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1

Transcriptome Sequencing and Annotation for the Jamaican Fruit Bat (Artibeus jamaicensis)  

PubMed Central

The Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) is one of the most common bats in the tropical Americas. It is thought to be a potential reservoir host of Tacaribe virus, an arenavirus closely related to the South American hemorrhagic fever viruses. We performed transcriptome sequencing and annotation from lung, kidney and spleen tissues using 454 and Illumina platforms to develop this species as an animal model. More than 100,000 contigs were assembled, with 25,000 genes that were functionally annotated. Of the remaining unannotated contigs, 80% were found within bat genomes or transcriptomes. Annotated genes are involved in a broad range of activities ranging from cellular metabolism to genome regulation through ncRNAs. Reciprocal BLAST best hits yielded 8,785 sequences that are orthologous to mouse, rat, cattle, horse and human. Species tree analysis of sequences from 2,378 loci was used to achieve 95% bootstrap support for the placement of bat as sister to the clade containing horse, dog, and cattle. Through substitution rate estimation between bat and human, 32 genes were identified with evidence for positive selection. We also identified 466 immune-related genes, which may be useful for studying Tacaribe virus infection of this species. The Jamaican fruit bat transcriptome dataset is a resource that should provide additional candidate markers for studying bat evolution and ecology, and tools for analysis of the host response and pathology of disease.

Shaw, Timothy I.; Srivastava, Anuj; Chou, Wen-Chi; Liu, Liang; Hawkinson, Ann; Glenn, Travis C.; Adams, Rick; Schountz, Tony

2012-01-01

2

Ontogeny of the larynx and flight ability in jamaican fruit bats (phyllostomidae) with considerations for the evolution of echolocation.  

PubMed

Echolocating bats have adaptations of the larynx such as hypertrophied intrinsic musculature and calcified or ossified cartilages to support sonar emission. We examined growth and development of the larynx relative to developing flight ability in Jamaican fruit bats to assess how changes in sonar production are coordinated with the onset of flight during ontogeny as a window for understanding the evolutionary relationships between these systems. In addition, we compare the extent of laryngeal calcification in an echolocating shrew species (Sorex vagrans) and the house mouse (Mus musculus), to assess what laryngeal chiropteran adaptations are associated with flight versus echolocation. Individuals were categorized into one of five developmental flight stages (flop, flutter, flap, flight, and adult) determined by drop-tests. Larynges were cleared and stained with alcian blue and alizarin red, or sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Our results showed calcification of the cricoid cartilage in bats, represented during the flap stage and this increased significantly in individuals at the flight stage. Thyroid and arytenoid cartilages showed no evidence of calcification and neither cricoid nor thyroid showed significant increases in rate of growth relative to the larynx as a whole. The physiological cross-sectional area of the cricothyroid muscles increased significantly at the flap stage. Shrew larynges showed signs of calcification along the margins of the cricoid and thyroid cartilages, while the mouse larynx did not. These data suggest the larynx of echolocating bats becomes stronger and sturdier in tandem with flight development, indicating possible developmental integration between flight and echolocation. Anat Rec, 297:1270-1277, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24778087

Carter, Richard T; Adams, Rick A

2014-07-01

3

Henipavirus Infection in Fruit Bats (Pteropus giganteus), India  

PubMed Central

We tested 41 bats for antibodies against Nipah and Hendra viruses to determine whether henipaviruses circulate in pteropid fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) in northern India. Twenty bats were seropositive for Nipah virus, which suggests circulation in this species, thereby extending the known distribution of henipaviruses in Asia westward by >1,000 km.

Prakash, Vibhu; Smith, Craig S.; Daszak, Peter; McLaughlin, Amanda B.; Meehan, Greer; Field, Hume E.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

2008-01-01

4

Isolation of Genetically Diverse Marburg Viruses from Egyptian Fruit Bats  

PubMed Central

In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans.

Towner, Jonathan S.; Amman, Brian R.; Sealy, Tara K.; Carroll, Serena A. Reeder; Comer, James A.; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D.; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L.; Formenty, Pierre B. H.; Albarino, Cesar G.; Miller, David M.; Reed, Zachary D.; Kayiwa, John T.; Mills, James N.; Cannon, Deborah L.; Greer, Patricia W.; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C.; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.

2009-01-01

5

Isolation of Genetically Diverse Marburg Viruses from Egyptian Fruit Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31\\/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were

Jonathan S. Towner; Brian R. Amman; Tara K. Sealy; Serena A. Reeder Carroll; James A. Comer; Alan Kemp; Robert Swanepoel; Christopher D. Paddock; Stephen Balinandi; Marina L. Khristova; Pierre B. H. Formenty; Cesar G. Albarino; David M. Miller; Zachary D. Reed; John T. Kayiwa; James N. Mills; Deborah L. Cannon; Patricia W. Greer; Emmanuel Byaruhanga; Eileen C. Farnon; Patrick Atimnedi; Samuel Okware; Edward Katongole-Mbidde; Robert Downing; Jordan W. Tappero; Sherif R. Zaki; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Stuart T. Nichol; Pierre E. Rollin

2009-01-01

6

Cone Photoreceptor Diversity in the Retinas of Fruit Bats (Megachiroptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older studies have claimed that bats including the Megachiroptera (fruit bats or flying foxes) have pure-rod retinas and possess no cone photoreceptors. We have determined the presence and the population densities of spectral cone types in six megachiropteran species belonging to four genera: Pteropus rufus, P. niger, P. rodricensis, Rousettus madagascariensis, Eidolon dupreanum, and Epomophorus gambianus. Spectral cone types and

Brigitte Müller; Steven M. Goodman; Leo Peichl

2007-01-01

7

Tropical Secondary Forest Management Influences Frugivorous Bat Composition, Abundance and Fruit Consumption in Chiapas, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H’) was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests’ structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats.

Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-Gonzalez, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

2013-01-01

8

Tropical secondary forest management influences frugivorous bat composition, abundance and fruit consumption in Chiapas, Mexico.  

PubMed

Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H') was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests' structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029

Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

2013-01-01

9

Contrasting Genetic Structure in Two Co-Distributed Species of Old World Fruit Bat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fulvous fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaulti) and the greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) are two abundant and widely co-distributed Old World fruit bats in Southeast and East Asia. The former species forms large colonies in caves while the latter roots in small groups in trees. To test whether these differences in social organization and roosting ecology are associated with

Jinping Chen; Stephen J. Rossiter; Jonathan R. Flanders; Yanhong Sun; Panyu Hua; Cassandra Miller-Butterworth; Xusheng Liu; Koilmani E. Rajan; Shuyi Zhang; Richard Cordaux

2010-01-01

10

Long-term survival of an urban fruit bat seropositive for Ebola and Lagos bat viruses.  

PubMed

Ebolaviruses (EBOV) (family Filoviridae) cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates when they spill over from their wildlife reservoir hosts with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Fruit bats may act as reservoirs of the Filoviridae. The migratory fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is common across sub-Saharan Africa and lives in large colonies, often situated in cities. We screened sera from 262 E. helvum using indirect fluorescent tests for antibodies against EBOV subtype Zaire. We detected a seropositive bat from Accra, Ghana, and confirmed this using western blot analysis. The bat was also seropositive for Lagos bat virus, a Lyssavirus, by virus neutralization test. The bat was fitted with a radio transmitter and was last detected in Accra 13 months after release post-sampling, demonstrating long-term survival. Antibodies to filoviruses have not been previously demonstrated in E. helvum. Radio-telemetry data demonstrates long-term survival of an individual bat following exposure to viruses of families that can be highly pathogenic to other mammal species. Because E. helvum typically lives in large urban colonies and is a source of bushmeat in some regions, further studies should determine if this species forms a reservoir for EBOV from which spillover infections into the human population may occur. PMID:20694141

Hayman, David T S; Emmerich, Petra; Yu, Meng; Wang, Lin-Fa; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R; Cunningham, Andrew A; Wood, James L N

2010-01-01

11

Evidence of Henipavirus Infection in West African Fruit Bats  

PubMed Central

Henipaviruses are emerging RNA viruses of fruit bat origin that can cause fatal encephalitis in man. Ghanaian fruit bats (megachiroptera) were tested for antibodies to henipaviruses. Using a Luminex multiplexed microsphere assay, antibodies were detected in sera of Eidolon helvum to both Nipah (39%, 95% confidence interval: 27–51%) and Hendra (22%, 95% CI: 11–33%) viruses. Virus neutralization tests further confirmed seropositivity for 30% (7/23) of Luminex positive serum samples. Our results indicate that henipavirus is present within West Africa.

Hayman, David T. S.; Suu-Ire, Richard; Breed, Andrew C.; McEachern, Jennifer A.; Wang, Linfa; Wood, James L. N.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

2008-01-01

12

Straight-line climbing flight aerodynamics of a fruit bat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From flight data obtained on a fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, a kinematic model for straight-line flapping motion is extracted and analyzed in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to gain insight into the complexity of bat flight. The intricate functional mechanics and architecture of the bat wings set it apart from other vertebrate flight. The extracted kinematic model is simulated for a range of Reynolds numbers, to observe the effect these phenomena have on the unsteady transient mechanisms of the flow produced by the flapping wings. The Strouhal number calculated from the data is high indicating that the oscillatory motion dominates the flow physics. From the obtained data, the bat exhibits fine control of its mechanics by actively varying wing camber, wing area, torsional rotation of the wing, forward and backward translational sweep of the wing, and wing conformation to dictate the fluid dynamics. As is common in flapping flight, the primary force generation is through the attached unsteady vortices on the wing surface. The bat through varying the wing camber and the wing area modulates this force output. The power requirement for the kinematics is analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic performance.

Viswanath, K.; Nagendra, K.; Cotter, J.; Frauenthal, M.; Tafti, D. K.

2014-02-01

13

Uncovering the fruit bat bushmeat commodity chain and the true extent of fruit bat hunting in Ghana, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Harvesting, consumption and trade of bushmeat are important causes of both biodiversity loss and potential zoonotic disease emergence. In order to identify possible ways to mitigate these threats, it is essential to improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which bushmeat gets from the site of capture to the consumer’s table. In this paper we highlight the previously unrecognized scale of hunting of the African straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, a species which is important in both ecological and public health contexts, and describe the commodity chain in southern Ghana for its trade. Based on interviews with 551 Ghanaians, including bat hunters, vendors and consumers, we estimate that a minimum of 128,000 E. helvum bats are sold each year through a commodity chain stretching up to 400 km and involving multiple vendors. Unlike the general bushmeat trade in Ghana, where animals are sold in both specialized bushmeat markets and in restaurants, E. helvum is sold primarily in marketplaces; many bats are also kept by hunters for personal consumption. The offtake estimated in this paper raises serious conservation concerns, while the commodity chain identified in this study may offer possible points for management intervention. The separation of the E. helvum commodity chain from that of other bushmeat highlights the need for species-specific research in this area, particularly for bats, whose status as bushmeat is largely unknown.

Kamins, A.O.; Restif, O.; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y.; Suu-Ire, R.; Hayman, D.T.S.; Cunningham, A.A.; Wood, J.L.N.; Rowcliffe, J.M.

2011-01-01

14

Relaxed Evolution in the Tyrosine Aminotransferase Gene Tat in Old World Fruit Bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae)  

PubMed Central

Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.

Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Shuyi

2014-01-01

15

Relaxed evolution in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene tat in old world fruit bats (chiroptera: pteropodidae).  

PubMed

Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet. PMID:24824435

Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

2014-01-01

16

Fruit bats (Pteropodidae) fuel their metabolism rapidly and directly with exogenous sugars.  

PubMed

Previous studies reported that fed bats and birds mostly use recently acquired exogenous nutrients as fuel for flight, rather than endogenous fuels, such as lipids or glycogen. However, this pattern of fuel use may be a simple size-related phenomenon because, to date, only small birds and bats have been studied with respect to the origin of metabolized fuel, and because small animals carry relatively small energy reserves, considering their high mass-specific metabolic rate. We hypothesized that approximately 150 g Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus Pteropodidae), which are more than an order of magnitude heavier than previously studied bats, also catabolize dietary sugars directly and exclusively to fuel both rest and flight metabolism. We based our expectation on the observation that these animals rapidly transport ingested dietary sugars, which are absorbed via passive paracellular pathways in the intestine, to organs of high energy demand. We used the stable carbon isotope ratio in exhaled CO(2) (delta(13)C(breath)) to assess the origin of metabolized substrates in 16 Egyptian fruit bats that were maintained on a diet of C3 plants before experiments. First, we predicted that in resting bats delta(13)C(breath) remains constant when bats ingest C3 sucrose, but increases and converges on the dietary isotopic signature when C4 sucrose and C4 glucose are ingested. Second, if flying fruit bats use exogenous nutrients exclusively to fuel flight, we predicted that delta(13)C(breath) of flying bats would converge on the isotopic signature of the C4 sucrose they were fed. Both resting and flying Egyptian fruit bats, indeed, directly fuelled their metabolism with freshly ingested exogenous substrates. The rate at which the fruit bats oxidized dietary sugars was as fast as in 10 g nectar-feeding bats and 5 g hummingbirds. Our results support the notion that flying bats, irrespective of their size, catabolize dietary sugars directly, and possibly exclusively, to fuel flight. PMID:20639431

Amitai, O; Holtze, S; Barkan, S; Amichai, E; Korine, C; Pinshow, B; Voigt, C C

2010-08-01

17

Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.  

PubMed

Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented. PMID:24961009

Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

2014-04-01

18

Nutritional and nutraceutical comparison of Jamaican Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) and Psidium guajava (common guava) fruits.  

PubMed

Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) is one of many underutilised edible fruits that grow wild in Jamaica, and could potentially be commercially exploited to yield health and economic benefits. In this study, the total phenolics, proximate contents, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of P. cattleianum and P. guajava (common guava), a well-known species, were compared. Strawberry guavas were found to be superior to common guavas in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, total phenolics and vitamin C content. They also possessed relatively high fibre content (24.9%). The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of strawberry guavas showed cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitory activities of 18.3% and 26.5%, respectively (250 ?g/mL), indicating anti-inflammatory activity. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of P. guajava showed 56.4% (COX-2) and 44.1% (COX-1) inhibitory activity, respectively. Additionally, nine compounds were isolated from strawberry guava fruits, some of which demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. These results indicate that strawberry guavas are beneficial for health. PMID:23107729

McCook-Russell, Kayanne P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Facey, Petrea C; Bowen-Forbes, Camille S

2012-09-15

19

Adaptive Evolution of the Myo6 Gene in Old World Fruit Bats (Family: Pteropodidae)  

PubMed Central

Myosin VI (encoded by the Myo6 gene) is highly expressed in the inner and outer hair cells of the ear, retina, and polarized epithelial cells such as kidney proximal tubule cells and intestinal enterocytes. The Myo6 gene is thought to be involved in a wide range of physiological functions such as hearing, vision, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Bats (Chiroptera) represent one of the most fascinating mammal groups for molecular evolutionary studies of the Myo6 gene. A diversity of specialized adaptations occur among different bat lineages, such as echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing in laryngeal echolocating bats, large eyes and a strong dependence on vision in Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae), and specialized high-carbohydrate but low-nitrogen diets in both Old World and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). To investigate what role(s) the Myo6 gene might fulfill in bats, we sequenced the coding region of the Myo6 gene in 15 bat species and used molecular evolutionary analyses to detect evidence of positive selection in different bat lineages. We also conducted real-time PCR assays to explore the expression levels of Myo6 in a range of tissues from three representative bat species. Molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that the Myo6 gene, which was widely considered as a hearing gene, has undergone adaptive evolution in the Old World fruit bats which lack laryngeal echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing. Real-time PCR showed the highest expression level of the Myo6 gene in the kidney among ten tissues examined in three bat species, indicating an important role for this gene in kidney function. We suggest that Myo6 has undergone adaptive evolution in Old World fruit bats in relation to receptor-mediated endocytosis for the preservation of protein and essential nutrients.

Shen, Bin; Han, Xiuqun; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Zhang, Shuyi

2013-01-01

20

Bats.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

21

Comparative inner ear transcriptome analysis between the Rickett's big-footed bats (Myotis ricketti) and the greater short-nosed fruit bats (Cynopterus sphinx)  

PubMed Central

Background Bats have aroused great interests of researchers for the sake of their advanced echolocation system. However, this highly specialized trait is not characteristic of Old World fruit bats. Results To comprehensively explore the underlying molecular basis between echolocating and non-echolocating bats, we employed a sequence-based approach to compare the inner ear expression difference between the Rickett’s big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti, echolocating bat) and the Greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx, non-echolocating bat). De novo sequence assemblies were developed for both species. The results showed that the biological implications of up-regulated genes in M. ricketti were significantly over-represented in biological process categories such as ‘cochlea morphogenesis’, ‘inner ear morphogenesis’ and ‘sensory perception of sound’, which are consistent with the inner ear morphological and physiological differentiation between the two bat species. Moreover, the expression of TMC1 gene confirmed its important function in echolocating bats. Conclusion Our work presents the first transcriptome comparison between echolocating and non-echolocating bats, and provides information about the genetic basis of their distinct hearing traits.

2013-01-01

22

Reassortant Group A Rotavirus from Straw-colored Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum)  

PubMed Central

Bats are known reservoirs of viral zoonoses. We report genetic characterization of a bat rotavirus (Bat/KE4852/07) detected in the feces of a straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum). Six bat rotavirus genes (viral protein [VP] 2, VP6, VP7, nonstructural protein [NSP] 2, NSP3, and NSP5) shared ancestry with other mammalian rotaviruses but were distantly related. The VP4 gene was nearly identical to that of human P[6] rotavirus strains, and the NSP4 gene was closely related to those of previously described mammalian rotaviruses, including human strains. Analysis of partial sequence of the VP1 gene indicated that it was distinct from cognate genes of other rotaviruses. No sequences were obtained for the VP3 and NSP1 genes of the bat rotavirus. This rotavirus was designated G25-P[6]-I15-R8(provisional)-C8-Mx-Ax-N8-T11-E2-H10. Results suggest that several reassortment events have occurred between human, animal, and bat rotaviruses. Several additional rotavirus strains were detected in bats.

Esona, Mathew D.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Conrardy, Christina; Tong, Suxiang; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F.; Banyai, Krisztian; Niezgoda, Michael; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Gentsch, Jon R.

2010-01-01

23

Continent-wide panmixia of an African fruit bat facilitates transmission of potentially zoonotic viruses  

PubMed Central

The straw-coloured fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is Africa’s most widely distributed and commonly hunted fruit bat, often living in close proximity to human populations. This species has been identified as a reservoir of potentially zoonotic viruses, but uncertainties remain regarding viral transmission dynamics and mechanisms of persistence. Here we combine genetic and serological analyses of populations across Africa, to determine the extent of epidemiological connectivity among E. helvum populations. Multiple markers reveal panmixia across the continental range, at a greater geographical scale than previously recorded for any other mammal, whereas populations on remote islands were genetically distinct. Multiple serological assays reveal antibodies to henipaviruses and Lagos bat virus in all locations, including small isolated island populations, indicating that factors other than population size and connectivity may be responsible for viral persistence. Our findings have potentially important public health implications, and highlight a need to avoid disturbances which may precipitate viral spillover.

Peel, Alison J.; Sargan, David R.; Baker, Kate S.; Hayman, David T.S.; Barr, Jennifer A.; Crameri, Gary; Suu-Ire, Richard; Broder, Christopher C.; Lembo, Tiziana; Wang, Lin-Fa; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rossiter, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

24

In situ feeding tactics of short-nosed fruit bat ( Cynopterus sphinx ) on mango fruits: evidence of extractive foraging in a flying mammal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a sequence of behaviors exhibited by the short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx while feeding on fruits of Mangifera indica. They peel off the outer skin to form a feeding area of about 3–6 cm diameter. Such food preparatory behaviors were more\\u000a pronounced on larger mangoes. Bats competed among themselves to feed on the mangoes that had such feeding areas

Natarajan Singaravelan; Ganapathy Marimuthu

2008-01-01

25

Novel, Potentially Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses from the African Straw-Colored Fruit Bat Eidolon helvum  

PubMed Central

Bats carry a variety of paramyxoviruses that impact human and domestic animal health when spillover occurs. Recent studies have shown a great diversity of paramyxoviruses in an urban-roosting population of straw-colored fruit bats in Ghana. Here, we investigate this further through virus isolation and describe two novel rubulaviruses: Achimota virus 1 (AchPV1) and Achimota virus 2 (AchPV2). The viruses form a phylogenetic cluster with each other and other bat-derived rubulaviruses, such as Tuhoko viruses, Menangle virus, and Tioman virus. We developed AchPV1- and AchPV2-specific serological assays and found evidence of infection with both viruses in Eidolon helvum across sub-Saharan Africa and on islands in the Gulf of Guinea. Longitudinal sampling of E. helvum indicates virus persistence within fruit bat populations and suggests spread of AchPVs via horizontal transmission. We also detected possible serological evidence of human infection with AchPV2 in Ghana and Tanzania. It is likely that clinically significant zoonotic spillover of chiropteran paramyxoviruses could be missed throughout much of Africa where health surveillance and diagnostics are poor and comorbidities, such as infection with HIV or Plasmodium sp., are common.

Todd, Shawn; Marsh, Glenn A.; Crameri, Gary; Barr, Jennifer; Kamins, Alexandra O.; Peel, Alison J.; Yu, Meng; Hayman, David T. S.; Nadjm, Behzad; Mtove, George; Amos, Benjamin; Reyburn, Hugh; Nyarko, Edward; Suu-Ire, Richard; Murcia, Pablo R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L. N.

2013-01-01

26

Climbing flight performance and load carrying in lesser dog-faced fruit bats (Cynopterus brachyotis).  

PubMed

The metabolic cost of flight increases with mass, so animals that fly tend to exhibit morphological traits that reduce body weight. However, all flying animals must sometimes fly while carrying loads. Load carrying is especially relevant for bats, which experience nightly and seasonal fluctuations in body mass of 40% or more. In this study, we examined how the climbing flight performance of fruit bats (Cynopterus brachyotis; N=4) was affected by added loads. The body weights of animals were experimentally increased by 0, 7, 14 or 21% by means of intra-peritoneal injections of saline solution, and flights were recorded as animals flew upwards in a small enclosure. Using a model based on actuator disk theory, we estimated the mechanical power expended by the bats as they flew and separated that cost into different components, including the estimated costs of hovering, climbing and increasing kinetic energy. We found that even our most heavily loaded bats were capable of upward flight, but as the magnitude of the load increased, flight performance diminished. Although the cost of flight increased with loading, bats did not vary total induced power across loading treatment. This resulted in a diminished vertical velocity and thus shallower climbing angle with increased loads. Among trials there was considerable variation in power production, and those with greater power production tended to exhibit higher wingbeat frequencies and lower wing stroke amplitudes than trials with lower power production. Changes in stroke plane angle, downstroke wingtip velocity and wing extension did not correlate significantly with changes in power output. We thus observed the manner in which bats modulated power output through changes in kinematics and conclude that the bats in our study did not respond to increases in loading with increased power output because their typical kinematics already resulted in sufficient aerodynamic power to accommodate even a 21% increase in body weight. PMID:21307065

MacAyeal, Leigh C; Riskin, Daniel K; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

2011-03-01

27

Demography of straw-colored fruit bats in Ghana.  

PubMed

Eidolon helvum is widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa where it forms large, dense colonies. The species is migratory and satellite telemetry studies have demonstrated that individuals can migrate over 2,500 km. It is a common source of bush meat in West Africa and evidence of infection with potentially zoonotic viruses has been found in West African colonies. The species, therefore, is of interest to both ecologists and those interested in public health. Despite this, demographic parameters of the species are unknown. We focused our study primarily on a colony of up to 1,000,000 bats that roost in trees in Accra, Ghana to obtain estimates of birth rate and survival probability. Aging of bats by examination of tooth cementum annuli allowed use of life tables to indicate an annual survival probability for juveniles of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.77) and for adults of 0.83 (95% CI 0.73-0.93). Additionally, an annual adult survival probability of 0.63 (95% CI 0.27-0.88) was estimated by following 98 radiocollared bats over a year; capture-recapture data were analyzed using multistate models to address the confounding factor of emigration. True survival probabilities may be in between the 2 estimates, because permanent emigration may lead to underestimation in the capture-recapture study, and population decline may lead to overestimation in the life table analysis. Birth rates (0.96 young per female per year, 95% CI 0.92-0.98) and colony size changes were also estimated. Estimation of these key parameters will allow future analyses of both infection dynamics within, and harvest sustainability of, E. helvum populations. PMID:23525358

Hayman, David T S; McCrea, Rachel; Restif, Olivier; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R; Wood, James L N; Cunningham, Andrew A; Rowcliffe, J Marcus

2012-10-01

28

Demography of straw-colored fruit bats in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Eidolon helvum is widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa where it forms large, dense colonies. The species is migratory and satellite telemetry studies have demonstrated that individuals can migrate over 2,500 km. It is a common source of bush meat in West Africa and evidence of infection with potentially zoonotic viruses has been found in West African colonies. The species, therefore, is of interest to both ecologists and those interested in public health. Despite this, demographic parameters of the species are unknown. We focused our study primarily on a colony of up to 1,000,000 bats that roost in trees in Accra, Ghana to obtain estimates of birth rate and survival probability. Aging of bats by examination of tooth cementum annuli allowed use of life tables to indicate an annual survival probability for juveniles of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.77) and for adults of 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.93). Additionally, an annual adult survival probability of 0.63 (95% CI 0.27–0.88) was estimated by following 98 radiocollared bats over a year; capture–recapture data were analyzed using multistate models to address the confounding factor of emigration. True survival probabilities may be in between the 2 estimates, because permanent emigration may lead to underestimation in the capture–recapture study, and population decline may lead to overestimation in the life table analysis. Birth rates (0.96 young per female per year, 95% CI 0.92–0.98) and colony size changes were also estimated. Estimation of these key parameters will allow future analyses of both infection dynamics within, and harvest sustainability of, E. helvum populations.

Hayman, David T. S.; McCrea, Rachel; Restif, Olivier; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Wood, James L. N.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus

2012-01-01

29

Old World fruit bats can be long-distance seed dispersers through extended retention of viable seeds in the gut  

PubMed Central

Seed dispersal and pollination by animals play a crucial role in the maintenance of forest ecosystems worldwide. Frugivorous bats are important pollen and seed dispersers in both the Palaeo- and Neotropics, and at least 300 plant species are known to rely on Old World fruit bats (Megachiroptera, Pteropodidae) for their propagation. However, rapid food transit times (generally less than 30 minutes) in frugivorous bats have been thought to limit their ability to disperse seeds to just a few tens of kilometres. Here we demonstrate regular daytime (greater than 12 hours) retention of food and viable fig seeds (Ficus, Moraceae) in the gut of the Old World fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx: a behaviour not previously reported for any frugivorous bat. Field observations indicate that this behaviour also occurs in other genera. Old World fruit bats are highly mobile and many species undertake considerable foraging and migration flights. Our findings indicate that Old World fruit bats have the potential to disperse small seeds hundreds of kilometres. This necessitates a reappraisal of their importance in transporting zoochorous seeds to remote areas and facilitating gene flow between isolated populations of plants, both within mainlands and across ocean barriers.

Shilton, L. A.; Altringham, J. D.; Compton, S. G.; Whittaker, R. J.

1999-01-01

30

Hindlimb Motion during Steady Flight of the Lesser Dog-Faced Fruit Bat, Cynopterus brachyotis  

PubMed Central

In bats, the wing membrane is anchored not only to the body and forelimb, but also to the hindlimb. This attachment configuration gives bats the potential to modulate wing shape by moving the hindlimb, such as by joint movement at the hip or knee. Such movements could modulate lift, drag, or the pitching moment. In this study we address: 1) how the ankle translates through space during the wingbeat cycle; 2) whether amplitude of ankle motion is dependent upon flight speed; 3) how tension in the wing membrane pulls the ankle; and 4) whether wing membrane tension is responsible for driving ankle motion. We flew five individuals of the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis (Family: Pteropodidae), in a wind tunnel and documented kinematics of the forelimb, hip, ankle, and trailing edge of the wing membrane. Based on kinematic analysis of hindlimb and forelimb movements, we found that: 1) during downstroke, the ankle moved ventrally and during upstroke the ankle moved dorsally; 2) there was considerable variation in amplitude of ankle motion, but amplitude did not correlate significantly with flight speed; 3) during downstroke, tension generated by the wing membrane acted to pull the ankle dorsally, and during upstroke, the wing membrane pulled laterally when taut and dorsally when relatively slack; and 4) wing membrane tension generally opposed dorsoventral ankle motion. We conclude that during forward flight in C. brachyotis, wing membrane tension does not power hindlimb motion; instead, we propose that hindlimb movements arise from muscle activity and/or inertial effects.

Cheney, Jorn A.; Ton, Daniel; Konow, Nicolai; Riskin, Daniel K.; Breuer, Kenneth S.; Swartz, Sharon M.

2014-01-01

31

The use of olfaction in the foraging behaviour of the golden-mantled flying fox, Pteropus pumilus , and the greater musky fruit bat, Ptenochirus jagori (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-choice experiments with three adult males of the little golden-mantled flying fox, Pteropus pumilus, and ten adult greater musky fruit bats, Ptenochirus jagori (both Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae), demonstrate that they are able to discriminate accurately between an empty dish and a dish containing fruits of one of several species by odour alone. Tests were run using fruits of six fruit species

Stefan Luft; Eberhard Curio; Benjamin Tacud

2003-01-01

32

Summit metabolism and metabolic expansibility in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bats (Epomophorus wahlbergi): seasonal acclimatisation and effects of captivity.  

PubMed

Summit metabolism (M sum), the maximum rate of resting metabolic thermogenesis, has been found to be broadly correlated with climatic variables and the use of heterothermy in some endotherms. Far less is known about M sum and metabolic expansibility [ME, the ratio of M sum to basal metabolic rate (BMR)] in bats compared with many other endotherm taxa. We measured BMR and M sum during winter and summer in captive and wild populations of a pteropodid from the southern subtropics, Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) in Pretoria, South Africa. The M sum of fruit bats ranged from 5.178 ± 0.611 W (captive, summer) to 6.006 ± 0.890 W (captive, winter), and did not vary significantly between seasons. In contrast, BMR decreased by 17-25% in winter. The combination of seasonally stable M sum but flexible BMR resulted in ME being significantly higher in winter than in summer, ranging from 7.24 ± 1.49 (wild, summer) to 13.11 ± 2.14 (captive, winter). The latter value is well above the typical mammalian range. Moreover, both M sum and ME were significantly higher in captive bats than in wild individuals; we speculate this represents a phenotypic response to a reduction in exercise-associated heat production while in captivity. Our data for E. wahlbergi, combined with those currently available for other chiropterans, reveal that M sum in bats is highly variable compared with allometrically expected values for other mammals. PMID:24363417

Minnaar, Ingrid A; Bennett, Nigel C; Chimimba, Christian T; McKechnie, Andrew E

2014-04-15

33

Hindlimb Motion during Steady Flight of the Lesser Dog-Faced Fruit Bat, Cynopterus brachyotis.  

PubMed

In bats, the wing membrane is anchored not only to the body and forelimb, but also to the hindlimb. This attachment configuration gives bats the potential to modulate wing shape by moving the hindlimb, such as by joint movement at the hip or knee. Such movements could modulate lift, drag, or the pitching moment. In this study we address: 1) how the ankle translates through space during the wingbeat cycle; 2) whether amplitude of ankle motion is dependent upon flight speed; 3) how tension in the wing membrane pulls the ankle; and 4) whether wing membrane tension is responsible for driving ankle motion. We flew five individuals of the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis (Family: Pteropodidae), in a wind tunnel and documented kinematics of the forelimb, hip, ankle, and trailing edge of the wing membrane. Based on kinematic analysis of hindlimb and forelimb movements, we found that: 1) during downstroke, the ankle moved ventrally and during upstroke the ankle moved dorsally; 2) there was considerable variation in amplitude of ankle motion, but amplitude did not correlate significantly with flight speed; 3) during downstroke, tension generated by the wing membrane acted to pull the ankle dorsally, and during upstroke, the wing membrane pulled laterally when taut and dorsally when relatively slack; and 4) wing membrane tension generally opposed dorsoventral ankle motion. We conclude that during forward flight in C. brachyotis, wing membrane tension does not power hindlimb motion; instead, we propose that hindlimb movements arise from muscle activity and/or inertial effects. PMID:24858194

Cheney, Jorn A; Ton, Daniel; Konow, Nicolai; Riskin, Daniel K; Breuer, Kenneth S; Swartz, Sharon M

2014-01-01

34

Environmental margin and island evolution in Middle Eastern populations of the Egyptian fruit bat.  

PubMed

Here, we present a study of the population genetic architecture and microevolution of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) at the environmental margins in the Middle East using mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellites. In contrast to the rather homogenous population structure typical of cave-dwelling bats in climax tropical ecosystems, a relatively pronounced isolation by distance and population diversification was observed. The evolution of this pattern could be ascribed to the complicated demographic history at higher latitudes related to the range margin fragmentation and complex geomorphology of the studied area. Lineages from East Africa and Arabia show divergent positions. Within the northwestern unit, the most marked pattern of the microsatellite data set is connected with insularity, as demonstrated by the separate status of populations from Saharan oases and Cyprus. These demes also exhibit a reduction in genetic variability, which is presumably connected with founder effects, drift and other potential factors related to island evolution as site-specific selection. Genetic clustering indicates a semipermeability of the desert barriers in the Sahara and Arabian Peninsula and a corridor role of the Nile Valley. The results emphasize the role of the island environment in restricting the gene flow in megabats, which is also corroborated by biogeographic patterns within the family, and suggests the possibility of nascent island speciation on Cyprus. Demographic analyses suggest that the colonization of the region was connected to the spread of agricultural plants; therefore, the peripatric processes described above might be because of or strengthened by anthropogenic changes in the environment. PMID:23094994

Hulva, P; Marešová, T; Dundarova, H; Bilgin, R; Benda, P; Bartoni?ka, T; Horá?ek, I

2012-12-01

35

Surface Glycoproteins of an African Henipavirus Induce Syncytium Formation in a Cell Line Derived from an African Fruit Bat, Hypsignathus monstrosus  

PubMed Central

Serological screening and detection of genomic RNA indicates that members of the genus Henipavirus are present not only in Southeast Asia but also in African fruit bats. We demonstrate that the surface glycoproteins F and G of an African henipavirus (M74) induce syncytium formation in a kidney cell line derived from an African fruit bat, Hypsignathus monstrosus. Despite a less broad cell tropism, the M74 glycoproteins show functional similarities to glycoproteins of Nipah virus.

Kruger, Nadine; Hoffmann, Markus; Weis, Michael; Drexler, Jan Felix; Muller, Marcel Alexander; Winter, Christine; Corman, Victor Max; Gutzkow, Tim; Drosten, Christian; Maisner, Andrea

2013-01-01

36

Jamaicans in New York City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses reasons behind the large influx of Jamaicans into New York City, and discusses their attitudes, experiences, and plans. Predicts that despite the hardships Jamaicans encounter in New York (cold weather, prejudice, and crime), economic opportunities available will cause most of them to stay rather than return to their native land. (GC)

Foner, Nancy

1984-01-01

37

Jamaican American Child Disciplinary Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about child disciplinary practices in Jamaican American families. Literature on child discipline in Jamaica and other Caribbean nations has mainly focused on physical discipline, and no empirical studies have investigated the types of discipline used in the Jamaican American community. The purpose of this study was to describe…

Carter, Stephaney

2011-01-01

38

Membrane muscle function in the compliant wings of bats.  

PubMed

Unlike flapping birds and insects, bats possess membrane wings that are more similar to many gliding mammals. The vast majority of the wing is composed of a thin compliant skin membrane stretched between the limbs, hand, and body. Membrane wings are of particular interest because they may offer many advantages to micro air vehicles. One critical feature of membrane wings is that they camber passively in response to aerodynamic load, potentially allowing for simplified wing control. However, for maximum membrane wing performance, tuning of the membrane structure to aerodynamic conditions is necessary. Bats possess an array of muscles, the plagiopatagiales proprii, embedded within the wing membrane that could serve to tune membrane stiffness, or may have alternative functions. We recorded the electromyogram from the plagiopatagiales proprii muscles of Artibeus jamaicensis, the Jamaican fruit bat, in flight at two different speeds and found that these muscles were active during downstroke. For both low- and high-speed flight, muscle activity increased between late upstroke and early downstroke and decreased at late downstroke. Thus, the array of plagiopatagiales may provide a mechanism for bats to increase wing stiffness and thereby reduce passive membrane deformation. These muscles also activate in synchrony, presumably as a means to maximize force generation, because each muscle is small and, by estimation, weak. Small differences in activation timing were observed when comparing low- and high-speed flight, which may indicate that bats modulate membrane stiffness differently depending on flight speed. PMID:24855069

Cheney, J A; Konow, N; Middleton, K M; Breuer, K S; Roberts, T J; Giblin, E L; Swartz, S M

2014-06-01

39

Ovulation, Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development in the Menstruating Fruit Bat, Carollia perspicillata  

PubMed Central

To characterize periovulatory events, reproductive tracts were collected at 12 hr intervals from captive-bred, short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata, on days 1-3 post coitum and examined histologically. Most bats bred readily. Graafian follicles developed large antra and exhibited preovulatory expansion of the cumulus oophorus. Ovulation had occurred in some on the morning, and in most by the evening, of day 1. The single ovum was released as a secondary oocyte and fertilized in the oviductal ampulla. Ovulated secondary oocytes were loosely associated with their cumulus cells, which were lost around the initiation of fertilization. Supernumerary spermatozoa were occasionally noted attached to the zonae pellucidae of oviductal ova, but never within the perivitelline space. By day 2, most ova had reached the pronuclear stage and by day 3, early cleavage stages. Several lines of evidence indicate that C. perspicillata is a spontaneous ovulator with a functional luteal phase. Most newly-mated females had recently-formed, but regressing corpora lutea, and thickened (albeit menstrual) uteri despite having been housed with males only for brief periods (< 23 days). Menstruation is usually periovulatory in this species. Furthermore, the interval between successive estrus periods in most mated females that failed to establish ongoing pregnancies at the first was 21 – 27 days. Menstruation involved substantial endometrial desquamation, plus associated bleeding, and generally extended to the evening of day 3, the last time point studied. In nearly all females with a recent corpus luteum (n=24/25; 96%), the preovulatory or newly-ruptured follicle was in the opposite ovary.

Rasweiler IV, John J.; Badwaik, Nilima K.; Mechineni, Kiranmayi V.

2010-01-01

40

History, ocean channels, and distance determine phylogeographic patterns in three widespread Philippine fruit bats (Pteropodidae).  

PubMed

The comparative phylogeography of widespread, codistributed species provides unique insights into regional biodiversity and diversification patterns. I used partial DNA sequences of the mitochondrial genes ND2 and cyt b to investigate phylogeographic structure in three widespread Philippine fruit bats. Ptenochirus jagori is endemic to the oceanic region of the Philippines and is most abundant in lowland primary forest. Macroglossus minimus and Cynopterus brachyotis are most common in disturbed and open habitats and are not endemic. In all three, genetic differentiation is present at multiple spatial scales and is associated to some degree with Pleistocene landbridge island groups. In P. jagori and C. brachyotis, genetic distance is correlated with geographic distance; in C. brachyotis and M. minimus, it is correlated with the sea-crossing distance between islands. P. jagori has the least overall genetic structure of these three species, whereas C. brachyotis and M. minimus have more geographic association among haplotypes, suggesting that phylogeographic patterns are linked to ecology and habitat preference. However, contrary to expectation, the two widespread, disturbed habitat species have more structure than the endemic species. Mismatch distributions suggest rapid changes in effective population size in C. brachyotis and P. jagori, whereas M. minimus appears to be demographically more stable. Geologic and geographic history are important in structuring variation, and phylogeographic patterns are the result of dynamic long-term processes rather than simply reflecting current conditions. PMID:16780434

Roberts, Trina E

2006-07-01

41

Evolutionary relationships of the old world fruit bats (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae): Another star phylogeny?  

PubMed Central

Background The family Pteropodidae comprises bats commonly known as megabats or Old World fruit bats. Molecular phylogenetic studies of pteropodids have provided considerable insight into intrafamilial relationships, but these studies have included only a fraction of the extant diversity (a maximum of 26 out of the 46 currently recognized genera) and have failed to resolve deep relationships among internal clades. Here we readdress the systematics of pteropodids by applying a strategy to try to resolve ancient relationships within Pteropodidae, while providing further insight into subgroup membership, by 1) increasing the taxonomic sample to 42 genera; 2) increasing the number of characters (to >8,000 bp) and nuclear genomic representation; 3) minimizing missing data; 4) controlling for sequence bias; and 5) using appropriate data partitioning and models of sequence evolution. Results Our analyses recovered six principal clades and one additional independent lineage (consisting of a single genus) within Pteropodidae. Reciprocal monophyly of these groups was highly supported and generally congruent among the different methods and datasets used. Likewise, most relationships within these principal clades were well resolved and statistically supported. Relationships among the 7 principal groups, however, were poorly supported in all analyses. This result could not be explained by any detectable systematic bias in the data or incongruence among loci. The SOWH test confirmed that basal branches' lengths were not different from zero, which points to closely-spaced cladogenesis as the most likely explanation for the poor resolution of the deep pteropodid relationships. Simulations suggest that an increase in the amount of sequence data is likely to solve this problem. Conclusions The phylogenetic hypothesis generated here provides a robust framework for a revised cladistic classification of Pteropodidae into subfamilies and tribes and will greatly contribute to the understanding of character evolution and biogeography of pteropodids. The inability of our data to resolve the deepest relationships of the major pteropodid lineages suggests an explosive diversification soon after origin of the crown pteropodids. Several characteristics of pteropodids are consistent with this conclusion, including high species diversity, great morphological diversity, and presence of key innovations in relation to their sister group.

2011-01-01

42

Interferon Production and Signaling Pathways Are Antagonized during Henipavirus Infection of Fruit Bat Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Bats are natural reservoirs for a spectrum of infectious zoonotic diseases including the recently emerged henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses). Henipaviruses have been observed both naturally and experimentally to cause serious and often fatal disease in many different mammal species, including humans. Interestingly, infection of the flying fox with henipaviruses occurs in the absence of clinical disease. The extreme variation in the disease pattern between humans and bats has led to an investigation into the effects of henipavirus infection on the innate immune response in bat cell lines. We report that henipavirus infection does not result in the induction of interferon expression, and the viruses also inhibit interferon signaling. We also confirm that the interferon production and signaling block in bat cells is not due to differing viral protein expression levels between human and bat hosts. This information, in addition to the known lack of clinical signs in bats following henipavirus infection, suggests that bats control henipavirus infection by an as yet unidentified mechanism, not via the interferon response. This is the first report of henipavirus infection in bat cells specifically investigating aspects of the innate immune system.

Virtue, Elena R.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Baker, Michelle L.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2011-01-01

43

Partitioning of evaporative water loss into respiratory and cutaneous pathways in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bats (Epomophorus wahlbergi).  

PubMed

The relative contributions of respiratory and cutaneous evaporation to total evaporative water loss (TEWL) and how the partitioning of these two avenues varies with environmental temperature has received little attention in bats. We trained Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bats (Epomophorus wahlbergi) captured in Pretoria, South Africa, to wear latex masks while hanging in respirometry chambers, and we measured respiratory evaporative water loss (REWL) and cutaneous evaporative water loss (CEWL) over air temperatures (Ta) from 10° to 40°C. The bats' normothermic body temperature (Tb) was approximately 36°C, which increased at higher Ta to 40.5° ± 1.0°C at Ta ? 40°C. Both TEWL and resting metabolic rate (RMR) increased sharply at Ta >35°C, with a mean TEWL at 40°C equivalent to 411% of that at 30°C. The increase in TEWL was driven by large increases in both CEWL and REWL. CEWL comprised more than 50% of TEWL over the entire Ta range, with the exception of Ta ? 40°C, where REWL accounted for 58% of evaporative water loss. Surface area-specific CEWL increased approximately sixfold with increasing Ta. Thermoregulation at Ta approaching or exceeding Tb involved a considerable energetic cost, with RMR at Ta ? 40°C exceeding by 24% that measured at Ta ? 10°C. Our data do not support recent arguments that respiratory gas exchange across the wing membranes represents 5%-10% of the total in E. wahlbergi. PMID:24769711

Minnaar, Ingrid A; Bennett, Nigel C; Chimimba, Christian T; McKechnie, Andrew E

2014-01-01

44

Detection of Nipah Virus RNA in Fruit Bat (Pteropus giganteus) from India  

PubMed Central

The study deals with the survey of different bat populations (Pteropus giganteus, Cynopterus sphinx, and Megaderma lyra) in India for highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV), Reston Ebola virus, and Marburg virus. Bats (n = 140) from two states in India (Maharashtra and West Bengal) were tested for IgG (serum samples) against these viruses and for virus RNAs. Only NiV RNA was detected in a liver homogenate of P. giganteus captured in Myanaguri, West Bengal. Partial sequence analysis of nucleocapsid, glycoprotein, fusion, and phosphoprotein genes showed similarity with the NiV sequences from earlier outbreaks in India. A serum sample of this bat was also positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for NiV-specific IgG. This is the first report on confirmation of Nipah viral RNA in Pteropus bat from India and suggests the possible role of this species in transmission of NiV in India.

Yadav, Pragya D.; Raut, Chandrashekhar G.; Shete, Anita M.; Mishra, Akhilesh C.; Towner, Jonathan S.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mourya, Devendra T.

2012-01-01

45

Echolocation call intensity and directionality in flying short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata (Phyllostomidae).  

PubMed

The directionality of bat echolocation calls defines the width of bats' sonar "view," while call intensity directly influences detection range since adequate sound energy must impinge upon objects to return audible echoes. Both are thus crucial parameters for understanding biosonar signal design. Phyllostomid bats have been classified as low intensity or "whispering bats," but recent data indicate that this designation may be inaccurate. Echolocation beam directionality in phyllostomids has only been measured through electrode brain-stimulation of restrained bats, presumably excluding active beam control via the noseleaf. Here, a 12-microphone array was used to measure echolocation call intensity and beam directionality in the frugivorous phyllostomid, Carollia perspicillata, echolocating in flight. The results showed a considerably narrower beam shape (half-amplitude beam angles of approximately 16° horizontally and 14° vertically) and louder echolocation calls [source levels averaging 99 dB sound pressure level (SPL) root mean square] for C. perspicillata than was found for this species when stationary. This suggests that naturally behaving phyllostomids shape their sound beam to achieve a longer and narrower sonar range than previously thought. C. perspicillata orient and forage in the forest interior and the narrow beam might be adaptive in clutter, by reducing the number and intensity of off-axis echoes. PMID:21303022

Brinkløv, Signe; Jakobsen, Lasse; Ratcliffe, John M; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Surlykke, Annemarie

2011-01-01

46

Sound Localization Acuity and its Relation to Vision in Large and Small Fruit-eating Bats: II. Non-echolocating Species, Eidolon helvum and Cynopterus brachyotis  

PubMed Central

Passive sound-localization acuity for 100-msec noise bursts was determined behaviorally for two species of non-echolocating bats: the Straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, a large frugivore, and the Dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, a small frugivore. The mean minimum audible angle for two E. helvum was 11.7°, and for two C. brachyotis was 10.5°. This places their passive sound-localization acuity near the middle of the range for echolocating bats as well as the middle of the range for other mammals. Sound-localization acuity varies widely among mammals, and the best predictor of this auditory function remains the width of the field of best vision (r = .89, p < .0001). Among echolocating and non-echolocating bats, as well as among other mammals, the use of hearing to direct the eyes to the source of a sound still appears to serve as an important selective factor for sound localization. Absolute visual acuity and the magnitude of the binaural locus cues available to a species remain unreliable predictors of sound-localization acuity.

Heffner, R.S.; Koay, G.; Heffner, H.E.

2008-01-01

47

Whole-body kinematics of a fruit bat reveal the influence of wing inertia on body accelerations.  

PubMed

The center of mass (COM) of a flying animal accelerates through space because of aerodynamic and gravitational forces. For vertebrates, changes in the position of a landmark on the body have been widely used to estimate net aerodynamic forces. The flapping of relatively massive wings, however, might induce inertial forces that cause markers on the body to move independently of the COM, thus making them unreliable indicators of aerodynamic force. We used high-speed three-dimensional kinematics from wind tunnel flights of four lesser dog-faced fruit bats, Cynopterus brachyotis, at speeds ranging from 2.4 to 7.8 m s(-1) to construct a time-varying model of the mass distribution of the bats and to estimate changes in the position of their COM through time. We compared accelerations calculated by markers on the trunk with accelerations calculated from the estimated COM and we found significant inertial effects on both horizontal and vertical accelerations. We discuss the effect of these inertial accelerations on the long-held idea that, during slow flights, bats accelerate their COM forward during 'tip-reversal upstrokes', whereby the distal portion of the wing moves upward and backward with respect to still air. This idea has been supported by the observation that markers placed on the body accelerate forward during tip-reversal upstrokes. As in previously published studies, we observed that markers on the trunk accelerated forward during the tip-reversal upstrokes. When removing inertial effects, however, we found that the COM accelerated forward primarily during the downstroke. These results highlight the crucial importance of the incorporation of inertial effects of wing motion in the analysis of flapping flight. PMID:21490262

Iriarte-Díaz, José; Riskin, Daniel K; Willis, David J; Breuer, Kenneth S; Swartz, Sharon M

2011-05-01

48

Type I Interferon Reaction to Viral Infection in Interferon-Competent, Immortalized Cell Lines from the African Fruit Bat Eidolon helvum  

PubMed Central

Bats harbor several highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses including Rabies, Marburg, and henipaviruses, without overt clinical symptoms in the animals. It has been suspected that bats might have evolved particularly effective mechanisms to suppress viral replication. Here, we investigated interferon (IFN) response, -induction, -secretion and -signaling in epithelial-like cells of the relevant and abundant African fruit bat species, Eidolon helvum (E. helvum). Immortalized cell lines were generated; their potential to induce and react on IFN was confirmed, and biological assays were adapted to application in bat cell cultures, enabling comparison of landmark IFN properties with that of common mammalian cell lines. E. helvum cells were fully capable of reacting to viral and artificial IFN stimuli. E. helvum cells showed highest IFN mRNA induction, highly productive IFN protein secretion, and evidence of efficient IFN stimulated gene induction. In an Alphavirus infection model, O'nyong-nyong virus exhibited strong IFN induction but evaded the IFN response by translational rather than transcriptional shutoff, similar to other Alphavirus infections. These novel IFN-competent cell lines will allow comparative research on zoonotic, bat-borne viruses in order to model mechanisms of viral maintenance and emergence in bat reservoirs.

Biesold, Susanne E.; Ritz, Daniel; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Wollny, Robert; Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor M.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian; Muller, Marcel A.

2011-01-01

49

Type I interferon reaction to viral infection in interferon-competent, immortalized cell lines from the African fruit bat Eidolon helvum.  

PubMed

Bats harbor several highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses including Rabies, Marburg, and henipaviruses, without overt clinical symptoms in the animals. It has been suspected that bats might have evolved particularly effective mechanisms to suppress viral replication. Here, we investigated interferon (IFN) response, -induction, -secretion and -signaling in epithelial-like cells of the relevant and abundant African fruit bat species, Eidolon helvum (E. helvum). Immortalized cell lines were generated; their potential to induce and react on IFN was confirmed, and biological assays were adapted to application in bat cell cultures, enabling comparison of landmark IFN properties with that of common mammalian cell lines. E. helvum cells were fully capable of reacting to viral and artificial IFN stimuli. E. helvum cells showed highest IFN mRNA induction, highly productive IFN protein secretion, and evidence of efficient IFN stimulated gene induction. In an Alphavirus infection model, O'nyong-nyong virus exhibited strong IFN induction but evaded the IFN response by translational rather than transcriptional shutoff, similar to other Alphavirus infections. These novel IFN-competent cell lines will allow comparative research on zoonotic, bat-borne viruses in order to model mechanisms of viral maintenance and emergence in bat reservoirs. PMID:22140523

Biesold, Susanne E; Ritz, Daniel; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Wollny, Robert; Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor M; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Marcel A

2011-01-01

50

Home range, territoriality, and flight time budgets in the black-bellied fruit bat, Melonycteris melanops (Pteropodidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on 1,362 radiotelemetry positions, mean home range for 10 adult black-bellied fruit bats, Melonycteris melanops (Pteropodidae), in lowland rainforest at Mount Garbuna, West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea, was 2.3 ha ?? 1.2 SD. Mean core-use area of adults was 0.5 ha ?? 0.4 SD, and mean long axis of home range was 370 m ?? 90 SD. Core-use areas were associated with day-roost shelters or flowering bananas. Means of home range, core-use area, and long axis across home range were significantly larger in subadults than in adults. During the day, M. melanops roosted singly under banana leaves or in subcanopy foliage, often showing extended fidelity to day-roost sites. Adults excluded other same-sex adults from feeding territories around bananas, but mixed-sex pairs overlapped strongly. During the first 2 h of the night, individual bats made 69-99 flights of 2- to 139-s duration. Cumulative flight represented 24-36% of the 2-h sampling periods. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

Bonaccorso, F. J.; Winkelmann, J. R.; Byrnes, D. G. P.

2005-01-01

51

Elemental composition of Jamaican foods 1: A survey of five food crop categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of 27 elements in Jamaican food categories consisting of fruit, legumes, leafy and root vegetables and other root crops are reported. The main analytical techniques used were neutron activation analysis and flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results are compared, where possible, with values from Denmark, the United Kingdom, the United States and Nigeria, and with

Andrea Howe; Leslie Hoo Fung; Gerald Lalor; Robin Rattray; Mitko Vutchkov

2005-01-01

52

Pulau virus; a new member of the Nelson Bay orthoreovirus species isolated from fruit bats in Malaysia.  

PubMed

After the outbreak of Nipah virus (NiV) in 1998-99, which resulted in 105 human deaths and the culling of more than one million pigs, a search was initiated for the natural host reservoir of NiV on Tioman Island off the east coast of Malaysia. Three different syncytia-forming viruses were isolated from fruit bats on the island. They were Nipah virus, Tioman virus (a novel paramyxovirus related to Menangle virus), and a reovirus, named Pulau virus (PuV), which is the subject of this study. PuV displayed the typical ultra structural morphology of a reovirus and was neutralised by serum against Nelson Bay reovirus (NBV), a reovirus isolated from a fruit bat (Pteropus poliocephalus) in Australia over 30 years ago. PuV was fusogenic and formed large syncytia in Vero cells. Comparison of dsRNA segments between PuV and NBV showed distinct mobility differences for the S1 and S2 segments. Complete sequence analysis of all four S segments revealed a close relationship between PuV and NBV, with nucleotide sequence identity varying from 88% for S3 segment to 56% for the S1 segment. Similarly phylogenetic analysis of deduced protein sequences confirmed that PuV is closely related to NBV. In this paper we discuss the similarities and differences between PuV and NBV which support the classification of PuV as a novel mammalian, fusogenic reovirus within the Nelson Bay orthoreovirus species, in the genus Orthoreovirus, family Reoviridae. PMID:16205863

Pritchard, L I; Chua, K B; Cummins, D; Hyatt, A; Crameri, G; Eaton, B T; Wang, L-F

2006-02-01

53

Ultrastructural and functional characteristics of anterior pituitary cells in the Indian fruit bat, Rousettus leschenaulti (Desmarest).  

PubMed

The pituitary glands of normal and experimental male and female bats were examined by light and electron microscopy. Six cell types were identified in the anterior pituitary by differential staining techniques, ultrastructural characteristics and changes brought about during the different phases of the sexual cycle. Conventional methods like removal of thyroids, testes and adrenals, and animals in lactation withdrawal and treatment with propylthio-uracil, cyproterone acetate and metyrapone were employed. A marked predominance of somatotrophin and luteotrophin (LTH) cells were present in the intact adult female bat pituitary gland. LTH cells were also observed in milk retention experiments. The two gonadotrophic cell types were randomly distributed throughout the gland. Hypertrophy of two gonadotroph cells was observed in response to the physiological conditions of the animals, gonadectomy and administration of the male antifertility drug cyproterone acetate. Thyrotrophin and adrenocorticotrophin cells were identified by ablation of the respective target organs, thyroids and adrenals, and after treatment with propylthio-uracil and metyrapone. On the basis of the pathological conditions of the bats, the possible functional significance of the different cell types is also discussed. PMID:2750467

Bhiwgade, D A; Akolkar, V V; Menon, S N; Manekar, A P; Senad, D G

1989-01-01

54

Urban Jamaican Children's Exposure to Community Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with aggression in adulthood. The high level of community violence in Jamaica is likely to expose Jamaican children to violence. There has been no detailed study of the exposure of Jamaican children to violence in their daily lives. Some 1674 urban 11-12-year-old children, previously part of a national birth cohort study, completed a

ME Samms-Vaughan; DE Ashley

2004-01-01

55

Evidence for Exploitative Competition: Comparative Foraging Behavior and Roosting Ecology of Short-Tailed Fruit Bats (Phyllostomidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chestnut short-tailed bats, Carollia castanea, and Seba's short-tailed bats, C. perspicillata (Phyllostomidae), were radio-tracked (N = 1593 positions) in lowland rain forest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Orellana Province, Ecuador. For 11 C. castanea, mean home range was 6.8 ± 2.2 ha, mean core-use area was 1.7 ± 0.8 ha, and mean long axis across home range was 438 ± 106

Frank J. Bonaccorso; John R. Winkelmann; Danny Shin; Caroline I. Agrawal; Nadia Aslami; Caitlin Bonney; Andrea Hsu; Phoebe E. Jekielek; Allison K. Knox; Stephen J. Kopach; Tara D. Jennings; Jesse R. Lasky; Sarah A. Menesale; Jeannine H. Richards; Jessica A. Rutland; Anna K. Sessa; Luba Zhaurova; Thomas H. Kunz

2007-01-01

56

Job satisfaction of Jamaican elementary school teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated correlates of job satisfaction among public (N=190) and private (N=100) Jamaican elementary school teachers. Emphasis was on the identification of factors that could be affected through administrative intervention. Results indicated that the quality of school working conditions and respondents' relationships with other teachers were significantly related to satisfaction for both public and private school teachers. School prestige and parental encouragement were also significant predictors for public school teachers; leadership style, organizational structure, and teacher-parent relationships predicted job satisfaction for private school teachers. Implications of these findings for Jamaican education are discussed.

Rodgers-Jenkinson, Fay; Chapman, David W.

1990-09-01

57

Bat Detective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bat Detective is an online citizen science project which allows visitors to the website to take part in wildlife conservation by listening out for bat calls in recordings collected all over the world. By sorting the sounds in the recordings into insect and bat calls, bat detectives will help biologists learn how to reliably distinguish bat 'tweets' to develop new automatic identification tools.

Zooniverse

2014-05-14

58

Hoary Bat  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) roosting on the branch of a tree. About half of all bat fatalities documented in North America involve hoary bats, a migratory species that roosts in the foliage of trees....

2009-10-19

59

Metagenomic study of the viruses of African straw-coloured fruit bats: detection of a chiropteran poxvirus and isolation of a novel adenovirus.  

PubMed

Viral emergence as a result of zoonotic transmission constitutes a continuous public health threat. Emerging viruses such as SARS coronavirus, hantaviruses and henipaviruses have wildlife reservoirs. Characterising the viruses of candidate reservoir species in geographical hot spots for viral emergence is a sensible approach to develop tools to predict, prevent, or contain emergence events. Here, we explore the viruses of Eidolon helvum, an Old World fruit bat species widely distributed in Africa that lives in close proximity to humans. We identified a great abundance and diversity of novel herpes and papillomaviruses, described the isolation of a novel adenovirus, and detected, for the first time, sequences of a chiropteran poxvirus closely related with Molluscum contagiosum. In sum, E. helvum display a wide variety of mammalian viruses, some of them genetically similar to known human pathogens, highlighting the possibility of zoonotic transmission. PMID:23562481

Baker, Kate S; Leggett, Richard M; Bexfield, Nicholas H; Alston, Mark; Daly, Gordon; Todd, Shawn; Tachedjian, Mary; Holmes, Clare E G; Crameri, Sandra; Wang, Lin-Fa; Heeney, Jonathan L; Suu-Ire, Richard; Kellam, Paul; Cunningham, Andrew A; Wood, James L N; Caccamo, Mario; Murcia, Pablo R

2013-07-01

60

Metagenomic study of the viruses of African straw-coloured fruit bats: Detection of a chiropteran poxvirus and isolation of a novel adenovirus  

PubMed Central

Viral emergence as a result of zoonotic transmission constitutes a continuous public health threat. Emerging viruses such as SARS coronavirus, hantaviruses and henipaviruses have wildlife reservoirs. Characterising the viruses of candidate reservoir species in geographical hot spots for viral emergence is a sensible approach to develop tools to predict, prevent, or contain emergence events. Here, we explore the viruses of Eidolon helvum, an Old World fruit bat species widely distributed in Africa that lives in close proximity to humans. We identified a great abundance and diversity of novel herpes and papillomaviruses, described the isolation of a novel adenovirus, and detected, for the first time, sequences of a chiropteran poxvirus closely related with Molluscum contagiosum. In sum, E. helvum display a wide variety of mammalian viruses, some of them genetically similar to known human pathogens, highlighting the possibility of zoonotic transmission.

Baker, Kate S.; Leggett, Richard M.; Bexfield, Nicholas H.; Alston, Mark; Daly, Gordon; Todd, Shawn; Tachedjian, Mary; Holmes, Clare E.G.; Crameri, Sandra; Wang, Lin-Fa; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Suu-Ire, Richard; Kellam, Paul; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L.N.; Caccamo, Mario; Murcia, Pablo R.

2013-01-01

61

Increased population sampling confirms low genetic divergence among Pteropus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) fruit bats of Madagascar and other western Indian Ocean islands  

PubMed Central

Fruit bats of the genus Pteropus occur throughout the Austral-Asian region west to islands off the eastern coast of Africa. Recent phylogenetic analyses of Pteropus from the western Indian Ocean found low sequence divergence and poor phylogenetic resolution among several morphologically defined species. We reexamine the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa by using multiple individuals per species. In addition, we estimate population genetic structure in two well-sampled taxa occurring on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands (P. rufus and P. seychellensis comorensis). Despite finding a similar pattern of low sequence divergence among species, increased sampling provides insight into the phylogeographic history of western Indian Ocean Pteropus, uncovering high levels of gene flow within species.

Chan, Lauren M.; Goodman, Steven M.; Nowak, Michael D.; Weisrock, David W.; Yoder, Anne D.

2011-01-01

62

The Movement Ecology of the Straw-Colored Fruit Bat, Eidolon helvum, in Sub-Saharan Africa Assessed by Stable Isotope Ratios  

PubMed Central

Flying foxes (Pteropodidae) are key seed dispersers on the African continent, yet their migratory behavior is largely unknown. Here, we studied the movement ecology of the straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, and other fruit bats by analyzing stable isotope ratios in fur collected from museum specimens. In a triple-isotope approach based on samples of two ecologically similar non-migratory pteropodids, we first confirmed that a stable isotope approach is capable of delineating between geographically distinct locations in Sub-Saharan Africa. A discriminant function analysis assigned 84% of individuals correctly to their capture site. Further, we assessed how well hydrogen stable isotope ratios (?2H) of fur keratin collected from non-migratory species (n?=?191 individuals) records variation in ?2H of precipitation water in sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, we found positive, negative and no correlations within the six studied species. We then developed a reduced major axis regression equation based on individual data of non-migratory species to predict where potentially migratory E. helvum (n?=?88) would come from based on their keratin ?2H. Across non-migratory species, ?2H of keratin and local water correlated positively. Based on the isoscape origin model, 22% of E. helvum were migratory, i.e. individuals had migrated over at least 250 km prior to their capture. Migratory individuals came from locations at a median distance of about 860 km from the collection site, four even from distances of at least 2,000 km. Ground-truthing of our isoscape origin model based on keratin ?2H of extant E. helvum (n?=?76) supported a high predictive power of assigning the provenance of African flying foxes. Our study highlights that stable isotope ratios can be used to explain the migratory behavior of flying foxes, even on the isotopically relatively homogenous African continent, and with material collected by museums many decades or more than a century ago.

Ossa, Gonzalo; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Peel, Alison J.; Scharf, Anne K.; Voigt, Christian C.

2012-01-01

63

Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from faecal samples of the Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum) in Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Bats (Chiroptera) are one of the most diverse groups of mammals which carry out important ecological and agricultural functions that are beneficial to humans. However, they are increasingly recognized as natural vectors for a number of zoonotic pathogens and favourable hosts for zoonotic infections. Large populations of the Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum) colonize the main campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria, but the public health implications of faecal contamination and pollution by these flying mammals is unknown. This study characterized S. aureus obtained from faecal samples of these migratory mammals with a view to determining the clonal types of the isolates, and to investigate the possibility of these flying animals as potential reservoir for zoonotic S. aureus infections. Results One hundred and seven (107) S. aureus isolates were recovered from 560 faecal samples in eleven roosting sites from January 2008 to February 2010. A large proportion of the isolates were susceptible to antibiotics, and molecular characterization of 70 isolates showed that 65 (92.9%) were assigned in coagulase type VI, while accessory gene typing classified 69 isolates into the following: type I (12; 17.1%), type II (3; 4.3%), type III (1; 1.4%) and type IV (53; 75.7%). On the whole, the isolates were grouped in five (A-E) main genotypes. Of the ten representative isolates selected for multilocus sequence typing (MLST), nine isolates were assigned with new sequence types: ST1725, ST1726, ST1727, ST2463-ST2467 and ST2470. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence that S. aureus isolates in group C were closely related with ST1822 and associated clones identified in African monkeys, and group D isolates with ST75, ST883 and ST1223. The two groups exhibited remarkable genetic diversity compared to the major S. aureus clade. Conclusions Antibiotic resistance in faecal S. aureus isolates of E. helvum is low and multiple unique S. aureus lineages co-existed with E. helvum. The Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat in Ile-Ife, Nigeria is colonized predominantly by ST1725, ST1726, ST2463 and ST2470 with distinct genotypic characteristics that are rarely found in humans. This study has demonstrated on the possible existence of a reservoir of indigenous and anciently-divergent S. aureus clones among mammals in Africa.

2012-01-01

64

Henipavirus RNA in African Bats  

PubMed Central

Background Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus) are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. Methodology/Principal Findings Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. Conclusions/Significance The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans.

Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Seebens, Antje; Annan, Augustina; Ipsen, Anne; Kruppa, Thomas; Muller, Marcel A.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian

2009-01-01

65

Poverty and Child Outcomes: A Focus on Jamaican Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with children from more affluent families, poor children face a higher risk of developmental delays and fare worse on various measures of developmental outcomes. This paper examines the relationship between poverty and child outcomes in the Jamaican context. Specifically, the paper focuses on the detrimental consequences for poor Jamaican

Smith, Delores E.; Ashiabi, Godwin S.

2007-01-01

66

Jamaican Creole Language Course (For English Speaking Students).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the high incidence of structural similarity between Jamaican Creole and Standard English, many of the important differences between the two languages can be obscured. This fact and that of negative attitudes towards Creole are the principal problems encountered in teaching Creole. The lessons in this course on Jamaican Creole are based…

Bailey, Beryl Loftman

67

Bat talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in RealPlayer, introduces students to the research that Maryland biologists are conducting to assess the status of bat populations in their state. Technologies are discussed that help scientists study the often elusive bats. The clip shows that when researchers descend into a cave to survey the number of hibernating bats there, they discover fewer bats are present than in previous years. The clip also notes that efforts to conserve bat populations are needed. Bats contribute significantly to the functioning of ecosystems, but many species are decreasing in numbers nationwide. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE); Maryland Public Television (MPT)

2004-01-01

68

Bat talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in Windows Media Player, introduces students to the research that Maryland biologists are conducting to assess the status of bat populations in their state. Technologies are discussed that help scientists study the often elusive bats. The clip shows that when researchers descend into a cave to survey the number of hibernating bats there, they discover fewer bats are present than in previous years. The clip also notes that efforts to conserve bat populations are needed. Bats contribute significantly to the functioning of ecosystems, but many species are decreasing in numbers nationwide. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE); Maryland Public Television (MPT)

2004-01-01

69

The aerodynamic cost of flight in the short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata): comparing theory with measurement.  

PubMed

Aerodynamic theory has long been used to predict the power required for animal flight, but widely used models contain many simplifications. It has been difficult to ascertain how closely biological reality matches model predictions, largely because of the technical challenges of accurately measuring the power expended when an animal flies. We designed a study to measure flight speed-dependent aerodynamic power directly from the kinetic energy contained in the wake of bats flying in a wind tunnel. We compared these measurements with two theoretical predictions that have been used for several decades in diverse fields of vertebrate biology and to metabolic measurements from a previous study using the same individuals. A high-accuracy displaced laser sheet stereo particle image velocimetry experimental design measured the wake velocities in the Trefftz plane behind four bats flying over a range of speeds (3-7 m s(-1)). We computed the aerodynamic power contained in the wake using a novel interpolation method and compared these results with the power predicted by Pennycuick's and Rayner's models. The measured aerodynamic power falls between the two theoretical predictions, demonstrating that the models effectively predict the appropriate range of flight power, but the models do not accurately predict minimum power or maximum range speeds. Mechanical efficiency--the ratio of aerodynamic power output to metabolic power input--varied from 5.9% to 9.8% for the same individuals, changing with flight speed. PMID:24718450

von Busse, Rhea; Waldman, Rye M; Swartz, Sharon M; Voigt, Christian C; Breuer, Kenneth S

2014-06-01

70

Bat Bonanza  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a lesson on bats developed for kindergartners, which uses models of bats to teach about their physiology, diet, and habitat. The lesson uses craft sticks, wax paper, and colored construction paper that kindergarten teachers can use to help their students compare the features of 4 different kinds of bats. The use of online…

Phillips, Amanda J.; Scott, Catherine; Matthews, Catherine E.

2013-01-01

71

Breaking Bat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

2013-01-01

72

Adaptive Evolution of Leptin in Heterothermic Bats  

PubMed Central

Heterothermy (hibernation and daily torpor) is a key strategy that animals use to survive in harsh conditions and is widely employed by bats, which are found in diverse habitats and climates. Bats comprise more than 20% of all mammals and although heterothermy occurs in divergent lineages of bats, suggesting it might be an ancestral condition, its evolutionary history is complicated by complex phylogeographic patterns. Here, we use Leptin, which regulates lipid metabolism and is crucial for thermogenesis of hibernators, as molecular marker and combine physiological, molecular and biochemical analyses to explore the possible evolutionary history of heterothermy in bat. The two tropical fruit bats examined here were homeothermic; in contrast, the two tropical insectivorous bats were clearly heterothermic. Molecular evolutionary analyses of the Leptin gene revealed positive selection in the ancestors of all bats, which was maintained or further enhanced the lineages comprising mostly heterothermic species. In contrast, we found evidence of relaxed selection in homeothermic species. Biochemical assays of bat Leptin on the activity on adipocyte degradation revealed that Leptin in heterothermic bats was more lipolytic than in homeothermic bats. This shows that evolutionary sequence changes in this protein are indeed functional and support the interpretation of our physiological results and the molecular evolutionary analyses. Our combined data strongly support the hypothesis that heterothermy is the ancestral state of bats and that this involved adaptive changes in Leptin. Subsequent loss of heterothermy in some tropical lineages of bats likely was associated with range and dietary shifts.

Yuan, Lihong; Zhao, Xudong; Lin, Benfu; Rossiter, Stephen J.; He, Lingjiang; Zuo, Xueguo; He, Guimei; Jones, Gareth; Geiser, Fritz; Zhang, Shuyi

2011-01-01

73

Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States  

PubMed Central

A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. We propose and test a tridimensional model among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared with Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S. immigrant dyads (473 dyads, M adolescent age = 14 years). Jamaican immigrants evidence tridimensional acculturation, orienting toward Jamaican, African American, and European American cultures. Integration is favored (70%), particularly tricultural integration; moreover, Jamaican and other Black U.S. immigrants are more oriented toward African American than European American culture. Jamaican immigrant youth adapt at least as well as non-immigrant Jamaican and U.S. peers, although assimilated adolescents, particularly first generation, have worse sociocultural adaptation than integrated and separated adolescents.

Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

2011-01-01

74

‘Intellectual Murder’: Walter Rodney's Groundings in the Jamaican Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walter Rodney's The Groundings with my Brothers (1969), is assessed primarily in the context of 1960s Jamaica. Rodney's efforts to link Marxism and pan-Africanism into a single revolutionary movement and the reasons for his being declared persona non grata by the Jamaican government of the day are examined and evaluated within that context. Rodney's work is seen as continuing to

F. S. J. Ledgister

2008-01-01

75

Where Do Jamaican Adolescents Turn for Psychological Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Stigma about mental health is a significant problem in Jamaica and the wider English-speaking Caribbean. In general, negative attitudes and opinions about mental illness have been found to negatively impact psychological help-seeking among several populations. Objective: This study examined Jamaican adolescents' preferential sources of…

Williams, Dahra Jackson

2012-01-01

76

CULTURAL AUTONOMY AND POPULAR MUSICA Survey of Jamaican Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines culture flow between nations, specifically the attention those in Jamaica pay to exogenous cultural influence in the form of popular music. A survey of 300 Jamaican youths in early 1983 found that higher socioeconomic status was accompanied by greater preference for foreign over local music.

MARLENE CUTHBERT

1985-01-01

77

JAMAICAN POSSES: A NEW FORM OF ORGANIZED CRIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jamaican organized crime activities have dramatically increased over the past two decades in the United States. These criminals organized into groups called posses initially trafficked in marijuana. However, posses have recently moved into the lucrative cocaine trade and now dominate the street- level marketing of crack cocaine in many American urban areas. This paper examines the rise of posse activity

Bruce W. Gay; James W. Marquart

1993-01-01

78

Lagos Bat Virus in Kenya?  

PubMed Central

During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection.

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Y.; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2008-01-01

79

Distant Relatives of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Close Relatives of Human Coronavirus 229E in Bats, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested 12 bat species in Ghana for coronavirus (CoV) RNA. The virus prevalence in insectivorous bats (n = 123) was 9.76%. CoV was not detected in 212 fecal samples from Eidolon helvum fruit bats. Leaf-nosed bats pertaining to Hipposideros ruber by morphology had group 1 and group 2 CoVs. Virus concentrations were <45,000 copies\\/100 mg of bat feces. The

Susanne Pfefferle; Samuel Oppong; Jan Felix Drexler; Florian Gloza-Rausch; Anne Ipsen; Antje Seebens; Marcel A. Müller; Augustina Annan; Peter Vallo; Yaw Adu-Sarkodie; Thomas F. Kruppa; Christian Drosten

2009-01-01

80

Comparative phylogeography of short-tailed bats (Carollia: Phyllostomidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first study of comparative phylogeography involving closely related species of Neotropical bats of the family Phyllostomidae. We compared patterns of geographical variation within the five species of fruit-eating bats currently recognized in the genus Carollia using the complete mitochondrial cytochrome -b gene. Our results suggest that the com- bined effect of the uplift of the Andes and

F. G. Hoffmann; R. J. Baker

2003-01-01

81

Molecular Epidemiology of Paramyxoviruses in Frugivorous Eidolon helvum Bats in Zambia  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In this study, we describe the detection of novel paramyxoviruses from the Eidolon helvum species of fruit bats. We extracted RNA from 312 spleen samples from bats captured in Zambia over a period of 4 years (2008–2011). Semi-nested RT-PCR detected a total of 25 (8%) positive samples for paramyxoviruses which were then directly sequenced and analyzed using phylogenetic analysis. Among the positive samples, seven novel paramyxoviruses were detected. Five viruses were closely related to the genus Henipavirus, while two viruses were related to the unclassified Bat paramyxoviruses from Ghana and Congo Brazzaville. Our study identified novel Henipavirus-related and unrelated viruses using RT-PCR in fruit bats from Kansaka National Park and indicated the presence of similar Bat paramyxoviruses originating from wide geographic areas, suggesting the ability of bats to harbor and transmit viruses. The presence of these viruses in fruit bats might pose a public health risk.

MULEYA, Walter; SASAKI, Michihito; ORBA, Yasuko; ISHII, Akihiro; THOMAS, Yuka; NAKAGAWA, Emiko; OGAWA, Hirohito; HANG'OMBE, Bernard; NAMANGALA, Boniface; MWEENE, Aaron; TAKADA, Ayato; KIMURA, Takashi; SAWA, Hirofumi

2013-01-01

82

Molecular Epidemiology of Paramyxoviruses in Frugivorous Eidolon helvum Bats in Zambia.  

PubMed

In this study, we describe the detection of novel paramyxoviruses from the Eidolon helvum species of fruit bats. We extracted RNA from 312 spleen samples from bats captured in Zambia over a period of 4 years (2008-2011). Semi-nested RT-PCR detected a total of 25 (8%) positive samples for paramyxoviruses which were then directly sequenced and analyzed using phylogenetic analysis. Among the positive samples, seven novel paramyxoviruses were detected. Five viruses were closely related to the genus Henipavirus, while two viruses were related to the unclassified Bat paramyxoviruses from Ghana and Congo Brazzaville. Our study identified novel Henipavirus-related and unrelated viruses using RT-PCR in fruit bats from Kansaka National Park and indicated the presence of similar Bat paramyxoviruses originating from wide geographic areas, suggesting the ability of bats to harbor and transmit viruses. The presence of these viruses in fruit bats might pose a public health risk. PMID:24389743

Muleya, Walter; Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Nakagawa, Emiko; Ogawa, Hirohito; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Namangala, Boniface; Mweene, Aaron; Takada, Ayato; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

2014-05-01

83

Evaluating baseball bat performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected methodologies currently used to assess baseball bat performance were evaluated through a series of finite element simulations. Results of the comparison show that current test methods contradict one another and do not describe the performance advantage of modern hollow bats over solid wood bats. The discrepancy was related to the way performance was quantified and the way the bat

L. V. Smith

2001-01-01

84

European Bat Lyssavirus in Scottish Bats  

PubMed Central

We report the first seroprevalence study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) in Daubenton's bats. Bats were captured from 19 sites across eastern and southern Scotland. Samples from 198 Daubenton's bats, 20 Natterer's bats, and 6 Pipistrelle's bats were tested for EBLV-2. Blood samples (N = 94) were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine antibody titer. From 0.05% to 3.8% (95% confidence interval) of Daubenton's bats were seropositive. Antibodies to EBLV-2 were not detected in the 2 other species tested. Mouth swabs (N = 218) were obtained, and RNA was extracted for a reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The RT-PCR included pan lyssavirus-primers (N gene) and internal PCR control primers for ribosomal RNA. EBLV-2 RNA was not detected in any of the saliva samples tested, and live virus was not detected in virus isolation tests.

Brookes, Sharon M.; Aegerter, James N.; Smith, Graham C.; Healy, Derek M.; Jolliffe, Tracey A.; Swift, Susan M.; Mackie, Iain J.; Pritchard, J. Stewart; Racey, Paul A.; Moore, Niall P.

2005-01-01

85

The antihypertensive effects of the Jamaican Cho-Cho (Sechium edule).  

PubMed

The experiments reported in this study constitute a preliminary investigation into the possible hypotensive effect of the Jamaican Cho-Cho (Sechium edule). Experiments were conducted in a random and blind fashion on two sub species of Sechium edule. Both the pulp and the peel were examined for hypotensive activity. Water-soluble extracts were prepared from these components of the fruit and injected into anaesthetised rats. Various cardiovascular parameters were measured including heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and several ECG intervals. We report that all extracts tested produced a fall in blood pressure with little change in ECG intervals. Extract B produced the least change in heart rate with a fall in MAP of approximately 23 mmHg. Changes in heart rate with all extracts appeared to be minimal as an ED25 value could only be determined for extract A, and ED10 values could not be evaluated for extracts C and D. The mechanism(s) by which these extracts produce their hypotensive effects could not be determined in these preliminary experiments. However, it appears not to involve direct effects on cardiac tissue. This conclusion is based on the finding that it took a minimum of 10 to 15 seconds for the hypotensive action to manifest post bolus. Future experiments will be aimed at delineating the mechanism(s) involved in decreasing MAP. PMID:10786447

Gordon, E A; Guppy, L J; Nelson, M

2000-03-01

86

Novel Paramyxoviruses in Free-Ranging European Bats  

PubMed Central

The zoonotic potential of paramyxoviruses is particularly demonstrated by their broad host range like the highly pathogenic Hendra and Nipah viruses originating from bats. But while so far all bat-borne paramyxoviruses have been identified in fruit bats across Africa, Australia, South America, and Asia, we describe the detection and characterization of the first paramyxoviruses in free-ranging European bats. Moreover, we examined the possible impact of paramyxovirus infection on individual animals by comparing histo-pathological findings and virological results. Organs from deceased insectivorous bats of various species were sampled in Germany and tested for paramyxovirus RNA in parallel to a histo-pathological examination. Nucleic acids of three novel paramyxoviruses were detected, two viruses in phylogenetic relationship to the recently proposed genus Jeilongvirus and one closely related to the genus Rubulavirus. Two infected animals revealed subclinical pathological changes within their kidneys, suggestive of a similar pathogenesis as the one described in fruit bats experimentally infected with Hendra virus. Our findings indicate the presence of bat-born paramyxoviruses in geographic areas free of fruit bat species and therefore emphasize a possible virus–host co-evolution in European bats. Since these novel viruses are related to the very distinct genera Rubulavirus and Jeilongvirus, a similarly broad genetic diversity among paramyxoviruses in other Microchiroptera compared to Megachiroptera can be assumed. Given that the infected bats were either found in close proximity to heavily populated human habitation or areas of intensive agricultural use, a potential risk of the emergence of zoonotic paramyxoviruses in Europe needs to be considered.

Brinkmann, Annika; Ebinger, Arnt; Harper, Jennifer A.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Muhldorfer, Kristin; Wibbelt, Gudrun

2012-01-01

87

Assessment of the bioavailability of cadmium in Jamaican soils.  

PubMed

Extraordinary geogenic concentrations of cadmium (Cd) have been reported for some Jamaican soils. However, the bioavailability of the metal in these soils remains unknown. Here, the bioavailability of Cd in selected Jamaican soils was investigated through the determination of total and sequentially extractable concentrations in paired soil-plant (yam; Dioscorea sp.) samples (n?=?24), using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy as primary analytical techniques. Our results indicate that total soil Cd varied widely (2.2-148.7 mg kg(-1)), and on average, total extractable Cd accounted for ~55 % of the total soil Cd. The exchangeable and oxidizable species averaged 1.5 and 6.4 % of the total Cd, respectively, and, based on Spearman analysis, are the best predictors of yam Cd. There is also good evidence to suggest that variation in the bioavailability of the metal is in part controlled by the geochemical characteristics of the soils analyzed and is best explained by pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and organic matter content (% LOI). PMID:24682640

Spence, Adrian; Hanson, Richard E; Grant, Charles N; Hoo Fung, Leslie; Rattray, Robin

2014-07-01

88

The Jamaican adolescent's perspective on violence and its effects.  

PubMed

The Caribbean and in particular Jamaica is experiencing an epidemic of violence which adversely affects its youth who are the main perpetrators and victims. Early and protracted exposure to violence is part of the socialization experience that results in violence-related behaviours. This paper examines the impact of the early and sustained exposure to violence on the attitudes and behaviours of Jamaican adolescents from their perspective. An analysis of qualitative data collected from three studies between 2005 and 2009 among adolescents across Jamaica was conducted using the recurrent theme approach. Exposure to violence was common and increased with age and lower socioeconomic status and was most marked among marginalized inner city youth. While attitudes and behaviours in response to the violence varied among adolescents, there was a "dose response effect" in relation to age and lower social status. It is necessary to alter the socialization process in order to break the cycle of violence through wide ranging interventions that touch on every aspect of the spheres of influence in the life of Jamaican adolescents. PMID:21942121

Bailey, A

2011-03-01

89

Bats and Wind Energy  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS biologist Paul Cryan. Biologists hope to learn more about the scale and causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines by searching for carcasses of bats beneath turbines and carefully documenting the conditions under which they are found....

2009-10-19

90

Bats and Wind Energy  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS biologist Paul Cryan examines the carcass of a hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) found beneath a wind turbine. By examining the casualties, biologists hope to learn more about why migratory bats are so susceptible to wind turbines. ...

2009-10-19

91

Bat Influenza (Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... America. Does bat influenza pose a threat to human health? Preliminary laboratory research at CDC suggests that ... viruses become capable of infecting and spreading among humans? Because the internal genes of bat influenza viruses ...

92

Race and color: Jamaican migrants in London and New York City.  

PubMed

This article compares the significance of race among Jamaicans in London and NewYork. Drawing on research among 1st generation migrants in both cities, it is contended that being a black Jamaican must be understood in terms of the racial context of the receiving area. In New York, where segregation of blacks is more pronounced, being part of the large and residentially concentrated local black population cushions Jamaican migrants from some of the sting of racial prejudice and provides them with easier access to certain occupations and social institutions. In the US, women, not men, dominate the Jamaican immigration movement, and it is common for women to migrate 1st, later followed by their children and, in many cases their husbands as well. Whether Jamaicans settle in London or New York, they experience a painful change: being black is more of a stigma than it is in Jamaica. One reason why the Jamaicans interviewed in New York complained less about racial prejudice than the London migrants is that they had more realistic expectations of the racial situation, and thus were less disillusioned when they arrived abroad. The presence and residential segregation of the large black community in New York means that Jamaicans there are less apt than in London to meet whites, and thus to have painful contacts with whites in various neighborhood arenas. A key aspect of New York Jamaicans' own identity--and a source of pride and a sense of self-worth--is their feeling of superiority to black Americans. PMID:12267607

Foner, N

1985-01-01

93

Public health awareness of emerging zoonotic viruses of bats: a European perspective.  

PubMed

Bats classified in the order Chiroptera are the most abundant and widely distributed non-human mammalian species in the world. Several bat species are reservoir hosts of zoonotic viruses and therefore can be a public health hazard. Lyssaviruses of different genotypes have emerged from bats in America (Genotype 1 rabies virus; RABV), Europe (European bat lyssavirus; EBLV), and Australia (Australian bat lyssavirus; ABLV), whereas Nipah virus is the most important recent zoonosis of bat origin in Asia. Furthermore, some insectivorous bat species may be important reservoirs of SARS coronavirus, whereas Ebola virus has been detected in some megachiropteran fruit bats. Thus far, European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) is the only zoonotic virus that has been detected in bats in Europe. New zoonotic viruses may emerge from bat reservoirs and known ones may spread to a wider geographical range. To assess future threats posed by zoonotic viruses of bats, there is a need for accurate knowledge of the factors underlying disease emergence, for an effective surveillance programme, and for a rapid response system. In Europe, primary efforts should be focussed on the implementation of effective passive and active surveillance systems for EBLVs in the Serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus, and Myotis species (i.e., M. daubentonii and M. dasycneme). Apart from that, detection methods for zoonotic viruses that may emerge from bats should be implemented. Analyses of data from surveillance studies can shed more light on the dynamics of bat viruses, (i.e., population persistence of viruses in bats). Subsequently, studies will have to be performed to assess the public health hazards of such viruses (i.e., infectivity and risk of infection to people). With the knowledge generated from this kind of research, a rapid response system can be set up to enhance public health awareness of emerging zoonotic viruses of bats. PMID:17187565

van der Poel, Wim H M; Lina, Peter H C; Kramps, Johannes A

2006-01-01

94

Cloud Model Bat Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA) is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformation theory of cloud model to depict the qualitative concept: “bats approach their prey.” Furthermore, Lévy flight mode and population information communication mechanism of bats are introduced to balance the advantage between exploration and exploitation. The simulation results show that the cloud model bat algorithm has good performance on functions optimization.

Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Li, Liangliang; Ma, Mingzhi

2014-01-01

95

Are Jamaicans really that stigmatizing? A comparison of mental health help-seeking attitudes.  

PubMed

Research suggests that there is a high level of stigma surrounding mental illness in the English-speaking Caribbean, limited knowledge about aetiology and scepticism about the effectiveness of treatment. Further, in spite of experiencing symptoms of distress, a growing body of literature has suggested that Caribbean nationals hold negative attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. It has been suggested that these attitudes may be even more negative than for other populations. This paper presents the results of two studies which sought to examine this assumption. It was hypothesized that Jamaicans would hold more negative attitudes toward seeking professional mental health services than samples from other populations. Data regarding attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help were collected from 339 Jamaican adolescents. In study 1, a review of the literature was conducted. Three published studies that utilized the same measure of help-seeking attitudes, had a sample similar in age, and published their sample size, means and standard deviations, which were compared to the Jamaican sample. In study 2, data from the Jamaican sample were compared to a sample of African-American adolescents (n = 81). Results did not support the hypothesis. Jamaicans were generally found to be either similar or more positive in their attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. These encouraging results are discussed. Suggestions for improving education and reducing mental health stigma are presented. PMID:24756657

Jackson Williams, D

2013-01-01

96

Hoary Bat Victim  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) found dead beneath a wind turbine, an apparent victim of a blade strike or near-contact barotrauma (lung failure from severe and abrupt pressure change; here, caused by the spinning blades). Prior to the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines, biologists rarely en...

2009-10-19

97

Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in a Jamaican community.  

PubMed

We researched epidemiologic associations between environmental and demographic factors and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in a suburban Jamaican community. Using a clustered sampling technique, 22 domestic yards enclosing 60 separate households were randomly selected from a local community. All household members (n = 346) were invited to participate following informed consent; the overall compliance rate was 58.9%. A commercial enzyme immunoassay (HMáCAP) was used to detect IgG antibodies raised against H. pylori. Environmental and demographic information was obtained by questionnaire. The seroprevalence of H. pylori was 69.9% (n = 202). Analysis of the independent variables revealed three major components: Component 1 described, collectively, good personal hygiene and sanitation, indoor water supply and absence of straying animals in the peridomestic area; Component 2 included older age, good personal hygiene and large yard size; Component 3 the presence of domestic animals (cats and dogs) and, again, large yard size. These three complexes explained 42.2% of the variability in the data set. Logistic regression showed that Components 2 and 3 were independently associated with H. pylori seropositivity, indicating that a combination of demographic, environmental and zoonotic factors is involved in the spread of H. pylori infections at the tropical community level. PMID:10632995

Lindo, J F; Lyn-Sue, A E; Palmer, C J; Lee, M G; Vogel, P; Robinson, R D

1999-12-01

98

Batting performance of wood and metal baseball bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

CRISCO, J. J., R. M. GREENWALD, J. D. BLUME, and L. H. PENNA. Batting performance of wood and metal baseball bats.Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 10, pp. 1675-1684, 2002. Introduction\\/Purpose: Although metal baseball bats are widely believed to outperform wood bats, there are few scientific studies which support this. In a batting cage study, Greenwald et al. found

JOSEPH J. CRISCO; RICHARD M. GREENWALD; JEFFREY D. BLUME; LORRAINE H. PENNA

2002-01-01

99

Prevalence of pre- and postpartum depression in Jamaican women  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal depression during pregnancy has been studied less than depression in postpartum period. The aims of this study were to find out the prevalence of prepartum and postpartum depression and the risk factors associated in a cohort of Afro-Jamaican pregnant women in Jamaica. Methods The Zung self-rating depression scale instrument was administered to 73 healthy pregnant women at 28 weeks gestation and at 6 weeks postpartum for quantitative measurement of depression. Blood samples were collected at 8, 28, 35 weeks gestation and at day 1 and 6 weeks postpartum to study the thyroid status. Results Study demonstrated depression prevalence rates of 56% and 34% during prepartum and postpartum period, respectively. 94% women suffering depression in both periods were single. There were significant variations in both FT3 and TT4 concentrations which increased from week 8 to week 28 prepartum (p < 0.05) and then declined at the 35th week (p < 0.05 compared with week 28) and 1 day post delivery study (p < 0.05 compared with week 35). The mean values for TSH increased significantly from week 8 through week 35. The mean values at 1 day postpartum and 6 week postpartum were not significantly different from the 35 week values. For FT3, TT4 and TSH there were no significant between group differences in concentrations. The major determinants of postpartum depression were moderate and severe prepartum depression and change in TT4 hormone concentrations. Conclusion High prevalence of depression was found during pre- and postpartum periods. Single mothers, prepartum depression and changes in TT4 were factors found to be significantly associated with postpartum depression.

Wissart, Janice; Parshad, Omkar; Kulkarni, Santosh

2005-01-01

100

The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Dysfunction in Jamaican Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…

Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.

2009-01-01

101

Family Violence and Aggression and Their Associations with Psychosocial Functioning in Jamaican Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among selected family interaction variables and psychosocial outcomes in a sample of Jamaican adolescents. The authors hypothesized that adolescent psychosocial outcomes would be negatively associated with physical violence, verbal aggression would be more potent than physical…

Smith, Delores E.; Moore, Todd M.

2013-01-01

102

New World Bats Harbor Diverse Influenza A Viruses  

PubMed Central

Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus, designated as H18N11, in a flat-faced fruit bat (Artibeus planirostris) from Peru. Serologic studies with the recombinant H18 protein indicated that several Peruvian bat species were infected by this virus. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that, in some gene segments, New World bats harbor more influenza virus genetic diversity than all other mammalian and avian species combined, indicative of a long-standing host-virus association. Structural and functional analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase indicate that sialic acid is not a ligand for virus attachment nor a substrate for release, suggesting a unique mode of influenza A virus attachment and activation of membrane fusion for entry into host cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that bats constitute a potentially important and likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza viruses.

Tong, Suxiang; Zhu, Xueyong; Li, Yan; Shi, Mang; Zhang, Jing; Bourgeois, Melissa; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xianfeng; Recuenco, Sergio; Gomez, Jorge; Chen, Li-Mei; Johnson, Adam; Tao, Ying; Dreyfus, Cyrille; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Carney, Paul J.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Chang, Jessie; Guo, Zhu; Davis, Charles T.; Paulson, James C.; Stevens, James; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Wilson, Ian A.; Donis, Ruben O.

2013-01-01

103

CROP PROTECTION AND CONSERVATION OF FRUGIVOROUS BATS IN ORCHARDS OF HILL AND COASTAL REGIONS OF KARNATAKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of frugivorous bats, viz., Pteropus giganteus and Cynoptera sphinx were implicated in damaging sapota and guava fruits in hill (Chettalli) and coastal (Uppinangadi) regions of Karnataka. At Uppinangadi, the population of Pteropus giganteus ranged between 3500-4000 and Cynopterus sphinx, two to 28. Pteropus giganteus caused on an average 18% fruit losses in arecanut (Areca catechu). At Chettalli, damage

A. K. Chakravarthy; A. C. Girish

104

The second Swift BAT GRB catalog (BAT2) (Sakamoto+, 2011)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters, and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. In

T. Sakamoto; S. D. Barthelmy; W. H. Baumgartner; J. R. Cummings; E. E. Fenimore; N. Gehrels; H. A. Krimm; C. B. Markwardt; D. M. Palmer; A. M. Parsons; G. Sato; M. Stamatikos; J. Tueller; T. N. Ukwatta; B. Zhang

2011-01-01

105

Tiger moth jams bat sonar.  

PubMed

In response to sonar-guided attacking bats, some tiger moths make ultrasonic clicks of their own. The lepidopteran sounds have previously been shown to alert bats to some moths' toxic chemistry and also to startle bats unaccustomed to sonic prey. The moth sounds could also interfere with, or "jam," bat sonar, but evidence for such jamming has been inconclusive. Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, we show that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar. Sonar jamming extends the defensive repertoire available to prey in the long-standing evolutionary arms race between bats and insects. PMID:19608920

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

2009-07-17

106

Observations of sylvatic rabies in Northern Argentina during outbreaks of paralytic cattle rabies transmitted by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus).  

PubMed

During rabies outbreaks in cattle (paralytic rabies) in Argentina associated with the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, rabies was observed in marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), red brocket deer (Mazama americana), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), savanna fox (Cerdocyon thous), and great fruit-eating bat (Artibeus lituratus). Rabies could constitute a threat to the survival of marsh deer in places where they live in small groups, and infection of both great fruit-eating bats and savanna fox represent a risk for humans; both species exhibit aggressiveness and fury when infected. PMID:19901391

Delpietro, H A; Lord, R D; Russo, R G; Gury-Dhomen, F

2009-10-01

107

Lyssavirus Surveillance in Bats, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Lyssavirus surveillance in bats was performed in Bangladesh during 2003 and 2004. No virus isolates were obtained. Three serum samples (all from Pteropus giganteus, n = 127) of 288 total serum samples, obtained from bats in 9 different taxa, neutralized lyssaviruses Aravan and Khujand. The infection occurs in bats in Bangladesh, but virus prevalence appears low.

Niezgoda, Michael; Carroll, Darin S.; Keeler, Natalie; Hossain, Mohammed Jahangir; Breiman, Robert F.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2006-01-01

108

A cross-sectional study of Jamaican adolescents' risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare obese versus non-obese Jamaican adolescents’ risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); and to explore a suitable and economical method of screening for these risk factors in the school settings. Design A descriptive cross-sectional study of adolescents’ risk for T2D and CVD. All the participants were examined at their respective schools. Setting Jamaica, West Indies. Population 276 Jamaican adolescents aged 14–19?years, randomly selected from grades 9 to 12 from 10 high schools on the island and included both boys and girls. All ethnicities on the island were represented. Main outcome measures High fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, family history of obesity, T2D and CVDs, low physical activity, and presence of Acanthosis Nigricans. All blood measures were analysed using the finger prick procedure. Results Waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, Acanthosis Nigricans, total cholesterol, family history of T2D and blood pressure were the strongest predictors of BMI (p=0.001). Over one-third of the participants were overweight. Jamaican adolescent females had a significantly higher number of risk factors and were less physically active than males (p<0.05). Over 80% of participants reported ?3 risk factors for T2D and CVD. Participants with BMI ?25 reported five or more risk factors. One-third of the overweight participants were classified with metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Jamaican adolescents are at risk of T2D and CVD. Family history of disease and anthropometric measures identified more participants at risk than did the blood measures. Jamaican adolescent females reported more risk factors for T2D and CVD as compared to males. Collection of this type of data was feasible within the school settings. All data were collected in 1?day per school. Intervention measures are needed to educate Jamaican adolescents to reduce overweight and subsequently the risk factors.

Barrett, Sheila C; Huffman, Fatma G; Johnson, Paulette; Campa, Adriana; Magnus, Marcia; Ragoobirsingh, Dalip

2013-01-01

109

Bat-Associated Leptospirosis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Leptospirosis is a globally prevalent disease that affects humans, causing systemic illness that may lead to multi-organ involvement. Clinical signs include sudden fever, general malaise, muscular pain, conjunctival suffusion, and jaundice. Disease is caused by pathogenic bacteria including over 200 serologic variants. Most serologic variants have primary reservoirs in wild mammals, which continually infect and colonize domesticated animals. The organism has been recovered from rats, swine, dogs, cattle, and other animals, notably bats. Most studies have focused on domestic animals as reservoir hosts; however, because of their abundance, spatial distribution, and interrelationship with domestic animals, bats are becoming an epidemiologically significant source of leptospires. We present a case of serologically confirmed leptospirosis after bat exposure to add to the growing literature of bats as a possible source of transmission. Recognition of the common presentation of leptospirosis and Weil’s disease, and identification of animal vectors, including bats, allows for the selection of appropriate antibiotic management to aid in resolution of symptomotology.

Vashi, Neelam A.; Reddy, Pavani; Sabin, Bradley

2009-01-01

110

Isolation of a novel adenovirus from Rousettus leschenaultii bats from India.  

PubMed

Surveillance work was initiated to study the presence of highly infectious diseases like Ebola-Reston, Marburg, Nipah and other possible viruses that are known to be found in the bat species and responsible for causing diseases in humans. A novel adenovirus was isolated from a common species of fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaultii) captured in Maharashtra State, India. Partial sequence analysis of the DNA polymerase gene shows this isolate to be a newly recognized member of the genus Mastadenovirus (family Adenoviridae), approximately 20% divergent at the nucleotide level from Japanese BatAdV, its closest known relative. PMID:22572722

Raut, C G; Yadav, P D; Towner, J S; Amman, B R; Erickson, B R; Cannon, D L; Sivaram, A; Basu, A; Nichol, S T; Mishra, A C; Mourya, D T

2012-01-01

111

Marburg virus infection detected in a common African bat.  

PubMed

Marburg and Ebola viruses can cause large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with high case fatality (80-90%) in human and great apes. Identification of the natural reservoir of these viruses is one of the most important topics in this field and a fundamental key to understanding their natural history. Despite the discovery of this virus family almost 40 years ago, the search for the natural reservoir of these lethal pathogens remains an enigma despite numerous ecological studies. Here, we report the discovery of Marburg virus in a common species of fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in Gabon as shown by finding virus-specific RNA and IgG antibody in individual bats. These Marburg virus positive bats represent the first naturally infected non-primate animals identified. Furthermore, this is the first report of Marburg virus being present in this area of Africa, thus extending the known range of the virus. These data imply that more areas are at risk for MHF outbreaks than previously realized and correspond well with a recently published report in which three species of fruit bats were demonstrated to be likely reservoirs for Ebola virus. PMID:17712412

Towner, Jonathan S; Pourrut, Xavier; Albariño, César G; Nkogue, Chimène Nze; Bird, Brian H; Grard, Gilda; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Stuart T; Leroy, Eric M

2007-01-01

112

Two novel parvoviruses in frugivorous New and Old World bats.  

PubMed

Bats, a globally distributed group of mammals with high ecological importance, are increasingly recognized as natural reservoir hosts for viral agents of significance to human and animal health. In the present study, we evaluated pools of blood samples obtained from two phylogenetically distant bat families, in particular from flying foxes (Pteropodidae), Eidolon helvum in West Africa, and from two species of New World leaf-nosed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae), Artibeus jamaicensis and Artibeus lituratus in Central America. A sequence-independent virus discovery technique (VIDISCA) was used in combination with high throughput sequencing to detect two novel parvoviruses: a PARV4-like virus named Eh-BtPV-1 in Eidolon helvum from Ghana and the first member of a putative new genus in Artibeus jamaicensis from Panama (Aj-BtPV-1). Those viruses were circulating in the corresponding bat colony at rates of 7-8%. Aj-BtPV-1 was also found in Artibeus lituratus (5.5%). Both viruses were detected in the blood of infected animals at high concentrations: up to 10E8 and to 10E10 copies/ml for Aj-BtPV-1 and Eh-BtPV-1 respectively. Eh-BtPV-1 was additionally detected in all organs collected from bats (brain, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys and intestine) and spleen and kidneys were identified as the most likely sites where viral replication takes place. Our study shows that bat parvoviruses share common ancestors with known parvoviruses of humans and livestock. We also provide evidence that a variety of Parvovirinae are able to cause active infection in bats and that they are widely distributed in these animals with different geographic origin, ecologies and climatic ranges. PMID:22216187

Canuti, Marta; Eis-Huebinger, Anna Maria; Deijs, Martin; de Vries, Michel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Oppong, Samuel K; Müller, Marcel A; Klose, Stefan M; Wellinghausen, Nele; Cottontail, Veronika M; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Drosten, Christian; van der Hoek, Lia

2011-01-01

113

Two Novel Parvoviruses in Frugivorous New and Old World Bats  

PubMed Central

Bats, a globally distributed group of mammals with high ecological importance, are increasingly recognized as natural reservoir hosts for viral agents of significance to human and animal health. In the present study, we evaluated pools of blood samples obtained from two phylogenetically distant bat families, in particular from flying foxes (Pteropodidae), Eidolon helvum in West Africa, and from two species of New World leaf-nosed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae), Artibeus jamaicensis and Artibeus lituratus in Central America. A sequence-independent virus discovery technique (VIDISCA) was used in combination with high throughput sequencing to detect two novel parvoviruses: a PARV4-like virus named Eh-BtPV-1 in Eidolon helvum from Ghana and the first member of a putative new genus in Artibeus jamaicensis from Panama (Aj-BtPV-1). Those viruses were circulating in the corresponding bat colony at rates of 7–8%. Aj-BtPV-1 was also found in Artibeus lituratus (5.5%). Both viruses were detected in the blood of infected animals at high concentrations: up to 10E8 and to 10E10 copies/ml for Aj-BtPV-1 and Eh-BtPV-1 respectively. Eh-BtPV-1 was additionally detected in all organs collected from bats (brain, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys and intestine) and spleen and kidneys were identified as the most likely sites where viral replication takes place. Our study shows that bat parvoviruses share common ancestors with known parvoviruses of humans and livestock. We also provide evidence that a variety of Parvovirinae are able to cause active infection in bats and that they are widely distributed in these animals with different geographic origin, ecologies and climatic ranges.

Deijs, Martin; de Vries, Michel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Oppong, Samuel K.; Muller, Marcel A.; Klose, Stefan M.; Wellinghausen, Nele; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Drosten, Christian; van der Hoek, Lia

2011-01-01

114

Do Bat Gantries and Underpasses Help Bats Cross Roads Safely?  

PubMed Central

Major roads can reduce bat abundance and diversity over considerable distances. To mitigate against these effects and comply with environmental law, many European countries install bridges, gantries or underpasses to make roads permeable and safer to cross. However, through lack of appropriate monitoring, there is little evidence to support their effectiveness. Three underpasses and four bat gantries were investigated in northern England. Echolocation call recordings and observations were used to determine the number of bats using underpasses in preference to crossing the road above, and the height at which bats crossed. At gantries, proximity to the gantry and height of crossing bats were measured. Data were compared to those from adjacent, severed commuting routes that had no crossing structure. At one underpass 96% of bats flew through it in preference to crossing the road. This underpass was located on a pre-construction commuting route that allowed bats to pass without changing flight height or direction. At two underpasses attempts to divert bats from their original commuting routes were unsuccessful and bats crossed the road at the height of passing vehicles. Underpasses have the potential to allow bats to cross roads safely if built on pre-construction commuting routes. Bat gantries were ineffective and used by a very small proportion of bats, even up to nine years after construction. Most bats near gantries crossed roads along severed, pre-construction commuting routes at heights that put them in the path of vehicles. Crossing height was strongly correlated with verge height, suggesting that elevated verges may have some value in mitigation, but increased flight height may be at the cost of reduced permeability. Green bridges should be explored as an alternative form of mitigation. Robust monitoring is essential to assess objectively the case for mitigation and to ensure effective mitigation.

Berthinussen, Anna; Altringham, John

2012-01-01

115

Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. II: Carollia perspicillata.  

PubMed

We determined the audiograms of two short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata), 18-g phyllostomids from Central and South America. For testing, we used a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure with a fruit juice reward. At an intensity of 60 dB SPL, the hearing of C. perspicillata extends from 5.2 to 150 kHz, showing a best sensitivity of 0 dB at 25 kHz and a secondary region of sensitivity at 71 kHz. Although C. perspicillata is frugivorous and therefore does not rely on sonar for detecting and pursuing insects, its audiogram is similar to that of insectivorous bats; similarly, there is no suggestion of unusual sensitivity associated with its low-intensity echolocation calls. The behavioral audiogram is compared to previously published physiological estimates of hearing. PMID:12684174

Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Rickye S; Bitter, Karen S; Heffner, Henry E

2003-04-01

116

Evolutionary History of Indian Ocean Nycteribiid Bat Flies Mirroring the Ecology of Their Hosts  

PubMed Central

Bats and their parasites are increasingly investigated for their role in maintenance and transmission of potentially emerging pathogens. The islands of the western Indian Ocean hold nearly 50 bat species, mostly endemic and taxonomically well studied. However, investigation of associated viral, bacterial, and external parasites has lagged behind. In the case of their ectoparasites, more detailed information should provide insights into the evolutionary history of their hosts, as well as pathogen cycles in these wild animals. Here we investigate species of Nycteribiidae, a family of obligate hematophagous wingless flies parasitizing bats. Using morphological and molecular approaches, we describe fly species diversity sampled on Madagascar and the Comoros for two cave-roosting bat genera with contrasting ecologies: Miniopterus and Rousettus. Within the sampling area, 11 endemic species of insect-feeding Miniopterus occur, two of which are common to Madagascar and Comoros, while fruit-consuming Rousettus are represented by one species endemic to each of these zones. Morphological and molecular characterization of flies reveals that nycteribiids associated with Miniopterus bats comprise three species largely shared by most host species. Flies of M. griveaudi, one of the two bats found on Madagascar and certain islands in the Comoros, belong to the same taxon, which accords with continued over-water population exchange of this bat species and the lack of inter-island genetic structuring. Flies parasitizing Rousettus belong to two distinct species, each associated with a single host species, again in accordance with the distribution of each endemic bat species.

Tortosa, Pablo; Dsouli, Najla; Gomard, Yann; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dick, Carl W.; Goodman, Steven M.

2013-01-01

117

Novel astroviruses in insectivorous bats.  

PubMed

Bats are increasingly recognized to harbor a wide range of viruses, and in most instances these viruses appear to establish long-term persistence in these animals. They are the reservoir of a number of human zoonotic diseases including Nipah, Ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We report the identification of novel groups of astroviruses in apparently healthy insectivorous bats found in Hong Kong, in particular, bats belonging to the genera Miniopterus and Myotis. Astroviruses are important causes of diarrhea in many animal species, including humans. Many of the bat astroviruses form distinct phylogenetic clusters in the genus Mamastrovirus within the family Astroviridae. Virus detection rates of 36% to 100% and 50% to 70% were found in Miniopterus magnater and Miniopterus pusillus bats, respectively, captured within a single bat habitat during four consecutive visits spanning 1 year. There was high genetic diversity of viruses in bats found within this single habitat. Some bat astroviruses may be phylogenetically related to human astroviruses, and further studies with a wider range of bat species in different geographic locations are warranted. These findings are likely to provide new insights into the ecology and evolution of astroviruses and reinforce the role of bats as a reservoir of viruses with potential to pose a zoonotic threat to human health. PMID:18550669

Chu, D K W; Poon, L L M; Guan, Y; Peiris, J S M

2008-09-01

118

What the bat's voice tells the bat's brain  

PubMed Central

For over half a century, the echolocating bat has served as a valuable model in neuroscience to elucidate mechanisms of auditory processing and adaptive behavior in biological sonar. Our article emphasizes the importance of the bat's vocal-motor system to spatial orientation by sonar, and we present this view in the context of three problems that the echolocating bat must solve: (i) auditory scene analysis, (ii) sensorimotor transformations, and (iii) spatial memory and navigation. We summarize our research findings from behavioral studies of echolocating bats engaged in natural tasks and from neurophysiological studies of the bat superior colliculus and hippocampus, brain structures implicated in sensorimotor integration, orientation, and spatial memory. Our perspective is that studies of neural activity in freely vocalizing bats engaged in natural behaviors will prove essential to advancing a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying perception and memory in mammals.

Ulanovsky, Nachum; Moss, Cynthia F.

2008-01-01

119

Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

120

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses.  

PubMed

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host-virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

O'Shea, Thomas J; Cryan, Paul M; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fooks, Anthony R; Hayman, David T S; Luis, Angela D; Peel, Alison J; Plowright, Raina K; Wood, James L N

2014-05-01

121

Evolutionary aspects of bat echolocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is yet another attempt to explain how echolocation in bats or bat-like mammals came into existence. Attention is focused on neuronal specializations in the ascending auditory pathway of echolocating bats. Three different mechanisms are considered that may create a specific auditory sensitivity to echos: (1) time-windows of enhanced echo-processing opened by a corollary discharge of neuronal vocalization commands;

G. Neuweiler

2003-01-01

122

Science Nation: Batty for Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are 5,000 species of mammals alive at present, and nearly a quarter of them are bats. They're found in almost every location on Earth. In fact, bats are the only mammals that can fly under their own power! With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), two scientists from very different disciplines have set up a special facility, including a wind tunnel, to study bats in flight.

123

European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and 251 (21%) were positive for lyssavirus antigen. Five (4%) of 129 specimens from the pond bat, Myotis dasycneme, were positive. Recently detected EBLV RNA segments encoding the nucleoprotein were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically (45 specimens). All recent serotine bat specimens clustered with genotype 5 (EBLV1) sequences, and homologies within subgenotypes EBLV1a and EBLV1b were 99.0%–100% and 99.2%–100%, respectively. Our findings indicate that EBLVs of genotype 5 are endemic in the serotine bat in the Netherlands. Since EBLVs can cause fatal infections in humans, all serotine and pond bats involved in contact incidents should be tested to determine whether the victim was exposed to EBLVs.

Van der Heide, Reina; Verstraten, Elisabeth R.A.M.; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Lina, Peter H.C.; Kramps, Johannes A.

2005-01-01

124

Do Bat Gantries and Underpasses Help Bats Cross Roads Safely?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major roads can reduce bat abundance and diversity over considerable distances. To mitigate against these effects and comply with environmental law, many European countries install bridges, gantries or underpasses to make roads permeable and safer to cross. However, through lack of appropriate monitoring, there is little evidence to support their effectiveness. Three underpasses and four bat gantries were investigated in

Anna Berthinussen; John Altringham

2012-01-01

125

Seafood consumption and blood mercury concentrations in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Mercury is a toxic metal shown to have harmful effects on human health. Several studies have reported high blood mercury concentrations as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), while other studies have reported no such association. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between blood mercury concentrations in children and ASDs. Moreover, we investigated the role of seafood consumption in relation to blood mercury concentrations in Jamaican children. Based on data for 65 sex- and age-matched pairs (2-8 years), we used a General Linear Model to test whether there is an association between blood mercury concentrations and ASDs. After controlling for the child's frequency of seafood consumption, maternal age, and parental education, we did not find a significant difference (P = 0.61) between blood mercury concentrations and ASDs. However, in both cases and control groups, children who ate certain types of seafood (i.e., salt water fish, sardine, or mackerel fish) had significantly higher (all P < 0.05) geometric means blood mercury concentration which were about 3.5 times that of children living in the US or Canada. Our findings also indicate that Jamaican children with parents who both had education up to high school are at a higher risk of exposure to mercury compared to children with at least one parent who had education beyond high school. Based on our findings, we recommend additional education to Jamaican parents regarding potential hazards of elevated blood mercury concentrations, and its association with seafood consumption and type of seafood. PMID:22488160

Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Bloom, Kari; Pearson, Deborah A; Lalor, Gerald C; Boerwinkle, Eric

2013-01-01

126

Bat Airway Epithelial Cells: A Novel Tool for the Study of Zoonotic Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats have been increasingly recognized as reservoir of important zoonotic viruses. However, until now many attempts to isolate bat-borne viruses in cell culture have been unsuccessful. Further, experimental studies on reservoir host species have been limited by the difficulty of rearing these species. The epithelium of the respiratory tract plays a central role during airborne transmission, as it is the first tissue encountered by viral particles. Although several cell lines from bats were established recently, no well-characterized, selectively cultured airway epithelial cells were available so far. Here, primary cells and immortalized cell lines from bats of the two important suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera, Carollia perspicillata (Seba's short-tailed bat) and Eidolon helvum (Straw-colored fruit bat), were successfully cultured under standardized conditions from both fresh and frozen organ specimens by cell outgrowth of organ explants and by the use of serum-free primary cell culture medium. Cells were immortalized to generate permanent cell lines. Cells were characterized for their epithelial properties such as expression of cytokeratin and tight junctions proteins and permissiveness for viral infection with Rift-Valley fever virus and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana. These cells can serve as suitable models for the study of bat-borne viruses and complement cell culture models for virus infection in human airway epithelial cells.

Eckerle, Isabella; Ehlen, Lukas; Kallies, Rene; Wollny, Robert; Corman, Victor M.; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian; Muller, Marcel A.

2014-01-01

127

High diversity of West African bat malaria parasites and a tight link with rodent Plasmodium taxa  

PubMed Central

As the only volant mammals, bats are captivating for their high taxonomic diversity, for their vital roles in ecosystems—particularly as pollinators and insectivores—and, more recently, for their important roles in the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic viral diseases. Genome sequences have identified evidence for a striking expansion of and positive selection in gene families associated with immunity. Bats have also been known to be hosts of malaria parasites for over a century, and as hosts, they possess perhaps the most phylogenetically diverse set of hemosporidian genera and species. To provide a molecular framework for the study of these parasites, we surveyed bats in three remote areas of the Upper Guinean forest ecosystem. We detected four distinct genera of hemosporidian parasites: Plasmodium, Polychromophilus, Nycteria, and Hepatocystis. Intriguingly, the two species of Plasmodium in bats fall within the clade of rodent malaria parasites, indicative of multiple host switches across mammalian orders. We show that Nycteria species form a very distinct phylogenetic group and that Hepatocystis parasites display an unusually high diversity and prevalence in epauletted fruit bats. The diversity and high prevalence of novel lineages of chiropteran hemosporidians underscore the exceptional position of bats among all other mammalian hosts of hemosporidian parasites and support hypotheses of pathogen tolerance consistent with the exceptional immunology of bats.

Schaer, Juliane; Perkins, Susan L.; Decher, Jan; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Fahr, Jakob; Weber, Natalie; Matuschewski, Kai

2013-01-01

128

Bat airway epithelial cells: a novel tool for the study of zoonotic viruses.  

PubMed

Bats have been increasingly recognized as reservoir of important zoonotic viruses. However, until now many attempts to isolate bat-borne viruses in cell culture have been unsuccessful. Further, experimental studies on reservoir host species have been limited by the difficulty of rearing these species. The epithelium of the respiratory tract plays a central role during airborne transmission, as it is the first tissue encountered by viral particles. Although several cell lines from bats were established recently, no well-characterized, selectively cultured airway epithelial cells were available so far. Here, primary cells and immortalized cell lines from bats of the two important suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera, Carollia perspicillata (Seba's short-tailed bat) and Eidolon helvum (Straw-colored fruit bat), were successfully cultured under standardized conditions from both fresh and frozen organ specimens by cell outgrowth of organ explants and by the use of serum-free primary cell culture medium. Cells were immortalized to generate permanent cell lines. Cells were characterized for their epithelial properties such as expression of cytokeratin and tight junctions proteins and permissiveness for viral infection with Rift-Valley fever virus and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana. These cells can serve as suitable models for the study of bat-borne viruses and complement cell culture models for virus infection in human airway epithelial cells. PMID:24454736

Eckerle, Isabella; Ehlen, Lukas; Kallies, René; Wollny, Robert; Corman, Victor M; Cottontail, Veronika M; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Marcel A

2014-01-01

129

Early Eocene Bat from Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fossil skeleton of an early Eocene bat, the oldest known flying mammal, was found in southwest Wyoming. The bat is assigned to the new species Icaronycteris index of the suborder Microchiroptera. It was apparently of a young male whose body was buried in varved marls of the Green River Formation, on the bottom of Fossil Lake, about 50 million

Glenn L. Jepsen

1966-01-01

130

Coronaviruses in bats from Mexico.  

PubMed

Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of human pathogens including Nipah, Hendra, rabies, Ebola, Marburg and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV). The recent implication of a novel beta (?)-CoV as the cause of fatal respiratory disease in the Middle East emphasizes the importance of surveillance for CoVs that have potential to move from bats into the human population. In a screen of 606 bats from 42 different species in Campeche, Chiapas and Mexico City we identified 13 distinct CoVs. Nine were alpha (?)-CoVs; four were ?-CoVs. Twelve were novel. Analyses of these viruses in the context of their hosts and ecological habitat indicated that host species is a strong selective driver in CoV evolution, even in allopatric populations separated by significant geographical distance; and that a single species/genus of bat can contain multiple CoVs. A ?-CoV with 96.5?% amino acid identity to the ?-CoV associated with human disease in the Middle East was found in a Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat, suggesting that efforts to identify the viral reservoir should include surveillance of the bat families Molossidae/Vespertilionidae, or the closely related Nycteridae/Emballonuridae. While it is important to investigate unknown viral diversity in bats, it is also important to remember that the majority of viruses they carry will not pose any clinical risk, and bats should not be stigmatized ubiquitously as significant threats to public health. PMID:23364191

Anthony, S J; Ojeda-Flores, R; Rico-Chávez, O; Navarrete-Macias, I; Zambrana-Torrelio, C M; Rostal, M K; Epstein, J H; Tipps, T; Liang, E; Sanchez-Leon, M; Sotomayor-Bonilla, J; Aguirre, A A; Ávila-Flores, R; Medellín, R A; Goldstein, T; Suzán, G; Daszak, P; Lipkin, W I

2013-05-01

131

FLIGHT OF A BATTED BASEBALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fortran 90 computer language was used to create an accurate simulation of the flight of a baseball after making contact with the bat. A two-dimensional analysis of the forces on the baseball during the flight was produced using Newtonian projectile motion equations as a function of time. Using input variables of bat velocity, ball velocity, and trajectory of the

Lance Wheeler

132

Coronaviruses in bats from Mexico  

PubMed Central

Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of human pathogens including Nipah, Hendra, rabies, Ebola, Marburg and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV). The recent implication of a novel beta (?)-CoV as the cause of fatal respiratory disease in the Middle East emphasizes the importance of surveillance for CoVs that have potential to move from bats into the human population. In a screen of 606 bats from 42 different species in Campeche, Chiapas and Mexico City we identified 13 distinct CoVs. Nine were alpha (?)-CoVs; four were ?-CoVs. Twelve were novel. Analyses of these viruses in the context of their hosts and ecological habitat indicated that host species is a strong selective driver in CoV evolution, even in allopatric populations separated by significant geographical distance; and that a single species/genus of bat can contain multiple CoVs. A ?-CoV with 96.5?% amino acid identity to the ?-CoV associated with human disease in the Middle East was found in a Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat, suggesting that efforts to identify the viral reservoir should include surveillance of the bat families Molossidae/Vespertilionidae, or the closely related Nycteridae/Emballonuridae. While it is important to investigate unknown viral diversity in bats, it is also important to remember that the majority of viruses they carry will not pose any clinical risk, and bats should not be stigmatized ubiquitously as significant threats to public health.

Ojeda-Flores, R.; Rico-Chavez, O.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Zambrana-Torrelio, C. M.; Rostal, M. K.; Epstein, J. H.; Tipps, T.; Liang, E.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Sotomayor-Bonilla, J.; Aguirre, A. A.; Avila-Flores, R.; Medellin, R. A.; Goldstein, T.; Suzan, G.; Daszak, P.

2013-01-01

133

Distant Relatives of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Close Relatives of Human Coronavirus 229E in Bats, Ghana  

PubMed Central

We tested 12 bat species in Ghana for coronavirus (CoV) RNA. The virus prevalence in insectivorous bats (n = 123) was 9.76%. CoV was not detected in 212 fecal samples from Eidolon helvum fruit bats. Leaf-nosed bats pertaining to Hipposideros ruber by morphology had group 1 and group 2 CoVs. Virus concentrations were <45,000 copies/100 mg of bat feces. The diversified group 1 CoV shared a common ancestor with the human common cold virus hCoV-229E but not with hCoV-NL63, disputing hypotheses of common human descent. The most recent common ancestor of hCoV-229E and GhanaBt-CoVGrp1 existed in ?1686–1800 ad. The GhanaBt-CoVGrp2 shared an old ancestor (?2,400 years) with the severe acute respiratory syndrome–like group of CoV.

Pfefferle, Susanne; Oppong, Samuel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Ipsen, Anne; Seebens, Antje; Muller, Marcel A.; Annan, Augustina; Vallo, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Kruppa, Thomas F.

2009-01-01

134

Parallel and convergent evolution of the dim-light vision gene RH1 in bats (Order: Chiroptera).  

PubMed

Rhodopsin, encoded by the gene Rhodopsin (RH1), is extremely sensitive to light, and is responsible for dim-light vision. Bats are nocturnal mammals that inhabit poor light environments. Megabats (Old-World fruit bats) generally have well-developed eyes, while microbats (insectivorous bats) have developed echolocation and in general their eyes were degraded, however, dramatic differences in the eyes, and their reliance on vision, exist in this group. In this study, we examined the rod opsin gene (RH1), and compared its evolution to that of two cone opsin genes (SWS1 and M/LWS). While phylogenetic reconstruction with the cone opsin genes SWS1 and M/LWS generated a species tree in accord with expectations, the RH1 gene tree united Pteropodidae (Old-World fruit bats) and Yangochiroptera, with very high bootstrap values, suggesting the possibility of convergent evolution. The hypothesis of convergent evolution was further supported when nonsynonymous sites or amino acid sequences were used to construct phylogenies. Reconstructed RH1 sequences at internal nodes of the bat species phylogeny showed that: (1) Old-World fruit bats share an amino acid change (S270G) with the tomb bat; (2) Miniopterus share two amino acid changes (V104I, M183L) with Rhinolophoidea; (3) the amino acid replacement I123V occurred independently on four branches, and the replacements L99M, L266V and I286V occurred each on two branches. The multiple parallel amino acid replacements that occurred in the evolution of bat RH1 suggest the possibility of multiple convergences of their ecological specialization (i.e., various photic environments) during adaptation for the nocturnal lifestyle, and suggest that further attention is needed on the study of the ecology and behavior of bats. PMID:20098620

Shen, Yong-Yi; Liu, Jie; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2010-01-01

135

Poxviruses in Bats ... so What?  

PubMed Central

Poxviruses are important pathogens of man and numerous domestic and wild animal species. Cross species (including zoonotic) poxvirus infections can have drastic consequences for the recipient host. Bats are a diverse order of mammals known to carry lethal viral zoonoses such as Rabies, Hendra, Nipah, and SARS. Consequent targeted research is revealing bats to be infected with a rich diversity of novel viruses. Poxviruses were recently identified in bats and the settings in which they were found were dramatically different. Here, we review the natural history of poxviruses in bats and highlight the relationship of the viruses to each other and their context in the Poxviridae family. In addition to considering the zoonotic potential of these viruses, we reflect on the broader implications of these findings. Specifically, the potential to explore and exploit this newfound relationship to study coevolution and cross species transmission together with fundamental aspects of poxvirus host tropism as well as bat virology and immunology.

Baker, Kate S.; Murcia, Pablo R.

2014-01-01

136

Poxviruses in bats … so what?  

PubMed

Poxviruses are important pathogens of man and numerous domestic and wild animal species. Cross species (including zoonotic) poxvirus infections can have drastic consequences for the recipient host. Bats are a diverse order of mammals known to carry lethal viral zoonoses such as Rabies, Hendra, Nipah, and SARS. Consequent targeted research is revealing bats to be infected with a rich diversity of novel viruses. Poxviruses were recently identified in bats and the settings in which they were found were dramatically different. Here, we review the natural history of poxviruses in bats and highlight the relationship of the viruses to each other and their context in the Poxviridae family. In addition to considering the zoonotic potential of these viruses, we reflect on the broader implications of these findings. Specifically, the potential to explore and exploit this newfound relationship to study coevolution and cross species transmission together with fundamental aspects of poxvirus host tropism as well as bat virology and immunology. PMID:24704730

Baker, Kate S; Murcia, Pablo R

2014-04-01

137

Roosts as information centres: social learning of food preferences in bats.  

PubMed

The short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, lives in groups in tree hollows and caves. To investigate whether these roosts might serve as information centres, we tested whether individuals' preferences for novel foods could be enhanced through social learning at the roost. We also determined whether socially learned preferences for novel foods were reversed through interaction with other roost mates by simulating changes in available food resources such as those associated with variations in timing of fruit production in different plant species. Bats exhibited socially induced preferences that were readily reversible. We suggest that for frugivorous bats, roosts can serve as centres for information exchange about novel and familiar, ephemeral foods without requiring conspecific recruitment to these resources. PMID:17148131

Ratcliffe, John M; Ter Hofstede, Hannah M

2005-03-22

138

Wake structure and wing motion in bat flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on experiments concerning the wake structure and kinematics of bat flight, conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel using time-resolved PIV (200Hz) and 4 high-speed cameras to capture wake and wing motion simultaneously. 16 Lesser dog-faced fruit bats (C. brachyotis) were trained to fly in the wind tunnel at 3-6.5m/s. The PIV recordings perpendicular to the flow stream allowed observing the development of the tip vortex and circulation over the wing beat cycle. Each PIV acquisition sequence is correlated with the respective kinematic history. Circulation within wing beat cycles were often quite repeatable, however variations due to maneuvering of the bat are clearly visible. While no distinct vortex structure was observed at the upper reversal point (defined according the vertical motion of the wrist) a tip vortex was observed to develop in the first third of the downstroke, growing in strength, and persisting during much of the upstroke. Correlated to the presence of a strong tip vortex the circulation has almost constant strength over the middle half of the wing beat. At relatively low flight speeds (3.4 m/s), a closed vortex structure behind the bat is postulated.

Hubel, Tatjana; Breuer, Kenneth; Swartz, Sharon

2008-11-01

139

The second Swift BAT GRB catalog (BAT2) (Sakamoto+, 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters, and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs, and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8%, and 2%, respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX, and HETE-2 GRB samples. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 70s and 30s, respectively. (10 data files).

Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

2011-08-01

140

Young Jamaicans' Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Experimental and Demographic Factors Associated with Social Distance and Stigmatizing Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two large-scale studies assessed the nature and correlates of young Jamaicans' attitudes toward mental illness. In study 1, students viewed a videotaped job interview for a teacher whose history was manipulated to include a history of mental illness, or not. Students desired significantly less social distance (i.e., more contact) with the "normal"…

Jackson, Dahra; Heatherington, Laurie

2006-01-01

141

Self-Esteem among Jamaican Children: Exploring the Impact of Skin Color and Rural/Urban Residence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the extent to which two different models predict the relation of self-esteem to skin color and rural/urban residence among Jamaican children. To explain this relation, Crocker and Major's Self-protective hypothesis and Harter's Additive model were examined among 200 African-Caribbean children from rural (n=85) and urban…

Ferguson, Gail M. (Anderson); Cramer, Phebe

2007-01-01

142

"Digitize Me": Generating E-Learning Profiles for Media and Communication Students in a Jamaican Tertiary-Level Institution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to develop an e-learning profile for a group of media and communication students enrolled in a Jamaican tertiary-level institution in order to make informed decisions most the appropriate [online] learning complement for these students. The objectives sought to determine the e-learning profile of media and…

Stewart-McKoy, Michelle A.

2014-01-01

143

A Bat on the Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A miniature nighttime drama -- a bat capturing a flying insect -- unfolds, courtesy of Cynthia Moss and Kaushik Ghose, in a video diptych consisting of infrared imaging in the left panel and a schematic animated graph on the right. As the ghostly shape of the bat closes in on a flying mantis, the right-hand panel shows the track of predator and prey, and also pinpoints the direction of the bat's sonar (both action and sound have been slowed down by a factor of 16).

Cynthia Moss (University of Maryland, College Park;); Kaushik Ghose (University of Maryland, College Park ;)

2004-09-24

144

The physics of bat biosonar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bats have evolved one of the most capable and at the same time parsimonious sensory systems found in nature. Using active and passive biosonar as a major - and often sufficient - far sense, different bat species are able to master a wide variety of sensory tasks under very dissimilar sets of constraints. Given the limited computational resources of the bat's brain, this performance is unlikely to be explained as the result of brute-force, black-box-style computations. Instead, the animals must rely heavily on in-built physics knowledge in order to ensure that all required information is encoded reliably into the acoustic signals received at the ear drum. To this end, bats can manipulate the emitted and received signals in the physical domain: By diffracting the outgoing and incoming ultrasonic waves with intricate baffle shapes (i.e., noseleaves and outer ears), the animals can generate selectivity filters that are joint functions of space and frequency. To achieve this, bats employ structural features such as resonance cavities and diffracting ridges. In addition, some bat species can dynamically adjust the shape of their selectivity filters through muscular actuation.

Müller, Rolf

2011-10-01

145

Click-based echolocation in bats: not so primitive after all.  

PubMed

Echolocating bats of the genus Rousettus produce click sonar signals, using their tongue (lingual echolocation). These signals are often considered rudimentary and are believed to enable only crude performance. However, the main argument supporting this belief, namely the click's reported long duration, was recently shown to be an artifact. In fact, the sonar clicks of Rousettus bats are extremely short, ~50-100 ?s, similar to dolphin vocalizations. Here, we present a comparison between the sonar systems of the 'model species' of laryngeal echolocation, the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), and that of lingual echolocation, the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). We show experimentally that in tasks, such as accurate landing or detection of medium-sized objects, click-based echolocation enables performance similar to laryngeal echolocators. Further, we describe a sophisticated behavioral strategy for biosonar beam steering in clicking bats. Finally, theoretical analyses of the signal design--focusing on their autocorrelations and wideband ambiguity functions--predict that in some aspects, such as target ranging and Doppler-tolerance, click-based echolocation might outperform laryngeal echolocation. Therefore, we suggest that click-based echolocation in bats should be regarded as a viable echolocation strategy, which is in fact similar to the biosonar used by most echolocating animals, including whales and dolphins. PMID:21465138

Yovel, Yossi; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Ulanovsky, Nachum

2011-05-01

146

Xi River virus, a new bat reovirus isolated in southern China.  

PubMed

Nelson Bay orthoreovirus (NBV) is a species in the genus Orthoreovirus, family Reoviridae, containing 4, possibly 5, members. Here, we report a putative sixth member, Xi River virus (XRV), isolated from fruit bats collected in a location near the Xi River, Guangdong Province, China. This virus showed the same electron microscopic morphology as NBV, fusogenic CPE, and a 10-segmented double-strand RNA genome, as well as high sequence identity to NBV members. It is the first bat reovirus isolated in China. PMID:20495835

Du, Linfeng; Lu, Zongji; Fan, Yu; Meng, Keyin; Jiang, Yu; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Shumin; Gu, Wanjun; Zou, Xiaohuan; Tu, Changchun

2010-08-01

147

How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis)  

PubMed Central

Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball) and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals.

Pacheco, Karen; Dawson, Jeff W.; Jutting, Michael

2013-01-01

148

Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil  

PubMed Central

To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.

Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Samia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Nayle Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araujo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fabio Gadelha; Sidrim, Jose Julio Costa

2012-01-01

149

Physics of Baseball Bats - An Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the physics of baseball bats is presented in this study. The analysis compares the performance of aluminum and wooden baseball bats. Novel experimental approaches to indirectly quantify the performance of these bats have been implemented. The analysis also considers various aspects of baseball including the physical dimensions of the baseball fields, ball exit speed ratio, moment of

N. M. Ravindra; Sushil K. Sikh; Ivan Padron

2009-01-01

150

A Statistical Analysis of Batting in Cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The batting average is ubiquitous in cricket. In this paper we show that the traditional batting average depends on an unrealistic parametric assumption. We propose a nonpara- metric approach based on runs scored for assessing batting performance. The methods have been applied to a large sample of players at various levels of cricket, examples of which are featured in

ALAN C. KIMBERt; ALAN R. HANSFORD

1993-01-01

151

Batting order optimization by genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baseball has been widely studied in various ways, including math and statistics. In a baseball game, an optimized batting order helps the team achieves greater number of runs in a season. This paper introduces a method that combines a genetic algorithm with a statistical simulation to identify a non-optimal batting order. The biggest issue is how we evaluate a batting

Sen Han

2012-01-01

152

Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses.  

PubMed

The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Cottontail, Veronika M; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Oppong, Samuel; Adu Sarkodie, Yaw; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R N; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G; Leroy, Eric M; Drosten, Christian

2012-01-01

153

Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses  

PubMed Central

The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data.

Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Muller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Pongombo, Celestin; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stocker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo Jose Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, Rene; Yandoko, Emmanuel R.N.; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Kruger, Detlev H.; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

2012-01-01

154

The role of drinking water sources, consumption of vegetables and seafood in relation to blood arsenic concentrations of Jamaican children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders.  

PubMed

Arsenic is a toxic metal with harmful effects on human health, particularly on cognitive function. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are lifelong neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders manifesting in infancy or early childhood. We used data from 130 children between 2 and 8 years (65 pairs of ASD cases with age- and sex-matched control), to compare the mean total blood arsenic concentrations in children with and without ASDs in Kingston, Jamaica. Based on univariable analysis, we observed a significant difference between ASD cases and controls (4.03 ?g/L for cases vs. 4.48 ?g/L for controls, P<0.01). In the final multivariable General Linear Model (GLM), after controlling for car ownership, maternal age, parental education levels, source of drinking water, consumption of "yam, sweet potato, or dasheen", "carrot or pumpkin", "callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi", cabbage, avocado, and the frequency of seafood consumption per week, we did not find a significant association between blood arsenic concentrations and ASD status (4.36 ?g/L for cases vs. 4.65 ?g/L for controls, P=0.23). Likewise, in a separate final multivariable GLM, we found that source of drinking water, eating avocado, and eating "callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi" was significantly associated with higher blood arsenic concentrations (all three P<0.05). Based on our findings, we recommend assessment of arsenic levels in water, fruits, and vegetables, as well as increased awareness among the Jamaican population regarding potential risks for various exposures to arsenic. PMID:22819887

Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Loveland, Katherine A; Dickerson, Aisha S; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Bloom, Kari; Wirth, Julie; Pearson, Deborah A; Boerwinkle, Eric

2012-09-01

155

Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.

Constantine, Denny G.; Edited by Blehert, David S.

2009-01-01

156

Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals.  

PubMed

The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed "whispering" can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency, duration, intensity, and directionality of echolocation signals) in unison define the search volume probed by bats and in turn how bats perceive their surroundings. Small changes to individual parameters can, in combination, drastically change the bat's perception, facilitating successful navigation and food acquisition across a vast range of ecological niches. To better understand the function of echolocation in the natural habitat it is critical to determine multiple acoustic features of the echolocation calls. The combined (interactive) effects, not only of frequency and time parameters, but also of intensity and directionality, define the bat's view of its acoustic scene. PMID:23630501

Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

2013-01-01

157

Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals  

PubMed Central

The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed “whispering” can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency, duration, intensity, and directionality of echolocation signals) in unison define the search volume probed by bats and in turn how bats perceive their surroundings. Small changes to individual parameters can, in combination, drastically change the bat's perception, facilitating successful navigation and food acquisition across a vast range of ecological niches. To better understand the function of echolocation in the natural habitat it is critical to determine multiple acoustic features of the echolocation calls. The combined (interactive) effects, not only of frequency and time parameters, but also of intensity and directionality, define the bat's view of its acoustic scene.

Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkl?v, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

2013-01-01

158

Bat Rabies in Alberta 1979-1982  

PubMed Central

The infection rate among eight species of bats submitted for rabies diagnosis in Alberta during 1979-82 was 4.6%. Prevalence of rabies was greatest (24%) for hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus, while the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus was the species in which rabies was most commonly diagnosed, and the species submitted most frequently for rabies diagnosis was the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus. The rabies infection rate among male hoary bats was significantly greater than in either sex of all other submitted species. The frequency of rabies diagnosis in hoary bats submitted during 1979-82 was also significantly higher than in those submitted between 1971 and 1978. There has been a significant decrease in the rabies prevalence or infection rate of little brown bats since 1971-78.

Rosatte, Richard C.

1985-01-01

159

Enhanced Passive Bat Rabies Surveillance in Indigenous Bat Species from Germany - A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques.

Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Muhldorfer, Kristin; Muhle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dorfer, Barbel; Pruger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Gunter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Muller, Thomas

2014-01-01

160

Enhanced passive bat rabies surveillance in indigenous bat species from Germany - a retrospective study.  

PubMed

In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117

Schatz, Juliane; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

2014-05-01

161

Progress in measuring the performance of baseball and softball bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of baseball and softball bats has improved markedly over the past four decades. This has motivated many associations to develop test methods and measures to regulate bat performance. The present study reviews the progress of laboratory bat performance tests. The test involves an initially stationary bat that is allowed to recoil after being impacted by a ball. Bat

Lloyd Smith

2008-01-01

162

High-risk and multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in cancer-free Jamaican women  

PubMed Central

Background Vaccines, that target human papillomavirus (HPV) high risk genotypes 16 and 18, have recently been developed. This study was aimed at determining genotypes commonly found in high-risk and multiple-HPV infections in Jamaican women. Two hundred and fifty three (253) women were enrolled in the study. Of these, 120 pregnant women, aged 15–44 years, were recruited from the Ante Natal Clinic at the University Hospital of the West Indies and 116 non-pregnant, aged 19–83, from a family practice in Western Jamaica. Cervical cell samples were collected from the women and HPV DNA was detected using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Reverse Line Hybridization. HPV genotypes were assessed in 236 women. Data were collected from January 2003 to October 2006. Results HPV DNA was detected in 87.7% (207/236) and of these 80.2% were positive for high-risk types. The most common high-risk HPV types were: HPV 45 (21.7%), HPV 58 (18.8%), HPV 16 (18.4%), HPV 35 (15.0%), HPV 18 (14.5%), HPV 52 (12.0%) and HPV 51(11.1%). Other high-risk types were present in frequencies of 1.4% – 7.2%. Multivariate regression analyses showed that bacterial vaginosis predicted the presence of multiple infections (OR 3.51; CI, 1.26–9.82) and that alcohol use (OR 0.31; CI, 0.15–0.85) and age at first sexual encounter (12–15 years: OR 3.56; CI, 1.41–9.12; 16–19 years, OR 3.53, CI, 1.22–10.23) were significantly associated with high risk infections. Cervical cytology was normal in the majority of women despite the presence of high-risk and multiple infections. Conclusion HPV genotype distribution in this group of Jamaican women differs from the patterns found in Europe, North America and some parts of Asia. It may be necessary therefore to consider development of other vaccines which target genotypes found in our and similar populations. HPV genotyping as well as Pap smears should be considered.

Watt, Angela; Garwood, David; Jackson, Maria; Younger, Novie; Ragin, Camille; Smikle, Monica; Fletcher, Horace; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma

2009-01-01

163

Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. In this talk, we describe the BAT instrument response as determined to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies. We will also discuss the public data analysis tools developed to calculate the BAT response to sources at different energies and locations in the FOV. The level of accuracy required for the BAT instrument response used for the hard x-ray survey is significantly higher because this response must be used in the iterative clean algorithm for finding fainter sources. Because the bright sources add a lot of coding noise to the BAT sky image, fainter sources can be seen only after the counts due to the bright sources are removed. The better we know the BAT response, the lower the noise in the cleaned spectrum and thus the more sensitive the survey. Since the BAT detector plane consists of 32768 individual, 4 mm square CZT gamma-ray detectors, the most accurate BAT response would include 32768 individual detector response functions to separate mask modulation effects from differences in detector efficiencies! We describe OUT continuing work to improve the accuracy of the BAT instrument response and will present the current results of Monte Carlo simulations as well as BAT ground calibration data.

Parsons, A.; Hullinger, D.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.

2004-01-01

164

Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Spectral Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is one of three telescopes aboard the Swift observatory scheduled for launch into a low earth orbit in November 2004. Swift's primary purpose is to localize and observe gamma-ray bursts. BAT will provide the initial burst positions and gamma-ray light curves and spectra within a band of approximately 15-150 keV. BAT is a coded aperture

D. Hullinger

2004-01-01

165

Economic importance of bats in agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

166

Bat habitat research. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes activities over the current reporting period to characterize the habitats of bats on the INEL. Research tasks are entitled Monitoring bat habitation of caves on the INEL to determine species present, numbers, and seasons of use; Monitor bat use of man-made ponds at the INEL to determine species present and rates of use of these waters; If the Big Lost River is flowing on the INEL and/or if the Big Lost River sinks contain water, determine species present, numbers and seasons of use; Determine the habitat requirement of Townsend`s big-eared bats, including the microclimate of caves containing Townsend`s big-eared bats as compared to other caves that do not contain bats; Determine and describe an economical and efficient bat census technique to be used periodically by INEL scientists to determine the status of bats on the INEL; and Provide a suggestive management and protective plan for bat species on the INEL that might, in the future, be added to the endangered and sensitive list;

Keller, B.L.; Bosworth, W.R.; Doering, R.W.

1993-12-31

167

BAT - The Bayesian Analysis Toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goals of data analysis are to infer the free parameters of models from data, to draw conclusions on the models' validity, and to compare their predictions allowing to select the most appropriate model. The Bayesian Analysis Toolkit, BAT, is a tool developed to evaluate the posterior probability distribution for models and their parameters. It is centered around Bayes' Theorem and is realized with the use of Markov Chain Monte Carlo giving access to the full posterior probability distribution. This enables straightforward parameter estimation, limit setting and uncertainty propagation. Additional algorithms, such as Simulated Annealing, allow to evaluate the global mode of the posterior. BAT is implemented in C++ and allows for a flexible definition of models. It is interfaced to software packages commonly used in high-energy physics: ROOT, Minuit, RooStats and CUBA. A set of predefined models exists to cover standard statistical problems.

Beaujean, Frederik; Caldwell, Allen; Kollár, Daniel; Kröninger, Kevin

2011-12-01

168

[Trematode parasites of Italian bats].  

PubMed

Data are presented on bat trematodes in Italy, whose previous list included only the following five species: Plagiorchis vespertilionis, Plagiorchis asper, Mesotretes peregrinus, Prosthodendrium chilostomum, Prosthodendrium longiforme. Between 1945 and 1981, 289 bats were examined belonging to 13 species. A total of twelve trematode species were identified, nine of which are recorded for the first time in Italy: Lecithodendrium linstowi, Lecithodendrium granulosum, Lecithodendrium rotundum, Prosthodendrium herardovae, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, Prosthodendrium parvouterus, Pycnoporus heteroporus, Matovius rhinolophi, Parabascus lepidotus. For each parasite species, hosts, localities and number of specimens/host are reported. Special attention is devoted to P. vespertilionis with description of specimens remarkably different from the type form, to L. linstowi for peculiar specimens from Rhinolophus hipposideros, and to M. rhinolophi with additions to the original description especially concerning the vitelline glands' structure. Pycnoporus macrolaimus, identified in a collection of bat trematodes of the Institute of Parasitology of the University "La Sapienza" of Rome, is also recorded for the first time in Italy. PMID:8778660

Ricci, M

1995-12-01

169

Frozen Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

Company, The J.

2008-01-01

170

How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?  

PubMed

The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (?15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms. PMID:21697434

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

2011-07-15

171

A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T. S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L. N.; Webb, Colleen T.

2013-01-01

172

Community Ecology of Bats in Southern Lower Michigan, with Emphasis on Roost Selection by Myotis  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied the roosting niche of three sympatric species of Myotis (little brown bat, M. lucifugus; northern bat, M. septentrionalis; and Indiana bat, M. sodalis) and examined changes in composition of the entire bat community in southern Lower Michigan over long periods. Little brown bats roosted in buildings, whereas northern and Indiana bats used trees. Northern and Indiana bats differed

Lisa Winhold

2007-01-01

173

Understanding human - bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus  

PubMed Central

Background Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand these human – bat interactions in order to identify additional risk communication messages that could lower the risk of potential ABLV exposure. All people aged 18 years or over whom received PET for non-occupation related potential ABLV exposure in the Hunter New England Local Health District of Australia between July 2011 and July 2013 were considered eligible for the study. Eligible participants were invited to a telephone interview to explore the circumstances of their bat contact. Interviews were then transcribed and thematically analysed by two independent investigators. Results Of 21 eligible participants that were able to be contacted, 16 consented and participated in a telephone interview. Participants reported bats as being widespread in their environment but reported a general lack of awareness about ABLV, particularly the risk of disease from bat scratches. Participants who attempted to ‘rescue’ bats did so because of a deep concern for the bat’s welfare. Participants reported a change in risk perception after the exposure event and provided suggestions for public health messages that could be used to raise awareness about ABLV. Conclusions Reframing the current risk messages to account for the genuine concern of people for bat welfare may enhance the communication. The potential risk to the person and possible harm to the bat from an attempted ‘rescue’ should be promoted, along with contact details for animal rescue groups. The potential risk of ABLV from bat scratches merits greater emphasis.

2014-01-01

174

Bullying of Students by Teachers and Peers and Its Effect on the Psychological Well-Being of Students in Jamaican Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, 225 Jamaican university students were asked to recall their bullying experiences at elementary and high schools. Being verbally humiliated, robbed, and beaten were the top three frequently-occurring experiences. Acts of bullying by peers and educators were compared for their impact on students' psychological well being. Educator but…

Pottinger, Audrey M.; Stair, Angela Gordon

2009-01-01

175

Identification of key amino acid residues required for horseshoe bat angiotensin-I converting enzyme 2 to function as a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.  

PubMed

Angiotensin-I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV). A previous study indicated that ACE2 from a horseshoe bat, the host of a highly related SARS-like coronavirus, could not function as a receptor for SARS-CoV. Here, we demonstrate that a 3 aa change from SHE (aa 40-42) to FYQ was sufficient to convert the bat ACE2 into a fully functional receptor for SARS-CoV. We further demonstrate that an ACE2 molecule from a fruit bat, which contains the FYQ motif, was able to support SARS-CoV infection, indicating a potentially much wider host range for SARS-CoV-related viruses among different bat populations. PMID:20335495

Yu, Meng; Tachedjian, Mary; Crameri, Gary; Shi, Zhengli; Wang, Lin-Fa

2010-07-01

176

Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control  

PubMed Central

Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control.

Johnson, Nicholas; Arechiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

2014-01-01

177

Are torpid bats immune to anthropogenic noise?  

PubMed

Anthropogenic noise has a negative impact on a variety of animals. However, many bat species roost in places with high levels of anthropogenic noise. Here, we tested the hypothesis that torpid bats are insensitive to anthropogenic noise. In a laboratory experiment, we recorded skin temperature (Tsk) of bats roosting individually that were subjected to playbacks of different types of noise. We found that torpid bats with Tsk ~10°C lower than their active Tsk responded to all types of noise by elevating Tsk. Bats responded most strongly to colony and vegetation noise, and most weakly to traffic noise. The time of day when torpid bats were exposed to noise had a pronounced effect on responses. Torpid bats showed increasing responses from morning towards evening, i.e. towards the onset of the active phase. Skin temperature at the onset of noise exposure (Tsk,start, 17-29°C) was not related to the response. Moreover, we found evidence that torpid bats rapidly habituated to repeated and prolonged noise exposure. PMID:24311817

Luo, Jinhong; Clarin, B-Markus; Borissov, Ivailo M; Siemers, Björn M

2014-04-01

178

The Story of Echo the Bat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Younger students can follow Echo the Bat as he travels through Arizona on an adventure to his winter hibernaculum. They will also learn how bats use echolocation to catch insects, then about remote sensing by satellites and the use of satellite imagery.

Butcher, Ginger

179

The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Burst Alert telescope (BAT) is one of 3 instruments on the Swift MIDEX spacecraft to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The BAT instrument is the instrument that first detects the GRB and localizes the burst direction to an accuracy of 1-4 arcmin within 10 sec after the start of the event. These locations cause the spacecraft to autonomously slew to

J. R. Cummings

2002-01-01

180

Dengue virus in bats from southeastern Mexico.  

PubMed

To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR-positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J Leopoldo; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

2014-07-01

181

Vampire bat rabies: ecology, epidemiology and control.  

PubMed

Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

2014-01-01

182

Shocking Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how a piece of fruit can act as an electrolyte, conducting electricity between two different metals. In this way, learners construct a simple battery and record their observations. Educators can use this activity to introduce circuits, electrodes, and electrolytes. After completing this activity, learners can explore other fruit and vegetable conductors.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

183

Causes and Consequences of Sociality in Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bats are among the most diverse and most gregarious of all mammals. This makes them highly interesting for research on the causes and consequences of sociality in animals. Detailed studies on bat sociality are rare, however, when compared with the information available for other social mammals, such as primates, carnivores, ungulates, and rodents. Modern field technologies and new molecular methods are now providing opportunities to study aspects of bat biology that were previously inaccessible. Consequently, bat social systems are emerging as far more complex than had been imagined. Variable dispersal patterns, complex olfactory and acoustic communication, flexible context-related interactions, striking cooperative behaviors, and cryptic colony structures in the form of fission-fusion systems have been documented. Bat research can contribute to the understanding of animal sociality, and specifically to important topics in behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology, such as dispersal, fission-fusion behavior, group decisionmaking, and cooperation.

Gerald Kerth (University of Lausanne - Switzerland;)

2008-09-01

184

The sweet spot of a baseball bat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sweet spot of a baseball bat, like that of a tennis racket, can be defined either in terms of a vibration node or a centre of percussion. In order to determine how each of the sweet spots influences the ``feel'' of the bat, measurements were made of the impact forces transmitted to the hands. Measurements of the bat velocity, and results for a freely suspended bat, were also obtained in order to assist in the interpretation of the force waveforms. The results show that both sweet spots contribute to the formation of a sweet spot zone where the impact forces on the hands are minimised. The free bat results are also of interest since they provided particularly elegant examples of wave excitation and propagation, suitable for a student demonstration or experiment.

Cross, Rod

1998-09-01

185

Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response  

SciTech Connect

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts, and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. This paper describes the spectral models and the ground calibration experiments used to determine the BAT response to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies.

Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.; Nakazawa, K. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), (Japan); Okada, Y.; Takahashi, H. [University of Tokyo, (Japan); Suzuki, M.; Tashiro, M. [Saitama University, (Japan)

2004-09-28

186

Evolution of nectarivory in phyllostomid bats (Phyllostomidae Gray, 1825, Chiroptera: Mammalia)  

PubMed Central

Background Bats of the family Phyllostomidae show a unique diversity in feeding specializations. This taxon includes species that are highly specialized on insects, blood, small vertebrates, fruits or nectar, and pollen. Feeding specialization is accompanied by morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations. Several attempts were made to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this family in order to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions accompanied by nutritional specialization. Nevertheless, the evolution of nectarivory remained equivocal. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on a concatenated nuclear-and mitochondrial data set, revealed a paraphyletic relationship of nectarivorous phyllostomid bats. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the nectarivorous genera Lonchophylla and Lionycteris are closer related to mainly frugivorous phyllostomids of the subfamilies Rhinophyllinae, Stenodermatinae, Carolliinae, and the insectivorous Glyphonycterinae rather than to nectarivorous bats of the Glossophaginae. This suggests an independent origin of morphological adaptations to a nectarivorous lifestyle within Lonchophyllinae and Glossophaginae. Molecular clock analysis revealed a relatively short time frame of about ten million years for the divergence of subfamilies. Conclusions Our study provides strong support for diphyly of nectarivorous phyllostomids. This is remarkable, since their morphological adaptations to nutrition, like elongated rostrums and tongues, reduced teeth and the ability to use hovering flight while ingestion, closely resemble each other. However, more precise examinations of their tongues (e.g. type and structure of papillae and muscular innervation) revealed levels of difference in line with an independent evolution of nectarivory in these bats.

2010-01-01

187

Selection for mechanical advantage underlies multiple cranial optima in new world leaf-nosed bats.  

PubMed

Selection for divergent performance optima has been proposed as a central mechanism underlying adaptive radiation. Uncovering multiple optima requires identifying forms associated with different adaptive zones and linking those forms to performance. However, testing and modeling the performance of complex morphologies like the cranium is challenging. We introduce a three-dimensional finite-element (FE) model of the cranium that can be morphed into different shapes by varying simple parameters to investigate the relationship between two engineering-based measures of performance, mechanical advantage and von Mises stress, and four divergent adaptive zones occupied by New World Leaf-nosed bats. To investigate these relationships, we tested the fit of Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models of evolution in mechanical advantage and von Mises stress using dated multilocus phylogenies. The analyses revealed three performance optima for mechanical advantage among species from three adaptive zones: bats that eat nectar; generalized insectivores, omnivores and some frugivores; and bats that specialize on hard canopy fruits. Only two optima, one corresponding to nectar feeding, were consistently uncovered for von Mises stress. These results suggest that mechanical advantage played a larger role than von Mises stress in the radiation of New World Leaf-nosed bats into divergent adaptive zones. PMID:24433457

Dumont, Elizabeth R; Samadevam, Krishna; Grosse, Ian; Warsi, Omar M; Baird, Brandon; Davalos, Liliana M

2014-05-01

188

Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.  

PubMed

The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

2014-08-01

189

First record of bat-pollination in the species-rich genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae).  

PubMed

Background and Aims Bromeliaceae is a species-rich neotropical plant family that uses a variety of pollinators, principally vertebrates. Tillandsia is the most diverse genus, and includes more than one-third of all bromeliad species. Within this genus, the majority of species rely on diurnal pollination by hummingbirds; however, the flowers of some Tillandsia species show some characteristics typical for pollination by nocturnal animals, particularly bats and moths. In this study an examination is made of the floral and reproductive biology of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia macropetala in a fragment of humid montane forest in central Veracruz, Mexico. Methods The reproductive system of the species, duration of anthesis, production of nectar and floral scent, as well as diurnal and nocturnal floral visitors and their effectiveness in pollination were determined. Key Results Tillandsia macropetala is a self-compatible species that achieves a higher fruit production through outcrossing. Nectar production is restricted to the night, and only nocturnal visits result in the development of fruits. The most frequent visitor (75 % of visits) and the only pollinator of this bromeliad (in 96 % of visits) was the nectarivorous bat Anoura geoffroyi (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae). Conclusions This is the first report of chiropterophily within the genus Tillandsia. The results on the pollination biology of this bromeliad suggest an ongoing evolutionary switch from pollination by birds or moths to bats. PMID:24651370

Aguilar-Rodríguez, Pedro Adrián; Macswiney G, M Cristina; Krömer, Thorsten; García-Franco, José G; Knauer, Anina; Kessler, Michael

2014-05-01

190

Structuring of Amazonian bat assemblages: the roles of flooding patterns and floodwater nutrient load.  

PubMed

1. River system dynamics results in ecological heterogeneities that play a central role in maintaining biodiversity in riverine regions. In central Amazonia, large expanses of forest are seasonally flooded by nutrient-rich water (várzea forests) or by nutrient-poor water (igapó forests). Inundation patterns and the nutrient load of floodwaters are perhaps the most important abiotic factors determining spatial ecological variations in lowland Amazonia, and so they are expected to strongly influence the structuring of animal communities. 2. We examined how inundation patterns and water-nutrient load influence the structure of neotropical assemblages of bats, one of the most diverse vertebrate groups in tropical forests. Bat assemblages were sampled with mist nets in central Brazilian Amazonia, across a mosaic of várzea, igapó, and non-flooding nutrient-poor terra firme forests in the low- and high-water seasons. 3. An ordination analysis clearly separated the assemblages of the three forest types, demonstrating the structural relevance of both flooding and floodwater-nutrient load. Flooded forests had lower species richness because of the absence or rarity of species that make roosts out of leaves of understorey plants, and of those that feed on fruits of shrubs. Gleaning insectivores, also partly dependent on the understorey, were less abundant in flooded forests, but aerial insectivores more abundant, presumably because they benefited from a less cluttered foraging environment. These differences suggest that flooding affects bat assemblages mostly because it reduces the availability of niches associated with understorey vegetation, which tends to be sparser in flooded forests. 4. Nutrient-rich várzea forests had a bat biomass twice that of nutrient-poor igapó and unflooded forests. This difference was not only mostly due to a greater overall abundance of bats, but also attributable to a disproportionate higher abundance of large-bodied bat species. 5. We concluded that both flooding and floodwater-nutrient load are very important in the structuring of lowland Amazonian bat assemblages, with inundation mostly constraining the species composition of the assemblages, and water-nutrient load mostly influencing the abundance of species. The distinctiveness of bat assemblages associated with flooding emphasizes the need to preserve inundated forests, which are under particular pressure in Amazonia. PMID:19627393

Pereira, Maria João Ramos; Marques, João Tiago; Santana, Joana; Santos, Carlos David; Valsecchi, João; de Queiroz, Helder Lima; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M

2009-11-01

191

TcBat a bat-exclusive lineage of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Panama Canal Zone, with comments on its classification and the use of the 18S rRNA gene for lineage identification.  

PubMed

We report TcBat, a recently described genetic lineage of Trypanosoma cruzi, in fruit-eating bats Artibeus from Panama. Infections were common (11.6% prevalence), but no other T. cruzi cruzi genotypes were detected. Phylogenetic analyses show an unambiguous association with Brazilian TcBat, but raise questions about the phylogenetic placement of this genotype using the 18S rRNA gene alone. However, analyses with three concatenated genes (18S rRNA, cytb, and H2B) moderately support TcBat as sister to the discrete typing unit (DTU) TcI. We demonstrate that short fragments (>500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene are useful for identification of DTUs of T. cruzi, and provide reliable phylogenetic signal as long as they are analyzed within a matrix with reference taxa containing additional informative genes. TcBat forms a very distinctive monophyletic group that may be recognized as an additional DTU within T. cruzi cruzi. PMID:22543008

Pinto, C Miguel; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Cottontail, Iain; Wellinghausen, Nele; Cottontail, Veronika M

2012-08-01

192

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interventions to Impede Date Palm Sap Contamination by Bats to Prevent Nipah Virus Transmission in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV) infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm’s sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. Methods During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant), jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. Results During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [p<0.001]. Bats were able to contact the sap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, p<0.001] less frequently in trees protected with skirts compared to control trees. No bats contacted sap in trees with bamboo (p<0.001 compared to control), dhoincha skirt (p<0.001) or polythene covering (p<0.001), but bats did contact sap during one night (7%) with the jute stick skirt (p<0.001). Conclusion Bamboo, dhoincha, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the sap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human.

Khan, Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Nahar, Nazmun; Sharker, M. A. Yushuf; Luby, Stephen P.

2012-01-01

193

Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. IV: The Common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus  

PubMed Central

We behaviorally determined the audiograms of three Common vampire bats (Phyllostomidae, Desmodus rotundus), a species specialized to exist exclusively on blood. The bats were trained to respond to pure tones in a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure for a blood reward and a mild punisher for failures to detect the tones. Common vampire bats have a hearing range from 716 Hz to 113 kHz at a level of 60 dB. Their best hearing is at 20 kHz where they are slightly more sensitive than other bats, and they have a second peak of good sensitivity at 71 kHz. They have unusually good sensitivity to low frequencies compared to other bats, but are less sensitive to low frequencies than most mammals. Selective pressures affecting high-frequency hearing in bats and mammals in general are discussed.

Heffner, Rickye S.; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E.

2013-01-01

194

Experimental evidence of food-independent larval development in endemic Jamaican freshwater-breeding crabs.  

PubMed

In an experimental study, we compared reproductive and developmental traits of endemic sesarmid crabs from Jamaica living in landlocked limnic or terrestrial habitats. Laboratory rearing and behavioral observations showed that the larval development of Sesarma windsor, Sesarma dolphinum (both from freshwater brooks), and Metopaulias depressus (the bromeliad crab) invariably consists of two nonfeeding zoeal stages and a facultatively lecithotrophic megalopa. In a quantitative study of life-history processes characterizing this developmental mode, we provide for S. windsor first data of biomass and elemental composition (dry mass, W; carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, collectively, CHN) during development from the egg through successive larval stages. These data show that larval independence of food is based on an enhanced female energy allocation in reproduction, reflected in unusually large egg size (1.45-1.70 mm), as well as high contents of C and H (about 60% and 9%, respectively) and high C : N ratios (7.6-8.4) in eggs and early larvae. During zoeal development, about 6% of initial W and 9% of N but 13% each of C and H were lost; similar losses occurred during megalopal development in continued absence of food. These patterns reflect the metabolic utilization of stored organic matter, with preferential degradation of lipid reserves. Fed megalopae gained greater amounts of W and N as compared with C and H (increments of 37% and 38% vs. 25% and 19%, respectively), indicating preferential investment of nutritional energy in proteins required for the formation of new tissues and organs, while generally decreasing proportions of CHN within total W suggested an increasing mineralization of the exoskeleton. Although survival and molt cycle duration of the megalopa stage were not affected by absence of food, significant effects were found in the size of first-stage juvenile crabs, indicating a trade-off between nutritional flexibility in the last larval stage and postmetamorphic fitness. Similar patterns of development and biomass in M. depressus as well as preliminary data obtained for S. dolphinum and Sesarma fossarum suggest that reproductive and developmental traits may be similar in all endemic Jamaican sesarmids. These traits are interpreted as life-history adaptations to development in landlocked habitats, probably playing a key role during adaptive radiation. PMID:15778944

Anger, Klaus; Schubart, Christoph D

2005-01-01

195

Distant relatives of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and close relatives of human coronavirus 229E in bats, Ghana.  

PubMed

We tested 12 bat species in Ghana for coronavirus (CoV) RNA. The virus prevalence in insectivorous bats (n = 123) was 9.76%. CoV was not detected in 212 fecal samples from Eidolon helvum fruit bats. Leaf-nosed bats pertaining to Hipposideros ruber by morphology had group 1 and group 2 CoVs. Virus concentrations were < or =45,000 copies/100 mg of bat feces. The diversified group 1 CoV shared a common ancestor with the human common cold virus hCoV-229E but not with hCoV-NL63, disputing hypotheses of common human descent. The most recent common ancestor of hCoV-229E and GhanaBt-CoVGrp1 existed in approximately 1686-1800 ad. The GhanaBt-CoVGrp2 shared an old ancestor (approximately 2,400 years) with the severe acute respiratory syndrome-like group of CoV. PMID:19788804

Pfefferle, Susanne; Oppong, Samuel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Ipsen, Anne; Seebens, Antje; Müller, Marcel A; Annan, Augustina; Vallo, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Kruppa, Thomas F; Drosten, Christian

2009-09-01

196

Are published standards for haematological indices in pregnancy applicable across populations: an evaluation in healthy pregnant Jamaican women  

PubMed Central

Background The haematological profile of the pregnant woman has an impact on the outcome of the pregnancy. Published guidelines indicate acceptable levels for haematological indices in pregnancy but they are population specific. Indicators of haemoglobin concentration are the most commonly utilized of the indices. These published international norms are used across populations, however, there is no evidence confirming their applicability to a population such as the Jamaican pregnant woman. This study was therefore undertaken with the intent of documenting the haematological profile of pregnant primigravid Jamaican women and comparing these to the established norms to determine whether the norms apply or whether there was a need to establish local norms. Methods This was a longitudinal study done on a cohort of 157 healthy primigravid women ages 15 to 25 and without anaemia, and who were recruited from the antenatal clinic of the University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. The haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count, red blood cell count and platelet count were measured on samples of blood obtained from each consenting participant during each of the three trimesters. The results were analysed using SPSS for windows (Version 11) and the data expressed as means ± S.D. Means were compared using the student's paired t-test. Comparison was then made with the international norms as recommended by the United States Center for Disease Control (1989). Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the University Hospital of the West Indies/University of the West Indies Ethics Committee. Results The results showed changes by trimester in all measured variables. For most of the indices the changes achieved levels of significance across trimesters. These changes were however in keeping with the expected physiological response in pregnancy and the values were similar to the published international norms. Conclusion The findings suggest that the international norms for haematological indices in pregnancy are applicable across populations and to the pregnant Jamaican primigravid woman. This finding may be reassuring to others with a similar population and stage of development as Jamaica.

James, Tameika R; Reid, Harvey L; Mullings, Anthony M

2008-01-01

197

Asthma and allergies in Jamaican children aged 2-17 years: a cross-sectional prevalence survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence and severity of asthma and allergies as well as risk factors for asthma among Jamaican children aged 2–17?years. Design A cross-sectional, community-based prevalence survey using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. The authors selected a representative sample of 2017 children using stratified, multistage cluster sampling design using enumeration districts as primary sampling units. Setting Jamaica, a Caribbean island with a total population of approximately 2.6 million, geographically divided into 14 parishes. Participants Children aged 2–17?years, who were resident in private households. Institutionalised children such as those in boarding schools and hospitals were excluded from the survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures The prevalence and severity of asthma and allergy symptoms, doctor-diagnosed asthma and risk factors for asthma. Results Almost a fifth (19.6%) of Jamaican children aged 2–17?years had current wheeze, while 16.7% had self-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma. Both were more common among males than among females. The prevalence of rhinitis, hay fever and eczema among children was 24.5%, 25% and 17.3%, respectively. Current wheeze was more common among children with rhinitis in the last 12?months (44.3% vs 12.6%, p<0.001), hay fever (36.8% vs 13.8%, p<0.001) and eczema (34.1% vs 16.4%, p<0.001). Independent risk factors for current wheeze (ORs, 95% CI) were chest infections in the first year of life 4.83 (3.00 to 7.77), parental asthma 4.19 (2.8 to 6.08), rhinitis in the last 12?months 6.92 (5.16 to 9.29), hay fever 4.82 (3.62 to 6.41), moulds in the home 2.25 (1.16 to 4.45), cat in the home 2.44 (1.66 to 3.58) and dog in the home 1.81 (1.18 to 2.78). Conclusions The prevalence of asthma and allergies in Jamaican children is high. Significant risk factors for asthma include chest infections in the first year of life, a history of asthma in the family, allergies, moulds and pets in the home.

Waldron, Norman K; Younger, Novie O; Edwards, Nancy C; Knight-Madden, Jennifer M; Bailey, Kay A; Wint, Yvonne B; Lewis-Bell, Karen N

2012-01-01

198

White-nose Syndrome Threatens Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists from federal and state wildlife agencies, universities, and conservation groups have launched a major research effort to understand, identify, and counter a mysterious ailment that has killed perhaps a half-million insect-eating bats in the northeastern United States during the last two winters. So far, little is known about white-nose syndrome, named for the white fungus that grows on affected bats' muzzles, wing membranes, or other exposed skin. A number of theories seek to explain the how and why of white-nose syndrome. The one most researchers favor says the fungus causes an irritation that induces hibernating bats to rouse and groom themselves. That causes them to burn more fat to keep warm in the cold, damp caves and mines where they hibernate. Hungry, the bats leave their hibernation quarters in search of food but die when they cannot find any.

Jeffrey P. Cohn (freelance science writer;)

2008-12-01

199

Bat wing sensors support flight control  

PubMed Central

Bats are the only mammals capable of powered flight, and they perform impressive aerial maneuvers like tight turns, hovering, and perching upside down. The bat wing contains five digits, and its specialized membrane is covered with stiff, microscopically small, domed hairs. We provide here unique empirical evidence that the tactile receptors associated with these hairs are involved in sensorimotor flight control by providing aerodynamic feedback. We found that neurons in bat primary somatosensory cortex respond with directional sensitivity to stimulation of the wing hairs with low-speed airflow. Wing hairs mostly preferred reversed airflow, which occurs under flight conditions when the airflow separates and vortices form. This finding suggests that the hairs act as an array of sensors to monitor flight speed and/or airflow conditions that indicate stall. Depilation of different functional regions of the bats’ wing membrane altered the flight behavior in obstacle avoidance tasks by reducing aerial maneuverability, as indicated by decreased turning angles and increased flight speed.

Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne; Chadha, Mohit; Chiu, Chen; Falk, Ben; Xian, Wei; Barcelo, Janna; Zook, John M.; Moss, Cynthia F.

2011-01-01

200

Bat guilds, a concept to classify the highly diverse foraging and echolocation behaviors of microchiropteran bats.  

PubMed

Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore, we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats' echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies patterns of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning. PMID:23840190

Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

2013-01-01

201

Bat Distribution Size or Shape as Determinant of Viral Richness in African Bats  

PubMed Central

The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID) is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera) in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio) with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa.

Vallo, Peter; Dallo, Thierno D.; Ngoagouni, Carine; Drexler, Jan Felix; Drosten, Christian; Nakoune, Emmanuel R.; Leroy, Eric M.

2014-01-01

202

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on Swift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB) mission serves as the GRB trigger for Swift as well as a sensitive imaging telescope for the energy range of 15-150 keV. BAT is a coded aperture instrument with a 17 arcminute point spread function and a 2 ster partially coded FOV. The imaging array has 32768 4mm CdZnTe

H. Krimm

2003-01-01

203

The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer, to be launched in 2003, will observe hundreds of gamma ray bursts per year and study their X-ray and optical afterglow with its multiwavelength complement of three instruments: a large gamma ray telescope called the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), an X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and a UV\\/Optical Telescope (UVOT). The BAT is a large coded

A. Parsons; S. Barthelmy; L. Barbier; N. Gehrels; D. Palmer; J. Tueller; E. Fenimore

1999-01-01

204

Swift\\/BAT Instrument Performance and Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is one of three telescopes aboard the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer that was launched on November 20, 2004. Swift's primary purpose is to identify and localize astronomical gamma-ray bursts and study their X-ray, UV and optical afterglow emission within seconds of the burst trigger. BAT provides the initial burst positions, as well as gamma-ray light

J. R. Cummings

2005-01-01

205

The Swift BAT Instrument: Performance and Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this talk I will discuss the Burst Alert Telescope BAT on the Swift spacecraft Swift is a dedicated mission for detecting gamma-ray bursts and performing rapid follow-up in the x-ray and optical wavelength bands This is possible because the BAT instrument can provide a burst location to within 3 arcmin within 20 seconds of the burst detection The GRB

L. Barbier

2006-01-01

206

Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts,

A. Parsons; S. Barthelmy; J. Cummings; N. Gehrels; D. Hullinger; H. Krimm; C. Markwardt; J. Tueller; E. Fenimore; D. Palmer; G. Sato; T. Takahashi; K. Nakazawa; Y. Okada; H. Takahashi; M. Suzuki; M. Tashiro

2004-01-01

207

Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Spectral Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is one of three telescopes aboard the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer that was launched on November 20, 2004. Swift's primary purpose is to identify and localize astronomical gamma-ray bursts and study their X-ray, UV and optical afterglow emission within seconds of the burst trigger. BAT provides the initial burst positions, as well as gamma-ray light

Ann Parsons

2005-01-01

208

How the bat got its buzz.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of echolocation in bats, the final phase of an attack on a flying insect, the 'terminal buzz', has proved enigmatic. During the buzz, bats increase information update rates by producing vocalizations up to 220 times s(-1). The buzz's ubiquity in hawking and trawling bats implies its importance for hunting success. Superfast muscles, previously unknown in mammals, are responsible for the extreme vocalization rate. Some bats produce a second phase-buzz II-defined by a large drop in the fundamental frequency (F(0)) of their calls. By doing so, bats broaden their acoustic field of view and should thereby reduce the likelihood of insect escape. We make the case that the buzz was a critical adaptation for capturing night-flying insects, and suggest that the drop in F(0) during buzz II requires novel, unidentified laryngeal mechanisms in order to counteract increasing muscle tension. Furthermore, we propose that buzz II represents a countermeasure against the evasive flight of eared prey in the evolutionary arms-race that saw the independent evolution of bat-detecting ears in various groups of night-flying insects. PMID:23302868

Ratcliffe, John M; Elemans, Coen P H; Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie

2013-04-23

209

How the bat got its buzz  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of echolocation in bats, the final phase of an attack on a flying insect, the ‘terminal buzz’, has proved enigmatic. During the buzz, bats increase information update rates by producing vocalizations up to 220 times s?1. The buzz's ubiquity in hawking and trawling bats implies its importance for hunting success. Superfast muscles, previously unknown in mammals, are responsible for the extreme vocalization rate. Some bats produce a second phase—buzz II—defined by a large drop in the fundamental frequency (F0) of their calls. By doing so, bats broaden their acoustic field of view and should thereby reduce the likelihood of insect escape. We make the case that the buzz was a critical adaptation for capturing night-flying insects, and suggest that the drop in F0 during buzz II requires novel, unidentified laryngeal mechanisms in order to counteract increasing muscle tension. Furthermore, we propose that buzz II represents a countermeasure against the evasive flight of eared prey in the evolutionary arms-race that saw the independent evolution of bat-detecting ears in various groups of night-flying insects.

Ratcliffe, John M.; Elemans, Coen P. H.; Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie

2013-01-01

210

Ectoparasite associations of bats from central Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

Between April and October 1997, 689 bats representing seven species were captured at Pennsylvania's Canoe Creek State Park. Each bat was sampled for ectoparasitic arthropods, and four species were collected from 13.2% of the host individuals. Ectoparasites include the bat flea Myodopsylla insignis (Rothschild), the wing mite Spinturnix americanus (Banks), the bed bug Cimex adjunctus Barber, and the soft tick Ornithodoros kelleyi Cooley & Kohls. Prevalence, relative density, and mean intensity were calculated for ectoparasites of Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte), which harbored all four ectoparasite species and was the most commonly captured host. Patterns of ectoparasite associations were examined with respect to host sex and habitat (roost characteristics). Female M. lucifugus hosted higher densities of ectoparasites than did males. Moreover, relative densities of ectoparasites from M. lucifugus were dependent on the proximate roost; hosts captured near Bat Church were more heavily parasitized than those captured near Hartman Mine. Two other bat species were infested with at least one ectoparasite, but sample sizes were too small to analyze statistically. These bat species included Myotis septentrionalis (Trouessart), harboring M. insignis, S. americanus, and O. kelleyi, and Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois), which harbored M. insignis and O. kelleyi. PMID:14765658

Dick, Carl W; Gannon, Michael R; Little, Wendy E; Patrick, Michael J

2003-11-01

211

Swift/BAT Calibration and Spectral Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard NASA's Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer is a large coded aperture gamma-ray telescope consisting of a 2.4 m (8') x 1.2 m (4') coded aperture mask supported 1 meter above a 5200 cm2 area detector plane containing 32,768 individual 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm CZT detectors. The BAT is now completely assembled and integrated with the Swift spacecraft in anticipation of an October 2004 launch. Extensive ground calibration measurements using a variety of radioactive sources have resulted in a moderately high fidelity model for the BAT spectral and photometric response. This paper describes these ground calibration measurements as well as related computer simulations used to study the efficiency and individual detector properties of the BAT detector array. The creation of a single spectral response model representative of the fully integrated BAT posed an interesting challenge and is at the heart of the public analysis tool `batdrmgen' which computes a response matrix for any given sky position within the BAT FOV. This paper will describe the batdrmgen response generator tool and conclude with a description of the on-orbit calibration plans as well as plans for the future improvements needed to produce the more detailed spectral response model that is required for the construction of an all-sky hard x-ray survey. This work was funded by the NASA Explorer Program

Parsons, A. M.; Swift/BAT Science Team

2004-08-01

212

Swift/BAT Calibration and Spectral Response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard NASA#s Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer is a large coded aperture gamma-ray telescope consisting of a 2.4 m (8#) x 1.2 m (4#) coded aperture mask supported 1 meter above a 5200 square cm area detector plane containing 32,768 individual 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm CZT detectors. The BAT is now completely assembled and integrated with the Swift spacecraft in anticipation of an October 2004 launch. Extensive ground calibration measurements using a variety of radioactive sources have resulted in a moderately high fidelity model for the BAT spectral and photometric response. This paper describes these ground calibration measurements as well as related computer simulations used to study the efficiency and individual detector properties of the BAT detector array. The creation of a single spectral response model representative of the fully integrated BAT posed an interesting challenge and is at the heart of the public analysis tool #batdrmgen# which computes a response matrix for any given sky position within the BAT FOV. This paper will describe the batdrmgen response generator tool and conclude with a description of the on-orbit calibration plans as well as plans for the future improvements needed to produce the more detailed spectral response model that is required for the construction of an all-sky hard x-ray survey.

Parsons, A.

2004-01-01

213

What Do Mexican Fruit Flies Learn When They Experience Fruit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexican fruit flies learn fruit characteristics that enable them to distinguish familiar fruits from novel fruits. We investigated whether mature Mexican fruit flies learn fruit color, size or odor. We found no evidence that female flies learn fruit color or size after experience with host fruit, including oviposition. However, green fruit and fruit models were more attractive than yellow and

David C. Robacker; Ivich Fraser

2005-01-01

214

A brief history of fruits and frugivores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we briefly review the evolutionary history of the mutualistic interaction between angiosperms that produce fleshy fruits and their major consumers: frugivorous birds and mammals. Fleshy fruits eaten by these vertebrates are widely distributed throughout angiosperm phylogeny. Similarly, a frugivorous diet has evolved independently many times in birds and mammals. Bird dispersal is more common than mammal-dispersal in all lineages of angiosperms, and we suggest that the evolution of bird fruits may have facilitated the evolution of frugivory in primates. The diets of fruit-eating bats overlap less with those of other kinds of frugivorous vertebrates. With a few exceptions, most families producing vertebrate-dispersed fruit appeared substantially earlier in earth history than families of their vertebrate consumers. It is likely that major radiations of these plants and animals have occurred in the past 30 Ma, in part driven by geological changes and also by the foraging behavior of frugivores in topographically complex landscapes. Overall, this mutualistic interaction has had many evolutionary and ecological consequences for tropical plants and animals for most of the Cenozoic Era. Loss of frugivores and their dispersal services will have a strong negative impact on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of tropical and subtropical communities.

Fleming, Theodore H.; John Kress, W.

2011-11-01

215

Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines, and there is at present no direct method of reducing or preventing this mortality. We therefore determine whether the electromagnetic radiation associated with radar installations can elicit an aversive behavioural response in foraging bats. Four civil air traffic control (ATC) radar stations, three military ATC radars and three weather

Barry Nicholls; Paul A. Racey

2007-01-01

216

Detection of European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2) in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) from Magdeburg, Germany.  

PubMed

In Europe bat rabies in Daubenton's bats (Myotisdaubentonii) and in Pond bats (Myotis dasycneme) caused by the European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2) has been confirmed in less than 20 cases to date. Here we report the second encounter of this virus species in Germany. A Daubenton's bat found grounded in the zoological garden in Magdeburg died shortly after. In the frame of a retrospective study the bat carcass was eventually transferred to the national reference laboratory for rabies at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute for rabies diagnosis. Lyssavirus was isolated and characterized as EBLV-2. PMID:22712424

Freuling, Conrad M; Kliemt, Jeannette; Schares, Susann; Heidecke, Dietrich; Driechciarz, René; Schatz, Juliane; Müller, Thomas

2012-01-01

217

Chemoenzymatic asymmetric total syntheses of a constituent of Jamaican rum and of (+)-Pestalotin using an enantioconvergent enzyme-triggered cascade reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short chemoenzymatic route to two natural products—the first, a constituent of Jamaican rum and the second the (+)-antipode of the gibberelin synergist (?)-Pestalotin—was accomplished based on an enzyme-triggered cascade-reaction. Thus, a racemic halomethyl oxirane was hydrolyzed by bacterial epoxide hydrolases to furnish the corresponding vic-halomethyl-diol, which underwent spontaneous ring-closure to furnish an epoxy alcohol in up to 93% e.e.

Sandra F. Mayer; Andreas Steinreiber; Marian Goriup; Robert Saf; Kurt Faber

2002-01-01

218

Reported Hours of Sleep, Diabetes Prevalence and Glucose Control in Jamaican Adults: Analysis from the Jamaica Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

Background. There are limited data on sleep duration and diabetes from developing countries. We therefore examined the relationship between reported hours of sleep, diabetes prevalence and glucose control in Jamaican adults. Methods. Data on reported hours of sleep and diabetes (based on glucose measurement and medication use) from a national survey of 15–74-year-old Jamaicans were analyzed. Results. The 2,432 participants (31% M, Age 42 ± 16 years, BMI 27.6 ± 6.6?kg/m2, diabetes prevalence 12%) reported sleeping 8.2 ± 1.8 hours. In men, sleeping less than 6 hours (OR (95% CI) = 2.65 (1.09–6.48)) or more than 10 hours (OR (95% CI) = 4.36 (1.56–12.19)) was associated with diabetes when adjusted for age, BMI, and family history of diabetes. In women sleeping less than 6 hours was associated with a reduced likelihood of diabetes after adjusting for the same confounders ((OR (95% CI) = 0.43 (0.23–0.78)). There was no significant association between sleep and glucose control. Conclusion. Insufficient and excessive sleep was associated with increased diabetes prevalence in Jamaican men but not women.

Cumberbatch, Chisa G.; Younger, Novie O.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; McFarlane, Shelly R.; Francis, Damian K.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.

2011-01-01

219

Bats in the Classroom: A Conceptual Guide for Biology Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to use bats to introduce different biological concepts such as classification and phylogeny, altruistic behavior, flight, coevolution, or physiological adaptations. Discusses common myths regarding bats and provides information on additional classroom materials. (YDS)

Rankin, W. T.; Lewis, Norma G.

2002-01-01

220

Endemic Lagos bat virus infection in Eidolon helvum.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses suggest lyssaviruses, including Rabies virus, originated from bats. However, the role of bats in the maintenance, transmission and evolution of lyssaviruses is poorly understood. A number of genetically diverse lyssaviruses are present in Africa, including Lagos bat virus (LBV). A high seroprevalence of antibodies against LBV was detected in Eidolon helvum bats. Longitudinal seroprevalence and age-specific seroprevalence data were analysed and capture-mark-recapture (CMR) analysis used to follow 98 bats over 18 months. These data demonstrate endemic infection, with evidence of horizontal transmission, and force of infection was estimated for differing age categories. The CMR analysis found survival probabilities of seronegative and seropositive bats were not significantly different. The lack of increased mortality in seropositive animals suggests infection is not causing disease after extended incubation. These key findings point towards acute transmission of bat lyssaviruses in adapted bat hosts that occurs at a far higher rate than the occurrence of disease. PMID:22370126

Hayman, D T S; Fooks, A R; Rowcliffe, J M; McCrea, R; Restif, O; Baker, K S; Horton, D L; Suu-Ire, R; Cunningham, A A; Wood, J L N

2012-12-01

221

DEVELOPMENT OF FREQUENCY MODULATED VOCALIZATIONS IN BIG BROWN BAT PUPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing bat pups produce distinct vocalizations called isolation calls (I?calls) that serve to attract the bat’s mother. How individual pups shift their vocalizations from I?calls to downward frequency modulated (FM) sweeps during development remains unclear. By recording individual bat pups from the day of birth to twenty?five days postnatal we observed behavioural and bioacoustic (temporal and spectral) changes in pup

Heather W Mayberry

2011-01-01

222

Describing the plastic deformation of aluminium softball bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hollow aluminium bats were introduced over 30 years ago to provide improved durability over wooden bats. Since their introduction,\\u000a however, interest in hollow bats has focused almost exclusively around their hitting performance. The aim of this study was\\u000a to take advantage of the progress that has been made in predicting bat performance using finite elements and apply it to describe

Eric Biesen; Lloyd Smith

2007-01-01

223

Accuracy of target ranging in echolocating bats: acoustic information processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Echolocating bats use the time delay between emitted sounds and returning echoes to determine the distance to an object. This study examined the accuracy of target ranging by bats and the effect of echo bandwidth on the bat's performance in a ranging task.2.Six big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were trained in a yes-no procedure to discriminate between two phantom targets,

Cynthia F. Moss; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

1989-01-01

224

Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.  

PubMed

Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

2014-01-01

225

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bats, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The source of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus remains unknown. Molecular investigation indicated that bats in Saudi Arabia are infected with several alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Virus from 1 bat showed 100% nucleotide identity to virus from the human index case-patient. Bats might play a role in human infection.

Memish, Ziad A.; Mishra, Nischay; Olival, Kevin J.; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Kapoor, Vishal; Epstein, Jonathan H.; AlHakeem, Rafat; Durosinloun, Abdulkareem; Al Asmari, Mushabab; Islam, Ariful; Kapoor, Amit; Briese, Thomas; Daszak, Peter; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

2013-01-01

226

Geographic Translocation of Bats: Known and Potential Problems  

PubMed Central

Natural, accidental, and intentional translocation of bats, both intra- and intercontinentally, has been documented. Some bats have been translocated while incubating infectious diseases, including rabies or related lyssavirus infections; others have escaped confinement en route to or at their destinations, while others have been released deliberately. Known events and potential consequences of bat translocation are reviewed, including a proposed solution to the attendant problems.

2003-01-01

227

Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem.

Blehert, David S; Maluping, Ramón P.; Green, David E.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Langenberg, Julia

2014-01-01

228

Distinct Lineage of Vesiculovirus from Big Brown Bats, United States  

PubMed Central

We identified a novel rhabdovirus, American bat vesiculovirus, from postmortem tissue samples from 120 rabies-negative big brown bats with a history of human contact. Five percent of the tested bats were infected with this virus. The extent of zoonotic exposure and possible health effects in humans from this virus are unknown.

Driscoll, Cindy; Carlos, Maria Paz; Prioleau, Algernon; Schmieder, Robert; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Wong, Jakk; Cha, Yunhee; Head, Steven; Breitbart, Mya; Delwart, Eric

2013-01-01

229

Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species  

PubMed Central

Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations.

Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

2014-01-01

230

Hoop frequency as a predictor of performance for softball bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Hollow metal and composite baseball and softball bats exhibit both bending modes and hoop modes. The hoop modes are unique to hollow bats and involve only a radial vibration of the barrel of the bat. The fundamental hoop mode is responsible for the both the \\

D. A. Russell

231

From the Cover: Bat predation on nocturnally migrating birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bat predation on birds is a very rare phenomenon in nature. Most documented reports of bird-eating bats refer to tropical bats that occasionally capture resting birds. Millions of small birds concentrate and cross over the world's temperate regions during migration, mainly at night, but no nocturnal predators are known to benefit from this enormous food resource. An analysis of 14,000

Carlos Ibáñez; Javier Juste; Juan L. García-Mudarra; Pablo T. Agirre-Mendi

2001-01-01

232

Biomechanics: Independent evolution of running in vampire bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most tetrapods have retained terrestrial locomotion since it evolved in the Palaeozoic era, but bats have become so specialized for flight that they have almost lost the ability to manoeuvre on land at all. Vampire bats, which sneak up on their prey along the ground, are an important exception. Here we show that common vampire bats can also run by

Daniel K. Riskin; John W. Hermanson

2005-01-01

233

New Alphacoronavirus in Mystacina tuberculata Bats, New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Because of recent interest in bats as reservoirs of emerging diseases, we investigated the presence of viruses in Mystacina tuberculata bats in New Zealand. A novel alphacoronavirus sequence was detected in guano from roosts of M. tuberculata bats in pristine indigenous forest on a remote offshore island (Codfish Island).

Wang, Jing; Peacey, Matthew; Moore, Nicole E.; McInnes, Kate; Tompkins, Daniel M.

2014-01-01

234

Design and characterization of a multi-articulated robotic bat wing.  

PubMed

There are many challenges to measuring power input and force output from a flapping vertebrate. Animals can vary a multitude of kinematic parameters simultaneously, and methods for measuring power and force are either not possible in a flying vertebrate or are very time and equipment intensive. To circumvent these challenges, we constructed a robotic, multi-articulated bat wing that allows us to measure power input and force output simultaneously, across a range of kinematic parameters. The robot is modeled after the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, and contains seven joints powered by three servo motors. Collectively, this joint and motor arrangement allows the robot to vary wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. We describe the design, construction, programing, instrumentation, characterization, and analysis of the robot. We show that the kinematics, inputs, and outputs demonstrate good repeatability both within and among trials. Finally, we describe lessons about the structure of living bats learned from trying to mimic their flight in a robotic wing. PMID:23385471

Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

2013-03-01

235

Roost tree use by maternity colonies of Indiana bats and northern long-eared bats in southern Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roost trees used by female Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis), a federally endangered species, and sympatric northern long-eared bats (Myotis septentrionalis) at two locations in southern Illinois greatly impacted by past flooding were located using radiotelemetry. For 30 Indiana bats, we located 49 roosts in 7 species of trees. Green ash snags (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and pin oak snags (Quercus palustris) were

Timothy C. Carter; George A. Feldhamer

2005-01-01

236

Effect of different types of cricket batting pads on the running and turning speed in cricket batting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare a batsman's running and turning speed during three runs while wearing either traditional batting pads or one of two models of newly designed cricket batting pads. Fifteen cricketers participated. The running and turning speeds were measured on three different days with players using the three pairs of batting pads for each trial

N. Loock; D. E. Du Toit; D. J. L. Ventner; R. A. Stretch

2006-01-01

237

Frugivory is associated with low measures of plasma oxidative stress and high antioxidant concentration in free-ranging bats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidative stress—an imbalance between reactive pro- and neutralising antioxidants—damages cell structures and impairs fitness-relevant traits such as longevity and reproduction. Theory predicts that feeding on diets with high antioxidant content such as fruits should reduce oxidative stress; however, there is no support of this idea in free-ranging mammals. Bats cover a large variety of ecological niches, and therefore, we asked if measures of oxidative stress are lower in species with fruit diets. We measured reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) representing total pro-oxidants produced and antioxidants in the plasma of 33 Neotropical bat species. Species with a fruit diet showed the lowest level of ROM and the highest concentration of antioxidants, followed by omnivorous and animalivorous species. Potentially, frugivorous species ingest more antioxidants with food and thus are able to neutralise more pro-oxidants than species not feeding on fruits, resulting in an overall lower level of oxidative stress. We therefore showed for the first time that measures of oxidative stress vary according to diets in free-ranging mammals.

Schneeberger, Karin; Czirják, Gábor Á.; Voigt, Christian C.

2014-04-01

238

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 Aminotransferases Have Functionally Diverged from the Ancestral-Like Kluyveromyces lactis Orthologous Enzyme  

PubMed Central

Background Gene duplication is a key evolutionary mechanism providing material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The fate of duplicated gene copies has been amply discussed and several models have been put forward to account for duplicate conservation. The specialization model considers that duplication of a bifunctional ancestral gene could result in the preservation of both copies through subfunctionalization, resulting in the distribution of the two ancestral functions between the gene duplicates. Here we investigate whether the presumed bifunctional character displayed by the single branched chain amino acid aminotransferase present in K. lactis has been distributed in the two paralogous genes present in S. cerevisiae, and whether this conservation has impacted S. cerevisiae metabolism. Principal Findings Our results show that the KlBat1 orthologous BCAT is a bifunctional enzyme, which participates in the biosynthesis and catabolism of branched chain aminoacids (BCAAs). This dual role has been distributed in S. cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 paralogous proteins, supporting the specialization model posed to explain the evolution of gene duplications. BAT1 is highly expressed under biosynthetic conditions, while BAT2 expression is highest under catabolic conditions. Bat1 and Bat2 differential relocalization has favored their physiological function, since biosynthetic precursors are generated in the mitochondria (Bat1), while catabolic substrates are accumulated in the cytosol (Bat2). Under respiratory conditions, in the presence of ammonium and BCAAs the bat1? bat2? double mutant shows impaired growth, indicating that Bat1 and Bat2 could play redundant roles. In K. lactis wild type growth is independent of BCAA degradation, since a Klbat1? mutant grows under this condition. Conclusions Our study shows that BAT1 and BAT2 differential expression and subcellular relocalization has resulted in the distribution of the biosynthetic and catabolic roles of the ancestral BCAT in two isozymes improving BCAAs metabolism and constituting an adaptation to facultative metabolism.

Colon, Maritrini; Hernandez, Fabiola; Lopez, Karla; Quezada, Hector; Gonzalez, James; Lopez, Geovani; Aranda, Cristina; Gonzalez, Alicia

2011-01-01

239

Bats are a major natural reservoir for hepaciviruses and pegiviruses  

PubMed Central

Although there are over 1,150 bat species worldwide, the diversity of viruses harbored by bats has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife surveillance. Such surveys are of importance in determining the potential for novel viruses to emerge in humans, and for optimal management of bats and their habitats. To enhance our knowledge of the viral diversity present in bats, we initially surveyed 415 sera from African and Central American bats. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing revealed the presence of a highly diverse group of bat-derived viruses related to hepaciviruses and pegiviruses within the family Flaviridae. Subsequent PCR screening of 1,258 bat specimens collected worldwide indicated the presence of these viruses also in North America and Asia. A total of 83 bat-derived viruses were identified, representing an infection rate of nearly 5%. Evolutionary analyses revealed that all known hepaciviruses and pegiviruses, including those previously documented in humans and other primates, fall within the phylogenetic diversity of the bat-derived viruses described here. The prevalence, unprecedented viral biodiversity, phylogenetic divergence, and worldwide distribution of the bat-derived viruses suggest that bats are a major and ancient natural reservoir for both hepaciviruses and pegiviruses and provide insights into the evolutionary history of hepatitis C virus and the human GB viruses.

Quan, Phenix-Lan; Williams, Simon H.; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M.; Anthony, Simon J.; Ellison, James A.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Osinubi, Modupe O. V.; Recuenco, Sergio; Markotter, Wanda; Breiman, Robert F.; Kalemba, Lems; Malekani, Jean; Lindblade, Kim A.; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Suzan, Gerardo; Davis, Lora B.; Blau, Dianna M.; Ogunkoya, Albert B.; Alvarez Castillo, Danilo A.; Moran, David; Ngam, Sali; Akaibe, Dudu; Agwanda, Bernard; Briese, Thomas; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Daszak, Peter; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2013-01-01

240

DBatVir: the database of bat-associated viruses  

PubMed Central

Emerging infectious diseases remain a significant threat to public health. Most emerging infectious disease agents in humans are of zoonotic origin. Bats are important reservoir hosts of many highly lethal zoonotic viruses and have been implicated in numerous emerging infectious disease events in recent years. It is essential to enhance our knowledge and understanding of the genetic diversity of the bat-associated viruses to prevent future outbreaks. To facilitate further research, we constructed the database of bat-associated viruses (DBatVir). Known viral sequences detected in bat samples were manually collected and curated, along with the related metadata, such as the sampling time, location, bat species and specimen type. Additional information concerning the bats, including common names, diet type, geographic distribution and phylogeny were integrated into the database to bridge the gap between virologists and zoologists. The database currently covers >4100 bat-associated animal viruses of 23 viral families detected from 196 bat species in 69 countries worldwide. It provides an overview and snapshot of the current research regarding bat-associated viruses, which is essential now that the field is rapidly expanding. With a user-friendly interface and integrated online bioinformatics tools, DBatVir provides a convenient and powerful platform for virologists and zoologists to analyze the virome diversity of bats, as well as for epidemiologists and public health researchers to monitor and track current and future bat-related infectious diseases. Database URL: http://www.mgc.ac.cn/DBatVir/

Chen, Lihong; Liu, Bo; Yang, Jian; Jin, Qi

2014-01-01

241

[Trematodes (Trematoda) of bats (Chiroptera) from the Middle Volga Region].  

PubMed

The data on species diversity of trematodes from bats collected in the Middle Volga Region are summarized. According to original and literary data, 20 trematode species were recorded in bats of the region examined. Plagiorchis elegans, Lecithodendrium skrjabini, L. rysavyi, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, and Pycnoporus megacotyle are specified for the bat fauna of Russia for the first time. For 11 species of parasites, new hosts are recorded. The analysis of bat helminthes demonstrated that the fauna of trematodes of the northern bat (12 species of trematodes), of the pond, and of the Brandt's bats is the most diverse, constituting more than 10 parasite species per bat species. The largest number of final hosts in the Middle Volga Region is characteristic of Plagiorchis koreanus and Prosthodendrium chilostomum; the latter species were revealed in 8 and 7 bat species, respectively. Trematodes of bats possess a high degree of host specificity. 17 species parasitize exclusively in bats out of 20 parasite species registered for the order Chiroptera. Only 3 species (Plagiorchis elegans, P. vespertilionis, and Prosthodendrium chilostomum) show wide degree of specificity, being found in other animals. Taxonomic position, the circle of hosts, collecting sites, and brief data in biology and geographical distribution for each helminth species are specified. Morphological descriptions and original figures for all the trematode species revealed in bats of the Middle Volga Region are given. PMID:23458016

Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu; Vekhnik, V P

2012-01-01

242

Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

Clark, D.R., Jr.

1980-01-01

243

Bats as Reservoir Hosts of Human Bacterial Pathogen, Bartonella mayotimonensis  

PubMed Central

A plethora of pathogenic viruses colonize bats. However, bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain ill defined. In a study initially conducted as a quantitative metagenomic analysis of the fecal bacterial flora of the Daubenton’s bat in Finland, we unexpectedly detected DNA of several hemotrophic and ectoparasite-transmitted bacterial genera, including Bartonella. Bartonella spp. also were either detected or isolated from the peripheral blood of Daubenton's, northern, and whiskered bats and were detected in the ectoparasites of Daubenton's, northern, and Brandt's bats. The blood isolates belong to the Candidatus-status species B. mayotimonensis, a recently identified etiologic agent of endocarditis in humans, and a new Bartonella species (B. naantaliensis sp. nov.). Phylogenetic analysis of bat-colonizing Bartonella spp. throughout the world demonstrates a distinct B. mayotimonensis cluster in the Northern Hemisphere. The findings of this field study highlight bats as potent reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens.

Veikkolainen, Ville; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Lilley, Thomas M.

2014-01-01

244

White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe  

PubMed Central

White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Pruger, Julia; Gorfol, Tamas; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zophel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

2010-01-01

245

BAT2 GRB Catalog - Prompt Emission Properties of Swift GRBs  

SciTech Connect

We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. The BAT T{sub 90} duration peaks at 70 s. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT short-duration GRBs are generally harder than those of the long-duration GRBs. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate redshift GRBs. Furthermore, the observed spectra of the BAT high redshift GRBs are similar to or harder than the moderate redshift GRBs.

Sakamoto, T. [CRESST and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Parsons, A.; Tueller, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Baumgartner, W.; Cummings, J. [CRESST and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryand, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); Krimm, H. [CRESST and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Universities Space Research Association, 10211 Wincopin Circle, Suite 500, Columbia, MD 21044-3432 (United States); Markwardt, C. [CRESST and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Sato, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Stamatikos, M. [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ukwatta, T. [Center for Nuclear Studies, Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052 (United States)

2010-10-15

246

Bats as Reservoir Hosts of Human Bacterial Pathogen, Bartonella mayotimonensis.  

PubMed

A plethora of pathogenic viruses colonize bats. However, bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain ill defined. In a study initially conducted as a quantitative metagenomic analysis of the fecal bacterial flora of the Daubenton's bat in Finland, we unexpectedly detected DNA of several hemotrophic and ectoparasite-transmitted bacterial genera, including Bartonella. Bartonella spp. also were either detected or isolated from the peripheral blood of Daubenton's, northern, and whiskered bats and were detected in the ectoparasites of Daubenton's, northern, and Brandt's bats. The blood isolates belong to the Candidatus-status species B. mayotimonensis, a recently identified etiologic agent of endocarditis in humans, and a new Bartonella species (B. naantaliensis sp. nov.). Phylogenetic analysis of bat-colonizing Bartonella spp. throughout the world demonstrates a distinct B. mayotimonensis cluster in the Northern Hemisphere. The findings of this field study highlight bats as potent reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:24856523

Veikkolainen, Ville; Vesterinen, Eero J; Lilley, Thomas M; Pulliainen, Arto T

2014-06-01

247

Bats avoid radar installations: could electromagnetic fields deter bats from colliding with wind turbines?  

PubMed

Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines, and there is at present no direct method of reducing or preventing this mortality. We therefore determine whether the electromagnetic radiation associated with radar installations can elicit an aversive behavioural response in foraging bats. Four civil air traffic control (ATC) radar stations, three military ATC radars and three weather radars were selected, each surrounded by heterogeneous habitat. Three sampling points matched for habitat type and structure, dominant vegetation species, altitude and surrounding land class were located at increasing distances from each station. A portable electromagnetic field meter measured the field strength of the radar at three distances from the source: in close proximity (<200 m) with a high electromagnetic field (EMF) strength >2 volts/metre, an intermediate point within line of sight of the radar (200-400 m) and with an EMF strength <2 v/m, and a control site out of sight of the radar (>400 m) and registering an EMF of zero v/m. At each radar station bat activity was recorded three times with three independent sampling points monitored on each occasion, resulting in a total of 90 samples, 30 of which were obtained within each field strength category. At these sampling points, bat activity was recorded using an automatic bat recording station, operated from sunset to sunrise. Bat activity was significantly reduced in habitats exposed to an EMF strength of greater than 2 v/m when compared to matched sites registering EMF levels of zero. The reduction in bat activity was not significantly different at lower levels of EMF strength within 400 m of the radar. We predict that the reduction in bat activity within habitats exposed to electromagnetic radiation may be a result of thermal induction and an increased risk of hyperthermia. PMID:17372629

Nicholls, Barry; Racey, Paul A

2007-01-01

248

Swift\\/BAT calibration and the estimated BAT hard x-ray survey sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to providing the initial gamma-ray burst trigger and location, the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) will also perform an all-sky hard x-ray survey based on serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts. BAT was designed with a very wide field-of-view (FOV) so that it can observe roughly 1\\/7 of the sky at any time. Since gamma-ray

Ann M. Parsons; Jack Tueller; Hans Krimm; Scott D. Barthelmy; James Cummings; Craig Markwardt; Derek Hullinger; Neil Gehrels; Ed Fenimore; David Palmer; Goro Sato; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Tadayuki Takahashi; Shin Watanabe; Yuu Okada; Hiromitsu Takahashi; Masaya Suzuki; Makoto Tashiro

2004-01-01

249

Molecular diagnostics for the detection of Bokeloh bat lyssavirus in a bat from Bavaria, Germany.  

PubMed

A brain sample of a Natterer's bat tested positive for rabies with classical virological techniques. Molecular techniques confirmed the presence of Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) in Germany for the second time. Sequence analysis revealed a close genetic relationship to the initial German BBLV case. Using a TaqMan RT-PCR specific for BBLV viral RNA was detected in various other organs albeit with differences in the relative viral load. PMID:23932899

Freuling, Conrad M; Abendroth, Björn; Beer, Martin; Fischer, Melina; Hanke, Dennis; Hoffmann, Bernd; Höper, Dirk; Just, Frank; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Schatz, Juliane; Müller, Thomas

2013-11-01

250

The ideal moment of inertia for a baseball or softball bat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, In selecting a baseball or a softball bat, both weight and weight distribution should be considered. However, these considerations must be individualized, because there is large variability in how different batters swing a bat and in how each batter swings different bats. Previous research has defined the ideal bat weight as that weight that maximizes the batted-ball speed based

A. Terry Bahill

2004-01-01

251

Habitat Use by Forest Bats in South Carolina in Relation to Local, Stand, and Landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge and understanding of bat habitat associations and the responses of bats to forest management are critical for effective bat conservation and management. Few studies have been conducted on bat habitat use in the southeast, despite the high number of endangered and sensitive species in the region. Our objective was to identify important local, stand, and landscape factors influencing bat

M. O'KEEFE

252

Human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012-related Viruses in Bats, Ghana and Europe  

PubMed Central

We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats.

Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J.; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M.; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Lina, Peter H.C.; Godlevska, Elena V.; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian

2013-01-01

253

Human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012-related viruses in bats, Ghana and Europe.  

PubMed

We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats. PMID:23622767

Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Lina, Peter H C; Godlevska, Elena V; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix

2013-03-01

254

Changes in the contents of oleoresin and pungent bioactive principles of Jamaican ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.) during maturation.  

PubMed

Changes in the yields of the oleoresin and content of pungent bioactive principles: [6], [8], [10] gingerols and [6] shogaol of Jamaican ginger ( Zingiber officinale) were investigated during different stages of maturity (7-9 months). Ethanolic oleoresin extracts were prepared (95%, w/w) by cold maceration of dried ginger powder, and their percentage yields were calculated (w/w). The pungent bioactive principles in the ginger oleoresin were extracted with methanol and quantitatively analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ginger harvested at 8 months from Bourbon, Portland had the highest oleoresin yield (8.46 +/- 0.46%). [6] Gingerol was found to be the most abundant pungent bioactive principle in all the oleoresin samples investigated, with the 9 months sample from Bourbon, Portland containing the highest level (28.94 +/- 0.39%). The content of [6] gingerols was also found to be consistently high (7-9 months) in oleoresin samples from Johnson Mountain, St. Thomas (15.12 +/- 0.39 to 16.02 +/- 0.95%). The results suggest that Bourbon in Portland may be the most ideal location for cultivating ginger for high yields and quality, however, Johnson Mountain in St. Thomas could prove to be the least restrictive location, allowing for harvesting of good quality material throughout the maturity period (7-9 months). PMID:18564850

Bailey-Shaw, Yvonne A; Williams, Lawrence A D; Junor, Grace-Ann O; Green, Cheryl E; Hibbert, Sheridan L; Salmon, Colleen N A; Smith, Ann Marie

2008-07-23

255

Watching bats find food: Do we classify the signals, the strategies, or the bats?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fact that different families, genera, and even species of echolocating bats broadcast characteristic sonar signals has motivated numerous efforts to classify bats according to signal design, which has received support from correlations with both peripheral and central auditory physiology. Signal types vary according to the situations in which bats have been observed hunting for food, so this classification has been extended to the hunting strategies they use. The availability of new technical means for watching and documenting the behavior of echolocating bats in real time (thermal infrared video cameras, night-vision video with infrared illumination, video recorders with ultrasonic audio channels) makes it possible to follow individual bats long enough to observe variations in their behavior over periods of seconds to minutes. These observations reveal that at least some species nominally classified as using just one hunting strategy in fact use several strategies according to prevailing conditions, sometimes using different strategies in the course of only a few minutes. The historic inaccessibility of bats to real-time observation in the dark may have lead to exaggerated stereotyping of their behavior. [Work supported by ONR, NSF.

Simmons, James A.

2001-05-01

256

Cherry Fruit Abscission  

PubMed Central

Initiation of abscission at the pedicel-fruit zone in the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cv. Montmorency) occurs near the transition of Stage II to Stage III of fruit growth. The preinitiation phase is characterized by a high fruit removal force (FRF) and explants prepared from fruits during this period do not undergo abscission as indexed by a reduction in FRF. Ethylene does not cause a significant reduction in FRF either in attached fruit or in explants prepared during this period. By contrast, after initiation (Stage III of fruit growth), there is a marked decrease in FRF with fruit development, explants prepared from fruits during this period undergo abscission, and ethylene markedly promotes the loss in break-strength. Neither the rate of evolution nor the internal concentration of ethylene in the fruit were correlated with fruit abscission. Similar abscission responses, as indexed by FRF and sensitivity to ethylene, were observed in attached fruit and in detached fruit explants.

Wittenbach, Vernon A.; Bukovac, Martin J.

1974-01-01

257

Behaviour of bats during a lunar eclipse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hunting activity of tropical bats was observed during a lunar eclipse at night. During the eclipse, the activity was significantly higher than before and after when the bright full moon was visible. The decrease of hunting activity in bright light is interpreted as a direct adaptation to the light conditions, whereas endogenous factors seem not to be involved. The

K. Usman; J. Habersetzer; R. Subbaraj; G. Gopalkrishnaswamy; K. Paramanandam

1980-01-01

258

Population Trends of Wintering Bats in Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of all readily available inventories of wintering bats in Vermont. Surveys at 23 hibernacula were compiled from the literature and unpublished data of numerous biologists and cavers. The earliest Vermont records date back to 1934. Only five hibernacula were systematically surveyed for more than 45 years. Despite data limitations, several trends have emerged. Since the 1930s,

Stephen C. Trombulak; Philip E. Higuera; Mark DesMeules

2001-01-01

259

Molecular Evolution of Bat Color Vision Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two suborders of bats, Megachiroptera (megabats) and Microchiroptera (microbats), use different sensory modalities for perceiving their environment. Megabats are crepuscular and rely on a well-developed eyes and visual pathway, whereas microbats occupy a nocturnal niche and use acoustic orientation or echolocation more than vision as the major means of perceiving their environment. In view of the differences associated with

Daryi Wang; Todd Oakley; Jeffrey Mower; Lawrence C. Shimmin; Sokchea Yim; Rodney L. Honeycutt; Hsienshao Tsao; Wen-Hsiung Li

2003-01-01

260

Analysis of bat wings for morphing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphing of wings from three different bat species is studied using an extension of the Weissinger method. To understand how camber affects performance factors such as lift and lift to drag ratio, XFOIL is used to study thin (3% thickness to chord ratio) airfoils at a low Reynolds number of 100,000. The maximum camber of 9% yielded the largest lift coefficient, and a mid-range camber of 7% yielded the largest lift to drag ratio. Correlations between bat wing morphology and flight characteristics are covered, and the three bat wing planforms chosen represent various combinations of morphological components and different flight modes. The wings are studied using the extended Weissinger method in an "unmorphed" configuration using a thin, symmetric airfoil across the span of the wing through angles of attack of 0°-15°. The wings are then run in the Weissinger method at angles of attack of -2° to 12° in a "morphed" configuration modeled after bat wings seen in flight, where the camber of the airfoils comprising the wings is varied along the span and a twist distribution along the span is introduced. The morphed wing configurations increase the lift coefficient over 1000% from the unmorphed configuration and increase the lift to drag ratio over 175%. The results of the three different species correlate well with their flight in nature.

Leylek, Emily A.; Manzo, Justin E.; Garcia, Ephrahim

2008-05-01

261

Analysis of bat wings for morphing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphing of wings from three different bat species is studied using an extension of the Weissinger method. To understand how camber affects performance factors such as lift and lift to drag ratio, XFOIL is used to study thin (3% thickness to chord ratio) airfoils at a low Reynolds number of 100,000. The maximum camber of 9% yielded the largest

Emily A. Leylek; Justin E. Manzo; Ephrahim Garcia

2008-01-01

262

CABLE NETS FOR BAT HABITAT PRESERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable-supported structures have been used in architectural and engineering practice for long spans, such as suspension bridges, and to cover large areas with a minimum of support columns, such as sports arenas and aviaries. Similarly, in bat habitat preservation in underground mines and caves, use of cable nets is particularly well adapted to large span, usually vertical, openings. Nets also

John A. Kretzmann

263

Hybridization Hotspots at Bat Swarming Sites  

PubMed Central

During late summer and early autumn in temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere, thousands of bats gather at caves, mainly for the purpose of mating. We demonstrated that this swarming behavior most probably leads not only to breeding among bats of the same species but also interbreeding between different species. Using 14 nuclear microsatellites and three different methods (the Bayesian assignment approaches of STRUCTURE and NEWHYBRIDS and a principal coordinate analysis of pairwise genetic distances), we analyzed 375 individuals belonging to three species of whiskered bats (genus Myotis) at swarming sites across their sympatric range in southern Poland. The overall hybridization rate varied from 3.2 to 7.2%. At the species level, depending on the method used, these values ranged from 2.1–4.6% in M. mystacinus and 3.0–3.7% in M. brandtii to 6.5–30.4% in M. alcathoe. Hybrids occurred in about half of the caves we studied. In all three species, the sex ratio of hybrids was biased towards males but the observed differences did not differ statistically from those noted at the population level. In our opinion, factors leading to the formation of these admixed individuals and their relatively high frequency are: i) swarming behaviour at swarming sites, where high numbers of bats belonging to several species meet; ii) male-biased sex ratio during the swarming period; iii) the fact that all these bats are generally polygynous. The highly different population sizes of different species at swarming sites may also play some role. Swarming sites may represent unique hybrid hotspots, which, as there are at least 2,000 caves in the Polish Carpathians alone, may occur on a massive scale not previously observed for any group of mammal species in the wild. Evidently, these sites should be treated as focal points for the conservation of biodiversity and evolutionary processes.

Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Piksa, Krzysztof; Tereba, Anna

2012-01-01

264

Response of neotropical bat assemblages to human land use.  

PubMed

Neotropical bats are sensitive to human-induced habitat changes, and some authors believe bats can be used as bioindicators. In the literature, however, the results are disparate. Some results show bat diversity deceases as disturbance increases, whereas others indicate no effect. Determining the general response patterns of bats when they encounter different degrees of human-induced disturbance across the Neotropics would help to determine their usefulness as bioindicators. In a series of meta-analyses, we compared the occurrence frequency of bat species between well-preserved forests and human-use areas. We obtained data through an extensive review of published peer-reviewed articles, theses, and reports. The overall effect size indicated that human-use areas harbored more bat species than well-preserved forests. Different response patterns emerged when meta-analyses were conducted separately by family, feeding habit, vegetation stratum, and conservation status. Our results suggest that bat assemblages display strong responses to forest loss and land-use change and that the direction and magnitude of these responses depends on the bat group under study and the type of disturbance. Our results are consistent with the idea that bats are useful for assessing the effects of habitat changes in the Neotropics. However, with our meta-analyses we could not detect fine differences in bat feeding habits, especially within Phyllostomidae, or elucidate the effect of landscape configuration. PMID:23869786

García-Morales, Rodrigo; Badano, Ernesto I; Moreno, Claudia E

2013-10-01

265

Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats.  

PubMed

To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. PMID:24860509

Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

2014-01-01

266

Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats  

PubMed Central

To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment.

Kothari, Ninad B.; Wohlgemuth, Melville J.; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F.

2014-01-01

267

78 FR 19559 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 26, 2013. Pursuant to Section...on March 18, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS...SPDR S&P 500 ETF (``SPY''), Apple Inc. (``AAPL''), SPDR Gold...

2013-04-01

268

Migration of bats past a remote island offers clues toward the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wind energy is rapidly becoming a viable source of alternative energy, but wind turbines are killing bats in many areas of North America. Most of the bats killed by turbines thus far have been migratory species that roost in trees throughout the year, and the highest fatality events appear to coincide with autumn migration. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) are highly migratory and one of the most frequently killed species at wind turbines. We analyzed a long-term data set to investigate how weather and moonlight influenced the occurrence of hoary bats at an island stopover point along their migration route. We then related our results to the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines. We found that relatively low wind speeds, low moon illumination, and relatively high degrees of cloud cover were important predictors of bat arrivals and departures, and that low barometric pressure was an additional variable that helped predict arrivals. Slight differences in the conditions under which bats arrived and departed from the island suggest that hoary bats may be more likely to arrive on the island with passing storm fronts in autumn. These results also indicate that fatalities of hoary bats at wind turbines may be predictable events, that the species may be drawn to prominent landmarks that they see during migration, and that they regularly migrate over the ocean. Additional observations from this and other studies suggest that the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines may be associated with flocking and autumn mating behaviors.

Cryan, P. M.; Brown, A. C.

2007-01-01

269

Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia Species in Bat Ticks, France, 2010  

PubMed Central

Argas vespertilionis, an argasid tick associated with bats and bat habitats in Europe, Africa, and Asia has been reported to bite humans; however, studies investigating the presence of vector-borne pathogens in these ticks are lacking. Using molecular tools, we tested 5 A. vespertilionis ticks collected in 2010 from the floor of a bat-infested attic in southwestern France that had been converted into bedrooms. Rickettsia sp. AvBat, a new genotype of spotted fever group rickettsiae, was detected and cultivated from 3 of the 5 ticks. A new species of the Ehrlichia canis group, Ehrlichia sp. AvBat, was also detected in 3 ticks. Four ticks were infected with Borrelia sp. CPB1, a relapsing fever agent of the Borrelia group that caused fatal borreliosis in a bat in the United Kingdom. Further studies are needed to characterize these new agents and determine if the A. vespertilionis tick is a vector and/or reservoir of these agents.

Socolovschi, Cristina; Kernif, Tahar; Raoult, Didier

2012-01-01

270

BAT1, a putative acyltransferase, modulates brassinosteroid levels in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential for various aspects of plant development. Cellular BR homeostasis is critical for proper growth and development of plants; however, its regulatory mechanism remains largely unknown. BAT1 (BR-related acyltransferase 1), a gene encoding a putative acyltransferase, was found to be involved in vascular bundle development in a full-length cDNA over-expressor (FOX) screen. Over-expression of BAT1 resulted in typical BR-deficient phenotypes, which were rescued by exogenously applied castasterone and brassinolide. Analyses of BR profiles demonstrated that BAT1 alters levels of several brassinolide biosynthetic intermediates, including 6-deoxotyphasterol, typhasterol and 6-deoxocastasterone. BAT1 is mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. BAT1 is highly expressed in young tissues and vascular bundles, and its expression is induced by auxin. These data suggest that BAT1 is involved in BR homeostasis, probably by conversion of brassinolide intermediates into acylated BR conjugates. PMID:23020607

Choi, Sunhwa; Cho, Young-hyun; Kim, Kangmin; Matsui, Minami; Son, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Seong-Ki; Fujioka, Shozo; Hwang, Ildoo

2013-02-01

271

Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Turner, Gregory G.; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michell; Russell, Robin E.; Castle, Kevin T.

2013-01-01

272

Enzootic and epizootic rabies associated with vampire bats, peru.  

PubMed

During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002-2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non-vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans. PMID:23969087

Condori-Condori, Rene Edgar; Streicker, Daniel G; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

2013-01-01

273

When should fig fruit produce volatiles? Pattern in a ripening process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ripe fruit need to signal their presence to attract dispersal agents. Plants may employ visual and/or olfactory sensory channels to signal the presence of ripe fruit. Visual signals of ripe fruit have been extensively investigated. However, the volatile signatures of ripe fruit that use olfactorily-oriented dispersers have been scarcely investigated. Moreover, as in flowers, where floral scents are produced at times when pollinators are active (diurnal versus nocturnal), whether plants can modulate the olfactory signal to produce fruit odours when dispersers are active in the diel cycle is completely unknown. We investigated day-night differences in fruit odours in two species of figs, Ficus racemosa and Ficus benghalensis. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. racemosa that are largely dispersed by bats and other mammals was dominated by fatty acid derivatives such as esters. In this species in which the ripe fig phase is very short, and where the figs drop off soon after ripening, there were no differences between day and night in fruit volatile signature. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. benghalensis that has a long ripening period, however, and that remain attached to the tree for extended periods when ripe, showed an increase in fatty acid derivatives such as esters and of benzenoids such as benzaldehyde at night when they are dispersed by bats, and an elevation of sesquiterpenes during the day when they are dispersed by birds. For the first time we provide data that suggest that the volatile signal produced by fruit can show diel differences based on the activity period of the dispersal agent.

Borges, Renee M.; Ranganathan, Yuvaraj; Krishnan, Anusha; Ghara, Mahua; Pramanik, Gautam

2011-11-01

274

The First Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2007 June 16. This catalog (hereafter the BAT1 catalog) contains burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, and time-averaged spectral parameters for each of 237 GRBs, as measured by the

T. Sakamoto; S. D. Barthelmy; L. Barbier; J. R. Cummings; E. E. Fenimore; N. Gehrels; D. Hullinger; H. A. Krimm; C. B. Markwardt; D. M. Palmer; A. M. Parsons; G. Sato; M. Stamatikos; J. Tueller; T. N. Ukwatta; B. Zhang

2008-01-01

275

Bat pollination of Encholirium glaziovii , a terrestrial bromeliad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The many-flowered, brush-like spikes ofEncholirium glaziovii, a ground-dwelling pitcairnioid bromeliad of the “campo rupestre” formation of southeastern Brazil, was observed being pollinated by the glossophagine bat,Lonchophylla bokermanni, in the Serra do Cipó (Minas Gerais). Nectar feeding was while hovering, and the pollen was preferentially transferred by the bat's snout. The floral pattern is chiropterophilous; unlike known tillandsioid bat flowers, stamens

Ivan Sazima; Stefan Vogel; Marlies Sazima

1989-01-01

276

Sensory Ecology of Water Detection by Bats: A Field Experiment  

PubMed Central

Bats face a great risk of dehydration, so sensory mechanisms for water recognition are crucial for their survival. In the laboratory, bats recognized any smooth horizontal surface as water because these provide analogous reflections of echolocation calls. We tested whether bats also approach smooth horizontal surfaces other than water to drink in nature by partly covering watering troughs used by hundreds of bats with a Perspex layer mimicking water. We aimed 1) to confirm that under natural conditions too bats mistake any horizontal smooth surface for water by testing this on large numbers of individuals from a range of species and 2) to assess the occurrence of learning effects. Eleven bat species mistook Perspex for water relying chiefly on echoacoustic information. Using black instead of transparent Perspex did not deter bats from attempting to drink. In Barbastella barbastellus no echolocation differences occurred between bats approaching the water and the Perspex surfaces respectively, confirming that bats perceive water and Perspex to be acoustically similar. The drinking attempt rates at the fake surface were often lower than those recorded in the laboratory: bats then either left the site or moved to the control water surface. This suggests that bats modified their behaviour as soon as the lack of drinking reward had overridden the influence of echoacoustic information. Regardless of which of two adjoining surfaces was covered, bats preferentially approached and attempted to drink from the first surface encountered, probably because they followed a common route, involving spatial memory and perhaps social coordination. Overall, although acoustic recognition itself is stereotyped and its importance in the drinking process overwhelming, our findings point at the role of experience in increasing behavioural flexibility under natural conditions.

Russo, Danilo; Cistrone, Luca; Jones, Gareth

2012-01-01

277

Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

Cryan, P. M.; Barclay, R. M. R.

2009-01-01

278

Genome Analysis of Bat Adenovirus 2: Indications of Interspecies Transmission  

PubMed Central

The genome of bat adenovirus 2 was sequenced and analyzed. It is similar in size (31,616 bp) to the genomes of bat adenovirus 3 and canine adenoviruses 1 and 2. These four viruses are monophyletic and share an identical genome organization, with one E3 gene and four E4 genes unique to this group among the mastadenoviruses. These findings suggest that canine adenoviruses may have originated by interspecies transfer of a vespertilionid bat adenovirus.

Vidovszky, Marton Z.; Muhldorfer, Kristin; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojtek; Radonic, Aleksandar; Nitsche, Andreas; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Harrach, Balazs

2012-01-01

279

Bat white-nose syndrome: an emerging fungal pathogen?  

PubMed

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychrophilic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS. PMID:18974316

Blehert, David S; Hicks, Alan C; Behr, Melissa; Meteyer, Carol U; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M; Buckles, Elizabeth L; Coleman, Jeremy T H; Darling, Scott R; Gargas, Andrea; Niver, Robyn; Okoniewski, Joseph C; Rudd, Robert J; Stone, Ward B

2009-01-01

280

The First Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the first Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), which contains bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2007 June 16. This catalog (hereafter BAT1 catalog) contains burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, and time averaged spectral parameters for each of 237 GRBs, as measured by the BAT. The BAT-determined position reported here is within 1.75' of the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT)-determined position for 90% of these GRBs. The BAT T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) durations peak at 80 and 20 seconds, respectively. From the fluence-fluence correlation, we conclude that about 60% of the observed peak energies, E(sup obs)(sub peak) of BAT GRBs could be less than 100 keV. We confirm that GRB fluence to hardness and GRB peak flux to hardness are correlated for BAT bursts in analogous ways to previous missions' results. The correlation between the photon index in a simple power-law model and E(sup obs)(sub peak) is also confirmed. We also report the current status for the on-orbit BAT calibrations based on observations of the Crab Nebula.

Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Barbier, L.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

2007-01-01

281

A mechanism for antiphonal echolocation by Free-tailed bats  

PubMed Central

Bats are highly social and spend much of their lives echolocating in the presence of other bats. To reduce the effects of acoustic interferences from other bats' echolocation calls, we hypothesized that bats might shift the timing of their pulse emissions to minimize temporal overlap with another bat's echolocation pulses. To test this hypothesis we investigated whether free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) echolocating in the lab would shift the timing of their own pulse emissions in response to regularly repeating artificial acoustic stimuli. A robust phase-locked temporal pattern in pulse emissions was displayed by every bat tested which included an initial suppressive phase lasting more than 60 ms after stimulus onset, during which the probability of emitting pulses was reduced by more than fifty percent, followed by a compensatory rebound phase, the timing and amplitude of which were dependent on the temporal pattern of the stimulus. The responses were non-adapting and were largely insensitive to broad changes in the acoustic properties of the stimulus. Randomly occurring noise-bursts also suppressed calling for up to 60 ms, but the time-course of the compensatory rebound phase was more rapid than when the bats were responding to regularly repeating patterns of noise bursts. These findings provide the first quantitative description of how external stimuli may cause echolocating bats to alter the timing of subsequent pulse emissions.

Jarvis, Jenna; Bohn, Kirsten M.; Tressler, Jedediah; Smotherman, Michael

2010-01-01

282

The evolution of bat pollination: a phylogenetic perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Most tropical and subtropical plants are biotically pollinated, and insects are the major pollinators. A small but ecologically and economically important group of plants classified in 28 orders, 67 families and about 528 species of angiosperms are pollinated by nectar-feeding bats. From a phylogenetic perspective this is a derived pollination mode involving a relatively large and energetically expensive pollinator. Here its ecological and evolutionary consequences are explored. Scope and Conclusions This review summarizes adaptations in bats and plants that facilitate this interaction and discusses the evolution of bat pollination from a plant phylogenetic perspective. Two families of bats contain specialized flower visitors, one in the Old World and one in the New World. Adaptation to pollination by bats has evolved independently many times from a variety of ancestral conditions, including insect-, bird- and non-volant mammal-pollination. Bat pollination predominates in very few families but is relatively common in certain angiosperm subfamilies and tribes. We propose that flower-visiting bats provide two important benefits to plants: they deposit large amounts of pollen and a variety of pollen genotypes on plant stigmas and, compared with many other pollinators, they are long-distance pollen dispersers. Bat pollination tends to occur in plants that occur in low densities and in lineages producing large flowers. In highly fragmented tropical habitats, nectar bats play an important role in maintaining the genetic continuity of plant populations and thus have considerable conservation value.

Fleming, Theodore H.; Geiselman, Cullen; Kress, W. John

2009-01-01

283

Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

George, D. B.; Webb, C. T.; Farnsworth, M. L.; O'Shea, T. J.; Bowen, R. A.; Smith, D. L.; Stanley, T. R.; Ellison, L. E.; Rupprecht, C. E.

2011-01-01

284

[Considerations on human rabies transmitted by bats].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to present a combined analysis of eight outbreaks of human rabies transmitted by bats in Brazil and Peru. Some factors present in many outbreaks were identified, as follows: most of the outbreaks occurred in small villages in the rural Amazonian region; there was a change of local production processes; little or no cattle was present; the houses were vulnerable; access to health services was difficult. Other information was also analyzed, for instance: attack rate; incubation period; site of the attack; occupation, sex and age of the victim. As part of the study of these recent outbreaks, a review of the bibliography on human rabies transmitted by bats was also carried out. PMID:7502158

Schneider, M C; Santos-Burgoa, C

1995-01-01

285

Mechanism of Fruit Ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The making of a fruit is a developmental process unique to plants. It requires a complex network of interacting genes and\\u000a signaling pathways. In fleshy fruit, it involves three distinct stages, namely, fruit set, fruit development, and fruit ripening.\\u000a Of these, ripening has received most attention from geneticists and breeders, as this important process activates a whole\\u000a set of biochemical

M. Bouzayen; A. Latché; P. Nath; J. C. Pech

286

Energetic cost of hovering flight in nectar-feeding bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) and its scaling in moths, birds and bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three groups of specialist nectar-feeders covering a continuous size range from insects, birds and bats have evolved the\\u000a ability for hovering flight. Among birds and bats these groups generally comprise small species, suggesting a relationship\\u000a between hovering ability and size. In this study we established the scaling relationship of hovering power with body mass\\u000a for nectar-feeding glossophagine bats (Phyllostomidae). Employing

C. C. Voigt; Y. Winter

1999-01-01

287

Asymmetric bats characterize universality for parallel iteration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generalized Baker maps provide one of the most fundamental mechanisms to dynamically generate fractal structures. We show that in the limit of a large number of maps, the entropy function which describes the composed system converges towards a universal entropy function which, qualitatively, depends only on the grammatical structure of the system but has a characteristic bat-like shape. We present theoretical and numerical results on the universal entropy function for different grammars.

Stoop, R.; Steeb, W.-H.

1996-07-01

288

Modelling Batting Strategy in Test Cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During the third innings, we suppose that the batting team selects a run-rate and target to optimise the match outcome probabilities.\\u000a Outcome probabilities are calculated using a model for the outcome given the end of third innings position, and a model for\\u000a the target set given the current position and the chosen run-rate. While the run-rate is not wholly in

P. Scarf; X. Shi; S. Akhtar

289

Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) instrument response generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer (scheduled for launch in January 2004) is a coded aperture telescope that includes an array of 32,768 CZT planar detectors, each 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm thick. The mobility-lifetime products for holes and electrons are used to characterize the charge transport properties of each detector and

Derek D. Hullinger; Ann M. Parsons; Goro Sato

2004-01-01

290

The Adventure of Echo, the Bat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive adventure uses a Landsat mosaic of Arizona as the interface. Students need to interpret satellite imagery to receive clues to Echo the Bat's location. As students find Echo, additional content about remote sensing and biodiversity is introduced. This web site provides teachers with a vehicle for introducing complex content that can be reinforced back in the classroom through the Remote Sensing and Biodiversity units linked to this website.

291

[Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].  

PubMed

The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America. PMID:24912354

Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

2014-03-01

292

Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.  

PubMed

The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions. PMID:24724516

Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

2014-02-01

293

NCEP Exercise- Bats of Madagascar: How to Manage a Landscape to Protect Bats.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise students analyze given data to assess which areas in a landscape are important areas for bat conservation. Students will identify potential areas of importance on a map, prioritize these areas, assess threats to bat conservation, evaluate what additional information is needed, and justify their priorities based on data and evidence. Additional teaching materials on topics relating to biodiversity conservation and ecology can be obtained free of charge by registering at the Network for Conservation Educators and PractitionersÃÂ website (http://ncep.amnh.org).

Cardiff, S. G.

2010-02-16

294

Mark's Fruit Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Mark Rieger, a Professor of Horticulture at the University of Georgia, Mark's Fruit Crops is a great educational website on the world's major fruit crops. The site features a Fruit Crops Encyclopedia containing links to information about different types of fruit. The separate fruit pages include attractive photographs intermingled with brief sections on Origin, History of Cultivation, Botanical Description, Production Statistics, and more. Site visitors can access more in-depth information by connecting to Professor Rieger's HORT 320, Introduction to Fruit Crops site which includes PDF files of the course text, a Glossary of Fruit Crops, and other resources. This website also contains links to Fruit Catalogs, and a list of relevant fruit links. [NL

Rieger, Mark

295

Full-length genome sequence and genetic relationship of two paramyxoviruses isolated from bat and pigs in the Americas.  

PubMed

Mapuera virus (MPRV) was isolated from a fruit bat in Brazil in 1979, but its host range and disease-causing potential are unknown. Porcine rubulavirus (PoRV) was identified as the aetiological agent of disease outbreaks in pigs in Mexico during early 1980s, but the origin of PoRV remains elusive. In this study, the completed genome sequence of MPRV was determined, and the complete genome sequence of PoRV was assembled from previously published protein-coding genes and the non-coding genome regions determined from this study. Comparison of sequence and genome organization indicated that PoRV is more closely related to MPRV than to any other members of the genus Rubulavirus. In the P gene coding region of both viruses, there is an ORF located at the 5' end of the P gene overlapping with the P protein coding region, similar to the C protein ORF present in most viruses of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae, but absent in other known rubulaviruses. Based on these findings, we hypothesise that PoRV may also originate from bats, and spillover events from bats to pigs, either directly or via an intermediate host, were responsible for the sporadic disease outbreaks observed in Mexico. PMID:17385069

Wang, L-F; Hansson, E; Yu, M; Chua, K B; Mathe, N; Crameri, G; Rima, B K; Moreno-López, J; Eaton, B T

2007-01-01

296

Bats and birds: Exceptional longevity despite high metabolic rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Bats and birds live substantially longer on average than non-flying mammals of similar body size. The combination of small body size, high metabolic rates, and long lifespan in bats and birds would not seem to support oxidative theories of ageing that view senescence as the gradual accumulation of damage from metabolic byproducts.

Jason Munshi-South; Gerald S. Wilkinson

2009-01-01

297

Bat Dynamics of Female Fast Pitch Softball Batters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female fast pitch softball batters served in an examination of the dynamic characteristics of the bat during the swing through the use of three-dimensional cinematographic analysis techniques. These results were compared with those from previous studies of baseball batting. Findings are listed. (Author/DF)

Messier, Stephen P.; Owen, Marjorie G.

1984-01-01

298

Foraging by bats in cleared, thinned and unharvested boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Modern silvicultural methods employ various styles of selective harvesting in addi- tion to traditional clear-cutting. This can create a mosaic of patches with different tree densities that may influence habitat use by foraging bats. Use of forest patches may also vary among bat species due to variation in their manoeuvrability. Apart from studies investigating use of clear-cuts, few

Krista J. Patriquin; Robert M. R. Barclay

2003-01-01

299

Bat Rabies in Massachusetts, USA, 1985-2009  

PubMed Central

To investigate rabies in Massachusetts, we analyzed bat rabies test results before and after introduction of raccoon variant rabies and after release of revised 1999 US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations for rabies postexposure prophylaxis. Bat submissions were associated with level of rabies awareness and specific postexposure recommendations.

DeMaria, Alfred; Smole, Sandra; Brown, Catherine M.; Han, Linda

2010-01-01

300

Movement templates for learning of hitting and batting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hitting and batting tasks, such as tennis forehands, ping-pong strokes, or baseball batting, depend on predictions where the ball can be intercepted and how it can properly be returned to the opponent. These predictions get more accurate over time, hence the behaviors need to be continuously modified. As a result, movement templates with a learned global shape need to be

Jens Kober; Katharina Mülling; Oliver Kroemer; Christoph H. Lampert; Bernhard Schölkopf; Jan Peters

2010-01-01

301

Model of Sweet Spot on a Baseball Bat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, collision mechanics is used to analyze the hitting process of the bats in the baseball games. The model is constructed in the paper to testify the sweet spot on a baseball bat. The vibration impulse on hands is analyzed. And the hitting point of the center of percussion with zero vibration impulse is obtained by quantitative calculation.

Bi Yong; Xiao Xiangping

2010-01-01

302

Impact of a ball with a bat or racket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collision of a ball with a baseball bat or a tennis racket is usually modeled in terms of rigid body dynamics, assuming that the hand exerts no impulsive reaction force on the handle during the collision. In this paper, a uniform aluminum beam was used as an idealized bat or racket, in order to examine both the rigid body

Rod Cross

1999-01-01

303

Performance assessment of wood, metal and composite baseball bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to develop and verify a predictive capability of determining baseball bat performance. The technique employs a dynamic finite element code with time dependent baseball properties. The viscoelastic model accommodates energy loss associated with the baseball's speed dependent coefficient of restitution (COR). An experimental test machine was constructed to simulate the ball–bat impact conditions in

Mahesh M Shenoy; Lloyd V Smith; John T Axtell

2001-01-01

304

European Bat Lyssavirus Type 2 RNA in Myotis daubentonii  

PubMed Central

Organ distribution of European bat lyssavirus type 2 viral RNA in its reservoir host, Myotis daubentonii (Daubenton's bat), was measured with a novel quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay. High levels of genomic RNA were found in the brain and were also detectable in the tongue, bladder, and stomach.

Wakeley, Philip R.; Brookes, Sharon M.; Fooks, Anthony R.

2006-01-01

305

BATS II - A fast bubble automatic test system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A versatile, second generation bubble memory testing system (BATS II) has been built which is more than two orders of magnitude faster than our original BATS I bubble-wafer testing system. This minicomputer-based system allows arbitrary data patterns to be written and read, a large number of parameters to be varied, and a wide variety of error analyses to be performed.

A. Helgesson

1979-01-01

306

Optimal batting orders in one-day cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the search for optimal or nearly optimal batting orders in one-day cricket. A search is conducted over the space of permutations of batting orders where simulated annealing is used to explore the space. A non-standard aspect of the optimization is that the objective function (which is the mean number of runs per innings) is unavailable and is

Tim B. Swartz; Paramjit S. Gill; David Beaudoin; Basil M. deSilva

307

A Batting Average: Does It Represent Ability or Luck?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently Bickel and Stotz (2003) explored differences in players' batting average (AVG) over pitch count, and noted that many people misinterpreted the drop in batting average when there was two strikes. Stotz (2004) decomposes AVG as a product of two terms, the rate of not striking out, and an \\

Jim Albert

2004-01-01

308

Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift MIDEX mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Burst Alert telescope (BAT) is one of 3 instruments on the Swift MIDEX spacecraft to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The BAT instrument is the instrument that first detects the GRB and localizes the burst direction to an accuracy of 1 - 4 arcmin within 10 sec after the start of the event. These locations cause the spacecraft to autonomously

Scott D. Barthelmy

2000-01-01

309

Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift MIDEX mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Burst Alert telescope (BAT) is one of 3 instruments on the Swift MIDEX spacecraft to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The BAT instrument is the instrument that first detects the GRB and localizes the burst direction to an accuracy of 1-4 arcmin within 20 sec after the start of the event. These locations cause the spacecraft to autonomously slew to

Scott D. Barthelmy

2004-01-01

310

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift MIDEX mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Burst Alert telescope (BAT) is one of 3 instruments on the Swift MIDEX spacecraft to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The BAT instrument is the instrument that first detects the GRB and localizes the burst direction to an accuracy of 1--4 arcmin within 20 sec after the start of the event. These locations cause the spacecraft to autonomously slew, to

Craig Markwardt; Niel Gehrels

2004-01-01

311

Going, Going, Gone! The Making of a Baseball Bat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From little league players to professional athletes, baseball has become a sport that is not only fun to play and watch, but also a sport driven by innovation and technology. One particular piece of baseball equipment that has undergone many changes is the baseball bat. Prior to the early 1970s, wooden bats were the only choice available. Today,…

Cantu, Diana

2012-01-01

312

SGR 1935+2154 Swift-BAT archival data search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a search for previous Swift-BAT detections of SGR 1935+2154 (Cummings et al. ATel #6294). Swift-BAT has seen no subthreshold image peaks within 6 arcmin of the SGR, neither short nor long duration, throughout the mission (since December 2004). ...

Cummings, J. R.; Campana, S.

2014-07-01

313

White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bat, France  

PubMed Central

White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding.

Puechmaille, Sebastien J.; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michael

2010-01-01

314

Australian Bat Lyssavirus in a child: the first reported case.  

PubMed

Human infection with Australian Bat Lyssavirus is extremely rare and has not previously been reported in a child. We describe a fatal case of Australian Bat Lyssavirus in an 8-year-old child, and review the literature pertaining to the diagnosis and management of lyssavirus infection with consideration of its applicability to this emerging strain. PMID:24590754

Francis, Joshua R; Nourse, Clare; Vaska, Vikram L; Calvert, Sophie; Northill, Judith A; McCall, Brad; Mattke, Adrian C

2014-04-01

315

Gray bats and pollution in Missouri and northern Alabama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gray bats died with lethal brain concentrations of dieldrin and rising levels of heptachlor epoxide in 1976, 1977, and 1978 at Bat Caves No. 2-3, Franklin County, Missouri. The colony disappeared in 1979. Dieldrin was banned in 1974 and 1981 was the last year for heptachlor use in Missouri. The State is recommendiing three organophosphates (chlorpyrifos or Dursban, dyfonate or Fonophos, and ethoprop or Mocap) as substitutes for heptachlor. All three compounds have excellent records in the environment. Analyses of insects collected where bats of this colony fed showed beetles, particularly rove beetles (Staphylinidae), to be the most heavily contaminated part of the bat's diet. Lactation concentrated these residues so that levels in milk were approximately 30 times those in the insect diet. Gray bats found dead in caves in northern Alabama showed DDD (a DDT derivative) contamination. Bats from the colony at Cave Springs Cave on the Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge contained up to 29 ppm DDD in their brains, but this is probably less than one-half the lethal level. Bats from other colonies contained less. The DDD contamination enters the Terinessee River just above the Wheeler Refuge and is seen in gray bat colonies as far as 60 miles downriver.

Clark, D. R., Jr.; Bunck, C. M.; Cromartie, E.; LaVal, R. K.; Tuttle, M. D.

1981-01-01

316

Modelling simultaneous echo waveform reconstruction and localization in bats.  

PubMed

Echolocating bats perceive the world through sound signals reflecting from the objects around them. In these signals, information is contained about reflector location and reflector identity. Bats are able to extract and separate the cues for location from those that carry identification information. We propose a model based on Wiener deconvolution that also performs this separation for a virtual system mimicking the echolocation system of the lesser spearnosed bat, Phyllostomus discolor. In particular, the model simultaneously reconstructs the reflected echo signal and localizes the reflector from which the echo originates. The proposed technique is based on a model that performs a similar task based on information from the frog's lateral line system. We show that direct application of the frog model to the bat sonar system is not feasible. However, we suggest a technique that does apply to the bat biosonar and indicate its performance in the presence of noise. PMID:20149838

De Mey, F; Schillebeeckx, F; Vanderelst, D; Boen, A; Peremans, H

2010-05-01

317

Evolutionary Relationships between Bat Coronaviruses and Their Hosts  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have suggested that bats are the natural reservoir of a range of coronaviruses (CoVs), and that rhinolophid bats harbor viruses closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV, which caused an outbreak of respiratory illness in humans during 2002–2003. We examined the evolutionary relationships between bat CoVs and their hosts by using sequence data of the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene and the bat cytochrome b gene. Phylogenetic analyses showed multiple incongruent associations between the phylogenies of rhinolophid bats and their CoVs, which suggested that host shifts have occurred in the recent evolutionary history of this group. These shifts may be due to either virus biologic traits or host behavioral traits. This finding has implications for the emergence of SARS and for the potential future emergence of SARS-CoVs or related viruses.

Cui, Jie; Han, Naijian; Streicker, Daniel; Li, Gang; Tang, Xianchun; Shi, Zhengli; Hu, Zhihong; Zhao, Guoping; Fontanet, Arnaud; Guan, Yi; Wang, Linfa; Jones, Gareth; Field, Hume E.

2007-01-01

318

DDE in brown and white fat of hibernating bats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of brown and white fat from hibernating bats (big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus; little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus; and eastern pipistrelle, Pipistrellus subflavus) collected in western Maryland, USA, were analysed to determine lipid and DDE content. Amounts of brown fat, expressed as percentages of total bat weight, were the same for all three species. Lipid content of brown fat was significantly less than that of white fat. Lipids of brown fat contained significantly higher (28%) concentrations of DDE than did lipids of white fat. In our mixed-species sample of 14 bats, concentrations of DDE increased exponentially in both brown and white fat as white fat reserves declined. Brown fat facilitates arousal from hibernation by producing heat through rapid metabolism of triglycerides. The question is raised whether organochlorine residues, such as DDE, may be concentrated and then liberated in lethal amounts by the processes of hibernation and arousal.

Clark, D.R., Jr.; Krynitsky, A.J.

1983-01-01

319

How to hit home runs: Optimum baseball bat swing parameters for maximum range trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved models for the pitch, batting, and post-impact flight phases of a baseball are used in an optimal control context to find bat swing parameters that produce maximum range. The improved batted flight model incorporates experimental lift and drag profiles (including the drag crisis). An improved model for bat-ball impact includes the dependence of the coefficient of restitution on the

Gregory S. Sawicki; Mont Hubbard; William J. Stronge

2003-01-01

320

Social entrainment in the old frugivorous bats, Rousettusleschenaulti from the Lonar crater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onset and end of activity of the old frugivorous bats Rousettus leschenaulti, roosting in a temple ruin of the Lonar crater were observed at 10-day intervals for one year. The old bats emerged about 4 h after and returned about 4 h before the young bats. Onset of activity of the old bats was entrained by the loud vocalization of the early

C. Vanlalnghaka; V. L. Keny; Moses K. Satralkar; Priya D. Pujari; Dilip S. Joshi

2005-01-01

321

The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats--A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines  

PubMed Central

Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines and there is at present no accepted method of reducing or preventing this mortality. Following our demonstration that bat activity is reduced in the vicinity of large air traffic control and weather radars, we tested the hypothesis that an electromagnetic signal from a small portable radar can act as a deterrent to foraging bats. From June to September 2007 bat activity was compared at 20 foraging sites in northeast Scotland during experimental trials (radar switched on) and control trials (no radar signal). Starting 45 minutes after sunset, bat activity was recorded for a period of 30 minutes during each trial and the order of trials were alternated between nights. From July to September 2008 aerial insects at 16 of these sites were sampled using two miniature light-suction traps. At each site one of the traps was exposed to a radar signal and the other functioned as a control. Bat activity and foraging effort per unit time were significantly reduced during experimental trials when the radar antenna was fixed to produce a unidirectional signal therefore maximising exposure of foraging bats to the radar beam. However, although bat activity was significantly reduced during such trials, the radar had no significant effect on the abundance of insects captured by the traps.

Nicholls, Barry; Racey, Paul A.

2009-01-01

322

The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats---A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines and there is at present no accepted method of reducing or preventing this mortality. Following our demonstration that bat activity is reduced in the vicinity of large air traffic control and weather radars, we tested the hypothesis that an electromagnetic signal from a small portable radar can act as

Barry Nicholls; Paul A. Racey; Raphaël Arlettaz

2009-01-01

323

Favourable outcome in a patient bitten by a rabid bat infected with the European bat lyssavirus-1.  

PubMed

The classic rabies virus (genotype 1) has been eliminated in Western Europe, but related lyssaviruses still circulate in local bats. In August 2010, a Belgian photographer was bitten upon provocation of a disoriented Eptesicus serotinus bat in Spain. The bat was infected with European bat lyssavirus-1 (genotype 5). The isolate proved highly neurovirulent in mice. The patient had received preventive rabies immunisations years before the incident and received two boosters with the HDCV rabies vaccine afterwards. Available vaccines are based on the classic rabies virus, which is significantly divergent from the European bat lyssavirus-1. Fortunately, the patient's serological immune response demonstrated satisfactory neutralisation of the 2010 EBLV-1 isolate, using an intracerebral challenge model in mice. Most likely, the patient's life was saved thanks to vaccination with the classic rabies vaccine, which proved sufficiently protective against European bat lyssavirus-1. This case highlights the need for preventive rabies vaccination in people, who come in contact with bats and to seek medical council after a scratch or bite from a bat. PMID:23627196

Van Gucht, S; Verlinde, R; Colyn, J; Vanderpas, J; Vanhoof, R; Roels, S; Francart, A; Brochier, B; Suin, V

2013-01-01

324

The aversive effect of electromagnetic radiation on foraging bats: a possible means of discouraging bats from approaching wind turbines.  

PubMed

Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines and there is at present no accepted method of reducing or preventing this mortality. Following our demonstration that bat activity is reduced in the vicinity of large air traffic control and weather radars, we tested the hypothesis that an electromagnetic signal from a small portable radar can act as a deterrent to foraging bats. From June to September 2007 bat activity was compared at 20 foraging sites in northeast Scotland during experimental trials (radar switched on) and control trials (no radar signal). Starting 45 minutes after sunset, bat activity was recorded for a period of 30 minutes during each trial and the order of trials were alternated between nights. From July to September 2008 aerial insects at 16 of these sites were sampled using two miniature light-suction traps. At each site one of the traps was exposed to a radar signal and the other functioned as a control. Bat activity and foraging effort per unit time were significantly reduced during experimental trials when the radar antenna was fixed to produce a unidirectional signal therefore maximising exposure of foraging bats to the radar beam. However, although bat activity was significantly reduced during such trials, the radar had no significant effect on the abundance of insects captured by the traps. PMID:19606214

Nicholls, Barry; Racey, Paul A

2009-01-01

325

Wind turbines and bat mortality: Doppler shift profiles and ultrasonic bat-like pulse reflection from moving turbine blades.  

PubMed

Bat mortality resulting from actual or near-collision with operational wind turbine rotors is a phenomenon that is widespread but not well understood. Because bats rely on information contained in high-frequency echoes to determine the nature and movement of a target, it is important to consider how ultrasonic pulses similar to those used by bats for echolocation may be interacting with operational turbine rotor blades. By assessing the characteristics of reflected ultrasonic echoes, moving turbine blades operating under low wind speed conditions (<6 m s(-1)) were found to produce distinct Doppler shift profiles at different angles to the rotor. Frequency shifts of up to ±700-800 Hz were produced, which may not be perceptible by some bat species. Monte Carlo simulation of bat-like sampling by echolocation revealed that over 50 rotor echoes could be required by species such as Pipistrellus pipistrellus for accurate interpretation of blade movement, which may not be achieved in the bat's approach time-window. In summary, it was found that echoes returned from moving blades had features which could render them attractive to bats or which might make it difficult for the bat to accurately detect and locate blades in sufficient time to avoid a collision. PMID:20968394

Long, Chloe V; Flint, James A; Lepper, Paul A

2010-10-01

326

Recurrence of Mexican long-tongued bats (Choeronycteris mexicana) at historical sites in Arizona and New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mexican long-tongued bat (Choeronycteris mexicana) is 1 of 3 migratory, nectarivorous bats that seasonally occur in the extreme southwestern United States (US); the other 2 species are Leptonycteris curasoae and L. nivalis. Unlike the species of Leptonycteris, C. mexicana is not known to form large maternity colonies and is rarely encountered in groups of more than 12 individuals (Hoffmeister 1986). Possibly because of a propensity to form small roosting groups, the number of C. mexicana historically encountered is relatively low compared to other bat species. Although the range of C. mexicana extends from the southwestern United States into Honduras, less than 1500 individuals have been documented since its discovery in 1844 (Petryszyn and Cockrum In Press). Roosting and habitat needs of C. mexicana are poorly understood and it is unclear how such requirements might influence the apparent scarcity of these bats. Choeronycteris mexicana is known to roost in a variety of situations, typically in shallow caves or near the entrances of more extensive structures (Arroyo-Cabrales et al. 1987). Roost sites have been reported from various vegetation zones, including tropical deciduous forests at southern latitudes (Davis and Russell 1954), but roosts are frequently found in oak-conifer woodlands in the northern part of its range (Hoffmeister 1986). Mexican long-tongued bats are known to feed on nectar, pollen, or fruit of various flowering plants throughout their range (Gardner 1977). Although mutualistic relationships likely exist between C. mexicana and its food plants, very little is known about the role that this species plays as a pollinator or seed disperser of such plants. The identification and elucidation of mutualistic relationships are necessary steps toward effectively conserving ecosystems in the southwestern US (Allen-Wardell et al. 1998). Given the potential importance of C. mexicana as a pollinator and its apparent scarcity in the southwest US, current status and habitat requirements of the species need to be determined. Furthermore, the majority of C. mexicana historically encountered north of the Mexican border were adult females and young (Petryszyn and Cockrum In Press), indicating that the southwestern US is an important breeding area. The objective of this study was to assess recurrence of C. mexicana at historical roost sites in Arizona and New Mexico, count numbers of bats present, and gather data on roost and habitat characteristics.

Cryan, P.M.; Bogan, M.A.

2003-01-01

327

The Adventure of Echo the Bat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Adventure of Echo the Bat is an interactive web site that introduces students to remote sensing and biodiversity from a constructivist approach. It includes a teacher's guide with classroom activities that provide a structure to integrate the adventure into the classroom. The activities introduce basic concepts of remote sensing, including visible light and the electromagnetic spectrum. After students complete the adventure, the hands-on activities provided in the teacher's guide serve to reinforce these concepts. Topics include: interpreting satellite images; electromagnetic waves; the concept of wavelength; color and light; the electromagnetic spectrum; satellites; and habitats and biodiversity.

328

Habitat Use by Forest Bats in South Carolina in Relation to Local, Stand, and Landscape Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Knowledge,and understanding,of bat habitat associations,and,the responses,of bats to forest management,are critical for effective bat conservation and management. Few studies have been conducted on bat habitat use in the southeast, despite the high number of endangered and sensitive species in the region. Our objective was to identify important local, stand, and landscape factors influencing bat habitat use in northwestern South

SUSAN C. LOEB; JOY M. O'KEEFE

2006-01-01

329

Alphacoronaviruses in New World Bats: Prevalence, Persistence, Phylogeny, and Potential for Interaction with Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and\\/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats

Christina Osborne; Paul M. Cryan; Thomas J. O'Shea; Lauren M. Oko; Christina Ndaluka; Charles H. Calisher; Andrew D. Berglund; Mead L. Klavetter; Richard A. Bowen; Kathryn V. Holmes; Samuel R. Dominguez; Joel Mark Montgomery

2011-01-01

330

The sonar aperture and its neural representation in bats.  

PubMed

As opposed to visual imaging, biosonar imaging of spatial object properties represents a challenge for the auditory system because its sensory epithelium is not arranged along space axes. For echolocating bats, object width is encoded by the amplitude of its echo (echo intensity) but also by the naturally covarying spread of angles of incidence from which the echoes impinge on the bat's ears (sonar aperture). It is unclear whether bats use the echo intensity and/or the sonar aperture to estimate an object's width. We addressed this question in a combined psychophysical and electrophysiological approach. In three virtual-object playback experiments, bats of the species Phyllostomus discolor had to discriminate simple reflections of their own echolocation calls differing in echo intensity, sonar aperture, or both. Discrimination performance for objects with physically correct covariation of sonar aperture and echo intensity ("object width") did not differ from discrimination performances when only the sonar aperture was varied. Thus, the bats were able to detect changes in object width in the absence of intensity cues. The psychophysical results are reflected in the responses of a population of units in the auditory midbrain and cortex that responded strongest to echoes from objects with a specific sonar aperture, regardless of variations in echo intensity. Neurometric functions obtained from cortical units encoding the sonar aperture are sufficient to explain the behavioral performance of the bats. These current data show that the sonar aperture is a behaviorally relevant and reliably encoded cue for object size in bat sonar. PMID:22031907

Heinrich, Melina; Warmbold, Alexander; Hoffmann, Susanne; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

2011-10-26

331

Bats Track and Exploit Changes in Insect Pest Populations  

PubMed Central

The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators.

McCracken, Gary F.; Westbrook, John K.; Brown, Veronica A.; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

332

Hematological survey of common neotropical bat species from Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Although bats are one of the largest groups within the class Mammalia and may carry several zoonotic diseases, basic information about their hematology is limited. In this study, hematocrit (Hct), total white blood cell counts (TWBC; leukocytes), and differential white blood cell counts (DWBC) of free-ranging Neotropical bats were quantified. Blood samples from 255 bats representing 26 species from the families of Emballonuridae (3 species; 33 individuals), Molossidae (2 species; 26 individuals), Mormoopidae (1 species; 1 individual), Phyllostomidae (18 species; 180 individuals), and Vespertilionidae (2 species; 15 individuals) were collected in a Caribbean lowland rainforest of Costa Rica. Hct was measured after centrifugation of microhematocrit capillaries, TWBCs were performed using the Unopette system and a hemocytometer, and DWBCs were performed on eosin methylene blue stained blood films. Hct of bats ranged between 51.8 +/- 0.7% for Phyllostomus discolor (n = 27) and 65.8 +/- 2.2% for Molossus sinaloae (n = 6). Bat species of the same taxonomic family had comparable TWBCs; these were lower for insectivorous emballonurid, molossid, and vespertilionid bat species than for mostly phytophagous phyllostomid bat species. However, Ectophylla alba (Phyllostomidae) exhibited exceptionally low TWBCs (836 +/- 166 /microl; n = 10); this was less than half of the TWBCs of all other bat species, which ranged from 1,714 +/- 297/microl for Molossus bondae (n = 20) to 7,339 +/- 1,503/microl for Trachops cirrhosus (n = 6). Species with higher TWBCs tended to have lower Hct values. Overall, blood cell morphology was similar to other mammalian species. A large number of polychromatophilic erythrocytes and differences in lymphocyte morphology were noted. This study provides important hematological values for Neotropical bat species and significantly expands the knowledge on basal physiological measurements of Chiroptera. PMID:22950309

Schinnerl, Martin; Aydinonat, Denise; Schwarzenberger, Franz; Voigt, Christian C

2011-09-01

333

Monitoring seasonal bat activity on a coastal barrier island in Maryland, USA.  

PubMed

Research on effects of wind turbines on bats has increased dramatically in recent years because of significant numbers of bats killed by rotating wind turbine blades. Whereas most research has focused on the Midwest and inland portions of eastern North America, bat activity and migration on the Atlantic Coast has largely been unexamined. We used three long-term acoustic monitoring stations to determine seasonal bat activity patterns on the Assateague Island National Seashore, a barrier island off the coast of Maryland, from 2005 to 2006. We recorded five species, including eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Seasonal bat activity (number of bat passes recorded) followed a cosine function and gradually increased beginning in April, peaked in August, and declined gradually until cessation in December. Based on autoregressive models, inter-night bat activity was autocorrelated for lags of seven nights or fewer but varied among acoustic monitoring stations. Higher nightly temperatures and lower wind speeds positively affected bat activity. When autoregressive model predictions were fitted to the observed nightly bat pass totals, model residuals>2 standard deviations from the mean existed only during migration periods, indicating that periodic increases in bat activity could not be accounted for by seasonal trends and weather variables alone. Rather, the additional bat passes were attributable to migrating bats. We conclude that bats, specifically eastern red, hoary, and silver-haired bats, use this barrier island during migration and that this phenomenon may have implications for the development of near and offshore wind energy. PMID:20364316

Johnson, Joshua B; Gates, J Edward; Zegre, Nicolas P

2011-02-01

334

Probing the Natural Scene by Echolocation in Bats  

PubMed Central

Bats echolocating in the natural environment face the formidable task of sorting signals from multiple auditory objects, echoes from obstacles, prey, and the calls of conspecifics. Successful orientation in a complex environment depends on auditory information processing, along with adaptive vocal-motor behaviors and flight path control, which draw upon 3-D spatial perception, attention, and memory. This article reviews field and laboratory studies that document adaptive sonar behaviors of echolocating bats, and point to the fundamental signal parameters they use to track and sort auditory objects in a dynamic environment. We suggest that adaptive sonar behavior provides a window to bats’ perception of complex auditory scenes.

Moss, Cynthia F.; Surlykke, Annemarie

2010-01-01

335

Bats and wind energy: a literature synthesis and annotated bibliography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Turbines have been used to harness energy from wind for hundreds of years. However, with growing concerns about climate change, wind energy has only recently entered the mainstream of global electricity production. Since early on in the development of wind-energy production, concerns have arisen about the potential impacts of turbines to wildlife; these concerns have especially focused on the mortality of birds. Despite recent improvements to turbines that have resulted in reduced mortality of birds, there is clear evidence that bat mortality at wind turbines is of far greater conservation concern. Bats of certain species are dying by the thousands at turbines across North America, and the species consistently affected tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Turbine-related bat mortalities are now affecting nearly a quarter of all bat species occurring in the United States and Canada. Most documented bat mortality at wind-energy facilities has occurred in late summer and early fall and has involved tree bats, with hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) being the most prevalent among fatalities. This literature synthesis and annotated bibliography focuses on refereed journal publications and theses about bats and wind-energy development in North America (United States and Canada). Thirty-six publications and eight theses were found, and their key findings were summarized. These publications date from 1996 through 2011, with the bulk of publications appearing from 2007 to present, reflecting the relatively recent conservation concerns about bats and wind energy. The idea for this Open-File Report formed while organizing a joint U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/U.S. Geological Survey "Bats and Wind Energy Workshop," on January 25-26, 2012. The purposes of the workshop were to develop a list of research priorities to support decision making concerning bats with respect to siting and operations of wind-energy facilities across the United States. This document was intended to provide background information for the workshop participants on what has been published on bats and wind-energy issues in North America (United States and Canada).

Ellison, Laura E.

2012-01-01

336

The Second Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parametert:; measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8% and 2% respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX and HETE-2 GRB samples. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 70 s and 30 s, respectively. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT S-GRBs are generally harder than those of the L-GRBs. The time-averaged spectra of the BAT S GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the L-GRBs. Whereas, the spectra of the initial short spikes of the S-GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the S-GRBs. We show that the BAT GRB samples are significantly softer than the BATSE bright GRBs, and that the time-averaged E obs/peak of the BAT GRBs peaks at 80 keV which is significantly lower energy than those of the BATSE sample which peak at 320 keV. The time-averaged spectral properties of the BAT GRB sample are similar to those of the HETE-2 GRB samples. By time-resolved spectral analysis, we find that 10% of the BAT observed photon indices are outside the allowed region of the synchrotron shock model. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate red shift GRBs. Furthermore, the observed spectra of the BAT high red shift GRBs are similar to or harder than the moderate red shift GRBs. The T90 and T50 distributions measured at the 140-220 keY band in the GRB rest frame form the BAT known redshift GRBs peak at 19 sand 8 s, respectively. We also provide an update on the status of the on-orbit BAT calibrations.

Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

2010-01-01

337

Behavioural flexibility: the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and the northern long-eared bat, M. septentrionalis , both glean and hawk prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present behavioural data demonstrating that the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and the northern long-eared bat, M.septentrionalis, can glean prey from surfaces and take prey on the wing. Our data were collected in a large outdoor flight room mimicking a cluttered environment. We compared and analysed flight behaviours and echolocation calls used by each species of bat when aerial

John M. Ratcliffe; Jeff W. Dawson

2003-01-01

338

Range Extent and Stand Selection for Roosting and Foraging in Forest-Dwelling Northern Long Eared Bats and Little Brown Bats in the Greater  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand bat biology and appreciate their dependence on and role within forested ecosystems, the biological resolution at which studies are directed must elucidate species and gender patterns. We studied species- and gender-specific aspects of summer range extent and stand selection in northern long-eared bats (Myotis septentrionalis) and little brown bats (M. lucifugus )i n the Greater Fundy Ecosystem, New

HUGH G. BRODERS; GRAHAM J. FORBES; STEPHEN WOODLEY

339

78 FR 17731 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...on March 15, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS...SPDR S&P 500 ETF (``SPY''), Apple Inc. (``AAPL''), SPDR Gold...

2013-03-22

340

Bat head contains soft magnetic particles: evidence from magnetism.  

PubMed

Recent behavioral observations have indicated that bats can sense the Earth's magnetic field. To unravel the magnetoreception mechanism, the present study has utilized magnetic measurements on three migratory species (Miniopterus fuliginosus, Chaerephon plicata, and Nyctalus plancyi) and three non-migratory species (Hipposideros armiger, Myotis ricketti, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). Room temperature isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition and alternating-field demagnetization showed that the bats' heads contain soft magnetic particles. Statistical analyses indicated that the saturation isothermal remanent magnetization of brains (SIRM(1T_brain)) of migratory species is higher than those of non-migratory species. Furthermore, the SIRM(1T_brain) of migratory bats is greater than their SIRM(1T_skull). Low-temperature magnetic measurements suggested that the magnetic particles are likely magnetite (Fe3O4). This new evidence supports the assumption that some bats use magnetite particles for sensing and orientation in the Earth's magnetic field. PMID:20607738

Tian, Lanxiang; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yongxin

2010-10-01

341

Does food sharing in vampire bats demonstrate reciprocity?  

PubMed Central

Claims of reciprocity (or reciprocal altruism) in animal societies often ignite controversy because authors disagree over definitions, naturalistic studies tend to demonstrate correlation not causation, and controlled experiments often involve artificial conditions. Food sharing among common vampire bats has been a classic textbook example of reciprocity, but this conclusion has been contested by alternative explanations. Here, we review factors that predict food sharing in vampire bats based on previously published and unpublished data, validate previous published results with more precise relatedness estimates, and describe current evidence for and against alternative explanations for its evolutionary stability. Although correlational evidence indicates a role for both direct and indirect fitness benefits, unequivocally demonstrating reciprocity in vampire bats still requires testing if and how bats respond to non-reciprocation.

Carter, Gerald; Wilkinson, Gerald

2013-01-01

342

Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited  

PubMed Central

The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels.

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

2011-01-01

343

Antibodies against Duvenhage virus in insectivorous bats in Swaziland.  

PubMed

Several rabies-related lyssaviruses have been associated with bat species in southern Africa, the rarest of these being Duvenhage virus (DUVV), for which only five isolations have been made over five decades. Three of these were from human fatalities, and it is not known which bat species acts as reservoir. In studying a population of Nycteris thebaica in the kingdom of Swaziland, a landlocked country bordering Mozambique and South Africa, we found evidence of the circulation of a lyssavirus. Virus-neutralization assays indicated DUVV-neutralizing antibodies in 30% of the sera collected from this population of N. thebaica, providing the first indication of a Duvenhage virus circulating in this particular species and the first evidence of a bat lyssavirus circulating in Swaziland bats. PMID:24502729

Markotter, Wanda; Monadjem, Ara; Nel, Louis H

2013-10-01

344

Does food sharing in vampire bats demonstrate reciprocity?  

PubMed

Claims of reciprocity (or reciprocal altruism) in animal societies often ignite controversy because authors disagree over definitions, naturalistic studies tend to demonstrate correlation not causation, and controlled experiments often involve artificial conditions. Food sharing among common vampire bats has been a classic textbook example of reciprocity, but this conclusion has been contested by alternative explanations. Here, we review factors that predict food sharing in vampire bats based on previously published and unpublished data, validate previous published results with more precise relatedness estimates, and describe current evidence for and against alternative explanations for its evolutionary stability. Although correlational evidence indicates a role for both direct and indirect fitness benefits, unequivocally demonstrating reciprocity in vampire bats still requires testing if and how bats respond to non-reciprocation. PMID:24505498

Carter, Gerald; Wilkinson, Gerald

2013-11-01

345

Alphacoronaviruses in new World bats: Prevalence, persistence, phylogeny, and potential for interaction with humans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans), 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis), 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10%) and known to have direct contact with people (19%), suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.

Osborne, C.; Cryan, P. M.; O'Shea, T. J.; Oko, L. M.; Ndaluka, C.; Calisher, C. H.; Berglund, A. D.; Klavetter, M. L.; Bowen, R. A.; Holmes, K. V.; Dominguez, S. R.

2011-01-01

346

Alphacoronaviruses in New World Bats: Prevalence, Persistence, Phylogeny, and Potential for Interaction with Humans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans), 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis), 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10%) and known to have direct contact with people (19%), suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.

Osborne, Christina; Cryan, Paul M.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Oko, Lauren M.; Ndaluka, Christina; Calisher, Charles H.; Berglund, Andrew D.; Klavetter, Mead L.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Dominguez, Samuel R.

2011-01-01

347

Trawling bats exploit an echo-acoustic ground effect.  

PubMed

A water surface acts not only as an optic mirror but also as an acoustic mirror. Echolocation calls emitted by bats at low heights above water are reflected away from the bat, and hence the background clutter is reduced. Moreover, targets on the surface create an enhanced echo. Here, we formally quantified the effect of the surface and target height on both target detection and -discrimination in a combined laboratory and field approach with Myotis daubentonii. In a two-alternative, forced-choice paradigm, the bats had to detect a mealworm and discriminate it from an inedible dummy (20 mm PVC disc). Psychophysical performance was measured as a function of height above either smooth surfaces (water or PVC) or above a clutter surface (artificial grass). At low heights above the clutter surface (10, 20, or 35 cm), the bats' detection performance was worse than above a smooth surface. At a height of 50 cm, the surface structure had no influence on target detection. Above the clutter surface, also target discrimination was significantly impaired with decreasing target height. A detailed analysis of the bats' echolocation calls during target approach shows that above the clutter surface, the bats produce calls with significantly higher peak frequency. Flight-path reconstruction revealed that the bats attacked an target from below over water but from above over a clutter surface. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that trawling bats exploit an echo-acoustic ground effect, in terms of a spatio-temporal integration of direct reflections with indirect reflections from the water surface, to optimize prey detection and -discrimination not only for prey on the water but also for some range above. PMID:23576990

Zsebok, Sandor; Kroll, Ferdinand; Heinrich, Melina; Genzel, Daria; Siemers, Björn M; Wiegrebe, Lutz

2013-01-01

348

An Examination of Cricket Bat Performance (P92)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to experimentally measure and numerically describe the performance of cricket bats and balls.\\u000a A dynamic finite element model was employed to simulate the bat-ball impact. The ball was modeled as a linear viscoelastic\\u000a material which provided the mechanism of energy loss during impact. An experimental test apparatus was developed to measure\\u000a the performance of

Lloyd Smith; Harsimranjeet Singh

349

Trawling bats exploit an echo-acoustic ground effect  

PubMed Central

A water surface acts not only as an optic mirror but also as an acoustic mirror. Echolocation calls emitted by bats at low heights above water are reflected away from the bat, and hence the background clutter is reduced. Moreover, targets on the surface create an enhanced echo. Here, we formally quantified the effect of the surface and target height on both target detection and -discrimination in a combined laboratory and field approach with Myotis daubentonii. In a two-alternative, forced-choice paradigm, the bats had to detect a mealworm and discriminate it from an inedible dummy (20 mm PVC disc). Psychophysical performance was measured as a function of height above either smooth surfaces (water or PVC) or above a clutter surface (artificial grass). At low heights above the clutter surface (10, 20, or 35 cm), the bats' detection performance was worse than above a smooth surface. At a height of 50 cm, the surface structure had no influence on target detection. Above the clutter surface, also target discrimination was significantly impaired with decreasing target height. A detailed analysis of the bats' echolocation calls during target approach shows that above the clutter surface, the bats produce calls with significantly higher peak frequency. Flight-path reconstruction revealed that the bats attacked an target from below over water but from above over a clutter surface. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that trawling bats exploit an echo-acoustic ground effect, in terms of a spatio-temporal integration of direct reflections with indirect reflections from the water surface, to optimize prey detection and -discrimination not only for prey on the water but also for some range above.

Zsebok, Sandor; Kroll, Ferdinand; Heinrich, Melina; Genzel, Daria; Siemers, Bjorn M.; Wiegrebe, Lutz

2013-01-01

350

Establishment, Immortalisation and Characterisation of Pteropid Bat Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Background Bats are the suspected natural reservoir hosts for a number of new and emerging zoonotic viruses including Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus. Since the discovery of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese horseshoe bats, attempts to isolate a SL-CoV from bats have failed and attempts to isolate other bat-borne viruses in various mammalian cell lines have been similarly unsuccessful. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help with these investigations and as tools to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions. Methodology/Findings Black flying foxes (Pteropus alecto) were captured from the wild and transported live to the laboratory for primary cell culture preparation using a variety of different methods and culture media. Primary cells were successfully cultured from 20 different organs. Cell immortalisation can occur spontaneously, however we used a retroviral system to immortalise cells via the transfer and stable production of the Simian virus 40 Large T antigen and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Initial infection experiments with both cloned and uncloned cell lines using Hendra and Nipah viruses demonstrated varying degrees of infection efficiency between the different cell lines, although it was possible to infect cells in all tissue types. Conclusions/Significance The approaches developed and optimised in this study should be applicable to bats of other species. We are in the process of generating further cell lines from a number of different bat species using the methodology established in this study.

Crameri, Gary; Todd, Shawn; Grimley, Samantha; McEachern, Jennifer A.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Smith, Craig; Tachedjian, Mary; De Jong, Carol; Virtue, Elena R.; Yu, Meng; Bulach, Dieter; Liu, Jun-Ping; Michalski, Wojtek P.; Middleton, Deborah; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2009-01-01

351

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the SWIFT Midex Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

he burst alert telescope (BAT) is one of three instruments on the\\u000a Swift MIDEX spacecraft to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The BAT first detects the GRB and localizes the burst direction to an\\u000a accuracy of 1–4 arcmin within 20 s after the start of the event. The GRB trigger initiates an autonomous spacecraft slew to\\u000a point the two narrow field-of-view

Scott D. Barthelmy; Louis M. Barbier; Jay R. Cummings; Ed E. Fenimore; Neil Gehrels; Derek Hullinger; Hans A. Krimm; Craig B. Markwardt; David M. Palmer; Ann Parsons; Goro Sato; Masaya Suzuki; Tadayuki Takahashi; Makota Tashiro; Jack Tueller

2005-01-01

352

Optimal batting orders in one-day cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper concerns the search for optimal or nearly optimal batting orders in one-day cricket. A search is conducted over the space of permutations of batting orders where simulated annealing is used to explore the space. A non-standard aspect of the optimization is that the objective function (which is the mean,number,of runs per innings) is unavailable and is approximated,via

Tim B. Swartz; Paramjit S. Gill; David Beaudoin; Basil M. Desilva

2006-01-01

353

Hemotropic mycoplasmas in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)  

PubMed Central

Background Hemotropic mycoplasmas are epicellular erythrocytic bacteria that can cause infectious anemia in some mammalian species. Worldwide, hemotropic mycoplasmas are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens potentially causing serious and significant health problems in wildlife. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma species in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with and without Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destrucans, the causative agent of white nose syndrome (WNS) that causes significant mortality events in bats. Methods In order to establish the prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma species in a population of 68 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with (n?=?53) and without (n?=?15) white-nose syndrome (WNS), PCR was performed targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Results The overall prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasmas in bats was 47%, with similar (p?=?0.5725) prevalence between bats with WNS (49%) and without WNS (40%). 16S rDNA sequence analysis (~1,200 bp) supports the presence of a novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species with 91.75% sequence homology with Mycoplasma haemomuris. No differences were found in gene sequences generated from WNS and non-WNS animals. Conclusions Gene sequences generated from WNS and non-WNS animals suggest that little brown bats could serve as a natural reservoir for this potentially novel Mycoplasma species. Currently, there is minimal information about the prevalence, host-specificity, or the route of transmission of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. among bats. Finally, the potential role of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. as co-factors in the development of disease manifestations in bats, including WNS in Myotis lucifugus, remains to be elucidated.

2014-01-01

354

Social organization and kinship in the polygynous bat Phyllostomus hastatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Social behavior in the bat Phyllostomus hastatus was examined in Trinidad, W.I. over a 26-month period. The studies included (a) long-term observations on marked individuals, (b) the use of allozyme polymorphisms to estimate paternity and the genetic relationships among individuals in social groups, and (c) the investigation of foraging behavior by radio-tracking.2.Day-roosting cave colonies of this bat are subdivided into

Gary F. McCracken; Jack W. Bradbury

1981-01-01

355

New World Fruits Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, this database was developed as an information resource on fruits from the Americas. Based on a September 2004 assessment, the New Worlds Fruits Database contained information about "1253 fruit species belonging to 302 genera and 69 families." Species profiles include vernacular names, geographic distribution, uses, bibliographic references, and links to additional Internet resources. Text searches can be conducted by Genus, Species, and Vernacular Name. Drop-down menus are available for several search fields including Family, Fruit Part, Product, Floristic Region, and Region or Country of Origin. The Fruits Database is still under development, and scientists, fruit growers, and other knowledgeable persons are encouraged to submit information and suggestions.

2010-05-13

356

The Swift Burst and Transient Telescope (BAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Swift Burst and Transient telescope (BAT) has surveyed the entire sky for the last 3.5 years obtaining the first sensitive all sky survey of the 14-195 kev sky. At high galactic latitudes the vast majority of the detected sources are AGN. Since hard x-rays penetrate all but Compton thick obscuring material (Column densities of 1.6324 atms/sq cm) this survey is unbiased with respect to obscuration, host galaxy type, optical , radio or IR properties. We will present results on the broad band x-ray properties, the nature of the host galaxies, the luminosity function and will discuss a few of the optical, IR and x-ray results in detail.

Mushotzky, Richard

2008-01-01

357

Ovariohysterectomy of three vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus).  

PubMed

Three sexually mature female common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) housed at the North Carolina Zoological Park, Asheboro, North Carolina, were selected for surgical ovariohysterectomy. All animals were induced and maintained with isoflurane anesthetic gas. Magnification loop glasses were worn by the surgeon for the procedure. A ventral midline incision was made into the abdominal cavity. Simple micro-ophthalmic surgical packs along with hemoclips were used to perform the ovariohysterectomies. The linea alba and muscular layers were closed using a simple continuous suture pattern with 4-0 polydioxanone suture. The skin was apposed using a horizontal mattress suture pattern with 4-0 polydioxanone suture. Animals recovered with minimal deleterious side effects. Animals were housed together in a recovery chamber and administered meloxicam at 0.2 mg/kg placed in their blood meal once daily for 7 days postoperatively, after which they were returned to their normal enclosures. PMID:22204078

Clarke, Elsburgh O; DeVoe, Ryan S

2011-12-01

358

Persistence of bat defence reactions in high Arctic moths (Lepidoptera).  

PubMed

We investigated the bat defence reactions of three species of moths (Gynaephora groenlandica, Gynaephora rossi (Lymantriidae) and Psychophora sabini (Geometridae)) in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Since these moths inhabit the Arctic tundra and, therefore, are most probably spatially isolated from bats, their hearing and associated defensive reactions are probably useless and would therefore be expected to disappear with ongoing adaptation to Arctic conditions. When exposed to bat-like ultrasound (26 kHz and 110 dB sound pressure level root mean square at 1 m) flying male Gynaephora spp. always reacted defensively by rapidly reversing their flight course. They could hear the sound and reacted at least 15-25 m away. Psychophora sabini walking on a surface froze at distances of at least 5-7 m from the sound source. However, two out of three individuals of this species (all males) did not respond in any way to the sound while in flight. Hence, we found evidence of degeneration of bat defence reactions, i.e. adaptation to the bat-free environment, in P. sabini but not in Gynaephora spp. Some Arctic moths (Gynaephora spp.) still possess defensive reactions against bats, possibly because the selection pressure for the loss of the trait is such that it declines only very slowly (perhaps by genetic drift; and there may not have been enough time for the trait to disappear. One possible reason may be that Arctic moths have long generation times. PMID:10787157

Rydell, J; Roininen, H; Philip, K W

2000-03-22

359

Detection of polyoma and corona viruses in bats of Canada.  

PubMed

Several instances of emerging diseases in humans appear to be caused by the spillover of viruses endemic to bats, either directly or through other animal intermediaries. The objective of this study was to detect, identify and characterize viruses in bats in the province of Manitoba and other regions of Canada. Bats were sampled from three sources: live-trapped Myotis lucifugus from Manitoba, rabies-negative Eptesicus fuscus, M. lucifugus, M. yumanensis, M. septentrionalis, M. californicus, M. evotis, Lasionycteris (L.) noctivagans and Lasiurus (Las.) cinereus, provided by the Centre of Expertise for Rabies of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), and L. noctivagans, Las. cinereus and Las. borealis collected from a wind farm in Manitoba. We attempted to isolate viruses from fresh tissue samples taken from trapped bats in cultured cells of bat, primate, rodent, porcine, ovine and avian origin. We also screened bat tissues by PCR using primers designed to amplify nucleic acids from members of certain families of viruses. We detected RNA of a group 1 coronavirus from M. lucifugus (3 of 31 animals) and DNA from an as-yet undescribed polyomavirus from female M. lucifugus (4 of 31 animals) and M. californicus (pooled tissues from two females). PMID:19357225

Misra, Vikram; Dumonceaux, Timothy; Dubois, Jack; Willis, Craig; Nadin-Davis, Susan; Severini, Alberto; Wandeler, Alex; Lindsay, Robbin; Artsob, Harvey

2009-08-01

360

Bats respond to polarity of a magnetic field  

PubMed Central

Bats have been shown to use information from the Earth's magnetic field during orientation. However, the mechanism underlying this ability remains unknown. In this study we investigated whether bats possess a polarity- or inclination-based compass that could be used in orientation. We monitored the hanging position of adult Nyctalus plancyi in the laboratory in the presence of an induced magnetic field of twice Earth-strength. When under the influence of a normally aligned induced field the bats showed a significant preference for hanging at the northern end of their roosting basket. When the vertical component of the field was reversed, the bats remained at the northern end of the basket. However, when the horizontal component of the field was reversed, the bats changed their positions and hung at the southern end of the basket. Based on these results, we conclude that N. plancyi, unlike all other non-mammalian vertebrates tested to date, uses a polarity-based compass during orientation in the roost, and that the same compass is also likely to underlie bats' long-distance navigation abilities.

Wang, Yinan; Pan, Yongxin; Parsons, Stuart; Walker, Michael; Zhang, Shuyi

2007-01-01

361

Electricity: Fruit Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.

Habib, Maria

2008-01-01

362

Beware of bats, beware of birds: the auditory responses of eared moths to bat and bird predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allotonic frequency hypothesis (AFH) proposes that the preponderance of moths in the diets of some bats (e.g., Rhinolophidae) is the result of these bats echolocating at allotonic frequencies, that is, outside of the typical hearing range of most moths (ca., 20--60 kHz). The broader hearing range of African moths (5--110 kHz) suggests that their ears may function at frequencies

David S. Jacobs; John M. Ratcliffe; James H. Fullard

2008-01-01

363

Susceptibility and Pathogenesis of Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus) to Heterologous and Homologous Rabies Viruses  

PubMed Central

Rabies virus (RABV) maintenance in bats is not well understood. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the United States. These colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the United States and Canada. This is of interest because silver-haired bats are more solitary bats with infrequent human interaction. Our goal was to determine the likelihood of a colonial bat species becoming infected with and transmitting a heterologous RABV. To ascertain the potential of heterologous RABV infection in colonial bat species, little brown bats were inoculated with a homologous RABV or one of two heterologous RABVs. Additionally, to determine if the route of exposure influenced the disease process, bats were inoculated either intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) with a homologous or heterologous RABV. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular inoculation results in a more rapid progression of disease onset, whereas the incubation time in bats inoculated s.c. is significantly longer. Additionally, cross protection was not consistently achieved in bats previously inoculated with a heterologous RABV following a challenge with a homologous RABV 6 months later. Finally, bats that developed rabies following s.c. inoculation were significantly more likely to shed virus in their saliva and demonstrated increased viral dissemination. In summary, bats inoculated via the s.c. route are more likely to shed virus, thus increasing the likelihood of transmission.

Jarvis, Jodie A.; Pouliott, Craig E.; Morgan, Shannon, M. D.; Rudd, Robert J.

2013-01-01

364

Insect prey eaten by Hoary Bats (lasiurus cinereus) prior to fatal collisions with wind turbines  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wind turbines are being deployed all across the world to meet the growing demand for energy, and in many areas, these turbines are causing the deaths of insectivorous migratory bats. One of the hypothesized causes of bat susceptibility is that bats are attracted to insects on or near the turbines. We examined insect remains in the stomachs and intestines of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) found dead beneath wind turbines in New York and Texas to evaluate the hypothesis that bats die while feeding at turbines. Most of the bats we examined had full stomachs, indicating that they fed in the minutes to hours leading up to their deaths. However, we did not find prey in the mouths or throats of any bats that would indicate the bats died while capturing prey. Hoary bats fed mostly on moths, but we also detected the regular presence of beetles, true bugs, and crickets. Presence of terrestrial insects in stomachs indicates that bats may have gleaned them from the ground or the turbine surfaces, yet aerial capture of winged insect stages cannot be ruled out. Our findings confirm earlier studies that indicate hoary bats feed during migration and eat mostly moths. Future studies on bat behaviors and insect presence at wind turbines could help determine whether feeding at turbines is a major fatality risk for bats.

Valdez, Ernest W.; Cryan, Paul M.

2013-01-01

365

Mutant Fruit Flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general audience discussion of common fruit fly mutations. The site includes simplified illustrations, and a discussion of fruit fly chromosomes. Presented by Exploratorium at the museum of science art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts San Francisco.

0002-11-30

366

76 FR 6641 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...January 28, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (``BATS'' or the ``Exchange...way of illustration, using Google, Inc. (``GOOG'') as an example...yields to the investor. For example if Apple, Inc. (``AAPL'') were trading...

2011-02-07

367

Product Improvement Test of Synthetic Batting Type Filling Materials For Sleeping Bags.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

USAGETA conducted a Product Improvement Test of 2 synthetic batting materials versus the standard batting materials (i.e. waterfowl feathers and down) under simulated field use and environmental conditions. The results of the Product Improvement Test are ...

1969-01-01

368

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604...Effects § 971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. ...permits, the use of the best available technologies for the protection of...

2011-01-01

369

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

...2014-01-01 false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604...Effects § 971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. ...permits, the use of the best available technologies for the protection of...

2014-01-01

370

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604...Effects § 971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. ...permits, the use of the best available technologies for the protection of...

2010-01-01

371

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. 971.604...Effects § 971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. ...permits, the use of the best available technologies for the protection of...

2012-01-01

372

Scanning Behavior in Echolocating Common Pipistrelle Bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus)  

PubMed Central

Echolocating bats construct an auditory world sequentially by analyzing successive pulse-echo pairs. Many other mammals rely upon a visual world, acquired by sequential foveal fixations connected by visual gaze saccades. We investigated the scanning behavior of bats and compared it to visual scanning. We assumed that each pulse-echo pair evaluation corresponds to a foveal fixation and that sonar beam movements between pulses can be seen as acoustic gaze saccades. We used a two-dimensional 16 microphone array to determine the sonar beam direction of succeeding pulses and to characterize the three dimensional scanning behavior in the common pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) flying in the field. We also used variations of signal amplitude of single microphone recordings as indicator for scanning behavior in open space. We analyzed 33 flight sequences containing more than 700 echolocation calls to determine bat positions, source levels, and beam aiming. When searching for prey and orienting in space, bats moved their sonar beam in all directions, often alternately back and forth. They also produced sequences with irregular or no scanning movements. When approaching the array, the scanning movements were much smaller and the beam was moved over the array in small steps. Differences in the scanning pattern at various recording sites indicated that the scanning behavior depended on the echolocation task that was being performed. The scanning angles varied over a wide range and were often larger than the maximum angle measurable by our array. We found that echolocating bats use a “saccade and fixate” strategy similar to vision. Through the use of scanning movements, bats are capable of finding and exploring targets in a wide search cone centered along flight direction.

Seibert, Anna-Maria; Koblitz, Jens C.; Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

2013-01-01

373

Climate and Weather Impact Timing of Emergence of Bats  

PubMed Central

Interest in forecasting impacts of climate change have heightened attention in recent decades to how animals respond to variation in climate and weather patterns. One difficulty in determining animal response to climate variation is lack of long-term datasets that record animal behaviors over decadal scales. We used radar observations from the national NEXRAD network of Doppler weather radars to measure how group behavior in a colonially-roosting bat species responded to annual variation in climate and daily variation in weather over the past 11 years. Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) form dense aggregations in cave roosts in Texas. These bats emerge from caves daily to forage at high altitudes, which makes them detectable with Doppler weather radars. Timing of emergence in bats is often viewed as an adaptive trade-off between emerging early and risking predation or increased competition and emerging late which restricts foraging opportunities. We used timing of emergence from five maternity colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats in south-central Texas during the peak lactation period (15 June–15 July) to determine whether emergence behavior was associated with summer drought conditions and daily temperatures. Bats emerged significantly earlier during years with extreme drought conditions than during moist years. Bats emerged later on days with high surface temperatures in both dry and moist years, but there was no relationship between surface temperatures and timing of emergence in summers with normal moisture levels. We conclude that emergence behavior is a flexible animal response to climate and weather conditions and may be a useful indicator for monitoring animal response to long-term shifts in climate.

Frick, Winifred F.; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Howard, Kenneth W.; Kuster, Charles M.; Kunz, Thomas H.; Chilson, Phillip B.

2012-01-01

374

Climate and weather impact timing of emergence of bats.  

PubMed

Interest in forecasting impacts of climate change have heightened attention in recent decades to how animals respond to variation in climate and weather patterns. One difficulty in determining animal response to climate variation is lack of long-term datasets that record animal behaviors over decadal scales. We used radar observations from the national NEXRAD network of Doppler weather radars to measure how group behavior in a colonially-roosting bat species responded to annual variation in climate and daily variation in weather over the past 11 years. Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) form dense aggregations in cave roosts in Texas. These bats emerge from caves daily to forage at high altitudes, which makes them detectable with Doppler weather radars. Timing of emergence in bats is often viewed as an adaptive trade-off between emerging early and risking predation or increased competition and emerging late which restricts foraging opportunities. We used timing of emergence from five maternity colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats in south-central Texas during the peak lactation period (15 June-15 July) to determine whether emergence behavior was associated with summer drought conditions and daily temperatures. Bats emerged significantly earlier during years with extreme drought conditions than during moist years. Bats emerged later on days with high surface temperatures in both dry and moist years, but there was no relationship between surface temperatures and timing of emergence in summers with normal moisture levels. We conclude that emergence behavior is a flexible animal response to climate and weather conditions and may be a useful indicator for monitoring animal response to long-term shifts in climate. PMID:22876331

Frick, Winifred F; Stepanian, Phillip M; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Howard, Kenneth W; Kuster, Charles M; Kunz, Thomas H; Chilson, Phillip B

2012-01-01

375

Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study  

PubMed Central

Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gerald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

2014-01-01

376

Bat rabies in france: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.  

PubMed

Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

2014-01-01

377

Space-time models for a panzootic in bats, with a focus on the endangered Indiana bat.  

PubMed

Knowledge of current trends of quickly spreading infectious wildlife diseases is vital to efficient and effective management. We developed space-time mixed-effects logistic regressions to characterize a disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), quickly spreading among endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in eastern North America. Our goal was to calculate and map the risk probability faced by uninfected colonies of hibernating Indiana bats. Model covariates included annual distance from and direction to nearest sources of infection, geolocational information, size of the Indiana bat populations within each wintering population, and total annual size of populations known or suspected to be affected by WNS. We considered temporal, spatial, and spatiotemporal formulae through the use of random effects for year, complex (a collection of interacting hibernacula), and year × complex. Since first documented in 2006, WNS has spread across much of the range of the Indiana bat. No sizeable wintering population now occurs outside of the migrational distance of an infected source. Annual rates of newly affected wintering Indiana bat populations between winter 2007 to 2008 and 2010 to 2011 were 4, 6, 8, and 12%; this rate increased each year at a rate of 3%. If this increasing rate of newly affected populations continues, all wintering populations may be affected by 2016. Our models indicated the probability of a wintering population exhibiting infection was a linear function of proximity to affected Indiana bat populations and size of the at-risk population. Geographic location was also important, suggesting broad-scale influences. For every 50-km increase in distance from a WNS-affected population, risk of disease declined by 6% (95% CI=5.2-5.7%); for every increase of 1,000 Indiana bats, there was an 8% (95% CI = 1-21%) increase in disease risk. The increasing rate of infection seems to be associated with the movement of this disease into the core of the Indiana bat range. Our spatially explicit estimates of disease risk may aid managers in prioritizing surveillance and management for wintering populations of Indiana bats and help understand the risk faced by other hibernating bat species. PMID:23060489

Thogmartin, Wayne E; King, R Andrew; Szymanski, Jennifer A; Pruitt, Lori

2012-10-01

378

Space-time models for a panzootic in bats, with a focus on the endangered Indiana bat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Knowledge of current trends of quickly spreading infectious wildlife diseases is vital to efficient and effective management. We developed space-time mixed-effects logistic regressions to characterize a disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), quickly spreading among endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in eastern North America. Our goal was to calculate and map the risk probability faced by uninfected colonies of hibernating Indiana bats. Model covariates included annual distance from and direction to nearest sources of infection, geolocational information, size of the Indiana bat populations within each wintering population, and total annual size of populations known or suspected to be affected by WNS. We considered temporal, spatial, and spatiotemporal formulae through the use of random effects for year, complex (a collection of interacting hibernacula), and yearxcomplex. Since first documented in 2006, WNS has spread across much of the range of the Indiana bat. No sizeable wintering population now occurs outside of the migrational distance of an infected source. Annual rates of newly affected wintering Indiana bat populations between winter 2007 to 2008 and 2010 to 2011 were 4, 6, 8, and 12%; this rate increased each year at a rate of 3%. If this increasing rate of newly affected populations continues, all wintering populations may be affected by 2016. Our models indicated the probability of a wintering population exhibiting infection was a linear function of proximity to affected Indiana bat populations and size of the at-risk population. Geographic location was also important, suggesting broad-scale influences. For every 50-km increase in distance from a WNS-affected population, risk of disease declined by 6% (95% CI=5.2-5.7%); for every increase of 1,000 Indiana bats, there was an 8% (95% CI = 1-21%) increase in disease risk. The increasing rate of infection seems to be associated with the movement of this disease into the core of the Indiana bat range. Our spatially explicit estimates of disease risk may aid managers in prioritizing surveillance and management for wintering populations of Indiana bats and help understand the risk faced by other hibernating bat species.

Thogmartin, Wayne E.; King, R. Andrew; Szymanski Jennifer A.; Pruitt, Lori

2012-01-01

379

Relationship between Spatial Working Memory Performance and Diet Specialization in Two Sympatric Nectar Bats  

PubMed Central

Behavioural ecologists increasingly recognise spatial memory as one the most influential cognitive traits involved in evolutionary processes. In particular, spatial working memory (SWM), i.e. the ability of animals to store temporarily useful information for current foraging tasks, determines the foraging efficiency of individuals. As a consequence, SWM also has the potential to influence competitive abilities and to affect patterns of sympatric occurrence among closely related species. The present study aims at comparing the efficiency of SWM between generalist (Glossophaga soricina) and specialist (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae) nectarivorous bats at flowering patches. The two species differ in diet – the generalist diet including seasonally fruits and insects with nectar and pollen while the specialist diet is dominated by nectar and pollen yearlong – and in some morphological traits – the specialist being heavier and with proportionally longer rostrum than the generalist. These bats are found sympatrically within part of their range in the Neotropics. We habituated captive individuals to feed on artificial flower patches and we used infrared video recordings to monitor their ability to remember and avoid the spatial location of flowers they emptied in previous visits in the course of 15-min foraging sequences. Experiments revealed that both species rely on SWM as their foraging success attained significantly greater values than random expectations. However, the nectar specialist L. yerbabuenae was significantly more efficient at extracting nectar (+28% in foraging success), and sustained longer foraging bouts (+27% in length of efficient foraging sequences) than the generalist G. soricina. These contrasting SWM performances are discussed in relation to diet specialization and other life history traits.

Henry, Mickael; Stoner, Kathryn E.

2011-01-01

380

Bat Activity in an Urban Landscape: Patterns at the Landscape and Microhabitat Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little attention has been devoted to the urban ecology of bats (Chiroptera) despite their ecological importance.\\u000a Although previous studies have indicated that urbanization has a negative effect on the abundance of bats and bat activity,\\u000a this relationship may differ among regions. We monitored bat activity during 1997–1999 in 15–20 natural areas distributed\\u000a across a 3500- km2 area spanning the

Stanley D. Gehrt; James E. Chelsvig

381

Rabies-Related Knowledge and Practices Among Persons At Risk of Bat Exposures in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses. Evidence of lyssavirus circulation has recently emerged in Southeast Asian bats. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Thailand to assess rabies-related knowledge and practices among persons regularly exposed to bats and bat habitats. The objectives were to identify deficiencies in rabies awareness, describe the occurrence of bat exposures, and explore factors associated

Kis Robertson; Boonlert Lumlertdacha; Richard Franka; Brett Petersen; Saithip Bhengsri; Sununta Henchaichon; Leonard F. Peruski; Henry C. Baggett; Susan A. Maloney; Charles E. Rupprecht

2011-01-01

382

Rise and fall of bat population induced from immobile elements and fossil helminth eggs of bat guano deposits, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bat guano samples were collected from three carbonate caves located along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula: Gossi Cave (40 cm high and 200 cm wide dome), Baegryong Cave (50 cm high and 100 cm wide dome), and Seongryu Cave (20 cm high platform). The guano deposits are rich in organic materials including undigested insect fragments, together with authigenic minerals and imported clastic sediments. The guano profiles were calculated to have been deposited 1) from 3097 to 4200 BP yrs in Gossi guano, 2) from 3650 to 7150 BP yrs in Baegryong guano, and 3) from 150 to 6000 BP yrs in Seongryu guano. Among the immobile elements identified, three immobile elements including Al2O3, SiO2, and TiO2 were detected from all the bat guano profiles. Distributional pattern of these elements throughout each guano profile also shows a close similarity. Such immobile elements are those of clastic sediments blown into the caves as dust. The amount of such immobile elements is closely related with deposition rate of the bat guano; low concentration of those elements implies rapid deposition rate while high concentration represents slow deposition rate of bat guano profiles. Basically, deposition rate of bat guano is controlled by the population density of bat lived in the cave. The amount of immobile elements of the Gossi Cave, for example, tends to increase toward top layer with a sudden decrease at the middle-upper layer (4,000 BP yr). It is, thus be concluded that bat population experienced fluctuation showing an decrease from 6150 to 4150 BP yr and sudden increase at 4000 BP yr, followed by constant decrease to 3150 BP yr. Fossil parasite eggs were also found from the guano deposits, and the number of parasite eggs show similar trend to that of immobile elements.

Jun, Chang-Pyo; Lee, Seong-Joo

2014-05-01

383

EFFECT OF ELEVATION ON DISTRIBUTION OF FEMALE BATS IN THE BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presumably, reproductive female bats are more constrained by thermoregulatory and energy needs than are males and nonreproductive females. Constraints imposed on reproductive females may limit their geographic distribution relative to other bats. Such constraints likely increase with latitude and elevation. Males of 11 bat species that inhabit the Black Hills were captured more frequently than females, and reproductive females typically

Paul M. Cryan; Michael A. Bogan; J. Scott Altenbach

2000-01-01

384

78 FR 40239 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Granting Approval to Proposed Rule...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2013-07-03

385

78 FR 62804 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...gov. Please include File Number SR-BATS-2013-054 on the subject line. Paper...submissions should refer to File Number SR-BATS-2013-054. This file number should...submissions should refer to File Number SR-BATS-2013-054 and should be submitted...

2013-10-22

386

Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

James H. Fullard

1984-01-01

387

Primitive Early Eocene bat from Wyoming and the evolution of flight and echolocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats (Chiroptera) represent one of the largest and most diverse radiations of mammals, accounting for one-fifth of extant species. Although recent studies unambiguously support bat monophyly and consensus is rapidly emerging about evolutionary relationships among extant lineages, the fossil record of bats extends over 50 million years, and early evolution of the group remains poorly understood. Here we describe a

Nancy B. Simmons; Kevin L. Seymour; Jörg Habersetzer; Gregg F. Gunnell

2008-01-01

388

FIELD RECORDINGS OF ECHOLOCATION AND SOCIAL SIGNALS FROM THE GLEANING BAT MYOTIS SEPTENTRIONALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recorded echolocation and ultrasonic social signals of the bat Myotis septentrionalis. The bats foraged for insects resting on or fluttering about an outdoor screen to which they were attracted by a ‘backlight’. The bats used nearly linearly modulated echolocation signals of high frequency (117 to 49 kHz, see Tables) with a weak second harmonic. The orientational signals from patrolling

LEE A. MILLER; ASHER E. TREAT

1993-01-01

389

A Dietary Study of big brown (Eptesicus fuscus) and northern bats (Myotis septentrionalis) in Western Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge is lacking regarding the dietary habits of northern (Myotis septentrionalis) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Kentucky. The objective of this study was to determine the prey items consumed by both species at three sites in western Kentucky. Totals of 103 fecal pellet samples from northern bats and 36 fecal pellet samples from big brown bats were collected

Sarah Elizabeth Asher

2012-01-01

390

Bat response to shelterwood harvests and forest structure in oak-hickory forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest management practices, such as shelterwood harvesting, can greatly impact bat habitat relationships. Such practices can alter the amount of structural volume within a forest, which can influence bat foraging patterns. We determined the effects of shelterwood harvests of different retention levels (50% and 70% of full stocking) on bat activity patterns in oak-hickory forests located in southern Ohio. We

Marne A. Titchenell; Roger A. Williams; Stanley D. Gehrt

2011-01-01

391

Can two streams of auditory information be processed simultaneously? Evidence from the gleaning bat Antrozous pallidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tenet of auditory scene analysis is that we can fully process only one stream of auditory information at a time. We tested this assumption in a gleaning bat, the pallid bat ( Antrozous pallidus) because this bat uses echolocation for general orientation, and relies heavily on prey-generated sounds to detect and locate its prey. It may therefore encounter situations

J. R. Barber; K. A. Razak; Z. M. Fuzessery

2003-01-01

392

Food habits, occurrence, and population structure of the bat ray, Myliobatis californica, in Humboldt Bay, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bat ray, Myliobatis californica, is the most common, large predatory fish in Humboldt Bay, California. To prevent bat ray predation on cultured oyster beds, much effort has focused on reducing their population. A 13 month study was conducted in Humboldt Bay to examine the rays' use of the bay, population structure, and feeding ecology. Bat rays are seasonally found

Ann E. Gray; Timothy J. Mulligan; Robert W. Hannah

1997-01-01

393

75 FR 28670 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...resting order in the BATS Book. Subsequently, an order...entered with the same Unique Identifier and marked...resting order in the BATS Book. Subsequently, an order...entered with the same Unique Identifier and marked...shares remain on the BATS Book. The incoming sell...

2010-05-21

394

Internal cave gating for protection of colonies of the endangered gray bat (Myotis grisescens)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Persistent human disturbance is a major cause for the decline in populations of many cave-dwelling bats and other sensitive cave-obligate organisms. Cave gating has been used to climinate human disturbance, but few studies have assessed directly the impact of such management activities on resident bats. In northeastern Oklahoma, USA, 25 entrances of caves inhabited by two endangered species and one endangered subspecies of bats are protected from human entry with internal gates. Because cave gates may impede ingress and egress of bats at caves, we evaluated the impacts of internal gates before and after their construction at six colonies of endangered gray bats (Myotis grisescens) from 1981 to 2001. No caves were abandoned by gray bats after the construction of internal gates; in fact, total numbers of gray bats using the six caves increased from 60,130 in 1981 to 70,640 in 2001. Two caves harbored more gray bats after gating, and three caves had no change in gray bat numbers after gating. We also compared initiations of emergences at three gated and three open-passage caves in June and July 1999-2000. No differences in timing of initiation of emergence were found between colonies in gated versus open-passage caves. Our results support the use of internal gates to protect and thereby enhance recovery of colonies of endangered gray bats. Additional research is encouraged to confirm that our observations on gray bats are generally applicable to other species of cave-dwelling bats.

Martin, K. W.; Leslie, Jr. , D. M.; Payton, M. E.; Puckette, W. L.; Hensley, S. L.

2003-01-01

395

Bats that walk: a new evolutionary hypothesis for the terrestrial behaviour of New Zealand's endemic mystacinids  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: New Zealand's lesser short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata is one of only two of c.1100 extant bat species to use a true walking gait when manoeuvring on the ground (the other being the American common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus). Mystacina tuberculata is also the last surviving member of Mystacinidae, the only mammalian family endemic to New Zealand (NZ) and a

Suzanne J Hand; Vera Weisbecker; Michael Archer; Henk Godthelp; Alan JD Tennyson; Trevor H Worthy

2009-01-01

396

Neural processing of target distance by echolocating bats: Functional roles of the auditory midbrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using their biological sonar, bats estimate distance to avoid obstacles and capture moving prey. The primary distance cue is the delay between the bat's emitted echolocation pulse and the return of an echo. The mustached bat's auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus, IC) is crucial to the analysis of pulse–echo delay. IC neurons are selective for certain delays between frequency modulated (FM)

Jeffrey J. Wenstrup; Christine V. Portfors

2011-01-01

397

Acoustic scanning of natural scenes by echolocation in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Echolocation allows bats to orient and localize prey in complete darkness. The sonar beam of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, is directional but broad enough to provide audible echo information from within a 60-90 deg. cone. This suggests that the big brown bat could interrogate a natural scene without fixating each important object separately. We tested this idea

Annemarie Surlykke; Kaushik Ghose; Cynthia F. Moss

2009-01-01

398

Second SWIFT Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts. (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time...

A. M. Parsons B. Zhang C. B. Markwardt D. M. Palmer E. E. Fenimore G. Sato H. A. Krimm J. Tueller J. R. Cummings M. Stamatikos N. Gehrels S. D. Barthelmy T. Sakamoto T. N. Ukwatta W. H. Baumgartner

2012-01-01

399

Adaptive behavior for texture discrimination by the free-flying big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus  

PubMed Central

This study examined behavioral strategies for texture discrimination by echolocation in free-flying bats. Big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were trained to discriminate a smooth 16 mm diameter object (S+) from a size-matched textured object (S?), both of which were tethered in random locations in a flight room. The bat’s three-dimensional flight path was reconstructed using stereo images from high-speed video recordings, and the bat’s sonar vocalizations were recorded for each trial and analyzed off-line. A microphone array permitted reconstruction of the sonar beam pattern, allowing us to study the bat’s directional gaze and inspection of the objects. Bats learned the discrimination, but performance varied with S?. In acoustic studies of the objects, the S+ and S? stimuli were ensonified with frequency-modulated sonar pulses. Mean intensity differences between S+ and S? were within 4 dB. Performance data, combined with analyses of echo recordings, suggest that the big brown bat listens to changes in sound spectra from echo to echo to discriminate between objects. Bats adapted their sonar calls as they inspected the stimuli, and their sonar behavior resembled that of animals foraging for insects. Analysis of sonar beam-directing behavior in certain trials clearly showed that the bat sequentially inspected S+ and S?.

Falk, Ben; Williams, Tameeka; Aytekin, Murat

2011-01-01

400

Handling and blood collection in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus).  

PubMed

Bats are useful animal models for the study of unique physiological mechanisms such as echolocation and sensory integration as well as for research on white-nose syndrome. These studies may involve collecting blood samples from bats. This column describes safe techniques for restraint, weighing, fluid administration and blood collection from the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus). PMID:24845004

Hooper, Sarah E; Amelon, Sybill K

2014-06-01

401

Diseases and Causes of Death in European Bats: Dynamics in Disease Susceptibility and Infection Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBats receive increasing attention in infectious disease studies, because of their well recognized status as reservoir species for various infectious agents. This is even more important, as bats with their capability of long distance dispersal and complex social structures are unique in the way microbes could be spread by these mammalian species. Nevertheless, infection studies in bats are predominantly limited

Kristin Mühldorfer; Stephanie Speck; Andreas Kurth; René Lesnik; Conrad Freuling; Thomas Müller; Stephanie Kramer-Schadt; Gudrun Wibbelt

2011-01-01

402

77 FR 2108 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...is a program intended to incentivize aggressive quoting on BATS Options; (v) modify...intended to incentivize sustained, aggressive quoting on BATS Options; and (vi...An order that is entered at the most aggressive price both on the BATS Options...

2012-01-13

403

The effect of signal complexity on localization performance in bats that localize frog calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fringe-lipped bat, Trachops cirrhosus, uses frog mating calls to detect and locate its prey. The tungara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus, a preferred prey species of this bat, produces two types of sexual advertise- ment calls, simple and complex, and both female frogs and predatory bats prefer complex calls to simple ones. Complex calls differ from simple ones in that they

Rachel A. Page; Michael J. Ryan

2008-01-01

404

Allergenic potency of kiwi fruit during fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food allergies, including kiwi fruit allergy, have been the subject of extensive research in the last few years. The aim of this study was to examine a possible relationship between the developmental stage of kiwi fruit and its allergenic potency. The protein and allergen patterns of kiwi fruit extracts in September, October, November and December fruit in the period from

Marija Gavrovic-Jankulovic; Natalija Polovic; Sladjana Prisic; Ratko M. Jankov; Marina Atanaskovic-Markovic; Olga Vuckovic; Tanja Cirkovic Velickovic

2005-01-01

405

Social vocalizations of big brown bats vary with behavioral context.  

PubMed

Bats are among the most gregarious and vocal mammals, with some species demonstrating a diverse repertoire of syllables under a variety of behavioral contexts. Despite extensive characterization of big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) biosonar signals, there have been no detailed studies of adult social vocalizations. We recorded and analyzed social vocalizations and associated behaviors of captive big brown bats under four behavioral contexts: low aggression, medium aggression, high aggression, and appeasement. Even limited to these contexts, big brown bats possess a rich repertoire of social vocalizations, with 18 distinct syllable types automatically classified using a spectrogram cross-correlation procedure. For each behavioral context, we describe vocalizations in terms of syllable acoustics, temporal emission patterns, and typical syllable sequences. Emotion-related acoustic cues are evident within the call structure by context-specific syllable types or variations in the temporal emission pattern. We designed a paradigm that could evoke aggressive vocalizations while monitoring heart rate as an objective measure of internal physiological state. Changes in the magnitude and duration of elevated heart rate scaled to the level of evoked aggression, confirming the behavioral state classifications assessed by vocalizations and behavioral displays. These results reveal a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a caller. PMID:22970247

Gadziola, Marie A; Grimsley, Jasmine M S; Faure, Paul A; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J

2012-01-01

406

Numerical analysis of biosonar beamforming mechanisms and strategies in bats.  

PubMed

Beamforming is critical to the function of most sonar systems. The conspicuous noseleaf and pinna shapes in bats suggest that beamforming mechanisms based on diffraction of the outgoing and incoming ultrasonic waves play a major role in bat biosonar. Numerical methods can be used to investigate the relationships between baffle geometry, acoustic mechanisms, and resulting beampatterns. Key advantages of numerical approaches are: efficient, high-resolution estimation of beampatterns, spatially dense predictions of near-field amplitudes, and the malleability of the underlying shape representations. A numerical approach that combines near-field predictions based on a finite-element formulation for harmonic solutions to the Helmholtz equation with a free-field projection based on the Kirchhoff integral to obtain estimates of the far-field beampattern is reviewed. This method has been used to predict physical beamforming mechanisms such as frequency-dependent beamforming with half-open resonance cavities in the noseleaf of horseshoe bats and beam narrowing through extension of the pinna aperture with skin folds in false vampire bats. The fine structure of biosonar beampatterns is discussed for the case of the Chinese noctule and methods for assessing the spatial information conveyed by beampatterns are demonstrated for the brown long-eared bat. PMID:20815475

Müller, Rolf

2010-09-01

407

Social calls predict foraging success in big brown bats.  

PubMed

Animals foraging in the dark are engaged simultaneously in prey pursuit, collision avoidance, and interactions with conspecifics, making efficient nonvisual communication essential. A variety of birds and mammals emit food-associated calls that inform, attract, or repel conspecifics (e.g.,). Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are insectivorous aerial hawkers that may forage near conspecifics and are known to emit social calls (e.g.,). Calls recorded in a foraging setting might attract (e.g.,) or repel conspecifics and could denote territoriality or food claiming. Here, we provide evidence that the "frequency-modulated bout" (FMB), a social call emitted only by male bats (exclusively in a foraging context), is used to claim food and is individually distinct. Bats were studied individually and in pairs in a flight room equipped with synchronized high-speed stereo video and audio recording equipment while sex and experience with a foraging task were experimentally manipulated. Male bats emitting the FMB showed greater success in capturing prey. Following FMB emission, interbat distance, diverging flight, and the other bat's distance to the prey each increased. These findings highlight the importance and utility of vocal communication for a nocturnal animal mediating interactions with conspecifics in a fast-paced foraging setting. PMID:24684936

Wright, Genevieve Spanjer; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Moss, Cynthia F

2014-04-14

408

Population changes in bats from central Arizona: 1972 and 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prompted by concern about declining bat populations in the southwestern United States, we surveyed for changes in populations between 1972 and 1997 at a study area in central Arizona. We duplicated earlier searches of ancient Indian dwellings and crevices in surrounding cliffs for diurnally roosting bats during the time of year when maternity colonies should have been present, and repeated mist-netting to capture bats in flight along the cliffs at night. Antrozous pallidus was gone. A maternity colony of Myotis velifer no longer existed. Tadarida brasiliensis was rare in 1997 compared to 1972; aggregations of Myotis yumanensis seen in 1972 were missing in 1997. Breeding Corynorhinus townsendii were found in 1997, but were unknown at this location in 1972. Small numbers of Eptesicus fuscus, Myotis californicus, and Pipistrellus hesperus occupied the site in both 1972 and 1997. Additionally, museum records show that most of the bats we documented at this site also were present in 1931. Surrounding habitat did not appear substantially different between 1972 and 1997, and a reconstruction of possible impacts from bat biologists did not suggest that researchers caused the local extinctions we document. The most obvious change over 25 years was a dramatic increase in recreational use of the area. We believe that disturbances associated with recreationists resulted in the observed population changes, primarily through roost abandonment.

O'Shea, T. J.; Vaughan, T. A.

1999-01-01

409

Detection of Coronaviruses in Bats of Various Species in Italy  

PubMed Central

Bats are natural reservoirs for many mammalian coronaviruses, which have received renewed interest after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV in humans. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in bats in Italy, from 2010 to 2012. Sixty-nine faecal samples and 126 carcasses were tested using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR. Coronavirus RNAs were detected in seven faecal samples and nine carcasses. A phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence fragments aided in identifying two alphacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii), three clade 2b betacoronaviruses from lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros), and 10 clade 2c betacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle, common noctule (Nyctalus noctula), and Savi’s pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii). This study fills a substantive gap in the knowledge on bat-CoV ecology in Italy, and extends the current knowledge on clade 2c betacoronaviruses with new sequences obtained from bats that have not been previously described as hosts of these viruses.

Lelli, Davide; Papetti, Alice; Sabelli, Cristiano; Rosti, Enrica; Moreno, Ana; Boniotti, Maria B.

2013-01-01

410

Microgel Susceptibility to Ocean Acidification at Bats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the largest reservoir of carbon on Earth. An important fraction of the DOC pool (10-30%) assembles to form a nutrient-rich pool of "microgels", thereby converting dispersed recalcitrant DOC to a particulate form more directly accessible to the microbial loop and thus playing an important role in regulating ocean-basin-scale biogeochemical dynamics. However, very little is known about the effect of climate change and ocean acidification on microgel dynamics, such as the thermodynamics of gel assembly and annealing into larger particles. We have examined microgel dynamics at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site during one full year. Our data shows important differences between the winter and the summer season, related to the physicochemical conditions of the seawater, specifically the interaction of pH and temperature. Small changes in temperature and pH between the seasons allow for a 10 fold difference in microgel assembly. Our results show how small changes in temperature and pH can have enormous impacts on the availability of DOC to the microbial loop and biogeochemical cycling.

Lozano-Duque, Y.; Orellana, M. V.; Hansell, D. A.

2012-12-01

411

Deglaciation explains bat extinction in the Caribbean  

PubMed Central

Ecological factors such as changing climate on land and interspecific competition have been debated as possible causes of postglacial Caribbean extinction. These hypotheses, however, have not been tested against a null model of climate-driven postglacial area loss. Here, we use a new Quaternary mammal database and deep-sea bathymetry to estimate species–area relationships (SARs) at present and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) for bats of the Caribbean, and to model species loss as a function of area loss from rising sea level. Island area was a significant predictor of species richness in the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and Lesser Antilles at all time periods, except for the Lesser Antilles during the LGM. Parameters of LGM and current SARs were similar in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles, but not the Lesser Antilles, which had fewer estimated species during the LGM than expected given their size. Estimated postglacial species losses in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles were largely explained by inferred area loss from rising sea level in the Holocene. However, there were more species in the Bahamas at present, and fewer species in the smaller Greater Antilles, than expected given island size and the end-Pleistocene/early Holocene SARs. Poor fossil sampling and ecological factors may explain these departures from the null. Our analyses illustrate the importance of changes in area in explaining patterns of species richness through time and emphasize the role of the SAR as a null hypothesis in explorations of the impact of novel ecological interactions on extinction.

Davalos, Liliana M; Russell, Amy L

2012-01-01

412

The relative distribution of T cell subsets is altered in Jamaican children infected with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I.  

PubMed

Early childhood infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of infective dermatitis and adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma. Since only a very small percentage of HTLV-I-infected children develop disease later in life, identification of early interim markers for persons at risk for developing disease would enable monitoring and might provide insight into the pathophysiology of the various diseases associated with HTLV-I infection. A cross-sectional study analyzed T cell subsets in 35 HTLV-I-seronegative and 16 HTLV-I-seropositive Jamaican children 11-31 months old. HTLV-I seropositivity was associated with an increase in the mean percentage of CD4 cells expressing HLA-DR, a marker for T cell activation (P = .02). This increase was positively correlated with duration of infection (r = .74, P = .009). These data demonstrate perturbation of regulatory cells of the immune system in HTLV-I-infected children. PMID:7658085

Maloney, E M; Pate, E; Wiktor, S Z; Morais, P; Mann, D; Gray, R; Manns, A; Blattner, W A

1995-09-01

413

Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

1996-01-01

414

Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

Clark, D.R., Jr.; Prouty, R.M.

1977-01-01

415

Multiple host-switching of Haemosporidia parasites in bats  

PubMed Central

Background There have been reported cases of host-switching in avian and lizard species of Plasmodium (Apicomplexa, Haemosporidia), as well as in those infecting different primate species. However, no evidence has previously been found for host-swapping between wild birds and mammals. Methods This paper presents the results of the sampling of blood parasites of wild-captured bats from Madagascar and Cambodia. The presence of Haemosporidia infection in these animals is confirmed and cytochrome b gene sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic analysis. Results Results reveal at least three different and independent Haemosporidia evolutionary histories in three different bat lineages from Madagascar and Cambodia. Conclusion Phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests multiple host-switching of Haemosporidia parasites in bats with those from avian and primate hosts.

Duval, Linda; Robert, Vincent; Csorba, Gabor; Hassanin, Alexandre; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Walston, Joe; Nhim, Thy; Goodman, Steve M; Ariey, Frederic

2007-01-01

416

Impact of a ball with a bat or racket  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collision of a ball with a baseball bat or a tennis racket is usually modeled in terms of rigid body dynamics, assuming that the hand exerts no impulsive reaction force on the handle during the collision. In this paper, a uniform aluminum beam was used as an idealized bat or racket, in order to examine both the rigid body approximation and the assumption that the hand force can be neglected. An aluminum beam was chosen so that its length and stiffness could easily be varied and so that the results could be compared with solutions for a flexible beam. It was found that rigid body models of beams, bats, or rackets are of limited use but the hand force can usually be neglected. The flexible beam model provides remarkably good agreement with experimental results and provides new insights into the dynamics of this type of collision, including the nature of the sweet spot.

Cross, Rod

1999-08-01

417

Fruit Bats, Cats, and Naked Mole Rats: Lifelong Learning at the Zoo. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An informal study found that zoo visitors want to know not just the name, weight, and age of animals in a collection, but also about diet, reproduction, life span, and behavioral characteristics. What kinds of learning opportunities, beyond enhanced signage, can be offered to the sophisticated new breed of visitors in zoos, aquariums, and nature…

Thomson, Barbara S.; Diem, Jason J.

418

Phylogeography of the dark fruit-eating bat Artibeus obscurus in the Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

Artibeus obscurus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) is endemic to South America, being found in at least 18 Brazilian states. Recent studies revealed that different populations of this genus present distinct phylogeographic patterns; however, very little is known on the population genetics structure of A. obscurus in the Amazon rainforest. Here, using a fragment (1010bp) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b from 87 samples,