potential Reservoirs.  

PubMed

Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

2015-01-01

116

Leishmania (L.) mexicana Infected Bats in Mexico: Novel Potential Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R.; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

2015-01-01

117

Novel Betaherpesvirus in Bats  

PubMed Central

Because bats are associated with emerging zoonoses, identification and characterization of novel viruses from bats is needed. Using a modified rapid determination system for viral RNA/DNA sequences, we identified a novel bat betaherpesvirus 2 not detected by herpesvirus consensus PCR. This modified system is useful for detecting unknown viruses. PMID:20507753

Watanabe, Shumpei; Maeda, Ken; Suzuki, Kazuo; Ueda, Naoya; Iha, Koichiro; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Kato, Kentaro; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Morikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro; Akashi, Hiroomi

2010-01-01

118

Bat Conservation International, Inc.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web site for Bat Conservation International, Inc. (last mentioned in the November 12, 1997_Scout Report for Science and Engineering_) has added significant content since our last coverage of the site. Although the site still has information about the organization, bat facts, FAQs, and information on bat biology, in-depth sections on a wide variety of research projects have been added, ranging from bats in Latin American ecosystems to bats in your very own yard. Although there is a large focus on research, the text is still written for a general audience, and most sections include a variety of photos.

119

Bat Rabies in Guatemala  

PubMed Central

Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

Ellison, James A.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A.; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L.; Peruski, Leonard F.; Mendonça, Mary T.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2014-01-01

120

Bat rabies in Guatemala.  

PubMed

Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

Ellison, James A; Gilbert, Amy T; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard F; Mendonça, Mary T; Lindblade, Kim A; Rupprecht, Charles E

2014-07-01

121

Cloud Model Bat Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA) is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformation theory of cloud model to depict the qualitative concept: “bats approach their prey.” Furthermore, Lévy flight mode and population information communication mechanism of bats are introduced to balance the advantage between exploration and exploitation. The simulation results show that the cloud model bat algorithm has good performance on functions optimization. PMID:24967425

Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Li, Liangliang; Ma, Mingzhi

2014-01-01

122

Drinking and Flying: Does Alcohol Consumption Affect the Flight and Echolocation Performance of Phyllostomid Bats?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn the wild, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats often eat fermenting fruits and nectar, and thus may consume levels of ethanol that could induce inebriation. To understand if consumption of ethanol by bats alters their access to food and general survival requires examination of behavioural responses to its ingestion, as well as assessment of interspecific variation in those responses. We predicted

Dara N. Orbach; Nina Veselka; Yvonne Dzal; Louis Lazure; M. Brock Fenton; Adrian L. R. Thomas

2010-01-01

123

Family Violence and Aggression and Their Associations with Psychosocial Functioning in Jamaican Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among selected family interaction variables and psychosocial outcomes in a sample of Jamaican adolescents. The authors hypothesized that adolescent psychosocial outcomes would be negatively associated with physical violence, verbal aggression would be more potent than physical…

Smith, Delores E.; Moore, Todd M.

2013-01-01

124

A Cultural Heuristic Approach to the Study of Jamaican Undergraduate Students' Achievement Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, there have been increasing calls to develop a more contextually-based, sociocultural perspective of achievement motivation. With this in mind, this mixed method study examined Jamaican, of the West Indies, undergraduate students' perception of motivation. This study was conducted in two phases. First, a qualitative…

Clayton, Karen Elizabeth

2012-01-01

125

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (serotypes DK) infection in Jamaican commercial street sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in commercial street sex workers (CSSW) in Jamaica. METHODS: The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was determined in 129 Jamaican CSSW using the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) method and the isolation techniques which utilise fluorescent and iodine staining of endocervical cytobrush specimens cultured in McCoy cells. The seroprevalence of C

G Dowe; S D King; A R Brathwaite; Z Wynter; R Chout

1997-01-01

126

A Historical Exploration of Internationally Educated Teachers: Jamaican Teachers in 1960s Alberta  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the immigration and credentialing experiences of Jamaican teachers in Alberta during the 1960s. Using teacher narratives as well as archival research the paper aims to develop a historical understanding of issues related to internationally educated teachers and how this historical understanding can inform the contemporary…

Kelly, Jennifer; Cui, Dan

2010-01-01

127

The establishment of a Jamaican all-injury surveillance system.  

PubMed

The impact of injuries on the Jamaican health care system is a growing problem. Based on the successful implementation of a Violence-Related Injury Surveillance System (VRISS) in the Accident and Emergency (A&E) department of the Kingston Public Hospital (KPH), Ministry of Health (MOH) officials decided to expand the system to the Jamaica Injury Surveillance System (JISS), allowing for the surveillance of both intentional and unintentional injuries. A working group designed the expanded injury surveillance system based on the International Classification of External Causes of Injury. The expanded system allowed for the collection of data on all injuries seen in the A&E departments by adding four injury projects to the computerized A&E registration process. These were (1) unintentional injury, (2) violence-related injury, (3) suicide attempt (also known as intentional self-harm) and (4) motor vehicle-related injuries. The expanded JISS was implemented at the KPH and four additional hospitals across the island. The geographic distribution of these hospitals provided a reflection of rural and urban, highland and coastal communities and their distinctive injury profiles. Data collected at registration were printed on trauma sheets and reviewed by medical staff before being incorporated into the patient's record. Monthly reports detailing demographics and summary statistics were generated and made available at the local and national level. By monitoring the national injury profile, the JISS provides data to support needed policy changes to minimize the impact of injuries on the health services and on the health of the population. PMID:12613100

Ward, Elizabeth; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Gordon, Georgiana; Ashley, Deanna; McCartney, Trevor

2002-12-01

128

Learning about Bats and Rabies  

MedlinePLUS

... Rabies Homepage Share Compartir Learning about bats and rabies Most bats don t have rabies. For example, ... could very well be sick. Bats and human rabies in the United States Rabies in humans is ...

129

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Evolutionary relationships of the old world fruit  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Evolutionary relationships of the old world fruit bats (Chiroptera or Old World fruit bats. Molecular phylogenetic studies of pteropodids have provided considerable insight) increasing the taxonomic sample to 42 genera; 2) increasing the number of characters (to >8,000 bp

DeSalle, Rob

130

Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first recorded human outbreak of Ebola virus was in 1976, but the wild reservoir of this virus is still unknown. Here we test for Ebola in more than a thousand small vertebrates that were collected during Ebola outbreaks in humans and great apes between 2001 and 2003 in Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. We find evidence of

Eric M. Leroy; Brice Kumulungui; Xavier Pourrut; Pierre Rouquet; Alexandre Hassanin; Philippe Yaba; André Délicat; Janusz T. Paweska; Jean-Paul Gonzalez; Robert Swanepoel

2005-01-01

131

Bat Predation by Spiders  

PubMed Central

In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (?90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S). Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences), Asia (28.8%), and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%). Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter). The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64%) and Emballonuridae (22%) and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death), there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation). This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed. PMID:23516436

Nyffeler, Martin; Knörnschild, Mirjam

2013-01-01

132

Bat predation by spiders.  

PubMed

In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (? 90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S). Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences), Asia (28.8%), and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%). Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter). The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64%) and Emballonuridae (22%) and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death), there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation). This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed. PMID:23516436

Nyffeler, Martin; Knörnschild, Mirjam

2013-01-01

133

Endangered Hawaiian Hoary Bat  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, a species that is sometimes killed by wind turbines. USGS scientists from Hawaii and Colorado are devising a way to directly observe bat occurrence and behavior at wind turbines using a video system composed of high-powered illuminators and near-infrared cameras.&nb...

134

Batting performance of wood and metal baseball bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

CRISCO, J. J., R. M. GREENWALD, J. D. BLUME, and L. H. PENNA. Batting performance of wood and metal baseball bats.Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 10, pp. 1675-1684, 2002. Introduction\\/Purpose: Although metal baseball bats are widely believed to outperform wood bats, there are few scientific studies which support this. In a batting cage study, Greenwald et al. found

JOSEPH J. CRISCO; RICHARD M. GREENWALD; JEFFREY D. BLUME; LORRAINE H. PENNA

2002-01-01

135

Creature Feature: Vampire Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from National Geographic (last mentioned in the October 11, 2002 Scout Report) offers a short multimedia introduction to vampire bats. Geared toward younger kids, this site includes vampire bat audio and video files, Fun Facts in the form of a brief but educational article, a map of vampire bat global distribution, links to bat-related Web sites, and an email postcard. It may be too late to get much Halloween mileage out of this site, but teachers and students should enjoy this quick and very visual look at a fascinating animal. The site includes links to other National Geographic Creature Features, and could be useful for reports and other activities.

2002-01-01

136

Bat Influenza (Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... Bat Flu Canine Flu Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... viruses remain unknown. A different animal (such as pigs, horses, dogs or seals) would need to serve ...

137

Tiger moth jams bat sonar.  

PubMed

In response to sonar-guided attacking bats, some tiger moths make ultrasonic clicks of their own. The lepidopteran sounds have previously been shown to alert bats to some moths' toxic chemistry and also to startle bats unaccustomed to sonic prey. The moth sounds could also interfere with, or "jam," bat sonar, but evidence for such jamming has been inconclusive. Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, we show that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar. Sonar jamming extends the defensive repertoire available to prey in the long-standing evolutionary arms race between bats and insects. PMID:19608920

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

2009-07-17

138

Science 101: Are Bats Dangerous?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bats are fascinating and beneficial animals, but students often have many misconceptions and fears about them. This introduction to bats will provide teachers with the information they need to help students learn more about these night flyers.

Williams, Kim

2004-10-01

139

Northern Long-eared Bat  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS and Virginia Tech scientists captured female northern bats and fitted them with tiny radiotransmitters and numbered armbands. The bats were then released and tracked to determine what roosts they were using. ...

140

Bat rabies surveillance in Finland  

PubMed Central

Background In 1985, a bat researcher in Finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal EBLV-infected bats. In 2009, an EBLV-2-positive Daubenton’s bat was detected. The EBLV-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. In order to assess the prevalence of EBLVs in Finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that EBLV-infected bats pose, a targeted active surveillance project was initiated. Results Altogether, 1156 bats of seven species were examined for lyssaviruses in Finland during a 28–year period (1985–2012), 898 in active surveillance and 258 in passive surveillance, with only one positive finding of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton’s bat in 2009. In 2010–2011, saliva samples from 774 bats of seven species were analyzed for EBLV viral RNA, and sera from 423 bats were analyzed for the presence of bat lyssavirus antibodies. Antibodies were detected in Daubenton’s bats in samples collected from two locations in 2010 and from one location in 2011. All seropositive locations are in close proximity to the place where the EBLV-2 positive Daubenton’s bat was found in 2009. In active surveillance, no EBLV viral RNA was detected. Conclusions These data suggest that EBLV-2 may circulate in Finland, even though the seroprevalence is low. Our results indicate that passive surveillance of dead or sick bats is a relevant means examine the occurrence of lyssavirus infection, but the number of bats submitted for laboratory analysis should be higher in order to obtain reliable information on the lyssavirus situation in the country. PMID:24011337

2013-01-01

141

Bats that walk: a new evolutionary hypothesis for the terrestrial behaviour of New Zealand's endemic mystacinids  

E-print Network

the Gondwanan bat super- family Noctilionoidea, but molecular divergence dates indicate that the two families diverged 41–51 Ma [7], and terrestrial locomotion appears to have evolved independ- ently in Mystacina and Desmodus. Today, Mystacina tuberculata... ,11,14,15] that is broader than that of any bat recorded and includes nectar, flowers and fruit as well as flying and terrestrial invertebrates including spiders, centipedes and weta orthopterans [9,52,55,56]. An omnivorous diet in Australian Miocene mystacinids...

Hand, Suzanne J; Weisbecker, Vera; Beck, Robin M D; Archer, Michael; Godthelp, Henk; Tennyson, Alan J D; Worthy, Trevor H

2009-07-20

142

Bat rabies, public health and European bat conservation.  

PubMed

Most records of European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs) are confined to three species - the serotine bat for EBLV1 (900 records) and Daubenton's bat and the pond bat for EBLV2 (25 records). High levels of seroprevalence, which may vary from year to year, are also recorded. All bat vectors of EBLVs are synanthropic, some exclusively so. Despite this, there have been only five cases of human rabies resulting from EBLV infection in the 590?million people of greater Europe during the last 35?years. These have triggered major programmes of surveillance in many European countries. The emphasis on active versus passive surveillance and the intensity with which they have been carried out has varied from country to country. Both involve cooperation between bat researchers, virologists and public health officials and the latter, in particular, engages amateur bat workers and members of the public. Bat NGOs throughout Europe have worked to persuade the public not to handle bats or to do so only with gloved hands and, in the case of bat workers, to receive pre-exposure immunization. They have also countered negative media coverage of bat rabies. Householders with bat roosts in their dwellings have in general been persuaded to retain their bats. Attempts have been made to persuade all European countries to establish comparable EBLV surveillance programmes. In the last 25?years, virologists, public health officials, bat biologists and conservationists, both amateur and professional have worked closely and collaboratively for the protection of the public and the conservation of bats, with little polarization of views. PMID:22909028

Racey, P A; Hutson, A M; Lina, P H C

2013-02-01

143

Lyssavirus Surveillance in Bats, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Lyssavirus surveillance in bats was performed in Bangladesh during 2003 and 2004. No virus isolates were obtained. Three serum samples (all from Pteropus giganteus, n = 127) of 288 total serum samples, obtained from bats in 9 different taxa, neutralized lyssaviruses Aravan and Khujand. The infection occurs in bats in Bangladesh, but virus prevalence appears low. PMID:16704789

Niezgoda, Michael; Carroll, Darin S.; Keeler, Natalie; Hossain, Mohammed Jahangir; Breiman, Robert F.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2006-01-01

144

Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala.  

PubMed

To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat-associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans. PMID:21762584

Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

2011-07-01

145

Isolation of a novel adenovirus from Rousettus leschenaultii bats from India.  

PubMed

Surveillance work was initiated to study the presence of highly infectious diseases like Ebola-Reston, Marburg, Nipah and other possible viruses that are known to be found in the bat species and responsible for causing diseases in humans. A novel adenovirus was isolated from a common species of fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaultii) captured in Maharashtra State, India. Partial sequence analysis of the DNA polymerase gene shows this isolate to be a newly recognized member of the genus Mastadenovirus (family Adenoviridae), approximately 20% divergent at the nucleotide level from Japanese BatAdV, its closest known relative. PMID:22572722

Raut, C G; Yadav, P D; Towner, J S; Amman, B R; Erickson, B R; Cannon, D L; Sivaram, A; Basu, A; Nichol, S T; Mishra, A C; Mourya, D T

2012-01-01

146

Discover Bats! with Merlin Tuttle and Bat Conservation International. The Multimedia Education Kit about Bats.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multimedia package contains a book and a videotape on bats. The videotape uses video sequences of bats in action which are designed to support 21 lessons, each designed to teach essential elements of classroom curricula to students ages 9-15. The video is divided into four 12-minute segments that include footage of bats, direct relevance to…

Tuttle, Merlin D.; Tyburec, Janet, Ed.

147

Young Jamaicans' Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Experimental and Demographic Factors Associated with Social Distance and Stigmatizing Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two large-scale studies assessed the nature and correlates of young Jamaicans' attitudes toward mental illness. In study 1, students viewed a videotaped job interview for a teacher whose history was manipulated to include a history of mental illness, or not. Students desired significantly less social distance (i.e., more contact) with the "normal"…

Jackson, Dahra; Heatherington, Laurie

2006-01-01

148

Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder.  

PubMed

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2-8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 ?g/dL cases vs. 2.73 ?g/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 ?g/dL vs. 2.72 ?g/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Loveland, Katherine A; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Pearson, Deborah A; Boerwinkle, Eric

2014-01-01

149

Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 ?g/dL cases vs. 2.73 ?g/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 ?g/dL vs. 2.72 ?g/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

2014-01-01

150

Renal and Hepatic Function in Hypercholesterolemic Rats Fed Jamaican Bitter Yam (Dioscorea polygonoides).  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: We reported that Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) has antilipemic potential in rats; however there is limited data on the toxicological profile of the yam. We therefore investigated the effects of bitter yam consumption for 6 or 12 weeks on renal and hepatic function in rats fed a high (4%) cholesterol diet. Methods: Twenty four rats were divided into six groups (n = 4); three of which were used for each investigation (6 or 12 weeks). One group was administered 4% cholesterol diet, while the yam group had the cholesterol diet supplemented with 5% bitter yam. The control group was fed standard rat chow. Liver and kidney function tests were performed on serum, liver and kidney. Histological studies were conducted on liver samples. Acute toxicity tests were performed in rats and mice administered a single high dose of bitter yam (10 g/kg). Results: Activities of liver and kidney AST and ALT differed (p ? .02) between control rats and those fed cholesterol with bitter yam for 12 weeks. Albumin to globulin ratio was reduced (p = .03) in rats fed cholesterol with bitter yam for 6 weeks as compared to the control group. Serum urea concentration was higher (p < .05) in rats fed bitter yam as compared to normal chow for 6 weeks. The cholesterol diet caused extensive fat deposition in liver cells; however this was inhibited by co-administration of bitter yam. Conclusion: Long-term administration of Jamaican bitter yam may induce slight changes in renal and hepatic functions. PMID:25167076

McKoy, Marsha-Lyn; Grant, Kevin; Asemota, Helen; Simon, Oswald; Omoruyi, Felix

2014-08-28

151

Lower Body Symmetry and Running Performance in Elite Jamaican Track and Field Athletes  

PubMed Central

In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet) are–on average–significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet) had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes. PMID:25401732

Trivers, Robert; Fink, Bernhard; Russell, Mark; McCarty, Kristofor; James, Bruce; Palestis, Brian G.

2014-01-01

152

Satellite Telemetry and Long-Range Bat Movements  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the long-distance movement of bats has direct relevance to studies of population dynamics, ecology, disease emergence, and conservation. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed and trialed several collar and platform terminal transmitter (PTT) combinations on both free-living and captive fruit bats (Family Pteropodidae: Genus Pteropus). We examined transmitter weight, size, profile and comfort as key determinants of maximized transmitter activity. We then tested the importance of bat-related variables (species size/weight, roosting habitat and behavior) and environmental variables (day-length, rainfall pattern) in determining optimal collar/PTT configuration. We compared battery- and solar-powered PTT performance in various field situations, and found the latter more successful in maintaining voltage on species that roosted higher in the tree canopy, and at lower density, than those that roost more densely and lower in trees. Finally, we trialed transmitter accuracy, and found that actual distance errors and Argos location class error estimates were in broad agreement. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that no single collar or transmitter design is optimal for all bat species, and that species size/weight, species ecology and study objectives are key design considerations. Our study provides a strategy for collar and platform choice that will be applicable to a larger number of bat species as transmitter size and weight continue to decrease in the future. PMID:21358823

Smith, Craig S.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Breed, Andrew C.; Plowright, Raina K.; Olival, Kevin J.; de Jong, Carol; Daszak, Peter; Field, Hume E.

2011-01-01

153

Temperature Data Logging in Missouri Bat Caves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our preliminary results of digitally logged temperatures in Missouri bat caves that are inhabited by the Indiana bat, Myotis sodalis, and the gray bat, Myotis grisescens. Both species are endangered. Eight Indiana bat hibernacula, including one mine, were monitored since the fall of 1998. Four of these included gray bats. The temperatures in some of the hiber- nacula

William R. Elliott; Richard L. Clawson

154

Do Bat Gantries and Underpasses Help Bats Cross Roads Safely?  

PubMed Central

Major roads can reduce bat abundance and diversity over considerable distances. To mitigate against these effects and comply with environmental law, many European countries install bridges, gantries or underpasses to make roads permeable and safer to cross. However, through lack of appropriate monitoring, there is little evidence to support their effectiveness. Three underpasses and four bat gantries were investigated in northern England. Echolocation call recordings and observations were used to determine the number of bats using underpasses in preference to crossing the road above, and the height at which bats crossed. At gantries, proximity to the gantry and height of crossing bats were measured. Data were compared to those from adjacent, severed commuting routes that had no crossing structure. At one underpass 96% of bats flew through it in preference to crossing the road. This underpass was located on a pre-construction commuting route that allowed bats to pass without changing flight height or direction. At two underpasses attempts to divert bats from their original commuting routes were unsuccessful and bats crossed the road at the height of passing vehicles. Underpasses have the potential to allow bats to cross roads safely if built on pre-construction commuting routes. Bat gantries were ineffective and used by a very small proportion of bats, even up to nine years after construction. Most bats near gantries crossed roads along severed, pre-construction commuting routes at heights that put them in the path of vehicles. Crossing height was strongly correlated with verge height, suggesting that elevated verges may have some value in mitigation, but increased flight height may be at the cost of reduced permeability. Green bridges should be explored as an alternative form of mitigation. Robust monitoring is essential to assess objectively the case for mitigation and to ensure effective mitigation. PMID:22719941

Berthinussen, Anna; Altringham, John

2012-01-01

155

Protecting Bats from Extinction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article explains how bats have survived for millions of years but now they are declining rapidly because of: loss of habitat and foraging areas, pesticides in their favorite food -- insects, extermination, and human activity such as hunting or cave exploring.

Nick Tchankoshvili (Tbilisi State Medical University, Georgia, Europe;)

2001-12-01

156

Foraging bats avoid noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Ambient noise influences the availability and use of acoustic information in animals in many ways. While much research has focused on the effects of noise on acoustic communication, here, we present the first study concerned with anthropogenic noise and foraging behaviour. We chose the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) as a model species because it represents the especially vulnerable

Andrea Schaub; Joachim Ostwald; Björn M. Siemers

2008-01-01

157

Sperm competition in bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and

D. J. Hosken

1997-01-01

158

Bat Mitzvah Surprise  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: This Postcard is brought to you from New York City where Fu Qian has just had her bat mitzvah at a synagogue on the city's Upper West Side. Of course, now she's called Cecelia Nealon-Shapiro, having been renamed 13 years ago...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-04-25

159

What the bat's voice tells the bat's brain  

PubMed Central

For over half a century, the echolocating bat has served as a valuable model in neuroscience to elucidate mechanisms of auditory processing and adaptive behavior in biological sonar. Our article emphasizes the importance of the bat's vocal-motor system to spatial orientation by sonar, and we present this view in the context of three problems that the echolocating bat must solve: (i) auditory scene analysis, (ii) sensorimotor transformations, and (iii) spatial memory and navigation. We summarize our research findings from behavioral studies of echolocating bats engaged in natural tasks and from neurophysiological studies of the bat superior colliculus and hippocampus, brain structures implicated in sensorimotor integration, orientation, and spatial memory. Our perspective is that studies of neural activity in freely vocalizing bats engaged in natural behaviors will prove essential to advancing a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying perception and memory in mammals. PMID:18562301

Ulanovsky, Nachum; Moss, Cynthia F.

2008-01-01

160

Surveillance for European bat lyssavirus in Swiss bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most countries in Western Europe are currently free of rabies in terrestrial mammals. Nevertheless, rabies remains a residual\\u000a risk to public health due to the natural circulation of bat-specific viruses, such as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs). European\\u000a bat lyssavirus types 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) are widely distributed throughout Europe, but little is known of their true\\u000a prevalence and

A. Megali; G. Yannic; M.-L. Zahno; D. Brügger; G. Bertoni; P. Christe; R. Zanoni

2010-01-01

161

Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

162

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

163

Blood manganese concentrations in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Manganese is an essential element for human health and development. Previous studies have shown neurotoxic effects in children exposed to higher levels of manganese. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs social interaction and communication. Several studies have hypothesized that ASD is caused through environmental exposures during crucial stages in brain development. We investigated the possible association between blood manganese concentrations (BMC) and ASD. We also identified factors associated with BMC in typically developing (TD) Jamaican children. Methods We used data from 109 ASD cases with their 1:1 age- and sex-matched TD controls to compare mean BMC in Jamaican children (2–8 years of age) with and without ASD. We administered a pre-tested questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information, medical history, and potential exposure to manganese. Finally, we collected 2 mL of whole blood from each child for analysis of manganese levels. Using General Linear Models (GLM), we assessed the association between BMC and ASD status. Furthermore, we used two independent sample t-tests to identify factors associated with BMC in TD children. Results In univariable GLM analysis, we found no significant association between BMC and ASD, (10.9 ?g/L for cases vs. 10.5 ?g/L for controls; P?=?0.29). In a multivariable GLM adjusting for paternal age, parental education, place of child’s birth (Kingston parish), consumption of root vegetables, cabbage, saltwater fish, and cakes/buns, there was still no significant association between BMC and ASD status, (11.5 ?g/L for cases vs. 11.9 ?g/L for controls; P?=?0.48). Our findings also indicated TD children who ate fresh water fish had a higher BMC than children who did not (11.0 ?g/L vs. 9.9 ?g/L; P?=?0.03) as younger TD children (i.e., 2???age ?4), (12.0 ?g/L vs. 10.2 ?g/L; P?=?0.01). Conclusions While these results cannot be used to assess early exposure at potentially more susceptible time period, our findings suggest that there is no significant association between manganese exposures and ASD case status in Jamaica. Our findings also indicate that BMC in Jamaican children resemble those of children in the developed world and are much lower than those in the developing countries. PMID:25149876

2014-01-01

164

Science Nation: Batty for Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are 5,000 species of mammals alive at present, and nearly a quarter of them are bats. They're found in almost every location on Earth. In fact, bats are the only mammals that can fly under their own power! With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), two scientists from very different disciplines have set up a special facility, including a wind tunnel, to study bats in flight.

165

Frugivory and the effects of ingestion by bats on the seed germination of three pioneering plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dispersion and seedling establishment of pioneering plants can be favoured by the presence of frugivorous bats because the bats usually improve seed germination after ingestion. Although seed germinability is known to vary greatly after ingestion by different bats, the relative contribution of each bat species to seed germination within plant communities is poorly understood. In this study, we first determined the fauna of frugivorous bats in a semideciduous seasonal forest remnant in southern Brazil and subsequently identified the plant species of the seeds passed through their guts. Second, the germination performance (i.e., germination percentage and speed) of the seeds of three pioneering plants (Piper aduncum, Piper hispidinervum and Solanum granuloso-leprosum) ingested by the most abundant bats was compared with that of the non-ingested seeds (seeds collected from fruits). Additionally, the effects on seed germination of different bat species were compared. During one year, five species of frugivorous bats were caught, and the seeds of eleven identifiable plant species (not counting those of undetermined species) were found in their faeces. We found that the germination performance of the seeds of Piper species was significantly enhanced after ingestion by bats, whereas S. granuloso-leprosum seeds had neutral or reduced germinability when seeds in faeces were compared with pulp-removed seeds. Our results revealed that the bat species that were captured exerted different effects upon seed germination; such a disparity is expected to result in different rates of early establishment of these pioneer plants in tropical forests, most likely affecting forest composition and structure, particularly during the initial stages of succession.

de Carvalho-Ricardo, Maria C.; Uieda, Wilson; Fonseca, Renata Cristina B.; Rossi, Marcelo N.

2014-02-01

166

Characteristics of bat rabies in Alberta.  

PubMed Central

Rabies in bats was monitored in Alberta from 1971 to 1978 Big brown bats replaced silver-haired bats as the species most frequently reported rabid during these years. Rabies infection was comparatively high among little brown bats in central Alberta in 1973 and has subsequently declined. Only one rabid little brown bat was discovered in southern Alberta which is populated by a different subspecies. Outbreaks of rabies in little brown and big brown bat colonies tended to be brief events. Observations of free-ranging bats with probable furious rabies suggested that bats do not generally identify humans as targets for attack. Independent trends in infection rates suggested that spread of rabies is primarily intraspecific but there is evidence that migratory bats play a role in introduction and maintenance of rabies in northern temperate bat communities. The dynamics of bat rabies in Alberta are discussed. PMID:7397600

Schowalter, D B

1980-01-01

167

Bats jamming bats: food competition through sonar interference.  

PubMed

Communication signals are susceptible to interference ("jamming") from conspecifics and other sources. Many active sensing animals, including bats and electric fish, alter the frequency of their emissions to avoid inadvertent jamming from conspecifics. We demonstrated that echolocating bats adaptively jam conspecifics during competitions for food. Three-dimensional flight path reconstructions and audio-video field recordings of foraging bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) revealed extended interactions in which bats emitted sinusoidal frequency-modulated ultrasonic signals that interfered with the echolocation of conspecifics attacking insect prey. Playbacks of the jamming call, but not of control sounds, caused bats to miss insect targets. This study demonstrates intraspecific food competition through active disruption of a competitor's sensing during food acquisition. PMID:25378624

Corcoran, Aaron J; Conner, William E

2014-11-01

168

High diversity of West African bat malaria parasites and a tight link with rodent Plasmodium taxa  

PubMed Central

As the only volant mammals, bats are captivating for their high taxonomic diversity, for their vital roles in ecosystems—particularly as pollinators and insectivores—and, more recently, for their important roles in the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic viral diseases. Genome sequences have identified evidence for a striking expansion of and positive selection in gene families associated with immunity. Bats have also been known to be hosts of malaria parasites for over a century, and as hosts, they possess perhaps the most phylogenetically diverse set of hemosporidian genera and species. To provide a molecular framework for the study of these parasites, we surveyed bats in three remote areas of the Upper Guinean forest ecosystem. We detected four distinct genera of hemosporidian parasites: Plasmodium, Polychromophilus, Nycteria, and Hepatocystis. Intriguingly, the two species of Plasmodium in bats fall within the clade of rodent malaria parasites, indicative of multiple host switches across mammalian orders. We show that Nycteria species form a very distinct phylogenetic group and that Hepatocystis parasites display an unusually high diversity and prevalence in epauletted fruit bats. The diversity and high prevalence of novel lineages of chiropteran hemosporidians underscore the exceptional position of bats among all other mammalian hosts of hemosporidian parasites and support hypotheses of pathogen tolerance consistent with the exceptional immunology of bats. PMID:24101466

Schaer, Juliane; Perkins, Susan L.; Decher, Jan; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Fahr, Jakob; Weber, Natalie; Matuschewski, Kai

2013-01-01

169

High diversity of West African bat malaria parasites and a tight link with rodent Plasmodium taxa.  

PubMed

As the only volant mammals, bats are captivating for their high taxonomic diversity, for their vital roles in ecosystems--particularly as pollinators and insectivores--and, more recently, for their important roles in the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic viral diseases. Genome sequences have identified evidence for a striking expansion of and positive selection in gene families associated with immunity. Bats have also been known to be hosts of malaria parasites for over a century, and as hosts, they possess perhaps the most phylogenetically diverse set of hemosporidian genera and species. To provide a molecular framework for the study of these parasites, we surveyed bats in three remote areas of the Upper Guinean forest ecosystem. We detected four distinct genera of hemosporidian parasites: Plasmodium, Polychromophilus, Nycteria, and Hepatocystis. Intriguingly, the two species of Plasmodium in bats fall within the clade of rodent malaria parasites, indicative of multiple host switches across mammalian orders. We show that Nycteria species form a very distinct phylogenetic group and that Hepatocystis parasites display an unusually high diversity and prevalence in epauletted fruit bats. The diversity and high prevalence of novel lineages of chiropteran hemosporidians underscore the exceptional position of bats among all other mammalian hosts of hemosporidian parasites and support hypotheses of pathogen tolerance consistent with the exceptional immunology of bats. PMID:24101466

Schaer, Juliane; Perkins, Susan L; Decher, Jan; Leendertz, Fabian H; Fahr, Jakob; Weber, Natalie; Matuschewski, Kai

2013-10-22

170

Keeping the blood flowing—plasminogen activator genes and feeding behavior in vampire bats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blood feeding vampire bats emerged from New World leaf-nosed bats that fed on fruit and insects. Plasminogen activator, a serine protease that regulates blood coagulation, is known to be expressed in the saliva of Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat) and is thought to be a key enzyme for the emergence of blood feeding in vampire bats. To better understand the evolution of this biological function, we studied the plasminogen activator (PA) genes from all vampire bat species in light of their feeding transition to bird and subsequently mammalian blood. We include the rare species Diphylla ecaudata and Diaemus youngi, where plasminogen activator had not previously been studied and demonstrate that PA gene duplication observed in Desmodus is not essential to the vampire phenotype, but relates to the emergence of predominant mammalian blood feeding in this species. Plasminogen activator has evolved through gene duplication, domain loss, and sequence evolution leading to change in fibrin-specificity and susceptibility to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Before undertaking this study, only the four plasminogen activator isoforms from Desmodus were known. The evolution of vampire bat plasminogen activators can now be linked phylogenetically to the transition in feeding behavior among vampire bat species from bird to mammalian blood.

Tellgren-Roth, Åsa; Dittmar, Katharina; Massey, Steven E.; Kemi, Cecilia; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Savolainen, Peter; Lyons, Leslie A.; Liberles, David A.

2009-01-01

171

Ecological correlates of cortisol levels in two bat species with contrasting feeding habits.  

PubMed

The immediate release of adrenal glucocorticoids can be crucial for an animal's survival when facing a stressor, but constantly elevated or exceptionally high glucocorticoid levels are usually detrimental for health. Although baseline and maximal secretion of glucocorticoids are regulated within narrow ranges within species, plasma glucocorticoid levels vary largely across vertebrates. We asked what ecological factors affect baseline plasma cortisol levels (CortI) and maximum levels (CortMax) following a physiological challenge through administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Specifically, we studied whether seasonal fluctuations in food abundance correlate with the capacity of cortisol increases in two phyllostomid bat species with contrasting feeding habits: the sanguinivorous vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the frugivorous short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). Both species coexist in habitats with various levels of seasonality (dry and rainforest). On a seasonal basis, resource abundance is more stable for vampire than for fruit bats, but previous studies suggested that daily foraging success may vary more for vampire than for fruit bats. CortI and CortMax varied seasonally in C. perspicillata from dry and rainforests, with the exception of CortMax in rainforest bats. Although we expected food availability to be stable year-round for vampire bats, we found CortI and CortMax of vampires to be higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Also, we found CortMax to be higher in vampires from the rainforest than in those from the dry forest. CortMax of vampires were among the highest measured for a free-ranging mammal; a pattern that could be related to the species' vulnerability to starvation. We conclude that food availability modulates cortisol levels in free-ranging species that face seasonally fluctuating resources; in species, however, that benefit from food which is constantly abundant, other factors than food may become more important in modulating cortisol levels. PMID:22429728

Lewanzik, Daniel; Kelm, Detlev H; Greiner, Sabine; Dehnhard, Martin; Voigt, Christian C

2012-05-15

172

The importation and reexportation of organized crime: explaining the rise and fall of the Jamaican posses in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1980s and 1990s, Jamaican posses captured the imagination of the press corps, film makers, and numerous of criminal\\u000a justice scholars in the United States. However, except for a few historical references, their virtual disappearance from the\\u000a contemporary criminal justice literature leaves many unanswered questions. In updating the literature, this paper examines\\u000a the main factors contributing to the decline

Carl Williams; Mitchel P. Roth

173

ACOUSTIC SURVEYS OF BATS IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic detectors have been employed to study a variety of different aspects of bat ecology. Common studies involve using detectors to quantify bat activity in an area or to identify bats using their echolocation calls. Bat activity is compared across habitat treatments to investigate factors influencing bat use. While quantification of bat activity is commonly accepted, acoustic identification of bats

Eric R. Britzke

174

Coronaviruses in bats from Mexico  

PubMed Central

Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of human pathogens including Nipah, Hendra, rabies, Ebola, Marburg and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV). The recent implication of a novel beta (?)-CoV as the cause of fatal respiratory disease in the Middle East emphasizes the importance of surveillance for CoVs that have potential to move from bats into the human population. In a screen of 606 bats from 42 different species in Campeche, Chiapas and Mexico City we identified 13 distinct CoVs. Nine were alpha (?)-CoVs; four were ?-CoVs. Twelve were novel. Analyses of these viruses in the context of their hosts and ecological habitat indicated that host species is a strong selective driver in CoV evolution, even in allopatric populations separated by significant geographical distance; and that a single species/genus of bat can contain multiple CoVs. A ?-CoV with 96.5?% amino acid identity to the ?-CoV associated with human disease in the Middle East was found in a Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat, suggesting that efforts to identify the viral reservoir should include surveillance of the bat families Molossidae/Vespertilionidae, or the closely related Nycteridae/Emballonuridae. While it is important to investigate unknown viral diversity in bats, it is also important to remember that the majority of viruses they carry will not pose any clinical risk, and bats should not be stigmatized ubiquitously as significant threats to public health. PMID:23364191

Ojeda-Flores, R.; Rico-Chávez, O.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Zambrana-Torrelio, C. M.; Rostal, M. K.; Epstein, J. H.; Tipps, T.; Liang, E.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Sotomayor-Bonilla, J.; Aguirre, A. A.; Ávila-Flores, R.; Medellín, R. A.; Goldstein, T.; Suzán, G.; Daszak, P.

2013-01-01

175

Novel Astroviruses in Insectivorous Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats are increasingly recognized to harbor a wide range of viruses, and in most instances these viruses appear to establish long-term persistence in these animals. They are the reservoir of a number of human zoonotic diseases including Nipah, Ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We report the identi- fication of novel groups of astroviruses in apparently healthy insectivorous bats found

D. K. W. Chu; L. L. M. Poon; Y. Guan; J. S. M. Peiris

2008-01-01

176

Evolution of European bat lyssaviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven European bat lyssaviruses (EBL) and two African insectivorous bat lyssaviruses (Duvenhage viruses) were selected for a comparison to be made of their evolutionary relationships. Studies were based on direct sequencing of the PCR-amplified products of the 400 nucleotides coding for the amino terminus of the nucleoprotein. Phylogenetic relationships were analysed after bootstrap resampling using the maximum parsi- mony and

B. Amengual; J. E. Whitby; A. King; J. Serra Cobo; H. Bourhy

1997-01-01

177

The role of drinking water sources, consumption of vegetables and seafood in relation to blood arsenic concentrations of Jamaican children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is a toxic metal with harmful effects on human health, particularly on cognitive function. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are lifelong neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders manifesting in infancy or early childhood. We used data from 130 children between 2-8 years (65 pairs of ASD cases with age- and sex-matched control), to compare the mean total blood arsenic concentrations in children with and without ASDs in Kingston, Jamaica. Based on univariable analysis, we observed a significant difference between ASD cases and controls (4.03?g/L for cases vs. 4.48?g/L for controls, P < 0.01). In the final multivariable General Linear Model (GLM), after controlling for car ownership, maternal age, parental education levels, source of drinking water, consumption of “yam, sweet potato, or dasheen”, “carrot or pumpkin”, “callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi”, cabbage, avocado, and the frequency of seafood consumption per week, we did not find a significant association between blood arsenic concentrations and ASD status (4.36?g/L for cases vs. 4.65?g/L for controls, P = 0.23). Likewise, in a separate final multivariable GLM, we found that source of drinking water, eating avocado, and eating “callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi” were significantly associated with higher blood arsenic concentrations (all three P < 0.05). Based on our findings, we recommend assessment of arsenic levels in water, fruits, and vegetables, as well as increased awareness among the Jamaican population regarding potential risks for various exposures to arsenic. PMID:22819887

Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Loveland, Katherine A.; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Bloom, Kari; Wirth, Julie; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

2012-01-01

178

The role of drinking water sources, consumption of vegetables and seafood in relation to blood arsenic concentrations of Jamaican children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders.  

PubMed

Arsenic is a toxic metal with harmful effects on human health, particularly on cognitive function. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are lifelong neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders manifesting in infancy or early childhood. We used data from 130 children between 2 and 8 years (65 pairs of ASD cases with age- and sex-matched control), to compare the mean total blood arsenic concentrations in children with and without ASDs in Kingston, Jamaica. Based on univariable analysis, we observed a significant difference between ASD cases and controls (4.03 ?g/L for cases vs. 4.48 ?g/L for controls, P<0.01). In the final multivariable General Linear Model (GLM), after controlling for car ownership, maternal age, parental education levels, source of drinking water, consumption of "yam, sweet potato, or dasheen", "carrot or pumpkin", "callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi", cabbage, avocado, and the frequency of seafood consumption per week, we did not find a significant association between blood arsenic concentrations and ASD status (4.36 ?g/L for cases vs. 4.65 ?g/L for controls, P=0.23). Likewise, in a separate final multivariable GLM, we found that source of drinking water, eating avocado, and eating "callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi" was significantly associated with higher blood arsenic concentrations (all three P<0.05). Based on our findings, we recommend assessment of arsenic levels in water, fruits, and vegetables, as well as increased awareness among the Jamaican population regarding potential risks for various exposures to arsenic. PMID:22819887

Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Loveland, Katherine A; Dickerson, Aisha S; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Bloom, Kari; Wirth, Julie; Pearson, Deborah A; Boerwinkle, Eric

2012-09-01

179

Wake structure and wing motion in bat flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on experiments concerning the wake structure and kinematics of bat flight, conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel using time-resolved PIV (200Hz) and 4 high-speed cameras to capture wake and wing motion simultaneously. 16 Lesser dog-faced fruit bats (C. brachyotis) were trained to fly in the wind tunnel at 3-6.5m/s. The PIV recordings perpendicular to the flow stream allowed observing the development of the tip vortex and circulation over the wing beat cycle. Each PIV acquisition sequence is correlated with the respective kinematic history. Circulation within wing beat cycles were often quite repeatable, however variations due to maneuvering of the bat are clearly visible. While no distinct vortex structure was observed at the upper reversal point (defined according the vertical motion of the wrist) a tip vortex was observed to develop in the first third of the downstroke, growing in strength, and persisting during much of the upstroke. Correlated to the presence of a strong tip vortex the circulation has almost constant strength over the middle half of the wing beat. At relatively low flight speeds (3.4 m/s), a closed vortex structure behind the bat is postulated.

Hubel, Tatjana; Breuer, Kenneth; Swartz, Sharon

2008-11-01

180

Bartonella spp. in Bats, Kenya  

PubMed Central

We report the presence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across Kenya. Bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 Eidolon helvum, 22 Rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 Coleura afra, 7 Triaenops persicus, 1 Hipposideros commersoni, and 49 Miniopterus spp. bats. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of Bartonella strains. Phylogenetically, isolates clustered in specific host bat species. All isolates from R. aegyptiacus, C. afra, and T. persicus bats clustered in separate monophyletic groups. In contrast, E. helvum and Miniopterus spp. bats harbored strains that clustered in several groups. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these agents are responsible for human illnesses in the region. PMID:21122216

Bai, Ying; Lynch, Tarah; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2010-01-01

181

What Good Are Bats?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mosquito population in your area is increasing at an alarming rate. You and your team have been called in to become experts on the local bat species and what you can do to promote their health. TASK Each person in your group is to choose an area in which to become an expert. Each person in your group will have a designated area of which they are in charge. As a team you will choose a Captain, a Navigator, an Engineer, an Operations Specialist, and ...

Stanford, Mrs.

2008-11-17

182

Sperm competition in bats.  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and investment in spermatogenesis across 31 species of microchiropteran bat using new and published data on testis mass and sperm length. In addition to male competition, I examined the effects of female reproductive biology on characteristics of spermatogenesis. Comparative studies indicate that relative testis mass is positively related to sperm competition risk in a wide range of taxa. Social group size may also influence the level of sperm competition, and one of the costs of living in groups may be decreased confidence of paternity. I used comparative analysis of independent contrast (CAIC) to control for phylogeny. Using two possible phylogenies and two measures of social group size, I found a significant positive relationship between social group size and testis mass. There was no relationship between testis mass and the dimension of the female reproductive tract or oestrus duration. Sperm length was not significantly related to body mass or group size, nor was it related to oestrus duration. PMID:9107054

Hosken, D J

1997-01-01

183

Emerging diseases in Chiroptera: why bats?  

PubMed

A conference entitled '2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases' was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During several sessions, key note speakers and participants discussed infectious diseases associated with bats, including viral diseases caused by Henipa-, Filo-, Corona- and Lyssaviruses, the spread of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, bat immunology/immunogenetics, bat parasites, and finally, conservation and human health issues. PMID:20427329

Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C

2010-08-23

184

Roles of Birds and Bats in Early Tropical-Forest Restoration  

PubMed Central

Restoration of tropical forest depended in large part on seed dispersal by fruit-eating animals that transported seeds into planted forest patches. We tested effectiveness of dispersal agents as revealed by established recruits of tree and shrub species that bore seeds dispersed by birds, bats, or both. We documented restoration of dispersal processes over the first 76 months of experimental restoration in southern Mexico. Mixed-model repeated-measures randomized-block ANOVAs of seedlings recruited into experimental controls and mixed-species plantings from late-secondary and mature forest indicated that bats and birds played different roles in the first years of a restoration process. Bats dispersed pioneer tree and shrub species to slowly regenerating grassy areas, while birds mediated recruitment of later-successional species into planted stands of trees and to a lesser extent into controls. Of species of pioneer trees and shrubs established in plots, seven were primarily dispersed by birds, three by bats and four by both birds and bats. Of later-successional species recruited past the seedling stage, 13 were of species primarily dispersed by birds, and six were of species dispersed by both birds and bats. No later-successional species primarily dispersed by bats established in control or planted plots. Establishment of recruited seedlings was ten-fold higher under cover of planted trees than in grassy controls. Even pre-reproductive trees drew fruit-eating birds and the seeds that they carried from nearby forest, and provided conditions for establishment of shade-tolerant tree species. Overall, after 76 months of cattle exclusion, 94% of the recruited shrubs and trees in experimental plots were of species that we did not plant. PMID:25118608

de la Peña-Domene, Marinés; Martínez-Garza, Cristina; Palmas-Pérez, Sebastián; Rivas-Alonso, Edith; Howe, Henry F.

2014-01-01

185

Click-based echolocation in bats: not so primitive after all.  

PubMed

Echolocating bats of the genus Rousettus produce click sonar signals, using their tongue (lingual echolocation). These signals are often considered rudimentary and are believed to enable only crude performance. However, the main argument supporting this belief, namely the click's reported long duration, was recently shown to be an artifact. In fact, the sonar clicks of Rousettus bats are extremely short, ~50-100 ?s, similar to dolphin vocalizations. Here, we present a comparison between the sonar systems of the 'model species' of laryngeal echolocation, the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), and that of lingual echolocation, the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). We show experimentally that in tasks, such as accurate landing or detection of medium-sized objects, click-based echolocation enables performance similar to laryngeal echolocators. Further, we describe a sophisticated behavioral strategy for biosonar beam steering in clicking bats. Finally, theoretical analyses of the signal design--focusing on their autocorrelations and wideband ambiguity functions--predict that in some aspects, such as target ranging and Doppler-tolerance, click-based echolocation might outperform laryngeal echolocation. Therefore, we suggest that click-based echolocation in bats should be regarded as a viable echolocation strategy, which is in fact similar to the biosonar used by most echolocating animals, including whales and dolphins. PMID:21465138

Yovel, Yossi; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Ulanovsky, Nachum

2011-05-01

186

Population dynamics of the bat Dermanura tolteca (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in a tropical forest in Mexico.  

PubMed

The fruit-eating bat, Dermanura tolteca, has a broad geographic distribution in Mexico and it is a very important seed dispersal of Neotropical plants. Nonetheless, information on the biology of this bat species is scarce, especially with regard to demography. We studied some ecological aspects and population dynamics of D. tolteca from Southeastern Mexican State of Oaxaca. The study was conducted in a perennial tropical forest, over a period of 80 nights, a sampling effort of 73 200 mist-net-hour, from May 2006 to August 2007. A total of 176 specimens were captured, 98 females and 78 males. Population size was estimated in 237 individuals in the study area, with a greater number during rainy season. The population density of this bat, in its range of distribution in Mexico is low compared to other nose-leaf bats. Captures were correlated with monthly precipitation, and this result may be linked to food resources abundance in tropical and subtropical areas. The reproductive pattern was bimodal polyestrous, with birth periods between August-September and April-June. Greater body mass was observed in females than males. The male-female ratio and age-related demographics were similar to other nose-leaf bats. The biological characteristics of D. tolteca are typical of nose-leaf bats of the family Phyllostomidae. PMID:21246994

Garcia-García, José Luís; Santos-Moreno, Antonio; Rodríguez-Alamilla, Arisbe

2010-12-01

187

Prompt Emission Observations of Swift BAT Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We review the prompt emission properties of Swift BAT gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the global properties of BAT GRBs based on their spectral and temporal characteristics. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 80 and 20 s, respectively. The peak energy (Epeak) of about 60% of BAT GRBs is very likely to be less than 1.00 keV. We also present the BAT characteristics of GRBs with soft spectra, so called Xray flashes (XRFs). We will compare the BAT GRBs and XRFs parameter distribution to the other missions.

Barthelmy, Scott

2009-01-01

188

Emerging diseases. Malaysian researchers trace Nipah virus outbreak to bats.  

PubMed

Scientists are a step closer to unraveling a medical mystery that killed 105 people in Malaysia last year and destroyed the country's pig industry. The Nipah virus, which caused the disease, most likely originated in a native fruit bat species, Malaysian researchers reported here at a meeting last week. They say the findings will help Malaysian health authorities prevent future outbreaks of the Nipah virus. Others see the case as an argument for expanding research into infections that can leap the boundary between animals and humans. PMID:10939954

Enserink, M

2000-07-28

189

Frozen Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

Company, The J.

2008-01-01

190

Roosting habits of bats affect their parasitism by bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smithsonian Venezuela Project (SVP) conducted extensive surveys of mammals and ectoparasites in the 1960s. The 25 238 individuals and 130 species of bat collected by SVP hosted 36 663 streblid bat flies, representing 116 species of these ectoparasitic dipterans. Roosts of bat species differ in durability and protection, and bat flies separate from the host to pupate in the

Bruce D. Patterson; Carl W. Dick; Katharina Dittmar

2007-01-01

191

Supporting Information Pace et al. 10.1073/pnas.0806548105  

E-print Network

) and the Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis). Nonautonomous SPIN elements were amplified in all species but opossum by using the following PCR primers: NA-F 5 CGA ACG ACC CTT TCA CAG G (position 41­59 of the super

Feschotte, Cedric

192

The Evolution of Bat Vestibular Systems in the Face of Potential Antagonistic Selection Pressures for Flight and Echolocation  

PubMed Central

The vestibular system maintains the body’s sense of balance and, therefore, was probably subject to strong selection during evolutionary transitions in locomotion. Among mammals, bats possess unique traits that place unusual demands on their vestibular systems. First, bats are capable of powered flight, which in birds is associated with enlarged semicircular canals. Second, many bats have enlarged cochleae associated with echolocation, and both cochleae and semicircular canals share a space within the petrosal bone. To determine how bat vestibular systems have evolved in the face of these pressures, we used micro-CT scans to compare canal morphology across species with contrasting flight and echolocation capabilities. We found no increase in canal radius in bats associated with the acquisition of powered flight, but canal radius did correlate with body mass in bat species from the suborder Yangochiroptera, and also in non-echolocating Old World fruit bats from the suborder Yinpterochiroptera. No such trend was seen in members of the Yinpterochiroptera that use laryngeal echolocation, although canal radius was associated with wing-tip roundedness in this group. We also found that the vestibular system scaled with cochlea size, although the relationship differed in species that use constant frequency echolocation. Across all bats, the shape of the anterior and lateral canals was associated with large cochlea size and small body size respectively, suggesting differential spatial constraints on each canal depending on its orientation within the skull. Thus in many echolocating bats, it seems that the combination of small body size and enlarged cochlea together act as a principal force on the vestibular system. The two main groups of echolocating bats displayed different canal morphologies, in terms of size and shape in relation to body mass and cochlear size, thus suggesting independent evolutionary pathways and offering tentative support for multiple acquisitions of echolocation. PMID:23637943

Davies, Kalina T. J.; Bates, Paul J. J.; Maryanto, Ibnu; Cotton, James A.; Rossiter, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

193

Freeze-branding to permanently mark bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the effectiveness of freeze-branding as a permanent marking technique on 4 species of bats: Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), Townsend's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendil), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), and western small-footed myotis (Myotis ciliolabrum). Small copper branding irons (9.3 g and 15.6 g) were cooled in a mixture of dry ice and ethyl alcohol and applied to

Richard E. Sherwin; Shauna Haymond; Rebeccah Olsen

194

Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

Russell, Dan

2010-01-01

195

Epidemiology of bat rabies in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Rabies in European bats was first reported in Germany in 1954. In concordance with Denmark and the Netherlands, Germany has\\u000a reported one of the highest numbers (n = 187) of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV)-positive cases in bats in Europe so far (1954–2005). A combined descriptive epidemiological\\u000a and phylogenetic analysis on bat rabies and prevailing EBLVs is presented, comprising the past

T. Müller; N. Johnson; C. M. Freuling; A. R. Fooks; T. Selhorst; A. Vos

2007-01-01

196

Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses  

PubMed Central

The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R.N.; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H.; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

2012-01-01

197

Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses.  

PubMed

The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Cottontail, Veronika M; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Oppong, Samuel; Adu Sarkodie, Yaw; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R N; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G; Leroy, Eric M; Drosten, Christian

2012-01-01

198

Winter bat activity in the Canadian prairies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic arousal from hibernation among mammalian hibernators is poorly understood. In bats, arousal is often associated with flight. We acoustically monitored two rocky areas along the Red Deer River in southeastern Alberta for bat activity in autumn, winter, and spring months. We found bats to be active in all months and at unexpectedly cold tem- peratures (coldest activity -8 8C).

C. L. Lausen; R. M. R. Barclay

2006-01-01

199

Variation in the reproductive rate of bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many respects, bats have relatively slow life histories. However, the reproductive rate of bats (i.e., the proportion of females that reproduce in any breeding season) has not been critically examined. We compiled data on the reproductive rates of bats to test predictions based on life-history theory. Among 257 samples from 103 species, re - productive rate varied considerably and

Robert M. R. Barclay; Joel Ulmer; Cameron J. A. MacKenzie; Megan S. Thompson; Leif Olson; Julianne McCool; Elvie Cropley; Graeme Poll

2004-01-01

200

Guide to the BATS Resource Trunk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides detailed information, resources, and activities to teach students about the bats of Arizona. Chapters include: (1) "What is a Bat?"; (2) "Megabat or Microbat?"; (3) "Bat Anatomy"; (4) Diet and Feeding"; (5) Echolocation"; (6) Reproduction and Lifespan"; (7) "Flight"; (8) "Migration and Hibernation"; (9) Habitat and Roost…

Arizona Game and Fish Dept., Phoenix.

201

Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil  

PubMed Central

To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats. PMID:22469192

Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araújo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

2012-01-01

202

The sweet spot of a baseball bat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sweet spot of a baseball bat, like that of a tennis racket, can be defined either in terms of a vibration node or a centre of percussion. In order to determine how each of the sweet spots influences the ``feel'' of the bat, measurements were made of the impact forces transmitted to the hands. Measurements of the bat velocity,

Rod Cross

1998-01-01

203

Physics of Baseball Bats - An Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the physics of baseball bats is presented in this study. The analysis compares the performance of aluminum and wooden baseball bats. Novel experimental approaches to indirectly quantify the performance of these bats have been implemented. The analysis also considers various aspects of baseball including the physical dimensions of the baseball fields, ball exit speed ratio, moment of

N. M. Ravindra; Sushil K. Sikh; Ivan Padron

2009-01-01

204

INTRODUCTION Several species of microchiropteran bats  

E-print Network

-generated noise by the Indian false vampire bat Megaderma lyra GANAPATHY MARIMUTHU1 , KOILMANI EMMANUVEL RAJAN1, 3 sandy floors and asbestos, were recorded and played back to individual Indian false vampire bats. The Indian false vampire bat Megaderma lyra feeds on large insects and small vertebrates such as frogs, mice

Auckland, University of

205

Seeing in the Dark with Artificial Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are providing a simulation model of the echolocation phenomenon and biological sonar of bats during night flight. Our simulations are based on stationary or mobile obstacle avoidance and prey recognition (moths) by the artificial bats. Echolocation is the navigation system adopted by bats, dolphins, killer whales, as well as the majority of autonomous mobile robots (AMR).

Kourosh Teimoorzadeh

1995-01-01

206

INTRODUCTION Insectivorous bats are primary predators  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Insectivorous bats are primary predators of night flying insects that have enormous). Nevertheless, bats are often feared and exterminated as a result of exaggerated public health warnings asso bats typically become paralyzed. Worldwide, there are between 35,000 to 50,000 human rabies deaths

Gannon, Michael R.

207

Effects of Three Sets of Instructional Strategies and Three Demographic Variables on the Food and Nutrition Test Performance of Some Jamaican Tenth-Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to find out if students taught food and nutrition concepts using the lecture method and practical work would perform significantly better than their counterparts taught with the lecture and teacher demonstrations and the lecture method only. The sample comprised 114 Jamaican 10th-graders (56 boys, 58 girls) selected from…

Kelly, Dennis; Soyibo, Kola

2005-01-01

208

Correlations among Six Learner Variables and the Performance of a Sample of Jamaican Eleventh-Graders on an Achievement Test on Respiration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at establishing if the level of performance of 500 Jamaican Grade 11 students on an achievement test on the concept of respiration was satisfactory (mean = 28 or 70% and above) or not (less than 70%); if there were statistically significant differences in their performance on the concept linked to their gender, cognitive abilities…

Soyibo, Kola; Pinnock, Jacqueline

2005-01-01

209

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in relation to socioeconomic status among Jamaican young adults: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome has a high prevalence in many countries and has been associated with socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components among Jamaican young adults and evaluate its association with parental SES. METHODS: A subset of the participants from the 1986 Jamaica Birth Cohort was evaluated at ages

Trevor S Ferguson; Marshall K Tulloch-Reid; Novie OM Younger; Jennifer M Knight-Madden; Maureen Samms-Vaughan; Deanna Ashley; Jan Van den Broeck; Rainford J Wilks

2010-01-01

210

Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.

Constantine, Denny G.; Blehert, David S.

2009-01-01

211

Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential. PMID:25256392

Mehle, Andrew

2014-01-01

212

Bat-borne rabies in latin america.  

PubMed

The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as "Least Concern". According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

E Escobar, Luis; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

2015-02-01

213

Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals  

PubMed Central

The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed “whispering” can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency, duration, intensity, and directionality of echolocation signals) in unison define the search volume probed by bats and in turn how bats perceive their surroundings. Small changes to individual parameters can, in combination, drastically change the bat's perception, facilitating successful navigation and food acquisition across a vast range of ecological niches. To better understand the function of echolocation in the natural habitat it is critical to determine multiple acoustic features of the echolocation calls. The combined (interactive) effects, not only of frequency and time parameters, but also of intensity and directionality, define the bat's view of its acoustic scene. PMID:23630501

Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

2013-01-01

214

BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA  

PubMed Central

The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

2015-01-01

215

Bat Rabies in Alberta 1979-1982  

PubMed Central

The infection rate among eight species of bats submitted for rabies diagnosis in Alberta during 1979-82 was 4.6%. Prevalence of rabies was greatest (24%) for hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus, while the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus was the species in which rabies was most commonly diagnosed, and the species submitted most frequently for rabies diagnosis was the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus. The rabies infection rate among male hoary bats was significantly greater than in either sex of all other submitted species. The frequency of rabies diagnosis in hoary bats submitted during 1979-82 was also significantly higher than in those submitted between 1971 and 1978. There has been a significant decrease in the rabies prevalence or infection rate of little brown bats since 1971-78. PMID:17422507

Rosatte, Richard C.

1985-01-01

216

Bat rabies in alberta 1979-1982.  

PubMed

The infection rate among eight species of bats submitted for rabies diagnosis in Alberta during 1979-82 was 4.6%. Prevalence of rabies was greatest (24%) for hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus, while the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus was the species in which rabies was most commonly diagnosed, and the species submitted most frequently for rabies diagnosis was the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus. The rabies infection rate among male hoary bats was significantly greater than in either sex of all other submitted species. The frequency of rabies diagnosis in hoary bats submitted during 1979-82 was also significantly higher than in those submitted between 1971 and 1978. There has been a significant decrease in the rabies prevalence or infection rate of little brown bats since 1971-78. PMID:17422507

Rosatte, R C

1985-02-01

217

Enhanced Passive Bat Rabies Surveillance in Indigenous Bat Species from Germany - A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117

Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

2014-01-01

218

OCCURRENCE OF THE HOARY BAT {LASIURUS CINEREUS) IN OHIO 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few specimens of the hoary bat have been reported from Ohio in the past, but there are now records of adult bats from Cuyahoga, Franklin, Hamilton, Loraine, Ottawa, Portage, Ross and Wood Counties. Pregnant females and\\/or very young bats have been taken in several counties, indicating that the hoary bat breeds in Ohio. The birth of a hoary bat in

JACK L. GOTTSCHANG

219

Immunohistochemical evidence of cone-based ultraviolet vision in divergent bat species and implications for its evolution.  

PubMed

We characterized Fos-like expression patterns in the primary visual cortex (V1) by binocular flicking stimulation with UV light to investigate cone-based UV vision in four bat species representing four lineages: Hipposideros armiger and Scotophilus kuhlii, insectivores using constant frequency (CF) or frequency modulation (FM) echolocation, respectively, and Rousettus leschenaultii and Cynopterus sphinx, cave-roosting and tree-roosting fruit bats, respectively. The optic centre processing the visual image, V1, appears more distinctly immunostaining in S. kuhlii and C. sphinx after 1h of UV light stimuli while in H. armiger and R. leschenaultii, staining was no more distinct than in corresponding controls. Our immunohistochemical evidence supports differences in the distribution of cone-based UV vision in the order Chiroptera and supports our earlier postulate that due to possible sensory tradeoffs and roosting ecology, defects in the short wavelength opsin genes have resulted in loss of UV vision in CF but not in FM bats. In addition, fruit bats roosting in caves have lost UV vision but not those roosting in trees. Our results thus confirm that bats are a further mammalian taxon that has retained cone-based UV sensitivity in some species. PMID:22269122

Xuan, Fujun; Hu, Kailiang; Zhu, Tengteng; Racey, Paul; Wang, Xuzhong; Zhang, Shuyi; Sun, Yi

2012-04-01

220

Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. In this talk, we describe the BAT instrument response as determined to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies. We will also discuss the public data analysis tools developed to calculate the BAT response to sources at different energies and locations in the FOV. The level of accuracy required for the BAT instrument response used for the hard x-ray survey is significantly higher because this response must be used in the iterative clean algorithm for finding fainter sources. Because the bright sources add a lot of coding noise to the BAT sky image, fainter sources can be seen only after the counts due to the bright sources are removed. The better we know the BAT response, the lower the noise in the cleaned spectrum and thus the more sensitive the survey. Since the BAT detector plane consists of 32768 individual, 4 mm square CZT gamma-ray detectors, the most accurate BAT response would include 32768 individual detector response functions to separate mask modulation effects from differences in detector efficiencies! We describe OUT continuing work to improve the accuracy of the BAT instrument response and will present the current results of Monte Carlo simulations as well as BAT ground calibration data.

Parsons, A.; Hullinger, D.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.

2004-01-01

221

What To Do About Bats in the Roof Bats are environmentally important native animals, but they do not belong in your roof!  

E-print Network

What To Do About Bats in the Roof Bats are environmentally important native animals, but they do and dead bats cause odour problems, it is important to seal bats out ­ not in! Trapped bats can find the National Trust. Do not plug holes unless bats are out. Humans have taken over many of bats' original

Pedersen, Scott C.

222

77 FR 3590 - Covered Securities of Bats Exchange, Inc.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...S7-31-11] RIN 3235-AL20 Covered Securities of Bats Exchange, Inc. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange...securities listed, or authorized for listing, on BATS Exchange, Inc. (``BATS'' or ``Exchange'') as covered securities...

2012-01-25

223

A pharmacological analysis of the responses of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle of the bat to transmural and periarterial nerve stimulation.  

PubMed Central

A comparative study of the responses of the gastrointestinal tract of the guinea-pig and of the fruit-eating bat Eidolon helvum to transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) was made. The stomach and rectum of the guinea-pig, the bat and the guinea-pig ileum contracted in response to TNS. These contractions were cholinergic in nature because atropine blocked and physostigmine potentiated them. Tetrodotoxin reversibly abolished these contractions suggesting that they were nerve-mediated. The bat isolated ileum usually responded to TNS with mixed motor and inhibitory components. In some cases, there were only motor or inhibitory components. The motor component was abolished by atropine and potentiated by physostigmine. However, the inhibitory component was non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic (NANC). Tetrodotoxin abolished the motor component without influencing the inhibitory components. Periarterial nerve stimulation of the bat ileum produced a relaxation that was blocked by bretylium, propranolol, phentolamine, reserpine and tetrodotoxin. It is concluded that the bat gastrointestinal smooth muscle, like the guinea-pig, has cholinergic excitatory innervation; however, the bat ileum has both a cholinergic excitatory innervation and a nonadrenergic and non-cholinergic inhibitory component. PMID:3986428

Cole, O. F.; Marquis, V. O.

1985-01-01

224

Prey detection in trawling insectivorous bats: duckweed affects hunting behaviour in Daubenton's bat, Myotis daubentonii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daubenton's bat, a trawling vespertilionid bat species, hunts for insects that fly close to, or rest on, the water surface.\\u000a During summer, many ponds at which Daubenton's bats hunt become gradually covered with duckweed. The purpose of this study\\u000a was to investigate the effects of duckweed cover on the hunting behaviour of Daubenton's bats and on the ultrasound-reflecting\\u000a properties of

Arjan M. Boonman; Martijn Boonman; Frank Bretschneider; Wim A. van de Grind

1998-01-01

225

First isolation of a rabid bat infected with European bat lyssavirus in luxembourg.  

PubMed

Rabid bats are regularly reported in Europe, especially in countries that have implemented a bat surveillance network. In May 2013, bat rabies was evidenced for the first time in Luxembourg (southern city of Differdange). The rabies virus, an EBLV-1b strain, was diagnosed in a serotine bat that bit a 29-year-old male person while he was asleep. The man received rapidly a post-exposure RABV treatment and was put under strict medical supervision. PMID:24373212

Servat, A; Herr, J; Picard-Meyer, E; Schley, L; Harbusch, C; Michaux, C; Pir, J; Robardet, E; Engel, E; Cliquet, F

2015-02-01

226

Identification of a novel bat papillomavirus by metagenomics.  

PubMed

The discovery of novel viruses in animals expands our knowledge of viral diversity and potentially emerging zoonoses. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology gives millions or even billions of sequence reads per run, allowing a comprehensive survey of the genetic content within a sample without prior nucleic acid amplification. In this study, we screened 156 rectal swab samples from apparently healthy bats (n = 96), pigs (n = 9), cattles (n = 9), stray dogs (n = 11), stray cats (n = 11) and monkeys (n = 20) using a HTS metagenomics approach. The complete genome of a novel papillomavirus (PV), Miniopterus schreibersii papillomavirus type 1 (MscPV1), with L1 of 60% nucleotide identity to Canine papillomavirus (CPV6), was identified in a specimen from a Common Bent-wing Bat (M. schreibersii). It is about 7.5kb in length, with a G+C content of 45.8% and a genomic organization similar to that of other PVs. Despite the higher nucleotide identity between the genomes of MscPV1 and CPV6, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the L1 gene sequence showed that MscPV1 and Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus (EdPV1) are most closely related. Estimated divergence time of MscPV1 from the EdPV1/MscPV1 common ancestor was approximately 60.2-91.9 millions of years ago, inferred under strict clocks using the L1 and E1 genes. The estimates were limited by the lack of reliable calibration points from co-divergence because of possible host shifts. As the nucleotide sequence of this virus only showed limited similarity with that of related animal PVs, the conventional approach of PCR using consensus primers would be unlikely to have detected the novel virus in the sample. Unlike the first bat papillomavirus RaPV1, MscPV1 was found in an asymptomatic bat with no apparent mucosal or skin lesions whereas RaPV1 was detected in the basosquamous carcinoma of a fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus. We propose MscPV1 as the first member of the novel Dyolambda-papillomavirus genus. PMID:22937142

Tse, Herman; Tsang, Alan K L; Tsoi, Hoi-Wah; Leung, Andy S P; Ho, Chi-Chun; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2012-01-01

227

Identification of a Novel Bat Papillomavirus by Metagenomics  

PubMed Central

The discovery of novel viruses in animals expands our knowledge of viral diversity and potentially emerging zoonoses. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology gives millions or even billions of sequence reads per run, allowing a comprehensive survey of the genetic content within a sample without prior nucleic acid amplification. In this study, we screened 156 rectal swab samples from apparently healthy bats (n?=?96), pigs (n?=?9), cattles (n?=?9), stray dogs (n?=?11), stray cats (n?=?11) and monkeys (n?=?20) using a HTS metagenomics approach. The complete genome of a novel papillomavirus (PV), Miniopterus schreibersii papillomavirus type 1 (MscPV1), with L1 of 60% nucleotide identity to Canine papillomavirus (CPV6), was identified in a specimen from a Common Bent-wing Bat (M. schreibersii). It is about 7.5kb in length, with a G+C content of 45.8% and a genomic organization similar to that of other PVs. Despite the higher nucleotide identity between the genomes of MscPV1 and CPV6, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the L1 gene sequence showed that MscPV1 and Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus (EdPV1) are most closely related. Estimated divergence time of MscPV1 from the EdPV1/MscPV1 common ancestor was approximately 60.2–91.9 millions of years ago, inferred under strict clocks using the L1 and E1 genes. The estimates were limited by the lack of reliable calibration points from co-divergence because of possible host shifts. As the nucleotide sequence of this virus only showed limited similarity with that of related animal PVs, the conventional approach of PCR using consensus primers would be unlikely to have detected the novel virus in the sample. Unlike the first bat papillomavirus RaPV1, MscPV1 was found in an asymptomatic bat with no apparent mucosal or skin lesions whereas RaPV1 was detected in the basosquamous carcinoma of a fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus. We propose MscPV1 as the first member of the novel Dyolambda-papillomavirus genus. PMID:22937142

Leung, Andy S. P.; Ho, Chi-Chun; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2012-01-01

228

What Do Mexican Fruit Flies Learn When They Experience Fruit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexican fruit flies learn fruit characteristics that enable them to distinguish familiar fruits from novel fruits. We investigated whether mature Mexican fruit flies learn fruit color, size or odor. We found no evidence that female flies learn fruit color or size after experience with host fruit, including oviposition. However, green fruit and fruit models were more attractive than yellow and

David C. Robacker; Ivich Fraser

2005-01-01

229

76 FR 5418 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63766; File No. SR-BATS-2011-002] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rules in Connection With the Implementation of Amendments...

2011-01-31

230

76 FR 67238 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by BATS...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65619, File No. SR-BATS-2011-032] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Adopt Rules Applicable to Auctions...

2011-10-31

231

Behavior of bats at wind turbines  

PubMed Central

Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines. PMID:25267628

Cryan, Paul. M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T. S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C.

2014-01-01

232

Echolocation by free-tailed bats ( Tadarida )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The echolocation of bats in the genusTadarida is highly adaptive to different acoustic conditions. These bats use different types of sonar signals with a diversity usually observed in comparisons across families of bats.Tadarida brasiliensis andT. macrotis search for airborne prey in open, uncluttered spaces using narrow-band, short CF signals with no FM components. They add broadband FM components while dropping

James A. Simmons; W. A. Lavender; B. A. Lavender; J. E. Childs; K. Hulebak; M. R. Rigden; J. Sherman; B. Woolman; Michael J. O'Farrell

1978-01-01

233

Flying bats take cue from bugs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bats use the same aerodynamic trick as flying insects do to stay aloft, scientists have discovered. When the bat wing flaps downward, the motion produces a tiny cyclone of air above the wing, called a "leading edge vortex," that pulls the animal upward. Researchers have known that insects create these vortices while flying, but theyve wondered whether same thing works for larger, heavier animals like bats.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-02-28

234

Conservation of Bats in Florida1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats are declining throughout North America, including Florida. This is worrisome because bats are an essential part of natural ecosystems throughout the world, serving as valuable allies to humans by consuming enormous quantities of night-flying insects, many of which are pests to humans and to crops. (See http:\\/\\/edis.ifas.ufl.edu\\/ for more information on the role of bats in integrated pest management).

Holly K. Ober; Frank J. Mazzotti

235

Behavior of bats at wind turbines  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

Cryan, Paul; Gorresen, Marcos; Hine, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T.S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C.

2014-01-01

236

Evaluating baseball bat performance L. V. Smith  

E-print Network

Evaluating baseball bat performance L. V. Smith School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering address: L. V. Smith, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman

Smith, Lloyd V.

237

Bat habitat research. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes activities over the current reporting period to characterize the habitats of bats on the INEL. Research tasks are entitled Monitoring bat habitation of caves on the INEL to determine species present, numbers, and seasons of use; Monitor bat use of man-made ponds at the INEL to determine species present and rates of use of these waters; If the Big Lost River is flowing on the INEL and/or if the Big Lost River sinks contain water, determine species present, numbers and seasons of use; Determine the habitat requirement of Townsend`s big-eared bats, including the microclimate of caves containing Townsend`s big-eared bats as compared to other caves that do not contain bats; Determine and describe an economical and efficient bat census technique to be used periodically by INEL scientists to determine the status of bats on the INEL; and Provide a suggestive management and protective plan for bat species on the INEL that might, in the future, be added to the endangered and sensitive list;

Keller, B.L.; Bosworth, W.R.; Doering, R.W.

1993-12-31

238

Economic importance of bats in agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

239

Science Explorations: Soar with Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations are a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. The Soar with Bats: Night Fliers of the Sky exploration includes a documentary-style introduction, two Level 1 online activities for students in grades 3-6, two Level 2 online activities for students in grades 6-10, and links to additional articles and activities.

240

A brief history of fruits and frugivores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we briefly review the evolutionary history of the mutualistic interaction between angiosperms that produce fleshy fruits and their major consumers: frugivorous birds and mammals. Fleshy fruits eaten by these vertebrates are widely distributed throughout angiosperm phylogeny. Similarly, a frugivorous diet has evolved independently many times in birds and mammals. Bird dispersal is more common than mammal-dispersal in all lineages of angiosperms, and we suggest that the evolution of bird fruits may have facilitated the evolution of frugivory in primates. The diets of fruit-eating bats overlap less with those of other kinds of frugivorous vertebrates. With a few exceptions, most families producing vertebrate-dispersed fruit appeared substantially earlier in earth history than families of their vertebrate consumers. It is likely that major radiations of these plants and animals have occurred in the past 30 Ma, in part driven by geological changes and also by the foraging behavior of frugivores in topographically complex landscapes. Overall, this mutualistic interaction has had many evolutionary and ecological consequences for tropical plants and animals for most of the Cenozoic Era. Loss of frugivores and their dispersal services will have a strong negative impact on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of tropical and subtropical communities.

Fleming, Theodore H.; John Kress, W.

2011-11-01

241

How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?  

PubMed

The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (?15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms. PMID:21697434

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

2011-07-15

242

A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?  

PubMed

Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs. PMID:23378666

Luis, Angela D; Hayman, David T S; O'Shea, Thomas J; Cryan, Paul M; Gilbert, Amy T; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Mills, James N; Timonin, Mary E; Willis, Craig K R; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fooks, Anthony R; Rupprecht, Charles E; Wood, James L N; Webb, Colleen T

2013-04-01

243

A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.

2013-01-01

244

A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?  

PubMed Central

Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs. PMID:23378666

Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T. S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L. N.; Webb, Colleen T.

2013-01-01

245

Understanding human – bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus  

PubMed Central

Background Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand these human – bat interactions in order to identify additional risk communication messages that could lower the risk of potential ABLV exposure. All people aged 18 years or over whom received PET for non-occupation related potential ABLV exposure in the Hunter New England Local Health District of Australia between July 2011 and July 2013 were considered eligible for the study. Eligible participants were invited to a telephone interview to explore the circumstances of their bat contact. Interviews were then transcribed and thematically analysed by two independent investigators. Results Of 21 eligible participants that were able to be contacted, 16 consented and participated in a telephone interview. Participants reported bats as being widespread in their environment but reported a general lack of awareness about ABLV, particularly the risk of disease from bat scratches. Participants who attempted to ‘rescue’ bats did so because of a deep concern for the bat’s welfare. Participants reported a change in risk perception after the exposure event and provided suggestions for public health messages that could be used to raise awareness about ABLV. Conclusions Reframing the current risk messages to account for the genuine concern of people for bat welfare may enhance the communication. The potential risk to the person and possible harm to the bat from an attempted ‘rescue’ should be promoted, along with contact details for animal rescue groups. The potential risk of ABLV from bat scratches merits greater emphasis. PMID:24984790

2014-01-01

246

Community Ecology of Bats in Southern Lower Michigan, with Emphasis on Roost Selection by Myotis  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied the roosting niche of three sympatric species of Myotis (little brown bat, M. lucifugus; northern bat, M. septentrionalis; and Indiana bat, M. sodalis) and examined changes in composition of the entire bat community in southern Lower Michigan over long periods. Little brown bats roosted in buildings, whereas northern and Indiana bats used trees. Northern and Indiana bats differed

Lisa Winhold

2007-01-01

247

Dengue virus in bats from southeastern Mexico.  

PubMed

To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR-positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J Leopoldo; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

2014-07-01

248

Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control  

PubMed Central

Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

2014-01-01

249

Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover.  

PubMed

Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility. PMID:25392474

Plowright, Raina K; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J; Smith, Ina L; Westcott, David; Bryden, Wayne L; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A; McFarlane, Rosemary A; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M; Skerratt, Lee F; Anderson, Dale L; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David; Jordan, David; Freeman, Paul; Wang, Lin-Fa; Epstein, Jonathan H; Marsh, Glenn A; Kung, Nina Y; McCallum, Hamish

2015-01-01

250

The status of bats on Curaçao  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bat population of the island of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, was surveyed in 1992 and 1993. The 1993 survey concentrated mostly on caves, which were found to host most of the bats. Glossophaga longirostris elongata was the most abundant species with fewer than 2000 individuals encountered. However, this species may also be found in small groups in buildings and caves

Sophie Petit

1996-01-01

251

The Story of Echo the Bat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Younger students can follow Echo the Bat as he travels through Arizona on an adventure to his winter hibernaculum. They will also learn how bats use echolocation to catch insects, then about remote sensing by satellites and the use of satellite imagery.

Butcher, Ginger

252

Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover  

PubMed Central

Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility. PMID:25392474

Plowright, Raina K.; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J.; Smith, Ina L.; Westcott, David; Bryden, Wayne L.; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A.; McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Anderson, Dale L.; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David; Jordan, David; Freeman, Paul; Wang, Lin-Fa; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Kung, Nina Y.; McCallum, Hamish

2015-01-01

253

Vampire bat rabies: ecology, epidemiology and control.  

PubMed

Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

2014-05-01

254

Halloween Treat: Bat Facts and Folklore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on bats is provided, focusing on their diversity and distribution, characteristics, food habits, activities, roosting and social habits, reproduction, number of young and size at birth, hibernation, mortality and longevity, and movements and navigation. Additional information related to public health/disease concerns and bat management…

Kunz, Thomas H.

1984-01-01

255

High altitude echolocation of insects by bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orientation sounds of many bats, almost certainly belonging to the genus Tadarida, were recorded at altitudes of 100 to 300 m above the ground by means of an ultrasonic radio microphone. Both in North Queensland, Australia, and in southern Utah and Nevada, USA, bats were often more numerous at 200 to 300 m than near the ground. Rapid increases

Donald R. Griffin; David Thompson

1982-01-01

256

Peregrine Falcon feeding on bats in Suriname  

Microsoft Academic Search

source in the New World, especially m the Neotropics (Morris, 1965 andpers. obs ), and a number of raptors have been reported to feed on them. Published re- ports on bat predation in the Neotropics include Aplomado Falcon, Falcofemor- ahs (fiYench, 1967), Bat Falcon, F. ruff- gularis (Brown & Amadon, 1968, Cade, 1982), Orange-breasted Falcon, F. deiro- leucus (Cade, 1982),

Jan Erik Pierson; Paul Donahue

257

Social organization and foraging in emballonurid bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Five species of emballonurid bats (Rhynchonycteris naso, Saccopteryx leptura, Balantiopteryx plicata, Saccopteryx bilineata, and Peropteryx kappleri), were studied in Costa Rica and Trinidad. Stomach contents suggest that prey size generally increases for bat body size, but within these species there is considerable overlap. R. naso, S. leptura, and P. kappleri each appear to be specialized for foraging in a particular

J. W. Bradbury; S. L. Vehrencamp

1976-01-01

258

Selection for mechanical advantage underlies multiple cranial optima in new world leaf-nosed bats.  

PubMed

Selection for divergent performance optima has been proposed as a central mechanism underlying adaptive radiation. Uncovering multiple optima requires identifying forms associated with different adaptive zones and linking those forms to performance. However, testing and modeling the performance of complex morphologies like the cranium is challenging. We introduce a three-dimensional finite-element (FE) model of the cranium that can be morphed into different shapes by varying simple parameters to investigate the relationship between two engineering-based measures of performance, mechanical advantage and von Mises stress, and four divergent adaptive zones occupied by New World Leaf-nosed bats. To investigate these relationships, we tested the fit of Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models of evolution in mechanical advantage and von Mises stress using dated multilocus phylogenies. The analyses revealed three performance optima for mechanical advantage among species from three adaptive zones: bats that eat nectar; generalized insectivores, omnivores and some frugivores; and bats that specialize on hard canopy fruits. Only two optima, one corresponding to nectar feeding, were consistently uncovered for von Mises stress. These results suggest that mechanical advantage played a larger role than von Mises stress in the radiation of New World Leaf-nosed bats into divergent adaptive zones. PMID:24433457

Dumont, Elizabeth R; Samadevam, Krishna; Grosse, Ian; Warsi, Omar M; Baird, Brandon; Davalos, Liliana M

2014-05-01

259

Genomic and genetic evidence for the loss of umami taste in bats.  

PubMed

Umami taste is responsible for sensing monosodium glutamate, nucleotide enhancers, and other amino acids that are appetitive to vertebrates and is one of the five basic tastes that also include sour, salty, sweet, and bitter. To study how ecological factors, especially diets, impact the evolution of the umami taste, we examined the umami taste receptor gene Tas1r1 in a phylogenetically diverse group of bats including fruit eaters, insect eaters, and blood feeders. We found that Tas1r1 is absent, unamplifiable, or pseudogenized in each of the 31 species examined, including the genome sequences of two species, suggesting the loss of the umami taste in most, if not all, bats regardless of their food preferences. Most strikingly, vampire bats have also lost the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 and the gene required for both umami and sweet tastes (Tas1r3), being the first known mammalian group to lack two of the five tastes. The puzzling absence of the umami taste in bats calls for a better understanding of the roles that this taste plays in the daily life of vertebrates. PMID:22117084

Zhao, Huabin; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

2012-01-01

260

Causes and Consequences of Sociality in Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bats are among the most diverse and most gregarious of all mammals. This makes them highly interesting for research on the causes and consequences of sociality in animals. Detailed studies on bat sociality are rare, however, when compared with the information available for other social mammals, such as primates, carnivores, ungulates, and rodents. Modern field technologies and new molecular methods are now providing opportunities to study aspects of bat biology that were previously inaccessible. Consequently, bat social systems are emerging as far more complex than had been imagined. Variable dispersal patterns, complex olfactory and acoustic communication, flexible context-related interactions, striking cooperative behaviors, and cryptic colony structures in the form of fission-fusion systems have been documented. Bat research can contribute to the understanding of animal sociality, and specifically to important topics in behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology, such as dispersal, fission-fusion behavior, group decisionmaking, and cooperation.

Gerald Kerth (University of Lausanne - Switzerland;)

2008-09-01

261

The sweet spot of a baseball bat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sweet spot of a baseball bat, like that of a tennis racket, can be defined either in terms of a vibration node or a centre of percussion. In order to determine how each of the sweet spots influences the "feel" of the bat, measurements were made of the impact forces transmitted to the hands. Measurements of the bat velocity, and results for a freely suspended bat, were also obtained in order to assist in the interpretation of the force waveforms. The results show that both sweet spots contribute to the formation of a sweet spot zone where the impact forces on the hands are minimised. The free bat results are also of interest since they provided particularly elegant examples of wave excitation and propagation, suitable for a student demonstration or experiment.

Cross, Rod

1998-09-01

262

Reproductive patterns and feeding habits of three nectarivorous bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) from the Brazilian Cerrado.  

PubMed

The reproductive patterns and feeding habits of three sympatric nectarivorous bats, Glossophaga soricina, Anoura caudifera, and A. geoffroyi were studied in the Pousada das Araras Natural Reserve, located in Central Brazil. The bats were captured with mist nets from August 2000 to July 2001. Reproductive condition was determined by external analyses of the specimens and feeding habits from fecal samples. Glossophaga soricina was the most abundant species (65%), followed by A. geoffroyi (30%) and A. caudifera (5%). Significant differences were observed in the sex-ratio of the two more abundant species. Anoura geoffroyi showed a monoestrous pattern; its reproductive peaks occurred between the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rain season. A seasonal bimodal pattern was recorded for G. soricina, with pregnant specimens showing one peak observed in the dry season and another in the middle of the rainy season. The reproductive pattern of A. caudifera could not be satisfactorily defined because of the small sample size. However, this species apparently has a reproductive cycle similar to that of G. soricina. The patterns observed in this study seem to be related with the climate in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), with two well-defined seasons (dry and wet). By adjusting the parturition close to or in the rain season the three species could be favoring a greates survival rate for the offspring, since the critical lactation period would then occur in a time of maximum food availability. The three bat species showed a generalist diet, consuming fruits, pollennectar, and arthropods. Significant differences were observed in the diet of G. soricina: fruits and arthropods predominated in the dry season and pulp (fruits) in the rainy season. Males and females of this species ate the same items in similar proportions. Although A. geoffroyi has not showed a preference for a specific item, consumption of fruits and arthropods was generally greater than that of pollen. PMID:12914427

Zortéa, M

2003-02-01

263

Novel astroviruses in insectivorous bats1 , LLM Poon1  

E-print Network

Novel astroviruses in insectivorous bats1 2 DKW Chu1 , LLM Poon1 , Y Guan1 , JSM Peiris1,2 3 4 1, coronaviruses, wild-life, evolution.16 Running title: Novel astroviruses in insectivorous bats17 18 Address of astroviruses in30 apparently healthy insectivorous bats found in Hong Kong, in particular bats31 belonging

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Acoustic identication of insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera) of Yucatan, Mexico  

E-print Network

Acoustic identi®cation of insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera) of Yucatan, Mexico J. Rydell1 *, H The echolocation calls of insectivorous bats of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, with the exception for acoustic inventories of insectivorous bats using the Pettersson heterodyne and time- expansion bat

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

265

DESCRIBING THE PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF ALUMINUM SOFTBALL BATS  

E-print Network

DESCRIBING THE PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF ALUMINUM SOFTBALL BATS E. BIESEN1 AND L. V. SMITH2 Washington-mail: lvsmith@wsu.edu Hollow aluminum bats were introduced over 30 years ago to provide improved durability over wood bats. Since their introduction, however, the interest in hollow bats has focused almost

Smith, Lloyd V.

266

Neurobiology of echolocation in bats Cynthia F Moss  

E-print Network

Neurobiology of echolocation in bats Cynthia F MossÃ? and Shiva R Sinhay Echolocating bats (sub 25% of living mammals. Many echolocating bats are nocturnal predators that have evolved a biological, in turn, constrain the acoustic information arriving at the bat's ears and the time-scales over which

Moss, Cynthia

267

Hoop frequency as a predictor of performance for softball bats  

E-print Network

Hoop frequency as a predictor of performance for softball bats D. A. Russell Science and softball bats exhibit both bending modes and hoop modes. The hoop modes are unique to hollow bats and involve only a radial vibration of the barrel of the bat. The fundamental hoop mode is responsible

Russell, Daniel A.

268

Hoop frequency as a predictor of performance for softball bats  

E-print Network

Hoop frequency as a predictor of performance for softball bats D. A. Russell Science and softball bats exhibit two types of vibrational modes, bending modes and hoop modes. The hoop modes are unique to hollow bats and involve only a radial vibration of the barrel of the bat. The lowest frequency

Russell, Daniel A.

269

The Fruit Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by fruit enthusiast Jeroen Goedhart, The Fruit Pages proclaim: "Everything you want to know about fruit." That claim may be a bit of a stretch, yet in over 150 pages, the Fruit Pages certainly serve up a sizeable amount of fruit information. From fruit nutrition facts to comparisons of acidic and sweet fruit to fruit selection, this website covers a fair amount of ground. Examples of website sections include: The Energy in Fruit, Fruit Sites For Kids, Fruit From All Over The World, and Fruit & Detoxification, just to name a few. A wide variety of individual fruits are profiled as well, with information about common, scientific, and family names, storage, recipes, and more.

Goedhart, Jeroen

270

Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.  

PubMed

The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

2014-08-01

271

Judy Loven, Animal Damage Managament Specialist Bats are among Indiana's most interesting and unique  

E-print Network

occupiedbuildingsduringthewarm-weathermonths.The twospeciesmostfrequentlyencounteredbyhomeowners are the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) and the little brown myotis bat (Myotis spp.). The big brown bat is relatively large, measuring

Ginzel, Matthew

272

Lesson 21: Fruits [Matunda  

E-print Network

/ matunda [fruit / fruits] penda [like] kula kununua hapendi hupendi [eat] [to buy] [he/she does not like fruits.] 2. Unapenda kununua matunda gani? [What fruits do you like to buy?] a). Ninapenda kununua ndizi. [I like to buy bananas.] b). Sipendi kununua matunda. [I do not like to buy fruits.] c). Sipendi

273

Prevalence and Diversity of Bartonella spp. in Bats in Peru  

PubMed Central

Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.–bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. PMID:22826480

Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y.

2012-01-01

274

Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats in Peru.  

PubMed

Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.-bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. PMID:22826480

Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y

2012-09-01

275

Terrestrial locomotion of the New Zealand short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata and the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We sought to determine whether these bats move

Daniel K. Riskin; Stuart Parsons; William A. Schutt; Gerald G. Carter; John W. Hermanson

2006-01-01

276

Bats on Campus Bats, by consuming copious quantities of flying insects, are a very positive influence on  

E-print Network

. During the spring and fall migration, it is more common for citizens to see bats on the ground, hanging in shrubs around our homes and sometimes inside our homes. Simply seeing a bat does not mean it is rabid's Customer Service Line FIXIT (3-4948). Do not touch the bat. If you see a bat hanging in a shrub or other

Azevedo, Ricardo

277

Physics and Acoustics of Baseball and Softball Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, created by Dr. Russell at Kettering University addresses the general physics concepts concerning baseball and softball bats and bat vibrations. Students and educators can learn a lot about ball-bat collisions with the many images, figures, and animations. Topics include the differences between wood and aluminum bats, corked bats, and the tightness of a player's grip. At the bottom of the page, visitors can see various student science projects inspired by this page.

Russell, Daniel A.

1969-12-31

278

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interventions to Impede Date Palm Sap Contamination by Bats to Prevent Nipah Virus Transmission in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV) infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm’s sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. Methods During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant), jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. Results During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [p<0.001]. Bats were able to contact the sap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, p<0.001] less frequently in trees protected with skirts compared to control trees. No bats contacted sap in trees with bamboo (p<0.001 compared to control), dhoincha skirt (p<0.001) or polythene covering (p<0.001), but bats did contact sap during one night (7%) with the jute stick skirt (p<0.001). Conclusion Bamboo, dhoincha, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the sap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human. PMID:22905160

Khan, Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Nahar, Nazmun; Sharker, M. A. Yushuf; Luby, Stephen P.

2012-01-01

279

Bats: Important Reservoir Hosts of Emerging Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats (order Chiroptera, suborders Megachiroptera [“flying foxes”] and Microchiroptera) are abundant, diverse, and geographically widespread. These mammals provide us with resources, but their importance is minimized and many of their populations and species are at risk, even threatened or endangered. Some of their characteristics (food choices, colonial or solitary nature, population structure, ability to fly, seasonal migration and daily movement patterns, torpor and hibernation, life span, roosting behaviors, ability to echolocate, virus susceptibility) make them exquisitely suitable hosts of viruses and other disease agents. Bats of certain species are well recognized as being capable of transmitting rabies virus, but recent observations of outbreaks and epidemics of newly recognized human and livestock diseases caused by viruses transmitted by various megachiropteran and microchiropteran bats have drawn attention anew to these remarkable mammals. This paper summarizes information regarding chiropteran characteristics and information regarding 66 viruses that have been isolated from bats. From these summaries, it is clear that we do not know enough about bat biology; we are doing too little in terms of bat conservation; and there remain a multitude of questions regarding the role of bats in disease emergence. PMID:16847084

Calisher, Charles H.; Childs, James E.; Field, Hume E.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Schountz, Tony

2006-01-01

280

Bats of the Savannah River Site and vicinity.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), hoary bat (L. cinereus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). There are extralimital capture records for two additional species: little brown bat (M. lucifigus) and northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius). Acoustical sampling has documented the presence of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), but none has been captured. Among those species common to the Site, the southeastern myotis and Rafinesque's big-eared bat are listed in South Carolina as threatened and endangered, respectively. The presence of those two species, and a growing concern for the conservation of forest-dwelling bats, led to extensive and focused research on the Savannah River Site between 1996 and 2002. Summarizing this and other bat research, we provide species accounts that discuss morphology and distribution, roosting and foraging behaviors, home range characteristics, habitat relations, and reproductive biology. We also present information on conservation needs and rabies issues; and, finally, identification keys that may be useful wherever the bat species we describe are found.

M.A. Menzel; J.M. Menzel; J.C. Kilgo; W.M. Ford; T.C. Carter; J.W. Edwards

2003-10-01

281

Unique characteristics of bat rabies viruses in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).  

PubMed

Rabies virus infection has been documented in several North American bat species, including Eptesicus fuscus. The virus-host relationship between bats and rabies virus (RV) is not well understood. The incidence of non-lethal RV exposure, based on the presence of viral neutralizing antibodies, demonstrates that exposure to RV does not always lead to clinical infection in bats. It is unknown how the route of exposure, rabies virus variant, or health of the bat affects the outcome following exposure. This paper describes the pathogenesis of two big brown bat RV variants in homologous host species. Our study demonstrates that RV variants obtained from the same species of bat from similar geographical areas may result in a diverse clinical progression of disease. PMID:23208279

Davis, April D; Gordy, Paul A; Bowen, Richard A

2013-04-01

282

Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. IV: the Common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus.  

PubMed

We behaviorally determined the audiograms of three Common vampire bats (Phyllostomidae, Desmodus rotundus), a species specialized to exist exclusively on blood. The bats were trained to respond to pure tones in a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure for a blood reward and a mild punisher for failures to detect the tones. Common vampire bats have a hearing range from 716 Hz to 113 kHz at a level of 60 dB. Their best hearing is at 20 kHz where they are slightly more sensitive than other bats, and they have a second peak of good sensitivity at 71 kHz. They have unusually good sensitivity to low frequencies compared to other bats, but are less sensitive to low frequencies than most mammals. Selective pressures affecting high-frequency hearing in bats and mammals in general are discussed. PMID:23194991

Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

2013-02-01

283

Bats and Gaps: The Role of Early Successional Patches in the Roosting and Foraging Ecology of Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Early successional habitats are important foraging and commuting sites for the 14 species of bats that inhabit the Central\\u000a Hardwood Region, especially larger open-adapted species such as hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), red bats (L. borealis), silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans), and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Forest gaps, small openings, and the edges between early successional patches and mature forest are

Susan C. Loeb; Joy M. O’Keefe

284

Rabies virus infection in Eptesicus fuscus bats born in captivity (naïve bats).  

PubMed

The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV) studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA) may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats), naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1). Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2. PMID:23741396

Davis, April D; Jarvis, Jodie A; Pouliott, Craig; Rudd, Robert J

2013-01-01

285

Rabies Virus Infection in Eptesicus fuscus Bats Born in Captivity (Naïve Bats)  

PubMed Central

The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV) studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA) may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats), naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1). Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2. PMID:23741396

Davis, April D.; Jarvis, Jodie A.; Pouliott, Craig; Rudd, Robert J.

2013-01-01

286

Ecological Factors Associated with European Bat Lyssavirus Seroprevalence in Spanish Bats  

PubMed Central

Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii). Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1)–neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2). EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7%) ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July). EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1–prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials. PMID:23700480

Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc; Seguí, Magdalena; Sánchez, Luisa Pilar; Nadal, Jacint; Borrás, Miquel; Lavenir, Rachel; Bourhy, Hervé

2013-01-01

287

Group B betacoronavirus in rhinolophid bats, Japan.  

PubMed

We report group B Betacoronavirus infection in little Japanese horseshoe bats in Iwate prefecture. We then used reverse-transcription PCR to look for the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in fecal samples collected from 27 little Japanese horseshoe bats and found eight were provisionally positive. We had a success in the nucleotide sequencing of six of the eight positive samples and compared them with those of authentic coronaviruses. We found that these six samples were positive in coronavirus infection, and they belonged to the group B Betacornavirus by phylogenetic analysis. Virus isolation using the Vero cell culture was unsuccessful. Pathogenic trait of these bat coronaviruses remained unexplored. PMID:24871548

Suzuki, Jin; Sato, Ryota; Kobayashi, Tomoya; Aoi, Toshiki; Harasawa, Ryô

2014-09-01

288

Group B Betacoronavirus in Rhinolophid Bats, Japan  

PubMed Central

We report group B Betacoronavirus infection in little Japanese horseshoe bats in Iwate prefecture. We then used reverse-transcription PCR to look for the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in fecal samples collected from 27 little Japanese horseshoe bats and found eight were provisionally positive. We had a success in the nucleotide sequencing of six of the eight positive samples and compared them with those of authentic coronaviruses. We found that these six samples were positive in coronavirus infection, and they belonged to the group B Betacornavirus by phylogenetic analysis. Virus isolation using the Vero cell culture was unsuccessful. Pathogenic trait of these bat coronaviruses remained unexplored. PMID:24871548

SUZUKI, Jin; SATO, Ryota; KOBAYASHI, Tomoya; AOI, Toshiki; HARASAWA, Ryô

2014-01-01

289

Lyssaviruses and Bats: Emergence and Zoonotic Threat  

PubMed Central

The continued detection of zoonotic viral infections in bats has led to the microbial fauna of these mammals being studied at a greater level than ever before. Whilst numerous pathogens have been discovered in bat species, infection with lyssaviruses is of particular significance from a zoonotic perspective as, where human infection has been reported, it is invariably fatal. Here we review the detection of lyssaviruses within different bat species and overview what is understood regarding their maintenance and transmission following both experimental and natural infection. We discuss the relevance of these pathogens as zoonotic agents and the threat of newly discovered viruses to human populations. PMID:25093425

Banyard, Ashley C.; Evans, Jennifer S.; Luo, Ting Rong; Fooks, Anthony R.

2014-01-01

290

Role of Metabolic Genes in Blood Arsenic Concentrations of Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is a toxic metalloid with known adverse effects on human health. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes, including GSTT1, GSTP1, and GSTM1, play a major role in detoxification and metabolism of xenobiotics. We investigated the association between GST genotypes and whole blood arsenic concentrations (BASC) in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used data from 100 ASD cases and their 1:1 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) controls (age 2–8 years) from Jamaica. Using log-transformed BASC as the dependent variable in a General Linear Model, we observed a significant interaction between GSTP1 and ASD case status while controlling for several confounding variables. However, for GSTT1 and GSTM1 we did not observe any significant associations with BASC. Our findings indicate that TD children who had the Ile/Ile or Ile/Val genotype for GSTP1 had a significantly higher geometric mean BASC than those with genotype Val/Val (3.67 µg/L vs. 2.69 µg/L, p < 0.01). Although, among the ASD cases, this difference was not statistically significant, the direction of the observed difference was consistent with that of the TD control children. These findings suggest a possible role of GSTP1 in the detoxification of arsenic. PMID:25101770

Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Ma, Jianzhong; Bressler, Jan; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Grove, Megan L.; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Beecher, Compton; McLaughlin, Wayne; Boerwinkle, Eric

2014-01-01

291

Aquaporin-4 immuneglobulin g testing in 36 consecutive jamaican patients with inflammatory central nervous system demyelinating disease.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in Jamaica are lacking. Here we reviewed the clinical records of 700 patients undergoing neurological evaluation at the Kingston Public Hospital, the largest tertiary institution in Jamaica over a 4 month period. We investigated the diagnostic utility of Aquaporin-4 ImmuneglobulinG (AQP4-IgG) testing in 36 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of an inflammatory demyelinating disorder (IDD) of the central nervous system (CNS). Patients were classified into 3 categories: i) NMO, n=10; ii) multiple sclerosis (MS), n=14 and iii) unclassified IDD (n=12). All sera were tested for AQP-IgG status by cell binding assay (Euroimmun). No MS cases were positive. Ninety per cent of NMO cases were positive. Four of 12 patients with unclassified IDD tested positive for AQP4-IgG. AQP4-IgG seropositivity was associated with a lower socioeconomic status, higher EDSS (P=0.04) and lower pulmonary function than the seronegative cases (P=0.007). Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity may account for a significant proportion of Jamaican CNS IDDs. PMID:25309712

Sandy, Sherri; Pittock, Sean J; Seemungal, Terence A R; Ali, Amza

2014-08-01

292

76 FR 12155 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Release No. 34-63969; File No. SR-BATS-2011-007] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. to Adopt BATS Rule...

2011-03-04

293

78 FR 16334 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Release No. 34-69084; File No. SR-BATS-2013-015] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...is hereby given that on February 28, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (``BATS'' or...

2013-03-14

294

78 FR 41483 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Release No. 34-69936; File No. SR-BATS-2013-39] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...notice is hereby given that on June 26, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (``BATS'' or...

2013-07-10

295

77 FR 50199 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Release No. 34-67657; File No. SR-BATS-2012-035] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Amend BATS Rules...

2012-08-20

296

75 FR 20418 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...iii) adopt pricing for ``BATS + DART Destination Specific Orders''; and...Specific Orders. (iii) Pricing for BATS + DART Destination Specific Orders Effective April...exposed to the BATS Book (a ``BATS + DART Destination Specific Order''). In...

2010-04-19

297

Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species Justin Kitzes*, Adina Merenlender  

E-print Network

for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature

Merenlender, Adina

298

Subject: Connect with elite financial recruiters through the Bloomberg BAT Dear Students,  

E-print Network

TO REGISTER Want to see what students are saying about the BAT? Watch ourSubject: Connect with elite financial recruiters through the Bloomberg BAT take the Bloomberg Aptitude Test (BAT) in the past 2 years. The BAT

Aronov, Boris

299

Ecological and dietary correlates of stable hydrogen isotope ratios in fur and body water of syntopic tropical bats.  

PubMed

Hydrogen stable isotope ratios of keratin (delta2H(K)) are increasingly used as endogenous markers to study animal movements, yet it is unclear what factors might influence delta2H(K) in free-ranging animals. We studied hydrogen stable isotope ratios of body water (delta2H(BW)) and fur keratin in 36 bat species (> 400 individuals) from a tropical forest assemblage to evaluate if delta2H(BW) and delta2H(K) are related to body size, trophic position, and movement ecology. We found a relatively large range of delta2H(BW) values (approximately 65 per thousand) across bat species. Our phylogenetically controlled analysis showed that delta2H(BW) was not related to body size, trophic position, or movement ecology of species. The analysis also indicated that delta2H(BW) of primary consumers (i.e., fruit-eating bats) was similar to that of fruit juice, and delta2H(BW) of secondary consumers (i.e., animalivorous bats) was similar to that of surface water. Across bat species, delta2H(K) tended to decrease with increasing delta2H(BW), suggesting that delta2H(K) is not directly linked to delta2H(BW). We further tested whether delta2H(K) varied with a species' trophic position (measured as delta15N) and movement ecology (local or regional species). In syntopic bats, delta2H(K) ranged over 73 per thousand, yet delta2H(K) was related neither to delta15N nor to the movement ecology of species. Fur keratin of secondary consumers was more enriched in 2H by 44 per thousand and in 15N by 3.7 per thousand compared with fur keratin of primary consumers. In an intraspecific analysis, we found that delta2H(K) of an insectivorous bat varied by 20 per thousand between colonies at 4 km distance. Within this species, deltaH(K) was not related to individual delta15N and body mass. Our data suggest that variation in delta2H(K) can be large in bats of tropical assemblages, both across species (range approximately 70 per thousand) and even within sedentary species (range approximately 20 per thousand), and that delta2H(K) is largely affected by the dietary habits of species. PMID:23691654

Voigt, Christian C; Schneeberger, Karin; Luckner, Anja

2013-02-01

300

Investigating White-Nose Syndrome in Bats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

Blehert, David S.

2009-01-01

301

White-nose Syndrome Threatens Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists from federal and state wildlife agencies, universities, and conservation groups have launched a major research effort to understand, identify, and counter a mysterious ailment that has killed perhaps a half-million insect-eating bats in the northeastern United States during the last two winters. So far, little is known about white-nose syndrome, named for the white fungus that grows on affected bats' muzzles, wing membranes, or other exposed skin. A number of theories seek to explain the how and why of white-nose syndrome. The one most researchers favor says the fungus causes an irritation that induces hibernating bats to rouse and groom themselves. That causes them to burn more fat to keep warm in the cold, damp caves and mines where they hibernate. Hungry, the bats leave their hibernation quarters in search of food but die when they cannot find any.

Jeffrey P. Cohn (freelance science writer;)

2008-12-01

302

Australian bat lyssavirus: implications for public health.  

PubMed

Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infection in humans is rare but fatal, with no proven effective therapy. ABLV infection can be prevented by administration of a post-exposure prophylaxis regimen of human rabies immunoglobulin and rabies vaccine. All Australian bats (flying foxes and microbats) should be considered to be carrying ABLV unless proven otherwise. Any bat-related injury (bite, scratch or mucosal exposure to bat saliva or neural tissue) should be notified immediately to the relevant public health unit - no matter how small the injury or how long ago it occurred. Human-to-human transmission of ABLV has not been reported but is theoretically possible. Standard infection control precautions should be employed when managing patients with suspected or confirmed ABLV infection. PMID:25495308

Francis, Joshua R; McCall, Bradley J; Hutchinson, Penny; Powell, Jodie; Vaska, Vikram L; Nourse, Clare

2014-12-11

303

Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication  

PubMed Central

Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal. PMID:23034703

Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

2012-01-01

304

Bat Distribution Size or Shape as Determinant of Viral Richness in African Bats  

PubMed Central

The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID) is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera) in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio) with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa. PMID:24959855

Vallo, Peter; Dallo, Thierno D.; Ngoagouni, Carine; Drexler, Jan Felix; Drosten, Christian; Nakouné, Emmanuel R.; Leroy, Eric M.

2014-01-01

305

SWIFT BAT Survey of AGN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results1 of the analysis of the first 9 months of data of the Swift BAT survey of AGN in the 14-195 keV band. Using archival X-ray data or follow-up Swift XRT observations, we have identified 129 (103 AGN) of 130 objects detected at [b] > 15deg and with significance > 4.8-delta. One source remains unidentified. These same X-ray data have allowed measurement of the X-ray properties of the objects. We fit a power law to the logN - log S distribution, and find the slope to be 1.42+/-0.14. Characterizing the differential luminosity function data as a broken power law, we find a break luminosity logL*(ergs/s)= 43.85+/-0.26. We obtain a mean photon index 1.98 in the 14-195 keV band, with an rms spread of 0.27. Integration of our luminosity function gives a local volume density of AGN above 10(exp 41) erg/s of 2.4x10(exp -3) Mpc(sup -3), which is about 10% of the total luminous local galaxy density above M* = -19.75. We have obtained X-ray spectra from the literature and from Swift XRT follow-up observations. These show that the distribution of log nH is essentially flat from nH = 10(exp 20)/sq cm to 10(exp 24)/sq cm, with 50% of the objects having column densities of less than 10(exp 22)/sq cm. BAT Seyfert galaxies have a median redshift of 0.03, a maximum log luminosity of 45.1, and approximately half have log nH > 22.

Tueller, J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Winter, L. M.

2008-01-01

306

How the bat got its buzz  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of echolocation in bats, the final phase of an attack on a flying insect, the ‘terminal buzz’, has proved enigmatic. During the buzz, bats increase information update rates by producing vocalizations up to 220 times s?1. The buzz's ubiquity in hawking and trawling bats implies its importance for hunting success. Superfast muscles, previously unknown in mammals, are responsible for the extreme vocalization rate. Some bats produce a second phase—buzz II—defined by a large drop in the fundamental frequency (F0) of their calls. By doing so, bats broaden their acoustic field of view and should thereby reduce the likelihood of insect escape. We make the case that the buzz was a critical adaptation for capturing night-flying insects, and suggest that the drop in F0 during buzz II requires novel, unidentified laryngeal mechanisms in order to counteract increasing muscle tension. Furthermore, we propose that buzz II represents a countermeasure against the evasive flight of eared prey in the evolutionary arms-race that saw the independent evolution of bat-detecting ears in various groups of night-flying insects. PMID:23302868

Ratcliffe, John M.; Elemans, Coen P. H.; Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie

2013-01-01

307

Ectoparasite associations of bats from central Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

Between April and October 1997, 689 bats representing seven species were captured at Pennsylvania's Canoe Creek State Park. Each bat was sampled for ectoparasitic arthropods, and four species were collected from 13.2% of the host individuals. Ectoparasites include the bat flea Myodopsylla insignis (Rothschild), the wing mite Spinturnix americanus (Banks), the bed bug Cimex adjunctus Barber, and the soft tick Ornithodoros kelleyi Cooley & Kohls. Prevalence, relative density, and mean intensity were calculated for ectoparasites of Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte), which harbored all four ectoparasite species and was the most commonly captured host. Patterns of ectoparasite associations were examined with respect to host sex and habitat (roost characteristics). Female M. lucifugus hosted higher densities of ectoparasites than did males. Moreover, relative densities of ectoparasites from M. lucifugus were dependent on the proximate roost; hosts captured near Bat Church were more heavily parasitized than those captured near Hartman Mine. Two other bat species were infested with at least one ectoparasite, but sample sizes were too small to analyze statistically. These bat species included Myotis septentrionalis (Trouessart), harboring M. insignis, S. americanus, and O. kelleyi, and Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois), which harbored M. insignis and O. kelleyi. PMID:14765658

Dick, Carl W; Gannon, Michael R; Little, Wendy E; Patrick, Michael J

2003-11-01

308

Hawkmoths produce anti-bat ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences. PMID:23825084

Barber, Jesse R.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

2013-01-01

309

Swift/BAT Calibration and Spectral Response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard NASA#s Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer is a large coded aperture gamma-ray telescope consisting of a 2.4 m (8#) x 1.2 m (4#) coded aperture mask supported 1 meter above a 5200 square cm area detector plane containing 32,768 individual 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm CZT detectors. The BAT is now completely assembled and integrated with the Swift spacecraft in anticipation of an October 2004 launch. Extensive ground calibration measurements using a variety of radioactive sources have resulted in a moderately high fidelity model for the BAT spectral and photometric response. This paper describes these ground calibration measurements as well as related computer simulations used to study the efficiency and individual detector properties of the BAT detector array. The creation of a single spectral response model representative of the fully integrated BAT posed an interesting challenge and is at the heart of the public analysis tool #batdrmgen# which computes a response matrix for any given sky position within the BAT FOV. This paper will describe the batdrmgen response generator tool and conclude with a description of the on-orbit calibration plans as well as plans for the future improvements needed to produce the more detailed spectral response model that is required for the construction of an all-sky hard x-ray survey.

Parsons, A.

2004-01-01

310

Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infections among Bats, the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Active surveillance for lyssaviruses was conducted among populations of bats in the Philippines. The presence of past or current Lyssavirus infection was determined by use of direct fluorescent antibody assays on bat brains and virus neutralization assays on bat sera. Although no bats were found to have active infection with a Lyssavirus, 22 had evidence of neutralizing antibody against the Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). Seropositivity was statistically associated with one species of bat, Miniopterus schreibersi. Results from the virus neutralization assays are consistent with the presence in the Philippines of a naturally occurring Lyssavirus related to ABLV. PMID:11927022

Murray-Lillibridge, Kristy; Miranda, Mary E.G.; Smith, Jean S.; Calaor, Alan B.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2002-01-01

311

Adaptive Vocal Behavior Drives Perception by Echolocation in Bats  

PubMed Central

Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat’s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat’s active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene. PMID:21705213

Moss, Cynthia F.; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

2011-01-01

312

FRUIT & NUT Blackberries  

E-print Network

principles. Blackberries have very high production poten- tial, and fresh fruit commands good prices, makingTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Blackberries Monte Nesbitt, Jim Kamas & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Introduction Brambles or caneberries are fruits in the Ru- bus genus

Mukhtar, Saqib

313

THE NONHIBERNATING ECOLOGY OF BATS IN INDIANA WITH EMPHASIS ON THE ENDANGERED INDIANA BAT, MYOTIS SODALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution and habitat of the endangered Indiana bat, Myotis sodalis, in Indiana during the season of reproduction. Because interspecific relationships may exist between M. sodalis and several other species of chiroptera, the distributions and habitats of these bats were also determined. Distributions were determined from past records, supplemented with captures at

VIRGIL WILLMER BRACK

1983-01-01

314

Detection of European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2) in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) from Magdeburg, Germany.  

PubMed

In Europe bat rabies in Daubenton's bats (Myotisdaubentonii) and in Pond bats (Myotis dasycneme) caused by the European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2) has been confirmed in less than 20 cases to date. Here we report the second encounter of this virus species in Germany. A Daubenton's bat found grounded in the zoological garden in Magdeburg died shortly after. In the frame of a retrospective study the bat carcass was eventually transferred to the national reference laboratory for rabies at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute for rabies diagnosis. Lyssavirus was isolated and characterized as EBLV-2. PMID:22712424

Freuling, Conrad M; Kliemt, Jeannette; Schares, Susann; Heidecke, Dietrich; Driechciarz, René; Schatz, Juliane; Müller, Thomas

2012-01-01

315

Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference170 GTR-NRS-P-102 A REVIEW OF FIRE EFFECTS ON BATS AND BAT HABITAT  

E-print Network

, with an emphasis on Indiana bats (see Table 1 for scientific names of species), was presented by Dickinson EFFECTS ON BATS AND BAT HABITAT IN THE EASTERN OAK REGION Roger W. Perry Research Wildlife Biologist, U research has begun to shed light on the relationships among fire, bats, and bat habitat, these interactions

316

BATS: PICTORIAL KEY TO UNITED STATES GENERA Harold George Scott and Chester J. Stajanovich (J) lbart leaf DOle long leaf DOle leaf chin plain face  

E-print Network

BATS: PICTORIAL KEY TO UNITED STATES GENERA ·Harold George Scott and Chester J. Stajanovich (J) 01 Choeronycteris Leptonycteris LEAFNOSE BATS HOGNOSE BATS LONGNOSE BATS free tail enclosed tail I i I I i deeply ~ FREE-TAIL BATS MASTIFF BATS ---"'I, SILVER-HAIR BATS RED AND HOARY BATS SPOTl'ED BATS 1",_ _ _ _ _ ears

317

A computational sensorimotor model of bat echolocation Harry R. Erwina)  

E-print Network

sensorimotor model of target capture behavior by the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus, was developed for localization in bats since the maximum ITDs no greater than 55 s in E. fuscus; Koay et al., 1998 are much

Moss, Cynthia

318

Endemic Lagos bat virus infection in Eidolon helvum.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses suggest lyssaviruses, including Rabies virus, originated from bats. However, the role of bats in the maintenance, transmission and evolution of lyssaviruses is poorly understood. A number of genetically diverse lyssaviruses are present in Africa, including Lagos bat virus (LBV). A high seroprevalence of antibodies against LBV was detected in Eidolon helvum bats. Longitudinal seroprevalence and age-specific seroprevalence data were analysed and capture-mark-recapture (CMR) analysis used to follow 98 bats over 18 months. These data demonstrate endemic infection, with evidence of horizontal transmission, and force of infection was estimated for differing age categories. The CMR analysis found survival probabilities of seronegative and seropositive bats were not significantly different. The lack of increased mortality in seropositive animals suggests infection is not causing disease after extended incubation. These key findings point towards acute transmission of bat lyssaviruses in adapted bat hosts that occurs at a far higher rate than the occurrence of disease. PMID:22370126

Hayman, D T S; Fooks, A R; Rowcliffe, J M; McCrea, R; Restif, O; Baker, K S; Horton, D L; Suu-Ire, R; Cunningham, A A; Wood, J L N

2012-12-01

319

Isolation of multiple novel paramyxoviruses from pteropid bat urine.  

PubMed

Bats have been found to harbour a number of new emerging viruses with zoonotic potential, and there has been a great deal of interest in identifying novel bat pathogens to determine the risk to human and animal health. Many groups have identified novel viruses in bats by detection of viral nucleic acid; however, virus isolation is still a challenge, and there are few reports of viral isolates from bats. In recent years, our group has developed optimized procedures for virus isolation from bat urine, including the use of primary bat cells. In previous reports, we have described the isolation of Hendra virus, Menangle virus and Cedar virus in Queensland, Australia. Here, we report the isolation of four additional novel bat paramyxoviruses from urine collected from beneath pteropid bat (flying fox) colonies in Queensland and New South Wales during 2009-2011. PMID:25228492

Barr, Jennifer; Smith, Craig; Smith, Ina; de Jong, Carol; Todd, Shawn; Melville, Debra; Broos, Alice; Crameri, Sandra; Haining, Jessica; Marsh, Glenn; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume; Wang, Lin-Fa

2015-01-01

320

Bats in the Classroom: A Conceptual Guide for Biology Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to use bats to introduce different biological concepts such as classification and phylogeny, altruistic behavior, flight, coevolution, or physiological adaptations. Discusses common myths regarding bats and provides information on additional classroom materials. (YDS)

Rankin, W. T.; Lewis, Norma G.

2002-01-01

321

Bats Limit Insects in a Neotropical Agroforestry System  

E-print Network

the importance of avian predators in arthropod control (2). Although insectivorous bats are ex- pected to have of insectivorous overwintering migrants from North America (4). We have no data on the ab- solute density of bats

322

Detection of group 1 coronaviruses in bats in North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bats of several species in southern People's Republic of China harbor SARS-like CoVs and may be reservoir hosts for them. To determine whether bats in North America also harbor coronaviruses, we used reverse transcription-PCR to detect coronavirus RNA in bats. We found coronavirus RNA in 6 of 28 fecal specimens from bats of 2 of 7 species tested. The prevalence of viral RNA shedding was high: 17% in Eptesicus fuscus and 50% in Myotis occultus. Sequence analysis of a 440-bp amplicon in gene 1b showed that these Rocky Mountain bat coronaviruses formed 3 clusters in phylogenetic group 1 that were distinct from group 1 coronaviruses of Asian bats. Because of the potential for bat coronaviruses to cause disease in humans and animals, further surveillance and characterization of bat coronaviruses in North America are needed.

Dominguez, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.; Oko, L.M.; Holmes, K.V.

2007-01-01

323

Implementing a hospital-based violence-related injury surveillance system--a background to the Jamaican experience.  

PubMed

Violence, a leading cause of injuries and death, is recognized as a major public health problem. In 1996, injuries were the second leading cause of hospitalizations in Jamaica. The estimated annual cost of in-patient care for injuries was 11.6 million US dollars. To develop strategies to reduce the impact of violence-related injuries on Jamaican health care resources, the Ministry of Health, Division of Health Promotion and Protection (MOH/DHPP) in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Tropical Metabolic Research Institute, University of the West Indies Mona, designed and implemented a violence-related injury surveillance system (VRISS) at Kingston Public Hospital (KPH). In 1998, the VRISS, based on the International Classification of External Cause of Injury (ICECI), was implemented in the accident and emergency (A&E) department of Jamaica's tertiary care hospital, KPH. VRISS collects demographic, method and circumstance of injury, victim-perpetrator relationship and patient's discharge status data. From 8/1/98 to 7/31/99, data on 6,107 injuries were collected. Injuries occurred primarily among males aged 25-44 years. Most injuries (54%; 3171) were caused by use of a sharp object. Nearly half (49%; 2992) were perpetrated by acquaintances. The majority, 70% (4,252), were the result of a fight or argument and 17% were admitted to the hospital. The VRISS utilized A&E department data to characterize violence-related injuries in Jamaica, a resource-limited environment. These data will be used to guide intervention development to reduce violence-related injuries in Jamaica. PMID:12613103

Ward, Elizabeth; Durant, Tonji; Thompson, Martie; Gordon, Georgiana; Mitchell, Wayne; Ashley, Deanna

2002-12-01

324

Abnormal pituitary development and function in three siblings of a Jamaican family: A new syndrome involving the Pit-1 gene  

SciTech Connect

In 1967 Mckusick et al. reported three siblings in Canada who had combine pituitary hormone deficiencies (CPHD). Since that report there have been several families with multiple affected members who share the common characteristics of autosomal recessive inheritance and clinical expression of pituitary deficiencies at an early age. We report here a CPHD family of Jamaican origin with three affected and two unaffected siblings. The affected siblings have evidence of severe growth failure, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism and variable prolactin deficiency. Recently, in some families with CPHD a defect has been detected in the Pit-1 gene, which encodes a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of the pituitary and the production of growth hormone, TSH and prolactin. We are studying the Pit-1 gene in this family as a candidate gene that may explain the family phenotype. The Pit-1 gene has been analyzed in DNA extracted from blood. No gross deletion were detected in exons 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 using exon-specific PCR assay developed in our laboratory. Exon 1 is also currently being analyzed. Single stand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, a screening technique for point mutations within genes, is being used to identify putative base pair changes in the Pit-1 gene. The exon findings will be confirmed using standard DNA sequencing procedures. If a Pit-1 gene is detected, this family would provide a novel presentation, since gonadotropin deficiency appears to be present. Alternatively, this family may represent a mutation on another yet unknown factor involved in normal pituitary development.

Sanchez, J.C.; Schiavi, A. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Parks, J. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

325

A modeling approach to explain pulse design in bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this modeling study we wanted to find out why bats of the family Vespertilionidae (and probably also members of other families of bats) use pulses with a certain bandwidth and duration. Previous studies\\u000a have only speculated on the function of bandwidth and pulse duration in bat echolocation or addressed this problem by assuming\\u000a that bats optimize echolocation parameters to

Arjan Boonman; Joachim Ostwald

2007-01-01

326

Accuracy of target ranging in echolocating bats: acoustic information processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Echolocating bats use the time delay between emitted sounds and returning echoes to determine the distance to an object. This study examined the accuracy of target ranging by bats and the effect of echo bandwidth on the bat's performance in a ranging task.2.Six big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were trained in a yes-no procedure to discriminate between two phantom targets,

Cynthia F. Moss; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

1989-01-01

327

When should fig fruit produce volatiles? Pattern in a ripening process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ripe fruit need to signal their presence to attract dispersal agents. Plants may employ visual and/or olfactory sensory channels to signal the presence of ripe fruit. Visual signals of ripe fruit have been extensively investigated. However, the volatile signatures of ripe fruit that use olfactorily-oriented dispersers have been scarcely investigated. Moreover, as in flowers, where floral scents are produced at times when pollinators are active (diurnal versus nocturnal), whether plants can modulate the olfactory signal to produce fruit odours when dispersers are active in the diel cycle is completely unknown. We investigated day-night differences in fruit odours in two species of figs, Ficus racemosa and Ficus benghalensis. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. racemosa that are largely dispersed by bats and other mammals was dominated by fatty acid derivatives such as esters. In this species in which the ripe fig phase is very short, and where the figs drop off soon after ripening, there were no differences between day and night in fruit volatile signature. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. benghalensis that has a long ripening period, however, and that remain attached to the tree for extended periods when ripe, showed an increase in fatty acid derivatives such as esters and of benzenoids such as benzaldehyde at night when they are dispersed by bats, and an elevation of sesquiterpenes during the day when they are dispersed by birds. For the first time we provide data that suggest that the volatile signal produced by fruit can show diel differences based on the activity period of the dispersal agent.

Borges, Renee M.; Ranganathan, Yuvaraj; Krishnan, Anusha; Ghara, Mahua; Pramanik, Gautam

2011-11-01

328

[Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].  

PubMed

Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus. PMID:25123871

Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

2014-04-01

329

Sexually Selected Infanticide in a Polygynous Bat  

PubMed Central

Background Adult individuals of many species kill unrelated conspecific infants for several adaptive reasons ranging from predation or resource competition to the prevention of misdirected parental care. Moreover, infanticide can increase the reproductive success of the aggressor by killing the offspring of competitors and thereafter mating with the victimized females. This sexually selected infanticide predominantly occurs in polygynous species, with convincing evidence for primates, carnivores, equids, and rodents. Evidence for bats was predicted but lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the first case, to our knowledge, of sexually selected infanticide in a bat, the polygynous white-throated round-eared bat, Lophostoma silvicolum. Behavioral studies in a free-living population revealed that an adult male repeatedly attacked and injured the pups of two females belonging to his harem, ultimately causing the death of one pup. The infanticidal male subsequently mated with the mother of the victimized pup and this copulation occurred earlier than any other in his harem. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that sexually selected infanticide is more widespread than previously thought, adding bats as a new taxon performing this strategy. Future work on other bats, especially polygynous species in the tropics, has great potential to investigate the selective pressures influencing the evolution of sexually selected infanticide and to study how infanticide impacts reproductive strategies and social structures of different species. PMID:21949829

Knörnschild, Mirjam; Ueberschaer, Katja; Helbig, Maria; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

2011-01-01

330

Bats of Ouray National Wildlife Refuge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is located in the northeast corner of Utah along the Green River and is part of the Upper Colorado River System and the Colorado Plateau. The Colorado Plateau is home to 19 species of bats, some of which are quite rare. Of those 19 species, a few have a more southern range and would not be expected to be found at Ouray NWR, but it is unknown what species occur at Ouray NWR or their relative abundance. The assumption is that Ouray NWR provides excellent habitat for bats, since the riparian habitat consists of a healthy population of cottonwoods with plenty of older, large trees and snags that would provide foraging and roosting habitat for bats. The more than 4,000 acres of wetland habitat, along with the associated insect population resulting from the wetland habitat, would provide ideal foraging habitat for bats. The overall objective of this project is to conduct a baseline inventory of bat species occurring on the refuge using mist nets and passive acoustic monitoring.

Ellison, Laura E.

2011-01-01

331

Auditory scene analysis by echolocation in bats Cynthia F. Mossa)  

E-print Network

in bats. In the perceptual experiments, FM bats Eptesicus fuscus learned to discriminate between of flying E. fuscus taking tethered insects in a large room. In each trial, the bats consistently produced of sonar vocalizations was also observed in the field recordings from E. fuscus, thus suggesting

Moss, Cynthia

332

Thermal energetics of female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)  

E-print Network

Thermal energetics of female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) Craig K.R. Willis, Jeffrey E. Lane and energetics in female big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois, 1796). We exposed bats to a range of ambient chez des femelles de la grande chauve- souris brune, Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois, 1796). Nous avons

Swanson, David L.

333

Versatility of biosonar in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared cameras and ultrasonic microphones were used to record big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) flying in natural conditions at night while they hunted for insects. As expected, bats avoided obstacles while flying through vegetation and intercepted flying prey in the open. But bats also appeared to capture insects near and possibly on the ground and near or in vegetation, flew

James A. Simmons; Kyler M. Eastman; Seth S. Horowitz; Michael J. O’Farrell; David N. Lee

2001-01-01

334

Experimental rabies virus infection of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).  

PubMed

A captive colony of adult Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus) was experimentally infected with a rabies virus (RABV) variant isolated from the salivary glands of a naturally infected Big Brown Bat and passaged once through murine neuroblastoma cell culture. Bats were divided into 11 groups, which were composed of one to three noninfected and one to three infected individuals each. Twenty of 38 animals were infected intramuscularly into both left and right masseter muscles; they received a total of 10(3.2) median mouse intracerebral lethal dose (MICLD50) of Big Brown Bat RABV variant. Experimental outcome after viral exposure was followed in the bats for 140 days postinoculation (PI). Of 20 infected bats, 16 developed clinical rabies, and the mean incubation period was 24 days (range: 13-52 days). Three infected bats never seroconverted and succumbed early to infection (13 days). Four infected bats that survived until the end of the experiment without any signs of disease maintained detectable antibody titers until the third month PI, peaking between days 13 and 43, and consequent drop-off below the threshold for detection occurred by day 140. Limited excretion of virus in saliva of infected bats during the clinical course of disease was observed in two individuals on days 13 and 15 PI (<24 hr prior to onset of clinical illness). No bat-to-bat transmission of RABV to noninfected bats was detected. PMID:18689646

Jackson, Felix R; Turmelle, Amy S; Farino, David M; Franka, Richard; McCracken, Gary F; Rupprecht, Charles E

2008-07-01

335

Distinct lineage of vesiculovirus from big brown bats, United States.  

PubMed

We identified a novel rhabdovirus, American bat vesiculovirus, from postmortem tissue samples from 120 rabies-negative big brown bats with a history of human contact. Five percent of the tested bats were infected with this virus. The extent of zoonotic exposure and possible health effects in humans from this virus are unknown. PMID:24274823

Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Driscoll, Cindy; Carlos, Maria Paz; Prioleau, Algernon; Schmieder, Robert; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Wong, Jakk; Cha, Yunhee; Head, Steven; Breitbart, Mya; Delwart, Eric

2013-12-01

336

Distinct Lineage of Vesiculovirus from Big Brown Bats, United States  

PubMed Central

We identified a novel rhabdovirus, American bat vesiculovirus, from postmortem tissue samples from 120 rabies-negative big brown bats with a history of human contact. Five percent of the tested bats were infected with this virus. The extent of zoonotic exposure and possible health effects in humans from this virus are unknown. PMID:24274823

Driscoll, Cindy; Carlos, Maria Paz; Prioleau, Algernon; Schmieder, Robert; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Wong, Jakk; Cha, Yunhee; Head, Steven; Breitbart, Mya; Delwart, Eric

2013-01-01

337

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bats, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The source of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus remains unknown. Molecular investigation indicated that bats in Saudi Arabia are infected with several alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Virus from 1 bat showed 100% nucleotide identity to virus from the human index case-patient. Bats might play a role in human infection. PMID:24206838

Memish, Ziad A.; Mishra, Nischay; Olival, Kevin J.; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Kapoor, Vishal; Epstein, Jonathan H.; AlHakeem, Rafat; Durosinloun, Abdulkareem; Al Asmari, Mushabab; Islam, Ariful; Kapoor, Amit; Briese, Thomas; Daszak, Peter; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

2013-01-01

338

Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).  

PubMed

We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem. PMID:24171580

Blehert, David S; Maluping, Ramón P; Green, D Earl; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M; Ballmann, Anne E; Langenberg, Julia A

2014-01-01

339

BAT USAGE AND CAVE MANAGEMENT OF TORGAC CAVE, NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Torgac Cave, New Mexico, is a dolomite and gypsum cave that provides a stable winter hibernaculum for several species of bats, primarily Myotis velifer, the cave myotis; Corynorhinus (formerly Plecotus) townsendii, Townsend's big-eared bat; and Myotis ciliolabrum, the western small-footed myotis. Occasional bat count studies between 1966 and 1996 indicate a total hibernating population ranging from 649 to 3951 individuals.

DAVID H. JAGNOW

340

Foraging Ecology Predicts Learning Performance in Insectivorous Bats  

E-print Network

Foraging Ecology Predicts Learning Performance in Insectivorous Bats Theresa M. A. Clarin1 insectivorous European bat species of the genus Myotis that belong to three different functional groups based Ecology Predicts Learning Performance in Insectivorous Bats. PLoS ONE 8(6): e64823. doi:10.1371/journal

Page, Rachel

341

Rain increases the energy cost of bat flight.  

PubMed

Similar to insects, birds and pterosaurs, bats have evolved powered flight. But in contrast to other flying taxa, only bats are furry. Here, we asked whether flight is impaired when bat pelage and wing membranes get wet. We studied the metabolism of short flights in Carollia sowelli, a bat that is exposed to heavy and frequent rainfall in neotropical rainforests. We expected bats to encounter higher thermoregulatory costs, or to suffer from lowered aerodynamic properties when pelage and wing membranes catch moisture. Therefore, we predicted that wet bats face higher flight costs than dry ones. We quantified the flight metabolism in three treatments: dry bats, wet bats and no rain, wet bats and rain. Dry bats showed metabolic rates predicted by allometry. However, flight metabolism increased twofold when bats were wet, or when they were additionally exposed to rain. We conclude that bats may not avoid rain only because of sensory constraints imposed by raindrops on echolocation, but also because of energetic constraints. PMID:21543394

Voigt, Christian C; Schneeberger, Karin; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L; Lewanzik, Daniel

2011-10-23

342

European bat lyssaviruses: Distribution, prevalence and implications for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, there are more than 1100 species of the Order Chiroptera, 45 of which are present in Europe, and 16 in the UK. Bats are reservoirs of, or can be infected by, several viral diseases, including rabies virus strains (in the Lyssavirus genus). Within this genus are bat variants that have been recorded in Europe; European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1),

S. L. Harris; S. M. Brookes; G. Jones; A. M. Hutson; P. A. Racey; J. Aegerter; G. C. Smith; L. M. McElhinney; A. R. Fooks

2006-01-01

343

CONTROL OF BOVINE RABIES THROUGH VAMPIRE BAT CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bstract: An area 30 by 50 km was selected for destruction of vampire bats (Des- modus rotundus). The area was located in the path of an advancing epizootic of vampire bat-borne bovine rabies which had been moving southward at the average rate of 40 km per year for 14 years. The bats were exterminated in their roosts in water

ABEL FORNES; REXFORD D. LORD; MERLE L. KUNS; OSCAR P. LARGHI

344

Summer 2010 BOSTONIA 21 Little brown bats, those  

E-print Network

in little brown bats at bu.edu/ bostonia. Thomas Kunz says bats afflicted with white-nose syndrome rouse-led research- ers predict. The bats, found throughout North America, are dying from the mysterious white- nose of the jour- nal Science. It's not clear how white-nose syndrome (WNS), named for the bleached fungus found

Spence, Harlan Ernest

345

Rain increases the energy cost of bat flight  

PubMed Central

Similar to insects, birds and pterosaurs, bats have evolved powered flight. But in contrast to other flying taxa, only bats are furry. Here, we asked whether flight is impaired when bat pelage and wing membranes get wet. We studied the metabolism of short flights in Carollia sowelli, a bat that is exposed to heavy and frequent rainfall in neotropical rainforests. We expected bats to encounter higher thermoregulatory costs, or to suffer from lowered aerodynamic properties when pelage and wing membranes catch moisture. Therefore, we predicted that wet bats face higher flight costs than dry ones. We quantified the flight metabolism in three treatments: dry bats, wet bats and no rain, wet bats and rain. Dry bats showed metabolic rates predicted by allometry. However, flight metabolism increased twofold when bats were wet, or when they were additionally exposed to rain. We conclude that bats may not avoid rain only because of sensory constraints imposed by raindrops on echolocation, but also because of energetic constraints. PMID:21543394

Voigt, Christian C.; Schneeberger, Karin; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L.; Lewanzik, Daniel

2011-01-01

346

Kinetic-Link Patterns, Congenital Blindness and Batting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the batting swing of two skilled congenitally blind beep baseball players to a perfect kinetic-link model for the batting skill. It found that the subjects used a modified batting technique and that there was an inverse relationship between the subjects' performances and the kinetic-link model. (Author)

Skaggs, S. O.; And Others

1994-01-01

347

Species richness and structure of three Neotropical bat assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the assemblages of phyllostomid bats in three Neotropical rainforests with respect to species richness and assemblage structure and suggested a method to validate estimates of species richness for Neotropical bat assemblages based on mist-netting data. The fully inventoried bat assemblage at La Selva Biological Station (LS, 100 m elevation) in Costa Rica was used as a reference site

KATJA REX; DETLEV H. KELM; KERSTIN WIESNER; THOMAS H. KUNZ; CHRISTIAN C. VOIGT

2008-01-01

348

INTRODUCTION Insectivorous echolocating bats must contend with a variety of  

E-print Network

693 INTRODUCTION Insectivorous echolocating bats must contend with a variety of general bats include limiting overall time in flight (Fullard and Napoleone, 2001; Miller and Surlykke, 2001), avoiding flying at times when bats are also likely to be in the air, flying erratically, and flying at low

Moss, Cynthia

349

CALIFORNIA GUIDELINES FOR REDUCING IMPACTS TO BIRDS AND BATS FROM  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA GUIDELINES FOR REDUCING IMPACTS TO BIRDS AND BATS FROM WIND Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development. Commission Final Report These voluntary guidelines provide information to help reduce impacts to birds and bats from new development

350

From spatial orientation to food acquisition in echolocating bats  

E-print Network

From spatial orientation to food acquisition in echolocating bats Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler1 , Cynthia for Systems Research, College Park, MD 20742, USA Field research on echolocation behavior in bats has differ among bats and are relevant to understanding signal structure. Here, we argue that the evolution

Moss, Cynthia

351

Food resource partitioning inb syntopic nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

We analyzed stable isotopes (d13C, d15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...

352

INCORPORATING BATS IN AGROECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT AND CROP PROTECTION DECISIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

By characterizing the diet of bats in agroecosystems, this research likely will document that bats are important consumers of pest species. Additionally, this investigation will document which pest species are consumed and the relative contribution of these species to bat d...

353

Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.  

PubMed

Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

2014-01-01

354

Interspecific acoustic recognition in two European bat communities  

PubMed Central

Echolocating bats emit echolocation calls for spatial orientation and foraging. These calls are often species-specific and are emitted at high intensity and repetition rate. Therefore, these calls could potentially function in intra- and/or inter-specific bat communication. For example, bats in the field approach playbacks of conspecific feeding buzzes, probably because feeding buzzes indicate an available foraging patch. In captivity, some species of bats recognize and distinguish the echolocation calls of different sympatric species. However, it is still unknown if and how acoustic species-recognition mediates interspecific interactions in the field. Here we aim to understand eavesdropping on bat echolocation calls within and across species boundaries in wild bats. We presented playbacks of conspecific and heterospecific search calls and feeding buzzes to four bat species with different foraging ecologies. The bats were generally more attracted by feeding buzzes than search calls and more by the calls of conspecifics than their heterospecifics. Furthermore, bats showed differential reaction to the calls of the heterospecifics. In particular, Myotis capaccinii reacted equally to the feeding buzzes of conspecifics and to ecologically more similar heterospecifics. Our results confirm eavesdropping on feeding buzzes at the intraspecific level in wild bats and provide the first experimental quantification of potential eavesdropping in European bats at the interspecific level. Our data support the hypothesis that bat echolocation calls have a communicative potential that allows interspecific, and potentially intraspecific, eavesdropping in the wild. PMID:23986714

Dorado-Correa, Adriana M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.; Siemers, Björn M.

2013-01-01

355

Roost tree use by maternity colonies of Indiana bats and northern long-eared bats in southern Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roost trees used by female Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis), a federally endangered species, and sympatric northern long-eared bats (Myotis septentrionalis) at two locations in southern Illinois greatly impacted by past flooding were located using radiotelemetry. For 30 Indiana bats, we located 49 roosts in 7 species of trees. Green ash snags (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and pin oak snags (Quercus palustris) were

Timothy C. Carter; George A. Feldhamer

2005-01-01

356

Migration of bats past a remote island offers clues toward the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy is rapidly becoming a viable source of alternative energy, but wind turbines are killing bats in many areas of North America. Most of the bats killed by turbines thus far have been migratory species that roost in trees throughout the year, and the highest fatality events appear to coincide with autumn migration. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) are highly

Paul M. Cryan; Adam C. Brown

2007-01-01

357

Plasma fat-soluble vitamin and mineral concentrations in relation to diet in captive pteropodid bats.  

PubMed

Circulating plasma fat-soluble vitamin and mineral concentrations were compared in captive females of three species for fruit bats (Pteropus vampyrus, Pteropus hypomelanus, and Pteropus pumilus) fed the same diet. Daily total food intake averaged 28% of body weight on an as-fed basis or 7% on a dry matter basis. Dietary leftovers contained higher concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc than the diet offered, suggesting some nutrient selectivity. Additionally, fecal mineral concentrations were two- to threefold higher than dietary concentrations of corresponding nutrients. Plasma concentrations of vitamin A (0.02-0.05 microg retinol/ml), vitamin D (1.50 ng 25-OH D3/ml; 93-108 pg 1,25 diOH D3/ml), and vitamin E (0.49-1.05 microg alpha-tocopherol/ml) were lower than in other herbivorous mammals, whereas plasma mineral concentrations were within normal mammalian ranges. These data may help assess the nutritional status of fruit bats. PMID:11237137

Dierenfeld, E S; Seyjagat, J

2000-09-01

358

Bats: Twilight Zone (ScienceWorld)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy. Written for students in grades 6-10, this article from Science World magazine has an interview with AMNH zoologist Nancy Simmons, in which she discusses her research and the scientific challenges she faces in her quest to build a more complete bat family tree. There are Web links that offer further opportunities for learning about bat adaptations and their role in the planet's biodiversity.

359

XMM Observations of 'New' Swift BAT Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because the E> 15 keV band is unaffected by absorption this band offers the best hope of obtaining an unbiased sample of AGN. The Swift BAT survey has produced the first large sample of hard x-ray bright AGN in the local universe providing the data necessary to determine the true characteristics of the AGN population. However to use this data one needs to obtain the x-ray spectral properties of these objects.We will present the complete sample of x-ray spectra of the BAT objects and the implications of these data.

Mushotzky, Richard F.

2008-01-01

360

Fun Fruit: Advanced  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math challenge, played with two players or a whole group, engages your problem solving skills. Remove pieces of fruit from the fruit bowl, trying to find a strategy to be the person to take the last piece of fruit. You can substitute different materials if you do not have fruit available. This activity guide contains a material list, game instructions, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2004-01-01

361

North American Bats and Mines Project: A cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation  

SciTech Connect

Inactive underground mines now provide essential habitat for more than half of North America`s 44 bat species, including some of the largest remaining populations. Thousands of abandoned mines have already been closed or are slated for safety closures, and many are destroyed during renewed mining in historic districts. The available evidence suggests that millions of bats have already been lost due to these closures. Bats are primary predators of night-flying insects that cost American farmers and foresters billions of dollars annually, therefore, threats to bat survival are cause for serious concern. Fortunately, mine closure methods exist that protect both bats and humans. Bat Conservation International (BCI) and the USDI-Bureau of Land Management founded the North American Bats and Mines Project to provide national leadership and coordination to minimize the loss of mine-roosting bats. This partnership has involved federal and state mine-land and wildlife managers and the mining industry. BCI has trained hundreds of mine-land and wildlife managers nationwide in mine assessment techniques for bats and bat-compatible closure methods, published technical information on bats and mine-land management, presented papers on bats and mines at national mining and wildlife conferences, and collaborated with numerous federal, state, and private partners to protect some of the most important mine-roosting bat populations. Our new mining industry initiative, Mining for Habitat, is designed to develop bat habitat conservation and enhancement plans for active mining operations. It includes the creation of cost-effective artificial underground bat roosts using surplus mining materials such as old mine-truck tires and culverts buried beneath waste rock.

Ducummon, S.L. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

362

How Do Fruits Ripen?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

Sargent, Steven A.

2005-01-01

363

FUTURE FRUIT EXPLORATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fruits of the earth have nurtured and intrigued humanity throughout history. Genome complexities of cultivated fruit species combined with people’s increased nutritional needs insure that the future will be no different. Prospecting for wild fruit will continue. The global nature of science and ...

364

BREEDING FOR FRUIT QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While fruit breeding programs have many different goals, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, tree architecture, precocity, and productivity, they all have in common the need to develop high quality fruit. Fruits come in a wide spectrum of size, flavor, color, firmness, and texture. Qu...

365

FRUIT & NUT Rabbiteye Blueberries  

E-print Network

or machines, with the majority of fruit grown in Texas picked by hand and sold for fresh consump- tionTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Rabbiteye Blueberries Monte Nesbitt, Jim Kamas, & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Introduction Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei

Mukhtar, Saqib

366

Bats are a major natural reservoir for hepaciviruses and pegiviruses  

PubMed Central

Although there are over 1,150 bat species worldwide, the diversity of viruses harbored by bats has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife surveillance. Such surveys are of importance in determining the potential for novel viruses to emerge in humans, and for optimal management of bats and their habitats. To enhance our knowledge of the viral diversity present in bats, we initially surveyed 415 sera from African and Central American bats. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing revealed the presence of a highly diverse group of bat-derived viruses related to hepaciviruses and pegiviruses within the family Flaviridae. Subsequent PCR screening of 1,258 bat specimens collected worldwide indicated the presence of these viruses also in North America and Asia. A total of 83 bat-derived viruses were identified, representing an infection rate of nearly 5%. Evolutionary analyses revealed that all known hepaciviruses and pegiviruses, including those previously documented in humans and other primates, fall within the phylogenetic diversity of the bat-derived viruses described here. The prevalence, unprecedented viral biodiversity, phylogenetic divergence, and worldwide distribution of the bat-derived viruses suggest that bats are a major and ancient natural reservoir for both hepaciviruses and pegiviruses and provide insights into the evolutionary history of hepatitis C virus and the human GB viruses. PMID:23610427

Quan, Phenix-Lan; Williams, Simon H.; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M.; Anthony, Simon J.; Ellison, James A.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Osinubi, Modupe O. V.; Recuenco, Sergio; Markotter, Wanda; Breiman, Robert F.; Kalemba, Lems; Malekani, Jean; Lindblade, Kim A.; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Suzan, Gerardo; Davis, Lora B.; Blau, Dianna M.; Ogunkoya, Albert B.; Alvarez Castillo, Danilo A.; Moran, David; Ngam, Sali; Akaibe, Dudu; Agwanda, Bernard; Briese, Thomas; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Daszak, Peter; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2013-01-01

367

DBatVir: the database of bat-associated viruses  

PubMed Central

Emerging infectious diseases remain a significant threat to public health. Most emerging infectious disease agents in humans are of zoonotic origin. Bats are important reservoir hosts of many highly lethal zoonotic viruses and have been implicated in numerous emerging infectious disease events in recent years. It is essential to enhance our knowledge and understanding of the genetic diversity of the bat-associated viruses to prevent future outbreaks. To facilitate further research, we constructed the database of bat-associated viruses (DBatVir). Known viral sequences detected in bat samples were manually collected and curated, along with the related metadata, such as the sampling time, location, bat species and specimen type. Additional information concerning the bats, including common names, diet type, geographic distribution and phylogeny were integrated into the database to bridge the gap between virologists and zoologists. The database currently covers >4100 bat-associated animal viruses of 23 viral families detected from 196 bat species in 69 countries worldwide. It provides an overview and snapshot of the current research regarding bat-associated viruses, which is essential now that the field is rapidly expanding. With a user-friendly interface and integrated online bioinformatics tools, DBatVir provides a convenient and powerful platform for virologists and zoologists to analyze the virome diversity of bats, as well as for epidemiologists and public health researchers to monitor and track current and future bat-related infectious diseases. Database URL: http://www.mgc.ac.cn/DBatVir/ PMID:24647629

Chen, Lihong; Liu, Bo; Yang, Jian; Jin, Qi

2014-01-01

368

Roosting ecology of the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daytime roosting behavior of pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) was studied in central Arizona. Bats were present in the area from March or April until November and roosted in cliffs in colonies generally including 20 or more individuals. Pallid bats were highly selective in their choice of roost sites and minimized diurnal energy output by adaptive hypothermia and behavioral thermo-regulation. In spring and autumn the bats roosted in vertical crevices responsive to changes in ambient temperatures. Here temperatures remained low and the bats were torpid for much of the day, but when the crevices became heated in the late afternoon the bats were passively warmed prior to emergence. Deep, horizontal crevices were preferred in summer; cliffs function as massive heat sinks, and in summer crevice temperatures remained moderate and relatively stable. Throughout most of the day both the deep parts of the crevices and the body temperatures of the bats remained close to 30ºC; at this body temperature pallid bats have unexpectedly low metabolic rates (Trune, 1974). By adjusting their positions and closeness to other bats in the thermal gradient within the crevice, bats dissipate heat early in the day, maintain a low metabolic rate through most of the fat and elevate the body temperature prior to emergence in the evening. Of vital important to pallid bats in the summer are social behaviors that promote communal roosting at "traditional" crevices.

Vaughan, Terry A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

1976-01-01

369

DBatVir: the database of bat-associated viruses.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases remain a significant threat to public health. Most emerging infectious disease agents in humans are of zoonotic origin. Bats are important reservoir hosts of many highly lethal zoonotic viruses and have been implicated in numerous emerging infectious disease events in recent years. It is essential to enhance our knowledge and understanding of the genetic diversity of the bat-associated viruses to prevent future outbreaks. To facilitate further research, we constructed the database of bat-associated viruses (DBatVir). Known viral sequences detected in bat samples were manually collected and curated, along with the related metadata, such as the sampling time, location, bat species and specimen type. Additional information concerning the bats, including common names, diet type, geographic distribution and phylogeny were integrated into the database to bridge the gap between virologists and zoologists. The database currently covers >4100 bat-associated animal viruses of 23 viral families detected from 196 bat species in 69 countries worldwide. It provides an overview and snapshot of the current research regarding bat-associated viruses, which is essential now that the field is rapidly expanding. With a user-friendly interface and integrated online bioinformatics tools, DBatVir provides a convenient and powerful platform for virologists and zoologists to analyze the virome diversity of bats, as well as for epidemiologists and public health researchers to monitor and track current and future bat-related infectious diseases. Database URL: http://www.mgc.ac.cn/DBatVir/. PMID:24647629

Chen, Lihong; Liu, Bo; Yang, Jian; Jin, Qi

2014-01-01

370

Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

Clark, D.R., Jr.

1980-01-01

371

Bats as reservoir hosts of human bacterial pathogen, Bartonella mayotimonensis.  

PubMed

A plethora of pathogenic viruses colonize bats. However, bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain ill defined. In a study initially conducted as a quantitative metagenomic analysis of the fecal bacterial flora of the Daubenton's bat in Finland, we unexpectedly detected DNA of several hemotrophic and ectoparasite-transmitted bacterial genera, including Bartonella. Bartonella spp. also were either detected or isolated from the peripheral blood of Daubenton's, northern, and whiskered bats and were detected in the ectoparasites of Daubenton's, northern, and Brandt's bats. The blood isolates belong to the Candidatus-status species B. mayotimonensis, a recently identified etiologic agent of endocarditis in humans, and a new Bartonella species (B. naantaliensis sp. nov.). Phylogenetic analysis of bat-colonizing Bartonella spp. throughout the world demonstrates a distinct B. mayotimonensis cluster in the Northern Hemisphere. The findings of this field study highlight bats as potent reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:24856523

Veikkolainen, Ville; Vesterinen, Eero J; Lilley, Thomas M; Pulliainen, Arto T

2014-06-01

372

White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe.  

PubMed

White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus. PMID:20678317

Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans Peter; Seidl, Hans Peter; Blehert, David S

2010-08-01

373

White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe  

PubMed Central

White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus. PMID:20678317

Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

2010-01-01

374

White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

2010-01-01

375

Negative regulators of brown adipose tissue (BAT)-mediated thermogenesis.  

PubMed

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for energy expenditure, a process called adaptive thermogenesis. PET-CT scans recently demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, which revitalized our interest in BAT. Increasing the amount and/or activity of BAT holds tremendous promise for the treatment of obesity and its associated diseases. PGC1? is the master regulator of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis in BAT. A number of proteins have been identified to influence thermogenesis either positively or negatively through regulating the expression or transcriptional activity of PGC1?. Therefore, BAT activation can be achieved by either inducing the expression of positive regulators of PGC1? or by inhibiting the repressors of the PGC1?/UCP1 pathway. Here, we review the most important negative regulators of PGC1?/UCP1 signaling and their mechanism of action in BAT-mediated thermogenesis. PMID:24809334

Sharma, Bal Krishan; Patil, Mallikarjun; Satyanarayana, Ande

2014-12-01

376

Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines?  

PubMed Central

Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines, and there is at present no direct method of reducing or preventing this mortality. We therefore determine whether the electromagnetic radiation associated with radar installations can elicit an aversive behavioural response in foraging bats. Four civil air traffic control (ATC) radar stations, three military ATC radars and three weather radars were selected, each surrounded by heterogeneous habitat. Three sampling points matched for habitat type and structure, dominant vegetation species, altitude and surrounding land class were located at increasing distances from each station. A portable electromagnetic field meter measured the field strength of the radar at three distances from the source: in close proximity (<200 m) with a high electromagnetic field (EMF) strength >2 volts/metre, an intermediate point within line of sight of the radar (200–400 m) and with an EMF strength <2 v/m, and a control site out of sight of the radar (>400 m) and registering an EMF of zero v/m. At each radar station bat activity was recorded three times with three independent sampling points monitored on each occasion, resulting in a total of 90 samples, 30 of which were obtained within each field strength category. At these sampling points, bat activity was recorded using an automatic bat recording station, operated from sunset to sunrise. Bat activity was significantly reduced in habitats exposed to an EMF strength of greater than 2 v/m when compared to matched sites registering EMF levels of zero. The reduction in bat activity was not significantly different at lower levels of EMF strength within 400 m of the radar. We predict that the reduction in bat activity within habitats exposed to electromagnetic radiation may be a result of thermal induction and an increased risk of hyperthermia. PMID:17372629

Nicholls, Barry; Racey, Paul A.

2007-01-01

377

Neural mechanisms of target ranging in FM bats: physiological evidence from bats and frogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echolocating bats assess target range by the delay in echo relative to the emitted sonar pulse. Earlier studies in FM bats\\u000a showed that a population of neurons in auditory centers above the inferior colliculus (IC) is tuned to echo delay, with different\\u000a neurons tuned to different echo delays. A building block for delay-tuned responses is paradoxical latency shift (PLS), featuring

Albert S. Feng

2011-01-01

378

The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.  

PubMed

Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge. PMID:24723396

Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinéad

2014-08-01

379

Bat use of a high-plains urban wildlife refuge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are significant components of mammalian diversity and in many areas are of management concern. However, little attention has been given to bats in urban or prairie landscapes. In 1997 and 1998, we determined species richness, relative abundance, roosting habits, and echolocation activity of bats at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA), the largest urban unit in the United States refuge system, located on the high plains near Denver, Colorado. An inventory using mist nets revealed 3 species foraging at the site: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Big brown bats comprised 86% of captures (n=176). This pattern was consistent with continental-scale predictions of bat species richness and evenness based on availability of potential roosts. Relative abundance based on captures was similar to that revealed by echolocation detector surveys, except that the latter revealed the likely presence of at least 2 additional species (Myotis spp. and red bats [Lasiurus borealis]). Echolocation activity was significantly greater (P=0.009) in areas with tree or water habitat edges than in open prairie, suggesting that maintaining such features is important for bats. Big brown bats commuted greater distances (9.20-18.8 km) from roosts in urban core areas to foraging sites on the refuge than typically reported for this species elsewhere, emphasizing the value of the site to these bats. Urban refuges can provide habitat of importance to bat populations, but may be characterized by abundant bats that roost in buildings if a variety of other kinds of roosting habitats are unavailable.

Everette, A.L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stone, L.A.; McCance, J.L.

2001-01-01

380

Watching bats find food: Do we classify the signals, the strategies, or the bats?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fact that different families, genera, and even species of echolocating bats broadcast characteristic sonar signals has motivated numerous efforts to classify bats according to signal design, which has received support from correlations with both peripheral and central auditory physiology. Signal types vary according to the situations in which bats have been observed hunting for food, so this classification has been extended to the hunting strategies they use. The availability of new technical means for watching and documenting the behavior of echolocating bats in real time (thermal infrared video cameras, night-vision video with infrared illumination, video recorders with ultrasonic audio channels) makes it possible to follow individual bats long enough to observe variations in their behavior over periods of seconds to minutes. These observations reveal that at least some species nominally classified as using just one hunting strategy in fact use several strategies according to prevailing conditions, sometimes using different strategies in the course of only a few minutes. The historic inaccessibility of bats to real-time observation in the dark may have lead to exaggerated stereotyping of their behavior. [Work supported by ONR, NSF.

Simmons, James A.

2001-05-01

381

Human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012–related Viruses in Bats, Ghana and Europe  

PubMed Central

We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats. PMID:23622767

Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J.; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M.; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Lina, Peter H.C.; Godlevska, Elena V.; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian

2013-01-01

382

The ideal moment of inertia for a baseball or softball bat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, In selecting a baseball or a softball bat, both weight and weight distribution should be considered. However, these considerations must be individualized, because there is large variability in how different batters swing a bat and in how each batter swings different bats. Previous research has defined the ideal bat weight as that weight that maximizes the batted-ball speed based

A. Terry Bahill

2004-01-01

383

Population Trends of Wintering Bats in Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of all readily available inventories of wintering bats in Vermont. Surveys at 23 hibernacula were compiled from the literature and unpublished data of numerous biologists and cavers. The earliest Vermont records date back to 1934. Only five hibernacula were systematically surveyed for more than 45 years. Despite data limitations, several trends have emerged. Since the 1930s,

Stephen C. Trombulak; Philip E. Higuera; Mark DesMeules

2001-01-01

384

Bat Rabies, Texas, 1996–2000  

PubMed Central

Bats submitted to the Texas Department of Health (1996–2000) were speciated and tested for rabies virus antigen by direct immunofluorescence microscopy. Antigenic analysis of rabies virus–positive specimens was performed with monoclonal antibodies against the nucleoprotein of the virus; atypical or unexpected results were confirmed by genetic analysis of nucleoprotein sequence. PMID:15200840

Mayes, Bonny C.; Smith, Jean S.; Neill, Susan U.

2004-01-01

385

Notes on the Distribution of Oregon Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributional data are given for 15 species of bats known to occur in Oregon: Antrozous pallidus, Eptesicus fuscus, Euderma maculatum, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Lasiurus cinereus\\/ Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibi, M. lucifugusf M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Pipistrellus hesperus, Plecotus townsendi, Tadarida brasiliensis. Distribution is also discussed in terms of physiography.

Chris Maser; Stephen P. Cross

386

Bats of the Colorado oil shale region  

Microsoft Academic Search

New records for Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibii, M. lucifugus, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus cinereus, Plecotus townsendii, and Antrozous pallidus and their habitat occurrence in northwestern Colorado are reported. Mortality of 27 bats of six species trapped in an oil sludge pit is described. 7 references.

R. B. Jr. Finley; W. Caire; D. E. Wilhelm

1984-01-01

387

Bat-associated Rabies Virus in Skunks  

PubMed Central

Rabies was undetected in terrestrial wildlife of northern Arizona until 2001, when rabies was diagnosed in 19 rabid skunks in Flagstaff. Laboratory analyses showed causative rabies viruses associated with bats, which indicated cross-species transmission of unprecedented magnitude. Public health infrastructure must be maintained to address emerging zoonotic diseases. PMID:16965714

Messenger, Sharon; Rohde, Rodney E.; Smith, Jean; Cheshier, Ronald; Hanlon, Cathleen; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2006-01-01

388

Male reproductive patterns in hibernating bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early reports on studies of reproduction in bats that hibernate (Families Vespertilionidae and Rhinolophidae) described various aspects of form, function, and periodicity in both males and females (e.g. Benecke, 1879; Eimer, 1879; Fries, 1879; Van Beneden, 1880; Robin, 1881; Vogt, 1881; Duval, 1895a, b; Rollinat & Trouessart, 1895a, b, c, 1896, 1897; Rauther, 1903; Branca, 1904; Schoenfeld, 1904; Jordan, 1912;

A. W. Gustafson

1979-01-01

389

Hybridization Hotspots at Bat Swarming Sites  

PubMed Central

During late summer and early autumn in temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere, thousands of bats gather at caves, mainly for the purpose of mating. We demonstrated that this swarming behavior most probably leads not only to breeding among bats of the same species but also interbreeding between different species. Using 14 nuclear microsatellites and three different methods (the Bayesian assignment approaches of STRUCTURE and NEWHYBRIDS and a principal coordinate analysis of pairwise genetic distances), we analyzed 375 individuals belonging to three species of whiskered bats (genus Myotis) at swarming sites across their sympatric range in southern Poland. The overall hybridization rate varied from 3.2 to 7.2%. At the species level, depending on the method used, these values ranged from 2.1–4.6% in M. mystacinus and 3.0–3.7% in M. brandtii to 6.5–30.4% in M. alcathoe. Hybrids occurred in about half of the caves we studied. In all three species, the sex ratio of hybrids was biased towards males but the observed differences did not differ statistically from those noted at the population level. In our opinion, factors leading to the formation of these admixed individuals and their relatively high frequency are: i) swarming behaviour at swarming sites, where high numbers of bats belonging to several species meet; ii) male-biased sex ratio during the swarming period; iii) the fact that all these bats are generally polygynous. The highly different population sizes of different species at swarming sites may also play some role. Swarming sites may represent unique hybrid hotspots, which, as there are at least 2,000 caves in the Polish Carpathians alone, may occur on a massive scale not previously observed for any group of mammal species in the wild. Evidently, these sites should be treated as focal points for the conservation of biodiversity and evolutionary processes. PMID:23300912

Bogdanowicz, Wies?aw; Piksa, Krzysztof; Tereba, Anna

2012-01-01

390

Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats.  

PubMed

To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. PMID:24860509

Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

2014-01-01

391

Renewed mining and reclamation: Imapacts on bats and potential mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Historic mining created new roosting habitat for many bat species. Now the same industry has the potential to adversely impact bats. Contemporary mining operations usually occur in historic districts; consequently the old workings are destroyed by open pit operations. Occasionally, underground techniques are employed, resulting in the enlargement or destruction of the original workings. Even during exploratory operations, historic mine openings can be covered as drill roads are bulldozed, or drills can penetrate and collapse underground workings. Nearby blasting associated with mine construction and operation can disrupt roosting bats. Bats can also be disturbed by the entry of mine personnel to collect ore samples or by recreational mine explorers, since the creation of roads often results in easier access. In addition to roost disturbance, other aspects of renewed mining can have adverse impacts on bat populations, and affect even those bats that do not live in mines. Open cyanide ponds, or other water in which toxic chemicals accumulate, can poison bats and other wildlife. The creation of the pits, roads and processing areas often destroys critical foraging habitat, or change drainage patterns. Finally, at the completion of mining, any historic mines still open may be sealed as part of closure and reclamation activities. The net result can be a loss of bats and bat habitat. Conversely, in some contemporary underground operations, future roosting habitat for bats can be fabricated. An experimental approach to the creation of new roosting habitat is to bury culverts or old tires beneath waste rock. Mining companies can mitigate for impacts to bats by surveying to identify bat-roosting habitat, removing bats prior to renewed mining or closure, protecting non-impacted roost sites with gates and fences, researching to identify habitat requirements and creating new artificial roosts.

Brown, P.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Berry, R.D. [Brown-Berry Biological Consulting, Bishop, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

392

77 FR 20858 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2012-04-06

393

77 FR 54633 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2012-09-05

394

75 FR 31491 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

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2010-06-03

395

40 CFR 450.22 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...available technology economically achievable (BAT). 450.22 Section 450.22 Protection...available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR...available technology economically achievable (BAT). (a) Beginning no later...

2011-07-01

396

78 FR 7826 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2013-02-04

397

78 FR 36621 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2013-06-18

398

76 FR 11303 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Granting Accelerated Approval of a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2011-03-01

399

40 CFR 450.22 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...available technology economically achievable (BAT). 450.22 Section 450.22 Protection...available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR...available technology economically achievable (BAT). (a) Beginning no later...

2010-07-01

400

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604 Section...971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. (a) The...particular equipment or procedures comprising BAT or to define performance standards....

2011-01-01

401

76 FR 63686 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2011-10-13

402

78 FR 74212 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2013-12-10

403

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2011-10-14

404

78 FR 58583 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

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2013-09-24

405

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2013-09-03

406

78 FR 8617 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

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2013-02-06

407

76 FR 28108 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

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2011-05-13

408

76 FR 69779 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

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2011-11-09

409

78 FR 9955 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

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2013-02-12

410

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2011-11-17

411

78 FR 10229 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

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2013-02-13

412

Survey for bats in the Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park, with special emphasis on the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum  

SciTech Connect

To increase knowledge about the presence of endangered species and their habitat at the LANL, 3D/Environmental Services, Inc. conducted a mist net survey for bats on Laboratory lands. In addition to documenting the presence of threatened and endangered species, this survey was conducted to gain more knowledge about the diversity and distribution of the bat fauna existing on the Laboratory. There are 25 species of bats found in New Mexico, about 16 of which are likely to occur in the region of the Laboratory. Of particular interest was documentation of the presence of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. The spotted bat is listed as Endangered, Group 2 by the State of New Mexico, and is a Federal Candidate for listing as endangered. As such, conservation of this species and its habitat should be a management priority on the Laboratory. A total of 94 bats were captured in 16 net nights, between 30 June and 05 July 1992. Thirteen species of bats were caught during the study: Antrozous pallidus (pallid bat), 10.6 percent; Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat), 10.6 percent; Lasionycteris noctivigans (silver-haired bat), 16 percent; Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat), 11.7 percent; Myotis californicus (California myotis), 4.3 percent; M. evotis (long-eared myotis), 7.4 percent; M. leibii (small-footed myotis), 5.3 percent; M. thysanodes (fringed myotis), 13.8 percent; M. volans (long-legged myotis), 7.4 percent of the catch; M. yumanensis,(Yuma myotis), 5.3 percent; Pipistrellus hesperus (western pipistrelle), 1.1 percent; Plecotus townsendii (Townsend's big-eared bat), 1.1 percent, and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat), 5.3 percent.

Tyrell, K.; Brack, V. Jr.

1992-10-29

413

Survey for bats in the Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park, with special emphasis on the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum  

SciTech Connect

To increase knowledge about the presence of endangered species and their habitat at the LANL, 3D/Environmental Services, Inc. conducted a mist net survey for bats on Laboratory lands. In addition to documenting the presence of threatened and endangered species, this survey was conducted to gain more knowledge about the diversity and distribution of the bat fauna existing on the Laboratory. There are 25 species of bats found in New Mexico, about 16 of which are likely to occur in the region of the Laboratory. Of particular interest was documentation of the presence of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. The spotted bat is listed as Endangered, Group 2 by the State of New Mexico, and is a Federal Candidate for listing as endangered. As such, conservation of this species and its habitat should be a management priority on the Laboratory. A total of 94 bats were captured in 16 net nights, between 30 June and 05 July 1992. Thirteen species of bats were caught during the study: Antrozous pallidus (pallid bat), 10.6 percent; Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat), 10.6 percent; Lasionycteris noctivigans (silver-haired bat), 16 percent; Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat), 11.7 percent; Myotis californicus (California myotis), 4.3 percent; M. evotis (long-eared myotis), 7.4 percent; M. leibii (small-footed myotis), 5.3 percent; M. thysanodes (fringed myotis), 13.8 percent; M. volans (long-legged myotis), 7.4 percent of the catch; M. yumanensis,(Yuma myotis), 5.3 percent; Pipistrellus hesperus (western pipistrelle), 1.1 percent; Plecotus townsendii (Townsend`s big-eared bat), 1.1 percent, and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat), 5.3 percent.

Tyrell, K.; Brack, V. Jr.

1992-10-29

414

New World Fruits Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, this database was developed as an information resource on fruits from the Americas. Based on a September 2004 assessment, the New Worlds Fruits Database contained information about "1253 fruit species belonging to 302 genera and 69 families." Species profiles include vernacular names, geographic distribution, uses, bibliographic references, and links to additional Internet resources. Text searches can be conducted by Genus, Species, and Vernacular Name. Drop-down menus are available for several search fields including Family, Fruit Part, Product, Floristic Region, and Region or Country of Origin. The Fruits Database is still under development, and scientists, fruit growers, and other knowledgeable persons are encouraged to submit information and suggestions.

2010-05-13

415

Enzootic and Epizootic Rabies Associated with Vampire Bats, Peru  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002–2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non–vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans.

Streicker, Daniel G.; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

2013-01-01

416

Naturally acquired rabies virus infections in wild-caught bats.  

PubMed

The study of a zoonotic disease requires an understanding of the disease incidence in animal reservoirs. Rabies incidence in bats submitted to diagnostic laboratories does not accurately reflect the true incidence in wild bat populations as a bias exists for testing bats that have been in contact with humans or pets. This article details the rabies incidence in two species of bats collected from natural settings without such bias. In this study, brain smears from 0.6% and 2.5% of wild-caught and apparently healthy Tadarida brasiliensis and Eptesicus fuscus, respectively, were positive for rabies virus (RV) antigen. Conversely, 92% of the grounded T. brasiliensis were positive for RV. Serology performed on captive colony and sick bats reveal an immune response to rabies. This work illustrates the complex interplay between immunity, disease state, and the conundrum of RV maintenance in bats. PMID:21923271

Davis, April; Gordy, Paul; Rudd, Robert; Jarvis, Jodie A; Bowen, Richard A

2012-01-01

417

Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats.  

PubMed

The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances. PMID:23568916

Cryan, Paul M; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Turner, Gregory G; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle; Russell, Robin E; Castle, Kevin T

2013-04-01

418

Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Turner, Gregory G.; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michell; Russell, Robin E.; Castle, Kevin T.

2013-01-01

419

Enzootic and epizootic rabies associated with vampire bats, peru.  

PubMed

During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002-2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non-vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans. PMID:23969087

Condori-Condori, Rene Edgar; Streicker, Daniel G; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

2013-01-01

420

Risk for rabies transmission from encounters with bats, Colorado, 1977-1996.  

PubMed Central

To assess the risk for rabies transmission to humans by bats, we analyzed the prevalence of rabies in bats that encountered humans from 1977 to 1996 and characterized the bat-human encounters. Rabies was diagnosed in 685 (15%) of 4,470 bats tested. The prevalence of rabies in bats that bit humans was 2.1 times higher than in bats that did not bite humans. At least a third of the encounters were preventable. PMID:10341181

Pape, W. J.; Fitzsimmons, T. D.; Hoffman, R. E.

1999-01-01

421

Preserving Fresh Fruit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

2000-01-01

422

Seroprevalence dynamics of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in a multispecies bat colony.  

PubMed

We report an active surveillance study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1) in bat species, scarcely studied hitherto, that share the same refuge. From 2004 to 2012, 406 sera were obtained from nine bat species. Blood samples were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine the antibody titer. EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the nine species analyzed (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus serotinus and Tadarida teniotis). Among all bats sampled, female seroprevalence (20.21%, 95% CI: 14.78%-26.57%) was not significantly higher than the seroprevalence in males (15.02%, 95% CI: 10.51%-20.54%). The results showed that the inter-annual variation in the number of seropositive bats in T. teniotis and P. austriacus showed a peak in 2007 (>70% of EBLV-1 prevalence). However, significant differences were observed in the temporal patterns of the seroprevalence modeling of T. teniotis and P. austriacus. The behavioral ecology of these species involved could explain the different annual fluctuations in EBLV-1 seroprevalence. PMID:25192547

López-Roig, Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Lavenir, Rachel; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

2014-09-01

423

Seroprevalence Dynamics of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in a Multispecies Bat Colony  

PubMed Central

We report an active surveillance study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1) in bat species, scarcely studied hitherto, that share the same refuge. From 2004 to 2012, 406 sera were obtained from nine bat species. Blood samples were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine the antibody titer. EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the nine species analyzed (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus serotinus and Tadarida teniotis). Among all bats sampled, female seroprevalence (20.21%, 95% CI: 14.78%–26.57%) was not significantly higher than the seroprevalence in males (15.02%, 95% CI: 10.51%–20.54%). The results showed that the inter-annual variation in the number of seropositive bats in T. teniotis and P. austriacus showed a peak in 2007 (>70% of EBLV-1 prevalence). However, significant differences were observed in the temporal patterns of the seroprevalence modeling of T. teniotis and P. austriacus. The behavioral ecology of these species involved could explain the different annual fluctuations in EBLV-1 seroprevalence. PMID:25192547

López-Roig, Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Lavenir, Rachel; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

2014-01-01

424

Thermal energetics of female big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated thermoregulation and energetics in female big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois, 1796). We exposed bats to a range of ambient temperatures (Ta) and used open-flow respirometry to record their metabolic re- sponses. The bats were typically thermoconforming and almost always entered torpor at Tas below the lower critical temperature Tlc of 26.7 °C. Basal metabolic rate (BMR, 16.98

Craig K. R. Willis; Eric T. Liknes; David L. Swanson; R. Mark Brigham

2005-01-01

425

Diseases in free-ranging bats from Germany  

PubMed Central

Background The emergence of important viral diseases and their potential threat to humans has increased the interest in bats as potential reservoir species. Whereas the majority of studies determined the occurrence of specific zoonotic agents in chiropteran species, little is known about actual bat pathogens and impacts of disease on bat mortality. Combined pathological and microbiological investigations in free-ranging bats are sparse and often limited by small sample sizes. In the present study about 500 deceased bats of 19 European species (family Vespertilionidae) were subjected to a post-mortem examination followed by histo-pathological and bacteriological investigations. The bat carcasses originated from different geographical regions in Germany and were collected by bat researchers and bat rehabilitation centers. Results Pathological examination revealed inflammatory lesions in more than half of the investigated bats. Lung was the predominantly affected organ (40%) irrespective of bat species, sex and age. To a lesser extent non-inflammatory organ tissue changes were observed. Comparative analysis of histo-pathology and bacteriology results identified 22 different bacterial species that were clearly associated with pathological lesions. Besides disease-related mortality, traumatic injuries represented an additional major cause of death. Here, attacks by domestic cats accounted for almost a half of these cases. Conclusions The present study shows that free-ranging bats not only serve as a reservoir of infectious agents, they are also vulnerable to various infectious diseases. Some of these microbial agents have zoonotic potential, but there is no evidence that European bats would pose a higher health hazard risk to humans in comparison to other wildlife. PMID:22008235

2011-01-01

426

Sensory ecology of water detection by bats: a field experiment.  

PubMed

Bats face a great risk of dehydration, so sensory mechanisms for water recognition are crucial for their survival. In the laboratory, bats recognized any smooth horizontal surface as water because these provide analogous reflections of echolocation calls. We tested whether bats also approach smooth horizontal surfaces other than water to drink in nature by partly covering watering troughs used by hundreds of bats with a Perspex layer mimicking water. We aimed 1) to confirm that under natural conditions too bats mistake any horizontal smooth surface for water by testing this on large numbers of individuals from a range of species and 2) to assess the occurrence of learning effects. Eleven bat species mistook Perspex for water relying chiefly on echoacoustic information. Using black instead of transparent Perspex did not deter bats from attempting to drink. In Barbastella barbastellus no echolocation differences occurred between bats approaching the water and the Perspex surfaces respectively, confirming that bats perceive water and Perspex to be acoustically similar. The drinking attempt rates at the fake surface were often lower than those recorded in the laboratory: bats then either left the site or moved to the control water surface. This suggests that bats modified their behaviour as soon as the lack of drinking reward had overridden the influence of echoacoustic information. Regardless of which of two adjoining surfaces was covered, bats preferentially approached and attempted to drink from the first surface encountered, probably because they followed a common route, involving spatial memory and perhaps social coordination. Overall, although acoustic recognition itself is stereotyped and its importance in the drinking process overwhelming, our findings point at the role of experience in increasing behavioural flexibility under natural conditions. PMID:23133558

Russo, Danilo; Cistrone, Luca; Jones, Gareth

2012-01-01

427

Geographic Translocation of Bats: Known and Potential Problems  

PubMed Central

Natural, accidental, and intentional translocation of bats, both intra- and intercontinentally, has been documented. Some bats have been translocated while incubating infectious diseases, including rabies or related lyssavirus infections; others have escaped confinement en route to or at their destinations, while others have been released deliberately. Known events and potential consequences of bat translocation are reviewed, including a proposed solution to the attendant problems. PMID:12533276

2003-01-01

428

Species richness in an insectivorous bat assemblage from Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Estimates of insectivorous bat diversity in the Palaeotropics have largely been hampered,by the lack of long- term studies employing appropriate capture techniques. Using a variety of trapping methods, 45 insectivorous bat species were captured in approximately,3 km 1030 harp-trap nights) of the forest interior (22 species exclusively so). Insectivorous bats of the forest interior are thus a key component

Charles M. Francis; Zubaid Akbar; Thomas H. Kunz

2003-01-01

429

Detection of Group 1 Coronaviruses in Bats in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bats of several species in southern People's Republic of China harbor SARS-like CoVs and may be res- ervoir hosts for them. To determine whether bats in North America also harbor coronaviruses, we used reverse tran- scription-PCR to detect coronavirus RNA in bats. We found

Samuel R. Dominguez; Thomas J. O'Shea; Lauren M. Oko; Kathryn V. Holmes

430

Electricity: Fruit Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.

Habib, Maria

2008-01-01

431

Home Fruit Production - Figs.  

E-print Network

-to-good crop on sucker wood the season after freeze injury. The fruit is medium to large with brown skin and light amber pulp. It is prominently swollen at the fruit base with a very open eye. Fruiting is spread over a long period if the tree is pruned... is yellow to green with seeds and amber pulp. The fruit is excellent canned or preserved. Do not plant this variety in drier areas of Texas. PLANTING Do not apply fertilizer at planting time. Fig trees survive better if set 2 to 4 inches deeper than...

Lyons, Calvin G.; McEachern, George Ray

1987-01-01

432

Behavioral and Ecological Influences on the Echolocation of Brazilian Free-Tailed Bats, Tadarida brasiliensis.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation investigates variability in the echolocation calls of Brazilian free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae), and explores how bats adjust echolocation call structure in… (more)

Gillam, Erin H

2007-01-01

433

Endocrine control of the reproductive activity in hibernating bats.  

PubMed

Bats, Chiroptera, constitute the second largest order of the class Mammalia and vary greatly in habitats, available foods and mating systems. The timing, duration and patterns of reproduction in bats vary considerably among species and different localities. Though much is known about the reproductive phenomena and associated endocrine characteristics of various species, the central mechanism regulating the peculiar delay and asynchrony in reproductive activity remains to be elucidated. The current understanding on the endocrine characteristics and possible mechanism of regulation of the hypothalamo-adenohypophysial-gonadal axis of bats will be reviewed, based mainly on our own studies in hibernating rhinolophid bats. PMID:14578565

Kawamoto, Keiichi

2003-09-01

434

The First Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the first Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), which contains bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2007 June 16. This catalog (hereafter BAT1 catalog) contains burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, and time averaged spectral parameters for each of 237 GRBs, as measured by the BAT. The BAT-determined position reported here is within 1.75' of the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT)-determined position for 90% of these GRBs. The BAT T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) durations peak at 80 and 20 seconds, respectively. From the fluence-fluence correlation, we conclude that about 60% of the observed peak energies, E(sup obs)(sub peak) of BAT GRBs could be less than 100 keV. We confirm that GRB fluence to hardness and GRB peak flux to hardness are correlated for BAT bursts in analogous ways to previous missions' results. The correlation between the photon index in a simple power-law model and E(sup obs)(sub peak) is also confirmed. We also report the current status for the on-orbit BAT calibrations based on observations of the Crab Nebula.

Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Barbier, L.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

2007-01-01

435

Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance  

PubMed Central

Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases. PMID:21646516

George, Dylan B.; Webb, Colleen T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Bowen, Richard A.; Smith, David L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Ellison, Laura E.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2011-01-01

436

Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance.  

PubMed

Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases. PMID:21646516

George, Dylan B; Webb, Colleen T; Farnsworth, Matthew L; O'Shea, Thomas J; Bowen, Richard A; Smith, David L; Stanley, Thomas R; Ellison, Laura E; Rupprecht, Charles E

2011-06-21

437

Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.

2011-01-01

438

A mechanism for antiphonal echolocation by Free-tailed bats  

PubMed Central

Bats are highly social and spend much of their lives echolocating in the presence of other bats. To reduce the effects of acoustic interferences from other bats' echolocation calls, we hypothesized that bats might shift the timing of their pulse emissions to minimize temporal overlap with another bat's echolocation pulses. To test this hypothesis we investigated whether free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) echolocating in the lab would shift the timing of their own pulse emissions in response to regularly repeating artificial acoustic stimuli. A robust phase-locked temporal pattern in pulse emissions was displayed by every bat tested which included an initial suppressive phase lasting more than 60 ms after stimulus onset, during which the probability of emitting pulses was reduced by more than fifty percent, followed by a compensatory rebound phase, the timing and amplitude of which were dependent on the temporal pattern of the stimulus. The responses were non-adapting and were largely insensitive to broad changes in the acoustic properties of the stimulus. Randomly occurring noise-bursts also suppressed calling for up to 60 ms, but the time-course of the compensatory rebound phase was more rapid than when the bats were responding to regularly repeating patterns of noise bursts. These findings provide the first quantitative description of how external stimuli may cause echolocating bats to alter the timing of subsequent pulse emissions. PMID:20419063

Jarvis, Jenna; Bohn, Kirsten M.; Tressler, Jedediah; Smotherman, Michael

2010-01-01

439

Spatial and Temporal Activity of Migratory Bats at Landscape Features.  

E-print Network

??Geographical landmarks may be important features for navigation of migrating bats although spatial and temporal activity may depend on species-specific migration strategies. I predicted that… (more)

Hamilton, Rachel M

2012-01-01

440

Reciprocal food sharing in the vampire bat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behavioural reciprocity can be evolutionarily stable1-3. Initial increase in frequency depends, however, on reciprocal altruists interacting predominantly with other reciprocal altruists either by associating within kin groups or by having sufficient memory to recognize and not aid nonreciprocators. Theory thus suggests that reciprocity should evolve more easily among animals which live in kin groups. Data are available separating reciprocity from nepotism only for unrelated nonhuman animals4. Here, I show that food sharing by regurgitation of blood among wild vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) depends equally and independently on degree of relatedness and an index of opportunity for recipro cation. That reciprocity operates within groups containing both kin and nonkin is supported further with data on the availability of blood-sharing occasions, estimates of the economics of shar ing blood, and experiments which show that unrelated bats will reciprocally exchange blood in captivity.

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

1984-03-01

441

Oriental fruit moth in tree fruit The Oriental fruit moth has three full generations and  

E-print Network

Oriental fruit moth in tree fruit The Oriental fruit moth has three full generations. The moths overwinter as full-grown larvae in cocoons in tree bark crevices, weed stems, trash on the ground. Are conditions right for Oriental fruit moth? Forecast models for Oriental fruit moth are available at Enviro

442

The Adventure of Echo, the Bat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive adventure uses a Landsat mosaic of Arizona as the interface. Students need to interpret satellite imagery to receive clues to Echo the Bat's location. As students find Echo, additional content about remote sensing and biodiversity is introduced. This web site provides teachers with a vehicle for introducing complex content that can be reinforced back in the classroom through the Remote Sensing and Biodiversity units linked to this website.

2012-08-03

443

Bats: Night Fliers (SuperScience)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy. Written for students in grades 3-6, this article from SuperScience magazine has an interview with AMNH zoologist Nancy Simmons, in which she discusses the difficulties of studying bats. There is a hands-on activity, Chip Challenge, that introduces students to the idea of sorting according to physical characteristics.

444

Early Microvascular Pathology during Hyperglycemia in Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microvascular changes in the wing of bats, Myoitis lucifugus, were observed during 3 weeks of normal life and 5 weeks of streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia (300–400 mg\\/dl, plasma). During normal life, week-to-week variations in diameter and blood flow in the same set of vessels were minor. After hyperglycemia was induced, the major initial response was dilation of all microvessels except

Glenn Bohlen; Kimberly D. Hankins

1983-01-01

445

Fluttering target detection in Hipposiderid bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of Hipposiderid bats,Hiposideros speoris andH. lankadiva, which both emit short CF-FM echolocation calls, were trained in a two-alternative forced-choice procedure to discriminate between an oscillating target and a motionless one. Two different targets were used: (1) the membrane of a low-frequency loudspeaker, producing sinusoidal frequency- and amplitude modulations and (2) a small rotating propeller, which produced short acoustical

Gerhard vonder Emde; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

1986-01-01

446

Energetic cost of hovering flight in nectar-feeding bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) and its scaling in moths, birds and bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three groups of specialist nectar-feeders covering a continuous size range from insects, birds and bats have evolved the\\u000a ability for hovering flight. Among birds and bats these groups generally comprise small species, suggesting a relationship\\u000a between hovering ability and size. In this study we established the scaling relationship of hovering power with body mass\\u000a for nectar-feeding glossophagine bats (Phyllostomidae). Employing

C. C. Voigt; Y. Winter

1999-01-01

447

Parasitism by bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) on neotropical bats: effects of host body size, distribution, and abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the correlations between prevalence (proportion of infested individuals), mean intensity (number of parasites\\u000a per infested individual), and the number of bat fly species parasitizing bats in Venezuela with host body mass, distribution,\\u000a and abundance. Of 133 bat species sampled, 53 species in six families were captured frequently enough to allow estimation\\u000a of their parasite loads. Over all species

Bruce D. Patterson; Carl W. Dick; Katharina Dittmar

2008-01-01

448

Non GMO fruit factories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple structural and regulatory genes modulate biosynthetic pathways, such as those leading to the accumulation and profile of sugars and carotenoids in the mature tomato fruit. Natural genetic variation among wild relatives of the cultivated tomato provides an important, non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMO), resource for improving both horticultural and fruit quality traits of elite tomato varieties. Unfortunately, this natural resource

Ilan Levin; Avraham Lalazar; Moshe Bar; Arthur A. Schaffer

2004-01-01

449

Fruiting of Agaricus bisporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several enzymes were assayed in extracts from mycelium-colonised compost during growth and fruiting of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. Comparison of changes of enzyme levels in axenic and nonaxenic cultures and in cultures of non-fruiting strains indicated that they were associated directly with the fungal mycelium. Large changes were found in the amounts of laccase and cellulase which were correlated with

D. A. Wood; P. W. Goodenough

1977-01-01

450

Mutant Fruit Flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general audience discussion of common fruit fly mutations. The site includes simplified illustrations, and a discussion of fruit fly chromosomes. Presented by Exploratorium at the museum of science art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts San Francisco.

0000-00-00

451

Fresh Fruit Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practices recommended for the preservation of environmental quality and effective management of the bog physical plant (e. g., water control structures, erosion control, pesticide storage and handling) are universally applicable regardless of whether a bed is producing fruit for processing or for the fresh market. However, certain practices require modification to effectively produce abundant, high quality cranberries for fresh fruit.

Carolyn DeMoranville; Frank L. Caruso; Joseph DeVerna

2003-01-01

452

Frozen Fruit Pops Ingredients  

E-print Network

instead of cups, making great "ice cubes" in fruit juice or diet soda. Try other fruits or juice. This material is partially funded by USDA's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program ­ SNAP. The Supple- mental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help you

Liskiewicz, Maciej

453

Mosquito Consumption by Insectivorous Bats: Does Size Matter?  

PubMed Central

Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito control activities. PMID:24130851

Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

2013-01-01

454