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1

Transcriptome Sequencing and Annotation for the Jamaican Fruit Bat (Artibeus jamaicensis)  

PubMed Central

The Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) is one of the most common bats in the tropical Americas. It is thought to be a potential reservoir host of Tacaribe virus, an arenavirus closely related to the South American hemorrhagic fever viruses. We performed transcriptome sequencing and annotation from lung, kidney and spleen tissues using 454 and Illumina platforms to develop this species as an animal model. More than 100,000 contigs were assembled, with 25,000 genes that were functionally annotated. Of the remaining unannotated contigs, 80% were found within bat genomes or transcriptomes. Annotated genes are involved in a broad range of activities ranging from cellular metabolism to genome regulation through ncRNAs. Reciprocal BLAST best hits yielded 8,785 sequences that are orthologous to mouse, rat, cattle, horse and human. Species tree analysis of sequences from 2,378 loci was used to achieve 95% bootstrap support for the placement of bat as sister to the clade containing horse, dog, and cattle. Through substitution rate estimation between bat and human, 32 genes were identified with evidence for positive selection. We also identified 466 immune-related genes, which may be useful for studying Tacaribe virus infection of this species. The Jamaican fruit bat transcriptome dataset is a resource that should provide additional candidate markers for studying bat evolution and ecology, and tools for analysis of the host response and pathology of disease. PMID:23166587

Shaw, Timothy I.; Srivastava, Anuj; Chou, Wen-Chi; Liu, Liang; Hawkinson, Ann; Glenn, Travis C.; Adams, Rick; Schountz, Tony

2012-01-01

2

Ontogeny of the larynx and flight ability in jamaican fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) with considerations for the evolution of echolocation.  

PubMed

Echolocating bats have adaptations of the larynx such as hypertrophied intrinsic musculature and calcified or ossified cartilages to support sonar emission. We examined growth and development of the larynx relative to developing flight ability in Jamaican fruit bats to assess how changes in sonar production are coordinated with the onset of flight during ontogeny as a window for understanding the evolutionary relationships between these systems. In addition, we compare the extent of laryngeal calcification in an echolocating shrew species (Sorex vagrans) and the house mouse (Mus musculus), to assess what laryngeal chiropteran adaptations are associated with flight versus echolocation. Individuals were categorized into one of five developmental flight stages (flop, flutter, flap, flight, and adult) determined by drop-tests. Larynges were cleared and stained with alcian blue and alizarin red, or sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Our results showed calcification of the cricoid cartilage in bats, represented during the flap stage and this increased significantly in individuals at the flight stage. Thyroid and arytenoid cartilages showed no evidence of calcification and neither cricoid nor thyroid showed significant increases in rate of growth relative to the larynx as a whole. The physiological cross-sectional area of the cricothyroid muscles increased significantly at the flap stage. Shrew larynges showed signs of calcification along the margins of the cricoid and thyroid cartilages, while the mouse larynx did not. These data suggest the larynx of echolocating bats becomes stronger and sturdier in tandem with flight development, indicating possible developmental integration between flight and echolocation. PMID:24778087

Carter, Richard T; Adams, Rick A

2014-07-01

3

Isolation of Genetically Diverse Marburg Viruses from Egyptian Fruit Bats  

PubMed Central

In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans. PMID:19649327

Towner, Jonathan S.; Amman, Brian R.; Sealy, Tara K.; Carroll, Serena A. Reeder; Comer, James A.; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D.; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L.; Formenty, Pierre B. H.; Albarino, Cesar G.; Miller, David M.; Reed, Zachary D.; Kayiwa, John T.; Mills, James N.; Cannon, Deborah L.; Greer, Patricia W.; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C.; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.

2009-01-01

4

Fellatio by fruit bats prolongs copulation time.  

PubMed

Oral sex is widely used in human foreplay, but rarely documented in other animals. Fellatio has been recorded in bonobos Pan paniscus, but even then functions largely as play behaviour among juvenile males. The short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx exhibits resource defence polygyny and one sexually active male often roosts with groups of females in tents made from leaves. Female bats often lick their mate's penis during dorsoventral copulation. The female lowers her head to lick the shaft or the base of the male's penis but does not lick the glans penis which has already penetrated the vagina. Males never withdrew their penis when it was licked by the mating partner. A positive relationship exists between the length of time that the female licked the male's penis during copulation and the duration of copulation. Furthermore, mating pairs spent significantly more time in copulation if the female licked her mate's penis than if fellatio was absent. Males also show postcopulatory genital grooming after intromission. At present, we do not know why genital licking occurs, and we present four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that may explain the function of fellatio in C. sphinx. PMID:19862320

Tan, Min; Jones, Gareth; Zhu, Guangjian; Ye, Jianping; Hong, Tiyu; Zhou, Shanyi; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Libiao

2009-01-01

5

Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia. PMID:23343532

Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter

2013-01-01

6

Tropical Secondary Forest Management Influences Frugivorous Bat Composition, Abundance and Fruit Consumption in Chiapas, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H’) was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests’ structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029

Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-Gonzalez, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

2013-01-01

7

Long-Term Survival of an Urban Fruit Bat Seropositive for Ebola and Lagos Bat Viruses  

PubMed Central

Ebolaviruses (EBOV) (family Filoviridae) cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates when they spill over from their wildlife reservoir hosts with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Fruit bats may act as reservoirs of the Filoviridae. The migratory fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is common across sub-Saharan Africa and lives in large colonies, often situated in cities. We screened sera from 262 E. helvum using indirect fluorescent tests for antibodies against EBOV subtype Zaire. We detected a seropositive bat from Accra, Ghana, and confirmed this using western blot analysis. The bat was also seropositive for Lagos bat virus, a Lyssavirus, by virus neutralization test. The bat was fitted with a radio transmitter and was last detected in Accra 13 months after release post-sampling, demonstrating long-term survival. Antibodies to filoviruses have not been previously demonstrated in E. helvum. Radio-telemetry data demonstrates long-term survival of an individual bat following exposure to viruses of families that can be highly pathogenic to other mammal species. Because E. helvum typically lives in large urban colonies and is a source of bushmeat in some regions, further studies should determine if this species forms a reservoir for EBOV from which spillover infections into the human population may occur. PMID:20694141

Hayman, David T. S.; Emmerich, Petra; Yu, Meng; Wang, Lin-Fa; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L. N.

2010-01-01

8

Artibeus lituratus, the Great Fruit Bat, Feeding on the Infructescences of Cecropia sp.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Artibeus lituratus, the great fruit bat, feeding on the infructescences of Cecropia sp. Species of Artibeus are important dispersers of Cecropia. Morphological and anatomical study has revealed that the dispersal unit of Cecropia is the entire fruit, not just the seed. Bats consume the fleshy floral parts surrounding the fruits and disperse the fruits.

Tuttle, Merlin D.

2004-03-09

9

The Missing Part of Seed Dispersal Networks: Structure and Robustness of Bat-Fruit Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualistic networks are crucial to the maintenance of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, what we know about seed dispersal networks is based only on bird-fruit interactions. Therefore, we aimed at filling part of this gap by investigating bat-fruit networks. It is known from population studies that: (i) some bat species depend more on fruits than others, and (ii) that some specialized frugivorous

Marco Aurelio Ribeiro Mello; Flávia Maria Darcie Marquitti; Paulo Roberto Guimarães; Elisabeth Klara Viktoria Kalko; Pedro Jordano; Marcus Aloizio Martinez de Aguiar; Anna Traveset

2011-01-01

10

A COMPARISON OF FRUIT REMOVAL BY BATS AND BIRDS FROM PIPER HISfIDUM SW.  

E-print Network

unavailable to birds; ripe fruits typically remained on the plants for several days. If birds disseminate... ; A COMPARISON OF FRUIT REMOVAL BY BATS AND BIRDS FROM PIPER HISfIDUM SW. (PIPERACEAE. Central AlOOrica (Received: January 5, 1989) ABSTRAC,r I measured fruit removal by bats and birds from

O'Donnell, Sean

11

Straight-line climbing flight aerodynamics of a fruit bat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From flight data obtained on a fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, a kinematic model for straight-line flapping motion is extracted and analyzed in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to gain insight into the complexity of bat flight. The intricate functional mechanics and architecture of the bat wings set it apart from other vertebrate flight. The extracted kinematic model is simulated for a range of Reynolds numbers, to observe the effect these phenomena have on the unsteady transient mechanisms of the flow produced by the flapping wings. The Strouhal number calculated from the data is high indicating that the oscillatory motion dominates the flow physics. From the obtained data, the bat exhibits fine control of its mechanics by actively varying wing camber, wing area, torsional rotation of the wing, forward and backward translational sweep of the wing, and wing conformation to dictate the fluid dynamics. As is common in flapping flight, the primary force generation is through the attached unsteady vortices on the wing surface. The bat through varying the wing camber and the wing area modulates this force output. The power requirement for the kinematics is analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic performance.

Viswanath, K.; Nagendra, K.; Cotter, J.; Frauenthal, M.; Tafti, D. K.

2014-02-01

12

Reproduction elevates the corticosterone stress response in common fruit bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in reproductive state or the environment may affect the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-andrenal (HPA) axis.\\u000a However, little is known about the dynamics of the resulting corticosteroid stress response, in particular in tropical mammals.\\u000a In this study, we address the modulation of corticosterone release in response to different reproductive conditions and seasonality\\u000a in 326 free-living common fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis)

Stefan M. Klose; Carolynn L. Smith; Andrea J. Denzel; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko

2006-01-01

13

Uncovering the fruit bat bushmeat commodity chain and the true extent of fruit bat hunting in Ghana, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Harvesting, consumption and trade of bushmeat are important causes of both biodiversity loss and potential zoonotic disease emergence. In order to identify possible ways to mitigate these threats, it is essential to improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which bushmeat gets from the site of capture to the consumer’s table. In this paper we highlight the previously unrecognized scale of hunting of the African straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, a species which is important in both ecological and public health contexts, and describe the commodity chain in southern Ghana for its trade. Based on interviews with 551 Ghanaians, including bat hunters, vendors and consumers, we estimate that a minimum of 128,000 E. helvum bats are sold each year through a commodity chain stretching up to 400 km and involving multiple vendors. Unlike the general bushmeat trade in Ghana, where animals are sold in both specialized bushmeat markets and in restaurants, E. helvum is sold primarily in marketplaces; many bats are also kept by hunters for personal consumption. The offtake estimated in this paper raises serious conservation concerns, while the commodity chain identified in this study may offer possible points for management intervention. The separation of the E. helvum commodity chain from that of other bushmeat highlights the need for species-specific research in this area, particularly for bats, whose status as bushmeat is largely unknown. PMID:22514356

Kamins, A.O.; Restif, O.; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y.; Suu-Ire, R.; Hayman, D.T.S.; Cunningham, A.A.; Wood, J.L.N.; Rowcliffe, J.M.

2011-01-01

14

Relaxed Evolution in the Tyrosine Aminotransferase Gene Tat in Old World Fruit Bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae)  

PubMed Central

Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet. PMID:24824435

Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Shuyi

2014-01-01

15

Authentication of the R06E Fruit Bat Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Fruit bats and insectivorous bats are believed to provide a natural reservoir for a wide variety of infectious diseases. Several lines of evidence, including the successful isolation of infectious viruses, indicate that Marburg virus and Ravn virus have found a major reservoir in colonies of the Egyptian rousette (Rousettus aegyptiacus). To facilitate molecular studies on virus-reservoir host interactions and isolation of viruses from environmental samples, we established cell lines from primary cells of this animal. The cell lines were given to several laboratories until we realized that a contamination with Vero cells in one of the cultures had occurred. Here we describe a general diagnostic procedure for identification of cross-species contamination with the focus on Vero and Rousettus cell lines, and summarize newly discovered properties of the cell lines that may pertain to pathogen discovery. PMID:22754654

Jordan, Ingo; Munster, Vincent J.; Sandig, Volker

2012-01-01

16

Molecular detection of a novel paramyxovirus in fruit bats from Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background Fruit bats are known to harbor zoonotic paramyxoviruses including Nipah, Hendra, and Menangle viruses. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of paramyxovirus RNA in fruit bats from Indonesia. Methods RNA samples were obtained from the spleens of 110 fruit bats collected from four locations in Indonesia. All samples were screened by semi-nested broad spectrum reverse transcription PCR targeting the paramyxovirus polymerase (L) genes. Results Semi-nested reverse transcription PCR detected five previously unidentified paramyxoviruses from six fruit bats. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these virus sequences were related to henipavirus or rubulavirus. Conclusions This study indicates the presence of novel paramyxoviruses among fruit bat populations in Indonesia. PMID:23082748

2012-01-01

17

Ethanol and methanol as possible odor cues for Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus).  

PubMed

Frugivorous bats from the Old and New World use odor cues to locate and assess fruit condition. We hypothesized that Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) use as odor cues those volatile compounds that increase in emission rate as fruit ripens. We examined whether the smell of fermentation products may indicate the degree of ripeness to fruit bats. We analyzed volatile compounds in the headspace (the gas space above a fruit in a closed container) of dates (Phoenix dactylifera) and rusty figs (Ficus rubiginosa), both of which are consumed by fruit bats, to elucidate which compounds originate from fermentative pathways and to determine which change in emission rate during ripening. Ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid were the only volatile compounds detected as products of fermentation in both fruits. In dates, emission rates of these compounds increased during maturation, whereas in rusty figs, they decreased or remained constant. Methanol, although not a fermentation product, increased in emission rate during ripening in both fruits. We found that R. aegyptiacus was neither attracted nor deterred by the smell of methanol at any of the concentrations used. Although the odor of ethanol emanating from food containing concentrations similar to those found in ripe fruit did not attract the bats, at relatively high concentrations (> or =1%), the smell of ethanol deterred them. Thus, ethanol at high concentrations may serve as a signal for bats to avoid overripe, unpalatable fruit. PMID:16770719

Sánchez, Francisco; Korine, Carmi; Steeghs, Marco; Laarhoven, Luc-Jan; Cristescu, Simona M; Harren, Frans J M; Dudley, Robert; Pinshow, Berry

2006-06-01

18

The role of fruit bats in the transmission of pathogenic leptospires in Australia  

PubMed Central

Although antileptospiral antibodies and leptospiral DNA have been detected in Australian fruit bats, the role of such bats as infectious hosts for the leptospires found in rodents and humans remains unconfirmed. A cohort-design, replicated survey was recently conducted in Far North Queensland, Australia, to determine if the abundance and leptospiral status of rodents were affected by association with colonies of fruit bats (Pteropus conspicillatus spp.) via rodent contact with potentially infectious fruit-bat urine. In each of four study areas, a ‘colony site’ that included a fruit-bat colony and the land within 1500?m of the colony was compared with a ‘control site’ that held no fruit-bat colonies and was >2000?m from the nearest edge of the colony site. Rodents were surveyed, for a total of 2400 trap-nights, over six sampling sessions between September 2007 and September 2008. A low abundance of rodents but a high carriage of leptospires in the rodents present were found to be associated with proximity to a fruit-bat colony. For example, means of 0.4 and 2.3 fawn-footed melomys (Melomys cervinipes) were collected/100 trap-nights at sites with and without fruit-bat colonies, respectively (P<0.001), but the corresponding prevalences of leptospiral carriage were 100% and 3.6% (P<0.001). Such trends were consistent across all of the sampling sessions but not across all of the sampling sites. Leptospires were not isolated from fruit bats by culture, and the role of such bats in the transmission of leptospires to rodents cannot be confirmed. The data collected do, however, indicate the existence of a potential pathway for transmission of leptospires from fruit bats to rodents, via rodent contact with infectious fruit-bat urine. Fruit bats may possibly be involved in the ecology of leptospires (including emergent serovars), as disseminators of pathogens to rodent populations. Stringent quantitative risk analysis of the present and similar data, to explore their implications in terms of disease prevalence and wildlife population dynamics, is recommended. PMID:21294951

Tulsiani, S M; Cobbold, R N; Graham, G C; Dohnt, M F; Burns, M-A; Leung, L K-P; Field, H E; Smythe, L D; Craig, S B

2011-01-01

19

The Missing Part of Seed Dispersal Networks: Structure and Robustness of Bat-Fruit Interactions  

PubMed Central

Mutualistic networks are crucial to the maintenance of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, what we know about seed dispersal networks is based only on bird-fruit interactions. Therefore, we aimed at filling part of this gap by investigating bat-fruit networks. It is known from population studies that: (i) some bat species depend more on fruits than others, and (ii) that some specialized frugivorous bats prefer particular plant genera. We tested whether those preferences affected the structure and robustness of the whole network and the functional roles of species. Nine bat-fruit datasets from the literature were analyzed and all networks showed lower complementary specialization (H2'?=?0.37±0.10, mean ± SD) and similar nestedness (NODF?=?0.56±0.12) than pollination networks. All networks were modular (M?=?0.32±0.07), and had on average four cohesive subgroups (modules) of tightly connected bats and plants. The composition of those modules followed the genus-genus associations observed at population level (Artibeus-Ficus, Carollia-Piper, and Sturnira-Solanum), although a few of those plant genera were dispersed also by other bats. Bat-fruit networks showed high robustness to simulated cumulative removals of both bats (R?=?0.55±0.10) and plants (R?=?0.68±0.09). Primary frugivores interacted with a larger proportion of the plants available and also occupied more central positions; furthermore, their extinction caused larger changes in network structure. We conclude that bat-fruit networks are highly cohesive and robust mutualistic systems, in which redundancy is high within modules, although modules are complementary to each other. Dietary specialization seems to be an important structuring factor that affects the topology, the guild structure and functional roles in bat-fruit networks. PMID:21386981

Mello, Marco Aurelio Ribeiro; Marquitti, Flavia Maria Darcie; Guimaraes, Paulo Roberto; Kalko, Elisabeth Klara Viktoria; Jordano, Pedro; de Aguiar, Marcus Aloizio Martinez

2011-01-01

20

Adaptive Evolution of the Myo6 Gene in Old World Fruit Bats (Family: Pteropodidae)  

PubMed Central

Myosin VI (encoded by the Myo6 gene) is highly expressed in the inner and outer hair cells of the ear, retina, and polarized epithelial cells such as kidney proximal tubule cells and intestinal enterocytes. The Myo6 gene is thought to be involved in a wide range of physiological functions such as hearing, vision, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Bats (Chiroptera) represent one of the most fascinating mammal groups for molecular evolutionary studies of the Myo6 gene. A diversity of specialized adaptations occur among different bat lineages, such as echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing in laryngeal echolocating bats, large eyes and a strong dependence on vision in Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae), and specialized high-carbohydrate but low-nitrogen diets in both Old World and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). To investigate what role(s) the Myo6 gene might fulfill in bats, we sequenced the coding region of the Myo6 gene in 15 bat species and used molecular evolutionary analyses to detect evidence of positive selection in different bat lineages. We also conducted real-time PCR assays to explore the expression levels of Myo6 in a range of tissues from three representative bat species. Molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that the Myo6 gene, which was widely considered as a hearing gene, has undergone adaptive evolution in the Old World fruit bats which lack laryngeal echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing. Real-time PCR showed the highest expression level of the Myo6 gene in the kidney among ten tissues examined in three bat species, indicating an important role for this gene in kidney function. We suggest that Myo6 has undergone adaptive evolution in Old World fruit bats in relation to receptor-mediated endocytosis for the preservation of protein and essential nutrients. PMID:23620821

Shen, Bin; Han, Xiuqun; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Zhang, Shuyi

2013-01-01

21

Comparative inner ear transcriptome analysis between the Rickett's big-footed bats (Myotis ricketti) and the greater short-nosed fruit bats (Cynopterus sphinx)  

PubMed Central

Background Bats have aroused great interests of researchers for the sake of their advanced echolocation system. However, this highly specialized trait is not characteristic of Old World fruit bats. Results To comprehensively explore the underlying molecular basis between echolocating and non-echolocating bats, we employed a sequence-based approach to compare the inner ear expression difference between the Rickett’s big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti, echolocating bat) and the Greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx, non-echolocating bat). De novo sequence assemblies were developed for both species. The results showed that the biological implications of up-regulated genes in M. ricketti were significantly over-represented in biological process categories such as ‘cochlea morphogenesis’, ‘inner ear morphogenesis’ and ‘sensory perception of sound’, which are consistent with the inner ear morphological and physiological differentiation between the two bat species. Moreover, the expression of TMC1 gene confirmed its important function in echolocating bats. Conclusion Our work presents the first transcriptome comparison between echolocating and non-echolocating bats, and provides information about the genetic basis of their distinct hearing traits. PMID:24365273

2013-01-01

22

DISPATCHES Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh  

E-print Network

To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia. Filoviruses are zoonotic pathogens that cause episodic, lethal, hemorrhagic outbreaks among humans and nonhuman primates and case-fatality rates up to 80 % (1). The family Filoviridae contains 2 genera: Marburgvirus, which contains Marburg virus (MARV), and Ebolavirus, which

Kevin J. Olival; Ariful Islam; Meng Yu; Simon J. Anthony; Jonathan H. Epstein; Shahneaz Ali Khan; Salah Uddin Khan; Gary Crameri; Lin-fa Wang; W. Ian Lipkin; Stephen P. Luby; Peter Daszak; Ebola Virus; Lloviu Ebola Virus

23

Fecundity, fruiting pattern, and seed dispersal in Piper amalago (Piperaceae), a bat-dispersed tropical shrub  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the nightly and seasonal production of ripe fruit by Piper amalago (Piperaceae), a patchily distributed, bat-dispersed forest shrub, at Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. Phenological observations over several years indicate that individuals produce a low (usually 1–3) and variable number of ripe fruit each night for 3–4 wks in the early wet season (June and July).

Theodore H. Fleming

1981-01-01

24

Demography and natural history of the common fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats were marked and monitored on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, to study seasonal and annual variation in distribution, abundance, and natural history from 1975 through 1980. Data gathered advances our knowledge about flocking; abundance; feeding strategies; social behavior; species richness; population structure and stability; age and sex ratios; life expectancy and longevity; nightly, seasonal, and annual movements; synchrony within and between species in reproductive activity; timing of reproductive cycles; survival and dispersal of recruits; intra-and inter-specific relationships; and day and night roost selection. Barro Colorado Island (BCI) harbors large populations of bats that feed on the fruit of canopy trees, especially figs. These trees are abundant, and the individual asynchrony of their fruiting rhythms results in a fairly uniform abundance of fruit. When figs are scarce, a variety of other fruits is available to replace them. This relatively dependable food supply attracts a remarkably rich guild of bats. Although we marked all bats caught, we tried to maximize the number of Artibeus jamaicensis netted, because it is abundant (2/3 of the total catch of bats on BCI), easily captured by conventional means (mist nets set at ground level), and responds well to handling and marking. An average Artibeus jamaicensis is a 45 g frugivore that eats roughly its weight in fruit every night. These bats prefer figs and often seek them out even when other types of fruit they might eat are far more abundant. They commute several hundred meters to feeding trees on the average, feeding on fruit from one to four trees each night, and returning to a single fruiting tree an average of four nights in succession. The bats tend to fly farther when fewer fig trees are bearing ripe fruit, and they feed from fewer trees, on the average, when the moon is nearly full. These bats, like their congeners, do not feed in the fruiting tree itself. Instead, they select a fruit and carry it to a feeding roost typically about 100 m away before eating it. We utilized radio telemetry to assess feeding rates from the number of ?feeding passes??transits between fruit tree and feeding roost. Bats are often netted while carrying fruit, revealing their diet. Feces also reveal dietary information. Adult female A. jamaicensis live in harems of three to 30 individuals with a single adult male. On BCI the harem groups roost during the day in hollow trees. There is presumably a large population of surplus males that roost together with nonadults of both sexes in foliage. Females commute an average of 600 m from their day roosts to feeding sites, and harem males travel less than 300 m. Twice a year most females give birth to a single young, once in March or April, and again in July or August; active gestation averages about 19 weeks. Juveniles are first netted when they are about ten weeks old, and females usually first bear young in March or April following their year of birth.

1991-01-01

25

Continent-wide panmixia of an African fruit bat facilitates transmission of potentially zoonotic viruses.  

PubMed

The straw-coloured fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is Africa's most widely distributed and commonly hunted fruit bat, often living in close proximity to human populations. This species has been identified as a reservoir of potentially zoonotic viruses, but uncertainties remain regarding viral transmission dynamics and mechanisms of persistence. Here we combine genetic and serological analyses of populations across Africa, to determine the extent of epidemiological connectivity among E. helvum populations. Multiple markers reveal panmixia across the continental range, at a greater geographical scale than previously recorded for any other mammal, whereas populations on remote islands were genetically distinct. Multiple serological assays reveal antibodies to henipaviruses and Lagos bat virus in all locations, including small isolated island populations, indicating that factors other than population size and connectivity may be responsible for viral persistence. Our findings have potentially important public health implications, and highlight a need to avoid disturbances that may precipitate viral spillover. PMID:24253424

Peel, Alison J; Sargan, David R; Baker, Kate S; Hayman, David T S; Barr, Jennifer A; Crameri, Gary; Suu-Ire, Richard; Broder, Christopher C; Lembo, Tiziana; Wang, Lin-Fa; Fooks, Anthony R; Rossiter, Stephen J; Wood, James L N; Cunningham, Andrew A

2013-01-01

26

Roosting behavior and group stability of the big fruit-eating bat Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roosting behavior of the big fruit-eating bat, Artibeus lituratus (Phyllostomidae, Stenodermatinae) in an Andean region of Venezuela is described. Sixty-four video recordings made at three separate foliage roosts during 1 year showed that group size varied between two and 14 individuals. One male was regularly observed roosting with more females than others, and this male was associated with the

Mariana Muñoz-Romo; Emilio A. Herrera; Thomas H. Kunz

2008-01-01

27

Henipavirus neutralising antibodies in an isolated island population of African fruit bats.  

PubMed

Isolated islands provide valuable opportunities to study the persistence of viruses in wildlife populations, including population size thresholds such as the critical community size. The straw-coloured fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, has been identified as a reservoir for henipaviruses (serological evidence) and Lagos bat virus (LBV; virus isolation and serological evidence) in continental Africa. Here, we sampled from a remote population of E. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on Annobón island in the Gulf of Guinea to investigate whether antibodies to these viruses also exist in this isolated subspecies. Henipavirus serological analyses (Luminex multiplexed binding and inhibition assays, virus neutralisation tests and western blots) and lyssavirus serological analyses (LBV: modified Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test, LBV and Mokola virus: lentivirus pseudovirus neutralisation assay) were undertaken on 73 and 70 samples respectively. Given the isolation of fruit bats on Annobón and their lack of connectivity with other populations, it was expected that the population size on the island would be too small to allow persistence of viruses that are thought to cause acute and immunising infections. However, the presence of antibodies against henipaviruses was detected using the Luminex binding assay and confirmed using alternative assays. Neutralising antibodies to LBV were detected in one bat using both assays. We demonstrate clear evidence for exposure of multiple individuals to henipaviruses in this remote population of E. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on Annobón island. The situation is less clear for LBV. Seroprevalences to henipaviruses and LBV in Annobón are notably different to those in E. helvum in continental locations studied using the same sampling techniques and assays. Whilst cross-sectional serological studies in wildlife populations cannot provide details on viral dynamics within populations, valuable information on the presence or absence of viruses may be obtained and utilised for informing future studies. PMID:22253928

Peel, Alison J; Baker, Kate S; Crameri, Gary; Barr, Jennifer A; Hayman, David T S; Wright, Edward; Broder, Christopher C; Fernández-Loras, Andrés; Fooks, Anthony R; Wang, Lin-Fa; Cunningham, Andrew A; Wood, James L N

2012-01-01

28

Henipavirus Neutralising Antibodies in an Isolated Island Population of African Fruit Bats  

PubMed Central

Isolated islands provide valuable opportunities to study the persistence of viruses in wildlife populations, including population size thresholds such as the critical community size. The straw-coloured fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, has been identified as a reservoir for henipaviruses (serological evidence) and Lagos bat virus (LBV; virus isolation and serological evidence) in continental Africa. Here, we sampled from a remote population of E. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on Annobón island in the Gulf of Guinea to investigate whether antibodies to these viruses also exist in this isolated subspecies. Henipavirus serological analyses (Luminex multiplexed binding and inhibition assays, virus neutralisation tests and western blots) and lyssavirus serological analyses (LBV: modified Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test, LBV and Mokola virus: lentivirus pseudovirus neutralisation assay) were undertaken on 73 and 70 samples respectively. Given the isolation of fruit bats on Annobón and their lack of connectivity with other populations, it was expected that the population size on the island would be too small to allow persistence of viruses that are thought to cause acute and immunising infections. However, the presence of antibodies against henipaviruses was detected using the Luminex binding assay and confirmed using alternative assays. Neutralising antibodies to LBV were detected in one bat using both assays. We demonstrate clear evidence for exposure of multiple individuals to henipaviruses in this remote population of E. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on Annobón island. The situation is less clear for LBV. Seroprevalences to henipaviruses and LBV in Annobón are notably different to those in E. helvum in continental locations studied using the same sampling techniques and assays. Whilst cross-sectional serological studies in wildlife populations cannot provide details on viral dynamics within populations, valuable information on the presence or absence of viruses may be obtained and utilised for informing future studies. PMID:22253928

Peel, Alison J.; Baker, Kate S.; Crameri, Gary; Barr, Jennifer A.; Hayman, David T. S.; Wright, Edward; Broder, Christopher C.; Fernandez-Loras, Andres; Fooks, Anthony R.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L. N.

2012-01-01

29

Characterization of the sleep architecture in two species of fruit bat.  

PubMed

Bats (Chiroptera) are the second-most abundant mammalian order in the world, occupying a diverse range of habitats and exhibiting many different life history traits. In order to contribute to this highly underrepresented group we describe the sleep architecture of two species of frugivorous bat, the greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) and the lesser dawn fruit bat (Eonycteris spelaea). Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) data were recorded from multiple individuals (>or=5) by telemetry over a 72-h period in a laboratory setting with light/dark cycles equivalent to those found in the wild. Our results show that over a 24-h period both species spent more time asleep than awake (mean 15 h), less than previous reported for Chiroptera (20 h). C. sphinx spent significantly more of its non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM) quotas during the light phase, while E. spelaea divided its sleep-wake architecture equally between both light and dark phases. Comparing the sleep patterns of the two species found that C. sphinx had significantly fewer NREM and REM episodes than E. spelaea but each episode lasted for a significantly longer period of time. Potential hypotheses to explain the differences in the sleep architecture of C. sphinx with E. spelaea, including risk of predation and social interaction are discussed. PMID:20043956

Zhao, Xudong; Sun, Huaying; Tang, Zhanhui; Flanders, Jon; Zhang, Shuyi; Ma, Yuanye

2010-04-01

30

Novel, potentially zoonotic paramyxoviruses from the African straw-colored fruit bat Eidolon helvum.  

PubMed

Bats carry a variety of paramyxoviruses that impact human and domestic animal health when spillover occurs. Recent studies have shown a great diversity of paramyxoviruses in an urban-roosting population of straw-colored fruit bats in Ghana. Here, we investigate this further through virus isolation and describe two novel rubulaviruses: Achimota virus 1 (AchPV1) and Achimota virus 2 (AchPV2). The viruses form a phylogenetic cluster with each other and other bat-derived rubulaviruses, such as Tuhoko viruses, Menangle virus, and Tioman virus. We developed AchPV1- and AchPV2-specific serological assays and found evidence of infection with both viruses in Eidolon helvum across sub-Saharan Africa and on islands in the Gulf of Guinea. Longitudinal sampling of E. helvum indicates virus persistence within fruit bat populations and suggests spread of AchPVs via horizontal transmission. We also detected possible serological evidence of human infection with AchPV2 in Ghana and Tanzania. It is likely that clinically significant zoonotic spillover of chiropteran paramyxoviruses could be missed throughout much of Africa where health surveillance and diagnostics are poor and comorbidities, such as infection with HIV or Plasmodium sp., are common. PMID:23152534

Baker, Kate S; Todd, Shawn; Marsh, Glenn A; Crameri, Gary; Barr, Jennifer; Kamins, Alexandra O; Peel, Alison J; Yu, Meng; Hayman, David T S; Nadjm, Behzad; Mtove, George; Amos, Benjamin; Reyburn, Hugh; Nyarko, Edward; Suu-Ire, Richard; Murcia, Pablo R; Cunningham, Andrew A; Wood, James L N; Wang, Lin-Fa

2013-02-01

31

Demography of straw-colored fruit bats in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Eidolon helvum is widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa where it forms large, dense colonies. The species is migratory and satellite telemetry studies have demonstrated that individuals can migrate over 2,500 km. It is a common source of bush meat in West Africa and evidence of infection with potentially zoonotic viruses has been found in West African colonies. The species, therefore, is of interest to both ecologists and those interested in public health. Despite this, demographic parameters of the species are unknown. We focused our study primarily on a colony of up to 1,000,000 bats that roost in trees in Accra, Ghana to obtain estimates of birth rate and survival probability. Aging of bats by examination of tooth cementum annuli allowed use of life tables to indicate an annual survival probability for juveniles of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.77) and for adults of 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.93). Additionally, an annual adult survival probability of 0.63 (95% CI 0.27–0.88) was estimated by following 98 radiocollared bats over a year; capture–recapture data were analyzed using multistate models to address the confounding factor of emigration. True survival probabilities may be in between the 2 estimates, because permanent emigration may lead to underestimation in the capture–recapture study, and population decline may lead to overestimation in the life table analysis. Birth rates (0.96 young per female per year, 95% CI 0.92–0.98) and colony size changes were also estimated. Estimation of these key parameters will allow future analyses of both infection dynamics within, and harvest sustainability of, E. helvum populations. PMID:23525358

Hayman, David T. S.; McCrea, Rachel; Restif, Olivier; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Wood, James L. N.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus

2012-01-01

32

Contrasting genetic structure in two co-distributed species of old world fruit bat.  

PubMed

The fulvous fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaulti) and the greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) are two abundant and widely co-distributed Old World fruit bats in Southeast and East Asia. The former species forms large colonies in caves while the latter roots in small groups in trees. To test whether these differences in social organization and roosting ecology are associated with contrasting patterns of gene flow, we used mtDNA and nuclear loci to characterize population genetic subdivision and phylogeographic histories in both species sampled from China, Vietnam and India. Our analyses from R. leschenaulti using both types of marker revealed little evidence of genetic structure across the study region. On the other hand, C. sphinx showed significant genetic mtDNA differentiation between the samples from India compared with China and Vietnam, as well as greater structuring of microsatellite genotypes within China. Demographic analyses indicated signatures of past rapid population expansion in both taxa, with more recent demographic growth in C. sphinx. Therefore, the relative genetic homogeneity in R. leschenaulti is unlikely to reflect past events. Instead we suggest that the absence of substructure in R. leschenaulti is a consequence of higher levels of gene flow among colonies, and that greater vagility in this species is an adaptation associated with cave roosting. PMID:21085717

Chen, Jinping; Rossiter, Stephen J; Flanders, Jonathan R; Sun, Yanhong; Hua, Panyu; Miller-Butterworth, Cassandra; Liu, Xusheng; Rajan, Koilmani E; Zhang, Shuyi

2010-01-01

33

Contrasting Genetic Structure in Two Co-Distributed Species of Old World Fruit Bat  

PubMed Central

The fulvous fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaulti) and the greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) are two abundant and widely co-distributed Old World fruit bats in Southeast and East Asia. The former species forms large colonies in caves while the latter roots in small groups in trees. To test whether these differences in social organization and roosting ecology are associated with contrasting patterns of gene flow, we used mtDNA and nuclear loci to characterize population genetic subdivision and phylogeographic histories in both species sampled from China, Vietnam and India. Our analyses from R. leschenaulti using both types of marker revealed little evidence of genetic structure across the study region. On the other hand, C. sphinx showed significant genetic mtDNA differentiation between the samples from India compared with China and Vietnam, as well as greater structuring of microsatellite genotypes within China. Demographic analyses indicated signatures of past rapid population expansion in both taxa, with more recent demographic growth in C. sphinx. Therefore, the relative genetic homogeneity in R. leschenaulti is unlikely to reflect past events. Instead we suggest that the absence of substructure in R. leschenaulti is a consequence of higher levels of gene flow among colonies, and that greater vagility in this species is an adaptation associated with cave roosting. PMID:21085717

Chen, Jinping; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Flanders, Jonathan R.; Sun, Yanhong; Hua, Panyu; Miller-Butterworth, Cassandra; Liu, Xusheng; Rajan, Koilmani E.; Zhang, Shuyi

2010-01-01

34

Flower Bats (Glossophaga soricina) and Fruit Bats (Carollia perspicillata) Rely on Spatial Cues over Shapes and Scents When Relocating Food  

PubMed Central

Background Natural selection can shape specific cognitive abilities and the extent to which a given species relies on various cues when learning associations between stimuli and rewards. Because the flower bat Glossophaga soricina feeds primarily on nectar, and the locations of nectar-producing flowers remain constant, G. soricina might be predisposed to learn to associate food with locations. Indeed, G. soricina has been observed to rely far more heavily on spatial cues than on shape cues when relocating food, and to learn poorly when shape alone provides a reliable cue to the presence of food. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we determined whether G. soricina would learn to use scent cues as indicators of the presence of food when such cues were also available. Nectar-producing plants fed upon by G. soricina often produce distinct, intense odors. We therefore expected G. soricina to relocate food sources using scent cues, particularly the flower-produced compound, dimethyl disulfide, which is attractive even to G. soricina with no previous experience of it. We also compared the learning of associations between cues and food sources by G. soricina with that of a related fruit-eating bat, Carollia perspicillata. We found that (1) G. soricina did not learn to associate scent cues, including dimethyl disulfide, with feeding sites when the previously rewarded spatial cues were also available, and (2) both the fruit-eating C. perspicillata and the flower-feeding G. soricina were significantly more reliant on spatial cues than associated sensory cues for relocating food. Conclusions/Significance These findings, taken together with past results, provide evidence of a powerful, experience-independent predilection of both species to rely on spatial cues when attempting to relocate food. PMID:20520841

Carter, Gerald G.; Ratcliffe, John M.; Galef, Bennett G.

2010-01-01

35

Type I Interferon Reaction to Viral Infection in Interferon-Competent, Immortalized Cell Lines from the African Fruit Bat Eidolon helvum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats harbor several highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses including Rabies, Marburg, and henipaviruses, without overt clinical symptoms in the animals. It has been suspected that bats might have evolved particularly effective mechanisms to suppress viral replication. Here, we investigated interferon (IFN) response, -induction, -secretion and -signaling in epithelial-like cells of the relevant and abundant African fruit bat species, Eidolon helvum (E.

Susanne E. Biesold; Daniel Ritz; Florian Gloza-Rausch; Robert Wollny; Jan Felix Drexler; Victor M. Corman; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko; Samuel Oppong; Christian Drosten; Marcel A. Müller

2011-01-01

36

Diurnal and seasonal changes in blood composition of the free-living Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the blood profile of the free-living fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) during the beginning of the activity period (around various feeding trees) and upon return to the day roost during 1994–1995.\\u000a Results of the present study suggest that during winter and early spring bats are characterized by a poor physical and physiological\\u000a state as reflected in the blood profile,

C. Korine; O. Zinder; Z. Arad

1999-01-01

37

Role of olfactory bulb serotonin in olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).  

PubMed

The role of olfactory bulb (OB) serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] in olfactory learning and memory was tested in the greater short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (family Pteropodidae). Graded concentrations (25, 40, and 60microg) of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or saline were injected into the OB of bats one day before training to the novel odor. In a behavioral test, 5,7-DHT (60microg) injected bats made significantly fewer feeding attempts and bouts when compared to saline-injected bats during learning and in the memory test. Subsequent biochemical analysis showed that 5-HT level was effectively depleted in the OB of 5,7-DHT injected bats. To test odor-induced 5-HT mediated changes in 5-HT receptors and second messenger cascade in the OB, we examined the expression of 5-HT receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/Erk cascade after training to the novel odor. We found that odor stimulation up-regulated the expression of 5-HT(1A) receptor, Erk1 and Creb1 mRNA, and phosphorylation of ERK1 and CREB1. Odor stimulation failed to induce expression in 5-HT-depleted bats, which is similar to control bats and significantly low compared to saline-treated bats. Together these data revealed that the level of 5-HT in the OB may regulate olfactory learning and memory in C. sphinx through Erk and CREB. PMID:20599808

Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Haupt, Moritz; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

2010-09-17

38

Parallel evolution of the glycogen synthase 1 (muscle) gene gys1 between old world and new world fruit bats (order: chiroptera).  

PubMed

Glycogen synthase, which catalyzes the synthesis of glycogen, is especially important for Old World (Pteropodidae) and New World (Phyllostomidae) fruit bats that ingest high-carbohydrate diets. Glycogen synthase 1, encoded by the Gys1 gene, is the glycogen synthase isozyme that functions in muscles. To determine whether Gys1 has undergone adaptive evolution in bats with carbohydrate-rich diets, in comparison to insect-eating sister bat taxa, we sequenced the coding region of the Gys1 gene from 10 species of bats, including two Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and a New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our results show no evidence for positive selection in the Gys1 coding sequence on the ancestral Old World and the New World Artibeus lituratus branches. Tests for convergent evolution indicated convergence of the sequences and one parallel amino acid substitution (T395A) was detected on these branches, which was likely driven by natural selection. PMID:25001420

Fang, Lu; Shen, Bin; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

2014-10-01

39

Jamaican American Child Disciplinary Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about child disciplinary practices in Jamaican American families. Literature on child discipline in Jamaica and other Caribbean nations has mainly focused on physical discipline, and no empirical studies have investigated the types of discipline used in the Jamaican American community. The purpose of this study was to describe…

Carter, Stephaney

2011-01-01

40

Jamaicans in New York City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses reasons behind the large influx of Jamaicans into New York City, and discusses their attitudes, experiences, and plans. Predicts that despite the hardships Jamaicans encounter in New York (cold weather, prejudice, and crime), economic opportunities available will cause most of them to stay rather than return to their native land. (GC)

Foner, Nancy

1984-01-01

41

Summit metabolism and metabolic expansibility in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bats (Epomophorus wahlbergi): seasonal acclimatisation and effects of captivity.  

PubMed

Summit metabolism (M sum), the maximum rate of resting metabolic thermogenesis, has been found to be broadly correlated with climatic variables and the use of heterothermy in some endotherms. Far less is known about M sum and metabolic expansibility [ME, the ratio of M sum to basal metabolic rate (BMR)] in bats compared with many other endotherm taxa. We measured BMR and M sum during winter and summer in captive and wild populations of a pteropodid from the southern subtropics, Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) in Pretoria, South Africa. The M sum of fruit bats ranged from 5.178 ± 0.611 W (captive, summer) to 6.006 ± 0.890 W (captive, winter), and did not vary significantly between seasons. In contrast, BMR decreased by 17-25% in winter. The combination of seasonally stable M sum but flexible BMR resulted in ME being significantly higher in winter than in summer, ranging from 7.24 ± 1.49 (wild, summer) to 13.11 ± 2.14 (captive, winter). The latter value is well above the typical mammalian range. Moreover, both M sum and ME were significantly higher in captive bats than in wild individuals; we speculate this represents a phenotypic response to a reduction in exercise-associated heat production while in captivity. Our data for E. wahlbergi, combined with those currently available for other chiropterans, reveal that M sum in bats is highly variable compared with allometrically expected values for other mammals. PMID:24363417

Minnaar, Ingrid A; Bennett, Nigel C; Chimimba, Christian T; McKechnie, Andrew E

2014-04-15

42

Hindlimb Motion during Steady Flight of the Lesser Dog-Faced Fruit Bat, Cynopterus brachyotis  

PubMed Central

In bats, the wing membrane is anchored not only to the body and forelimb, but also to the hindlimb. This attachment configuration gives bats the potential to modulate wing shape by moving the hindlimb, such as by joint movement at the hip or knee. Such movements could modulate lift, drag, or the pitching moment. In this study we address: 1) how the ankle translates through space during the wingbeat cycle; 2) whether amplitude of ankle motion is dependent upon flight speed; 3) how tension in the wing membrane pulls the ankle; and 4) whether wing membrane tension is responsible for driving ankle motion. We flew five individuals of the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis (Family: Pteropodidae), in a wind tunnel and documented kinematics of the forelimb, hip, ankle, and trailing edge of the wing membrane. Based on kinematic analysis of hindlimb and forelimb movements, we found that: 1) during downstroke, the ankle moved ventrally and during upstroke the ankle moved dorsally; 2) there was considerable variation in amplitude of ankle motion, but amplitude did not correlate significantly with flight speed; 3) during downstroke, tension generated by the wing membrane acted to pull the ankle dorsally, and during upstroke, the wing membrane pulled laterally when taut and dorsally when relatively slack; and 4) wing membrane tension generally opposed dorsoventral ankle motion. We conclude that during forward flight in C. brachyotis, wing membrane tension does not power hindlimb motion; instead, we propose that hindlimb movements arise from muscle activity and/or inertial effects. PMID:24858194

Cheney, Jorn A.; Ton, Daniel; Konow, Nicolai; Riskin, Daniel K.; Breuer, Kenneth S.; Swartz, Sharon M.

2014-01-01

43

Role of olfaction in the foraging behavior and trial-and-error learning in short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.  

PubMed

We observed the foraging behavior of short-nosed fruit bats, Cynopterus sphinx, in captivity. The role of olfaction in their foraging behavior was examined using real fruit, mimetic fruit, and mimetic fruit soaked in the juice of real fruit. The results showed that C. sphinx visited the real fruit more often than the mimetic fruit, but they had no preference between real fruit and treated mimetic fruit. Our experiment indicates that this bat has the ability to find and identify fruit by olfaction. We also tested for behavior of trial-and-error learning. Our observations revealed that the bats could form a sensory memory of the olfactory cue (cedar wood oil) after five days of training because they responded to the olfactory cues. Our results provide the evidence that C. sphinx can establish the connection between the fruit and a non-natural odor through learning and memory with the assistance of olfaction, and can thus recognize a variety of odors by trial-and-error learning. This behavioral flexibility based on olfactory cues will be beneficial for the short-nosed fruit bat in foraging. PMID:24192315

Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Guangjian; Tan, Liangjing; Yang, Jian; Chen, Yi; Liu, Qi; Shen, Qiqi; Chen, Jinping; Zhang, Libiao

2014-03-01

44

Dispersion and site fidelity in a tent-roosting population of the short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) in southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of dispersion and site fidelity were investigated in a tent- roosting population of the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera), in southern India. A local population of C. sphinx occupied diurnal roosts in a variable subset of 45 stem tents constructed within the dense foliage of mast trees (Polyalthia longifolia). Individually marked tent-roosting bats were visually censused over the

Jay F. Storz; J. Balasingh; P. Thiruchenthil Nathan; K. Emmanuel; Thomas H. Kunz

2000-01-01

45

Dispersion and site fidelity in a tent-roosting population of the short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) in southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of dispersion and site fidelity were investigated in a tent- roosting population of the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera), in southern India. A local population of C. sphinx occupied diurnal roosts in a variable subset of 45 stem tents constructed within the dense foliage of mast trees (Polyalthia longifolia). Individually marked tent-roosting bats were visually censused over the

JAY F. STORZ; J. BALASINGHt; P. THIRUCHENTHIL; THOMAS H. KUNZ

46

Cobalamin inactivation by nitrous oxide produces severe neurological impairment in fruit bats: protection by methionine and aggravation by folates  

SciTech Connect

Nitrous oxide, which inactivates cobalamin when administered to fruit bats, results in severe neurological impairment leading to ataxia, paralysis and death. This occurs after about 6 weeks in animals depleted of cobalamin by dietary restriction, and after about 10 weeks in cobalamin replete bats. Supplementation of the diet with pteroylglutamic acid caused acceleration of the neurological impairment--the first unequivocal demonstration of aggravation of the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency by pteroylglutamic acid. The administration of formyltetrahydropteroylglutamic acid produced similar aggravation of the neurological lesion. Supplementation of the diet with methionine protected the bats from neurological impairment, but failed to prevent death. Methionine supplementation protected against the exacerbating effect of folate, preventing the development of neurological changes. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency may be related to a deficiency in the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine which follows diminished synthesis of methionine.

van der Westhuyzen, J.; Fernandes-Costa, F.; Metz, J.

1982-11-01

47

Membrane muscle function in the compliant wings of bats.  

PubMed

Unlike flapping birds and insects, bats possess membrane wings that are more similar to many gliding mammals. The vast majority of the wing is composed of a thin compliant skin membrane stretched between the limbs, hand, and body. Membrane wings are of particular interest because they may offer many advantages to micro air vehicles. One critical feature of membrane wings is that they camber passively in response to aerodynamic load, potentially allowing for simplified wing control. However, for maximum membrane wing performance, tuning of the membrane structure to aerodynamic conditions is necessary. Bats possess an array of muscles, the plagiopatagiales proprii, embedded within the wing membrane that could serve to tune membrane stiffness, or may have alternative functions. We recorded the electromyogram from the plagiopatagiales proprii muscles of Artibeus jamaicensis, the Jamaican fruit bat, in flight at two different speeds and found that these muscles were active during downstroke. For both low- and high-speed flight, muscle activity increased between late upstroke and early downstroke and decreased at late downstroke. Thus, the array of plagiopatagiales may provide a mechanism for bats to increase wing stiffness and thereby reduce passive membrane deformation. These muscles also activate in synchrony, presumably as a means to maximize force generation, because each muscle is small and, by estimation, weak. Small differences in activation timing were observed when comparing low- and high-speed flight, which may indicate that bats modulate membrane stiffness differently depending on flight speed. PMID:24855069

Cheney, J A; Konow, N; Middleton, K M; Breuer, K S; Roberts, T J; Giblin, E L; Swartz, S M

2014-06-01

48

Variation in twilight predicts the duration of the evening emergence of fruit bats from a mixed-species roost  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how variation in twilight duration affects the evening emergence of two species of fruit bat, the black flying-fox, Pteropus alecto, and the grey-headed flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus, from a mixed-species colony in New South Wales, Australia. Because there are threshold illuminances that accompany the onset and end of emergence activity, I predicted that the duration of the colonywide

Justin A. Welbergen

2008-01-01

49

Presence of rhodanese in the cytosolic fraction of the fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) liver.  

PubMed

Rhodanese was isolated and purified from the cytosolic fraction of liver tissue homogenate of the fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, by using ammonium sulphate precipitation and CM-Sephadex C-50 ion exchange chromatography. The specific activity was increased 130-fold with a 53% recovery. The K(m) values for KCN and Na(2)S(2)O(3) as substrates were 13.5 +/- 2.2mM and 19.5 +/- 0.7 mM, respectively. The apparent molecular weight was estimated by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column to be 36,000 Da. The optimal activity was found at a high pH (pH 9.0) and the temperature optimum was 35 degrees C. An Arrhenius plot of the heat stability data consisted of two linear segments with a break occurring at 35 degrees C. The apparent activation energy values from these slopes were 11.5 kcal/mol and 76.6 kcal/mol. Inhibition studies on the enzyme with a number of cations showed that Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ca(2+), and Co(2+) did not affect the activity of the enzyme, but Hg(2+) and Ba(2+) inhibited the enzyme. PMID:15469707

Agboola, Femi Kayode; Okonji, Raphael Emuebie

2004-05-31

50

Dichromatic vision in a fruit bat with diurnal proclivities: the Samoan flying fox (Pteropus samoensis).  

PubMed

A nocturnal bottleneck during mammalian evolution left a majority of species with two cone opsins, or dichromatic color vision. Primate trichromatic vision arose from the duplication and divergence of an X-linked opsin gene, and is long attributed to tandem shifts from nocturnality to diurnality and from insectivory to frugivory. Opsin gene variation and at least one duplication event exist in the order Chiroptera, suggesting that trichromatic vision could evolve under favorable ecological conditions. The natural history of the Samoan flying fox (Pteropus samoensis) meets these conditions-it is a large bat that consumes nectar and fruit and demonstrates strong diurnal proclivities. It also possesses a visual system that is strikingly similar to that of primates. To explore the potential for opsin gene duplication and divergence in this species, we sequenced the opsin genes of 11 individuals (19 X-chromosomes) from three South Pacific islands. Our results indicate the uniform presence of two opsins with predicted peak sensitivities of ca. 360 and 553 nm. This result fails to support a causal link between diurnal frugivory and trichromatic vision, although it remains plausible that the diurnal activities of P. samoensis have insufficient antiquity to favor opsin gene renovation. PMID:25319538

Melin, Amanda D; Danosi, Christina F; McCracken, Gary F; Dominy, Nathaniel J

2014-12-01

51

Evidence for exploitative competition: Comparative foraging behavior and roosting ecology of short-tailed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chestnut short-tailed bats, Carollia castanea, and Seba's short-tailed bats, C. perspicillata (Phyllostomidae), were radio-tracked (N = 1593 positions) in lowland rain forest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Orellana Province, Ecuador. For 11 C. castanea, mean home range was 6.8 ?? 2.2 ha, mean core-use area was 1.7 ?? 0.8 ha, and mean long axis across home range was 438 ?? 106 m. For three C. perspicillata, mean home range was 5.5 ?? 1.7 ha, mean core-use area was 1.3 ?? 0.6 ha, and mean long axis was 493 ?? 172 m. Groups of less than five C. castanea occupied day-roosts in earthen cavities that undercut banks the Tiputini River. Carollia perspicillata used tree hollows and buildings as day-roosts. Interspecific and intraspecific overlap among short-tailed bats occurred in core-use areas associated with clumps of fruiting Piper hispidum (peppers) and Cecropia sciadophylla. Piper hispidum seeds were present in 80 percent of the fecal samples from C. castanea and 56 percent of samples from C. perspicillata. Carollia perspicillata handled pepper fruits significantly faster than C. castanea; however, C. castanea commenced foraging before C. perspicillata emerged from day-roosts. Evidence for exploitative competition between C. castanea and C. perspicillata is suggested by our observations that 95 percent of ripe P. hispidum fruits available at sunset disappear before sunrise (N = 74 marked fruits). Piper hispidum plants produced zero to 12 ripe infructescences per plant each night during peak production. Few ripe infructescences of P. hispidum were available during the dry season; however, ripe infructescences of C. sciadophylla, remained abundant. ?? 2007 The Author(s) Journal compilation ?? 2007 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

Bonaccorso, F.J.; Winkelmann, J.R.; Shin, D.; Agrawal, C.I.; Aslami, N.; Bonney, C.; Hsu, A.; Jekielek, P.E.; Knox, A.K.; Kopach, S.J.; Jennings, T.D.; Lasky, J.R.; Menesale, S.A.; Richards, J.H.; Rutland, J.A.; Sessa, A.K.; Zhaurova, L.; Kunz, T.H.

2007-01-01

52

Influence of Landmarks on Spatial Memory in Short-nosed Fruit Bat, Cynopterus sphinx.  

PubMed

In order to study the relationship between landmarks and spatial memory in short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera, Pteropodidae), we simulated a foraging environment in the laboratory. Different landmarks were placed to gauge the spatial memory of C. sphinx. We changed the number of landmarks every day with 0 landmarks again on the fifth day (from 0, 2, 4, 8 to 0). Individuals from the control group were exposed to the identical artificial foraging environment, but without landmarks. The results indicated that there was significant correlation between the time of the first foraging and the experimental days in both groups (Pearson Correlation: experimental group: r=-0.593, P<0.01; control group: r=-0.581, P<0.01). There was no significant correlation between the success rates of foraging and the experimental days in experimental groups (Pearson Correlation: r=0.177, P>0.05), but there was significant correlation between the success rates of foraging and the experimental days in the control groups (Pearson Correlation: r=0.445, P<0.05). There was no significant difference for the first foraging time between experimental and control groups (GLM: F(0.05,1 )=4.703, P>0.05); also, there was no significant difference in success rates of foraging between these two groups (GLM: F(0.05,1 )=0.849, P>0.05). The results of our experiment suggest that spatial memory in C. sphinx was formed gradually and that the placed landmarks appeared to have no discernable effects on the memory of the foraging space. PMID:20545006

Zeng, Yu; Zhang, Xin-Wen; Zhu, Guang-Jian; Gong, Yan-Yan; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Li-Biao

2010-04-01

53

Distress calls of the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in conspecifics.  

PubMed

In a stressful situation, greater short-nosed fruit bats (Cynopterus sphinx) emit audible vocalization either to warn or to inform conspecifics. We examined the effect of distress calls on bats emitting the call as well as the bats receiving the distress signal through analysis of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and catacholaminargic systems. We measured the levels of neurotransmitters [serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE)] and stress hormones [(adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT)]. Our results showed that distress call emission elevated the level of ACTH and CORT, as well as 5-HT, DA and NE in the amygdala, for both the call emitting bat and the responding bat. Subsequently, we observed increased activity of glucocorticoid receptor and its steroid receptor co-activator (SRC-1). An expression of SRC-1 was up-regulated in the distress call emitter only, whereas it was at a similar level in both the call responder and silent bats. These findings suggest that bats emitting distress calls and also bats responding to such calls have similar neurotransmitter expression patterns, and may react similarly in response to stress. PMID:23832467

Mariappan, Subramanian; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

2013-09-01

54

Partitioning of evaporative water loss into respiratory and cutaneous pathways in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bats (Epomophorus wahlbergi).  

PubMed

The relative contributions of respiratory and cutaneous evaporation to total evaporative water loss (TEWL) and how the partitioning of these two avenues varies with environmental temperature has received little attention in bats. We trained Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bats (Epomophorus wahlbergi) captured in Pretoria, South Africa, to wear latex masks while hanging in respirometry chambers, and we measured respiratory evaporative water loss (REWL) and cutaneous evaporative water loss (CEWL) over air temperatures (Ta) from 10° to 40°C. The bats' normothermic body temperature (Tb) was approximately 36°C, which increased at higher Ta to 40.5° ± 1.0°C at Ta ? 40°C. Both TEWL and resting metabolic rate (RMR) increased sharply at Ta >35°C, with a mean TEWL at 40°C equivalent to 411% of that at 30°C. The increase in TEWL was driven by large increases in both CEWL and REWL. CEWL comprised more than 50% of TEWL over the entire Ta range, with the exception of Ta ? 40°C, where REWL accounted for 58% of evaporative water loss. Surface area-specific CEWL increased approximately sixfold with increasing Ta. Thermoregulation at Ta approaching or exceeding Tb involved a considerable energetic cost, with RMR at Ta ? 40°C exceeding by 24% that measured at Ta ? 10°C. Our data do not support recent arguments that respiratory gas exchange across the wing membranes represents 5%-10% of the total in E. wahlbergi. PMID:24769711

Minnaar, Ingrid A; Bennett, Nigel C; Chimimba, Christian T; McKechnie, Andrew E

2014-01-01

55

Detection of Nipah virus RNA in fruit bat (Pteropus giganteus) from India.  

PubMed

The study deals with the survey of different bat populations (Pteropus giganteus, Cynopterus sphinx, and Megaderma lyra) in India for highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV), Reston Ebola virus, and Marburg virus. Bats (n = 140) from two states in India (Maharashtra and West Bengal) were tested for IgG (serum samples) against these viruses and for virus RNAs. Only NiV RNA was detected in a liver homogenate of P. giganteus captured in Myanaguri, West Bengal. Partial sequence analysis of nucleocapsid, glycoprotein, fusion, and phosphoprotein genes showed similarity with the NiV sequences from earlier outbreaks in India. A serum sample of this bat was also positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for NiV-specific IgG. This is the first report on confirmation of Nipah viral RNA in Pteropus bat from India and suggests the possible role of this species in transmission of NiV in India. PMID:22802440

Yadav, Pragya D; Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Shete, Anita M; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Mourya, Devendra T

2012-09-01

56

Sound Localization Acuity and its Relation to Vision in Large and Small Fruit-eating Bats: I. Echolocating Species, Phyllostomus hastatus and Carollia perspicillata  

PubMed Central

Passive sound-localization acuity for 100-msec noise bursts was determined behaviorally for two species of bats: Phyllostomus hastatus, a large bat that eats fruit and vertebrates, and Carollia perspicillata, a small species that eats fruit and nectar. The mean minimum audible angle for two P. hastatus was 9°, and that for two C. perspicillata was 14.8°. This places their passive sound-localization acuity near the middle of the range for mammals. Sound localization varies widely among mammals and the best predictor of a species’ acuity remains the width of the field of best vision (r = .89, p < .0001). The five echolocating bats that have been tested do not deviate from this relationship suggesting that despite their specialization for echolocation, the use of hearing to direct the eyes to the source of a sound still serves as an important selective factor for sound localization. PMID:17630232

Heffner, R.S.; Koay, G.; Heffner, H.E.

2007-01-01

57

Elemental composition of Jamaican foods 1: A survey of five food crop categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of 27 elements in Jamaican food categories consisting of fruit, legumes, leafy and root vegetables and other root crops are reported. The main analytical techniques used were neutron activation analysis and flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results are compared, where possible, with values from Denmark, the United Kingdom, the United States and Nigeria, and with

Andrea Howe; Leslie Hoo Fung; Gerald Lalor; Robin Rattray; Mitko Vutchkov

2005-01-01

58

Take Caution When Bats Are Near  

MedlinePLUS

... with bats. Along with animals such as dogs, foxes, raccoons, and skunks, bats are one of the ... is associated with fruit bats (commonly called flying foxes) in Australia. Nipah and related viruses are also ...

59

Jamaican red clay tobacco pipes  

E-print Network

of Department) December 1992 ABSTRACT Jamaican Red Clay Tobacco Pipes. (December 1992) Kenan Paul Heidtke, B. A. , Texas Lutheran College Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. D. L. Hamilton This thesis is a study of the red clay tobacco pipes which are found... with a special emphasis on pipes recovered from the important English colonial city of Port Royal. Until it was almost totally destroyed by an earthquake in 1692, Port Royal was the most important English city in the Caribbean. The goals...

Heidtke, Kenan Paul

2012-06-07

60

Whole-body kinematics of a fruit bat reveal the influence of wing inertia on body accelerations.  

PubMed

The center of mass (COM) of a flying animal accelerates through space because of aerodynamic and gravitational forces. For vertebrates, changes in the position of a landmark on the body have been widely used to estimate net aerodynamic forces. The flapping of relatively massive wings, however, might induce inertial forces that cause markers on the body to move independently of the COM, thus making them unreliable indicators of aerodynamic force. We used high-speed three-dimensional kinematics from wind tunnel flights of four lesser dog-faced fruit bats, Cynopterus brachyotis, at speeds ranging from 2.4 to 7.8 m s(-1) to construct a time-varying model of the mass distribution of the bats and to estimate changes in the position of their COM through time. We compared accelerations calculated by markers on the trunk with accelerations calculated from the estimated COM and we found significant inertial effects on both horizontal and vertical accelerations. We discuss the effect of these inertial accelerations on the long-held idea that, during slow flights, bats accelerate their COM forward during 'tip-reversal upstrokes', whereby the distal portion of the wing moves upward and backward with respect to still air. This idea has been supported by the observation that markers placed on the body accelerate forward during tip-reversal upstrokes. As in previously published studies, we observed that markers on the trunk accelerated forward during the tip-reversal upstrokes. When removing inertial effects, however, we found that the COM accelerated forward primarily during the downstroke. These results highlight the crucial importance of the incorporation of inertial effects of wing motion in the analysis of flapping flight. PMID:21490262

Iriarte-Díaz, José; Riskin, Daniel K; Willis, David J; Breuer, Kenneth S; Swartz, Sharon M

2011-05-01

61

Home range, territoriality, and flight time budgets in the black-bellied fruit bat, Melonycteris melanops (Pteropodidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on 1,362 radiotelemetry positions, mean home range for 10 adult black-bellied fruit bats, Melonycteris melanops (Pteropodidae), in lowland rainforest at Mount Garbuna, West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea, was 2.3 ha ?? 1.2 SD. Mean core-use area of adults was 0.5 ha ?? 0.4 SD, and mean long axis of home range was 370 m ?? 90 SD. Core-use areas were associated with day-roost shelters or flowering bananas. Means of home range, core-use area, and long axis across home range were significantly larger in subadults than in adults. During the day, M. melanops roosted singly under banana leaves or in subcanopy foliage, often showing extended fidelity to day-roost sites. Adults excluded other same-sex adults from feeding territories around bananas, but mixed-sex pairs overlapped strongly. During the first 2 h of the night, individual bats made 69-99 flights of 2- to 139-s duration. Cumulative flight represented 24-36% of the 2-h sampling periods. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

Bonaccorso, F.J.; Winkelmann, J.R.; Byrnes, D.G.P.

2005-01-01

62

A new species of Eudusbabekia (Acari: Prostigmata: Myobiidae) from Hart's little fruit bat, Enchistenes hartii (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), in southern Mexico.  

PubMed

Eudusbabekia paralepidoseta new species, was recorded on the Hart's little fruit bat Enchistenes hartii (Thomas) in the southern part of Mexico. The female and male are described and illustrated. E. paralepidoseta n. sp. represents the 32nd species in the genus. From the 31 known species of Eudusbabekia known to infest phyllostomid and mormoopid bats, E. paralepidoseta n. sp. has some morphological features similar to Eudusbabekia lepidoseta Jameson, 1971, including shapes of almost all dorsal and ventral setae; the presence of a patch of supernumerary; mostly broad to thick, medium, and almost scale-like setae; and the absence of setae 2b. However, E. paralepidoseta n. sp. can be differentiated from E. lepidoseta, by the reduced number of supernumerary setae on the female venter (37-43). The close morphological and therefore evolutionary similarities between E. lepidoseta and E. paralepidoseta n. sp. suggest possible close evolutionary relationships between their hosts, Sturnira lilium (Geoffroyi and St.-Hilaire) and E. hartii, which belong to the monophyletic subfamily Stenodermatinae. PMID:21485348

Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Colín-Martínez, Helisama; García-Estrada, Carlos

2011-03-01

63

Type I Interferon Reaction to Viral Infection in Interferon-Competent, Immortalized Cell Lines from the African Fruit Bat Eidolon helvum  

PubMed Central

Bats harbor several highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses including Rabies, Marburg, and henipaviruses, without overt clinical symptoms in the animals. It has been suspected that bats might have evolved particularly effective mechanisms to suppress viral replication. Here, we investigated interferon (IFN) response, -induction, -secretion and -signaling in epithelial-like cells of the relevant and abundant African fruit bat species, Eidolon helvum (E. helvum). Immortalized cell lines were generated; their potential to induce and react on IFN was confirmed, and biological assays were adapted to application in bat cell cultures, enabling comparison of landmark IFN properties with that of common mammalian cell lines. E. helvum cells were fully capable of reacting to viral and artificial IFN stimuli. E. helvum cells showed highest IFN mRNA induction, highly productive IFN protein secretion, and evidence of efficient IFN stimulated gene induction. In an Alphavirus infection model, O'nyong-nyong virus exhibited strong IFN induction but evaded the IFN response by translational rather than transcriptional shutoff, similar to other Alphavirus infections. These novel IFN-competent cell lines will allow comparative research on zoonotic, bat-borne viruses in order to model mechanisms of viral maintenance and emergence in bat reservoirs. PMID:22140523

Biesold, Susanne E.; Ritz, Daniel; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Wollny, Robert; Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor M.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian; Muller, Marcel A.

2011-01-01

64

Establishment of Fruit Bat Cells (Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a Model System for the Investigation of Filoviral Infection  

PubMed Central

Background The fruit bat species Rousettus aegyptiacus was identified as a potential reservoir for the highly pathogenic filovirus Marburg virus. To establish a basis for a molecular understanding of the biology of filoviruses in the reservoir host, we have adapted a set of molecular tools for investigation of filovirus replication in a recently developed cell line, R06E, derived from the species Rousettus aegyptiacus. Methodology/Principal Findings Upon infection with Ebola or Marburg viruses, R06E cells produced viral titers comparable to VeroE6 cells, as shown by TCID50 analysis. Electron microscopic analysis of infected cells revealed morphological signs of filovirus infection as described for human- and monkey-derived cell lines. Using R06E cells, we detected an unusually high amount of intracellular viral proteins, which correlated with the accumulation of high numbers of filoviral nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm. We established protocols to produce Marburg infectious virus-like particles from R06E cells, which were then used to infect naïve target cells to investigate primary transcription. This was not possible with other cell lines previously tested. Moreover, we established protocols to reliably rescue recombinant Marburg viruses from R06E cells. Conclusion/Significance These data indicated that R06E cells are highly suitable to investigate the biology of filoviruses in cells derived from their presumed reservoir. PMID:20808767

Krahling, Verena; Dolnik, Olga; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Jordan, Ingo; Sandig, Volker; Gunther, Stephan; Becker, Stephan

2010-01-01

65

Promiscuous mating in the harem-roosting fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.  

PubMed

Observations on mating behaviours and strategies guide our understanding of mating systems and variance in reproductive success. However, the presence of cryptic strategies often results in situations where social mating system is not reflective of genetic mating system. We present such a study of the genetic mating system of a harem-forming bat Cynopterus sphinx where harems may not be true indicators of male reproductive success. This temporal study using data from six seasons on paternity reveals that social harem assemblages do not play a role in the mating system, and variance in male reproductive success is lower than expected assuming polygynous mating. Further, simulations reveal that the genetic mating system is statistically indistinguishable from promiscuity. Our results are in contrast to an earlier study that demonstrated high variance in male reproductive success. Although an outcome of behavioural mating patterns, standardized variance in male reproductive success (I(m)) affects the opportunity for sexual selection. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary implications of promiscuity for mammals in general, we compared our estimates of I(m) and total opportunity for sexual selection (I(m) /I(f), where I(f) is standardized variance in female reproductive success) with those of other known promiscuous species. We observed a broad range of I(m) /I(f) values across known promiscuous species, indicating our poor understanding of the evolutionary implications of promiscuous mating. PMID:22725709

Garg, Kritika M; Chattopadhyay, Balaji; Doss D, Paramanatha Swami; A K, Vinoth Kumar; Kandula, Sripathi; Ramakrishnan, Uma

2012-08-01

66

INTRODUCTION Frugivorous bats in forests feed mostly  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Frugivorous bats in forests feed mostly on fruits and nectar (Fleming, 1993; Banack, 1998; Tan et al., 1998). Previous studies have showed that fruit-eating bats play an important role). Even though frugivorous bats have at- tracted the attention of researchers for many years, little

Auckland, University of

67

Idaho bats: Yuma bat (Myotis yumanensis) Idaho bats: little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) Idaho bats: California bat (Myotis californicus) Idaho bats: long-legged bat (Myotis volans)  

E-print Network

9/26/12 1 Idaho bats: Yuma bat (Myotis yumanensis) Idaho bats: little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) Idaho bats: California bat (Myotis californicus) Idaho bats: long-legged bat (Myotis volans) #12;9/26/12 2 Idaho bats: fringed bat (Myotis thysanodes) Idaho bats: long-eared bat (Myotis evotis) Idaho bats

Sullivan, Jack

68

The evolution of echolocation in bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent molecular phylogenies have changed our per- spective on the evolution of echolocation in bats. These phylogenies suggest that certain bats with sophisti- cated echolocation (e.g. horseshoe bats) share a common ancestry with non-echolocating bats (e.g. Old World fruit bats). One interpretation of these trees presumes that laryngeal echolocation (calls produced in the larynx) probably evolved in the ancestor of

Gareth Jones; Emma C. Teeling

2006-01-01

69

Evidence for Exploitative Competition: Comparative Foraging Behavior and Roosting Ecology of Short-Tailed Fruit Bats (Phyllostomidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chestnut short-tailed bats, Carollia castanea, and Seba's short-tailed bats, C. perspicillata (Phyllostomidae), were radio-tracked (N = 1593 positions) in lowland rain forest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Orellana Province, Ecuador. For 11 C. castanea, mean home range was 6.8 ± 2.2 ha, mean core-use area was 1.7 ± 0.8 ha, and mean long axis across home range was 438 ± 106

Frank J. Bonaccorso; John R. Winkelmann; Danny Shin; Caroline I. Agrawal; Nadia Aslami; Caitlin Bonney; Andrea Hsu; Phoebe E. Jekielek; Allison K. Knox; Stephen J. Kopach; Tara D. Jennings; Jesse R. Lasky; Sarah A. Menesale; Jeannine H. Richards; Jessica A. Rutland; Anna K. Sessa; Luba Zhaurova; Thomas H. Kunz

2007-01-01

70

Jamaican youth health status 2005.  

PubMed

The purpose of this survey is to determine health-seeking behaviour, nutritional status and lifestyles of adolescents aged 10-15 years. A random sample of 3003 (1422 males and 1581 females) schoolchildren, aged 10-15 years, was studied in a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered school-based survey conducted in all school types islandwide in a nationally representative sample of Jamaican children currently attending school. Some 3003 youths, 1422 males and 1581 females were interviewed. Males and females had similar healthcare-seeking behaviour but fewer students attending schools in rural areas reported having their eyes or hearing checked, or had seen a dentist than those attending urban schools. Some twelve per cent of adolescents were overweight/obese. More females than males and more urban than rural students were overweight or obese. More boys (86.3%) were physically active in the last week than girls (75%). Physical activity peaked at age 13 years and was lowest at ages 11 and 14-15 years. Some 13% of adolescents 10-15 years old reported having had sexual intercourse, with boys being four times as likely as girls to report sexual activity (OR - 4.97; C.I. - 3.82, 6.47). The median age of sexual debut was 15.43 years for boys and over 15 years for girls. One-third of adolescents drank alcohol and 3% smoked marijuana in the past year. More boys than girls used drugs (p < 0.01). Some 14% of adolescents felt lonely, sad or wanted to cry most of the time/always. One-tenth seriously considered suicide. This study concluded that most adolescents attending primary and secondary schools in Jamaica were not involved in risky behaviour. However, it reveals some critical areas of concern with regard to nutritional status and physical activity, emotional well-being, drug use and sexual activity. PMID:20583678

Fox, K; Gordon-Strachan, G; Johnson, A; Ashley, D

2009-12-01

71

75 FR 15723 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or Fanihi (Pteropus mariannus mariannus...Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or Fanihi (Pteropus mariannus mariannus...provided. This subspecies of the Mariana fruit bat or fanihi (Pteropus mariannus...

2010-03-30

72

Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters  

PubMed Central

The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided into three groups based on athletic disciplines: sprint (s: 100–400?m; n = 80), jump and throw (j/t: jump and throw; n = 25) and, middle distance (md: 800–3000?m; n = 15). Frequency differences between groups were assessed using chi-square tests. Regional or county distribution of sprint differed from that of middle distance (P < 0.001) but not from that of jump and throw athletes (P = 0.24) and that of controls (P = 0.59). Sprint athletes predominately originated from the Surrey county (s = 46%, j/t = 37%, md = 17, C = 53%), whilst middle distance athletes exhibited excess from the Middlesex county (md = 60%). The language distribution of all groups showed uniformity with a predominance of English. A higher proportion of middle distance and jump and throw athletes walked to school (md = 80%, j/t = 52%, s = 10%, and C = 12%) and travelled greater distances to school. In conclusion, Jamaica's success in sprinting may be related to environmental and social factors. PMID:24396303

Irving, Rachael; Charlton, Vilma; Morrison, Errol; Facey, Aldeam; Buchanan, Oral

2013-01-01

73

The Movement Ecology of the Straw-Colored Fruit Bat, Eidolon helvum, in Sub-Saharan Africa Assessed by Stable Isotope Ratios  

PubMed Central

Flying foxes (Pteropodidae) are key seed dispersers on the African continent, yet their migratory behavior is largely unknown. Here, we studied the movement ecology of the straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, and other fruit bats by analyzing stable isotope ratios in fur collected from museum specimens. In a triple-isotope approach based on samples of two ecologically similar non-migratory pteropodids, we first confirmed that a stable isotope approach is capable of delineating between geographically distinct locations in Sub-Saharan Africa. A discriminant function analysis assigned 84% of individuals correctly to their capture site. Further, we assessed how well hydrogen stable isotope ratios (?2H) of fur keratin collected from non-migratory species (n?=?191 individuals) records variation in ?2H of precipitation water in sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, we found positive, negative and no correlations within the six studied species. We then developed a reduced major axis regression equation based on individual data of non-migratory species to predict where potentially migratory E. helvum (n?=?88) would come from based on their keratin ?2H. Across non-migratory species, ?2H of keratin and local water correlated positively. Based on the isoscape origin model, 22% of E. helvum were migratory, i.e. individuals had migrated over at least 250 km prior to their capture. Migratory individuals came from locations at a median distance of about 860 km from the collection site, four even from distances of at least 2,000 km. Ground-truthing of our isoscape origin model based on keratin ?2H of extant E. helvum (n?=?76) supported a high predictive power of assigning the provenance of African flying foxes. Our study highlights that stable isotope ratios can be used to explain the migratory behavior of flying foxes, even on the isotopically relatively homogenous African continent, and with material collected by museums many decades or more than a century ago. PMID:23029206

Ossa, Gonzalo; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Peel, Alison J.; Scharf, Anne K.; Voigt, Christian C.

2012-01-01

74

Bat Coronaviruses and Experimental Infection of Bats, the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Fifty-two bats captured during July 2008 in the Philippines were tested by reverse transcription–PCR to detect bat coronavirus (CoV) RNA. The overall prevalence of virus RNA was 55.8%. We found 2 groups of sequences that belonged to group 1 (genus Alphacoronavirus) and group 2 (genus Betacoronavirus) CoVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene showed that groups 1 and 2 CoVs were similar to Bat-CoV/China/A515/2005 (95% nt sequence identity) and Bat-CoV/HKU9–1/China/2007 (83% identity), respectively. To propagate group 2 CoVs obtained from a lesser dog-faced fruit bat (Cynopterus brachyotis), we administered intestine samples orally to Leschenault rousette bats (Rousettus leschenaulti) maintained in our laboratory. After virus replication in the bats was confirmed, an additional passage of the virus was made in Leschenault rousette bats, and bat pathogenesis was investigated. Fruit bats infected with virus did not show clinical signs of infection. PMID:20678314

Watanabe, Shumpei; Masangkay, Joseph S.; Nagata, Noriyo; Morikawa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Alviola, Phillip; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Ueda, Naoya; Iha, Koichiro; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fujii, Hikaru; Tsuda, Shumpei; Endoh, Maiko; Kato, Kentaro; Tohya, Yukinobu; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

2010-01-01

75

What To Do About Bats in the Roof Bats are environmentally important native animals, but they do not belong in your roof!  

E-print Network

changed environment. Only insect-eating bats live in buildings. Fruit bats roost in caves and thick bush are not falling on a patio or deck. Bats leave their roost every night to feed, except in very bad weather. WatchWhat To Do About Bats in the Roof Bats are environmentally important native animals, but they do

Pedersen, Scott C.

76

Bat Detective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bat Detective is an online citizen science project which allows visitors to the website to take part in wildlife conservation by listening out for bat calls in recordings collected all over the world. By sorting the sounds in the recordings into insect and bat calls, bat detectives will help biologists learn how to reliably distinguish bat 'tweets' to develop new automatic identification tools.

Zooniverse

2014-05-14

77

Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from faecal samples of the Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum) in Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Bats (Chiroptera) are one of the most diverse groups of mammals which carry out important ecological and agricultural functions that are beneficial to humans. However, they are increasingly recognized as natural vectors for a number of zoonotic pathogens and favourable hosts for zoonotic infections. Large populations of the Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum) colonize the main campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria, but the public health implications of faecal contamination and pollution by these flying mammals is unknown. This study characterized S. aureus obtained from faecal samples of these migratory mammals with a view to determining the clonal types of the isolates, and to investigate the possibility of these flying animals as potential reservoir for zoonotic S. aureus infections. Results One hundred and seven (107) S. aureus isolates were recovered from 560 faecal samples in eleven roosting sites from January 2008 to February 2010. A large proportion of the isolates were susceptible to antibiotics, and molecular characterization of 70 isolates showed that 65 (92.9%) were assigned in coagulase type VI, while accessory gene typing classified 69 isolates into the following: type I (12; 17.1%), type II (3; 4.3%), type III (1; 1.4%) and type IV (53; 75.7%). On the whole, the isolates were grouped in five (A-E) main genotypes. Of the ten representative isolates selected for multilocus sequence typing (MLST), nine isolates were assigned with new sequence types: ST1725, ST1726, ST1727, ST2463-ST2467 and ST2470. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence that S. aureus isolates in group C were closely related with ST1822 and associated clones identified in African monkeys, and group D isolates with ST75, ST883 and ST1223. The two groups exhibited remarkable genetic diversity compared to the major S. aureus clade. Conclusions Antibiotic resistance in faecal S. aureus isolates of E. helvum is low and multiple unique S. aureus lineages co-existed with E. helvum. The Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat in Ile-Ife, Nigeria is colonized predominantly by ST1725, ST1726, ST2463 and ST2470 with distinct genotypic characteristics that are rarely found in humans. This study has demonstrated on the possible existence of a reservoir of indigenous and anciently-divergent S. aureus clones among mammals in Africa. PMID:23181939

2012-01-01

78

Cloning and molecular evolution of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (Aldh2) in bats (Chiroptera).  

PubMed

Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) ingest significant quantities of ethanol while foraging. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, encoded by the Aldh2 gene) plays an important role in ethanol metabolism. To test whether the Aldh2 gene has undergone adaptive evolution in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in relation to ethanol elimination, we sequenced part of the coding region of the gene (1,143 bp, ~73 % coverage) in 14 bat species, including three Old World fruit bats and two New World fruit bats. Our results showed that the Aldh2 coding sequences are highly conserved across all bat species we examined, and no evidence of positive selection was detected in the ancestral branches leading to Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Further research is needed to determine whether other genes involved in ethanol metabolism have been the targets of positive selection in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats. PMID:23053874

Chen, Yao; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Junpeng; Jones, Gareth; He, Guimei

2013-02-01

79

Food niche overlap among neotropical frugivorous bats in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food habits of 15 species of frugivorous bats were studied at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Eight hundred and fifty-four (854) fecal samples and 169 samples from fruit parts and seeds discarded by bats beneath feeding roosts were analyzed. During eight months of study, 47 fruit species consumed by bats were identified. Five plant genera (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper, Solanum,

Jorge E. Lopez; Christopher Vaughan

2007-01-01

80

Egr-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide administration into the olfactory bulb impairs olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.  

PubMed

Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) contain proteins that regulate synaptic transmission. We examined two important examples of these, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PSD-95, in regard to the functional role of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) in regulation of olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (family Pteropodidae). To test whether activation of egr-1 in the olfactory bulb (OB) is required for olfactory memory of these bats, bilaterally canulated individuals were infused with antisense (AS) or non-sense (NS)-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of egr-1, or with phosphate buffer saline (PBS), 2h before the olfactory training. Our results showed that behavioral training significantly up-regulates immediate early gene (IEG) EGR-1 and key synaptic proteins Synaptotagmin-1(SYT-1), CaMKII and PSD-95, and phosphorylation of CaMKII in the OB at the protein level per se. Subsequently, we observed that egr-1 antisense-ODN infusion in the OB impaired olfactory memory and down regulates the expression of CaMKII and PSD-95, and the phosphorylation of CaMKII but not SYT-1. In contrast, NS-ODN or PBS had no effect on the expression of the PSDs CaMKII or PSD-95, or on the phosphorylation of CaMKII. When the egr-1 NS-ODN was infused in the OB after training for the novel odor there was no effect on olfactory memory. These findings suggest that egr-1 control the activation of CaMKII and PSD-95 during the process of olfactory memory formation. PMID:22796292

Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

2012-08-30

81

Henipavirus RNA in African Bats  

PubMed Central

Background Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus) are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. Methodology/Principal Findings Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. Conclusions/Significance The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans. PMID:19636378

Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Seebens, Antje; Annan, Augustina; Ipsen, Anne; Kruppa, Thomas; Muller, Marcel A.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian

2009-01-01

82

Use of the Wings in Manipulative and Suspensory Behaviors During Feeding by Frugivorous Bats  

E-print Network

, in contrast to most insectivorous bats, most fruit-eating species carry fruits to a feeding roost beforeUse of the Wings in Manipulative and Suspensory Behaviors During Feeding by Frugivorous Bats JASON in Old and New World fruit bats (Families Pteropodidae and Phyllostomidae, respectively) and anecdotal

Dumont, Elizabeth R.

83

Click-based echolocation in bats: not so primitive after all Yossi Yovel Maya Geva-Sagiv Nachum Ulanovsky  

E-print Network

, the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), and that of lingual echolocation, the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus (Rousettus aegyptiacus) Á Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) Abbreviations FM Frequency modulated CF

Ulanovsky, Nachum

84

Bat talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in Windows Media Player, introduces students to the research that Maryland biologists are conducting to assess the status of bat populations in their state. Technologies are discussed that help scientists study the often elusive bats. The clip shows that when researchers descend into a cave to survey the number of hibernating bats there, they discover fewer bats are present than in previous years. The clip also notes that efforts to conserve bat populations are needed. Bats contribute significantly to the functioning of ecosystems, but many species are decreasing in numbers nationwide. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE); Maryland Public Television (MPT)

2004-01-01

85

Bat talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in RealPlayer, introduces students to the research that Maryland biologists are conducting to assess the status of bat populations in their state. Technologies are discussed that help scientists study the often elusive bats. The clip shows that when researchers descend into a cave to survey the number of hibernating bats there, they discover fewer bats are present than in previous years. The clip also notes that efforts to conserve bat populations are needed. Bats contribute significantly to the functioning of ecosystems, but many species are decreasing in numbers nationwide. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE); Maryland Public Television (MPT)

2004-01-01

86

Breaking Bat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

2013-01-01

87

Bat Bonanza  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a lesson on bats developed for kindergartners, which uses models of bats to teach about their physiology, diet, and habitat. The lesson uses craft sticks, wax paper, and colored construction paper that kindergarten teachers can use to help their students compare the features of 4 different kinds of bats. The use of online…

Phillips, Amanda J.; Scott, Catherine; Matthews, Catherine E.

2013-01-01

88

Bat Echolocation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate how bats use echolocation to navigate. One learner is assigned to be a bat, while the other learners are selected to be either moths or trees. The bat's goal is to use his/her hearing to locate and tag as many moths as possible.

International, Bat C.

2014-01-01

89

Adaptive Evolution of Leptin in Heterothermic Bats  

PubMed Central

Heterothermy (hibernation and daily torpor) is a key strategy that animals use to survive in harsh conditions and is widely employed by bats, which are found in diverse habitats and climates. Bats comprise more than 20% of all mammals and although heterothermy occurs in divergent lineages of bats, suggesting it might be an ancestral condition, its evolutionary history is complicated by complex phylogeographic patterns. Here, we use Leptin, which regulates lipid metabolism and is crucial for thermogenesis of hibernators, as molecular marker and combine physiological, molecular and biochemical analyses to explore the possible evolutionary history of heterothermy in bat. The two tropical fruit bats examined here were homeothermic; in contrast, the two tropical insectivorous bats were clearly heterothermic. Molecular evolutionary analyses of the Leptin gene revealed positive selection in the ancestors of all bats, which was maintained or further enhanced the lineages comprising mostly heterothermic species. In contrast, we found evidence of relaxed selection in homeothermic species. Biochemical assays of bat Leptin on the activity on adipocyte degradation revealed that Leptin in heterothermic bats was more lipolytic than in homeothermic bats. This shows that evolutionary sequence changes in this protein are indeed functional and support the interpretation of our physiological results and the molecular evolutionary analyses. Our combined data strongly support the hypothesis that heterothermy is the ancestral state of bats and that this involved adaptive changes in Leptin. Subsequent loss of heterothermy in some tropical lineages of bats likely was associated with range and dietary shifts. PMID:22110614

Yuan, Lihong; Zhao, Xudong; Lin, Benfu; Rossiter, Stephen J.; He, Lingjiang; Zuo, Xueguo; He, Guimei; Jones, Gareth; Geiser, Fritz; Zhang, Shuyi

2011-01-01

90

The Voluntary Reading Interests of Jamaican 6th Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a nationwide survey of the voluntary reading interests and habits of Jamaican children to discover the specific reading interests of sixth graders relative to the known reading interests of their peers in North America and the United Kingdom. Discusses the role of gender and geography. (Author/LRW)

Shelley-Robinson, Cherrell

2001-01-01

91

Values, Authoritarianism, and Alienation among African-Oriented Jamaicans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of a questionnaire administered to 168 Jamaican college students reveals that they seem to reflect a societal profile of high authoritarianism. Respondents who do not share this antidemocratic personality perspective exhibit an attitude of powerlessness and alienation, yearn for societal change, and adopt a higher level of…

Surlin, Stuart H.

1988-01-01

92

Where Do Jamaican Adolescents Turn for Psychological Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Stigma about mental health is a significant problem in Jamaica and the wider English-speaking Caribbean. In general, negative attitudes and opinions about mental illness have been found to negatively impact psychological help-seeking among several populations. Objective: This study examined Jamaican adolescents' preferential sources of…

Williams, Dahra Jackson

2012-01-01

93

Are Bats Dangerous?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many reasons people are afraid of bats but most are myths. Many people are also afraid of bats because they believe all bats are vampire bats, or bats that feed on blood. There are a few species of bats called "vampire" bats;however, these bats are found in Central and South America--there are no vampire bats in the United States or…

Williams, Kim

2004-01-01

94

Evolution of the Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Tas1r2 in Bats Huabin Zhao,1,2  

E-print Network

and fruit eaters. However, Tas1r2 is a pseudogene in all three vampire bat species and the functional relaxation likely started in their common ancestor, probably due to the exclusive feeding of vampire bats roles of sweet perception in different species. Key words: bats, vampire bats, Tas1r2, sweet, taste

Zhang, Jianzhi

95

Fulminant Hepatic Failure Attributed to Ackee Fruit Ingestion in a Patient with Sickle Cell Trait  

PubMed Central

We report a case of fulminant liver failure resulting in emergent liver transplantation following 3 weeks of nausea, vomiting, and malaise from Jamaican Vomiting Sickness. Jamaican Vomiting Sickness is caused by ingestion of the unripe arils of the Ackee fruit, its seeds and husks. It is characterized by acute gastrointestinal illness and hypoglycemia. In severe cases, central nervous system depression can occur. In previous studies, histologic sections taken from patients with Jamaican Vomiting Sickness have shown hepatotoxicity similar to that seen in Reye syndrome and/or acetaminophen toxicity. We highlight macroscopic and microscopic changes in the liver secondary to hepatoxicity of Ackee fruit versus those caused by a previously unknown sickle cell trait. We discuss the clinical variables and the synergistic hepatotoxic effect of Ackee fruit and ischemic injury from sickled red blood cells, causing massive hepatic necrosis in this patient. PMID:23259140

Grunes, Dianne E.; Scordi-Bello, Irini; Suh, Matthew; Florman, Sander; Yao, Jonathan; Fiel, Maria Isabel; Thung, Swan N.

2012-01-01

96

What research would you carry out in 30mins with 250 Jamaican Olympians? Tuesday October 9, 2012 1400-1500  

E-print Network

of facilities hinder or as act as motivator for the development of elite athletes of the genome funded by the National Institutes of Health on Jamaican athletes co and the Association of Jamaican Olympians. Identifying and comparing the possible motivating

Guo, Zaoyang

97

Physical Discipline and Socioemotional Adjustment Among Jamaican Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the relationship between physical punishment and socioemotional well-being in a sample of Jamaican adolescents.\\u000a The data indicated that the overwhelming majority of adolescent respondents experienced physical punishment within their families.\\u000a Physical punishment was significantly associated with adverse psychological and behavioral consequences, in that adolescents\\u000a reporting being victims of physical punishment also indicated a greater propensity to developmental

Delores E. Smith; Cary M. Springer; Sheila Barrett

2011-01-01

98

Efficiency of facultative frugivory in the nectar-feeding bat Glossophaga commissarisi : the quality of fruits as an alternative food source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of food exploitation correlates positively with the extent of dietary specialization. Neotropical nectar-feeding\\u000a bats (Glossophaginae) have one of the most specialized diets among mammals, as floral nectar constitutes a sugar-rich and\\u000a highly digestible but protein and fiber depleted food source. However, dietary constraints, such as a temporary scarcity of\\u000a nectar, or protein demands may sometimes require the uptake

Detlev H. Kelm; Juliane Schaer; Sylvia Ortmann; Gudrun Wibbelt; John R. Speakman; Christian C. Voigt

2008-01-01

99

An examination of diet, acculturation and risk factors for heart disease among Jamaican immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The South Florida region is home to over 85,000 Jamaican immigrants. Yet, little is known about the dietary intakes and predictors of risk of disease within this immigrant group. An assessment of dietary intakes and the development of dietary intake methodologies specific to the Jamaican population was important as it permitted accurate estimation of the nutrient intakes of this

Carol Renee Oladele

2011-01-01

100

Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A "tridimensional model" is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S.…

Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

2012-01-01

101

Lagos bat virus in Kenya.  

PubMed

During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection. PMID:18305130

Kuzmin, Ivan V; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C; Urazova, Olga Y; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

2008-04-01

102

Seasonal reliance on nectar by an insectivorous bat revealed by stable isotopes.  

PubMed

Many animals have seasonally plastic diets to take advantage of seasonally abundant plant resources, such as fruit or nectar. Switches from insectivorous diets that are protein rich to fruits or nectar that are carbohydrate rich present physiological challenges, but are routinely done by insectivorous songbirds during migration. In contrast, insectivorous bat species are not known to switch diets to consume fruit or nectar. Here, we use carbon stable isotope ratios to establish the first known case of a temperate bat species consuming substantial quantities of nectar during spring. We show that pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) switch from a diet indistinguishable from that of sympatric insectivorous bat species in winter (when no cactus nectar is present) to a diet intermediate between those of insectivorous bats and nectarivorous bats during the spring bloom of a bat-adapted cactus species. Combined with previous results that established that pallid bats are effective pollinators of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei), our results suggest that the interaction between pallid bats and cardon cacti represents the first-known plant-pollinator mutualism between a plant and a temperate bat. Diet plasticity in pallid bats raises questions about the degree of physiological adaptations of insectivorous bats for incorporation of carbohydrate-rich foods, such as nectar or fruit, into the diet. PMID:24276770

Frick, Winifred F; Shipley, J Ryan; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Heady, Paul A; Kay, Kathleen M

2014-01-01

103

Distant Relatives of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Close Relatives of Human Coronavirus 229E in Bats, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested 12 bat species in Ghana for coronavirus (CoV) RNA. The virus prevalence in insectivorous bats (n = 123) was 9.76%. CoV was not detected in 212 fecal samples from Eidolon helvum fruit bats. Leaf-nosed bats pertaining to Hipposideros ruber by morphology had group 1 and group 2 CoVs. Virus concentrations were <45,000 copies\\/100 mg of bat feces. The

Susanne Pfefferle; Samuel Oppong; Jan Felix Drexler; Florian Gloza-Rausch; Anne Ipsen; Antje Seebens; Marcel A. Müller; Augustina Annan; Peter Vallo; Yaw Adu-Sarkodie; Thomas F. Kruppa; Christian Drosten

2009-01-01

104

Comparative analysis of Ebola virus glycoprotein interactions with human and bat cells.  

PubMed

Infection with Ebola virus (EBOV) causes hemorrhagic fever in humans with high case-fatality rates. The EBOV-glycoprotein (EBOV-GP) facilitates viral entry and promotes viral release from human cells. African fruit bats are believed not to develop disease upon EBOV infection and have been proposed as a natural reservoir of EBOV. We compared EBOV-GP interactions with human cells and cells from African fruit bats. We found that susceptibility to EBOV-GP-dependent infection was not limited to bat cells from potential reservoir species, and we observed that GP displayed similar biological properties in human and bat cells. The only exception was GP localization, which was to a greater extent intracellular in bat cells as compared to human cells. Collectively, our results suggest that GP interactions with fruit bat and human cells are similar and do not limit EBOV tropism for certain bat species. PMID:21987760

Kühl, Annika; Hoffmann, Markus; Müller, Marcel A; Munster, Vincent J; Gnirss, Kerstin; Kiene, Miriam; Tsegaye, Theodros Solomon; Behrens, Georg; Herrler, Georg; Feldmann, Heinz; Drosten, Christian; Pöhlmann, Stefan

2011-11-01

105

Jamaican Mothers’ Influences of Adolescent Girls’ Sexual Beliefs and Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which urban Jamaican mothers influence their adolescent daughters’ sexual beliefs and behaviors in order to incorporate them into the design of a family-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention program. Design Focus groups were conducted with 46 14- to 18-year-old adolescent girls and 30 mothers or female guardians of adolescent girls recruited from community-based organizations in and around Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica. Separate focus groups were held with mothers and daughters; each included 6 to 10 participants. Focus group sessions were scripted, led by teams that included trained Jamaican and American facilitators and note-takers, and audio-taped to ensure data accuracy. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Findings Four major maternal influences were identified: mother-daughter relationship quality, mother-daughter sexual communication, monitoring or supervision, and maternal sexual role modeling. Mothers’ and daughters’ reports were consistent; both groups identified positive and negative influences within each category. Conclusions Some maternal influences were positive and health promoting; others were negative and promoted unsafe sexual activity and risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. These influences were incorporated into the design of a culture-specific family-based HIV risk reduction intervention tailored to the needs of urban Jamaican adolescent girls and their mothers. Clinical Relevance In order to be effective, family-based HIV risk reduction interventions should be theory based and tailored to the target audience. The four maternal influences identified in this formative study were incorporated into the subsequent intervention design. PMID:22339731

Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Kahwa, Eulalia; Waldron, Norman; Brown, Cerese Hepburn; Hamilton, Pansy I.; Hewitt, Hermi H.; Aiken, Joyette; Cederbaum, Julie; Alter, Emily; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

2012-01-01

106

PSC 424: Bats & Owls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Check out the links on this page to learn about bats and owls, including the sounds they make! Click here for the sound a bat makes during echolocation!------- Bat Echolocation Click here for the hooting of a Great Horned Owl!--------- Owl Sound Print out this Bat Book for us to fill out in class as we learn about Bats!--------- My Bat Book Here are some fun bookmarks for you to print about owls!--------- Owl Bookmarks Go ...

Yero, Miss

2011-10-13

107

Assessment of the bioavailability of cadmium in Jamaican soils.  

PubMed

Extraordinary geogenic concentrations of cadmium (Cd) have been reported for some Jamaican soils. However, the bioavailability of the metal in these soils remains unknown. Here, the bioavailability of Cd in selected Jamaican soils was investigated through the determination of total and sequentially extractable concentrations in paired soil-plant (yam; Dioscorea sp.) samples (n?=?24), using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy as primary analytical techniques. Our results indicate that total soil Cd varied widely (2.2-148.7 mg kg(-1)), and on average, total extractable Cd accounted for ~55 % of the total soil Cd. The exchangeable and oxidizable species averaged 1.5 and 6.4 % of the total Cd, respectively, and, based on Spearman analysis, are the best predictors of yam Cd. There is also good evidence to suggest that variation in the bioavailability of the metal is in part controlled by the geochemical characteristics of the soils analyzed and is best explained by pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and organic matter content (% LOI). PMID:24682640

Spence, Adrian; Hanson, Richard E; Grant, Charles N; Hoo Fung, Leslie; Rattray, Robin

2014-07-01

108

Bartonella species in bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) from western Africa.  

PubMed

Bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of Bartonella species between bats. A survey was conducted to identify whether Cyclopodia greefi greefi (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) collected from Ghana and 2 islands in the Gulf of Guinea harbour Bartonella. In total, 137 adult flies removed from Eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of Bartonella by culture and PCR analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 (66·4%) of the specimens examined and 1 strain of a Bartonella sp., initially identified in E. helvum blood from Kenya, was obtained from a bat fly collected in Ghana. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the identification and isolation of Bartonella in bat flies from western Africa. PMID:22309510

Billeter, S A; Hayman, D T S; Peel, A J; Baker, K; Wood, J L N; Cunningham, A; Suu-Ire, R; Dittmar, K; Kosoy, M Y

2012-03-01

109

On the density-dependence of seed predation in Dipteryx micrantha , a bat-dispersed rain forest tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of seed density on seed predation by following the fate of bat-dispersed Dipteryx micrantha (Leguminosae) seeds deposited under bat feeding roosts. The study was conducted in Cocha Cashu biological station, Amazonian Peru, during the fruiting period of Dipteryx. Predation of Dipteryx seeds in the area is mainly by large to medium-sized rodents. Seed deposits beneath bat

Mónica Romo; Hanna Tuomisto; Bette A. Loiselle

2004-01-01

110

Structure, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands in the neotropical flat-faced fruit-eating bat Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).  

PubMed

Chiroptera, the second largest mammalian order, presents different reproductive strategies and unique reproductive features. However, there are few reports regarding male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) in Chiroptera. Thus, the aim of the present study was to characterise the RAGs of the exclusively neotropical bat Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) macroscopically, microscopically and ultrastructurally. The RAGs were composed of a prostatic complex with two regions (ventral and dorsal) and paraurethral and bulbourethral glands, but no seminal vesicles. The ventral region had an undefined epithelium, with secretory and basal cells, and its secretions were periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive. The dorsal region received both deferens ducts, had a columnar pseudostratified epithelium with secretory and basal cells. There were two types of secretions from the dorsal region: one that was basophilic and another that was mixed PAS positive and PAS negative. The paraurethral glands were dispersed in the connective tissue of the urethra, whereas the bulbourethral glands were located in the penile root. Histological and ultrastructural data confirmed the prostatic nature of the ventral and dorsal regions and the holocrine nature of the ventral region, with the latter finding never having been described previously for the prostate gland. Our findings demonstrate the wide discrepancy of RAGs between A. planirostris and other mammals in terms of their composition, structure and morphology. PMID:22985988

Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Negrin, Ana C; Christante, Caroline M; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

2013-01-01

111

Recent Transmission of a Novel Alphacoronavirus, Bat Coronavirus HKU10, from Leschenault's Rousettes to Pomona Leaf-Nosed Bats: First Evidence of Interspecies Transmission of Coronavirus between Bats of Different Suborders  

PubMed Central

Although coronaviruses are known to infect various animals by adapting to new hosts, interspecies transmission events are still poorly understood. During a surveillance study from 2005 to 2010, a novel alphacoronavirus, BatCoV HKU10, was detected in two very different bat species, Ro-BatCoV HKU10 in Leschenault's rousettes (Rousettus leschenaulti) (fruit bats in the suborder Megachiroptera) in Guangdong and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 in Pomona leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros pomona) (insectivorous bats in the suborder Microchiroptera) in Hong Kong. Although infected bats appeared to be healthy, Pomona leaf-nosed bats carrying Hi-BatCoV HKU10 had lower body weights than uninfected bats. To investigate possible interspecies transmission between the two bat species, the complete genomes of two Ro-BatCoV HKU10 and six Hi-BatCoV HKU10 strains were sequenced. Genome and phylogenetic analyses showed that Ro-BatCoV HKU10 and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 represented a novel alphacoronavirus species, sharing highly similar genomes except in the genes encoding spike proteins, which had only 60.5% amino acid identities. Evolution of the spike protein was also rapid in Hi-BatCoV HKU10 strains from 2005 to 2006 but stabilized thereafter. Molecular-clock analysis dated the most recent common ancestor of all BatCoV HKU10 strains to 1959 (highest posterior density regions at 95% [HPDs], 1886 to 2002) and that of Hi-BatCoV HKU10 to 1986 (HPDs, 1956 to 2004). The data suggested recent interspecies transmission from Leschenault's rousettes to Pomona leaf-nosed bats in southern China. Notably, the rapid adaptive genetic change in BatCoV HKU10 spike protein by ?40% amino acid divergence after recent interspecies transmission was even greater than the ?20% amino acid divergence between spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related Rhinolophus bat coronavirus (SARSr-CoV) in bats and civets. This study provided the first evidence for interspecies transmission of coronavirus between bats of different suborders. PMID:22933277

Lau, Susanna K. P.; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Shek, Chung-Tong; Wang, Ming; Choi, Garnet K. Y.; Guo, Rongtong; Wong, Beatrice H. L.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Wang, Sylvia Y. H.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian

2012-01-01

112

School violence reduction: a model Jamaican secondary school program.  

PubMed

Violence in United States' schools is epidemic. Solutions are rare. Community mental health centers are now being challenged to become part of the solution. The Montego Bay Secondary School project presents an example of how violence reduction can be achieved using almost no physical resources and the special effect, called the "Bruno Effect", created by one Jamaican police officer with the consultation of a psychodynamically-led training and intervention team. The "Bruno Effect" resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of physical attacks from an observed 5 fights per day (3 out of the 5 involved knives and cutting) to 1 per week. The violence rate returned immediately to its former level as soon as "Bruno" left the school. The dramatic violence reduction appears related to establishing an adult protective shield. Results stem from the unique personality of the adult protector, as well as a combination of the special role of the police and the outside intervention team. PMID:9211042

Sacco, F C; Twemlow, S W

1997-06-01

113

Regulation of leptin synthesis in white adipose tissue of the female fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx: role of melatonin with or without insulin.  

PubMed

Factors regulating leptin synthesis during adipogenesis in wild species are not well known. Studies in the female Cynopterus sphinx bat have shown that it undergoes seasonal changes in its fat deposition and serum leptin and melatonin levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hormonal regulation of leptin synthesis by the white adipose tissue during the period of fat deposition in female C. sphinx. This study showed a significant correlation between the seasonal changes in serum melatonin level with the circulating leptin level (r = 0.78; P < 0.05) and with the changes in body fat mass (r = 0.88; P < 0.05) in C. sphinx. A significant correlation between circulating insulin and leptin levels (r = 0.65; P < 0.05) was also found in this species. This in vivo finding suggests that melatonin together with insulin may enhance leptin synthesis by increasing adipose tissue accumulation. The in vitro study showed that melatonin interacts synergistically with insulin in stimulating leptin synthesis by adipose tissue in C. sphinx. The study showed MT(2) receptors in adipose tissue and a stimulatory effect of melatonin on leptin synthesis, which was blocked by treatment with an MT(2) receptor antagonist, suggesting that the effect of melatonin on leptin synthesis by adipose tissue is mediated through the MT(2) receptor in C. sphinx. The in vitro study showed that the synthesis of leptin is directly proportional to the amount of glucose uptake by the adipose tissue. It further showed that melatonin together with insulin synergistically enhanced the leptin synthesis by adipose tissue through phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in C. sphinx. PMID:20971799

Banerjee, A; Udin, S; Krishna, A

2011-02-01

114

Novel Paramyxoviruses in Free-Ranging European Bats  

PubMed Central

The zoonotic potential of paramyxoviruses is particularly demonstrated by their broad host range like the highly pathogenic Hendra and Nipah viruses originating from bats. But while so far all bat-borne paramyxoviruses have been identified in fruit bats across Africa, Australia, South America, and Asia, we describe the detection and characterization of the first paramyxoviruses in free-ranging European bats. Moreover, we examined the possible impact of paramyxovirus infection on individual animals by comparing histo-pathological findings and virological results. Organs from deceased insectivorous bats of various species were sampled in Germany and tested for paramyxovirus RNA in parallel to a histo-pathological examination. Nucleic acids of three novel paramyxoviruses were detected, two viruses in phylogenetic relationship to the recently proposed genus Jeilongvirus and one closely related to the genus Rubulavirus. Two infected animals revealed subclinical pathological changes within their kidneys, suggestive of a similar pathogenesis as the one described in fruit bats experimentally infected with Hendra virus. Our findings indicate the presence of bat-born paramyxoviruses in geographic areas free of fruit bat species and therefore emphasize a possible virus–host co-evolution in European bats. Since these novel viruses are related to the very distinct genera Rubulavirus and Jeilongvirus, a similarly broad genetic diversity among paramyxoviruses in other Microchiroptera compared to Megachiroptera can be assumed. Given that the infected bats were either found in close proximity to heavily populated human habitation or areas of intensive agricultural use, a potential risk of the emergence of zoonotic paramyxoviruses in Europe needs to be considered. PMID:22737217

Brinkmann, Annika; Ebinger, Arnt; Harper, Jennifer A.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Muhldorfer, Kristin; Wibbelt, Gudrun

2012-01-01

115

Epidemiology and pathogenicity of African bat lyssaviruses.  

PubMed

Lyssaviruses belonging to all four known African Lyssavirus genotypes (gts) have been reported and isolated from SouthAfrica over the past few decades. These are: (1) Duvenhage virus (gt4), isolated again in 2006 from a human fatality; (2) Mokola virus (gt3), isolated irregularly, mostly from cats; (3) Lagos bat virus (gt2) continually isolated over the past four years from Epomophorus fruit bats and from incidental terrestrial animals and (4) Rabies virus (gt1) - with two virus biotypes endemic in mongoose and in canid species (mostly domestic dogs, jackals and bat-eared foxes), respectively. Only two of these are associated with bats in Southern Africa, viz. Duvenhage virus and Lagos bat virus (gts 4 and 2). For both these genotypes the authors have embarked on a programme of comparative study of molecular epidemiology. Duvenhage virus nucleoprotein nucleotide sequence analysis indicated a very low nucleotide diversity even though isolates were isolated decades apart. In contrast, individual isolates of Lagos bat virus were found to differ significantly with respectto nucleoprotein gene nucleotide sequence diversity as well as in pathogenicity profiles. PMID:18634494

Markotter, W; Van Eeden, C; Kuzmin, I V; Rupprecht, C E; Paweska, J T; Swanepoel, R; Fooks, A R; Sabeta, C T; Cliquet, F; Nel, L H

2008-01-01

116

Bat Conservation International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1982, the mission of Bat Conservation International (BCI) is âÂÂto teach people the value of bats, to protect and conserve critical bat habitats, and to advance scientific knowledge through researchâÂÂ. On their website, visitors will be able to learn about their advocacy and outreach efforts, along with learning more about these fascinating and important creatures. The âÂÂAll About Batsâ section is a fine place to start, as it has a number of illustrated essays that include brief overview of the natural history of bats and suggestions on photographing bats as they fly through the air. Equally compelling is the section is the conservation programs area, which details the various programs BCI operates in various bat habitats, including bridges and caves. Finally, visitors can also elect to send one of a number of electronic bat postcards to friends or colleagues.

2005-01-01

117

Wake structure and wing motion in bat flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on experiments concerning the wake structure and kinematics of bat flight, conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel using time-resolved PIV (200Hz) and 4 high-speed cameras to capture wake and wing motion simultaneously. 16 Lesser dog-faced fruit bats (C. brachyotis) were trained to fly in the wind tunnel at 3-6.5m\\/s. The PIV recordings perpendicular to the flow stream allowed

Tatjana Hubel; Kenneth Breuer; Sharon Swartz

2008-01-01

118

Satellite Telemetry and Long-Range Bat Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundUnderstanding the long-distance movement of bats has direct relevance to studies of population dynamics, ecology, disease emergence, and conservation.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe developed and trialed several collar and platform terminal transmitter (PTT) combinations on both free-living and captive fruit bats (Family Pteropodidae: Genus Pteropus). We examined transmitter weight, size, profile and comfort as key determinants of maximized transmitter activity. We then tested

Craig S. Smith; Jonathan H. Epstein; Andrew C. Breed; Raina K. Plowright; Kevin J. Olival; Carol de Jong; Peter Daszak; Hume E. Field; Justin Brown

2011-01-01

119

Public health awareness of emerging zoonotic viruses of bats: a European perspective.  

PubMed

Bats classified in the order Chiroptera are the most abundant and widely distributed non-human mammalian species in the world. Several bat species are reservoir hosts of zoonotic viruses and therefore can be a public health hazard. Lyssaviruses of different genotypes have emerged from bats in America (Genotype 1 rabies virus; RABV), Europe (European bat lyssavirus; EBLV), and Australia (Australian bat lyssavirus; ABLV), whereas Nipah virus is the most important recent zoonosis of bat origin in Asia. Furthermore, some insectivorous bat species may be important reservoirs of SARS coronavirus, whereas Ebola virus has been detected in some megachiropteran fruit bats. Thus far, European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) is the only zoonotic virus that has been detected in bats in Europe. New zoonotic viruses may emerge from bat reservoirs and known ones may spread to a wider geographical range. To assess future threats posed by zoonotic viruses of bats, there is a need for accurate knowledge of the factors underlying disease emergence, for an effective surveillance programme, and for a rapid response system. In Europe, primary efforts should be focussed on the implementation of effective passive and active surveillance systems for EBLVs in the Serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus, and Myotis species (i.e., M. daubentonii and M. dasycneme). Apart from that, detection methods for zoonotic viruses that may emerge from bats should be implemented. Analyses of data from surveillance studies can shed more light on the dynamics of bat viruses, (i.e., population persistence of viruses in bats). Subsequently, studies will have to be performed to assess the public health hazards of such viruses (i.e., infectivity and risk of infection to people). With the knowledge generated from this kind of research, a rapid response system can be set up to enhance public health awareness of emerging zoonotic viruses of bats. PMID:17187565

van der Poel, Wim H M; Lina, Peter H C; Kramps, Johannes A

2006-01-01

120

Jamaican child-rearing practices: the role of corporal punishment.  

PubMed

The family is the most prominent social group that exists. It prepares its members for the various roles they will perform in society. Yet, the literature has unequivocally singled out the family as the most violent social group, with parental violence against children being the most prevalent type of family violence. While societies like the United States, Japan, and Sweden have taken a hard line on physical punishment and shifted to a gentler approach to discipline, harsh disciplining of children persists elsewhere. In the Caribbean, and Jamaica in particular, child-rearing and disciplinary practices that would warrant child abuse charges in other Western societies are rampant. This article examines the child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. It also examines the plausibility of the assumption that the harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for the current social problems of that island nation. We recommend approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and societal practices that compromise children's development and well-being. PMID:14560888

Smith, Delores E; Mosby, Gail

2003-01-01

121

Captive reproduction of the Jamaican iguana (Cyclura collei).  

PubMed

The Jamaican iguana (Cyclura collei) was considered to be extinct until its rediscovery in 1990 in the Hellshire Hills region of Jamaica. Between 1994 and 1996, several wild caught juveniles were placed in six North American zoological institutions including the Indianapolis Zoo. The intent was to establish a self-sustaining captive population outside of Jamaica in order to serve as an ancillary population should the wild numbers decline. Several environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, photoperiod and diet were manipulated to encourage reproduction in captivity. In 2006, two clutches of eggs were deposited by two separate females for a total of 35 eggs. Twenty-six eggs were fertile and 22 hatched after a 76-83-day incubation at 30.3-30.8 degrees C (86.5-86.7 degrees F). The average weight of the neonates was 26.4 g and the average total length was 21.7 cm. This successful reproduction of C. collei constitutes the first North American hatching for this species. Environmental parameters, incubation techniques and neonate morphometry can serve as a baseline for further propagation of the species. This represents a positive milestone for the continuing conservation of this critically endangered species. PMID:19681150

Searcy, Richard A; Villers, Lynne M; Reams, Richard D; Wyatt, John E; Pilarski, Jon

2009-07-01

122

Bat Conservation International, Inc.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web site for Bat Conservation International, Inc. (last mentioned in the November 12, 1997_Scout Report for Science and Engineering_) has added significant content since our last coverage of the site. Although the site still has information about the organization, bat facts, FAQs, and information on bat biology, in-depth sections on a wide variety of research projects have been added, ranging from bats in Latin American ecosystems to bats in your very own yard. Although there is a large focus on research, the text is still written for a general audience, and most sections include a variety of photos.

123

Ethology 095\\ 284*396 "1999# 1999 Blackwell Wissenschafts!Verlag\\ Berlin  

E-print Network

!eating bats promotes roost _delity and the maintenance of harem groups that exhibit high roost _delity roosting sites "Morrison + Morrison 0870#[ Ephemeral roosting sites\\ such as the tents that bats build\\ 284*396[ Abstract Defence of females by dominant males of the Jamaican fruit!eating bat Artibeus

Arita, Héctor T.

124

Molecular Ecology (2003) 12, 24092415 doi: 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01924.x 2003 Blackwell Publishing Ltd  

E-print Network

of Yucatan, Mexico harem groups of the Jamaican fruit-eating bat were found to roost exclusively inside and their low exchange of members. Bats that roost outside harem groups form diffuse groups that are composed-eating bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) JORGE ORTEGA,* JESÃ?S E. MALDONADO,* GERALD S. WILKINSON, HÃ?CTOR T. ARITA

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

125

Controlling Bats in Urban Areas  

E-print Network

Most species of bats found in Texas are of some economic importance and are beneficial because they eat insects. This publication discusses the characteristics and control of bats. Some safety considerations for handling bats are explained...

Texas Wildlife Services

2008-04-15

126

Deviant and dangerous: Proslavery representations of Jamaican slave women's sexuality, c. 1780–1834  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the pro-slavery debate about Jamaican slave women's sexuality in the period 1770–1834. The first part shows that two images of slave women dominated this debate and argues that these served primarily to displace fears about the viability of the plantation system. The second part explores the link between the two images and the practice of interracial sex,

Henrice Altink

2005-01-01

127

Between Two Giant Sounds: Jamaican Politics, Nationalism, and Musical Culture in Transition, 1974-1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The story of Jamaican music is also one of the island's journey from independence, the rise of nationalism and changes in its political structure in the Cold War era. Reggae as a popular form, developed in the context of Jamaica's history of colonialism and slavery, as well as the island's development as an independent nation within the African Diaspora. Michael

Caree Banton

2007-01-01

128

Revelations of cultural consumer lovemaps in Jamaican dancehall lyrics: An ethnomusicological ethnography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We believe that dancehall music’s more sexually explicit lyrics, labeled “slack” and maligned as evocatively misogynist, homophobic and xenophobic, mirror historically discordant social and economic tensions that entangle men and women in contested couplings, and thus render sexuality an instrument of socioeconomic power. Applying an ethnomusicological analysis, this paper fills a void by situating the slack Jamaican dancehall\\/ DJ lyrics

Barbara Olsen; Stephen Gould

2008-01-01

129

The Impact of Poverty and Stress on the Interaction of Jamaican Caregivers with Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses levels of parent-child interaction, and the impact of poverty and parental stress, using data from a national survey of Jamaican parenting practices. It reveals that 1 in every 4 parents feels trapped/controlled by their responsibilities, with the poor at increased risk of experiencing high levels of stress and their children…

Ricketts, Heather; Anderson, Patricia

2008-01-01

130

Nationalism and Self-Representation: Negotiating Sovereignty in Jamaican Cultural Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates colonial, independence, and postcolonial moments to identify different modes of self-fashioning in the Jamaican landscape. It also explores the ways collective and individual senses of self, identity and sovereignty are perceived between the late nineteenth and twenty-first centuries. I assert that political processes involved in consolidating official national identities problematically reproduced hierarchies and exclusions reminiscent of the

Sheri-Marie L. Harrison

2008-01-01

131

A Cultural Heuristic Approach to the Study of Jamaican Undergraduate Students' Achievement Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, there have been increasing calls to develop a more contextually-based, sociocultural perspective of achievement motivation. With this in mind, this mixed method study examined Jamaican, of the West Indies, undergraduate students' perception of motivation. This study was conducted in two phases. First, a qualitative…

Clayton, Karen Elizabeth

2012-01-01

132

The Relationship Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Dysfunction in Jamaican Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and experimental groups based on sociodemographic characteristics. Results indicated that childhood sexual abuse

Antoneal N. Swaby; Kai A. D. Morgan

2009-01-01

133

A Historical Exploration of Internationally Educated Teachers: Jamaican Teachers in 1960s Alberta  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the immigration and credentialing experiences of Jamaican teachers in Alberta during the 1960s. Using teacher narratives as well as archival research the paper aims to develop a historical understanding of issues related to internationally educated teachers and how this historical understanding can inform the contemporary…

Kelly, Jennifer; Cui, Dan

2010-01-01

134

The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Dysfunction in Jamaican Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…

Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.

2009-01-01

135

The dietary habits and knowledge of folklore of pregnant Jamaican women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary changes associated with pregnancy, cravings and knowledge of traditional folklore were explored in their socio?economic context in 125 pregnant Jamaican women of mixed parity and social class attending an urban clinic. Most women reported dietary changes, expressing increased preferences for fluids, notably water and milk. Aversions to meat or staples were common. Cravings, especially for ice and salt\\/salty foods,

J. Landman; J. St. E. Hall

1983-01-01

136

Slavery, emancipation and the creole world view of Jamaican colonists, 1800–1834  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focussing on the early nineteenth century, this article examines the ways in which white slaveholders in Jamaica developed a distinctive local ideology based on the institution of slavery. Whites were in a minority in Jamaican slave society, slaveholding was widespread amongst white settlers, and all white men experienced privileges in a society organised around racialised boundaries of rule. These factors

Christer Petley

2005-01-01

137

Jamaican Field Cricket Mate Attraction Signals Provide Susan M. Bertram & Vanessa Rook  

E-print Network

Jamaican Field Cricket Mate Attraction Signals Provide Age Cues Susan M. Bertram & Vanessa Rook 2001; Judge 2011). Male crickets often signal their age. Male crickets signal acoustically to attract among potential mates. Several studies have revealed that older male crickets signal differently than

Bertram, Sue

138

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (serotypes DK) infection in Jamaican commercial street sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in commercial street sex workers (CSSW) in Jamaica. METHODS: The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was determined in 129 Jamaican CSSW using the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) method and the isolation techniques which utilise fluorescent and iodine staining of endocervical cytobrush specimens cultured in McCoy cells. The seroprevalence of C

G Dowe; S D King; A R Brathwaite; Z Wynter; R Chout

1997-01-01

139

The Influence of Youth Assets on the Career Decision Self-Efficacy in Unattached Jamaican Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study expands the career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) literature by focusing on a sample of unattached Jamaican youth to determine if youth assets (protective factors like family communication and peer role models) were predictive of increased CDSE. Unattached youth are defined as those that do not have a job or are not currently…

Hayes, DeMarquis; Huey, Erron L.; Hull, Darrell M.; Saxon, Terrill F.

2012-01-01

140

Correlations among Five Variables and the Biology Performance of a Sample of Jamaican High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether or not (a) 252 Jamaican high school students (168 boys, 84 girls, 171 grade 10 and 81 grade 11 students) had favourable attitudes to biology, (b) their level of biology performance was satisfactory, (c) there were significant differences in their performance based on their gender, grade level, school-type,…

Blair-Walters, Shonette; Soyibo, Kola

2004-01-01

141

Racial Identity, Africentric Values, and Self-Esteem in Jamaican Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between black identity, Afrocentric values, and self-esteem among 161 Jamaican young adolescents age 8-13 years from 4 summer camps. Participant surveys indicated that Afrocentric values, black identity, and self-esteem were correlated for female adolescents but not for male adolescents. Self-esteem explained more of the…

Akbar, Maysa; Chambers, John W., Jr.; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

2001-01-01

142

Family Violence and Aggression and Their Associations with Psychosocial Functioning in Jamaican Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among selected family interaction variables and psychosocial outcomes in a sample of Jamaican adolescents. The authors hypothesized that adolescent psychosocial outcomes would be negatively associated with physical violence, verbal aggression would be more potent than physical…

Smith, Delores E.; Moore, Todd M.

2013-01-01

143

Using Rap and Jamaican Dance Hall Music in the Secondary Music Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study carried out in a secondary school in the Island of Jamaica. One grade 7 class (n = 20) and one grade 9 class (n = 23) were taught a six-week unit of lessons aimed at facilitating student listening, performing and composing. Rap and Jamaican dance hall music were used as the stimulus for students' rhythmic…

Minott, Mark

2008-01-01

144

House bat management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The soundest long-term solution for the management of bats that enter buildings and cause a nuisance problem or present a public health hazard is by batproofing the structure. Chemical toxicants do not solve house bat problems and may create worse ones. This manual describes batproofing techniques that will provide effective and acceptable alternatives for dealing with house bat problems and hazards. Recent declines in bat populations and greater appreciation of the ecological importance of bats have identified the need for sound management strategies that will encourage bat conservation while protecting human health and solving nuisance problems. One of the best deterrents against house bats is to improve the energy efficiency of the structure since bats may enter holes through which heat is lost. Heat conservation methods used for batproofing will also be eligible for Federal residential energy tax credits. The manual should be useful to homeowners, public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, conservationists, and others interested or concerned about bat interactions with humans.

Greenhall, Arthur Merwin

1982-01-01

145

Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first recorded human outbreak of Ebola virus was in 1976, but the wild reservoir of this virus is still unknown. Here we test for Ebola in more than a thousand small vertebrates that were collected during Ebola outbreaks in humans and great apes between 2001 and 2003 in Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. We find evidence of

Eric M. Leroy; Brice Kumulungui; Xavier Pourrut; Pierre Rouquet; Alexandre Hassanin; Philippe Yaba; André Délicat; Janusz T. Paweska; Jean-Paul Gonzalez; Robert Swanepoel

2005-01-01

146

Dyssochroma viridiflorum (Solanaceae): a Reproductively Bat?dependent Epiphyte from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Few Neotropical plant species seem to depend on the same animal type both for pollination and seed dispersal, and the known instances refer mostly to birds as the agents in these two phases of a plant reproductive cycle. Dyssochroma viridiflorum (Solanaceae), an epiphyte endemic to the Atlantic rainforest in south?eastern Brazil, was found to be visited by phyllostomid bats for nectar as well as for fruits, with the pollination and seed dispersal of the plant ensured by these flying mammals. The greenish flowers open at night and are visited by the nectar?feeding bat Glossophaga soricina, whereas the yellowish?white fruits are consumed by two species of fruit?eating bats, Carollia perspicillata and Sturnira lilium. Only clinging visits, an uncommon behavioural pattern for glossophagine bats while feeding on flowers, were recorded. The small seeds of D. viridiflorum are swallowed along with the fruit pulp and later defecated on the bats’ flying pathways. It is suggested that species of Dyssochroma and two other solanaceous bat?pollinated genera, Merinthopodium and Trianaea, form a derived and bat?dependent clade within the Juanulloeae. PMID:14500325

SAZIMA, MARLIES; BUZATO, SILVANA; SAZIMA, IVAN

2003-01-01

147

Renal function in the neotropical bat, Artibeus jamaicensis.  

PubMed

1. When feeding on figs (Ficus insipida), the bat Artibeus jamaicensis increases dietary sodium density while decreasing potassium density by primarily extracting and ingesting pulp juices rather than other parts of the fruit. 2. Based on urine osmotic pressure, these bats are uniformly dehydrated when they leave day roosts and become rapidly rehydrated (0.5-1 hr) after initiation of feeding. 3. After 2000 hr, and throughout the night there is no difference in urine concentration of free-flying bats compared with bats held in the laboratory without food or water for the same time interval. 4. Mean maximum urine concentration in this species is 972 mOsm/kg. PMID:6131764

Studier, E H; Boyd, B C; Feldman, A T; Dapson, R W; Wilson, D E

1983-01-01

148

Comparative analysis of bat genomes provides insight into the evolution of flight and immunity.  

PubMed

Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight and are notorious reservoir hosts for some of the world's most highly pathogenic viruses, including Nipah, Hendra, Ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). To identify genetic changes associated with the development of bat-specific traits, we performed whole-genome sequencing and comparative analyses of two distantly related species, fruit bat Pteropus alecto and insectivorous bat Myotis davidii. We discovered an unexpected concentration of positively selected genes in the DNA damage checkpoint and nuclear factor ?B pathways that may be related to the origin of flight, as well as expansion and contraction of important gene families. Comparison of bat genomes with other mammalian species has provided new insights into bat biology and evolution. PMID:23258410

Zhang, Guojie; Cowled, Christopher; Shi, Zhengli; Huang, Zhiyong; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Fang, Xiaodong; Wynne, James W; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Baker, Michelle L; Zhao, Wei; Tachedjian, Mary; Zhu, Yabing; Zhou, Peng; Jiang, Xuanting; Ng, Justin; Yang, Lan; Wu, Lijun; Xiao, Jin; Feng, Yue; Chen, Yuanxin; Sun, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yong; Marsh, Glenn A; Crameri, Gary; Broder, Christopher C; Frey, Kenneth G; Wang, Lin-Fa; Wang, Jun

2013-01-25

149

Schizotrypanum in British bats.  

PubMed

Two species of Schizotrypanum, T. (S.) dionisii and T. (S.) vespertilionis, were identified from British bats. Laboratory studies on stocks of isolated trypanosomes from 5 species of bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Nyctalus leisleri, N. noctula, Eptesicus serotinus and Myotis brandti) indicated that the predominant species was T. d. dionisii. Collections and dissection of the bat bug Cimex pipistrelli from bat roosts revealed flagellate infection in a total of 12 out of 20 bugs; 7 of these bugs had metacyclic trypanosomes present. C. pipistrelli and the human bed bug, C. lectularius were reared in the laboratory and allowed to feed on wild-caught bats known to be infected with T. d. dionisii. Development occurred in both species of Cimex. Cimex spp. could be used to detect subpatent Schizotrypanum infections by xenodiagnosis. This technique was used to test the parasitological status of bats collected in the wild or reared in captivity. On a single occasion an apparent transmission of T. d. dionisii to an uninfected (by xenodiagnosis) laboratory reared bat was achieved. A stock of Schizotrypanum isolated from a wild-caught C. pipistrelli collected in a N. leisteri roost was identified by DNA buoyant density centrifugation as T. (S.) vespertilionis. A P. pipistrellus known to be infected with T. d. dionisii was found to have cyst-like structures in thoracic skeletal muscle containing amastigotes. The study provided the strongest evidence yet that C. pipistrelli is the vector of Schizotrypanum in British bats. PMID:3174237

Gardner, R A; Molyneux, D H

1988-08-01

150

Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat  

PubMed Central

To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. We compare the aerodynamics of T. brasiliensis with those of other, frugivorous bats and with common swifts, Apus apus, a bird with wing morphology, kinematics and flight ecology similar to that of these bats. The comparison reveals that, for the range of speeds evaluated, the cyclical pattern of aerodynamic forces associated with a wingbeat shows more similarities between T. brasiliensis and A. apus than between T. brasiliensis and other frugivorous bats. PMID:22258554

Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Hristov, Nickolay I.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

2012-01-01

151

Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat.  

PubMed

To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. We compare the aerodynamics of T. brasiliensis with those of other, frugivorous bats and with common swifts, Apus apus, a bird with wing morphology, kinematics and flight ecology similar to that of these bats. The comparison reveals that, for the range of speeds evaluated, the cyclical pattern of aerodynamic forces associated with a wingbeat shows more similarities between T. brasiliensis and A. apus than between T. brasiliensis and other frugivorous bats. PMID:22258554

Hubel, Tatjana Y; Hristov, Nickolay I; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

2012-06-01

152

The impact of poverty and stress on the interaction of Jamaican caregivers with young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses levels of parent–child interaction, and the impact of poverty and parental stress, using data from a national survey of Jamaican parenting practices. It reveals that 1 in every 4 parents feels trapped\\/controlled by their responsibilities, with the poor at increased risk of experiencing high levels of stress and their children tending to experience low levels of parent–child

Heather Ricketts; Patricia Anderson

2008-01-01

153

Food niche overlap among neotropical frugivorous bats in Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Food habits of 15 species of frugivorous bats were studied at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Eight hundred and fifty-four (854) fecal samples and 169 samples from fruit parts and seeds discarded by bats beneath feeding roosts were analyzed. During eight months of study, 47 fruit species consumed by bats were identified. Five plant genera (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper Solanum, and Vismia) constituted 85% of all plants found in fecal samples. Feeding niche breadth differed significantly among the six most common species of frugivorous bats (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia sowelli, C. castanea, C. perspicillata, Dermanura sp., and Glossophaga commissarisi). All species, except for Dermanura sp., showed a diet dominated by one or two plant species. This suggests a pattern of resource partitioning at a generic level, in which Carollia consumed mainly Piper, Artibeus consumed Ficus and Cecropia, and Glossophaga consumed Vismia. Cluster analysis revealed higher values of food niche overlap in congeneric species than among species of different genera. Results show that if food is a limiting factor, mechanisms other than trophic selection must reduce interspecific interference or competition for food in this frugivorous bat guild. PMID:18457139

Lopez, Jorge E; Vaughan, Christopher

2007-03-01

154

New World Bats Harbor Diverse Influenza A Viruses  

PubMed Central

Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus, designated as H18N11, in a flat-faced fruit bat (Artibeus planirostris) from Peru. Serologic studies with the recombinant H18 protein indicated that several Peruvian bat species were infected by this virus. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that, in some gene segments, New World bats harbor more influenza virus genetic diversity than all other mammalian and avian species combined, indicative of a long-standing host-virus association. Structural and functional analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase indicate that sialic acid is not a ligand for virus attachment nor a substrate for release, suggesting a unique mode of influenza A virus attachment and activation of membrane fusion for entry into host cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that bats constitute a potentially important and likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza viruses. PMID:24130481

Tong, Suxiang; Zhu, Xueyong; Li, Yan; Shi, Mang; Zhang, Jing; Bourgeois, Melissa; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xianfeng; Recuenco, Sergio; Gomez, Jorge; Chen, Li-Mei; Johnson, Adam; Tao, Ying; Dreyfus, Cyrille; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Carney, Paul J.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Chang, Jessie; Guo, Zhu; Davis, Charles T.; Paulson, James C.; Stevens, James; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Wilson, Ian A.; Donis, Ruben O.

2013-01-01

155

Creature Feature: Vampire Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from National Geographic (last mentioned in the October 11, 2002 Scout Report) offers a short multimedia introduction to vampire bats. Geared toward younger kids, this site includes vampire bat audio and video files, Fun Facts in the form of a brief but educational article, a map of vampire bat global distribution, links to bat-related Web sites, and an email postcard. It may be too late to get much Halloween mileage out of this site, but teachers and students should enjoy this quick and very visual look at a fascinating animal. The site includes links to other National Geographic Creature Features, and could be useful for reports and other activities.

2002-01-01

156

BATS IN AMERICAN BRIDGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bridges and culverts were evaluated as bat roosting habitat in 25 U.S. states at elevations from sea level to 10,000 feet. Field surveys were conducted at 2,421 highway structures. Scientific literature was reviewed, and local biologists and engineers were interviewed, leading to the discovery of approximately 4,250,000 bats of 24 species living in 211 highway structures. Only one percent of

Brian W. Keeley; Merlin D. Tuttle

157

Chemical evaluation and thermal analysis of the essential oil from the fruits of the vegetable species Pimenta dioica Lindl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetal species Pimenta dioica Lindl, popularly known as Jamaican pepper, is a 6–15 m tall tree, which belongs to the Mirtaceae family. Its fruits have\\u000a an essential oil of great economic value in the international market, due to its high level of eugenol (its major compound),\\u000a which is largely used in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, the extraction

O. S. Monteiro; A. G. Souza; L. E. B. Soledade; N. Queiroz; A. L. Souza; V. E. Mouchrek Filho; A. F. F. Vasconcelos

158

Bat rabies surveillance in Europe.  

PubMed

Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977-2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands, North Germany, Denmark, Poland and also in parts of France and Spain. Most EBLV-2 isolates originated from the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands, and EBLV-2 was also detected in Germany, Finland and Switzerland. Thus far, only one isolate of BBLV was found in Germany. Published passive bat rabies surveillance comprised testing of 28 of the 52 different European bat species for rabies. EBLV-1 was isolated exclusively from Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus and Eptesicus isabellinus), while EBLV-2 was detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) and 5 Pond bats (Myotis dasycneme). A virus from a single Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) was characterized as BBLV. During active surveillance, only oral swabs from 2 Daubenton's bats (EBLV-2) and from several Eptesicus bats (EBLV-1) yielded virus positive RNA. Virus neutralizing antibodies against lyssaviruses were detected in various European bat species from different countries, and its value and implications are discussed. PMID:22963584

Schatz, J; Fooks, A R; McElhinney, L; Horton, D; Echevarria, J; Vázquez-Moron, S; Kooi, E A; Rasmussen, T B; Müller, T; Freuling, C M

2013-02-01

159

Observations of sylvatic rabies in Northern Argentina during outbreaks of paralytic cattle rabies transmitted by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus).  

PubMed

During rabies outbreaks in cattle (paralytic rabies) in Argentina associated with the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, rabies was observed in marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), red brocket deer (Mazama americana), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), savanna fox (Cerdocyon thous), and great fruit-eating bat (Artibeus lituratus). Rabies could constitute a threat to the survival of marsh deer in places where they live in small groups, and infection of both great fruit-eating bats and savanna fox represent a risk for humans; both species exhibit aggressiveness and fury when infected. PMID:19901391

Delpietro, H A; Lord, R D; Russo, R G; Gury-Dhomen, F

2009-10-01

160

Tiger moth jams bat sonar.  

PubMed

In response to sonar-guided attacking bats, some tiger moths make ultrasonic clicks of their own. The lepidopteran sounds have previously been shown to alert bats to some moths' toxic chemistry and also to startle bats unaccustomed to sonic prey. The moth sounds could also interfere with, or "jam," bat sonar, but evidence for such jamming has been inconclusive. Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, we show that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar. Sonar jamming extends the defensive repertoire available to prey in the long-standing evolutionary arms race between bats and insects. PMID:19608920

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

2009-07-17

161

Bat rabies surveillance in Finland  

PubMed Central

Background In 1985, a bat researcher in Finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal EBLV-infected bats. In 2009, an EBLV-2-positive Daubenton’s bat was detected. The EBLV-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. In order to assess the prevalence of EBLVs in Finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that EBLV-infected bats pose, a targeted active surveillance project was initiated. Results Altogether, 1156 bats of seven species were examined for lyssaviruses in Finland during a 28–year period (1985–2012), 898 in active surveillance and 258 in passive surveillance, with only one positive finding of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton’s bat in 2009. In 2010–2011, saliva samples from 774 bats of seven species were analyzed for EBLV viral RNA, and sera from 423 bats were analyzed for the presence of bat lyssavirus antibodies. Antibodies were detected in Daubenton’s bats in samples collected from two locations in 2010 and from one location in 2011. All seropositive locations are in close proximity to the place where the EBLV-2 positive Daubenton’s bat was found in 2009. In active surveillance, no EBLV viral RNA was detected. Conclusions These data suggest that EBLV-2 may circulate in Finland, even though the seroprevalence is low. Our results indicate that passive surveillance of dead or sick bats is a relevant means examine the occurrence of lyssavirus infection, but the number of bats submitted for laboratory analysis should be higher in order to obtain reliable information on the lyssavirus situation in the country. PMID:24011337

2013-01-01

162

Graphical Models in Computational Molecular  

E-print Network

Biology Organism Organs Tissues Cells Molecules Macro Molecules as Sequences SUGARS FATTY ACIDS AMINO ACIDS NUCLEOTIDES POLYSACCHARIDES FATS, LIPIDS, MEMBRANES PROTEINS NUCLEIC ACIDS (DNA, RNA) Building-tailed bat Jamaican fruit-eating bat Asiatic shrew Long-clawed shrew Mole Small Madagascar hedgehog Aardvark

Friedman, Nir

163

Moral and Fearful Affiliations with the Animal World: Children's Conceptions of Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to extend knowledge on how children understand their affiliation with an animal that can evoke both fear and care: bats. We interviewed 120 children, evenly divided between four age groups (6-7, 9-10, 12-13, and 15-16 years) after each child had vis- ited an exhibit at Brookfield Zoo that displays Rodrigues fruit bats. Re- sults

Carol D. Saunders; Rachel L. Severson; Brian T. Gill

2008-01-01

164

Bat rabies, public health and European bat conservation.  

PubMed

Most records of European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs) are confined to three species - the serotine bat for EBLV1 (900 records) and Daubenton's bat and the pond bat for EBLV2 (25 records). High levels of seroprevalence, which may vary from year to year, are also recorded. All bat vectors of EBLVs are synanthropic, some exclusively so. Despite this, there have been only five cases of human rabies resulting from EBLV infection in the 590?million people of greater Europe during the last 35?years. These have triggered major programmes of surveillance in many European countries. The emphasis on active versus passive surveillance and the intensity with which they have been carried out has varied from country to country. Both involve cooperation between bat researchers, virologists and public health officials and the latter, in particular, engages amateur bat workers and members of the public. Bat NGOs throughout Europe have worked to persuade the public not to handle bats or to do so only with gloved hands and, in the case of bat workers, to receive pre-exposure immunization. They have also countered negative media coverage of bat rabies. Householders with bat roosts in their dwellings have in general been persuaded to retain their bats. Attempts have been made to persuade all European countries to establish comparable EBLV surveillance programmes. In the last 25?years, virologists, public health officials, bat biologists and conservationists, both amateur and professional have worked closely and collaboratively for the protection of the public and the conservation of bats, with little polarization of views. PMID:22909028

Racey, P A; Hutson, A M; Lina, P H C

2013-02-01

165

Lyssavirus Surveillance in Bats, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Lyssavirus surveillance in bats was performed in Bangladesh during 2003 and 2004. No virus isolates were obtained. Three serum samples (all from Pteropus giganteus, n = 127) of 288 total serum samples, obtained from bats in 9 different taxa, neutralized lyssaviruses Aravan and Khujand. The infection occurs in bats in Bangladesh, but virus prevalence appears low. PMID:16704789

Niezgoda, Michael; Carroll, Darin S.; Keeler, Natalie; Hossain, Mohammed Jahangir; Breiman, Robert F.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2006-01-01

166

Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain  

PubMed Central

A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus. PMID:23648051

Moron, Sonia Vazquez; Berciano, Jose M.; Nicolas, Olga; Lopez, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodriguez; Setien, Alvaro Aguilar; Echevarria, Juan E.

2013-01-01

167

Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala.  

PubMed

To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat-associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans. PMID:21762584

Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

2011-07-01

168

Bat-Associated Leptospirosis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Leptospirosis is a globally prevalent disease that affects humans, causing systemic illness that may lead to multi-organ involvement. Clinical signs include sudden fever, general malaise, muscular pain, conjunctival suffusion, and jaundice. Disease is caused by pathogenic bacteria including over 200 serologic variants. Most serologic variants have primary reservoirs in wild mammals, which continually infect and colonize domesticated animals. The organism has been recovered from rats, swine, dogs, cattle, and other animals, notably bats. Most studies have focused on domestic animals as reservoir hosts; however, because of their abundance, spatial distribution, and interrelationship with domestic animals, bats are becoming an epidemiologically significant source of leptospires. We present a case of serologically confirmed leptospirosis after bat exposure to add to the growing literature of bats as a possible source of transmission. Recognition of the common presentation of leptospirosis and Weil’s disease, and identification of animal vectors, including bats, allows for the selection of appropriate antibiotic management to aid in resolution of symptomotology. PMID:20012224

Vashi, Neelam A.; Reddy, Pavani; Sabin, Bradley

2009-01-01

169

Isolation of a novel adenovirus from Rousettus leschenaultii bats from India.  

PubMed

Surveillance work was initiated to study the presence of highly infectious diseases like Ebola-Reston, Marburg, Nipah and other possible viruses that are known to be found in the bat species and responsible for causing diseases in humans. A novel adenovirus was isolated from a common species of fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaultii) captured in Maharashtra State, India. Partial sequence analysis of the DNA polymerase gene shows this isolate to be a newly recognized member of the genus Mastadenovirus (family Adenoviridae), approximately 20% divergent at the nucleotide level from Japanese BatAdV, its closest known relative. PMID:22572722

Raut, C G; Yadav, P D; Towner, J S; Amman, B R; Erickson, B R; Cannon, D L; Sivaram, A; Basu, A; Nichol, S T; Mishra, A C; Mourya, D T

2012-01-01

170

Marburg virus infection detected in a common African bat.  

PubMed

Marburg and Ebola viruses can cause large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with high case fatality (80-90%) in human and great apes. Identification of the natural reservoir of these viruses is one of the most important topics in this field and a fundamental key to understanding their natural history. Despite the discovery of this virus family almost 40 years ago, the search for the natural reservoir of these lethal pathogens remains an enigma despite numerous ecological studies. Here, we report the discovery of Marburg virus in a common species of fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in Gabon as shown by finding virus-specific RNA and IgG antibody in individual bats. These Marburg virus positive bats represent the first naturally infected non-primate animals identified. Furthermore, this is the first report of Marburg virus being present in this area of Africa, thus extending the known range of the virus. These data imply that more areas are at risk for MHF outbreaks than previously realized and correspond well with a recently published report in which three species of fruit bats were demonstrated to be likely reservoirs for Ebola virus. PMID:17712412

Towner, Jonathan S; Pourrut, Xavier; Albariño, César G; Nkogue, Chimène Nze; Bird, Brian H; Grard, Gilda; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Stuart T; Leroy, Eric M

2007-01-01

171

Evolutionary History of Indian Ocean Nycteribiid Bat Flies Mirroring the Ecology of Their Hosts  

PubMed Central

Bats and their parasites are increasingly investigated for their role in maintenance and transmission of potentially emerging pathogens. The islands of the western Indian Ocean hold nearly 50 bat species, mostly endemic and taxonomically well studied. However, investigation of associated viral, bacterial, and external parasites has lagged behind. In the case of their ectoparasites, more detailed information should provide insights into the evolutionary history of their hosts, as well as pathogen cycles in these wild animals. Here we investigate species of Nycteribiidae, a family of obligate hematophagous wingless flies parasitizing bats. Using morphological and molecular approaches, we describe fly species diversity sampled on Madagascar and the Comoros for two cave-roosting bat genera with contrasting ecologies: Miniopterus and Rousettus. Within the sampling area, 11 endemic species of insect-feeding Miniopterus occur, two of which are common to Madagascar and Comoros, while fruit-consuming Rousettus are represented by one species endemic to each of these zones. Morphological and molecular characterization of flies reveals that nycteribiids associated with Miniopterus bats comprise three species largely shared by most host species. Flies of M. griveaudi, one of the two bats found on Madagascar and certain islands in the Comoros, belong to the same taxon, which accords with continued over-water population exchange of this bat species and the lack of inter-island genetic structuring. Flies parasitizing Rousettus belong to two distinct species, each associated with a single host species, again in accordance with the distribution of each endemic bat species. PMID:24086470

Tortosa, Pablo; Dsouli, Najla; Gomard, Yann; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dick, Carl W.; Goodman, Steven M.

2013-01-01

172

Protecting Bats from Extinction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article explains how bats have survived for millions of years but now they are declining rapidly because of: loss of habitat and foraging areas, pesticides in their favorite food -- insects, extermination, and human activity such as hunting or cave exploring.

Nick Tchankoshvili (Tbilisi State Medical University, Georgia, Europe;)

2001-12-01

173

Foraging bats avoid noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Ambient noise influences the availability and use of acoustic information in animals in many ways. While much research has focused on the effects of noise on acoustic communication, here, we present the first study concerned with anthropogenic noise and foraging behaviour. We chose the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) as a model species because it represents the especially vulnerable

Andrea Schaub; Joachim Ostwald; Björn M. Siemers

2008-01-01

174

Young Jamaicans' Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Experimental and Demographic Factors Associated with Social Distance and Stigmatizing Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two large-scale studies assessed the nature and correlates of young Jamaicans' attitudes toward mental illness. In study 1, students viewed a videotaped job interview for a teacher whose history was manipulated to include a history of mental illness, or not. Students desired significantly less social distance (i.e., more contact) with the "normal"…

Jackson, Dahra; Heatherington, Laurie

2006-01-01

175

Effects of juvenile and adult condition on long-distance call components in the Jamaican field cricket, Gryllus assimilis  

E-print Network

cricket, Gryllus assimilis Emily M. Whattam*, Susan M. Bertram Department of Biology, Carleton University signal complex signal condition-dependence content efficacy field cricket multiple messages multiple juvenile and adult condition in male Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, to test whether changes

Bertram, Sue

176

Fruit characteristics and factors affecting fruit removal in a Panamanian community of strangler figs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe fruiting characteristics for 12 species in a community of strangler figs (Moraceae: Urostigma) studied in Panama.\\u000a We quantify diurnal and nocturnal removal rates and proportions of fruits removed, and relate them to the activities of the\\u000a main dispersers of the figs: bats and birds. These results combined with previous studies show that there are clear differences\\u000a between fig

Carmi Korine; E. K. V. Kalko; E. A. Herre

2000-01-01

177

Novel astroviruses in insectivorous bats.  

PubMed

Bats are increasingly recognized to harbor a wide range of viruses, and in most instances these viruses appear to establish long-term persistence in these animals. They are the reservoir of a number of human zoonotic diseases including Nipah, Ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We report the identification of novel groups of astroviruses in apparently healthy insectivorous bats found in Hong Kong, in particular, bats belonging to the genera Miniopterus and Myotis. Astroviruses are important causes of diarrhea in many animal species, including humans. Many of the bat astroviruses form distinct phylogenetic clusters in the genus Mamastrovirus within the family Astroviridae. Virus detection rates of 36% to 100% and 50% to 70% were found in Miniopterus magnater and Miniopterus pusillus bats, respectively, captured within a single bat habitat during four consecutive visits spanning 1 year. There was high genetic diversity of viruses in bats found within this single habitat. Some bat astroviruses may be phylogenetically related to human astroviruses, and further studies with a wider range of bat species in different geographic locations are warranted. These findings are likely to provide new insights into the ecology and evolution of astroviruses and reinforce the role of bats as a reservoir of viruses with potential to pose a zoonotic threat to human health. PMID:18550669

Chu, D K W; Poon, L L M; Guan, Y; Peiris, J S M

2008-09-01

178

Lower Body Symmetry and Running Performance in Elite Jamaican Track and Field Athletes  

PubMed Central

In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet) are–on average–significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet) had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes. PMID:25401732

Trivers, Robert; Fink, Bernhard; Russell, Mark; McCarty, Kristofor; James, Bruce; Palestis, Brian G.

2014-01-01

179

What the bat's voice tells the bat's brain.  

PubMed

For over half a century, the echolocating bat has served as a valuable model in neuroscience to elucidate mechanisms of auditory processing and adaptive behavior in biological sonar. Our article emphasizes the importance of the bat's vocal-motor system to spatial orientation by sonar, and we present this view in the context of three problems that the echolocating bat must solve: (i) auditory scene analysis, (ii) sensorimotor transformations, and (iii) spatial memory and navigation. We summarize our research findings from behavioral studies of echolocating bats engaged in natural tasks and from neurophysiological studies of the bat superior colliculus and hippocampus, brain structures implicated in sensorimotor integration, orientation, and spatial memory. Our perspective is that studies of neural activity in freely vocalizing bats engaged in natural behaviors will prove essential to advancing a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying perception and memory in mammals. PMID:18562301

Ulanovsky, Nachum; Moss, Cynthia F

2008-06-24

180

What the bat's voice tells the bat's brain  

PubMed Central

For over half a century, the echolocating bat has served as a valuable model in neuroscience to elucidate mechanisms of auditory processing and adaptive behavior in biological sonar. Our article emphasizes the importance of the bat's vocal-motor system to spatial orientation by sonar, and we present this view in the context of three problems that the echolocating bat must solve: (i) auditory scene analysis, (ii) sensorimotor transformations, and (iii) spatial memory and navigation. We summarize our research findings from behavioral studies of echolocating bats engaged in natural tasks and from neurophysiological studies of the bat superior colliculus and hippocampus, brain structures implicated in sensorimotor integration, orientation, and spatial memory. Our perspective is that studies of neural activity in freely vocalizing bats engaged in natural behaviors will prove essential to advancing a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying perception and memory in mammals. PMID:18562301

Ulanovsky, Nachum; Moss, Cynthia F.

2008-01-01

181

Foraging habitats of bats in southern Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the foraging habitats of the northern batEptesicus nilssonii (Keyserling et Blasius, 1839), Brandt’s batMyotis brandtii (Eversmann, 1845), whiskered batMyotis mystacinus (Kuhl, 1819), Daubenton’s batMyotis daubentonii (Kuhl, 1819) and brown long-eared batPlecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758) in southern Finland. Among these species, we compared the diversities of foraging habitats, linear feature\\u000a preference and the bats’ tendencies to forage simultaneously.Eptesicus nilssonii

Terhi Wermundsen; Yrjö Siivonen

2008-01-01

182

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

183

Characteristics of bat rabies in Alberta.  

PubMed Central

Rabies in bats was monitored in Alberta from 1971 to 1978 Big brown bats replaced silver-haired bats as the species most frequently reported rabid during these years. Rabies infection was comparatively high among little brown bats in central Alberta in 1973 and has subsequently declined. Only one rabid little brown bat was discovered in southern Alberta which is populated by a different subspecies. Outbreaks of rabies in little brown and big brown bat colonies tended to be brief events. Observations of free-ranging bats with probable furious rabies suggested that bats do not generally identify humans as targets for attack. Independent trends in infection rates suggested that spread of rabies is primarily intraspecific but there is evidence that migratory bats play a role in introduction and maintenance of rabies in northern temperate bat communities. The dynamics of bat rabies in Alberta are discussed. PMID:7397600

Schowalter, D B

1980-01-01

184

Blood manganese concentrations in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Manganese is an essential element for human health and development. Previous studies have shown neurotoxic effects in children exposed to higher levels of manganese. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs social interaction and communication. Several studies have hypothesized that ASD is caused through environmental exposures during crucial stages in brain development. We investigated the possible association between blood manganese concentrations (BMC) and ASD. We also identified factors associated with BMC in typically developing (TD) Jamaican children. Methods We used data from 109 ASD cases with their 1:1 age- and sex-matched TD controls to compare mean BMC in Jamaican children (2–8 years of age) with and without ASD. We administered a pre-tested questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information, medical history, and potential exposure to manganese. Finally, we collected 2 mL of whole blood from each child for analysis of manganese levels. Using General Linear Models (GLM), we assessed the association between BMC and ASD status. Furthermore, we used two independent sample t-tests to identify factors associated with BMC in TD children. Results In univariable GLM analysis, we found no significant association between BMC and ASD, (10.9 ?g/L for cases vs. 10.5 ?g/L for controls; P?=?0.29). In a multivariable GLM adjusting for paternal age, parental education, place of child’s birth (Kingston parish), consumption of root vegetables, cabbage, saltwater fish, and cakes/buns, there was still no significant association between BMC and ASD status, (11.5 ?g/L for cases vs. 11.9 ?g/L for controls; P?=?0.48). Our findings also indicated TD children who ate fresh water fish had a higher BMC than children who did not (11.0 ?g/L vs. 9.9 ?g/L; P?=?0.03) as younger TD children (i.e., 2???age ?4), (12.0 ?g/L vs. 10.2 ?g/L; P?=?0.01). Conclusions While these results cannot be used to assess early exposure at potentially more susceptible time period, our findings suggest that there is no significant association between manganese exposures and ASD case status in Jamaica. Our findings also indicate that BMC in Jamaican children resemble those of children in the developed world and are much lower than those in the developing countries. PMID:25149876

2014-01-01

185

Keeping the blood flowing—plasminogen activator genes and feeding behavior in vampire bats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blood feeding vampire bats emerged from New World leaf-nosed bats that fed on fruit and insects. Plasminogen activator, a serine protease that regulates blood coagulation, is known to be expressed in the saliva of Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat) and is thought to be a key enzyme for the emergence of blood feeding in vampire bats. To better understand the evolution of this biological function, we studied the plasminogen activator (PA) genes from all vampire bat species in light of their feeding transition to bird and subsequently mammalian blood. We include the rare species Diphylla ecaudata and Diaemus youngi, where plasminogen activator had not previously been studied and demonstrate that PA gene duplication observed in Desmodus is not essential to the vampire phenotype, but relates to the emergence of predominant mammalian blood feeding in this species. Plasminogen activator has evolved through gene duplication, domain loss, and sequence evolution leading to change in fibrin-specificity and susceptibility to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Before undertaking this study, only the four plasminogen activator isoforms from Desmodus were known. The evolution of vampire bat plasminogen activators can now be linked phylogenetically to the transition in feeding behavior among vampire bat species from bird to mammalian blood.

Tellgren-Roth, Åsa; Dittmar, Katharina; Massey, Steven E.; Kemi, Cecilia; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Savolainen, Peter; Lyons, Leslie A.; Liberles, David A.

2009-01-01

186

Parallel and Convergent Evolution of the Dim-Light Vision Gene RH1 in Bats (Order: Chiroptera)  

PubMed Central

Rhodopsin, encoded by the gene Rhodopsin (RH1), is extremely sensitive to light, and is responsible for dim-light vision. Bats are nocturnal mammals that inhabit poor light environments. Megabats (Old-World fruit bats) generally have well-developed eyes, while microbats (insectivorous bats) have developed echolocation and in general their eyes were degraded, however, dramatic differences in the eyes, and their reliance on vision, exist in this group. In this study, we examined the rod opsin gene (RH1), and compared its evolution to that of two cone opsin genes (SWS1 and M/LWS). While phylogenetic reconstruction with the cone opsin genes SWS1 and M/LWS generated a species tree in accord with expectations, the RH1 gene tree united Pteropodidae (Old-World fruit bats) and Yangochiroptera, with very high bootstrap values, suggesting the possibility of convergent evolution. The hypothesis of convergent evolution was further supported when nonsynonymous sites or amino acid sequences were used to construct phylogenies. Reconstructed RH1 sequences at internal nodes of the bat species phylogeny showed that: (1) Old-World fruit bats share an amino acid change (S270G) with the tomb bat; (2) Miniopterus share two amino acid changes (V104I, M183L) with Rhinolophoidea; (3) the amino acid replacement I123V occurred independently on four branches, and the replacements L99M, L266V and I286V occurred each on two branches. The multiple parallel amino acid replacements that occurred in the evolution of bat RH1 suggest the possibility of multiple convergences of their ecological specialization (i.e., various photic environments) during adaptation for the nocturnal lifestyle, and suggest that further attention is needed on the study of the ecology and behavior of bats. PMID:20098620

Shen, Yong-Yi; Liu, Jie; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2010-01-01

187

Roosts as information centres: social learning of food preferences in bats.  

PubMed

The short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, lives in groups in tree hollows and caves. To investigate whether these roosts might serve as information centres, we tested whether individuals' preferences for novel foods could be enhanced through social learning at the roost. We also determined whether socially learned preferences for novel foods were reversed through interaction with other roost mates by simulating changes in available food resources such as those associated with variations in timing of fruit production in different plant species. Bats exhibited socially induced preferences that were readily reversible. We suggest that for frugivorous bats, roosts can serve as centres for information exchange about novel and familiar, ephemeral foods without requiring conspecific recruitment to these resources. PMID:17148131

Ratcliffe, John M; Ter Hofstede, Hannah M

2005-03-22

188

Ecological correlates of cortisol levels in two bat species with contrasting feeding habits.  

PubMed

The immediate release of adrenal glucocorticoids can be crucial for an animal's survival when facing a stressor, but constantly elevated or exceptionally high glucocorticoid levels are usually detrimental for health. Although baseline and maximal secretion of glucocorticoids are regulated within narrow ranges within species, plasma glucocorticoid levels vary largely across vertebrates. We asked what ecological factors affect baseline plasma cortisol levels (CortI) and maximum levels (CortMax) following a physiological challenge through administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Specifically, we studied whether seasonal fluctuations in food abundance correlate with the capacity of cortisol increases in two phyllostomid bat species with contrasting feeding habits: the sanguinivorous vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the frugivorous short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). Both species coexist in habitats with various levels of seasonality (dry and rainforest). On a seasonal basis, resource abundance is more stable for vampire than for fruit bats, but previous studies suggested that daily foraging success may vary more for vampire than for fruit bats. CortI and CortMax varied seasonally in C. perspicillata from dry and rainforests, with the exception of CortMax in rainforest bats. Although we expected food availability to be stable year-round for vampire bats, we found CortI and CortMax of vampires to be higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Also, we found CortMax to be higher in vampires from the rainforest than in those from the dry forest. CortMax of vampires were among the highest measured for a free-ranging mammal; a pattern that could be related to the species' vulnerability to starvation. We conclude that food availability modulates cortisol levels in free-ranging species that face seasonally fluctuating resources; in species, however, that benefit from food which is constantly abundant, other factors than food may become more important in modulating cortisol levels. PMID:22429728

Lewanzik, Daniel; Kelm, Detlev H; Greiner, Sabine; Dehnhard, Martin; Voigt, Christian C

2012-05-15

189

Bats jamming bats: food competition through sonar interference.  

PubMed

Communication signals are susceptible to interference ("jamming") from conspecifics and other sources. Many active sensing animals, including bats and electric fish, alter the frequency of their emissions to avoid inadvertent jamming from conspecifics. We demonstrated that echolocating bats adaptively jam conspecifics during competitions for food. Three-dimensional flight path reconstructions and audio-video field recordings of foraging bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) revealed extended interactions in which bats emitted sinusoidal frequency-modulated ultrasonic signals that interfered with the echolocation of conspecifics attacking insect prey. Playbacks of the jamming call, but not of control sounds, caused bats to miss insect targets. This study demonstrates intraspecific food competition through active disruption of a competitor's sensing during food acquisition. PMID:25378624

Corcoran, Aaron J; Conner, William E

2014-11-01

190

Diversity and Abundance of Bats (Chiroptera) found in Bat Boxes in East Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bat diversity and abundance was investigated in thirteen areas in east Lithuania in 2009. A total of 504 bat boxes of four models were checked in each area (30–60 bat boxes per area). The bat boxes were checked six times during the warm season of the year: in May, June, July, August, September and October. Six bat species, namely the

Kazimieras Baranauskas

2010-01-01

191

Functional characterization of piggyBat from the bat Myotis lucifugus unveils an active  

E-print Network

Functional characterization of piggyBat from the bat Myotis lucifugus unveils an active mammalian the genome of the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) and is a member of the piggyBac superfamily, is active of the genome of the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus (6­8). The most recently active bat transposons include

Feschotte, Cedric

192

Functional characterization of piggyBat from the bat Myotis lucifugus unveils an active  

E-print Network

Functional characterization of piggyBat from the bat Myotis lucifugus unveils an active mammalian the genome of the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) and is a member of the piggyBac superfamily, is active of the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus (6­8). The most recently active bat transposons include members

Mitra, Rob

193

Nutrition or detoxification: why bats visit mineral licks of the Amazonian rainforest.  

PubMed

Many animals in the tropics of Africa, Asia and South America regularly visit so-called salt or mineral licks to consume clay or drink clay-saturated water. Whether this behavior is used to supplement diets with locally limited nutrients or to buffer the effects of toxic secondary plant compounds remains unclear. In the Amazonian rainforest, pregnant and lactating bats are frequently observed and captured at mineral licks. We measured the nitrogen isotope ratio in wing tissue of omnivorous short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata, and in an obligate fruit-eating bat, Artibeus obscurus, captured at mineral licks and at control sites in the rainforest. Carollia perspicillata with a plant-dominated diet were more often captured at mineral licks than individuals with an insect-dominated diet, although insects were more mineral depleted than fruits. In contrast, nitrogen isotope ratios of A. obscurus did not differ between individuals captured at mineral lick versus control sites. We conclude that pregnant and lactating fruit-eating bats do not visit mineral licks principally for minerals, but instead to buffer the effects of secondary plant compounds that they ingest in large quantities during periods of high energy demand. These findings have potential implications for the role of mineral licks for mammals in general, including humans. PMID:18431492

Voigt, Christian C; Capps, Krista A; Dechmann, Dina K N; Michener, Robert H; Kunz, Thomas H

2008-01-01

194

Coronaviruses in bats from Mexico  

PubMed Central

Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of human pathogens including Nipah, Hendra, rabies, Ebola, Marburg and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV). The recent implication of a novel beta (?)-CoV as the cause of fatal respiratory disease in the Middle East emphasizes the importance of surveillance for CoVs that have potential to move from bats into the human population. In a screen of 606 bats from 42 different species in Campeche, Chiapas and Mexico City we identified 13 distinct CoVs. Nine were alpha (?)-CoVs; four were ?-CoVs. Twelve were novel. Analyses of these viruses in the context of their hosts and ecological habitat indicated that host species is a strong selective driver in CoV evolution, even in allopatric populations separated by significant geographical distance; and that a single species/genus of bat can contain multiple CoVs. A ?-CoV with 96.5?% amino acid identity to the ?-CoV associated with human disease in the Middle East was found in a Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat, suggesting that efforts to identify the viral reservoir should include surveillance of the bat families Molossidae/Vespertilionidae, or the closely related Nycteridae/Emballonuridae. While it is important to investigate unknown viral diversity in bats, it is also important to remember that the majority of viruses they carry will not pose any clinical risk, and bats should not be stigmatized ubiquitously as significant threats to public health. PMID:23364191

Ojeda-Flores, R.; Rico-Chavez, O.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Zambrana-Torrelio, C. M.; Rostal, M. K.; Epstein, J. H.; Tipps, T.; Liang, E.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Sotomayor-Bonilla, J.; Aguirre, A. A.; Avila-Flores, R.; Medellin, R. A.; Goldstein, T.; Suzan, G.; Daszak, P.

2013-01-01

195

Novel Astroviruses in Insectivorous Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats are increasingly recognized to harbor a wide range of viruses, and in most instances these viruses appear to establish long-term persistence in these animals. They are the reservoir of a number of human zoonotic diseases including Nipah, Ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We report the identi- fication of novel groups of astroviruses in apparently healthy insectivorous bats found

D. K. W. Chu; L. L. M. Poon; Y. Guan; J. S. M. Peiris

2008-01-01

196

Rabies in Bats from Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on rabies virus infection in bats that were submitted to the Alabama Department of Public Health from 1995-2005 were analyzed. Demographic factors, such as species and sex, and temporal aspects, such as yearly and monthly trends, were investigated. Thirteen species of bats were submitted, and of those, individuals from seven species were rabid; prevalence was highest in Lasiurus borealis

Laura C. Hester; Troy L. Best; M. Keith Hudson

2007-01-01

197

FLIGHT OF A BATTED BASEBALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fortran 90 computer language was used to create an accurate simulation of the flight of a baseball after making contact with the bat. A two-dimensional analysis of the forces on the baseball during the flight was produced using Newtonian projectile motion equations as a function of time. Using input variables of bat velocity, ball velocity, and trajectory of the

Lance Wheeler

198

Wake structure and wing motion in bat flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on experiments concerning the wake structure and kinematics of bat flight, conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel using time-resolved PIV (200Hz) and 4 high-speed cameras to capture wake and wing motion simultaneously. 16 Lesser dog-faced fruit bats (C. brachyotis) were trained to fly in the wind tunnel at 3-6.5m/s. The PIV recordings perpendicular to the flow stream allowed observing the development of the tip vortex and circulation over the wing beat cycle. Each PIV acquisition sequence is correlated with the respective kinematic history. Circulation within wing beat cycles were often quite repeatable, however variations due to maneuvering of the bat are clearly visible. While no distinct vortex structure was observed at the upper reversal point (defined according the vertical motion of the wrist) a tip vortex was observed to develop in the first third of the downstroke, growing in strength, and persisting during much of the upstroke. Correlated to the presence of a strong tip vortex the circulation has almost constant strength over the middle half of the wing beat. At relatively low flight speeds (3.4 m/s), a closed vortex structure behind the bat is postulated.

Hubel, Tatjana; Breuer, Kenneth; Swartz, Sharon

2008-11-01

199

Bartonella spp. in Bats, Kenya  

PubMed Central

We report the presence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across Kenya. Bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 Eidolon helvum, 22 Rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 Coleura afra, 7 Triaenops persicus, 1 Hipposideros commersoni, and 49 Miniopterus spp. bats. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of Bartonella strains. Phylogenetically, isolates clustered in specific host bat species. All isolates from R. aegyptiacus, C. afra, and T. persicus bats clustered in separate monophyletic groups. In contrast, E. helvum and Miniopterus spp. bats harbored strains that clustered in several groups. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these agents are responsible for human illnesses in the region. PMID:21122216

Bai, Ying; Lynch, Tarah; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2010-01-01

200

The importation and reexportation of organized crime: explaining the rise and fall of the Jamaican posses in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1980s and 1990s, Jamaican posses captured the imagination of the press corps, film makers, and numerous of criminal\\u000a justice scholars in the United States. However, except for a few historical references, their virtual disappearance from the\\u000a contemporary criminal justice literature leaves many unanswered questions. In updating the literature, this paper examines\\u000a the main factors contributing to the decline

Carl Williams; Mitchel P. Roth

201

Comparison of the Chemical Composition of East Indian, Jamaican and Other West Indian Essential Oils of Myristica fragrans Houtt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the essential oil of Myristica fragrans Houttuyn (nutmeg oil), from St. Catherine, Jamaica were compared with the literature data (1976–1997) for West Indian (primarily Grenadian) and East Indian nutmeg oils. GC, GC\\/MS and RP-HPLC strategies were used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the Jamaican oil which was found to contain lower quantities (weight percent) of the phenylpropanoids myristicin

Gregory I. C. Simpson; Yvette A. Jackson

2002-01-01

202

What Good Are Bats?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mosquito population in your area is increasing at an alarming rate. You and your team have been called in to become experts on the local bat species and what you can do to promote their health. TASK Each person in your group is to choose an area in which to become an expert. Each person in your group will have a designated area of which they are in charge. As a team you will choose a Captain, a Navigator, an Engineer, an Operations Specialist, and ...

Stanford, Mrs.

2008-11-17

203

The role of drinking water sources, consumption of vegetables and seafood in relation to blood arsenic concentrations of Jamaican children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is a toxic metal with harmful effects on human health, particularly on cognitive function. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are lifelong neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders manifesting in infancy or early childhood. We used data from 130 children between 2-8 years (65 pairs of ASD cases with age- and sex-matched control), to compare the mean total blood arsenic concentrations in children with and without ASDs in Kingston, Jamaica. Based on univariable analysis, we observed a significant difference between ASD cases and controls (4.03?g/L for cases vs. 4.48?g/L for controls, P < 0.01). In the final multivariable General Linear Model (GLM), after controlling for car ownership, maternal age, parental education levels, source of drinking water, consumption of “yam, sweet potato, or dasheen”, “carrot or pumpkin”, “callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi”, cabbage, avocado, and the frequency of seafood consumption per week, we did not find a significant association between blood arsenic concentrations and ASD status (4.36?g/L for cases vs. 4.65?g/L for controls, P = 0.23). Likewise, in a separate final multivariable GLM, we found that source of drinking water, eating avocado, and eating “callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi” were significantly associated with higher blood arsenic concentrations (all three P < 0.05). Based on our findings, we recommend assessment of arsenic levels in water, fruits, and vegetables, as well as increased awareness among the Jamaican population regarding potential risks for various exposures to arsenic. PMID:22819887

Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Loveland, Katherine A.; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Bloom, Kari; Wirth, Julie; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

2012-01-01

204

Sperm competition in bats.  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and investment in spermatogenesis across 31 species of microchiropteran bat using new and published data on testis mass and sperm length. In addition to male competition, I examined the effects of female reproductive biology on characteristics of spermatogenesis. Comparative studies indicate that relative testis mass is positively related to sperm competition risk in a wide range of taxa. Social group size may also influence the level of sperm competition, and one of the costs of living in groups may be decreased confidence of paternity. I used comparative analysis of independent contrast (CAIC) to control for phylogeny. Using two possible phylogenies and two measures of social group size, I found a significant positive relationship between social group size and testis mass. There was no relationship between testis mass and the dimension of the female reproductive tract or oestrus duration. Sperm length was not significantly related to body mass or group size, nor was it related to oestrus duration. PMID:9107054

Hosken, D J

1997-01-01

205

Niche-specific cognitive strategies: object memory interferes with spatial memory in the predatory bat Myotis nattereri.  

PubMed

Related species with different diets are predicted to rely on different cognitive strategies: those best suited for locating available and appropriate foods. Here we tested two predictions of the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis in bats, which suggests that predatory species should rely more on object memory than on spatial memory for finding food and that the opposite is true of frugivorous and nectivorous species. Specifically, we predicted that: (1) predatory bats would readily learn to associate shapes with palatable prey and (2) once bats had made such associations, these would interfere with their subsequent learning of a spatial memory task. We trained free-flying Myotis nattereri to approach palatable and unpalatable insect prey suspended below polystyrene objects. Experimentally naïve bats learned to associate different objects with palatable and unpalatable prey but performed no better than chance in a subsequent spatial memory experiment. Because experimental sequence was predicted to be of consequence, we introduced a second group of bats first to the spatial memory experiment. These bats learned to associate prey position with palatability. Control trials indicated that bats made their decisions based on information acquired through echolocation. Previous studies have shown that bat species that eat mainly nectar and fruit rely heavily on spatial memory, reflecting the relative consistency of distribution of fruit and nectar compared with insects. Our results support the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis and suggest that for gleaning and clutter-resistant aerial hawking bats, learning to associate shape with food interferes with subsequent spatial memory learning. PMID:25013105

Hulgard, Katrine; Ratcliffe, John M

2014-09-15

206

Emerging diseases in Chiroptera: why bats?  

PubMed Central

A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During several sessions, key note speakers and participants discussed infectious diseases associated with bats, including viral diseases caused by Henipa-, Filo-, Corona- and Lyssaviruses, the spread of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, bat immunology/immunogenetics, bat parasites, and finally, conservation and human health issues. PMID:20427329

Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.

2010-01-01

207

Bats of the Savannah River Site and vicinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), hoary bat (L. cinereus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus).

M. A. Menzel; J. M. Menzel; J. C. Kilgo; W. M. Ford; T. C. Carter; J. W. Edwards

2003-01-01

208

European Bat Lyssavirus Infection in Spanish Bat Populations  

PubMed Central

From 1992 to 2000, 976 sera, 27 blood pellets, and 91 brains were obtained from 14 bat species in 37 localities in Spain. Specific anti-European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBL1)-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in Myotis myotis, Miniopterus schreibersii, Tadarida teniotis, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in the region of Aragon and the Balearic Islands. Positive results were also obtained by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on brain, blood pellet, lung, heart, tongue, and esophagus-larynx-pharynx of M. myotis, Myotis nattereri, R. ferrumequinum, and M. schreibersii. Determination of nucleotide sequence confirmed the presence of EBL1 RNA in the different tissues. In one colony, the prevalence of seropositive bats over time corresponded to an asymmetrical curve, with a sudden initial increase peaking at 60% of the bats, followed by a gradual decline. Banded seropositive bats were recovered during several years, indicating that EBL1 infection in these bats was nonlethal. At least one of this species (M. schreibersii) is migratory and thus could be partially responsible for the dissemination of EBL1 on both shores of the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:11971777

Amengual, Blanca; Abellan, Carlos; Bourhy, Herve

2002-01-01

209

Click-based echolocation in bats: not so primitive after all.  

PubMed

Echolocating bats of the genus Rousettus produce click sonar signals, using their tongue (lingual echolocation). These signals are often considered rudimentary and are believed to enable only crude performance. However, the main argument supporting this belief, namely the click's reported long duration, was recently shown to be an artifact. In fact, the sonar clicks of Rousettus bats are extremely short, ~50-100 ?s, similar to dolphin vocalizations. Here, we present a comparison between the sonar systems of the 'model species' of laryngeal echolocation, the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), and that of lingual echolocation, the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). We show experimentally that in tasks, such as accurate landing or detection of medium-sized objects, click-based echolocation enables performance similar to laryngeal echolocators. Further, we describe a sophisticated behavioral strategy for biosonar beam steering in clicking bats. Finally, theoretical analyses of the signal design--focusing on their autocorrelations and wideband ambiguity functions--predict that in some aspects, such as target ranging and Doppler-tolerance, click-based echolocation might outperform laryngeal echolocation. Therefore, we suggest that click-based echolocation in bats should be regarded as a viable echolocation strategy, which is in fact similar to the biosonar used by most echolocating animals, including whales and dolphins. PMID:21465138

Yovel, Yossi; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Ulanovsky, Nachum

2011-05-01

210

Rabies in bats from Alabama.  

PubMed

Data on rabies virus infection in bats that were submitted to the Alabama Department of Public Health from 1995-2005 were analyzed. Demographic factors, such as species and sex, and temporal aspects, such as yearly and monthly trends, were investigated. Thirteen species of bats were submitted, and of those, individuals from seven species were rabid; prevalence was highest in Lasiurus borealis and Pipistrellus subflavus and lowest in Eptesicus fuscus and Nycticeius humeralis. There was no difference in prevalence of rabies between sexes or years. Statistically, more rabid bats were submitted in August, September, and November; and fewer were submitted in March, June, and July. Results were similar to those from other regions of North America; these data from Alabama can help to present a more complete view of rabies in bats in North America. PMID:17495316

Hester, Laura C; Best, Troy L; Hudson, M Keith

2007-04-01

211

High-risk and multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in cancer-free Jamaican women  

PubMed Central

Background Vaccines, that target human papillomavirus (HPV) high risk genotypes 16 and 18, have recently been developed. This study was aimed at determining genotypes commonly found in high-risk and multiple-HPV infections in Jamaican women. Two hundred and fifty three (253) women were enrolled in the study. Of these, 120 pregnant women, aged 15–44 years, were recruited from the Ante Natal Clinic at the University Hospital of the West Indies and 116 non-pregnant, aged 19–83, from a family practice in Western Jamaica. Cervical cell samples were collected from the women and HPV DNA was detected using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Reverse Line Hybridization. HPV genotypes were assessed in 236 women. Data were collected from January 2003 to October 2006. Results HPV DNA was detected in 87.7% (207/236) and of these 80.2% were positive for high-risk types. The most common high-risk HPV types were: HPV 45 (21.7%), HPV 58 (18.8%), HPV 16 (18.4%), HPV 35 (15.0%), HPV 18 (14.5%), HPV 52 (12.0%) and HPV 51(11.1%). Other high-risk types were present in frequencies of 1.4% – 7.2%. Multivariate regression analyses showed that bacterial vaginosis predicted the presence of multiple infections (OR 3.51; CI, 1.26–9.82) and that alcohol use (OR 0.31; CI, 0.15–0.85) and age at first sexual encounter (12–15 years: OR 3.56; CI, 1.41–9.12; 16–19 years, OR 3.53, CI, 1.22–10.23) were significantly associated with high risk infections. Cervical cytology was normal in the majority of women despite the presence of high-risk and multiple infections. Conclusion HPV genotype distribution in this group of Jamaican women differs from the patterns found in Europe, North America and some parts of Asia. It may be necessary therefore to consider development of other vaccines which target genotypes found in our and similar populations. HPV genotyping as well as Pap smears should be considered. PMID:19208202

Watt, Angela; Garwood, David; Jackson, Maria; Younger, Novie; Ragin, Camille; Smikle, Monica; Fletcher, Horace; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma

2009-01-01

212

Drinking and Flying: Does Alcohol Consumption Affect the Flight and Echolocation Performance of Phyllostomid Bats?  

PubMed Central

Background In the wild, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats often eat fermenting fruits and nectar, and thus may consume levels of ethanol that could induce inebriation. To understand if consumption of ethanol by bats alters their access to food and general survival requires examination of behavioural responses to its ingestion, as well as assessment of interspecific variation in those responses. We predicted that bats fed ethanol would show impaired flight and echolocation behaviour compared to bats fed control sugar water, and that there would be behavioural differences among species. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed wild caught Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Carollia sowelli, Glossophaga soricina, and Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) sugar water (44 g of table sugar in 500 ml of water) or sugar water with ethanol before challenging them to fly through an obstacle course while we simultaneously recorded their echolocation calls. We used bat saliva, a non-invasive proxy, to measure blood ethanol concentrations ranging from 0 to >0.3% immediately before flight trials. Flight performance and echolocation behaviour were not significantly affected by consumption of ethanol, but species differed in their blood alcohol concentrations after consuming it. Conclusions/Significance The bats we studied display a tolerance for ethanol that could have ramifications for the adaptive radiation of frugivorous and nectarivorous bats by allowing them to use ephemeral food resources over a wide span of time. By sampling across phyllostomid genera, we show that patterns of apparent ethanol tolerance in New World bats are broad, and thus may have been an important early step in the evolution of frugivory and nectarivory in these animals. PMID:20126552

Orbach, Dara N.; Veselka, Nina; Dzal, Yvonne; Lazure, Louis; Fenton, M. Brock

2010-01-01

213

Frozen Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

Company, The J.

2008-01-01

214

Roosting habits of bats affect their parasitism by bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smithsonian Venezuela Project (SVP) conducted extensive surveys of mammals and ectoparasites in the 1960s. The 25 238 individuals and 130 species of bat collected by SVP hosted 36 663 streblid bat flies, representing 116 species of these ectoparasitic dipterans. Roosts of bat species differ in durability and protection, and bat flies separate from the host to pupate in the

Bruce D. Patterson; Carl W. Dick; Katharina Dittmar

2007-01-01

215

IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF WARM UP BY OVERWEIGHED BAT IMPLEMENT ON BAT SWING VELOCITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of warming up by overweighed bat implement on bat swing velocity. Five softball players worked in this experiment and processed the following steps: swing official bat with and without overweight warm-ups (5 and 10 times). The maximal velocity of official bat swing was recorded by a 3-D cinematograph. By

Hui-Ping Tu; Chen-Ju Chien; Gin-Chang Liu

2002-01-01

216

Bat Rabies in Canada 1963-1967  

PubMed Central

Six hundred and twenty-eight insectivorous bats originating from seven provinces were submitted to this Institute for rabies diagnosis between August 1, 1963 and December 31, 1967. Brain tissue was examined by the fluorescent antibody technique and the mouse infectivity test was carried out with brain, salivary gland, interscapular adipose tissue and kidney samples. Rabies virus was detected in 44 bats, 29 of which were from Ontario, 12 from British Columbia and three from Manitoba. Most of the positive cases were diagnosed in summer months. Seven species were represented among the specimens found to be rabid; there were 32 big brown bats, three hoary bats, three silver-haired bats, two little brown bats, one eastern pipistrelle, one Keen myotis and one red bat. Another bat which was not identified also proved to be infected with rabies. PMID:4242773

Beauregard, M.

1969-01-01

217

Freeze-branding to permanently mark bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the effectiveness of freeze-branding as a permanent marking technique on 4 species of bats: Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), Townsend's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendil), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), and western small-footed myotis (Myotis ciliolabrum). Small copper branding irons (9.3 g and 15.6 g) were cooled in a mixture of dry ice and ethyl alcohol and applied to

Richard E. Sherwin; Shauna Haymond; Rebeccah Olsen

218

Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

Russell, Dan

2010-01-01

219

How sensitive are bats to insecticides?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern about the loss of bat populations to insecticides, first stated by Mohr (1953) has stimulated toxicological research to quantify the sensitivity of bats to these chemicals. This report is a review of results of research to date and a discussion of implications for bats in the wild.

Clark, D.R., Jr.

1988-01-01

220

Guide to the BATS Resource Trunk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides detailed information, resources, and activities to teach students about the bats of Arizona. Chapters include: (1) "What is a Bat?"; (2) "Megabat or Microbat?"; (3) "Bat Anatomy"; (4) Diet and Feeding"; (5) Echolocation"; (6) Reproduction and Lifespan"; (7) "Flight"; (8) "Migration and Hibernation"; (9) Habitat and Roost…

Arizona Game and Fish Dept., Phoenix.

221

Variation in the reproductive rate of bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many respects, bats have relatively slow life histories. However, the reproductive rate of bats (i.e., the proportion of females that reproduce in any breeding season) has not been critically examined. We compiled data on the reproductive rates of bats to test predictions based on life-history theory. Among 257 samples from 103 species, re - productive rate varied considerably and

Robert M. R. Barclay; Joel Ulmer; Cameron J. A. MacKenzie; Megan S. Thompson; Leif Olson; Julianne McCool; Elvie Cropley; Graeme Poll

2004-01-01

222

Distributional Limits of Bats in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats in temperate regions are relatively well studied, yet little research has focused on the northern limit of their distribution. We document the northwestern extent of bats in North America using museum holdings, literature records, and field research in Alaska. Six bat species are confirmed from Alaska: Myotis lucifugus, M. keenii, M. californicus, M. volans, Lasionycteris noctivagans, and Eptesicus fuscus.

DOREEN I. PARKER; BRIAN E. LAWHEAD; JOSEPH A. COOK

1997-01-01

223

INTRODUCTION Several species of microchiropteran bats  

E-print Network

-generated noise by the Indian false vampire bat Megaderma lyra GANAPATHY MARIMUTHU1 , KOILMANI EMMANUVEL RAJAN1, 3 sandy floors and asbestos, were recorded and played back to individual Indian false vampire bats. The Indian false vampire bat Megaderma lyra feeds on large insects and small vertebrates such as frogs, mice

Auckland, University of

224

Ageing Studies on Bats: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bat biologists have long known about the exceptional longevity of bats (Order: Chiroptera), which is unusual for mammals of such a small size and a high metabolic rate. Yet relatively few mechanistic studies have focused on this longevity. On average, species of Chiroptera live three times longer than predicted by their body size. In addition, bats have other life history

Anja K. Brunet-Rossinni; Steven N. Austad

2004-01-01

225

Se estudiaron la estructura social y las visitas y salidas que realizan los murcilagos zapoteros (Artibeus  

E-print Network

to the breeding season. In contrast, associated males showed higher fidelity to the roosting site, and moved less by Jamaican fruit-eating bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, in two caves of Yucatan, Mexico. Two different kinds females and showed high stability, being present in the same roosting sites for the whole duration

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

226

Vocal production learning in bats.  

PubMed

Echolocating bats exhibit excellent control over their acoustic signals emitted and skillfully interpret the returning echoes, allowing orientation and foraging in complete darkness. Echolocation may be a preadaptation for sophisticated vocal communication with conspecifics and, ultimately, vocal learning processes. In humans, the importance of auditory input for correct speech acquisition is obvious, whereas vocal production learning is rare and patchily distributed among non-human mammals. Bats comprise one of the few mammalian taxa capable of vocal production learning, with current behavioral evidence for three species belonging to two families; more evidence will probably forthcoming. The taxon's speciose nature makes bats well suited for phylogenetically controlled, comparative studies on proximate and ultimate mechanisms of mammalian vocal production learning. PMID:25050812

Knörnschild, Mirjam

2014-10-01

227

Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential. PMID:25256392

Mehle, Andrew

2014-01-01

228

Seasonal Pulses of Marburg Virus Circulation in Juvenile Rousettus aegyptiacus Bats Coincide with Periods of Increased Risk of Human Infection  

PubMed Central

Marburg virus (family Filoviridae) causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Bats have been implicated as likely natural reservoir hosts based most recently on an investigation of cases among miners infected in 2007 at the Kitaka mine, Uganda, which contained a large population of Marburg virus-infected Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. Described here is an ecologic investigation of Python Cave, Uganda, where an American and a Dutch tourist acquired Marburg virus infection in December 2007 and July 2008. More than 40,000 R. aegyptiacus were found in the cave and were the sole bat species present. Between August 2008 and November 2009, 1,622 bats were captured and tested for Marburg virus. Q-RT-PCR analysis of bat liver/spleen tissues indicated ?2.5% of the bats were actively infected, seven of which yielded Marburg virus isolates. Moreover, Q-RT-PCR-positive lung, kidney, colon and reproductive tissues were found, consistent with potential for oral, urine, fecal or sexual transmission. The combined data for R. aegyptiacus tested from Python Cave and Kitaka mine indicate low level horizontal transmission throughout the year. However, Q-RT-PCR data show distinct pulses of virus infection in older juvenile bats (?six months of age) that temporarily coincide with the peak twice-yearly birthing seasons. Retrospective analysis of historical human infections suspected to have been the result of discrete spillover events directly from nature found 83% (54/65) events occurred during these seasonal pulses in virus circulation, perhaps demonstrating periods of increased risk of human infection. The discovery of two tags at Python Cave from bats marked at Kitaka mine, together with the close genetic linkages evident between viruses detected in geographically distant locations, are consistent with R. aegyptiacus bats existing as a large meta-population with associated virus circulation over broad geographic ranges. These findings provide a basis for developing Marburg hemorrhagic fever risk reduction strategies. PMID:23055920

Amman, Brian R.; Carroll, Serena A.; Reed, Zachary D.; Sealy, Tara K.; Balinandi, Stephen; Swanepoel, Robert; Kemp, Alan; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Comer, James A.; Campbell, Shelley; Cannon, Deborah L.; Khristova, Marina L.; Atimnedi, Patrick; Paddock, Christopher D.; Kent Crockett, Rebekah J.; Flietstra, Timothy D.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Unfer, Robert; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

2012-01-01

229

Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals  

PubMed Central

The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed “whispering” can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency, duration, intensity, and directionality of echolocation signals) in unison define the search volume probed by bats and in turn how bats perceive their surroundings. Small changes to individual parameters can, in combination, drastically change the bat's perception, facilitating successful navigation and food acquisition across a vast range of ecological niches. To better understand the function of echolocation in the natural habitat it is critical to determine multiple acoustic features of the echolocation calls. The combined (interactive) effects, not only of frequency and time parameters, but also of intensity and directionality, define the bat's view of its acoustic scene. PMID:23630501

Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkl?v, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

2013-01-01

230

Bat rabies in alberta 1979-1982.  

PubMed

The infection rate among eight species of bats submitted for rabies diagnosis in Alberta during 1979-82 was 4.6%. Prevalence of rabies was greatest (24%) for hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus, while the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus was the species in which rabies was most commonly diagnosed, and the species submitted most frequently for rabies diagnosis was the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus. The rabies infection rate among male hoary bats was significantly greater than in either sex of all other submitted species. The frequency of rabies diagnosis in hoary bats submitted during 1979-82 was also significantly higher than in those submitted between 1971 and 1978. There has been a significant decrease in the rabies prevalence or infection rate of little brown bats since 1971-78. PMID:17422507

Rosatte, R C

1985-02-01

231

Bat Rabies in Alberta 1979-1982  

PubMed Central

The infection rate among eight species of bats submitted for rabies diagnosis in Alberta during 1979-82 was 4.6%. Prevalence of rabies was greatest (24%) for hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus, while the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus was the species in which rabies was most commonly diagnosed, and the species submitted most frequently for rabies diagnosis was the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus. The rabies infection rate among male hoary bats was significantly greater than in either sex of all other submitted species. The frequency of rabies diagnosis in hoary bats submitted during 1979-82 was also significantly higher than in those submitted between 1971 and 1978. There has been a significant decrease in the rabies prevalence or infection rate of little brown bats since 1971-78. PMID:17422507

Rosatte, Richard C.

1985-01-01

232

Enhanced Passive Bat Rabies Surveillance in Indigenous Bat Species from Germany - A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117

Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Muhldorfer, Kristin; Muhle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dorfer, Barbel; Pruger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Gunter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Muller, Thomas

2014-01-01

233

Enhanced passive bat rabies surveillance in indigenous bat species from Germany--a retrospective study.  

PubMed

In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117

Schatz, Juliane; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

2014-05-01

234

Child behavior and emotional problems in Jamaican classrooms: a multimethod study using direct observations and teacher reports for ages 6–11  

Microsoft Academic Search

International research on children's problems relies heavily on parent and teacher ratings. Such ratings are helpful to professionals who assess children but are subjected to biases emerging from adults’ personal involvement with the children they rate, and their own cultural experiences. This study investigated whether ratings of teachers versus observers on Jamaican children ages 6–11 differed according to informant, urban

Michael Canute Lambert; Marieva Puig; Mikhail Lyubansky; George T Rowan; Martin Hill; Beth Milburn; Stanley D Hannah

2001-01-01

235

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in relation to socioeconomic status among Jamaican young adults: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome has a high prevalence in many countries and has been associated with socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components among Jamaican young adults and evaluate its association with parental SES. METHODS: A subset of the participants from the 1986 Jamaica Birth Cohort was evaluated at ages

Trevor S Ferguson; Marshall K Tulloch-Reid; Novie OM Younger; Jennifer M Knight-Madden; Maureen Samms-Vaughan; Deanna Ashley; Jan Van den Broeck; Rainford J Wilks

2010-01-01

236

Social structure of three sympatric bat species (Vespertilionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social structure of three sympatric bat species occupying bat boxes in woodland in southern England was studied: Pipistrellus pipistrellus (pipistrelle), Plecotus auritus (brown long-eared bat) and Myotis nattereri (Natterer's bat). Before parturition, P. pipistrellus populations were heavily skewed towards solitary males. After parturition, the sex ratio was closer to unity. Recaptures of marked bats suggested that after parturition a

K. J. Park; E. Masters; J. D. Altringham

1998-01-01

237

OCCURRENCE OF THE HOARY BAT {LASIURUS CINEREUS) IN OHIO 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few specimens of the hoary bat have been reported from Ohio in the past, but there are now records of adult bats from Cuyahoga, Franklin, Hamilton, Loraine, Ottawa, Portage, Ross and Wood Counties. Pregnant females and\\/or very young bats have been taken in several counties, indicating that the hoary bat breeds in Ohio. The birth of a hoary bat in

JACK L. GOTTSCHANG

238

THE EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL ERROR ON BAT PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of baseball and softball bats has improved markedly over the past four decades. This has motivated many associations to develop test methods and measures to regulate bat performance. The bat performance test involves an initially stationary bat that is allowed to recoil after being impacted by a ball. The following considers the effect of experimental error on bat

L. V. SMITH

239

Do predators influence the behaviour of bats?  

PubMed

Many aspects of animal behaviour are affected by real-time changes in the risk of predation. This conclusion holds for virtually all taxa and ecological systems studied, but does it hold for bats? Bats are poorly represented in the literature on anti-predator behaviour, which may reflect a lack of nocturnal predators specialized on bats. If bats actually experience a world with minimal anti-predator concerns, then they will provide a unique contrast within the realm of vertebrate ecology. Alternatively, such predator-driven behaviour in bats may not yet be fully understood, given the difficulties in working with these highly mobile and nocturnal animals. We provide a wide-ranging exploration of these issues in bat behaviour. We first cover the basic predator-prey information available on bats, both on potential predators and the ways in which bats might perceive predators and respond to attacks. We then cover work relevant to key aspects of bat behaviour, such as choice of daytime roosts, the nature of sleep and torpor, evening roost departures, moonlight avoidance, landscape-related movement patterns, and habitat selection. Overall, the evidence in favour of a strong influence of predators on bat behaviour is equivocal, with the picture clouded by contradictory results and a lack of information on potential predators and the perception of risk by bats. It seems clear that day-active bats run a considerable risk of being killed by diurnal raptors, which are able to capture bats with relative ease. Thus, bats taking advantage of a pulse of insects just prior to sunset are likely taking risks to gain much-needed energy. Further, the choice of daytime roosts by bats is probably strongly influenced by roost safety. Few studies, however, have directly addressed either of these topics. As a group, insectivorous temperate-zone bats show no clear tendency to avoid apparently risky situations, such as activity on moonlit nights. However, some observations are consistent with the idea that predation risk affects choice of movement paths and feeding areas by temperate-zone bats, as well as the timing of roost departures. The behaviour of tropical bats, on the other hand, seems more generally influenced by predators; this is especially true for tropical nectarivores and frugivores, but also for insectivorous bats. Presumably there are more serious predators on bats in the tropics (e.g. specialized raptors or carnivorous bats), but the identity of these predators is unclear. More information is needed to assess fully the influence of predators on bat behaviour. There is much need for work on the ways in which bats perceive predators via auditory, visual, and olfactory cues, and whether bats have some knowledge of the risks posed by different predators. Also needed is information on how predators attack bats and how bats react to attacking predators. Difficult to obtain, but of critical value, will be information on the nature of the predation risk experienced by bats while away from roosts and during the full darkness of night. PMID:23347323

Lima, Steven L; O'Keefe, Joy M

2013-08-01

240

Bats Without Borders: Long-Distance Movements and Implications for Disease Risk Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit bats of the genus Pteropus (commonly known as flying-foxes) are the natural hosts of several recently emerged zoonotic viruses of animal and human health\\u000a significance in Australia and Asia, including Hendra and Nipah viruses. Satellite telemetry was used on nine flying-foxes\\u000a of three species (Pteropus alecto n = 5, P. vampyrus\\u000a n = 2, and P. neohibernicus\\u000a n = 2) to determine the scale and

Andrew C. Breed; Hume E. Field; Craig S. Smith; Joanne Edmonston; Joanne Meers

2010-01-01

241

Immunohistochemical evidence of cone-based ultraviolet vision in divergent bat species and implications for its evolution.  

PubMed

We characterized Fos-like expression patterns in the primary visual cortex (V1) by binocular flicking stimulation with UV light to investigate cone-based UV vision in four bat species representing four lineages: Hipposideros armiger and Scotophilus kuhlii, insectivores using constant frequency (CF) or frequency modulation (FM) echolocation, respectively, and Rousettus leschenaultii and Cynopterus sphinx, cave-roosting and tree-roosting fruit bats, respectively. The optic centre processing the visual image, V1, appears more distinctly immunostaining in S. kuhlii and C. sphinx after 1h of UV light stimuli while in H. armiger and R. leschenaultii, staining was no more distinct than in corresponding controls. Our immunohistochemical evidence supports differences in the distribution of cone-based UV vision in the order Chiroptera and supports our earlier postulate that due to possible sensory tradeoffs and roosting ecology, defects in the short wavelength opsin genes have resulted in loss of UV vision in CF but not in FM bats. In addition, fruit bats roosting in caves have lost UV vision but not those roosting in trees. Our results thus confirm that bats are a further mammalian taxon that has retained cone-based UV sensitivity in some species. PMID:22269122

Xuan, Fujun; Hu, Kailiang; Zhu, Tengteng; Racey, Paul; Wang, Xuzhong; Zhang, Shuyi; Sun, Yi

2012-04-01

242

Acute effects of various weighted bat warm-up protocols on bat velocity.  

PubMed

Although research has provided evidence of increased muscular performance following a facilitation set of resistance exercise, this has not been established for use prior to measuring baseball bat velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of selected weighted bat warm-up protocols to enhance bat velocity in collegiate baseball players. Nineteen collegiate baseball players (age = 20.15 +/- 1.46 years) were tested for upper-body strength by a 3-repetition maximum (RM) bench press (mean = 97.98 +/- 14.54 kg) and mean bat velocity. Nine weighted bat warm-up protocols, utilizing 3 weighted bats (light = 794 g; standard = 850 g; heavy = 1,531 g) were swung in 3 sets of 6 repetitions in different orders. A control trial involved the warm-up protocol utilizing only the standard bat. Pearson product correlation revealed a significant relationship between 3RM strength and pretest bat velocity (r = 0.51, p = 0.01). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant treatment effects of warm-up protocol on bat velocity. However, the order of standard, light, heavy bat sequence resulted in the greatest increase in bat velocity (+6.03%). These results suggest that upper-body muscle strength influences bat velocity. It appears that the standard, light, heavy warm-up order may provide the greatest benefit to increase subsequent bat velocity and may warrant use in game situations. PMID:19855339

Reyes, G Francis; Dolny, Dennis

2009-10-01

243

New Data on Bats Hibernating in Underground Sites in Vilnius, Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations into bat diversity and abundance were carried out in Vilnius in 2005. Ten bat hibernation sites were investigated in the city where six bat species were found: Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii), pond bat (Myotis dasycneme), Brandt.s\\/whiskered bat (Myotis brandtii\\/mystacinus), brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus), barbastelle bat (Barbastella barbastellus) and northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii). More than 820 bats roosted in

Kazimieras Baranauskas

2006-01-01

244

Recolonization of bat roost by bat bugs (Cimex pipistrelli): could parasite load be a cause of bat roost switching?  

PubMed

Roost ectoparasites are believed to have a negative impact on fitness of their hosts as birds or mammals. Previous studies were mostly focussed on the synchronization between reproduction cycles of ectoparasites and hosts living in infested roosts. However, to date, it has not been examined how fast ectoparasites colonize new, non-infested roosts and thus increasing the impact on the local populations of hosts. The parasite-host model was studied, including bat bugs Cimex pipistrelli and soprano pipistrelles Pipistrellus pygmaeus, where bat behaviour was observed which tended to reduce the parasite load in bat roosts. We investigated (1) whether bats change their roosting behaviour when we discontinued synchronization of their reproduction and the life cycle of the bat bugs and (2) how fast and which stages of bat bugs reoccupy cleaned roosts. In a 3-year field experiment, we removed all bat bugs from six bat boxes in each spring. Pipistrelles bred young in all non-infested boxes during these 3 years. In addition, 8 years of regular observations before this experiment indicate that bats avoided breeding in the same bat boxes at all. Bat bugs were found again in clean boxes in mid-May. However, their densities did not maximise before the beginning of June, before parturition. A re-appearance of bugs was observed after 21-56 days after the first bat visit. Adult bugs, mainly females, colonised cleaned boxes first though at the same time there were a lot of younger and smaller instars in non-manipulated roosts in the vicinity. PMID:23385971

Bartoni?ka, Tomáš; R?ži?ková, Lucie

2013-04-01

245

Prey detection in trawling insectivorous bats: duckweed affects hunting behaviour in Daubenton's bat, Myotis daubentonii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daubenton's bat, a trawling vespertilionid bat species, hunts for insects that fly close to, or rest on, the water surface.\\u000a During summer, many ponds at which Daubenton's bats hunt become gradually covered with duckweed. The purpose of this study\\u000a was to investigate the effects of duckweed cover on the hunting behaviour of Daubenton's bats and on the ultrasound-reflecting\\u000a properties of

Arjan M. Boonman; Martijn Boonman; Frank Bretschneider; Wim A. van de Grind

1998-01-01

246

Identification of a novel bat papillomavirus by metagenomics.  

PubMed

The discovery of novel viruses in animals expands our knowledge of viral diversity and potentially emerging zoonoses. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology gives millions or even billions of sequence reads per run, allowing a comprehensive survey of the genetic content within a sample without prior nucleic acid amplification. In this study, we screened 156 rectal swab samples from apparently healthy bats (n = 96), pigs (n = 9), cattles (n = 9), stray dogs (n = 11), stray cats (n = 11) and monkeys (n = 20) using a HTS metagenomics approach. The complete genome of a novel papillomavirus (PV), Miniopterus schreibersii papillomavirus type 1 (MscPV1), with L1 of 60% nucleotide identity to Canine papillomavirus (CPV6), was identified in a specimen from a Common Bent-wing Bat (M. schreibersii). It is about 7.5kb in length, with a G+C content of 45.8% and a genomic organization similar to that of other PVs. Despite the higher nucleotide identity between the genomes of MscPV1 and CPV6, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the L1 gene sequence showed that MscPV1 and Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus (EdPV1) are most closely related. Estimated divergence time of MscPV1 from the EdPV1/MscPV1 common ancestor was approximately 60.2-91.9 millions of years ago, inferred under strict clocks using the L1 and E1 genes. The estimates were limited by the lack of reliable calibration points from co-divergence because of possible host shifts. As the nucleotide sequence of this virus only showed limited similarity with that of related animal PVs, the conventional approach of PCR using consensus primers would be unlikely to have detected the novel virus in the sample. Unlike the first bat papillomavirus RaPV1, MscPV1 was found in an asymptomatic bat with no apparent mucosal or skin lesions whereas RaPV1 was detected in the basosquamous carcinoma of a fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus. We propose MscPV1 as the first member of the novel Dyolambda-papillomavirus genus. PMID:22937142

Tse, Herman; Tsang, Alan K L; Tsoi, Hoi-Wah; Leung, Andy S P; Ho, Chi-Chun; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2012-01-01

247

Identification of a Novel Bat Papillomavirus by Metagenomics  

PubMed Central

The discovery of novel viruses in animals expands our knowledge of viral diversity and potentially emerging zoonoses. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology gives millions or even billions of sequence reads per run, allowing a comprehensive survey of the genetic content within a sample without prior nucleic acid amplification. In this study, we screened 156 rectal swab samples from apparently healthy bats (n?=?96), pigs (n?=?9), cattles (n?=?9), stray dogs (n?=?11), stray cats (n?=?11) and monkeys (n?=?20) using a HTS metagenomics approach. The complete genome of a novel papillomavirus (PV), Miniopterus schreibersii papillomavirus type 1 (MscPV1), with L1 of 60% nucleotide identity to Canine papillomavirus (CPV6), was identified in a specimen from a Common Bent-wing Bat (M. schreibersii). It is about 7.5kb in length, with a G+C content of 45.8% and a genomic organization similar to that of other PVs. Despite the higher nucleotide identity between the genomes of MscPV1 and CPV6, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the L1 gene sequence showed that MscPV1 and Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus (EdPV1) are most closely related. Estimated divergence time of MscPV1 from the EdPV1/MscPV1 common ancestor was approximately 60.2–91.9 millions of years ago, inferred under strict clocks using the L1 and E1 genes. The estimates were limited by the lack of reliable calibration points from co-divergence because of possible host shifts. As the nucleotide sequence of this virus only showed limited similarity with that of related animal PVs, the conventional approach of PCR using consensus primers would be unlikely to have detected the novel virus in the sample. Unlike the first bat papillomavirus RaPV1, MscPV1 was found in an asymptomatic bat with no apparent mucosal or skin lesions whereas RaPV1 was detected in the basosquamous carcinoma of a fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus. We propose MscPV1 as the first member of the novel Dyolambda-papillomavirus genus. PMID:22937142

Leung, Andy S. P.; Ho, Chi-Chun; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2012-01-01

248

Experimental evidence of food-independent larval development in endemic Jamaican freshwater-breeding crabs.  

PubMed

In an experimental study, we compared reproductive and developmental traits of endemic sesarmid crabs from Jamaica living in landlocked limnic or terrestrial habitats. Laboratory rearing and behavioral observations showed that the larval development of Sesarma windsor, Sesarma dolphinum (both from freshwater brooks), and Metopaulias depressus (the bromeliad crab) invariably consists of two nonfeeding zoeal stages and a facultatively lecithotrophic megalopa. In a quantitative study of life-history processes characterizing this developmental mode, we provide for S. windsor first data of biomass and elemental composition (dry mass, W; carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, collectively, CHN) during development from the egg through successive larval stages. These data show that larval independence of food is based on an enhanced female energy allocation in reproduction, reflected in unusually large egg size (1.45-1.70 mm), as well as high contents of C and H (about 60% and 9%, respectively) and high C : N ratios (7.6-8.4) in eggs and early larvae. During zoeal development, about 6% of initial W and 9% of N but 13% each of C and H were lost; similar losses occurred during megalopal development in continued absence of food. These patterns reflect the metabolic utilization of stored organic matter, with preferential degradation of lipid reserves. Fed megalopae gained greater amounts of W and N as compared with C and H (increments of 37% and 38% vs. 25% and 19%, respectively), indicating preferential investment of nutritional energy in proteins required for the formation of new tissues and organs, while generally decreasing proportions of CHN within total W suggested an increasing mineralization of the exoskeleton. Although survival and molt cycle duration of the megalopa stage were not affected by absence of food, significant effects were found in the size of first-stage juvenile crabs, indicating a trade-off between nutritional flexibility in the last larval stage and postmetamorphic fitness. Similar patterns of development and biomass in M. depressus as well as preliminary data obtained for S. dolphinum and Sesarma fossarum suggest that reproductive and developmental traits may be similar in all endemic Jamaican sesarmids. These traits are interpreted as life-history adaptations to development in landlocked habitats, probably playing a key role during adaptive radiation. PMID:15778944

Anger, Klaus; Schubart, Christoph D

2005-01-01

249

76 FR 67238 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by BATS...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65619, File No. SR-BATS-2011-032] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Adopt Rules Applicable to Auctions...

2011-10-31

250

76 FR 5418 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63766; File No. SR-BATS-2011-002] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rules in Connection With the Implementation of Amendments...

2011-01-31

251

Characterizing the performance of baseball bats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of the performance of baseball bats is presented from a physics point of view. The goal is to define a set of laboratory measurements that can be used to predict performance in the field. The concept of a model-independent collision efficiency, which relates the post-collision ball speed to the initial ball and bat speeds, is introduced and its properties are investigated. It is shown to provide a convenient link between laboratory and field measurements. Other performance metrics are presented, related to the collision efficiency, and evaluated according to their predictive power. Using a computational model, it is shown that bat performance depends on the interplay of the elasticity of the ball-bat collision, the inertial properties of the ball and bat, and the bat swing speed. It is argued that any method of determining performance needs to take all of these factors into account. A new method is proposed and compared with commonly used existing methods.

Nathan, Alan M.

2003-02-01

252

Importance of night roosts for bat conservation: roosting behaviour of the lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safeguarding day roosts is of key importance in bat conservation. However, little emphasis has been placed on the conservation of night roosts, although these may act as refuges close to foraging grounds. We studied the roosting behaviour of the lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros, a species that has declined over large areas of Europe, and radio-tracked 54 bats from 3

Tessa Knight; Gareth Jones

2009-01-01

253

Quantitative comparison of tree roosts used by red bats ( Lasiurus borealis ) and Seminole bats ( L. seminolus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We radio-tracked 11 red bats and 5 Seminole bats (L. seminolus) to 64 and 34 day roosts, 'd ! respectively. Individuals of both species were found roosting within the canopy of the roost trees, clinging to leaf petioles or the tips of small branches (~4 cm in diameter). Red bats roosted primarily in hardwoods (970\\/o), whereas the roosts of Seminole

Michael A. Menzel; Timothy C. Carter; Brian R. Chapman; Joshua Laerm

1998-01-01

254

Behavior of bats at wind turbines  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

Cryan, Paul; Gorresen, Marcos; Hine, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T.S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C.

2014-01-01

255

The communicative potential of bat echolocation pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological constraints often shape the echolocation pulses emitted by bat species. Consequently some (but not all) bats emit\\u000a species-specific echolocation pulses. Because echolocation pulses are often intense and emitted at high rates, they are potential\\u000a targets for eavesdropping by other bats. Echolocation pulses can also vary within species according to sex, body size, age,\\u000a social group and geographic location. Whether

Gareth Jones; Björn M. Siemers

2011-01-01

256

Antiviral immune responses of bats: a review.  

PubMed

Despite being the second most species-rich and abundant group of mammals, bats are also among the least studied, with a particular paucity of information in the area of bat immunology. Although bats have a long history of association with rabies, the emergence and re-emergence of a number of viruses from bats that impact human and animal health has resulted in a resurgence of interest in bat immunology. Understanding how bats coexist with viruses in the absence of disease is essential if we are to begin to develop therapeutics to target viruses in humans and susceptible livestock and companion animals. Here, we review the current status of knowledge in the field of bat antiviral immunology including both adaptive and innate mechanisms of immune defence and highlight the need for further investigations in this area. Because data in this field are so limited, our discussion is based on both scientific discoveries and theoretical predictions. It is hoped that by provoking original, speculative or even controversial ideas or theories, this review may stimulate further research in this important field. Efforts to understand the immune systems of bats have been greatly facilitated in recent years by the availability of partial genome sequences from two species of bats, a megabat, Pteropus vampyrus, and a microbat, Myotis lucifugus, allowing the rapid identification of immune genes. Although bats appear to share most features of the immune system with other mammals, several studies have reported qualitative and quantitative differences in the immune responses of bats. These observations warrant further investigation to determine whether such differences are associated with the asymptomatic nature of viral infections in bats. PMID:23302292

Baker, M L; Schountz, T; Wang, L-F

2013-02-01

257

Flying bats take cue from bugs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bats use the same aerodynamic trick as flying insects do to stay aloft, scientists have discovered. When the bat wing flaps downward, the motion produces a tiny cyclone of air above the wing, called a "leading edge vortex," that pulls the animal upward. Researchers have known that insects create these vortices while flying, but theyve wondered whether same thing works for larger, heavier animals like bats.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-02-28

258

Global Completeness of the Bat Fossil Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats are unique among mammals in their use of powered flight and their widespread capacity for laryngeal echolocation. Understanding\\u000a how and when these and other abilities evolved could be improved by examining the bat fossil record. However, the fossil record\\u000a of bats is commonly believed to be very poor. Quantitative analyses of this record have rarely been attempted, so it

Thomas P. Eiting; Gregg F. Gunnell

2009-01-01

259

A New Metaheuristic Bat-Inspired Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metaheuristic algorithms such as particle swarm optimization, firefly\\u000aalgorithm and harmony search are now becoming powerful methods for solving many\\u000atough optimization problems. In this paper, we propose a new metaheuristic\\u000amethod, the Bat Algorithm, based on the echolocation behaviour of bats. We also\\u000aintend to combine the advantages of existing algorithms into the new bat\\u000aalgorithm. After a detailed

Xin-She Yang

2010-01-01

260

Behavior of bats at wind turbines.  

PubMed

Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines. PMID:25267628

Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C

2014-10-21

261

Behavior of bats at wind turbines  

PubMed Central

Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines. PMID:25267628

Cryan, Paul. M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T. S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C.

2014-01-01

262

Evaluating baseball bat performance L. V. Smith  

E-print Network

Evaluating baseball bat performance L. V. Smith School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering address: L. V. Smith, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman

Smith, Lloyd V.

263

Musculoskeletal trauma: the baseball bat.  

PubMed Central

Between July 1987 and December 1990 in Washington, DC, 116 patients sustained 146 fractures and seven dislocations due to an assault with a baseball bat. The ulna was the most common site of trauma (61 fractures), followed by the hand (27 injuries) and the radius (14 injuries). Forty-two of the 146 fractures were significantly displaced and required open reduction and internal fixation to restore satisfactory alignment. Twenty-nine of the 146 fractures were open fractures. Treatment protocol for open fractures consisted of irrigation and debridement, antibiotic therapy, and bone stabilization with either internal or external fixation, or casting. Recognition of the severity of the soft tissue and bone damage is important in the management of musculoskeletal trauma secondary to the baseball bat. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1460683

Bryant, D. D.; Greenfield, R.; Martin, E.

1992-01-01

264

Arkansas Range Extensions of the Eastern Small-Footed Bat (Myotis leibii) and Northern Long-Eared Bat (Myotisseptentrionalis) and Additional County Records for the Silver-Haired Bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus), Southeastern Bat (Myotis austroriparius), and Rafinesque's Big-Eared Bat (Plecotus rafinesquii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We continued field studies of bats in non-cave regions of Arkansas from 1989 to present and utilized specimens submit- ted to the Arkansas Department of Health Rabies Laboratory to establish Arkansas range extensions for the eastern small- footed bat (Myotisleibii) and northern long-eared bat (Myotisseptentrionalis).In addition, we documented additional county records for the silver-haired bat (Lasionycterisnoctivagans),hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus),soudieastern bat

David A. Saugey; V. Rick McDaniel

265

Science Explorations: Soar with Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations are a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. The Soar with Bats: Night Fliers of the Sky exploration includes a documentary-style introduction, two Level 1 online activities for students in grades 3-6, two Level 2 online activities for students in grades 6-10, and links to additional articles and activities.

266

[Trematode parasites of Italian bats].  

PubMed

Data are presented on bat trematodes in Italy, whose previous list included only the following five species: Plagiorchis vespertilionis, Plagiorchis asper, Mesotretes peregrinus, Prosthodendrium chilostomum, Prosthodendrium longiforme. Between 1945 and 1981, 289 bats were examined belonging to 13 species. A total of twelve trematode species were identified, nine of which are recorded for the first time in Italy: Lecithodendrium linstowi, Lecithodendrium granulosum, Lecithodendrium rotundum, Prosthodendrium herardovae, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, Prosthodendrium parvouterus, Pycnoporus heteroporus, Matovius rhinolophi, Parabascus lepidotus. For each parasite species, hosts, localities and number of specimens/host are reported. Special attention is devoted to P. vespertilionis with description of specimens remarkably different from the type form, to L. linstowi for peculiar specimens from Rhinolophus hipposideros, and to M. rhinolophi with additions to the original description especially concerning the vitelline glands' structure. Pycnoporus macrolaimus, identified in a collection of bat trematodes of the Institute of Parasitology of the University "La Sapienza" of Rome, is also recorded for the first time in Italy. PMID:8778660

Ricci, M

1995-12-01

267

A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?  

PubMed Central

Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs. PMID:23378666

Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T. S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L. N.; Webb, Colleen T.

2013-01-01

268

How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?  

PubMed

The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (?15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms. PMID:21697434

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

2011-07-15

269

Community Ecology of Bats in Southern Lower Michigan, with Emphasis on Roost Selection by Myotis  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied the roosting niche of three sympatric species of Myotis (little brown bat, M. lucifugus; northern bat, M. septentrionalis; and Indiana bat, M. sodalis) and examined changes in composition of the entire bat community in southern Lower Michigan over long periods. Little brown bats roosted in buildings, whereas northern and Indiana bats used trees. Northern and Indiana bats differed

Lisa Winhold

2007-01-01

270

Sound localization by echolocating bats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Echolocating bats emit ultrasonic vocalizations and listen to echoes reflected back from objects in the path of the sound beam to build a spatial representation of their surroundings. Important to understanding the representation of space through echolocation are detailed studies of the cues used for localization, the sonar emission patterns and how this information is assembled. This thesis includes three studies, one on the directional properties of the sonar receiver, one on the directional properties of the sonar transmitter, and a model that demonstrates the role of action in building a representation of auditory space. The general importance of this work to a broader understanding of spatial localization is discussed. Investigations of the directional properties of the sonar receiver reveal that interaural level difference and monaural spectral notch cues are both dependent on sound source azimuth and elevation. This redundancy allows flexibility that an echolocating bat may need when coping with complex computational demands for sound localization. Using a novel method to measure bat sonar emission patterns from freely behaving bats, I show that the sonar beam shape varies between vocalizations. Consequently, the auditory system of a bat may need to adapt its computations to accurately localize objects using changing acoustic inputs. Extra-auditory signals that carry information about pinna position and beam shape are required for auditory localization of sound sources. The auditory system must learn associations between extra-auditory signals and acoustic spatial cues. Furthermore, the auditory system must adapt to changes in acoustic input that occur with changes in pinna position and vocalization parameters. These demands on the nervous system suggest that sound localization is achieved through the interaction of behavioral control and acoustic inputs. A sensorimotor model demonstrates how an organism can learn space through auditory-motor contingencies. The model also reveals how different aspects of sound localization, such as experience-dependent acquisition, adaptation, and extra-auditory influences, can be brought together under a comprehensive framework. This thesis presents a foundation for understanding the representation of auditory space that builds upon acoustic cues, motor control, and learning dynamic associations between action and auditory inputs.

Aytekin, Murat

271

Iron Deficiency, Fruit Yield and Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is a major constraint for many fruit crops grown on calcareous soils. Iron deficiency is often assumed tacitly to affect negatively both fruit yield and fruit quality, but to our knowledge no review has been done so far on these specific issues. This review discusses first the negative effects of Fe deficiency in fruit yield, including as an

Ana Àlvarez-Fernàndez; Javier Abadía; Anunciación Abadía

272

Dynamics of the baseball-bat collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is developed for the collision between the baseball and bat, taking into account the transverse bending vibrations of the bat. By coupling the flexible bat to the ball via a parametrized force that each mutually exerts on the other, a complete description of the collision process is obtained, including the exit speed of the ball vf. It is shown that vibrations play an important role in determining vf. The model is in excellent agreement with experimental data at low impact velocities. At the higher velocities more appropriate to the game of baseball, vf is shown to coincide with the rigid-body value only over a very small region in the barrel of the bat and to drop off sharply for impacts removed from that region. Some interesting insights into the collision process are obtained, including the observation that for impacts in the barrel of the bat, the momentum transferred to the ball is essentially complete by the time the elastic wave first arrives at the handle and that any clamping action of the hands will affect the bat at the impact point only after the ball and bat have separated. This suggests that vf is independent of the size, shape, and method of support of the bat at distances far from the impact location.

Nathan, Alan M.

2000-11-01

273

Speciescompositionandmorphologicalstructureof the bat faunaof Yucatan,Mexico  

E-print Network

Speciescompositionandmorphologicalstructureof the bat faunaof Yucatan,Mexico HÃ?CTOR T. ARIT their morphological structure. 2. 1madesucha comparisonusingdata of the bat fauna of Yucatan, Mexico and of a regional of taxonomic affiliation and of feeding and roosting habits. Additionally, dispersal ability and species

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

274

Handling and veterinary care of British bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most wildlife casualties seen in veterinary practice are from common species living in close proximity to humans. Despite recent declines in bat populations, certain species are still relatively abundant in the UK. Many of these bats roost in buildings, increasing their potential exposure to man-made hazards. Their small size and adaptations to flight make them a challenge for the veterinary

Steve Bexton; David Couper

2010-01-01

275

Social organization in the bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social organization of the pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) was studied by means of bat boxes in southern Sweden. The males set up territories around a roosting site in the beginning of the summer at the same time as the females formed nursing colonies. After breeding, the females joined the single males in their day roosts establishing transient mating harems.

Rune Gerell; Karin Lundberg

1985-01-01

276

Social organization and foraging in emballonurid bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Five species of emballonurid bats (Rhynchonycteris naso, Saccopteryx leptura, Balantiopteryx plicata, Saccopteryx bilineata, and Peropteryx kappleri), were studied in Costa Rica and Trinidad. Stomach contents suggest that prey size generally increases for bat body size, but within these species there is considerable overlap. R. naso, S. leptura, and P. kappleri each appear to be specialized for foraging in a particular

J. W. Bradbury; S. L. Vehrencamp

1976-01-01

277

Peregrine Falcon feeding on bats in Suriname  

Microsoft Academic Search

source in the New World, especially m the Neotropics (Morris, 1965 andpers. obs ), and a number of raptors have been reported to feed on them. Published re- ports on bat predation in the Neotropics include Aplomado Falcon, Falcofemor- ahs (fiYench, 1967), Bat Falcon, F. ruff- gularis (Brown & Amadon, 1968, Cade, 1982), Orange-breasted Falcon, F. deiro- leucus (Cade, 1982),

Jan Erik Pierson; Paul Donahue

278

THE BATS OF THE OUACHITA MOUNTAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted from June, 1982 through January, 1989 to determine the occurrence of bat species in the Ouachita Mountain region of west-central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma, with emphasis on censusing lands managed by the USDA Forest Service, Ouachita National Forest. Seven genera and 13 species of bats in the families Vespertilionidae and Molossidae were captured. Species represented included:

GARY A. HEIDT

279

Long-term acoustic surveying of bats.  

PubMed

Increasing concern about decline in biodiversity has created a demand for population surveys. Long-term unmanned automatic monitoring may provide unique unbiased data from a whole season, but the large amount of data presents serious challenges for automatic processing. A two-month study of echolocating bats at 500 kHz sampling rate provided 236 GiB of data at full bandwidth. We used a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classier based on a combination of temporal and spectral analyses to classify events into bat calls and non-bat events. Duration, energy, bandwidth, and entropy were used to identify bat calls and reject short noise pulses, e.g., from rain. The SVM classifier reduced our dataset to 162 MiB of candidate bat calls with an estimated accuracy of 96% for dry nights and 70% when it was raining. The automatic survey revealed correlation between bat activity and rain, temperature, and sunset/sunrise. There were calls from two species new to the area, as well as an unexpected abundance of social calls. Future applications aim at higher accuracy in classifying bat calls and using trajectory-tracking to determine flight paths to correct for the bias toward loud bats inherent in acoustic surveying. PMID:25235391

Surlykke, Annemarie; Andreassen, Tórur; Hallam, John

2014-04-01

280

Vampire bat rabies: ecology, epidemiology and control.  

PubMed

Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

2014-05-01

281

Selection for mechanical advantage underlies multiple cranial optima in new world leaf-nosed bats.  

PubMed

Selection for divergent performance optima has been proposed as a central mechanism underlying adaptive radiation. Uncovering multiple optima requires identifying forms associated with different adaptive zones and linking those forms to performance. However, testing and modeling the performance of complex morphologies like the cranium is challenging. We introduce a three-dimensional finite-element (FE) model of the cranium that can be morphed into different shapes by varying simple parameters to investigate the relationship between two engineering-based measures of performance, mechanical advantage and von Mises stress, and four divergent adaptive zones occupied by New World Leaf-nosed bats. To investigate these relationships, we tested the fit of Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models of evolution in mechanical advantage and von Mises stress using dated multilocus phylogenies. The analyses revealed three performance optima for mechanical advantage among species from three adaptive zones: bats that eat nectar; generalized insectivores, omnivores and some frugivores; and bats that specialize on hard canopy fruits. Only two optima, one corresponding to nectar feeding, were consistently uncovered for von Mises stress. These results suggest that mechanical advantage played a larger role than von Mises stress in the radiation of New World Leaf-nosed bats into divergent adaptive zones. PMID:24433457

Dumont, Elizabeth R; Samadevam, Krishna; Grosse, Ian; Warsi, Omar M; Baird, Brandon; Davalos, Liliana M

2014-05-01

282

Genomic and genetic evidence for the loss of umami taste in bats.  

PubMed

Umami taste is responsible for sensing monosodium glutamate, nucleotide enhancers, and other amino acids that are appetitive to vertebrates and is one of the five basic tastes that also include sour, salty, sweet, and bitter. To study how ecological factors, especially diets, impact the evolution of the umami taste, we examined the umami taste receptor gene Tas1r1 in a phylogenetically diverse group of bats including fruit eaters, insect eaters, and blood feeders. We found that Tas1r1 is absent, unamplifiable, or pseudogenized in each of the 31 species examined, including the genome sequences of two species, suggesting the loss of the umami taste in most, if not all, bats regardless of their food preferences. Most strikingly, vampire bats have also lost the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 and the gene required for both umami and sweet tastes (Tas1r3), being the first known mammalian group to lack two of the five tastes. The puzzling absence of the umami taste in bats calls for a better understanding of the roles that this taste plays in the daily life of vertebrates. PMID:22117084

Zhao, Huabin; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

2012-01-01

283

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Evolutionary relationships of the old world fruit  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Evolutionary relationships of the old world fruit bats (Chiroptera into intrafamilial relationships, but these studies have included only a fraction of the extant diversity (a maximum of 26 out of the 46 currently recognized genera) and have failed to resolve deep relationships among

DeSalle, Rob

284

Star fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carambola or star fruit belongs to the Oxalidaceae family, species Averrhoa carambola. Slices cut in cross-section have the form of a star (Figure 1). It is believed to have originated in Ceylon and the Moluccas\\u000a but it has been cultivated in southeast Asia and Malaysia for many centuries. It is commonly grown in some provinces in southern\\u000a China, in

Miguel M. Neto; Ruither O. Carolino; Norberto P. Lopes; Norberto Garcia-Cairasco

285

Correlations among Six Learner Variables and the Performance of a Sample of Jamaican Eleventh-Graders on an Achievement Test on Respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at establishing if the level of performance of 500 Jamaican Grade 11 students on an achievement test on the concept of respiration was satisfactory (mean=28 or 70% and above) or not (n=500) consisted of 212 boys and 288 girls selected from five all-boys’ schools (119 students), five all-girls’ schools (159 students), and six coeducational schools (222 students).

Kola Soyibo; Jacqueline Pinnock

2005-01-01

286

Father involvement in child care and household work in common-law dual-earner and single-earner Jamaican families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The division of chile care and household labor and beliefs about the roles of mothers and fathers were examined in 86 low-income dual-earner and single-earner Jamaican couples in common-law unions. Analysis revealed that there was a markedly gender-differentiated pattern of involvement in child care and household tasks by parents and that they held very traditional conceptions of the roles of

Wayne Webb

1995-01-01

287

Bat rabies in Illinois: 1965 to 1986.  

PubMed

From 1968 to 1986, Illinois (USA) citizens and agencies submitted 4,272 bats to the Illinois Department of Public Health for rabies testing. Of this number, 6% tested positive, a rate comparable to similar studies from other parts of North America. Due to sampling biases, the true infection rate among bats in Illinois is probably lower than 6%. Additional analysis relied on a subsample (n = 2,433) of the specimens collected from 1965 to 1986. Prevalences were significantly different among years, but no linear trends were found over the study period. Evidence for a local outbreak of bat rabies was found. Prevalences for the species with sample sizes adequate for statistical analysis were, from high to low: hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), 11%; red bat (L. borealis), 5%; silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), 4%; little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), 4%; big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), 3%; Keen's bat (Myotis keenii), 2%; and evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), 2%. The higher prevalences found among the non-colonial species (hoary, red and silver-haired bats) were consistent with similar studies. Considerable annual variation in prevalences was found within species, and the prevalence rankings of the species varied over the study period. Prevalences were significantly higher in females (6%) than in males (4%) when species were pooled, but no significant differences between sexes were found within species. In contrast to the other species analyzed, all of which had sex ratios favoring females, the big brown bat sample had a large majority of males. Prevalences were significantly higher in adults (6%) than in juveniles (3%) when species were pooled. Within individual species, significant differences between age groups were found only for hoary and red bats; in two species, juveniles had higher prevalences. Above average prevalences were observed in May and August to November. Southern Illinois had the highest prevalences; prevalences were intermediate in the north and lowest in the central region. Overall, the patterns of rabies prevalence among bats submitted by the public in Illinois from 1965 to 1986 were similar to those reported from other parts of North America. PMID:2915390

Burnett, C D

1989-01-01

288

Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infections among Bats, the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active surveillance for lyssaviruses was conducted among populations of bats in the Philippines. The pres- ence of past or current Lyssavirus infection was determined by use of direct fluorescent antibody assays on bat brains and virus neutralization assays on bat sera. Although no bats were found to have active infection with a Lyssavirus, 22 had evidence of neutralizing antibody against

Paul M. Arguin; Kristy Murray-Lillibridge; Mary E. G. Miranda; Jean S. Smith; Alan B. Calaor; Charles E. Rupprecht

2002-01-01

289

A New Quad at Walton Street Bat Survey Report  

E-print Network

, including the canal (Table 1). Table 1: Status of bats recorded nearby. Species Frequency and roost site Leisler's bat Rare nationally Roosts in trees and buildings Natterer's bat Recorded along the canal Daubenton's bat Recorded along the canal Serotine Rare Roosts in Buildings Not recorded for several years

Flynn, E. Victor

290

Interspecific aggression by a rabid eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis).  

PubMed

On 16 March 2012 a rabid eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) was found attached to an evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis) in Randolph County, Arkansas, USA. This appears to be the first confirmed case of a rabid bat attacking a bat of another species. PMID:24807361

Sasse, D Blake; Weinstein, Susan; Saugey, David A

2014-07-01

291

BAT RABIES IN SOUTH CAROLINA, 1970-90  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective study examines the geographic and temporal distribution of bat species submitted for rabies testing in South Carolina (USA) from 1970 to 1990. Histories of human or animal exposures to rabid and nonrabid bats submitted during this time period were compared. Two hundred and thirty-one bats were found to be rabid from the 2,657 bats submitted over this 20

Elizabeth K. Parker; Harold Dowda; Sarah E. Redden; Marsha W. Tolson; Nena Turner; William Kemick

292

Identifying altered softball bats and their effect on performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in bat design has increased the disparity between the potential and allowed performance of baseball and softball bats. This disparity has motivated some players, particularly at the amateur softball level, to have their bats altered to increase performance. This study reviews the mechanisms contributing to bat performance and how alteration techniques take advantage of these mechanisms. The study involves

Lloyd V. Smith; Curtis M. Cruz

2008-01-01

293

DESCRIBING THE PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF ALUMINUM SOFTBALL BATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hollow aluminium bats were introduced over 30 years ago to provide improved durability over wooden bats. Since their introduction, however, interest in hollow bats has focused almost exclu- sively around their hitting performance. The aim of this study was to take advantage of the progress that has been made in predicting bat performance using finite elements and apply it to

E. BIESEN; L. V. SMITH

2007-01-01

294

Causes and Consequences of Sociality in Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bats are among the most diverse and most gregarious of all mammals. This makes them highly interesting for research on the causes and consequences of sociality in animals. Detailed studies on bat sociality are rare, however, when compared with the information available for other social mammals, such as primates, carnivores, ungulates, and rodents. Modern field technologies and new molecular methods are now providing opportunities to study aspects of bat biology that were previously inaccessible. Consequently, bat social systems are emerging as far more complex than had been imagined. Variable dispersal patterns, complex olfactory and acoustic communication, flexible context-related interactions, striking cooperative behaviors, and cryptic colony structures in the form of fission-fusion systems have been documented. Bat research can contribute to the understanding of animal sociality, and specifically to important topics in behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology, such as dispersal, fission-fusion behavior, group decisionmaking, and cooperation.

Gerald Kerth (University of Lausanne - Switzerland;)

2008-09-01

295

BAT: a new target for human obesity?  

PubMed

Two types of adipose tissue can be distinguished histologically and functionally: white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Whereas BAT is specialized in the production of heat, WAT stores excess energy as triacylglycerols. BAT is present throughout life in rodents, whereas in humans it was thought to involute rapidly postnatally, having essentially disappeared within the first years after birth. However, positron emission tomography has provided evidence that adults retain metabolically active BAT depots that can be induced in response to cold and sympathetic nervous system activation. These findings together with the recent identification of specific molecular determinants (PRDM16 and BMP7) activating brown adipogenesis highlights BAT as a potential relevant target for pharmacological and gene expression manipulation to combat human obesity. PMID:19595466

Frühbeck, Gema; Becerril, Sara; Sáinz, Neira; Garrastachu, Puy; García-Velloso, María José

2009-08-01

296

Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response  

SciTech Connect

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts, and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. This paper describes the spectral models and the ground calibration experiments used to determine the BAT response to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies.

Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.; Nakazawa, K. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), (Japan); Okada, Y.; Takahashi, H. [University of Tokyo, (Japan); Suzuki, M.; Tashiro, M. [Saitama University, (Japan)

2004-09-28

297

Reported Hours of Sleep, Diabetes Prevalence and Glucose Control in Jamaican Adults: Analysis from the Jamaica Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

Background. There are limited data on sleep duration and diabetes from developing countries. We therefore examined the relationship between reported hours of sleep, diabetes prevalence and glucose control in Jamaican adults. Methods. Data on reported hours of sleep and diabetes (based on glucose measurement and medication use) from a national survey of 15–74-year-old Jamaicans were analyzed. Results. The 2,432 participants (31% M, Age 42 ± 16 years, BMI 27.6 ± 6.6?kg/m2, diabetes prevalence 12%) reported sleeping 8.2 ± 1.8 hours. In men, sleeping less than 6 hours (OR (95% CI) = 2.65 (1.09–6.48)) or more than 10 hours (OR (95% CI) = 4.36 (1.56–12.19)) was associated with diabetes when adjusted for age, BMI, and family history of diabetes. In women sleeping less than 6 hours was associated with a reduced likelihood of diabetes after adjusting for the same confounders ((OR (95% CI) = 0.43 (0.23–0.78)). There was no significant association between sleep and glucose control. Conclusion. Insufficient and excessive sleep was associated with increased diabetes prevalence in Jamaican men but not women. PMID:22164161

Cumberbatch, Chisa G.; Younger, Novie O.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; McFarlane, Shelly R.; Francis, Damian K.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.

2011-01-01

298

Structuring of Amazonian bat assemblages: the roles of flooding patterns and floodwater nutrient load.  

PubMed

1. River system dynamics results in ecological heterogeneities that play a central role in maintaining biodiversity in riverine regions. In central Amazonia, large expanses of forest are seasonally flooded by nutrient-rich water (várzea forests) or by nutrient-poor water (igapó forests). Inundation patterns and the nutrient load of floodwaters are perhaps the most important abiotic factors determining spatial ecological variations in lowland Amazonia, and so they are expected to strongly influence the structuring of animal communities. 2. We examined how inundation patterns and water-nutrient load influence the structure of neotropical assemblages of bats, one of the most diverse vertebrate groups in tropical forests. Bat assemblages were sampled with mist nets in central Brazilian Amazonia, across a mosaic of várzea, igapó, and non-flooding nutrient-poor terra firme forests in the low- and high-water seasons. 3. An ordination analysis clearly separated the assemblages of the three forest types, demonstrating the structural relevance of both flooding and floodwater-nutrient load. Flooded forests had lower species richness because of the absence or rarity of species that make roosts out of leaves of understorey plants, and of those that feed on fruits of shrubs. Gleaning insectivores, also partly dependent on the understorey, were less abundant in flooded forests, but aerial insectivores more abundant, presumably because they benefited from a less cluttered foraging environment. These differences suggest that flooding affects bat assemblages mostly because it reduces the availability of niches associated with understorey vegetation, which tends to be sparser in flooded forests. 4. Nutrient-rich várzea forests had a bat biomass twice that of nutrient-poor igapó and unflooded forests. This difference was not only mostly due to a greater overall abundance of bats, but also attributable to a disproportionate higher abundance of large-bodied bat species. 5. We concluded that both flooding and floodwater-nutrient load are very important in the structuring of lowland Amazonian bat assemblages, with inundation mostly constraining the species composition of the assemblages, and water-nutrient load mostly influencing the abundance of species. The distinctiveness of bat assemblages associated with flooding emphasizes the need to preserve inundated forests, which are under particular pressure in Amazonia. PMID:19627393

Pereira, Maria João Ramos; Marques, João Tiago; Santana, Joana; Santos, Carlos David; Valsecchi, João; de Queiroz, Helder Lima; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M

2009-11-01

299

Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats in Peru.  

PubMed

Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.-bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. PMID:22826480

Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y

2012-09-01

300

Bat bugs (Cimex pipistrelli) and their impact on non-dwelling bats.  

PubMed

Bat bugs are often roost ectoparasites of bats. Previous studies have shown that bats shifting roosts within the growing season prevent the massive reproduction of these parasites. We postulated that there could be other antiparasitic strategies of philopatric bats roosting in non-dwelling spacious roosts. Unfortunately, there are no studies devoted to such a topic. For 3 years, two attics highly and less infested by bat bugs (Cimex pipistrelli) with breeding females of Myotis myotis were monitored. From April, after the arrival of the bats, to November, abundance of all instars and adult bugs was sampled in the attics by adhesive traps. We found different patterns in the bug abundances and dynamics in the two attics. In highly infested attic, bat bugs induced pregnant females to move from the infested site of the attic to the non-infested one. Internal temperature and relative humidity were similar in both infested and non-infested sites. Females roosted in the infested site till time before parturition and then moved to the non-infested site within attic. When bats were absent in their old site, the abundance of nymphal instars of bugs decreased by half. Although adult bats can survive under high parasite loads of bat bugs, reproducing females prevent parasite reproduction and simultaneously reduce parasite load in the young by shifting inside spacious roosts. PMID:22622688

Bartoni?ka, Tomáš; R?ži?ková, Lucie

2012-09-01

301

Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.  

PubMed

The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

2014-08-01

302

Bats on Campus Bats, by consuming copious quantities of flying insects, are a very positive influence on  

E-print Network

. During the spring and fall migration, it is more common for citizens to see bats on the ground, hanging premises. Secure the room by closing all windows and doors to prevent the bat's escape, then leave the room the bat was found · If any small children or elderly people were present where the bat was found

Azevedo, Ricardo

303

Bats and bell holes: The microclimatic impact of bat roosting, using a case study from Runaway Bay Caves, Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microclimatic effect of bats roosting in bell holes (blind vertical cylindrical cavities in cave roofs) in Runaway Bay Caves, Jamaica, was measured and the potential impact of their metabolism on dissolution modelled. Rock temperature measurements showed that bell holes with bats get significantly hotter than those without bats during bat roosting periods (by an average of 1.1 °C). The relationship

Joyce Lundberg; Donald A. McFarlane

2009-01-01

304

Terrestrial locomotion of the New Zealand short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata and the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We sought to determine whether these bats move

Daniel K. Riskin; Stuart Parsons; William A. Schutt; Gerald G. Carter; John W. Hermanson

2006-01-01

305

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interventions to Impede Date Palm Sap Contamination by Bats to Prevent Nipah Virus Transmission in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV) infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm’s sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. Methods During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant), jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. Results During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [p<0.001]. Bats were able to contact the sap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, p<0.001] less frequently in trees protected with skirts compared to control trees. No bats contacted sap in trees with bamboo (p<0.001 compared to control), dhoincha skirt (p<0.001) or polythene covering (p<0.001), but bats did contact sap during one night (7%) with the jute stick skirt (p<0.001). Conclusion Bamboo, dhoincha, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the sap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human. PMID:22905160

Khan, Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Nahar, Nazmun; Sharker, M. A. Yushuf; Luby, Stephen P.

2012-01-01

306

Genetic diversity of bat rabies viruses in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Thirty-three Brazilian bat rabies viruses (RVs) were studied by sequence analysis and were compared against sequences of bat-related\\u000a RVs from other regions of the Americas. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that bat-related RVs formed several monophyletic lineages\\u000a and that these were associated with bat species. Brazilian bat RVs were found to include nine major lineages, one of which\\u000a grouped with RVs isolated

Y. Kobayashi; G. Sato; M. Kato; T. Itou; E. M. S. Cunha; M. V. Silva; C. S. Mota; F. H. Ito; T. Sakai

2007-01-01

307

Novel dicistrovirus from bat guano.  

PubMed

A novel dicistrovirus (strain NB-1/2011/HUN, KJ802403) genome was detected from guano collected from an insectivorous bat (species Pipistrellus pipistrellus) in Hungary, using viral metagenomics. The complete genome of NB-1 is 9136 nt in length, excluding the poly(A) tail. NB-1 has a genome organization typical of a dicistrovirus with multiple 3B(VPg) and a cripavirus-like intergenic region (IGR)-IRES. NB-1 shares only 41 % average amino acid sequence identity with capsid proteins of Himetobi P virus, indicating a potential novel species in the genus Cripavirus, family Dicistroviridae. PMID:25168044

Reuter, Gábor; Pankovics, Péter; Gyöngyi, Zoltán; Delwart, Eric; Boros, Akos

2014-12-01

308

The First Data about the Hibernation of Daubenton's Bat (Myotis Daubentonii) in the Paneriai Tunnel (Vilnius, Lithuania)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bat hibernation conditions as well as diversity and abundance of hibernating bats were investigated in the Paneriai tunnel (Vilnius, Lithuania) in 2000–2003. Five bat species were found to hibernate in the tunnel: Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii), pond bat (Myotis dasycneme), brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus), barbastelle bat (Barbastella barbastellus), and serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). It was established that about 130

Kazimieras Baranauskas

2003-01-01

309

Bats and Gaps: The Role of Early Successional Patches in the Roosting and Foraging Ecology of Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Early successional habitats are important foraging and commuting sites for the 14 species of bats that inhabit the Central\\u000a Hardwood Region, especially larger open-adapted species such as hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), red bats (L. borealis), silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans), and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Forest gaps, small openings, and the edges between early successional patches and mature forest are

Susan C. Loeb; Joy M. O’Keefe

310

Field metabolic rates of phytophagous bats: do pollination strategies of plants make life of nectar-feeders spin faster?  

PubMed

Recently, it was argued that extrinsic factors, such as high foraging costs, lead to elevated field metabolic rates (FMR). We tested this suggestion by comparing the FMR of nectar-feeding and fruit-eating bats. We hypothesized that the foraging effort per energy reward is higher for nectar-feeding mammals than for fruit-eating mammals, since energy rewards at flowering plants are smaller than those at fruiting plants. Using the doubly labelled water method, we measured the FMR of nectar-feeding Glossophaga commissarisi and fruit-eating Carollia brevicauda, which coexisted in the same rainforest habitat and shared the same daytime roosts. Mass-specific FMR of G. commissarisi exceeded that of C. brevicauda by a factor of almost two: 5.3+/-0.6 kJ g(-1) day(-1) for G. commissarisi and 2.8+/-0.4 kJ g(-1) day(-1) for C. brevicauda. Since nectar-feeding bats imbibe nectar droplets of only 193 J energy content during each flower visit, a G. commissarisi bat has to perform several 100 flower visits per night to meet its energy requirement. The fruit-eating C. brevicauda, on the other hand, needs to harvest only 3-12 Piper infructescenses per night, as the energy reward per Piper equals ca. 6-30 kJ. We argue that the flowering and fruiting plants exert different selective forces on the foraging behaviour and energetics of pollinators and the seed dispersers, respectively. A comparison between nectar-feeding and non-nectar-feeding species in various vertebrate taxa demonstrates that pollinators have elevated FMRs. PMID:16283331

Voigt, Christian C; Kelm, Detlev H; Visser, G Henk

2006-03-01

311

Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. IV: The Common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus  

PubMed Central

We behaviorally determined the audiograms of three Common vampire bats (Phyllostomidae, Desmodus rotundus), a species specialized to exist exclusively on blood. The bats were trained to respond to pure tones in a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure for a blood reward and a mild punisher for failures to detect the tones. Common vampire bats have a hearing range from 716 Hz to 113 kHz at a level of 60 dB. Their best hearing is at 20 kHz where they are slightly more sensitive than other bats, and they have a second peak of good sensitivity at 71 kHz. They have unusually good sensitivity to low frequencies compared to other bats, but are less sensitive to low frequencies than most mammals. Selective pressures affecting high-frequency hearing in bats and mammals in general are discussed. PMID:23194991

Heffner, Rickye S.; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E.

2013-01-01

312

Unique characteristics of bat rabies viruses in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).  

PubMed

Rabies virus infection has been documented in several North American bat species, including Eptesicus fuscus. The virus-host relationship between bats and rabies virus (RV) is not well understood. The incidence of non-lethal RV exposure, based on the presence of viral neutralizing antibodies, demonstrates that exposure to RV does not always lead to clinical infection in bats. It is unknown how the route of exposure, rabies virus variant, or health of the bat affects the outcome following exposure. This paper describes the pathogenesis of two big brown bat RV variants in homologous host species. Our study demonstrates that RV variants obtained from the same species of bat from similar geographical areas may result in a diverse clinical progression of disease. PMID:23208279

Davis, April D; Gordy, Paul A; Bowen, Richard A

2013-04-01

313

Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. IV: the Common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus.  

PubMed

We behaviorally determined the audiograms of three Common vampire bats (Phyllostomidae, Desmodus rotundus), a species specialized to exist exclusively on blood. The bats were trained to respond to pure tones in a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure for a blood reward and a mild punisher for failures to detect the tones. Common vampire bats have a hearing range from 716 Hz to 113 kHz at a level of 60 dB. Their best hearing is at 20 kHz where they are slightly more sensitive than other bats, and they have a second peak of good sensitivity at 71 kHz. They have unusually good sensitivity to low frequencies compared to other bats, but are less sensitive to low frequencies than most mammals. Selective pressures affecting high-frequency hearing in bats and mammals in general are discussed. PMID:23194991

Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

2013-02-01

314

Bats: Important Reservoir Hosts of Emerging Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats (order Chiroptera, suborders Megachiroptera [“flying foxes”] and Microchiroptera) are abundant, diverse, and geographically widespread. These mammals provide us with resources, but their importance is minimized and many of their populations and species are at risk, even threatened or endangered. Some of their characteristics (food choices, colonial or solitary nature, population structure, ability to fly, seasonal migration and daily movement patterns, torpor and hibernation, life span, roosting behaviors, ability to echolocate, virus susceptibility) make them exquisitely suitable hosts of viruses and other disease agents. Bats of certain species are well recognized as being capable of transmitting rabies virus, but recent observations of outbreaks and epidemics of newly recognized human and livestock diseases caused by viruses transmitted by various megachiropteran and microchiropteran bats have drawn attention anew to these remarkable mammals. This paper summarizes information regarding chiropteran characteristics and information regarding 66 viruses that have been isolated from bats. From these summaries, it is clear that we do not know enough about bat biology; we are doing too little in terms of bat conservation; and there remain a multitude of questions regarding the role of bats in disease emergence. PMID:16847084

Calisher, Charles H.; Childs, James E.; Field, Hume E.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Schountz, Tony

2006-01-01

315

Full-length genome sequence and genetic relationship of two paramyxoviruses isolated from bat and pigs in the Americas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Mapuera virus (MPRV) was isolated from a fruit bat in Brazil in 1979, but its host range and disease-causing potential are\\u000a unknown. Porcine rubulavirus (PoRV) was identified as the aetiological agent of disease outbreaks in pigs in Mexico during\\u000a early 1980s, but the origin of PoRV remains elusive. In this study, the completed genome sequence of MPRV was determined,\\u000a and

L.-F. Wang; E. Hansson; M. Yu; K. B. Chua; N. Mathe; G. Crameri; B. K. Rima; J. Moreno-López; B. T. Eaton

2007-01-01

316

Ecological Factors Associated with European Bat Lyssavirus Seroprevalence in Spanish Bats  

PubMed Central

Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii). Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1)–neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2). EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7%) ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July). EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1–prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials. PMID:23700480

Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Lopez-Roig, Marc; Segui, Magdalena; Sanchez, Luisa Pilar; Nadal, Jacint; Borras, Miquel; Lavenir, Rachel; Bourhy, Herve

2013-01-01

317

Ecological factors associated with European bat lyssavirus seroprevalence in spanish bats.  

PubMed

Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii). Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1)-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2). EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7%) ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July). EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1-prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials. PMID:23700480

Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc; Seguí, Magdalena; Sánchez, Luisa Pilar; Nadal, Jacint; Borrás, Miquel; Lavenir, Rachel; Bourhy, Hervé

2013-01-01

318

Rabies virus infection in Eptesicus fuscus bats born in captivity (naïve bats).  

PubMed

The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV) studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA) may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats), naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1). Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2. PMID:23741396

Davis, April D; Jarvis, Jodie A; Pouliott, Craig; Rudd, Robert J

2013-01-01

319

Rabies Virus Infection in Eptesicus fuscus Bats Born in Captivity (Na?ve Bats)  

PubMed Central

The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV) studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA) may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats), naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1). Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2. PMID:23741396

Davis, April D.; Jarvis, Jodie A.; Pouliott, Craig; Rudd, Robert J.

2013-01-01

320

Dengue virus in Mexican bats  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Individuals belonging to five families, 12 genera, and 19 different species of bats from dengue endemic areas in the Gulf and Pacific coasts of Mexico were examined by ELISA, RT–PCR, and for the presence of dengue virus (DV) NS1 protein. Nine individuals from four species were seropositive by ELISA: three insectivorous, Myotis nigricans (four positives/12 examined), Pteronotus parnellii (3/19), and Natalus stramineus (1/4), and one frugivorous Artibeus jamaicensis (1/35) (12·86% seroprevalence in positive species). DV serotype 2 was detected by RT–PCR in four samples from three species (all from the Gulf coast – rainy season): two frugivorous, A. jamaicensis (2/9), and Carollia brevicauda (1/2), and one insectivorous, M. nigricans (1/11). The latter was simultaneously positive for NS1 protein. DV RT–PCR positive animals were all antibody seronegative. M. nigricans showed positive individuals for all three tests. This is the first evidence suggesting the presence of DV in bats from Mexico. PMID:18325131

AGUILAR-SETIEN, A.; ROMERO-ALMARAZ, M. L.; SANCHEZ-HERNANDEZ, C.; FIGUEROA, R.; JUAREZ-PALMA, L. P.; GARCIA-FLORES, M. M.; VAZQUEZ-SALINAS, C.; SALAS-ROJAS, M.; HIDALGO-MARTINEZ, A. C.; PIERLE, S. AGUILAR; GARCIA-ESTRADA, C.; RAMOS, C.

2008-01-01

321

Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species Justin Kitzes*, Adina Merenlender  

E-print Network

for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature

Merenlender, Adina

322

76 FR 12155 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Release No. 34-63969; File No. SR-BATS-2011-007] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. to Adopt BATS Rule...

2011-03-04

323

Group B Betacoronavirus in Rhinolophid Bats, Japan  

PubMed Central

We report group B Betacoronavirus infection in little Japanese horseshoe bats in Iwate prefecture. We then used reverse-transcription PCR to look for the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in fecal samples collected from 27 little Japanese horseshoe bats and found eight were provisionally positive. We had a success in the nucleotide sequencing of six of the eight positive samples and compared them with those of authentic coronaviruses. We found that these six samples were positive in coronavirus infection, and they belonged to the group B Betacornavirus by phylogenetic analysis. Virus isolation using the Vero cell culture was unsuccessful. Pathogenic trait of these bat coronaviruses remained unexplored. PMID:24871548

SUZUKI, Jin; SATO, Ryota; KOBAYASHI, Tomoya; AOI, Toshiki; HARASAWA, Ryo

2014-01-01

324

A New Metaheuristic Bat-Inspired Algorithm  

E-print Network

Metaheuristic algorithms such as particle swarm optimization, firefly algorithm and harmony search are now becoming powerful methods for solving many tough optimization problems. In this paper, we propose a new metaheuristic method, the Bat Algorithm, based on the echolocation behaviour of bats. We also intend to combine the advantages of existing algorithms into the new bat algorithm. After a detailed formulation and explanation of its implementation, we will then compare the proposed algorithm with other existing algorithms, including genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm seems much superior to other algorithms, and further studies are also discussed.

Yang, Xin-She

2010-01-01

325

Group B betacoronavirus in rhinolophid bats, Japan.  

PubMed

We report group B Betacoronavirus infection in little Japanese horseshoe bats in Iwate prefecture. We then used reverse-transcription PCR to look for the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in fecal samples collected from 27 little Japanese horseshoe bats and found eight were provisionally positive. We had a success in the nucleotide sequencing of six of the eight positive samples and compared them with those of authentic coronaviruses. We found that these six samples were positive in coronavirus infection, and they belonged to the group B Betacornavirus by phylogenetic analysis. Virus isolation using the Vero cell culture was unsuccessful. Pathogenic trait of these bat coronaviruses remained unexplored. PMID:24871548

Suzuki, Jin; Sato, Ryota; Kobayashi, Tomoya; Aoi, Toshiki; Harasawa, Ryô

2014-10-01

326

Bats at risk? Bat activity and insecticide residue analysis of food items in an apple orchard.  

PubMed

Although bats are reported as being threatened by pesticides, they are currently not considered in European Union pesticide risk assessments. The reason for that contradiction is probably related to the scarcity of information on bat activity in pesticide-treated fields and the pesticide residues on their food items. The authors recorded bat activity and measured pesticide residues on bat-specific food items following applications of two insecticides in an apple orchard. High activity levels of the common pipistrelle bat, a foraging habitat generalist, were detected. Airborne foragers and bats that take part of their food by gleaning arthropods from the vegetation were recorded frequently. The initial value and the decline of pesticide residues were found to depend on the arthropod type, their surface to volume ratio, their mobility, and the mode of action of the applied pesticide. The highest initial residue values were measured on foliage-dwelling arthropods. By following the toxicity-exposure ratio approaches of the current pesticide risk assessment, no acute dietary risk was found for all recorded bat species. However, a potential reproductive risk for bat species that include foliage-dwelling arthropods in their diet was indicated. The results emphasize the importance of adequately evaluating the risks of pesticides to bats, which, compared to other mammals, are potentially more sensitive due to their ecological traits. PMID:22505289

Stahlschmidt, Peter; Brühl, Carsten A

2012-07-01

327

Population size and contaminant exposure of bats using caves on Fort Hood Military Base  

E-print Network

the style and format of the Journal of Mammalogy. bat (J. asiurus borealis), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), and Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasi1iensis) (Schmidly, 1991). Of these 7 species, the cave myotis... the style and format of the Journal of Mammalogy. bat (J. asiurus borealis), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), and Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasi1iensis) (Schmidly, 1991). Of these 7 species, the cave myotis...

Land, Tarisha Ann

2012-06-07

328

Investigating White-Nose Syndrome in Bats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

Blehert, David S.

2009-01-01

329

INTRODUCTION Microchiropteran bats are altricial in  

E-print Network

of young bats exist for several fam- ilies, including Vespertilionidae (e.g., Epte- sicus fuscus and Myotis lucifugus -- Gould, 1971; Antrozous pallidus -- Brown et al., 1978; Pipistrellus pipistrellus -- Jones et al

Auckland, University of

330

Temperature regulation in subtropical tree bats.  

PubMed

1. Rate of metabolism and temperature regulation were studied in five species of subtropical tree bats (Lasiurus seminolus, L. borealis, L. intermedius, L. cinereus and Nycticeius humeralis). 2. All species showed two states while resting below thermal neutrality: normothermia and torpor. Below 0-5 degrees C, bats in torpor maintained an intermediate body temperature. 3. Basal rate of metabolism was lower than expected on the basis of body mass (44-78%) and average body temperature in the normothermic state ranged between 32.5 and 35.7 degrees C. 4. Lasiurines have a high thermogenic capacity. 5. The metabolic and thermoregulatory traits studied in tree bats are generally similar to those of non-tropical bats roosting in caves and buildings. PMID:8095883

Genoud, M

1993-02-01

331

White-nose Syndrome Threatens Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists from federal and state wildlife agencies, universities, and conservation groups have launched a major research effort to understand, identify, and counter a mysterious ailment that has killed perhaps a half-million insect-eating bats in the northeastern United States during the last two winters. So far, little is known about white-nose syndrome, named for the white fungus that grows on affected bats' muzzles, wing membranes, or other exposed skin. A number of theories seek to explain the how and why of white-nose syndrome. The one most researchers favor says the fungus causes an irritation that induces hibernating bats to rouse and groom themselves. That causes them to burn more fat to keep warm in the cold, damp caves and mines where they hibernate. Hungry, the bats leave their hibernation quarters in search of food but die when they cannot find any.

Jeffrey P. Cohn (freelance science writer;)

2008-12-01

332

Bat guilds, a concept to classify the highly diverse foraging and echolocation behaviors of microchiropteran bats  

PubMed Central

Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore, we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats' echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies patterns of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning. PMID:23840190

Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

2013-01-01

333

Bat Distribution Size or Shape as Determinant of Viral Richness in African Bats  

PubMed Central

The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID) is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera) in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio) with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa. PMID:24959855

Vallo, Peter; Dallo, Thierno D.; Ngoagouni, Carine; Drexler, Jan Felix; Drosten, Christian; Nakoune, Emmanuel R.; Leroy, Eric M.

2014-01-01

334

Hibernation by tree-roosting bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summer, long-eared bats (Nyctophilus spp.) roost under bark and in tree cavities, where they appear to benefit from diurnal heating of roosts. In contrast, hibernation\\u000a is thought to require a cool stable temperature, suggesting they should prefer thermally insulated tree cavities during winter.\\u000a To test this prediction, we quantified the winter thermoregulatory physiology and ecology of hibernating tree-roosting bats,

Christopher Turbill; Fritz Geiser

2008-01-01

335

Adaptive Vocal Behavior Drives Perception by Echolocation in Bats  

PubMed Central

Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat’s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat’s active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene. PMID:21705213

Moss, Cynthia F.; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

2011-01-01

336

Aquaporin-4 Immuneglobulin G Testing in 36 Consecutive Jamaican Patients with Inflammatory Central Nervous System Demyelinating Disease  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in Jamaica are lacking. Here we reviewed the clinical records of 700 patients undergoing neurological evaluation at the Kingston Public Hospital, the largest tertiary institution in Jamaica over a 4 month period. We investigated the diagnostic utility of Aquaporin-4 ImmuneglobulinG (AQP4-IgG) testing in 36 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of an inflammatory demyelinating disorder (IDD) of the central nervous system (CNS). Patients were classified into 3 categories: i) NMO, n=10; ii) multiple sclerosis (MS), n=14 and iii) unclassified IDD (n=12). All sera were tested for AQP-IgG status by cell binding assay (Euroimmun). No MS cases were positive. Ninety per cent of NMO cases were positive. Four of 12 patients with unclassified IDD tested positive for AQP4-IgG. AQP4-IgG seropositivity was associated with a lower socioeconomic status, higher EDSS (P=0.04) and lower pulmonary function than the seronegative cases (P=0.007). Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity may account for a significant proportion of Jamaican CNS IDDs. PMID:25309712

Sandy, Sherri; Seemungal, Terence A.R.; Ali, Amza

2014-01-01

337

How the bat got its buzz  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of echolocation in bats, the final phase of an attack on a flying insect, the ‘terminal buzz’, has proved enigmatic. During the buzz, bats increase information update rates by producing vocalizations up to 220 times s?1. The buzz's ubiquity in hawking and trawling bats implies its importance for hunting success. Superfast muscles, previously unknown in mammals, are responsible for the extreme vocalization rate. Some bats produce a second phase—buzz II—defined by a large drop in the fundamental frequency (F0) of their calls. By doing so, bats broaden their acoustic field of view and should thereby reduce the likelihood of insect escape. We make the case that the buzz was a critical adaptation for capturing night-flying insects, and suggest that the drop in F0 during buzz II requires novel, unidentified laryngeal mechanisms in order to counteract increasing muscle tension. Furthermore, we propose that buzz II represents a countermeasure against the evasive flight of eared prey in the evolutionary arms-race that saw the independent evolution of bat-detecting ears in various groups of night-flying insects. PMID:23302868

Ratcliffe, John M.; Elemans, Coen P. H.; Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie

2013-01-01

338

[Viruses and bats: rabies and Lyssavirus].  

PubMed

Recent emerging zoonoses (hemorrhagic fevers due to Ebola or Marburg virus, encephalitis due to Nipah virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome due to SRAS virus...) outline the potential of bats as vectors for transmission of infectious disease to humans. Such a potential is already known for rabies encephalitis since seven out of the eight genotypes of Lyssavirus are transmitted by bats. In addition, phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that Lyssavirus have evolved in chiropters before their emergence in carnivores. Nevertheless, carnivores remain the most critical vectors for public health, in particular dogs that are originating 55.000 rabies deaths per year, essentially in developing countries. Rabies control in carnivores by parenteral (dog) or oral (wild carnivores) vaccination is efficacious and campaigns start to be more widely applied. On the other hand, rabies control in bat still remains non realistic, particularly as the pathogenicity of bat Lyssavirus for bats is still under debate, suggesting that a "diplomatic relationship" between partners would have arisen from a long term cohabitation. While comparing the interactions that humans and bats establish with Lyssavirus, scientists try to understand the molecular basis ofpathogenicity in man, a indispensable prerequisite to identify antiviral targets in a perspective of therapy. PMID:19718950

Tordo, N; Marianneau, M Ph

2009-01-01

339

Hawkmoths produce anti-bat ultrasound.  

PubMed

Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences. PMID:23825084

Barber, Jesse R; Kawahara, Akito Y

2013-08-23

340

Ectoparasite associations of bats from central Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

Between April and October 1997, 689 bats representing seven species were captured at Pennsylvania's Canoe Creek State Park. Each bat was sampled for ectoparasitic arthropods, and four species were collected from 13.2% of the host individuals. Ectoparasites include the bat flea Myodopsylla insignis (Rothschild), the wing mite Spinturnix americanus (Banks), the bed bug Cimex adjunctus Barber, and the soft tick Ornithodoros kelleyi Cooley & Kohls. Prevalence, relative density, and mean intensity were calculated for ectoparasites of Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte), which harbored all four ectoparasite species and was the most commonly captured host. Patterns of ectoparasite associations were examined with respect to host sex and habitat (roost characteristics). Female M. lucifugus hosted higher densities of ectoparasites than did males. Moreover, relative densities of ectoparasites from M. lucifugus were dependent on the proximate roost; hosts captured near Bat Church were more heavily parasitized than those captured near Hartman Mine. Two other bat species were infested with at least one ectoparasite, but sample sizes were too small to analyze statistically. These bat species included Myotis septentrionalis (Trouessart), harboring M. insignis, S. americanus, and O. kelleyi, and Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois), which harbored M. insignis and O. kelleyi. PMID:14765658

Dick, Carl W; Gannon, Michael R; Little, Wendy E; Patrick, Michael J

2003-11-01

341

Hawkmoths produce anti-bat ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences. PMID:23825084

Barber, Jesse R.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

2013-01-01

342

Bat rabies in urban centers in Chile.  

PubMed

One hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectivorous bats in Chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. These isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the Americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in Chile. The phylogenetic analyses showed that none of the Chilean isolates segregated with viruses from the terrestrial reservoirs. No non-rabies lyssaviruses were found in this study. The Chilean samples were not related to viruses of the sylvatic cycle maintained by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in Latin America. Five genetic variants were identified from insectivorous bats in Chile. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) was identified as the reservoir for the rabies genetic variant most frequently isolated in the country between 1977 and 1998. The close association of a group of viruses obtained from a domestic dog (Canis familiaris), Brazilian free-tailed bats, and a red bat (Lasiurus borealis) with viruses maintained by Lasiurus spp. in North America implicated species of this genus as the possible reservoirs of this particular genetic variant in Chile. Reservoirs for the other three variants remain unknown. PMID:10813604

de Mattos, C A; Favi, M; Yung, V; Pavletic, C; de Mattos, C C

2000-04-01

343

SWIFT BAT Survey of AGN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results1 of the analysis of the first 9 months of data of the Swift BAT survey of AGN in the 14-195 keV band. Using archival X-ray data or follow-up Swift XRT observations, we have identified 129 (103 AGN) of 130 objects detected at [b] > 15deg and with significance > 4.8-delta. One source remains unidentified. These same X-ray data have allowed measurement of the X-ray properties of the objects. We fit a power law to the logN - log S distribution, and find the slope to be 1.42+/-0.14. Characterizing the differential luminosity function data as a broken power law, we find a break luminosity logL*(ergs/s)= 43.85+/-0.26. We obtain a mean photon index 1.98 in the 14-195 keV band, with an rms spread of 0.27. Integration of our luminosity function gives a local volume density of AGN above 10(exp 41) erg/s of 2.4x10(exp -3) Mpc(sup -3), which is about 10% of the total luminous local galaxy density above M* = -19.75. We have obtained X-ray spectra from the literature and from Swift XRT follow-up observations. These show that the distribution of log nH is essentially flat from nH = 10(exp 20)/sq cm to 10(exp 24)/sq cm, with 50% of the objects having column densities of less than 10(exp 22)/sq cm. BAT Seyfert galaxies have a median redshift of 0.03, a maximum log luminosity of 45.1, and approximately half have log nH > 22.

Tueller, J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Winter, L. M.

2008-01-01

344

THE NONHIBERNATING ECOLOGY OF BATS IN INDIANA WITH EMPHASIS ON THE ENDANGERED INDIANA BAT, MYOTIS SODALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution and habitat of the endangered Indiana bat, Myotis sodalis, in Indiana during the season of reproduction. Because interspecific relationships may exist between M. sodalis and several other species of chiroptera, the distributions and habitats of these bats were also determined. Distributions were determined from past records, supplemented with captures at

VIRGIL WILLMER BRACK

1983-01-01

345

Detection of European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2) in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) from Magdeburg, Germany.  

PubMed

In Europe bat rabies in Daubenton's bats (Myotisdaubentonii) and in Pond bats (Myotis dasycneme) caused by the European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2) has been confirmed in less than 20 cases to date. Here we report the second encounter of this virus species in Germany. A Daubenton's bat found grounded in the zoological garden in Magdeburg died shortly after. In the frame of a retrospective study the bat carcass was eventually transferred to the national reference laboratory for rabies at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute for rabies diagnosis. Lyssavirus was isolated and characterized as EBLV-2. PMID:22712424

Freuling, Conrad M; Kliemt, Jeannette; Schares, Susann; Heidecke, Dietrich; Driechciarz, René; Schatz, Juliane; Müller, Thomas

2012-01-01

346

Rabies in insectivorous bats of western Canada, 1979 to 1983.  

PubMed

A total of 1,745, 362, and 536 bats collected in Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan, respectively, was tested for rabies virus between 1979 and 1983. Only one (0.1%) of 769 bats collected at random from buildings was infected with rabies virus in contrast to 95 (5%) of 1,874 symptomatic, rabies-suspect bats submitted for testing. The pattern of infection in the rabies-suspect bats was similar in Alberta and Saskatchewan, but differed in British Columbia. Rabies was diagnosed in four species of bats in each of Alberta and Saskatchewan, but in seven species in British Columbia. Annual prevalence in rabies-suspect bats was similar in colonial species within each province. Rabies was found rarely in suspect little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) (less than 1%). In suspect big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), the prevalence was low in Saskatchewan (3%), moderate in Alberta (10%), and high in British Columbia (25%). Big brown bats accounted for over 55% of the rabid bats detected in each province. Annual prevalence reported in silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) and hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) was variable in all three provinces. Rabies is enzootic in northern insectivorous bats. PMID:3735577

Pybus, M J

1986-07-01

347

Effect of warm-up with different weighted bats on normal baseball bat velocity.  

PubMed

Traditionally, baseball players have used a heavy bat for warm-up before competition. Because bat velocity is an essential component to hitting a baseball, and because players warm up differently, there is a need to investigate the best way to maximize post warm-up bat velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of warm-up with different weighted bats on normal baseball bat velocity. Nineteen recreational male baseball players (age, 24.5 +/- 3.9 years; height, 181.1 +/- 8.4 cm; body mass, 87.9 +/- 18.4 kg) participated in this study. Three different randomized warm-up conditions were completed and analyzed for velocity and for their effect on post warm-up normal baseball bat velocity. Subjects were instructed to perform 5 maximal swings with each of 3 different weighted bats-light (LB = 9.6 oz), normal (NB = 31.5 oz), and heavy (HB = 55.2 oz)-followed by 30-second rest and then 5 swings of the NB. Analysis of variance revealed that warm-up velocity of the LB (63.57 +/- 3.58 mph) was significantly (p < 0.05) faster than that of NB (51.25 +/- 3.01 mph) and HB (41.79 +/- 3.01 mph), whereas warm-up velocity of NB was also significantly faster than that of HB. For post warm-up, LB (52.29 +/- 2.68 mph) and NB (50.60 +/- 3.04 mph) produced significantly faster velocity of the normal bat than the HB (48.26 +/- 2.98 mph). Warming up with 5 swings of a light or normal bat appears to increase post warm-up velocity of the normal bat when compared with warming up with a heavy bat after a rest period of 30 seconds. Within the bat weight spectrum of this study, it is suggested that when preparing to hit, 5 warm-up swings with either a light or normal bat will allow a player to achieve the greatest velocity of their normal bat. PMID:19593220

Montoya, Brian S; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Zinder, Steven M

2009-08-01

348

Ecological and economic services provided by birds on Jamaican Blue Mountain coffee farms.  

PubMed

Coffee farms can support significant biodiversity, yet intensification of farming practices is degrading agricultural habitats and compromising ecosystem services such as biological pest control. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the world's primary coffee pest. Researchers have demonstrated that birds reduce insect abundance on coffee farms but have not documented avian control of the berry borer or quantified avian benefits to crop yield or farm income. We conducted a bird-exclosure experiment on coffee farms in the Blue Mountains, Jamaica, to measure avian pest control of berry borers, identify potential predator species, associate predator abundance and borer reductions with vegetation complexity, and quantify resulting increases in coffee yield. Coffee plants excluded from foraging birds had significantly higher borer infestation, more borer broods, and greater berry damage than control plants. We identified 17 potential predator species (73% were wintering Neotropical migrants), and 3 primary species composed 67% of migrant detections. Average relative bird abundance and diversity and relative resident predator abundance increased with greater shade-tree cover. Although migrant predators overall did not respond to vegetation complexity variables, the 3 primary species increased with proximity to noncoffee habitat patches. Lower infestation on control plants was correlated with higher total bird abundance, but not with predator abundance or vegetation complexity. Infestation of fruit was 1-14% lower on control plants, resulting in a greater quantity of saleable fruits that had a market value of US$44-$105/ha in 2005/2006. Landscape heterogeneity in this region may allow mobile predators to provide pest control broadly, despite localized farming intensities. These results provide the first evidence that birds control coffee berry borers and thus increase coffee yield and farm income, a potentially important conservation incentive for producers. PMID:18616745

Kellermann, Jherime L; Johnson, Matthew D; Stercho, Amy M; Hackett, Steven C

2008-10-01

349

Endemic Lagos bat virus infection in Eidolon helvum.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses suggest lyssaviruses, including Rabies virus, originated from bats. However, the role of bats in the maintenance, transmission and evolution of lyssaviruses is poorly understood. A number of genetically diverse lyssaviruses are present in Africa, including Lagos bat virus (LBV). A high seroprevalence of antibodies against LBV was detected in Eidolon helvum bats. Longitudinal seroprevalence and age-specific seroprevalence data were analysed and capture-mark-recapture (CMR) analysis used to follow 98 bats over 18 months. These data demonstrate endemic infection, with evidence of horizontal transmission, and force of infection was estimated for differing age categories. The CMR analysis found survival probabilities of seronegative and seropositive bats were not significantly different. The lack of increased mortality in seropositive animals suggests infection is not causing disease after extended incubation. These key findings point towards acute transmission of bat lyssaviruses in adapted bat hosts that occurs at a far higher rate than the occurrence of disease. PMID:22370126

Hayman, D T S; Fooks, A R; Rowcliffe, J M; McCrea, R; Restif, O; Baker, K S; Horton, D L; Suu-Ire, R; Cunningham, A A; Wood, J L N

2012-12-01

350

A computational sensorimotor model of bat echolocation Harry R. Erwina)  

E-print Network

sensorimotor model of target capture behavior by the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus, was developed for localization in bats since the maximum ITDs no greater than 55 s in E. fuscus; Koay et al., 1998 are much

Moss, Cynthia

351

Detection of group 1 coronaviruses in bats in North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bats of several species in southern People's Republic of China harbor SARS-like CoVs and may be reservoir hosts for them. To determine whether bats in North America also harbor coronaviruses, we used reverse transcription-PCR to detect coronavirus RNA in bats. We found coronavirus RNA in 6 of 28 fecal specimens from bats of 2 of 7 species tested. The prevalence of viral RNA shedding was high: 17% in Eptesicus fuscus and 50% in Myotis occultus. Sequence analysis of a 440-bp amplicon in gene 1b showed that these Rocky Mountain bat coronaviruses formed 3 clusters in phylogenetic group 1 that were distinct from group 1 coronaviruses of Asian bats. Because of the potential for bat coronaviruses to cause disease in humans and animals, further surveillance and characterization of bat coronaviruses in North America are needed.

Dominguez, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.; Oko, L.M.; Holmes, K.V.

2007-01-01

352

Bats in the Classroom: A Conceptual Guide for Biology Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to use bats to introduce different biological concepts such as classification and phylogeny, altruistic behavior, flight, coevolution, or physiological adaptations. Discusses common myths regarding bats and provides information on additional classroom materials. (YDS)

Rankin, W. T.; Lewis, Norma G.

2002-01-01

353

Scrotal melanins in bats (Chiroptera): description, distribution, and function  

E-print Network

Several species of bats contain pigment granules within the scrotal skin, tunica vaginalis or tunica albuginea surrounding the testis and/or epididymis. Seventy-two species of bats, representing 49 genera were examined ...

Kermott, L. Henry; Timm, Robert M.

1988-01-01

354

Molecular epidemiology of bat lyssaviruses in Europe.  

PubMed

Bat rabies cases in Europe are principally attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2). Between 1977 and 2011, 961 cases of bat rabies were reported to Rabies Bulletin Europe, with the vast majority (>97%) being attributed to EBLV-1. There have been 25 suspected cases of EBLV-2, of which 22 have been confirmed. In addition, two single isolations of unique lyssaviruses from European insectivorous bats were reported in south-west Russia in 2002 (West Caucasian bat virus) and in Germany in 2010 (Bokeloh bat lyssavirus). In this review, we present phylogenetic analyses of the EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 using partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences. In particular, we have analysed all EBLV-2 cases for which viral sequences (N gene, 400 nucleotides) are available (n?=?21). Oropharyngeal swabs collected from two healthy Myotis daubentonii during active surveillance programmes in Scotland and Switzerland also yielded viral RNA (EBLV-2). Despite the relatively low number of EBLV-2 cases, a surprisingly large amount of anomalous data has been published in the scientific literature and Genbank, which we have collated and clarified. For both viruses, geographical relationships are clearly defined on the phylogenetic analysis. Whilst there is no clear chronological clustering for either virus, there is some evidence for host specific relationships, particularly for EBLV-1 where more host variation has been observed. Further genomic regions must be studied, in particular for EBLV-1 isolates from Spain and the EBLV-2 isolates to provide support for the existence of sublineages. PMID:22937876

McElhinney, L M; Marston, D A; Leech, S; Freuling, C M; van der Poel, W H M; Echevarria, J; Vázquez-Moron, S; Horton, D L; Müller, T; Fooks, A R

2013-02-01

355

Complex echo classification by echo-locating bats: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echo-locating bats constantly emit ultrasonic pulses and analyze the returning echoes to detect, localize, and classify objects\\u000a in their surroundings. Echo classification is essential for bats’ everyday life; for instance, it enables bats to use acoustical\\u000a landmarks for navigation and to recognize food sources from other objects. Most of the research of echo based object classification\\u000a in echo-locating bats was

Yossi YovelMatthias; Matthias O. Franz; Peter Stilz; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

2011-01-01

356

Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is

Donald R. Clark; Arnulfo Moreno-Valdez; Miguel A. Mora

1995-01-01

357

A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans  

PubMed Central

Respiratory infections constitute the most widespread human infectious disease, and a substantial proportion of them are caused by unknown etiological agents. Reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were first isolated from humans in the early 1950s and so named because they were not associated with any known disease. Here, we report a previously unknown reovirus (named “Melaka virus”) isolated from a 39-year-old male patient in Melaka, Malaysia, who was suffering from high fever and acute respiratory disease at the time of virus isolation. Two of his family members developed similar symptoms ?1 week later and had serological evidence of infection with the same virus. Epidemiological tracing revealed that the family was exposed to a bat in the house ?1 week before the onset of the father's clinical symptoms. Genome sequence analysis indicated a close genetic relationship between Melaka virus and Pulau virus, a reovirus isolated in 1999 from fruit bats in Tioman Island, Malaysia. Screening of sera collected from human volunteers on the island revealed that 14 of 109 (13%) were positive for both Pulau and Melaka viruses. This is the first report of an orthoreovirus in association with acute human respiratory diseases. Melaka virus is serologically not related to the different types of mammalian reoviruses that were known to infect humans asymptomatically. These data indicate that bat-borne reoviruses can be transmitted to and cause clinical diseases in humans. PMID:17592121

Chua, Kaw Bing; Crameri, Gary; Hyatt, Alex; Yu, Meng; Tompang, Mohd Rosli; Rosli, Juliana; McEachern, Jennifer; Crameri, Sandra; Kumarasamy, Verasingam; Eaton, Bryan T.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2007-01-01

358

Design and characterization of a multi-articulated robotic bat wing.  

PubMed

There are many challenges to measuring power input and force output from a flapping vertebrate. Animals can vary a multitude of kinematic parameters simultaneously, and methods for measuring power and force are either not possible in a flying vertebrate or are very time and equipment intensive. To circumvent these challenges, we constructed a robotic, multi-articulated bat wing that allows us to measure power input and force output simultaneously, across a range of kinematic parameters. The robot is modeled after the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, and contains seven joints powered by three servo motors. Collectively, this joint and motor arrangement allows the robot to vary wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. We describe the design, construction, programing, instrumentation, characterization, and analysis of the robot. We show that the kinematics, inputs, and outputs demonstrate good repeatability both within and among trials. Finally, we describe lessons about the structure of living bats learned from trying to mimic their flight in a robotic wing. PMID:23385471

Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

2013-03-01

359

Frugivory is associated with low measures of plasma oxidative stress and high antioxidant concentration in free-ranging bats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidative stress—an imbalance between reactive pro- and neutralising antioxidants—damages cell structures and impairs fitness-relevant traits such as longevity and reproduction. Theory predicts that feeding on diets with high antioxidant content such as fruits should reduce oxidative stress; however, there is no support of this idea in free-ranging mammals. Bats cover a large variety of ecological niches, and therefore, we asked if measures of oxidative stress are lower in species with fruit diets. We measured reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) representing total pro-oxidants produced and antioxidants in the plasma of 33 Neotropical bat species. Species with a fruit diet showed the lowest level of ROM and the highest concentration of antioxidants, followed by omnivorous and animalivorous species. Potentially, frugivorous species ingest more antioxidants with food and thus are able to neutralise more pro-oxidants than species not feeding on fruits, resulting in an overall lower level of oxidative stress. We therefore showed for the first time that measures of oxidative stress vary according to diets in free-ranging mammals.

Schneeberger, Karin; Czirják, Gábor Á.; Voigt, Christian C.

2014-04-01

360

Frugivory is associated with low measures of plasma oxidative stress and high antioxidant concentration in free-ranging bats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress--an imbalance between reactive pro- and neutralising antioxidants--damages cell structures and impairs fitness-relevant traits such as longevity and reproduction. Theory predicts that feeding on diets with high antioxidant content such as fruits should reduce oxidative stress; however, there is no support of this idea in free-ranging mammals. Bats cover a large variety of ecological niches, and therefore, we asked if measures of oxidative stress are lower in species with fruit diets. We measured reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) representing total pro-oxidants produced and antioxidants in the plasma of 33 Neotropical bat species. Species with a fruit diet showed the lowest level of ROM and the highest concentration of antioxidants, followed by omnivorous and animalivorous species. Potentially, frugivorous species ingest more antioxidants with food and thus are able to neutralise more pro-oxidants than species not feeding on fruits, resulting in an overall lower level of oxidative stress. We therefore showed for the first time that measures of oxidative stress vary according to diets in free-ranging mammals. PMID:24515336

Schneeberger, Karin; Czirják, Gábor Á; Voigt, Christian C

2014-04-01

361

Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.  

PubMed

Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

2014-01-01

362

BAT USAGE AND CAVE MANAGEMENT OF TORGAC CAVE, NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Torgac Cave, New Mexico, is a dolomite and gypsum cave that provides a stable winter hibernaculum for several species of bats, primarily Myotis velifer, the cave myotis; Corynorhinus (formerly Plecotus) townsendii, Townsend's big-eared bat; and Myotis ciliolabrum, the western small-footed myotis. Occasional bat count studies between 1966 and 1996 indicate a total hibernating population ranging from 649 to 3951 individuals.

DAVID H. JAGNOW

363

Distinct Lineage of Vesiculovirus from Big Brown Bats, United States  

PubMed Central

We identified a novel rhabdovirus, American bat vesiculovirus, from postmortem tissue samples from 120 rabies-negative big brown bats with a history of human contact. Five percent of the tested bats were infected with this virus. The extent of zoonotic exposure and possible health effects in humans from this virus are unknown. PMID:24274823

Driscoll, Cindy; Carlos, Maria Paz; Prioleau, Algernon; Schmieder, Robert; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Wong, Jakk; Cha, Yunhee; Head, Steven; Breitbart, Mya; Delwart, Eric

2013-01-01

364

INTRODUCTION Bats spend about half their lives in their roosts.  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Bats spend about half their lives in their roosts. Therefore, the events associated with roost ecology are among the major forces driving their evolution (Kunz, 1982). Roosting ecology of bats. Therefore these bats can roost in sites subjected to tempera- ture variations closer to those

Medellín, Rodrigo

365

New Alphacoronavirus in Mystacina tuberculata Bats, New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Because of recent interest in bats as reservoirs of emerging diseases, we investigated the presence of viruses in Mystacina tuberculata bats in New Zealand. A novel alphacoronavirus sequence was detected in guano from roosts of M. tuberculata bats in pristine indigenous forest on a remote offshore island (Codfish Island). PMID:24656060

Wang, Jing; Peacey, Matthew; Moore, Nicole E.; McInnes, Kate; Tompkins, Daniel M.

2014-01-01

366

ORIGINAL PAPER Habitat selection of three cryptic Plecotus bat species  

E-print Network

to bat ecologists concerned with planning con- servation measures beyond roost protection. We thereforeORIGINAL PAPER Habitat selection of three cryptic Plecotus bat species in the European Alps reveals-eared bat species, Plecotus macrobullaris, has been recently discovered in the complex of two other species

Richner, Heinz

367

Sex-based population structure of ectoparasites from Neotropical bats  

E-print Network

to be present in samples from bats captured away from the roost. © 2012 The Linnean Society of LondonSex-based population structure of ectoparasites from Neotropical bats STEVEN J. PRESLEY* Center of individuals of each sex for each of 34 host­ectoparasite associations from Paraguayan bats. Of the 34 host

Willig, Michael

368

RESEARCH ARTICLE Conserving the endangered Mexican fishing bat (Myotis vivesi)  

E-print Network

on small islands in the Gulf of California (Maya 1968; Villa 1979). Fishing bats generally roost withinRESEARCH ARTICLE Conserving the endangered Mexican fishing bat (Myotis vivesi): genetic variation The endangered Mexican fishing bat, Myotis vivesi, appears to have suffered widespread extinction and population

May, Bernie

369

ORIGINAL PAPER Population genetic structure of the Daubenton's bat  

E-print Network

the potential for disease transmission. The genetic structure of the Daubenton's bat in western Europe and often associated with freshwater (Altringham 2003). It has a continuous transpalearctic distribution distribution, the Daubenton's bat has a poorly described spatial ecology. Bats are reservoirs and vectors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

370

Cryptogenic rabies, bats, and the question of aerosol transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rabies is rare in the United States; however, an estimated 40,000 patients receive rabies postexposure prophylaxis each year. Misconceptions about the transmission of rabies are plentiful, particularly regarding bats. Most cases of human rabies caused by bat variants have no definitive history of animal bite. Three hypotheses are proposed and reviewed for the transmission of rabies from bats to

Robert V. Gibbons

2002-01-01

371

Rain increases the energy cost of bat flight  

PubMed Central

Similar to insects, birds and pterosaurs, bats have evolved powered flight. But in contrast to other flying taxa, only bats are furry. Here, we asked whether flight is impaired when bat pelage and wing membranes get wet. We studied the metabolism of short flights in Carollia sowelli, a bat that is exposed to heavy and frequent rainfall in neotropical rainforests. We expected bats to encounter higher thermoregulatory costs, or to suffer from lowered aerodynamic properties when pelage and wing membranes catch moisture. Therefore, we predicted that wet bats face higher flight costs than dry ones. We quantified the flight metabolism in three treatments: dry bats, wet bats and no rain, wet bats and rain. Dry bats showed metabolic rates predicted by allometry. However, flight metabolism increased twofold when bats were wet, or when they were additionally exposed to rain. We conclude that bats may not avoid rain only because of sensory constraints imposed by raindrops on echolocation, but also because of energetic constraints. PMID:21543394

Voigt, Christian C.; Schneeberger, Karin; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L.; Lewanzik, Daniel

2011-01-01

372

Versatility of biosonar in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared cameras and ultrasonic microphones were used to record big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) flying in natural conditions at night while they hunted for insects. As expected, bats avoided obstacles while flying through vegetation and intercepted flying prey in the open. But bats also appeared to capture insects near and possibly on the ground and near or in vegetation, flew

James A. Simmons; Kyler M. Eastman; Seth S. Horowitz; Michael J. O’Farrell; David N. Lee

2001-01-01

373

Distinct lineage of vesiculovirus from big brown bats, United States.  

PubMed

We identified a novel rhabdovirus, American bat vesiculovirus, from postmortem tissue samples from 120 rabies-negative big brown bats with a history of human contact. Five percent of the tested bats were infected with this virus. The extent of zoonotic exposure and possible health effects in humans from this virus are unknown. PMID:24274823

Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Driscoll, Cindy; Carlos, Maria Paz; Prioleau, Algernon; Schmieder, Robert; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Wong, Jakk; Cha, Yunhee; Head, Steven; Breitbart, Mya; Delwart, Eric

2013-12-01

374

Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).  

PubMed

We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem. PMID:24171580

Blehert, David S; Maluping, Ramón P; Green, D Earl; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M; Ballmann, Anne E; Langenberg, Julia A

2014-01-01

375

Interspecific acoustic recognition in two European bat communities  

PubMed Central

Echolocating bats emit echolocation calls for spatial orientation and foraging. These calls are often species-specific and are emitted at high intensity and repetition rate. Therefore, these calls could potentially function in intra- and/or inter-specific bat communication. For example, bats in the field approach playbacks of conspecific feeding buzzes, probably because feeding buzzes indicate an available foraging patch. In captivity, some species of bats recognize and distinguish the echolocation calls of different sympatric species. However, it is still unknown if and how acoustic species-recognition mediates interspecific interactions in the field. Here we aim to understand eavesdropping on bat echolocation calls within and across species boundaries in wild bats. We presented playbacks of conspecific and heterospecific search calls and feeding buzzes to four bat species with different foraging ecologies. The bats were generally more attracted by feeding buzzes than search calls and more by the calls of conspecifics than their heterospecifics. Furthermore, bats showed differential reaction to the calls of the heterospecifics. In particular, Myotis capaccinii reacted equally to the feeding buzzes of conspecifics and to ecologically more similar heterospecifics. Our results confirm eavesdropping on feeding buzzes at the intraspecific level in wild bats and provide the first experimental quantification of potential eavesdropping in European bats at the interspecific level. Our data support the hypothesis that bat echolocation calls have a communicative potential that allows interspecific, and potentially intraspecific, eavesdropping in the wild. PMID:23986714

Dorado-Correa, Adriana M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.; Siemers, Bjorn M.

2013-01-01

376

Experimental rabies virus infection of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).  

PubMed

A captive colony of adult Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus) was experimentally infected with a rabies virus (RABV) variant isolated from the salivary glands of a naturally infected Big Brown Bat and passaged once through murine neuroblastoma cell culture. Bats were divided into 11 groups, which were composed of one to three noninfected and one to three infected individuals each. Twenty of 38 animals were infected intramuscularly into both left and right masseter muscles; they received a total of 10(3.2) median mouse intracerebral lethal dose (MICLD50) of Big Brown Bat RABV variant. Experimental outcome after viral exposure was followed in the bats for 140 days postinoculation (PI). Of 20 infected bats, 16 developed clinical rabies, and the mean incubation period was 24 days (range: 13-52 days). Three infected bats never seroconverted and succumbed early to infection (13 days). Four infected bats that survived until the end of the experiment without any signs of disease maintained detectable antibody titers until the third month PI, peaking between days 13 and 43, and consequent drop-off below the threshold for detection occurred by day 140. Limited excretion of virus in saliva of infected bats during the clinical course of disease was observed in two individuals on days 13 and 15 PI (<24 hr prior to onset of clinical illness). No bat-to-bat transmission of RABV to noninfected bats was detected. PMID:18689646

Jackson, Felix R; Turmelle, Amy S; Farino, David M; Franka, Richard; McCracken, Gary F; Rupprecht, Charles E

2008-07-01

377

Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species  

PubMed Central

Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

2014-01-01

378

Geographic Translocation of Bats: Known and Potential Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural, accidental, and intentional translocation of bats, both intra- and intercontinentally, has been documented. Some bats have been translocated while incubating infectious dis- eases, including rabies or related lyssavirus infections; others have escaped confinement en route to or at their destinations, while others have been released deliberately. Known events and potential consequences of bat translocation are reviewed, including a proposed

Denny G. Constantine

2003-01-01

379

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS FAVORING BAT INFECTION WITH HISTOPLASMA CAPSULATUMIN MEXICAN SHELTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histoplasma capsulatum was isolated from gut, lung, liver, and spleen of 17 of 208 captured bats belonging to 6 different genera and species. Three of the 17 infected bats were from the State of Guerrero and 14 were from the State of Morelos. All were adult bats: 6 males (1 Pteronotus parnellii, 2 Natalus stramineus,2 Artibeus hirsutus, and 1 Leptonycteris

M. L. TAYLOR; C. B. CHAVEZ-TAPIA; R. VARGAS-YANEZ; G. RODRIGUEZ-ARELLANES; G. R. PENA-SANDOVAL; C. TORIELLO; A. PEREZ; M. R. REYES-MONTES

1999-01-01

380

When Ball Meets Bat, the Hands No Longer Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the American Journal of Physics describes research showing that the grip on a bat during contact with a baseball does nothing to affect the power delivered to the ball. Even if the hitters were to let go of the bat right before contact, the batted ball would have the same speed and trajectory.

Nathan, Alan

2004-12-15

381

INCORPORATING BATS IN AGROECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT AND CROP PROTECTION DECISIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

By characterizing the diet of bats in agroecosystems, this research likely will document that bats are important consumers of pest species. Additionally, this investigation will document which pest species are consumed and the relative contribution of these species to bat d...

382

CONTROL OF BOVINE RABIES THROUGH VAMPIRE BAT CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bstract: An area 30 by 50 km was selected for destruction of vampire bats (Des- modus rotundus). The area was located in the path of an advancing epizootic of vampire bat-borne bovine rabies which had been moving southward at the average rate of 40 km per year for 14 years. The bats were exterminated in their roosts in water

ABEL FORNES; REXFORD D. LORD; MERLE L. KUNS; OSCAR P. LARGHI

383

Urban Maternity-Roost Selection by Big Brown Bats in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite prevalent use of anthropogenic structures by bats and the associated implications for public health, management, and bat conservation, very little quantitative information exists about urban roost characteristics and their selection by bats. During the summers of 2001 to 2004 we conducted fieldwork in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, situated on the northern end of Colorado's Front Range, to address questions

DANIEL J. NEUBAUM; KENNETH R. WILSON; THOMAS J. O'SHEA

384

Acoustic identication of insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera) of Yucatan, Mexico  

E-print Network

Acoustic identi®cation of insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera) of Yucatan, Mexico J. Rydell1 *, H for acoustic inventories of insectivorous bats using the Pettersson heterodyne and time- expansion bat detectors. The acoustic method can be used alone or in combination with inventories based on mist

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

385

Sexually Selected Infanticide in a Polygynous Bat  

PubMed Central

Background Adult individuals of many species kill unrelated conspecific infants for several adaptive reasons ranging from predation or resource competition to the prevention of misdirected parental care. Moreover, infanticide can increase the reproductive success of the aggressor by killing the offspring of competitors and thereafter mating with the victimized females. This sexually selected infanticide predominantly occurs in polygynous species, with convincing evidence for primates, carnivores, equids, and rodents. Evidence for bats was predicted but lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the first case, to our knowledge, of sexually selected infanticide in a bat, the polygynous white-throated round-eared bat, Lophostoma silvicolum. Behavioral studies in a free-living population revealed that an adult male repeatedly attacked and injured the pups of two females belonging to his harem, ultimately causing the death of one pup. The infanticidal male subsequently mated with the mother of the victimized pup and this copulation occurred earlier than any other in his harem. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that sexually selected infanticide is more widespread than previously thought, adding bats as a new taxon performing this strategy. Future work on other bats, especially polygynous species in the tropics, has great potential to investigate the selective pressures influencing the evolution of sexually selected infanticide and to study how infanticide impacts reproductive strategies and social structures of different species. PMID:21949829

Knornschild, Mirjam; Ueberschaer, Katja; Helbig, Maria; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

2011-01-01

386

[Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].  

PubMed

Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus. PMID:25123871

Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

2014-04-01

387

When should fig fruit produce volatiles? Pattern in a ripening process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ripe fruit need to signal their presence to attract dispersal agents. Plants may employ visual and/or olfactory sensory channels to signal the presence of ripe fruit. Visual signals of ripe fruit have been extensively investigated. However, the volatile signatures of ripe fruit that use olfactorily-oriented dispersers have been scarcely investigated. Moreover, as in flowers, where floral scents are produced at times when pollinators are active (diurnal versus nocturnal), whether plants can modulate the olfactory signal to produce fruit odours when dispersers are active in the diel cycle is completely unknown. We investigated day-night differences in fruit odours in two species of figs, Ficus racemosa and Ficus benghalensis. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. racemosa that are largely dispersed by bats and other mammals was dominated by fatty acid derivatives such as esters. In this species in which the ripe fig phase is very short, and where the figs drop off soon after ripening, there were no differences between day and night in fruit volatile signature. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. benghalensis that has a long ripening period, however, and that remain attached to the tree for extended periods when ripe, showed an increase in fatty acid derivatives such as esters and of benzenoids such as benzaldehyde at night when they are dispersed by bats, and an elevation of sesquiterpenes during the day when they are dispersed by birds. For the first time we provide data that suggest that the volatile signal produced by fruit can show diel differences based on the activity period of the dispersal agent.

Borges, Renee M.; Ranganathan, Yuvaraj; Krishnan, Anusha; Ghara, Mahua; Pramanik, Gautam

2011-11-01

388

Roost tree use by maternity colonies of Indiana bats and northern long-eared bats in southern Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roost trees used by female Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis), a federally endangered species, and sympatric northern long-eared bats (Myotis septentrionalis) at two locations in southern Illinois greatly impacted by past flooding were located using radiotelemetry. For 30 Indiana bats, we located 49 roosts in 7 species of trees. Green ash snags (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and pin oak snags (Quercus palustris) were

Timothy C. Carter; George A. Feldhamer

2005-01-01

389

Migration of bats past a remote island offers clues toward the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy is rapidly becoming a viable source of alternative energy, but wind turbines are killing bats in many areas of North America. Most of the bats killed by turbines thus far have been migratory species that roost in trees throughout the year, and the highest fatality events appear to coincide with autumn migration. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) are highly

Paul M. Cryan; Adam C. Brown

2007-01-01

390

Effect of different types of cricket batting pads on the running and turning speed in cricket batting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare a batsman's running and turning speed during three runs while wearing either traditional batting pads or one of two models of newly designed cricket batting pads. Fifteen cricketers participated. The running and turning speeds were measured on three different days with players using the three pairs of batting pads for each trial

N. Loock; D. E. Du Toit; D. J. L. Ventner; R. A. Stretch

2006-01-01

391

North American Bats and Mines Project: A Cooperative Interagency Approach to Bat Conservation Through Mine Land Reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human safety and liability concerns prompted a national campaign to close abandoned mines. These closures, along with renewed mining in historic districts, present a significant threat to mine-dwelling bat populations. Over half of North America's 45 bat species have been documented using abandoned underground mines. The need for mine habitat increases as traditional cave and tree hollow roosts disappear. Bats

Faith A. Watkins

2002-01-01

392

Evolution of the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 in bats.  

PubMed

Taste perception is an important component of an animal's fitness. The identification of vertebrate taste receptor genes in the last decade has enabled molecular genetic studies of the evolution of taste perception in the context of the ecology and dietary preferences of organisms. Although such analyses have been conducted in a number of species for bitter taste receptors, a similar analysis of sweet taste receptors is lacking. Here, we survey the sole sweet taste-specific receptor gene Tas1r2 in 42 bat species that represent all major lineages of the order Chiroptera, one of the most diverse groups of mammals in terms of diet. We found that Tas1r2 is under strong purifying selection in the majority of the bats studied, with no significant difference in the strength of the selection between insect eaters and fruit eaters. However, Tas1r2 is a pseudogene in all three vampire bat species and the functional relaxation likely started in their common ancestor, probably due to the exclusive feeding of vampire bats on blood and their reliance on infrared sensors rather than taste perception to locate blood sources. Our survey of available genome sequences, together with previous reports, revealed additional losses of Tas1r2 in horse, cat, chicken, zebra finch, and western clawed frog, indicating that sweet perception is not as conserved as previously thought. Nonetheless, we found no common dietary pattern among the Tas1r2-lacking vertebrates, suggesting different causes for the losses of Tas1r2 in different species. The complexity of the ecological factors that impact the evolution of Tas1r2 calls for a better understanding of the physiological roles of sweet perception in different species. PMID:20558596

Zhao, Huabin; Zhou, Yingying; Pinto, C Miguel; Charles-Dominique, Pierre; Galindo-González, Jorge; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

2010-11-01

393

Swift/BAT Survey: AGN Population Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swift gamma-ray burst observatory was launched in November, 2004. Swift detects gamma-ray bursts and autonomously performs rapid follow-up observations of the afterglows. The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is a wide-field coded-aperture telescope on board Swift, sensitive in the 15--150 keV X-ray band. While BAT is searching for GRB's, it is also continuously observing in the survey mode. We have constructed an all-sky hard X-ray survey from nine months of BAT data. The survey is 90% complete at the 4× 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1 level (5? confidence). The survey detects 147 extragalactic sources at a significance of 5? or higher. We will present a discussion of the source population, including the \\log N vs. \\log S and luminosity functions. In addition to total intensity, the survey contains modest spectral and temporal information on each source, which we will summarize.

Markwardt, Craig; Tueller, J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Swift/BAT Survey Team

2006-06-01

394

Tick (Acari) infestations of bats in New Mexico.  

PubMed

A total of 278 bats belonging to 16 species was examined for ticks from various sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998. Seven species of bats were parasitized by ticks: larvae of Ornithodoros kelleyi Cooley & Kohls, Ornithodoros rossi Kohls, Sonenshine & Clifford (Argasidae), or both. Both species of ticks are reported from New Mexico for the first time. Infestation prevalences for parasitized bats ranged from 2 to 25% on different host species for O. kelleyi and from 7 to 25% for O. rossi. The pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus, and the big brown bat. Eptesicus fuscus, were parasitized by both tick species. No distinct host specificity was noted for either tick species. PMID:11476346

Steinlein, D B; Durden, L A; Cannon, W L

2001-07-01

395

Bat Rabies in British Columbia 1971-1985  

PubMed Central

Rabies virus was demonstrated in 99 of 1154 bats submitted from British Columbia between 1971 and 1985. Rabies was diagnosed in seven species including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), the latter accounting for 51% of all positive cases. Colonial species represented 92.9% of all identified bats and 87.7% of all rabid cases. Most bats were submitted from the more densely populated areas of the province, and submissions and positive cases both peaked in the month of August. Daytime activity and inability to fly were the most common behaviors reported in rabid bats. PMID:17422945

Prins, Bert; Loewen, Ken

1988-01-01

396

North American Bats and Mines Project: A cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation  

SciTech Connect

Inactive underground mines now provide essential habitat for more than half of North America`s 44 bat species, including some of the largest remaining populations. Thousands of abandoned mines have already been closed or are slated for safety closures, and many are destroyed during renewed mining in historic districts. The available evidence suggests that millions of bats have already been lost due to these closures. Bats are primary predators of night-flying insects that cost American farmers and foresters billions of dollars annually, therefore, threats to bat survival are cause for serious concern. Fortunately, mine closure methods exist that protect both bats and humans. Bat Conservation International (BCI) and the USDI-Bureau of Land Management founded the North American Bats and Mines Project to provide national leadership and coordination to minimize the loss of mine-roosting bats. This partnership has involved federal and state mine-land and wildlife managers and the mining industry. BCI has trained hundreds of mine-land and wildlife managers nationwide in mine assessment techniques for bats and bat-compatible closure methods, published technical information on bats and mine-land management, presented papers on bats and mines at national mining and wildlife conferences, and collaborated with numerous federal, state, and private partners to protect some of the most important mine-roosting bat populations. Our new mining industry initiative, Mining for Habitat, is designed to develop bat habitat conservation and enhancement plans for active mining operations. It includes the creation of cost-effective artificial underground bat roosts using surplus mining materials such as old mine-truck tires and culverts buried beneath waste rock.

Ducummon, S.L. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

397

Bats: Twilight Zone (ScienceWorld)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy. Written for students in grades 6-10, this article from Science World magazine has an interview with AMNH zoologist Nancy Simmons, in which she discusses her research and the scientific challenges she faces in her quest to build a more complete bat family tree. There are Web links that offer further opportunities for learning about bat adaptations and their role in the planet's biodiversity.

398

Roosting ecology of the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daytime roosting behavior of pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) was studied in central Arizona. Bats were present in the area from March or April until November and roosted in cliffs in colonies generally including 20 or more individuals. Pallid bats were highly selective in their choice of roost sites and minimized diurnal energy output by adaptive hypothermia and behavioral thermo-regulation. In spring and autumn the bats roosted in vertical crevices responsive to changes in ambient temperatures. Here temperatures remained low and the bats were torpid for much of the day, but when the crevices became heated in the late afternoon the bats were passively warmed prior to emergence. Deep, horizontal crevices were preferred in summer; cliffs function as massive heat sinks, and in summer crevice temperatures remained moderate and relatively stable. Throughout most of the day both the deep parts of the crevices and the body temperatures of the bats remained close to 30ºC; at this body temperature pallid bats have unexpectedly low metabolic rates (Trune, 1974). By adjusting their positions and closeness to other bats in the thermal gradient within the crevice, bats dissipate heat early in the day, maintain a low metabolic rate through most of the fat and elevate the body temperature prior to emergence in the evening. Of vital important to pallid bats in the summer are social behaviors that promote communal roosting at "traditional" crevices.

Vaughan, Terry A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

1976-01-01

399

[Trematodes (Trematoda) of bats (Chiroptera) from the Middle Volga Region].  

PubMed

The data on species diversity of trematodes from bats collected in the Middle Volga Region are summarized. According to original and literary data, 20 trematode species were recorded in bats of the region examined. Plagiorchis elegans, Lecithodendrium skrjabini, L. rysavyi, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, and Pycnoporus megacotyle are specified for the bat fauna of Russia for the first time. For 11 species of parasites, new hosts are recorded. The analysis of bat helminthes demonstrated that the fauna of trematodes of the northern bat (12 species of trematodes), of the pond, and of the Brandt's bats is the most diverse, constituting more than 10 parasite species per bat species. The largest number of final hosts in the Middle Volga Region is characteristic of Plagiorchis koreanus and Prosthodendrium chilostomum; the latter species were revealed in 8 and 7 bat species, respectively. Trematodes of bats possess a high degree of host specificity. 17 species parasitize exclusively in bats out of 20 parasite species registered for the order Chiroptera. Only 3 species (Plagiorchis elegans, P. vespertilionis, and Prosthodendrium chilostomum) show wide degree of specificity, being found in other animals. Taxonomic position, the circle of hosts, collecting sites, and brief data in biology and geographical distribution for each helminth species are specified. Morphological descriptions and original figures for all the trematode species revealed in bats of the Middle Volga Region are given. PMID:23458016

Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu; Vekhnik, V P

2012-01-01

400

DBatVir: the database of bat-associated viruses.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases remain a significant threat to public health. Most emerging infectious disease agents in humans are of zoonotic origin. Bats are important reservoir hosts of many highly lethal zoonotic viruses and have been implicated in numerous emerging infectious disease events in recent years. It is essential to enhance our knowledge and understanding of the genetic diversity of the bat-associated viruses to prevent future outbreaks. To facilitate further research, we constructed the database of bat-associated viruses (DBatVir). Known viral sequences detected in bat samples were manually collected and curated, along with the related metadata, such as the sampling time, location, bat species and specimen type. Additional information concerning the bats, including common names, diet type, geographic distribution and phylogeny were integrated into the database to bridge the gap between virologists and zoologists. The database currently covers >4100 bat-associated animal viruses of 23 viral families detected from 196 bat species in 69 countries worldwide. It provides an overview and snapshot of the current research regarding bat-associated viruses, which is essential now that the field is rapidly expanding. With a user-friendly interface and integrated online bioinformatics tools, DBatVir provides a convenient and powerful platform for virologists and zoologists to analyze the virome diversity of bats, as well as for epidemiologists and public health researchers to monitor and track current and future bat-related infectious diseases. Database URL: http://www.mgc.ac.cn/DBatVir/. PMID:24647629

Chen, Lihong; Liu, Bo; Yang, Jian; Jin, Qi

2014-01-01

401

Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

Clark, D.R., Jr.

1980-01-01

402

White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe  

PubMed Central

White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus. PMID:20678317

Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Pruger, Julia; Gorfol, Tamas; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zophel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

2010-01-01

403

White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

2010-01-01

404

BAT2 GRB Catalog - Prompt Emission Properties of Swift GRBs  

SciTech Connect

We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. The BAT T{sub 90} duration peaks at 70 s. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT short-duration GRBs are generally harder than those of the long-duration GRBs. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate redshift GRBs. Furthermore, the observed spectra of the BAT high redshift GRBs are similar to or harder than the moderate redshift GRBs.

Sakamoto, T. [CRESST and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Parsons, A.; Tueller, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Baumgartner, W.; Cummings, J. [CRESST and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryand, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); Krimm, H. [CRESST and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Universities Space Research Association, 10211 Wincopin Circle, Suite 500, Columbia, MD 21044-3432 (United States); Markwardt, C. [CRESST and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Sato, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Stamatikos, M. [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ukwatta, T. [Center for Nuclear Studies, Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052 (United States)

2010-10-15

405

Fun Fruit: Advanced  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math challenge, played with two players or a whole group, engages your problem solving skills. Remove pieces of fruit from the fruit bowl, trying to find a strategy to be the person to take the last piece of fruit. You can substitute different materials if you do not have fruit available. This activity guide contains a material list, game instructions, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2004-01-01

406

Genomic and serological detection of bat coronavirus from bats in the Philippines.  

PubMed

Bat coronavirus (BtCoV) is assumed to be a progenitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses. To explore the distribution of BtCoVs in the Philippines, we collected 179 bats and detected viral RNA from intestinal or fecal samples by RT-PCR. The overall prevalence of BtCoVs among bats was 29.6 %. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene suggested that one of the detected BtCoVs was a novel alphacoronavirus, while the others belonged to the genus Betacoronavirus. Western blotting revealed that 66.5 % of bat sera had antibodies to BtCoV. These surveys suggested the endemic presence of BtCoVs in the Philippines. PMID:22833101

Tsuda, Shumpei; Watanabe, Shumpei; Masangkay, Joseph S; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Alviola, Phillip; Ueda, Naoya; Iha, Koichiro; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fujii, Hikaru; Kato, Kentaro; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Akashi, Hiroomi

2012-12-01

407

Bat use of a high-plains urban wildlife refuge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are significant components of mammalian diversity and in many areas are of management concern. However, little attention has been given to bats in urban or prairie landscapes. In 1997 and 1998, we determined species richness, relative abundance, roosting habits, and echolocation activity of bats at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA), the largest urban unit in the United States refuge system, located on the high plains near Denver, Colorado. An inventory using mist nets revealed 3 species foraging at the site: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Big brown bats comprised 86% of captures (n=176). This pattern was consistent with continental-scale predictions of bat species richness and evenness based on availability of potential roosts. Relative abundance based on captures was similar to that revealed by echolocation detector surveys, except that the latter revealed the likely presence of at least 2 additional species (Myotis spp. and red bats [Lasiurus borealis]). Echolocation activity was significantly greater (P=0.009) in areas with tree or water habitat edges than in open prairie, suggesting that maintaining such features is important for bats. Big brown bats commuted greater distances (9.20-18.8 km) from roosts in urban core areas to foraging sites on the refuge than typically reported for this species elsewhere, emphasizing the value of the site to these bats. Urban refuges can provide habitat of importance to bat populations, but may be characterized by abundant bats that roost in buildings if a variety of other kinds of roosting habitats are unavailable.

Everette, A.L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stone, L.A.; McCance, J.L.

2001-01-01

408

Habitat Use by Forest Bats in South Carolina in Relation to Local, Stand, and Landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge and understanding of bat habitat associations and the responses of bats to forest management are critical for effective bat conservation and management. Few studies have been conducted on bat habitat use in the southeast, despite the high number of endangered and sensitive species in the region. Our objective was to identify important local, stand, and landscape factors influencing bat

M. O'KEEFE

409

Public health awareness of emerging zoonotic viruses of bats: A European perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats classified in the order Chiroptera are the most abundant and widely distributed non-human mammalian species in the world. Several bat species are reservoir hosts of zoonotic viruses and therefore can be a public health hazard. Lyssaviruses of different genotypes have emerged from bats in America (Genotype 1 rabies virus; RABV), Europe (European bat lyssavirus; EBLV), and Australia (Australian bat

Poel van der W. H. M; Peter H. C. Lina; Johannes A. Kramps

2006-01-01

410

J.ScottAltenbach,ProfessorofBiology,UniversityofNewMexico Bats in the Air  

E-print Network

;6 Bat Fascination Bats have always been a great fascination for scientists. The vampire bat, for example present many implica- tions. Scientists have enormous interest in vampire bats because of their potential to Trinidad to fine-tune our previously collected data about the ground-based locomotion of vampire bats. What

Wang, Z. Jane

411

The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.  

PubMed

Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge. PMID:24723396

Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinéad

2014-08-01

412

Neurophysiological analysis of echolocation in bats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of echolocation and signal processing in brown bats is presented. Data cover echo detection, echo ranging, echolocalization, and echo analysis. Efforts were also made to identify the part of the brain that carries out the most essential processing function for echolocation. Results indicate the inferior colliculus and the auditory nuclei function together to process this information.

Suga, N.

1972-01-01

413

Personality variation in little brown bats.  

PubMed

Animal personality or temperament refers to individual differences in behaviour that are repeatable over time and across contexts. Personality has been linked to life-history traits, energetic traits and fitness, with implications for the evolution of behaviour. Personality has been quantified for a range of taxa (e.g., fish, songbirds, small mammals) but, so far, there has been little work on personality in bats, despite their diversity and potential as a model taxon for comparative studies. We used a novel environment test to quantify personality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and assess the short-term repeatability of a range of behaviours. We tested the hypothesis that development influences values of personality traits and predicted that trait values associated with activity would increase between newly volant, pre-weaning young-of-the-year (YOY) and more mature, self-sufficient YOY. We identified personality dimensions that were consistent with past studies of other taxa and found that these traits were repeatable over a 24-hour period. Consistent with our prediction, older YOY captured at a fall swarming site prior to hibernation had higher activity scores than younger YOY bats captured at a maternity colony, suggesting that personality traits vary as development progresses in YOY bats. Thus, we found evidence of short-term consistency of personality within individuals but with the potential for temporal flexibility of traits, depending on age. PMID:24312205

Menzies, Allyson K; Timonin, Mary E; McGuire, Liam P; Willis, Craig K R

2013-01-01

414

BATS: The Blind Audio Tactile Mapping System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BATS project focuses on helping students with visual impairments access and explore spatial information using standard computer hardware and open source software. Our work is largely based on prior techniques used in presenting maps to the blind such as text-to-speech synthesis, auditory icons, and tactile feedback. We add spatial sound to position auditory icons and speech callouts in three

Peter Parente; Gary Bishop

415

Population Trends of Wintering Bats in Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of all readily available inventories of wintering bats in Vermont. Surveys at 23 hibernacula were compiled from the literature and unpublished data of numerous biologists and cavers. The earliest Vermont records date back to 1934. Only five hibernacula were systematically surveyed for more than 45 years. Despite data limitations, several trends have emerged. Since the 1930s,

Stephen C. Trombulak; Philip E. Higuera; Mark DesMeules

2001-01-01

416

Bat-associated Rabies Virus in Skunks  

PubMed Central

Rabies was undetected in terrestrial wildlife of northern Arizona until 2001, when rabies was diagnosed in 19 rabid skunks in Flagstaff. Laboratory analyses showed causative rabies viruses associated with bats, which indicated cross-species transmission of unprecedented magnitude. Public health infrastructure must be maintained to address emerging zoonotic diseases. PMID:16965714

Messenger, Sharon; Rohde, Rodney E.; Smith, Jean; Cheshier, Ronald; Hanlon, Cathleen; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2006-01-01

417

Bats of the Colorado oil shale region  

SciTech Connect

New records for Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibii, M. lucifugus, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus cinereus, Plecotus townsendii, and Antrozous pallidus and their habitat occurrence in northwestern Colorado are reported. Mortality of 27 bats of six species trapped in an oil sludge pit is described. 7 references.

Finley, R.B. Jr.; Caire, W.; Wilhelm, D.E.

1984-10-31

418

Bat Rabies, Texas, 1996-2000  

PubMed Central

Bats submitted to the Texas Department of Health (1996–2000) were speciated and tested for rabies virus antigen by direct immunofluorescence microscopy. Antigenic analysis of rabies virus–positive specimens was performed with monoclonal antibodies against the nucleoprotein of the virus; atypical or unexpected results were confirmed by genetic analysis of nucleoprotein sequence. PMID:15200840

Mayes, Bonny C.; Smith, Jean S.; Neill, Susan U.

2004-01-01

419

Bats of the Colorado oil shale region  

Microsoft Academic Search

New records for Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibii, M. lucifugus, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus cinereus, Plecotus townsendii, and Antrozous pallidus and their habitat occurrence in northwestern Colorado are reported. Mortality of 27 bats of six species trapped in an oil sludge pit is described. 7 references.

R. B. Jr. Finley; W. Caire; D. E. Wilhelm

1984-01-01

420

Notes on the Distribution of Oregon Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributional data are given for 15 species of bats known to occur in Oregon: Antrozous pallidus, Eptesicus fuscus, Euderma maculatum, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Lasiurus cinereus\\/ Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibi, M. lucifugusf M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Pipistrellus hesperus, Plecotus townsendi, Tadarida brasiliensis. Distribution is also discussed in terms of physiography.

Chris Maser; Stephen P. Cross

421

Bat wing sensors support flight control  

PubMed Central

Bats are the only mammals capable of powered flight, and they perform impressive aerial maneuvers like tight turns, hovering, and perching upside down. The bat wing contains five digits, and its specialized membrane is covered with stiff, microscopically small, domed hairs. We provide here unique empirical evidence that the tactile receptors associated with these hairs are involved in sensorimotor flight control by providing aerodynamic feedback. We found that neurons in bat primary somatosensory cortex respond with directional sensitivity to stimulation of the wing hairs with low-speed airflow. Wing hairs mostly preferred reversed airflow, which occurs under flight conditions when the airflow separates and vortices form. This finding suggests that the hairs act as an array of sensors to monitor flight speed and/or airflow conditions that indicate stall. Depilation of different functional regions of the bats’ wing membrane altered the flight behavior in obstacle avoidance tasks by reducing aerial maneuverability, as indicated by decreased turning angles and increased flight speed. PMID:21690408

Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne; Chadha, Mohit; Chiu, Chen; Falk, Ben; Xian, Wei; Barcelo, Janna; Zook, John M.; Moss, Cynthia F.

2011-01-01

422

BAT RABIES IN URBAN CENTERS IN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectiv- orous bats in Chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. These isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the Americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in Chile. The phylogenetic analyses showed

Carlos A. de Mattos; Myriam Favi; Veronica Yung; Carlos Pavletic

2000-01-01

423

Male reproductive patterns in nonhibernating bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Knowledge relative to the reproduction of nonhibernating bats is reviewed. Events in the male, as they are now understood, are summarized for all families for which data exist. Attention is given to the wide species diversity of male accessory sex organs in respect to gross structure and glandular complement. Stability or variability of organization of the male reproductive system

P. H. Krutzsch

424

CABLE NETS FOR BAT HABITAT PRESERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable-supported structures have been used in architectural and engineering practice for long spans, such as suspension bridges, and to cover large areas with a minimum of support columns, such as sports arenas and aviaries. Similarly, in bat habitat preservation in underground mines and caves, use of cable nets is particularly well adapted to large span, usually vertical, openings. Nets also

John A. Kretzmann

425

Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice. PMID:24840106

Syaripuddin, Khairunnisa; Kumar, Anjali; Sing, Kong-Wah; Halim, Muhammad-Rasul Abdullah; Nursyereen, Muhammad-Nasir; Wilson, John-James

2014-09-01

426

Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats.  

PubMed

To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. PMID:24860509

Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

2014-01-01

427

Hybridization Hotspots at Bat Swarming Sites  

PubMed Central

During late summer and early autumn in temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere, thousands of bats gather at caves, mainly for the purpose of mating. We demonstrated that this swarming behavior most probably leads not only to breeding among bats of the same species but also interbreeding between different species. Using 14 nuclear microsatellites and three different methods (the Bayesian assignment approaches of STRUCTURE and NEWHYBRIDS and a principal coordinate analysis of pairwise genetic distances), we analyzed 375 individuals belonging to three species of whiskered bats (genus Myotis) at swarming sites across their sympatric range in southern Poland. The overall hybridization rate varied from 3.2 to 7.2%. At the species level, depending on the method used, these values ranged from 2.1–4.6% in M. mystacinus and 3.0–3.7% in M. brandtii to 6.5–30.4% in M. alcathoe. Hybrids occurred in about half of the caves we studied. In all three species, the sex ratio of hybrids was biased towards males but the observed differences did not differ statistically from those noted at the population level. In our opinion, factors leading to the formation of these admixed individuals and their relatively high frequency are: i) swarming behaviour at swarming sites, where high numbers of bats belonging to several species meet; ii) male-biased sex ratio during the swarming period; iii) the fact that all these bats are generally polygynous. The highly different population sizes of different species at swarming sites may also play some role. Swarming sites may represent unique hybrid hotspots, which, as there are at least 2,000 caves in the Polish Carpathians alone, may occur on a massive scale not previously observed for any group of mammal species in the wild. Evidently, these sites should be treated as focal points for the conservation of biodiversity and evolutionary processes. PMID:23300912

Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Piksa, Krzysztof; Tereba, Anna

2012-01-01

428

Renewed mining and reclamation: Imapacts on bats and potential mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Historic mining created new roosting habitat for many bat species. Now the same industry has the potential to adversely impact bats. Contemporary mining operations usually occur in historic districts; consequently the old workings are destroyed by open pit operations. Occasionally, underground techniques are employed, resulting in the enlargement or destruction of the original workings. Even during exploratory operations, historic mine openings can be covered as drill roads are bulldozed, or drills can penetrate and collapse underground workings. Nearby blasting associated with mine construction and operation can disrupt roosting bats. Bats can also be disturbed by the entry of mine personnel to collect ore samples or by recreational mine explorers, since the creation of roads often results in easier access. In addition to roost disturbance, other aspects of renewed mining can have adverse impacts on bat populations, and affect even those bats that do not live in mines. Open cyanide ponds, or other water in which toxic chemicals accumulate, can poison bats and other wildlife. The creation of the pits, roads and processing areas often destroys critical foraging habitat, or change drainage patterns. Finally, at the completion of mining, any historic mines still open may be sealed as part of closure and reclamation activities. The net result can be a loss of bats and bat habitat. Conversely, in some contemporary underground operations, future roosting habitat for bats can be fabricated. An experimental approach to the creation of new roosting habitat is to bury culverts or old tires beneath waste rock. Mining companies can mitigate for impacts to bats by surveying to identify bat-roosting habitat, removing bats prior to renewed mining or closure, protecting non-impacted roost sites with gates and fences, researching to identify habitat requirements and creating new artificial roosts.

Brown, P.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Berry, R.D. [Brown-Berry Biological Consulting, Bishop, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

429

The Habitat Preferences of Myotis Bats in Western North Dakota: Using Land Cover to Predict Distribution Patterns  

E-print Network

Credit: eol.org Long Legged Bat Myotis volans Photo Credit: eol.org Eared ti evoti Photo Credit: Fort Collins Bat Project Western Small Footed Bat Myotis ciliolabrum Long Legged Bat Myotis volans Long Earred Bat Myotis evotis Western... Lasiurus borealis (Red Bat) data due to lack of Myotis data • Land cover image clipped to buffer extent • Pixel proportion from attribute table recorded ArcGIS Results Western Small-Footed bat (Myotis ciliolabrum) Long Eared bat (Myotis evotis) Long...

Walker, Steven

2013-01-15

430

The Florida bonneted bat, Eumops floridanus (Chiroptera: Molossidae): Distribution, morphometrics, systematics, and ecology  

E-print Network

review and reappraisal of bats of the genus Eumops (Chiroptera: Molossidae) reveals that considerable geographic variation is present in the bonneted bat, E. glaucinus; it is a complex consisting of >1 species. Bonneted bats in Florida...

Timm, Robert M.; Genoways, Hugh H.

2004-10-01

431

78 FR 19559 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 26, 2013. Pursuant to Section...on March 18, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS...SPDR S&P 500 ETF (``SPY''), Apple Inc. (``AAPL''), SPDR Gold...

2013-04-01