Sample records for jamaican fruit bat

  1. Henipaviruses: Emerging Paramyxoviruses Associated with Fruit Bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Field; John S. Mackenzie; P. Daszak

    Two related, novel, zoonotic paramyxoviruses have been described recently. Hendra virus was first reported in horses and thence\\u000a humans in Australia in 1994; Nipah virus was first reported in pigs and thence humans in Malaysia in 1998. Human cases of\\u000a Nipah virus infection, apparently unassociated with infection in livestock, have been reported in Bangladesh since 2001. Species\\u000a of fruit bats

  2. Impact of Posttyphoon Hunting on Mariana Fruit Bats (Pteropus mariannus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob A. Esselstyn; Arjun Amar; Dustin Janeke

    2006-01-01

    We examined the abundance of Mariana fruit bats (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest) on the Pacific islands of Rota and Guam before and after a severe typhoon in December 2002. After the typhoon, bat abundance declined by 70% on Rota. On Guam, bat abundance initially increased by ca. 100 individuals (103%), perhaps due to immigration from Rota, but then declined an average

  3. Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats.

    PubMed

    Towner, Jonathan S; Amman, Brian R; Sealy, Tara K; Carroll, Serena A Reeder; Comer, James A; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L; Formenty, Pierre B H; Albarino, Cesar G; Miller, David M; Reed, Zachary D; Kayiwa, John T; Mills, James N; Cannon, Deborah L; Greer, Patricia W; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W; Zaki, Sherif R; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

    2009-07-01

    In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans. PMID:19649327

  4. Isolation of Genetically Diverse Marburg Viruses from Egyptian Fruit Bats

    PubMed Central

    Towner, Jonathan S.; Amman, Brian R.; Sealy, Tara K.; Carroll, Serena A. Reeder; Comer, James A.; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D.; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L.; Formenty, Pierre B. H.; Albarino, Cesar G.; Miller, David M.; Reed, Zachary D.; Kayiwa, John T.; Mills, James N.; Cannon, Deborah L.; Greer, Patricia W.; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C.; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2009-01-01

    In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans. PMID:19649327

  5. Nonecholocating fruit bats produce biosonar clicks with their wings.

    PubMed

    Boonman, Arjan; Bumrungsri, Sara; Yovel, Yossi

    2014-12-15

    Because evolution mostly acts over millions of years, the intermediate steps leading to a functional sensory system remain enigmatic. Accordingly, there is an ongoing debate regarding the evolution of bat echolocation. In search of the origin of bat echolocation, we studied how Old World fruit bats, which have always been classified as nonecholocating, orient in complete darkness. We found that two of these nonecholocating species used click-like sounds to detect and discriminate objects in complete darkness. However, we discovered that this click-based echo sensing is rudimentary and does not allow these bats to estimate distance accurately as all other echolocating bats can. Moreover, unlike all other echolocating bats, which generate pulses using the larynx or the tongue, these bats generated clicks with their wings. We provide evidence suggesting that all Old World fruit bats can click with their wings. Although this click-based echo sensing used by Old World fruit bats may not represent the ancestral form of current (laryngeal) bat echolocation, we argue that clicking fruit bats could be considered behavioral fossils, opening a window to study the evolution of echolocation. PMID:25484290

  6. The Status of Fruit Bats on Guam1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GARY J. WILES

    Two species of fruit bats are known from Guam in the southern Mariana Islands. Pteropus mariannus mariannushas declined greatly in abun­ dance since the early 1900s. Its numbers decreased from an estimated 3,000 animals in 1958 to fewer than 50 individuals in 1978. However, by 1982, the population of this species incre ased to about 850 to 1,000 bats, probably

  7. Tropical Secondary Forest Management Influences Frugivorous Bat Composition, Abundance and Fruit Consumption in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H’) was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests’ structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029

  8. Artibeus lituratus, the Great Fruit Bat, Feeding on the Infructescences of Cecropia sp.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Merlin D. Tuttle

    2004-03-09

    Artibeus lituratus, the great fruit bat, feeding on the infructescences of Cecropia sp. Species of Artibeus are important dispersers of Cecropia. Morphological and anatomical study has revealed that the dispersal unit of Cecropia is the entire fruit, not just the seed. Bats consume the fleshy floral parts surrounding the fruits and disperse the fruits.

  9. The Missing Part of Seed Dispersal Networks: Structure and Robustness of Bat-Fruit Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Aurelio Ribeiro Mello; Flávia Maria Darcie Marquitti; Paulo Roberto Guimarães; Elisabeth Klara Viktoria Kalko; Pedro Jordano; Marcus Aloizio Martinez de Aguiar; Anna Traveset

    2011-01-01

    Mutualistic networks are crucial to the maintenance of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, what we know about seed dispersal networks is based only on bird-fruit interactions. Therefore, we aimed at filling part of this gap by investigating bat-fruit networks. It is known from population studies that: (i) some bat species depend more on fruits than others, and (ii) that some specialized frugivorous

  10. Reproduction elevates the corticosterone stress response in common fruit bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan M. Klose; Carolynn L. Smith; Andrea J. Denzel; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko

    2006-01-01

    Changes in reproductive state or the environment may affect the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-andrenal (HPA) axis.\\u000a However, little is known about the dynamics of the resulting corticosteroid stress response, in particular in tropical mammals.\\u000a In this study, we address the modulation of corticosterone release in response to different reproductive conditions and seasonality\\u000a in 326 free-living common fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis)

  11. Impact of Post-typhoon Hunting on Mariana Fruit Bats (Pteropus mariannus) 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob A. Esselstyn; Arjun Amar; Dustin Janeke

    We examined the abundance of Mariana fruit bats (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest) on the Pacific islands of Rota and Guam before and after a severe typhoon in December 2002. After the typhoon, bat abundance declined by 70% on Rota. On Guam, bat abundance initially increased by ca. 100 individuals (103%), perhaps due to immigration from Rota, but then declined an average

  12. The Missing Part of Seed Dispersal Networks: Structure and Robustness of Bat-Fruit Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Marco Aurelio Ribeiro; Marquitti, Flávia Maria Darcie; Guimarães, Paulo Roberto; Kalko, Elisabeth Klara Viktoria; Jordano, Pedro; de Aguiar, Marcus Aloizio Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Mutualistic networks are crucial to the maintenance of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, what we know about seed dispersal networks is based only on bird-fruit interactions. Therefore, we aimed at filling part of this gap by investigating bat-fruit networks. It is known from population studies that: (i) some bat species depend more on fruits than others, and (ii) that some specialized frugivorous bats prefer particular plant genera. We tested whether those preferences affected the structure and robustness of the whole network and the functional roles of species. Nine bat-fruit datasets from the literature were analyzed and all networks showed lower complementary specialization (H2'?=?0.37±0.10, mean ± SD) and similar nestedness (NODF?=?0.56±0.12) than pollination networks. All networks were modular (M?=?0.32±0.07), and had on average four cohesive subgroups (modules) of tightly connected bats and plants. The composition of those modules followed the genus-genus associations observed at population level (Artibeus-Ficus, Carollia-Piper, and Sturnira-Solanum), although a few of those plant genera were dispersed also by other bats. Bat-fruit networks showed high robustness to simulated cumulative removals of both bats (R?=?0.55±0.10) and plants (R?=?0.68±0.09). Primary frugivores interacted with a larger proportion of the plants available and also occupied more central positions; furthermore, their extinction caused larger changes in network structure. We conclude that bat-fruit networks are highly cohesive and robust mutualistic systems, in which redundancy is high within modules, although modules are complementary to each other. Dietary specialization seems to be an important structuring factor that affects the topology, the guild structure and functional roles in bat-fruit networks. PMID:21386981

  13. Adaptive Evolution of the Myo6 Gene in Old World Fruit Bats (Family: Pteropodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bin; Han, Xiuqun; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Zhang, Shuyi

    2013-01-01

    Myosin VI (encoded by the Myo6 gene) is highly expressed in the inner and outer hair cells of the ear, retina, and polarized epithelial cells such as kidney proximal tubule cells and intestinal enterocytes. The Myo6 gene is thought to be involved in a wide range of physiological functions such as hearing, vision, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Bats (Chiroptera) represent one of the most fascinating mammal groups for molecular evolutionary studies of the Myo6 gene. A diversity of specialized adaptations occur among different bat lineages, such as echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing in laryngeal echolocating bats, large eyes and a strong dependence on vision in Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae), and specialized high-carbohydrate but low-nitrogen diets in both Old World and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). To investigate what role(s) the Myo6 gene might fulfill in bats, we sequenced the coding region of the Myo6 gene in 15 bat species and used molecular evolutionary analyses to detect evidence of positive selection in different bat lineages. We also conducted real-time PCR assays to explore the expression levels of Myo6 in a range of tissues from three representative bat species. Molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that the Myo6 gene, which was widely considered as a hearing gene, has undergone adaptive evolution in the Old World fruit bats which lack laryngeal echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing. Real-time PCR showed the highest expression level of the Myo6 gene in the kidney among ten tissues examined in three bat species, indicating an important role for this gene in kidney function. We suggest that Myo6 has undergone adaptive evolution in Old World fruit bats in relation to receptor-mediated endocytosis for the preservation of protein and essential nutrients. PMID:23620821

  14. Commuting fruit bats beneficially modulate their flight in relation to wind.

    PubMed

    Sapir, Nir; Horvitz, Nir; Dechmann, Dina K N; Fahr, Jakob; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-05-01

    When animals move, their tracks may be strongly influenced by the motion of air or water, and this may affect the speed, energetics and prospects of the journey. Flying organisms, such as bats, may thus benefit from modifying their flight in response to the wind vector. Yet, practical difficulties have so far limited the understanding of this response for free-ranging bats. We tracked nine straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) that flew 42.5 ± 17.5 km (mean ± s.d.) to and from their roost near Accra, Ghana. Following detailed atmospheric simulations, we found that bats compensated for wind drift, as predicted under constant winds, and decreased their airspeed in response to tailwind assistance such that their groundspeed remained nearly constant. In addition, bats increased their airspeed with increasing crosswind speed. Overall, bats modulated their airspeed in relation to wind speed at different wind directions in a manner predicted by a two-dimensional optimal movement model. We conclude that sophisticated behavioural mechanisms to minimize the cost of transport under various wind conditions have evolved in bats. The bats' response to the wind is similar to that reported for migratory birds and insects, suggesting convergent evolution of flight behaviours in volant organisms. PMID:24648227

  15. Commuting fruit bats beneficially modulate their flight in relation to wind

    PubMed Central

    Sapir, Nir; Horvitz, Nir; Dechmann, Dina K. N.; Fahr, Jakob; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    When animals move, their tracks may be strongly influenced by the motion of air or water, and this may affect the speed, energetics and prospects of the journey. Flying organisms, such as bats, may thus benefit from modifying their flight in response to the wind vector. Yet, practical difficulties have so far limited the understanding of this response for free-ranging bats. We tracked nine straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) that flew 42.5 ± 17.5 km (mean ± s.d.) to and from their roost near Accra, Ghana. Following detailed atmospheric simulations, we found that bats compensated for wind drift, as predicted under constant winds, and decreased their airspeed in response to tailwind assistance such that their groundspeed remained nearly constant. In addition, bats increased their airspeed with increasing crosswind speed. Overall, bats modulated their airspeed in relation to wind speed at different wind directions in a manner predicted by a two-dimensional optimal movement model. We conclude that sophisticated behavioural mechanisms to minimize the cost of transport under various wind conditions have evolved in bats. The bats’ response to the wind is similar to that reported for migratory birds and insects, suggesting convergent evolution of flight behaviours in volant organisms. PMID:24648227

  16. Demography and natural history of the common fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1991-01-01

    Bats were marked and monitored on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, to study seasonal and annual variation in distribution, abundance, and natural history from 1975 through 1980. Data gathered advances our knowledge about flocking; abundance; feeding strategies; social behavior; species richness; population structure and stability; age and sex ratios; life expectancy and longevity; nightly, seasonal, and annual movements; synchrony within and between species in reproductive activity; timing of reproductive cycles; survival and dispersal of recruits; intra-and inter-specific relationships; and day and night roost selection. Barro Colorado Island (BCI) harbors large populations of bats that feed on the fruit of canopy trees, especially figs. These trees are abundant, and the individual asynchrony of their fruiting rhythms results in a fairly uniform abundance of fruit. When figs are scarce, a variety of other fruits is available to replace them. This relatively dependable food supply attracts a remarkably rich guild of bats. Although we marked all bats caught, we tried to maximize the number of Artibeus jamaicensis netted, because it is abundant (2/3 of the total catch of bats on BCI), easily captured by conventional means (mist nets set at ground level), and responds well to handling and marking. An average Artibeus jamaicensis is a 45 g frugivore that eats roughly its weight in fruit every night. These bats prefer figs and often seek them out even when other types of fruit they might eat are far more abundant. They commute several hundred meters to feeding trees on the average, feeding on fruit from one to four trees each night, and returning to a single fruiting tree an average of four nights in succession. The bats tend to fly farther when fewer fig trees are bearing ripe fruit, and they feed from fewer trees, on the average, when the moon is nearly full. These bats, like their congeners, do not feed in the fruiting tree itself. Instead, they select a fruit and carry it to a feeding roost typically about 100 m away before eating it. We utilized radio telemetry to assess feeding rates from the number of ?feeding passes??transits between fruit tree and feeding roost. Bats are often netted while carrying fruit, revealing their diet. Feces also reveal dietary information. Adult female A. jamaicensis live in harems of three to 30 individuals with a single adult male. On BCI the harem groups roost during the day in hollow trees. There is presumably a large population of surplus males that roost together with nonadults of both sexes in foliage. Females commute an average of 600 m from their day roosts to feeding sites, and harem males travel less than 300 m. Twice a year most females give birth to a single young, once in March or April, and again in July or August; active gestation averages about 19 weeks. Juveniles are first netted when they are about ten weeks old, and females usually first bear young in March or April following their year of birth.

  17. Comparative analysis of the digestive efficiency and nitrogen and energy requirements of the phyllostomid fruit-bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) and the pteropodid fruit-bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus).

    PubMed

    Delorme, M; Thomas, D W

    1999-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) and energy (E) requirements of the phyllostomid fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, and the pteropodid fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus, were measured in adults that were fed on four experimental diets. Mean daily food intake by A. jamaicensis and R. aegyptiacus ranged from 1.1-1.6 times body mass and 0.8-1.0 times body mass, respectively. Dry matter digestibility and metabolizable E coefficient were high (81.1% and 82.4%, respectively) for A. jamaicensis and (77.5% and 78.0%, respectively) for R. aegyptiacus. Across the four diets, bats maintained constant body mass with mean metabolizable E intakes ranging from 1357.3 kJ.kg-0.75.day-1 to 1767.3 kJ.kg-0.75.day-1 for A. jamaicensis and 1282.6-1545.2 kJ.kg-0.75.day-1 for R. aegyptiacus. Maintenance E costs were high, in the order of 3.6-5.4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR). It is unlikely that the E intakes that we observed represent a true measure of maintenance E requirements. All evidence seems to indicate that fruit bats are E maximizers, ingesting more E than required and regulating storage by adjusting metabolic output. We suggest that true maintenance E requirements are substantially lower than what we observed. If it follows the eutherian norm of two times the BMR, fruit bats must necessarily over-ingest E on low-N fruit diet. Dietary E content did affect N metabolism of A. jamaicensis. On respective low- and high-E diets, metabolic fecal N were 0.492 mg N.g-1 and 0.756 mg N.g-1 dry matter intake and endogenous urinary N losses were 163.31 mg N.kg-0.75.day-1 and 71.54 mg N.kg-0.75.day-1. A. jamaicensis required 332.3 mg.kg-0.75.day-1 and 885.3 mg.kg-0.75.day-1 of total N on high- and low-E diets, respectively, and 213.7 mg.kg-0.75.day-1 of truly digestible N to achieve N balance. True N digestibilities were low (29% and 49%) for low- and high-E diets, respectively. For R. aegyptiacus, metabolic fecal N and endogenous urinary N losses were 1.27 mg N.g-1 dry matter intake and 96.0 mg N.kg-0.75.day-1, respectively, and bats required 529.8 mg.kg-0.75.day-1 (total N) or 284.0 mg.kg-0.75.day-1 (truly digestible N). True N digestibility was relatively low (50%). Based on direct comparison, we found no evidence that R. aegyptiacus exhibits a greater degree of specialization in digestive function and N retention than A. jamaicensis. When combined with results from previous studies, our results indicate that all fruit bats appear to be specialized in their ability to retain N when faced with low N diet. PMID:10227185

  18. Hoxd13 expression in the developing limbs of the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Hsin; Cretekos, Chris J; Rasweiler, John J; Behringer, Richard R

    2005-01-01

    Bat forelimbs are highly specialized for sustained flight, providing a unique model to explore the genetic programs that regulate vertebrate limb diversity. Hoxd9-13 genes are important regulators of stylopodium, zeugopodium, and autopodium development and thus evolutionary changes in their expression profiles and biochemical activities may contribute to divergent limb morphologies in vertebrates. We have isolated the genomic region that includes Hoxd12 and Hoxd13 from Carollia perspicillata, the short-tailed fruit bat. The bat Hoxd13 gene encodes a protein that shares 95% identity with human and mouse HOXD13. The expression pattern of bat Hoxd13 mRNA during limb development was compared with that of mouse. In bat and mouse hindlimbs, the expression patterns of Hoxd13 are relatively similar. However, although the forelimb Hoxd13 expression patterns in both organisms during early limb bud stages are similar, at later stages they diverge; the anterior expression boundary of bat Hoxd13 is posterior-shifted relative to the mouse. These findings, compared with the Hoxd13 expression profiles of other vertebrates, suggest that divergent Hoxd13 expression patterns may contribute to limb morphological variation. PMID:15733311

  19. Bat-Fruit Interactions Are More Specialized in Shaded-Coffee Plantations than in Tropical Mountain Cloud Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Montero, Jesús R.; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A.; Galindo-González, Jorge; Sosa, Vinicio J.

    2015-01-01

    Forest disturbance causes specialization of plant-frugivore networks and jeopardizes mutualistic interactions through reduction of ecological redundancy. To evaluate how simplification of a forest into an agroecosystem affects plant-disperser mutualistic interactions, we compared bat-fruit interaction indexes of specialization in tropical montane cloud forest fragments (TMCF) and shaded-coffee plantations (SCP). Bat-fruit interactions were surveyed by collection of bat fecal samples. Bat-fruit interactions were more specialized in SCP (mean H2 ' = 0.55) compared to TMCF fragments (mean H2 ' = 0.27), and were negatively correlated to bat abundance in SCP (R = -0.35). The number of shared plant species was higher in the TMCF fragments (mean = 1) compared to the SCP (mean = 0.51) and this was positively correlated to the abundance of frugivorous bats (R= 0.79). The higher specialization in SCP could be explained by lower bat abundance and lower diet overlap among bats. Coffee farmers and conservation policy makers must increase the proportion of land assigned to TMCF within agroecosystem landscapes in order to conserve frugivorous bats and their invaluable seed dispersal service. PMID:25992550

  20. Bat-fruit interactions are more specialized in shaded-coffee plantations than in tropical mountain cloud forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montero, Jesús R; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A; Galindo-González, Jorge; Sosa, Vinicio J

    2015-01-01

    Forest disturbance causes specialization of plant-frugivore networks and jeopardizes mutualistic interactions through reduction of ecological redundancy. To evaluate how simplification of a forest into an agroecosystem affects plant-disperser mutualistic interactions, we compared bat-fruit interaction indexes of specialization in tropical montane cloud forest fragments (TMCF) and shaded-coffee plantations (SCP). Bat-fruit interactions were surveyed by collection of bat fecal samples. Bat-fruit interactions were more specialized in SCP (mean H2 ' = 0.55) compared to TMCF fragments (mean H2 ' = 0.27), and were negatively correlated to bat abundance in SCP (R = -0.35). The number of shared plant species was higher in the TMCF fragments (mean = 1) compared to the SCP (mean = 0.51) and this was positively correlated to the abundance of frugivorous bats (R= 0.79). The higher specialization in SCP could be explained by lower bat abundance and lower diet overlap among bats. Coffee farmers and conservation policy makers must increase the proportion of land assigned to TMCF within agroecosystem landscapes in order to conserve frugivorous bats and their invaluable seed dispersal service. PMID:25992550

  1. Contrasting genetic structure in two co-distributed species of old world fruit bat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinping; Rossiter, Stephen J; Flanders, Jonathan R; Sun, Yanhong; Hua, Panyu; Miller-Butterworth, Cassandra; Liu, Xusheng; Rajan, Koilmani E; Zhang, Shuyi

    2010-01-01

    The fulvous fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaulti) and the greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) are two abundant and widely co-distributed Old World fruit bats in Southeast and East Asia. The former species forms large colonies in caves while the latter roots in small groups in trees. To test whether these differences in social organization and roosting ecology are associated with contrasting patterns of gene flow, we used mtDNA and nuclear loci to characterize population genetic subdivision and phylogeographic histories in both species sampled from China, Vietnam and India. Our analyses from R. leschenaulti using both types of marker revealed little evidence of genetic structure across the study region. On the other hand, C. sphinx showed significant genetic mtDNA differentiation between the samples from India compared with China and Vietnam, as well as greater structuring of microsatellite genotypes within China. Demographic analyses indicated signatures of past rapid population expansion in both taxa, with more recent demographic growth in C. sphinx. Therefore, the relative genetic homogeneity in R. leschenaulti is unlikely to reflect past events. Instead we suggest that the absence of substructure in R. leschenaulti is a consequence of higher levels of gene flow among colonies, and that greater vagility in this species is an adaptation associated with cave roosting. PMID:21085717

  2. Olfactory discrimination ability in short-tailed fruit bat,carollia perspicillata (Chiroptera: Phyllostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Laska, M

    1990-12-01

    The olfactory discrimination ability in a fruit-eating bat,Carollia perspicillata, was investigated. In a food-rewarded flight training procedure, four animals were taught to choose one of two odors simultaneously presented in a three-choice apparatus.Carollia chose the odor of ripe banana over that of unripe banana in a spontaneous choice test. With the same method, the bats significantly preferred undiluted banana odor compared to a dilution of 1? 10, but did not express a preference between undiluted and 1?5 dilutions of ripe banana. In a series of reinforced choice tests, the positive stimulus (CS +) was the standardized odor of natural ripe banana. Prominent components of this complex odor were used as CS -, first in monomolecular form and later in combinations (odor cocktails) of increasing similarity to banana odor. In all these tests the bats easily discriminated the natural food odor from the artificial ones. Even a gas Chromatographic congruity of 57% between the major components of natural banana odor and an odor cocktail caused no impairment of the olfactory performance. The olfactory discrimination ability ofCarollia perspicillata supports the assumption that echolocating, frugivorous bats may use their sense of smell to find and select their food. PMID:24263430

  3. The roles of echolocation and olfaction in two Neotropical fruit-eating bats, Carollia perspicillata and C. castanea , feeding on Piper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wibke Thies; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

    1998-01-01

    We studied the echolocation and foraging behavior of two Neotropical frugivorous leaf-nosed bats (Carollia perspicillata, C. castanea: Phyllostomidae) in a flight cage. To test which cues Carollia uses to detect, identify, and localize ripe Piper fruit, their preferred natural food, we conducted experiments under semi-natural conditions with ripe, unripe, and artifical\\u000a fruits. We first offered the bats ripe fruits and

  4. Too Hot to Sleep? Sleep Behaviour and Surface Body Temperature of Wahlberg’s Epauletted Fruit Bat

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Colleen T.; Awuah, Adwoa; Jordaan, Maryna; Magagula, Londiwe; Mkhize, Truth; Paine, Christine; Raymond-Bourret, Esmaella; Hart, Lorinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera) are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta) on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg’s epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed). Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%), compared with summer (15.6%). In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ?35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:25775371

  5. Establishment of Fruit Bat Cells (Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a Model System for the Investigation of Filoviral Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verena Krähling; Olga Dolnik; Larissa Kolesnikova; Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit; Ingo Jordan; Volker Sandig; Stephan Günther; Stephan Becker

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe fruit bat species Rousettus aegyptiacus was identified as a potential reservoir for the highly pathogenic filovirus Marburg virus. To establish a basis for a molecular understanding of the biology of filoviruses in the reservoir host, we have adapted a set of molecular tools for investigation of filovirus replication in a recently developed cell line, R06E, derived from the species

  6. Hindlimb motion during steady flight of the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Jorn A; Ton, Daniel; Konow, Nicolai; Riskin, Daniel K; Breuer, Kenneth S; Swartz, Sharon M

    2014-01-01

    In bats, the wing membrane is anchored not only to the body and forelimb, but also to the hindlimb. This attachment configuration gives bats the potential to modulate wing shape by moving the hindlimb, such as by joint movement at the hip or knee. Such movements could modulate lift, drag, or the pitching moment. In this study we address: 1) how the ankle translates through space during the wingbeat cycle; 2) whether amplitude of ankle motion is dependent upon flight speed; 3) how tension in the wing membrane pulls the ankle; and 4) whether wing membrane tension is responsible for driving ankle motion. We flew five individuals of the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis (Family: Pteropodidae), in a wind tunnel and documented kinematics of the forelimb, hip, ankle, and trailing edge of the wing membrane. Based on kinematic analysis of hindlimb and forelimb movements, we found that: 1) during downstroke, the ankle moved ventrally and during upstroke the ankle moved dorsally; 2) there was considerable variation in amplitude of ankle motion, but amplitude did not correlate significantly with flight speed; 3) during downstroke, tension generated by the wing membrane acted to pull the ankle dorsally, and during upstroke, the wing membrane pulled laterally when taut and dorsally when relatively slack; and 4) wing membrane tension generally opposed dorsoventral ankle motion. We conclude that during forward flight in C. brachyotis, wing membrane tension does not power hindlimb motion; instead, we propose that hindlimb movements arise from muscle activity and/or inertial effects. PMID:24858194

  7. RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF CASES OF NEOPLASIA IN A CAPTIVE POPULATION OF EGYPTIAN FRUIT BATS (ROUSETTUS AEGYPTIACUS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Burrough, Eric R; Fales-Williams, Amanda J; Lehmkuhl, Aaron; Madson, Darin; Patterson, Abby J; Yaeger, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Reports of neoplasia in Chiroptera species are rare. (6 , 10) This retrospective study describes five types of neoplasia identified within a captive population of male Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus ) housed in a zoo from 2004 through November of 2014. Tumor types identified include fibrosarcoma, cutaneous lymphoma, benign focal bronchioloalveolar neoplasm, anaplastic sarcoma, and sebaceous epithelioma. To the author's knowledge, aside from a recent report of focal brochioloalveolar adenoma, (8) these tumor types have not previously been described in the Rousettus species, nor in chiropterans in general. Based upon these findings and other recent publications regarding R. aegyptiacus , neoplasia does appear to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in captive members of this megachiropterid species. PMID:26056887

  8. Membrane muscle function in the compliant wings of bats.

    PubMed

    Cheney, J A; Konow, N; Middleton, K M; Breuer, K S; Roberts, T J; Giblin, E L; Swartz, S M

    2014-06-01

    Unlike flapping birds and insects, bats possess membrane wings that are more similar to many gliding mammals. The vast majority of the wing is composed of a thin compliant skin membrane stretched between the limbs, hand, and body. Membrane wings are of particular interest because they may offer many advantages to micro air vehicles. One critical feature of membrane wings is that they camber passively in response to aerodynamic load, potentially allowing for simplified wing control. However, for maximum membrane wing performance, tuning of the membrane structure to aerodynamic conditions is necessary. Bats possess an array of muscles, the plagiopatagiales proprii, embedded within the wing membrane that could serve to tune membrane stiffness, or may have alternative functions. We recorded the electromyogram from the plagiopatagiales proprii muscles of Artibeus jamaicensis, the Jamaican fruit bat, in flight at two different speeds and found that these muscles were active during downstroke. For both low- and high-speed flight, muscle activity increased between late upstroke and early downstroke and decreased at late downstroke. Thus, the array of plagiopatagiales may provide a mechanism for bats to increase wing stiffness and thereby reduce passive membrane deformation. These muscles also activate in synchrony, presumably as a means to maximize force generation, because each muscle is small and, by estimation, weak. Small differences in activation timing were observed when comparing low- and high-speed flight, which may indicate that bats modulate membrane stiffness differently depending on flight speed. PMID:24855069

  9. Evidence for exploitative competition: Comparative foraging behavior and roosting ecology of short-tailed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonaccorso, F.J.; Winkelmann, J.R.; Shin, D.; Agrawal, C.I.; Aslami, N.; Bonney, C.; Hsu, A.; Jekielek, P.E.; Knox, A.K.; Kopach, S.J.; Jennings, T.D.; Lasky, J.R.; Menesale, S.A.; Richards, J.H.; Rutland, J.A.; Sessa, A.K.; Zhaurova, L.; Kunz, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chestnut short-tailed bats, Carollia castanea, and Seba's short-tailed bats, C. perspicillata (Phyllostomidae), were radio-tracked (N = 1593 positions) in lowland rain forest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Orellana Province, Ecuador. For 11 C. castanea, mean home range was 6.8 ?? 2.2 ha, mean core-use area was 1.7 ?? 0.8 ha, and mean long axis across home range was 438 ?? 106 m. For three C. perspicillata, mean home range was 5.5 ?? 1.7 ha, mean core-use area was 1.3 ?? 0.6 ha, and mean long axis was 493 ?? 172 m. Groups of less than five C. castanea occupied day-roosts in earthen cavities that undercut banks the Tiputini River. Carollia perspicillata used tree hollows and buildings as day-roosts. Interspecific and intraspecific overlap among short-tailed bats occurred in core-use areas associated with clumps of fruiting Piper hispidum (peppers) and Cecropia sciadophylla. Piper hispidum seeds were present in 80 percent of the fecal samples from C. castanea and 56 percent of samples from C. perspicillata. Carollia perspicillata handled pepper fruits significantly faster than C. castanea; however, C. castanea commenced foraging before C. perspicillata emerged from day-roosts. Evidence for exploitative competition between C. castanea and C. perspicillata is suggested by our observations that 95 percent of ripe P. hispidum fruits available at sunset disappear before sunrise (N = 74 marked fruits). Piper hispidum plants produced zero to 12 ripe infructescences per plant each night during peak production. Few ripe infructescences of P. hispidum were available during the dry season; however, ripe infructescences of C. sciadophylla, remained abundant. ?? 2007 The Author(s) Journal compilation ?? 2007 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

  10. Roosting ecology and social organization of the spotted-winged fruit bat, Balionycteris maculata (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), in a Malaysian lowland dipterocarp forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Hodgkison; Sharon T. Balding; Zubaid Akbar; Thomas H. Kunz

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the roosting ecology and social organization of the spotted-winged fruit bat, Balionycteris maculata (Megachiroptera), within an old-growth Malaysian dipterocarp forest, and test the hypothesis that males spend a significantly greater proportion of the night in the immediate vicinity of their day roosts than females. Balionycteris maculata roosted in cavities and formed small

  11. Elemental composition of Jamaican foods 1: A survey of five food crop categories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Howe; Leslie Hoo Fung; Gerald Lalor; Robin Rattray; Mitko Vutchkov

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of 27 elements in Jamaican food categories consisting of fruit, legumes, leafy and root vegetables and other root crops are reported. The main analytical techniques used were neutron activation analysis and flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results are compared, where possible, with values from Denmark, the United Kingdom, the United States and Nigeria, and with

  12. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of a Neotropical Fruit Bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, and a New Hypothesis of the Relationships of Bats to Other Eutherian Mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy E. Pumo; Peter S. Finamore; William R. Franek; Carleton J. Phillips; Sima Tarzami; Darlene Balzarano

    1998-01-01

    .   The complete mitochondrial genome was obtained from a microchiropteran bat, Artibeus jamaicensis. The presumptive amino acid sequence for the protein-coding genes was compared with predicted amino acid sequences from several\\u000a representatives of other mammalian orders. Data were analyzed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and neighbor joining.\\u000a All analyses placed bats as the sister group of carnivores, perissodactyls, artiodactyls, and

  13. Establishment of Fruit Bat Cells (Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a Model System for the Investigation of Filoviral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Krähling, Verena; Dolnik, Olga; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Jordan, Ingo; Sandig, Volker; Günther, Stephan; Becker, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Background The fruit bat species Rousettus aegyptiacus was identified as a potential reservoir for the highly pathogenic filovirus Marburg virus. To establish a basis for a molecular understanding of the biology of filoviruses in the reservoir host, we have adapted a set of molecular tools for investigation of filovirus replication in a recently developed cell line, R06E, derived from the species Rousettus aegyptiacus. Methodology/Principal Findings Upon infection with Ebola or Marburg viruses, R06E cells produced viral titers comparable to VeroE6 cells, as shown by TCID50 analysis. Electron microscopic analysis of infected cells revealed morphological signs of filovirus infection as described for human- and monkey-derived cell lines. Using R06E cells, we detected an unusually high amount of intracellular viral proteins, which correlated with the accumulation of high numbers of filoviral nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm. We established protocols to produce Marburg infectious virus-like particles from R06E cells, which were then used to infect naïve target cells to investigate primary transcription. This was not possible with other cell lines previously tested. Moreover, we established protocols to reliably rescue recombinant Marburg viruses from R06E cells. Conclusion/Significance These data indicated that R06E cells are highly suitable to investigate the biology of filoviruses in cells derived from their presumed reservoir. PMID:20808767

  14. The evolution of echolocation in bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth Jones; Emma C. Teeling

    2006-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenies have changed our per- spective on the evolution of echolocation in bats. These phylogenies suggest that certain bats with sophisti- cated echolocation (e.g. horseshoe bats) share a common ancestry with non-echolocating bats (e.g. Old World fruit bats). One interpretation of these trees presumes that laryngeal echolocation (calls produced in the larynx) probably evolved in the ancestor of

  15. Cadmium in jamaican bush teas.

    PubMed

    Hoo Fung, L A; Rattray, V R; Lalor, G C

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 µg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04-1.18 µg of Cd and would contribute 0.1-0.3 µg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 µg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  16. Bat Detective

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-05-14

    Bat Detective is an online citizen science project which allows visitors to the website to take part in wildlife conservation by listening out for bat calls in recordings collected all over the world. By sorting the sounds in the recordings into insect and bat calls, bat detectives will help biologists learn how to reliably distinguish bat 'tweets' to develop new automatic identification tools.

  17. A Recently Discovered Pathogenic Paramyxovirus, Sosuga Virus, is Present in Rousettus aegyptiacus Fruit Bats at Multiple Locations in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Amman, Brian R; Albariño, Cesar G; Bird, Brian H; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Sealy, Tara K; Balinandi, Stephen; Schuh, Amy J; Campbell, Shelly M; Ströher, Ute; Jones, Megan E B; Vodzack, Megan E; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Kaboyo, Winyi; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

    2015-07-01

    In August 2012, a wildlife biologist became ill immediately following a 6-wk field trip to collect bats and rodents in South Sudan and Uganda. After returning to the US, the biologist was admitted to the hospital with multiple symptoms including fever, malaise, headache, generalized myalgia and arthralgia, stiffness in the neck, and sore throat. Soon after admission, the patient developed a maculopapular rash and oropharynx ulcerations. The patient remained hospitalized for 14 d. Several suspect pathogens, including viral hemorrhagic fever viruses such as Ebola viruses and Marburg viruses, were ruled out through standard diagnostic testing. However, deep sequencing and metagenomic analyses identified a novel paramyxovirus, later named Sosuga virus, in the patient's blood. To determine the potential source, bat tissues collected during the 3-wk period just prior to the onset of symptoms were tested for Sosuga virus, and several Egyptian rousette bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) were found to be positive. Further analysis of archived Egyptian rousette tissues collected at other localities in Uganda found additional Sosuga virus-positive bats, suggesting this species could be a potential natural reservoir for this novel paramyxovirus. PMID:25919464

  18. Metagenomic study of the viruses of African straw-coloured fruit bats: Detection of a chiropteran poxvirus and isolation of a novel adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate S.; Leggett, Richard M.; Bexfield, Nicholas H.; Alston, Mark; Daly, Gordon; Todd, Shawn; Tachedjian, Mary; Holmes, Clare E.G.; Crameri, Sandra; Wang, Lin-Fa; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Suu-Ire, Richard; Kellam, Paul; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L.N.; Caccamo, Mario; Murcia, Pablo R.

    2013-01-01

    Viral emergence as a result of zoonotic transmission constitutes a continuous public health threat. Emerging viruses such as SARS coronavirus, hantaviruses and henipaviruses have wildlife reservoirs. Characterising the viruses of candidate reservoir species in geographical hot spots for viral emergence is a sensible approach to develop tools to predict, prevent, or contain emergence events. Here, we explore the viruses of Eidolon helvum, an Old World fruit bat species widely distributed in Africa that lives in close proximity to humans. We identified a great abundance and diversity of novel herpes and papillomaviruses, described the isolation of a novel adenovirus, and detected, for the first time, sequences of a chiropteran poxvirus closely related with Molluscum contagiosum. In sum, E. helvum display a wide variety of mammalian viruses, some of them genetically similar to known human pathogens, highlighting the possibility of zoonotic transmission. PMID:23562481

  19. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Rachael; Charlton, Vilma; Morrison, Errol; Facey, Aldeam; Buchanan, Oral

    2013-01-01

    The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided into three groups based on athletic disciplines: sprint (s: 100–400?m; n = 80), jump and throw (j/t: jump and throw; n = 25) and, middle distance (md: 800–3000?m; n = 15). Frequency differences between groups were assessed using chi-square tests. Regional or county distribution of sprint differed from that of middle distance (P < 0.001) but not from that of jump and throw athletes (P = 0.24) and that of controls (P = 0.59). Sprint athletes predominately originated from the Surrey county (s = 46%, j/t = 37%, md = 17, C = 53%), whilst middle distance athletes exhibited excess from the Middlesex county (md = 60%). The language distribution of all groups showed uniformity with a predominance of English. A higher proportion of middle distance and jump and throw athletes walked to school (md = 80%, j/t = 52%, s = 10%, and C = 12%) and travelled greater distances to school. In conclusion, Jamaica's success in sprinting may be related to environmental and social factors. PMID:24396303

  20. Jamaican Creole Language Course (For English Speaking Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Beryl Loftman

    Because of the high incidence of structural similarity between Jamaican Creole and Standard English, many of the important differences between the two languages can be obscured. This fact and that of negative attitudes towards Creole are the principal problems encountered in teaching Creole. The lessons in this course on Jamaican Creole are based…

  1. Poverty and Child Outcomes: A Focus on Jamaican Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Delores E.; Ashiabi, Godwin S.

    2007-01-01

    Compared with children from more affluent families, poor children face a higher risk of developmental delays and fare worse on various measures of developmental outcomes. This paper examines the relationship between poverty and child outcomes in the Jamaican context. Specifically, the paper focuses on the detrimental consequences for poor Jamaican

  2. The aerodynamic cost of flight in the short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata): comparing theory with measurement

    PubMed Central

    von Busse, Rhea; Waldman, Rye M.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Voigt, Christian C.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic theory has long been used to predict the power required for animal flight, but widely used models contain many simplifications. It has been difficult to ascertain how closely biological reality matches model predictions, largely because of the technical challenges of accurately measuring the power expended when an animal flies. We designed a study to measure flight speed-dependent aerodynamic power directly from the kinetic energy contained in the wake of bats flying in a wind tunnel. We compared these measurements with two theoretical predictions that have been used for several decades in diverse fields of vertebrate biology and to metabolic measurements from a previous study using the same individuals. A high-accuracy displaced laser sheet stereo particle image velocimetry experimental design measured the wake velocities in the Trefftz plane behind four bats flying over a range of speeds (3–7 m s?1). We computed the aerodynamic power contained in the wake using a novel interpolation method and compared these results with the power predicted by Pennycuick's and Rayner's models. The measured aerodynamic power falls between the two theoretical predictions, demonstrating that the models effectively predict the appropriate range of flight power, but the models do not accurately predict minimum power or maximum range speeds. Mechanical efficiency—the ratio of aerodynamic power output to metabolic power input—varied from 5.9% to 9.8% for the same individuals, changing with flight speed. PMID:24718450

  3. The aerodynamic cost of flight in the short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata): comparing theory with measurement.

    PubMed

    von Busse, Rhea; Waldman, Rye M; Swartz, Sharon M; Voigt, Christian C; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2014-06-01

    Aerodynamic theory has long been used to predict the power required for animal flight, but widely used models contain many simplifications. It has been difficult to ascertain how closely biological reality matches model predictions, largely because of the technical challenges of accurately measuring the power expended when an animal flies. We designed a study to measure flight speed-dependent aerodynamic power directly from the kinetic energy contained in the wake of bats flying in a wind tunnel. We compared these measurements with two theoretical predictions that have been used for several decades in diverse fields of vertebrate biology and to metabolic measurements from a previous study using the same individuals. A high-accuracy displaced laser sheet stereo particle image velocimetry experimental design measured the wake velocities in the Trefftz plane behind four bats flying over a range of speeds (3-7 m s(-1)). We computed the aerodynamic power contained in the wake using a novel interpolation method and compared these results with the power predicted by Pennycuick's and Rayner's models. The measured aerodynamic power falls between the two theoretical predictions, demonstrating that the models effectively predict the appropriate range of flight power, but the models do not accurately predict minimum power or maximum range speeds. Mechanical efficiency--the ratio of aerodynamic power output to metabolic power input--varied from 5.9% to 9.8% for the same individuals, changing with flight speed. PMID:24718450

  4. Click-based echolocation in bats: not so primitive after all Yossi Yovel Maya Geva-Sagiv Nachum Ulanovsky

    E-print Network

    Ulanovsky, Nachum

    , the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), and that of lingual echolocation, the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus (Rousettus aegyptiacus) Á Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) Abbreviations FM Frequency modulated CF

  5. Bat talk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE)

    2004-01-01

    This video clip, viewable in Windows Media Player, introduces students to the research that Maryland biologists are conducting to assess the status of bat populations in their state. Technologies are discussed that help scientists study the often elusive bats. The clip shows that when researchers descend into a cave to survey the number of hibernating bats there, they discover fewer bats are present than in previous years. The clip also notes that efforts to conserve bat populations are needed. Bats contribute significantly to the functioning of ecosystems, but many species are decreasing in numbers nationwide. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  6. On the association between environmental gradients and skull size variation in the great fruit-eating bat,

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Richard E.

    On the association between environmental gradients and skull size variation in the great fruit in the skull size of the Artibeus lituratus complex was explored to evaluate the association between correlation between morphology and environment. Season- ality was correlated with skull size (canonical r = 0

  7. Bat Echolocation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In this activity, learners investigate how bats use echolocation to navigate. One learner is assigned to be a bat, while the other learners are selected to be either moths or trees. The bat's goal is to use his/her hearing to locate and tag as many moths as possible.

  8. Adaptive Evolution of Leptin in Heterothermic Bats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lihong; Zhao, Xudong; Lin, Benfu; Rossiter, Stephen J.; He, Lingjiang; Zuo, Xueguo; He, Guimei; Jones, Gareth; Geiser, Fritz; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-01-01

    Heterothermy (hibernation and daily torpor) is a key strategy that animals use to survive in harsh conditions and is widely employed by bats, which are found in diverse habitats and climates. Bats comprise more than 20% of all mammals and although heterothermy occurs in divergent lineages of bats, suggesting it might be an ancestral condition, its evolutionary history is complicated by complex phylogeographic patterns. Here, we use Leptin, which regulates lipid metabolism and is crucial for thermogenesis of hibernators, as molecular marker and combine physiological, molecular and biochemical analyses to explore the possible evolutionary history of heterothermy in bat. The two tropical fruit bats examined here were homeothermic; in contrast, the two tropical insectivorous bats were clearly heterothermic. Molecular evolutionary analyses of the Leptin gene revealed positive selection in the ancestors of all bats, which was maintained or further enhanced the lineages comprising mostly heterothermic species. In contrast, we found evidence of relaxed selection in homeothermic species. Biochemical assays of bat Leptin on the activity on adipocyte degradation revealed that Leptin in heterothermic bats was more lipolytic than in homeothermic bats. This shows that evolutionary sequence changes in this protein are indeed functional and support the interpretation of our physiological results and the molecular evolutionary analyses. Our combined data strongly support the hypothesis that heterothermy is the ancestral state of bats and that this involved adaptive changes in Leptin. Subsequent loss of heterothermy in some tropical lineages of bats likely was associated with range and dietary shifts. PMID:22110614

  9. INTRODUCTION Frugivorous bats in forests feed mostly

    E-print Network

    Auckland, University of

    INTRODUCTION Frugivorous bats in forests feed mostly on fruits and nectar (Fleming, 1993; Banack is known about their feeding be- havior; when and where the bats disperse seeds may affect germination different feeding roosts indicating that patterns of seed dispersal may not be uniform. We found the seeds

  10. A NEW COMBINATION IN MATELEA (APOCYNACEAE: ASCLEPIADOIDEAE) FOR AN ENDEMIC JAMAICAN VINE

    E-print Network

    Krings, Alexander

    A NEW COMBINATION IN MATELEA (APOCYNACEAE: ASCLEPIADOIDEAE) FOR AN ENDEMIC JAMAICAN VINE Alexander) for an endemic Jamaican vine is proposed. RESUMEN Se propone una combinación nueva en Matelea (Apocynaceae Jamaican vine: Matelea rhamnifolia (Griseb.) Krings, comb. nov. Gonolobus rhamnifolius Griseb., Fl. Brit. W

  11. Retinal projections in the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, as studied using the axonal transport of cholera toxin B subunit: Comparison with mouse.

    PubMed

    Scalia, Frank; Rasweiler, John J; Danias, John

    2015-08-15

    To provide a modern description of the Chiropteran visual system, the subcortical retinal projections were studied in the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, using the anterograde transport of eye-injected cholera toxin B subunit, supplemented by the silver-impregnation of anterograde degeneration following eye removal, and compared with the retinal projections of the mouse. The retinal projections were heavily labeled by the transported toxin in both species. Almost all components of the murine retinal projection are present in Carollia in varying degrees of prominence and laterality. The projections: to the superior colliculus, accessory optic nuclei, and nucleus of the optic tract are predominantly or exclusively contralateral; to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and posterior pretectal nucleus are predominantly contralateral; to the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet, and olivary pretectal nucleus have a substantial ipsilateral component; and to the suprachiasmatic nucleus are symmetrically bilateral. The retinal projection in Carollia is surprisingly reduced at the anterior end of the dorsal lateral geniculate and superior colliculus, suggestive of a paucity of the relevant ganglion cells in the ventrotemporal retina. In the superior colliculus, in which the superficial gray layer is very thin, the projection is patchy in places where the layer is locally absent. Except for a posteriorly located lateral terminal nucleus, the other accessory optic nuclei are diminutive in Carollia, as is the nucleus of the optic tract. In both species the cholera toxin labeled sparse groups of apparently terminating axons in numerous regions not listed above. A question of their significance is discussed. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:1756-1791, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25503714

  12. Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2011-01-01

    A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. We propose and test a tridimensional model among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared with Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S. immigrant dyads (473 dyads, M adolescent age = 14 years). Jamaican immigrants evidence tridimensional acculturation, orienting toward Jamaican, African American, and European American cultures. Integration is favored (70%), particularly tricultural integration; moreover, Jamaican and other Black U.S. immigrants are more oriented toward African American than European American culture. Jamaican immigrant youth adapt at least as well as non-immigrant Jamaican and U.S. peers, although assimilated adolescents, particularly first generation, have worse sociocultural adaptation than integrated and separated adolescents. PMID:22966917

  13. Jamaican Child-Rearing Practices: The Role of Corporal Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Delores E.; Mosby, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Examines child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. Also examines the plausibility of the assumption that harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for current social problems of that nation. Recommends approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and…

  14. Early deaths in Jamaican children with sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D W Rogers; J M Clarke; L Cupidore; A M Ramlal; B R Sparke; G R Serjeant

    1978-01-01

    In Jamaican children with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease diagnosed at birth two-year survival was 87%, compared with 95% in children with sickle cell-haemoglobin C (CS) disease, and 99% in normal controls. Death among those with SS disease occurred most often between the ages of 6 and 12 months. Principal causes were acute splenic sequestration and pneumococcal infection. Neonatal diagnosis

  15. Rapid evolution to terrestrial life in Jamaican crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubart, Christoph D.; Diesel, Rudolf; Hedges, S. Blair

    1998-05-01

    Crabs of the family Grapsidae are abundant organisms in most intertidal communities. However, relatively few species live in complete independence of the sea. Of those species that do, Jamaica's nine endemic species of land crabs are unique in their exceptional adaptations to terrestrial life, which include the only active brood-care for larvae and juveniles known in crabs. These adaptations, and the morphological similarity to a group of southeast Asian land-dwelling crabs, have raised the question of the number and age of land invasions of the Jamaican species. Here we present molecular evidence that Jamaican land crabs represent a single adaptive radiation from a marine ancestor that invaded terrestrial habitats only 4 million years (Myr) ago. A Late-Tertiary origin has also been found for lizards and frogs of Jamaica and probably reflects the Mid-Tertiary inundation of that island.

  16. Jamaican Bitter Yam Sapogenin: Potential Mechanisms of Action in Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix O. Omoruyi

    2008-01-01

    Sapogenin has been proposed to be the active component responsible for the beneficial effects of Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) in the management of diabetes. Most of the research activities on bitter yam have focused on the role sapogenin play in\\u000a the management of diabetes. Changes in weight, activities of carbohydrate digestive and transport enzymes, alterations in\\u000a the intestinal morphology,

  17. Seasonal reliance on nectar by an insectivorous bat revealed by stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Frick, Winifred F; Shipley, J Ryan; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Heady, Paul A; Kay, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    Many animals have seasonally plastic diets to take advantage of seasonally abundant plant resources, such as fruit or nectar. Switches from insectivorous diets that are protein rich to fruits or nectar that are carbohydrate rich present physiological challenges, but are routinely done by insectivorous songbirds during migration. In contrast, insectivorous bat species are not known to switch diets to consume fruit or nectar. Here, we use carbon stable isotope ratios to establish the first known case of a temperate bat species consuming substantial quantities of nectar during spring. We show that pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) switch from a diet indistinguishable from that of sympatric insectivorous bat species in winter (when no cactus nectar is present) to a diet intermediate between those of insectivorous bats and nectarivorous bats during the spring bloom of a bat-adapted cactus species. Combined with previous results that established that pallid bats are effective pollinators of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei), our results suggest that the interaction between pallid bats and cardon cacti represents the first-known plant-pollinator mutualism between a plant and a temperate bat. Diet plasticity in pallid bats raises questions about the degree of physiological adaptations of insectivorous bats for incorporation of carbohydrate-rich foods, such as nectar or fruit, into the diet. PMID:24276770

  18. Population structure of an endemic vulnerable species, the Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ATHANASIA C. TZIKA; SUSAN KOENIG; RICARDO MILLER; GERARDO GARCIA

    2008-01-01

    The Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus; also called Yellow boa) is an endemic species whose natural populations greatly and constantly declined since the late 19th century, mainly because of predation by introduced species, human persecution, and habitat destruction. In-situ conservation of the Jamaican boa is seriously hindered by the lack of information on demographic and ecological parameters as well as by

  19. Bat Facts and Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a unit of study for elementary school science on bats. Students investigate the different types of bats; examine their behavior; find facts that other students are unlikely to know; write stories about bats; and examine the concept of echolocation, the means by which bats navigate. Suggests integrated activities for mathematics…

  20. On the density-dependence of seed predation in Dipteryx micrantha , a bat-dispersed rain forest tree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Romo; Hanna Tuomisto; Bette A. Loiselle

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of seed density on seed predation by following the fate of bat-dispersed Dipteryx micrantha (Leguminosae) seeds deposited under bat feeding roosts. The study was conducted in Cocha Cashu biological station, Amazonian Peru, during the fruiting period of Dipteryx. Predation of Dipteryx seeds in the area is mainly by large to medium-sized rodents. Seed deposits beneath bat

  1. The Jamaican adolescent's perspective on violence and its effects.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A

    2011-03-01

    The Caribbean and in particular Jamaica is experiencing an epidemic of violence which adversely affects its youth who are the main perpetrators and victims. Early and protracted exposure to violence is part of the socialization experience that results in violence-related behaviours. This paper examines the impact of the early and sustained exposure to violence on the attitudes and behaviours of Jamaican adolescents from their perspective. An analysis of qualitative data collected from three studies between 2005 and 2009 among adolescents across Jamaica was conducted using the recurrent theme approach. Exposure to violence was common and increased with age and lower socioeconomic status and was most marked among marginalized inner city youth. While attitudes and behaviours in response to the violence varied among adolescents, there was a "dose response effect" in relation to age and lower social status. It is necessary to alter the socialization process in order to break the cycle of violence through wide ranging interventions that touch on every aspect of the spheres of influence in the life of Jamaican adolescents. PMID:21942121

  2. Recent Transmission of a Novel Alphacoronavirus, Bat Coronavirus HKU10, from Leschenault's Rousettes to Pomona Leaf-Nosed Bats: First Evidence of Interspecies Transmission of Coronavirus between Bats of Different Suborders

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Shek, Chung-Tong; Wang, Ming; Choi, Garnet K. Y.; Guo, Rongtong; Wong, Beatrice H. L.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Wang, Sylvia Y. H.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2012-01-01

    Although coronaviruses are known to infect various animals by adapting to new hosts, interspecies transmission events are still poorly understood. During a surveillance study from 2005 to 2010, a novel alphacoronavirus, BatCoV HKU10, was detected in two very different bat species, Ro-BatCoV HKU10 in Leschenault's rousettes (Rousettus leschenaulti) (fruit bats in the suborder Megachiroptera) in Guangdong and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 in Pomona leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros pomona) (insectivorous bats in the suborder Microchiroptera) in Hong Kong. Although infected bats appeared to be healthy, Pomona leaf-nosed bats carrying Hi-BatCoV HKU10 had lower body weights than uninfected bats. To investigate possible interspecies transmission between the two bat species, the complete genomes of two Ro-BatCoV HKU10 and six Hi-BatCoV HKU10 strains were sequenced. Genome and phylogenetic analyses showed that Ro-BatCoV HKU10 and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 represented a novel alphacoronavirus species, sharing highly similar genomes except in the genes encoding spike proteins, which had only 60.5% amino acid identities. Evolution of the spike protein was also rapid in Hi-BatCoV HKU10 strains from 2005 to 2006 but stabilized thereafter. Molecular-clock analysis dated the most recent common ancestor of all BatCoV HKU10 strains to 1959 (highest posterior density regions at 95% [HPDs], 1886 to 2002) and that of Hi-BatCoV HKU10 to 1986 (HPDs, 1956 to 2004). The data suggested recent interspecies transmission from Leschenault's rousettes to Pomona leaf-nosed bats in southern China. Notably, the rapid adaptive genetic change in BatCoV HKU10 spike protein by ?40% amino acid divergence after recent interspecies transmission was even greater than the ?20% amino acid divergence between spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related Rhinolophus bat coronavirus (SARSr-CoV) in bats and civets. This study provided the first evidence for interspecies transmission of coronavirus between bats of different suborders. PMID:22933277

  3. A reconstruction of the invasion of land by Jamaican crabs (Grapsidae: Sesarminae)

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    A reconstruction of the invasion of land by Jamaican crabs (Grapsidae: Sesarminae) Rudolf Diesel1' hypothesis) that predict the evolution of large eggs if post- embryonic stages face high risk of mortality

  4. Epidemiology and pathogenicity of African bat lyssaviruses.

    PubMed

    Markotter, W; Van Eeden, C; Kuzmin, I V; Rupprecht, C E; Paweska, J T; Swanepoel, R; Fooks, A R; Sabeta, C T; Cliquet, F; Nel, L H

    2008-01-01

    Lyssaviruses belonging to all four known African Lyssavirus genotypes (gts) have been reported and isolated from SouthAfrica over the past few decades. These are: (1) Duvenhage virus (gt4), isolated again in 2006 from a human fatality; (2) Mokola virus (gt3), isolated irregularly, mostly from cats; (3) Lagos bat virus (gt2) continually isolated over the past four years from Epomophorus fruit bats and from incidental terrestrial animals and (4) Rabies virus (gt1) - with two virus biotypes endemic in mongoose and in canid species (mostly domestic dogs, jackals and bat-eared foxes), respectively. Only two of these are associated with bats in Southern Africa, viz. Duvenhage virus and Lagos bat virus (gts 4 and 2). For both these genotypes the authors have embarked on a programme of comparative study of molecular epidemiology. Duvenhage virus nucleoprotein nucleotide sequence analysis indicated a very low nucleotide diversity even though isolates were isolated decades apart. In contrast, individual isolates of Lagos bat virus were found to differ significantly with respectto nucleoprotein gene nucleotide sequence diversity as well as in pathogenicity profiles. PMID:18634494

  5. Bat rabies in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Ellison, James A; Gilbert, Amy T; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard F; Mendonça, Mary T; Lindblade, Kim A; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

  6. Cloud Model Bat Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Li, Liangliang; Ma, Mingzhi

    2014-01-01

    Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA) is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformation theory of cloud model to depict the qualitative concept: “bats approach their prey.” Furthermore, Lévy flight mode and population information communication mechanism of bats are introduced to balance the advantage between exploration and exploitation. The simulation results show that the cloud model bat algorithm has good performance on functions optimization. PMID:24967425

  7. The hearing gene Prestin reunites echolocating bats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wang, Jinhong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Jones, Gareth; Cotton, James A.; Zhang, Shuyi

    2008-01-01

    The remarkable high-frequency sensitivity and selectivity of the mammalian auditory system has been attributed to the evolution of mechanical amplification, in which sound waves are amplified by outer hair cells in the cochlea. This process is driven by the recently discovered protein prestin, encoded by the gene Prestin. Echolocating bats use ultrasound for orientation and hunting and possess the highest frequency hearing of all mammals. To test for the involvement of Prestin in the evolution of bat echolocation, we sequenced the coding region in echolocating and nonecholocating species. The resulting putative gene tree showed strong support for a monophyletic assemblage of echolocating species, conflicting with the species phylogeny in which echolocators are paraphyletic. We reject the possibilities that this conflict arises from either gene duplication and loss or relaxed selection in nonecholocating fruit bats. Instead, we hypothesize that the putative gene tree reflects convergence at stretches of functional importance. Convergence is supported by the recovery of the species tree from alignments of hydrophobic transmembrane domains, and the putative gene tree from the intra- and extracellular domains. We also found evidence that Prestin has undergone Darwinian selection associated with the evolution of specialized constant-frequency echolocation, which is characterized by sharp auditory tuning. Our study of a hearing gene in bats strongly implicates Prestin in the evolution of echolocation, and suggests independent evolution of high-frequency hearing in bats. These results highlight the potential problems of extracting phylogenetic signals from functional genes that may be prone to convergence. PMID:18776049

  8. Controlling Bats in Urban Areas 

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2008-04-15

    to avoid obstacles and capture insects. Bats also emit audible sounds that may be used for communi- cation. L-1913 4-08 Controlling BATS Damage In urban areas, bats may become a nuisance becauseoftheirsqueaking,scratchingandcrawl- inginattics...

  9. Bat predation by spiders.

    PubMed

    Nyffeler, Martin; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (? 90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S). Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences), Asia (28.8%), and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%). Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter). The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64%) and Emballonuridae (22%) and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death), there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation). This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed. PMID:23516436

  10. Characteristics and Risk Perceptions of Ghanaians Potentially Exposed to Bat-Borne Zoonoses through Bushmeat.

    PubMed

    Kamins, Alexandra O; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Cunningham, Andrew A; Wood, James L N; Restif, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Emerging zoonotic pathogens from wildlife pose increasing public health threats globally. Bats, in particular, host an array of zoonotic pathogens, yet there is little research on how bats and humans interact, how people perceive bats and their accompanying disease risk, or who is most at risk. Eidolon helvum, the largest and most abundant African fruit bat species, is widely hunted and eaten in Ghana and also carries potentially zoonotic pathogens. This combination raises concerns, as hunting and butchering bushmeat are common sources of zoonotic transmission. Through a combination of interviews with 577 Ghanaians across southern Ghana, we identified the characteristics of people involved in the bat-bushmeat trade and we explored their perceptions of risk. Bat hunting, selling and consumption are widely distributed across regional and ethnic lines, with hotspots in certain localities, while butchering is predominantly done by women and active hunters. Interviewees held little belief of disease risk from bats, saw no ecological value in fruit bats and associated the consumption of bats with specific tribes. These data can be used to inform disease and conservation management plans, drawing on social contexts and ensuring that local voices are heard within the larger global effort to study and mitigate outbreaks. PMID:25266774

  11. A Survey of Bahamian and Jamaican Teachers' Level of Motivation and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, David K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of self-reported job satisfaction and motivation among teachers in the Bahamas and Jamaica. A total of 168 Bahamian (n = 75) and Jamaican (n = 93) teachers completed the Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction Survey. Overall results indicate that teachers in the Bahamas reported higher levels…

  12. Relationships among Jamaican Ninth-Graders' Variables and Performance in Integrated Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockhausen, Novia; Soyibo, Kola

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the level of integrated science performance of 200 Jamaican ninth-graders (100 boys, 100 girls), and determined if there were significant differences in their performance linked to their gender, attitudes to science, school location and student-type. A science achievement test and attitudes to science questionnaire were used…

  13. Parenting style and psychosocial outcomes in a sample of Jamaican adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delores E. Smith; Todd M. Moore

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between parenting style and adolescents' psychological and behavioural well-being in the Jamaican context. Consistent with pertinent studies from western societies, our data indicated that authoritarian parenting was associated with diminished psychological and behavioural adjustment, such that adolescents who reported their parents as more authoritarian also reported a greater risk of anger depression, suicide ideation, and conduct

  14. The Impact of Poverty and Stress on the Interaction of Jamaican Caregivers with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Heather; Anderson, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses levels of parent-child interaction, and the impact of poverty and parental stress, using data from a national survey of Jamaican parenting practices. It reveals that 1 in every 4 parents feels trapped/controlled by their responsibilities, with the poor at increased risk of experiencing high levels of stress and their children…

  15. Ethnic/Racial Attitudes and Self-Identification of Black Jamaican and White New England Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Phebe; Anderson, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Black and white researchers interviewed black Jamaican and white New England elementary students in urban and rural schools regarding skin color, body size preference, and self-identification, using a modified dolls test. Children from all three communities showed white favoritism and average body size favoritism. Within communities, there were…

  16. Family Violence and Aggression and Their Associations with Psychosocial Functioning in Jamaican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Delores E.; Moore, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among selected family interaction variables and psychosocial outcomes in a sample of Jamaican adolescents. The authors hypothesized that adolescent psychosocial outcomes would be negatively associated with physical violence, verbal aggression would be more potent than physical…

  17. Potential of Jamaican banana, coconut coir and bagasse fibres as composite materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilza G. Jústiz-Smith; G. Junior Virgo; Vernon E. Buchanan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the alternative use of three Jamaican natural cellulosic fibres for the design and manufacturing of composite materials. The natural cellulosic fibres under investigation were bagasse from sugar cane (saccharum officinarum), banana trunk from the banana plant (family Musacae, genus Musa X para disiaca L), and coconut coir11Coir – a stiff, coarse fibre from the

  18. Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric M. Leroy; Brice Kumulungui; Xavier Pourrut; Pierre Rouquet; Alexandre Hassanin; Philippe Yaba; André Délicat; Janusz T. Paweska; Jean-Paul Gonzalez; Robert Swanepoel

    2005-01-01

    The first recorded human outbreak of Ebola virus was in 1976, but the wild reservoir of this virus is still unknown. Here we test for Ebola in more than a thousand small vertebrates that were collected during Ebola outbreaks in humans and great apes between 2001 and 2003 in Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. We find evidence of

  19. Divergence of dim-light vision among bats (order: Chiroptera) as estimated by molecular and electrophysiological methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, He-Qun; Wei, Jing-Kuan; Li, Bo; Wang, Ming-Shan; Wu, Rui-Qi; Rizak, Joshua D; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Xu, Fu-Qiang; Shen, Yong-Yi; Hu, Xin-Tian; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Dim-light vision is present in all bats, but is divergent among species. Old-World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) have fully developed eyes; the eyes of insectivorous bats are generally degraded, and these bats rely on well-developed echolocation. An exception is the Emballonuridae, which are capable of laryngeal echolocation but prefer to use vision for navigation and have normal eyes. In this study, integrated methods, comprising manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), f-VEP and RNA-seq, were utilized to verify the divergence. The results of MEMRI showed that Pteropodidae bats have a much larger superior colliculus (SC)/ inferior colliculus (IC) volume ratio (3:1) than insectivorous bats (1:7). Furthermore, the absolute visual thresholds (log cd/m(2)•s) of Pteropodidae (-6.30 and -6.37) and Emballonuridae (-3.71) bats were lower than those of other insectivorous bats (-1.90). Finally, genes related to the visual pathway showed signs of positive selection, convergent evolution, upregulation and similar gene expression patterns in Pteropodidae and Emballonuridae bats. Different results imply that Pteropodidae and Emballonuridae bats have more developed vision than the insectivorous bats and suggest that further research on bat behavior is warranted. PMID:26100095

  20. Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Hristov, Nickolay I.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. We compare the aerodynamics of T. brasiliensis with those of other, frugivorous bats and with common swifts, Apus apus, a bird with wing morphology, kinematics and flight ecology similar to that of these bats. The comparison reveals that, for the range of speeds evaluated, the cyclical pattern of aerodynamic forces associated with a wingbeat shows more similarities between T. brasiliensis and A. apus than between T. brasiliensis and other frugivorous bats. PMID:22258554

  1. Principal components analyses of behavior problems in Jamaican clinic-referred children: Teacher reports for ages 6–17

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Lambert; John R. Weisz; Charles Thesiger

    1989-01-01

    Factor analyses of child behavior problems have often yielded two broadband syndromes, Overcontrolled (e.g., worrying, fearfulness, withdrawal) and Undercontrolled (e.g., restlessness, fighting, disobedience). We explored whether these two broad-band syndromes might be identified for youngsters in Jamaica. We obtained teacher reports for 320 clinic-referred Jamaican youngsters on a 24-item problem checklist designed by Jamaican clinicians for the assessment of child

  2. New World Bats Harbor Diverse Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Suxiang; Zhu, Xueyong; Li, Yan; Shi, Mang; Zhang, Jing; Bourgeois, Melissa; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xianfeng; Recuenco, Sergio; Gomez, Jorge; Chen, Li-Mei; Johnson, Adam; Tao, Ying; Dreyfus, Cyrille; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Carney, Paul J.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Chang, Jessie; Guo, Zhu; Davis, Charles T.; Paulson, James C.; Stevens, James; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Wilson, Ian A.; Donis, Ruben O.

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus, designated as H18N11, in a flat-faced fruit bat (Artibeus planirostris) from Peru. Serologic studies with the recombinant H18 protein indicated that several Peruvian bat species were infected by this virus. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that, in some gene segments, New World bats harbor more influenza virus genetic diversity than all other mammalian and avian species combined, indicative of a long-standing host-virus association. Structural and functional analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase indicate that sialic acid is not a ligand for virus attachment nor a substrate for release, suggesting a unique mode of influenza A virus attachment and activation of membrane fusion for entry into host cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that bats constitute a potentially important and likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza viruses. PMID:24130481

  3. Creature Feature: Vampire Bats

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This Web site from National Geographic (last mentioned in the October 11, 2002 Scout Report) offers a short multimedia introduction to vampire bats. Geared toward younger kids, this site includes vampire bat audio and video files, Fun Facts in the form of a brief but educational article, a map of vampire bat global distribution, links to bat-related Web sites, and an email postcard. It may be too late to get much Halloween mileage out of this site, but teachers and students should enjoy this quick and very visual look at a fascinating animal. The site includes links to other National Geographic Creature Features, and could be useful for reports and other activities.

  4. Foraging bats avoid noise.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Andrea; Ostwald, Joachim; Siemers, Björn M

    2008-10-01

    Ambient noise influences the availability and use of acoustic information in animals in many ways. While much research has focused on the effects of noise on acoustic communication, here, we present the first study concerned with anthropogenic noise and foraging behaviour. We chose the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) as a model species because it represents the especially vulnerable group of gleaning bats that rely on listening for prey rustling sounds to find food (i.e. 'passive listening'). In a choice experiment with two foraging compartments, we investigated the influence of background noise on foraging effort and foraging success. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) bats will avoid foraging areas with particularly loud background noise; and (2) the frequency-time structure of the noise will determine, in part, the degree to which it deters bats. We found a clear effect of the type of noise on the allocation of foraging effort to the compartments and on the distribution of prey capture events. When playing back silence, the bats made equal use of and were equally successful in both compartments. In the other three treatments (where a non-silent sound was played back), the bats avoided the playback compartment. The degree to which the background noise deterred bats from the compartment increased from traffic noise to vegetation movement noise to broadband computer-generated noise. Vegetation noise, set 12 dB below the traffic noise amplitude, had a larger repellent effect; presumably because of its acoustic similarity with prey sounds. Our experimental data suggest that foraging areas very close to highways and presumably also to other sources of intense, broadband noise are degraded in their suitability as foraging areas for such 'passive listening' bats. PMID:18805817

  5. Trapped in the darkness of the night: thermal and energetic constraints of daylight flight in bats.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Lewanzik, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    Bats are one of the most successful mammalian groups, even though their foraging activities are restricted to the hours of twilight and night-time. Some studies suggested that bats became nocturnal because of overheating when flying in daylight. This is because--in contrast to feathered wings of birds--dark and naked wing membranes of bats efficiently absorb short-wave solar radiation. We hypothesized that bats face elevated flight costs during daylight flights, since we expected them to alter wing-beat kinematics to reduce heat load by solar radiation. To test this assumption, we measured metabolic rate and body temperature during short flights in the tropical short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata at night and during the day. Core body temperature of flying bats differed by no more than 2°C between night and daytime flights, whereas mass-specific CO(2) production rates were higher by 15 per cent during daytime. We conclude that increased flight costs only render diurnal bat flights profitable when the relative energy gain during daytime is high and risk of predation is low. Ancestral bats possibly have evolved dark-skinned wing membranes to reduce nocturnal predation, but a low degree of reflectance of wing membranes made them also prone to overheating and elevated energy costs during daylight flights. In consequence, bats may have become trapped in the darkness of the night once dark-skinned wing membranes had evolved. PMID:21208959

  6. Northern Long-eared Bat

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS and Virginia Tech scientists captured female northern bats and fitted them with tiny radiotransmitters and numbered armbands. The bats were then released and tracked to determine what roosts they were using. ...

  7. Tiger moth jams bat sonar.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

    2009-07-17

    In response to sonar-guided attacking bats, some tiger moths make ultrasonic clicks of their own. The lepidopteran sounds have previously been shown to alert bats to some moths' toxic chemistry and also to startle bats unaccustomed to sonic prey. The moth sounds could also interfere with, or "jam," bat sonar, but evidence for such jamming has been inconclusive. Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, we show that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar. Sonar jamming extends the defensive repertoire available to prey in the long-standing evolutionary arms race between bats and insects. PMID:19608920

  8. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-07-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat-associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans. PMID:21762584

  9. Foraging bats avoid noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Schaub; Joachim Ostwald; Björn M. Siemers

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Ambient noise influences the availability and use of acoustic information in animals in many ways. While much research has focused on the effects of noise on acoustic communication, here, we present the first study concerned with anthropogenic noise and foraging behaviour. We chose the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) as a model species because it represents the especially vulnerable

  10. Seafood Consumption and Blood Mercury Concentrations in Jamaican Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Bloom, Kari; Pearson, Deborah A.; Lalor, Gerald C.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal shown to have harmful effects on human health. Several studies have reported high blood mercury concentrations as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), while other studies have reported no such association. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between blood mercury concentrations in children and ASDs. Moreover, we investigated the role of seafood consumption in relation to blood mercury concentrations in Jamaican children. Based on data for 65 sex- and age-matched pairs (2–8 years), we used a General Linear Model to test whether there is an association between blood mercury concentrations and ASDs. After controlling for the child’s frequency of seafood consumption, maternal age, and parental education, we did not find a significant difference (P = 0.61) between blood mercury concentrations and ASDs. However, in both cases and control groups, children who ate certain types of seafood (i.e., salt water fish, sardine, or mackerel fish) had significantly higher (all P <0.05) geometric means blood mercury concentration which were about 3.5 times that of children living in the US or Canada. Our findings also indicate that Jamaican children with parents who both had education up to high school are at a higher risk of exposure to mercury compared to children with at least one parent who had education beyond high school. Based on our findings, we recommend additional education to Jamaican parents regarding potential hazards of elevated blood mercury concentrations, and its association with seafood consumption and type of seafood. PMID:22488160

  11. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  12. Mechanics of swinging a bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Measurements on the swing of a baseball bat are analyzed to extract the basic mechanics of the swing. The force acting on the bat is determined from the velocity of the center of mass, and the angular velocity of the bat provides additional information on the couple exerted by the two hands. The motion of the bat was calculated for other force-couple combinations to determine their effects on the swing of the bat. It was found that a couple is needed to start the swing, and a large opposing couple is required near the end of the swing to prevent the bat rotating through an excessive angle before it impacts with the ball.

  13. Science Nation: Batty for Bats

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    There are 5,000 species of mammals alive at present, and nearly a quarter of them are bats. They're found in almost every location on Earth. In fact, bats are the only mammals that can fly under their own power! With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), two scientists from very different disciplines have set up a special facility, including a wind tunnel, to study bats in flight.

  14. Characteristics of bat rabies in Alberta.

    PubMed Central

    Schowalter, D B

    1980-01-01

    Rabies in bats was monitored in Alberta from 1971 to 1978 Big brown bats replaced silver-haired bats as the species most frequently reported rabid during these years. Rabies infection was comparatively high among little brown bats in central Alberta in 1973 and has subsequently declined. Only one rabid little brown bat was discovered in southern Alberta which is populated by a different subspecies. Outbreaks of rabies in little brown and big brown bat colonies tended to be brief events. Observations of free-ranging bats with probable furious rabies suggested that bats do not generally identify humans as targets for attack. Independent trends in infection rates suggested that spread of rabies is primarily intraspecific but there is evidence that migratory bats play a role in introduction and maintenance of rabies in northern temperate bat communities. The dynamics of bat rabies in Alberta are discussed. PMID:7397600

  15. Socialization and Teacher Expectations of Jamaican Boys in Schools: The Need for a Responsive Teacher Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This paper is intended to present a review of the literature on the socialization and teacher expectations of Jamaican boys, as well as an examination of how teachers are being prepared to address the gender issues that are implied. It is also hoped that this article can contribute to the search for possible policies and pedagogical strategies…

  16. Effects of ingestion by neotropical bats on germination parameters of native free-standing and strangler figs ( Ficus sp., Moraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrin Heer; Larissa Albrecht; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko

    2010-01-01

    Fruit-eating animals can influence the germination success of seeds through transportation and handling. We experimentally\\u000a tested the contribution of ingestion by the common fruit-eating bat, Artibeus jamaicensis (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera), to the percentage and rate of seed germination of figs (Ficus, Moraceae), which are considered keystone species for many frugivores. We collected fruits from three species of native free-standing\\u000a figs (subgenus

  17. Fruit characteristics and factors affecting fruit removal in a Panamanian community of strangler figs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmi Korine; E. K. V. Kalko; E. A. Herre

    2000-01-01

    We describe fruiting characteristics for 12 species in a community of strangler figs (Moraceae: Urostigma) studied in Panama.\\u000a We quantify diurnal and nocturnal removal rates and proportions of fruits removed, and relate them to the activities of the\\u000a main dispersers of the figs: bats and birds. These results combined with previous studies show that there are clear differences\\u000a between fig

  18. Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 ?g/dL cases vs. 2.73 ?g/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 ?g/dL vs. 2.72 ?g/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

  19. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 ?g/dL), 4.4 (2.4 ?g/L), 10.9 (9.2 ?g/L), and 43.7 (17.7 ?g/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 ?g/L vs. 6.4 ?g/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  20. Lower Body Symmetry and Running Performance in Elite Jamaican Track and Field Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Trivers, Robert; Fink, Bernhard; Russell, Mark; McCarty, Kristofor; James, Bruce; Palestis, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet) are–on average–significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet) had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes. PMID:25401732

  1. Keeping the blood flowing—plasminogen activator genes and feeding behavior in vampire bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellgren-Roth, Åsa; Dittmar, Katharina; Massey, Steven E.; Kemi, Cecilia; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Savolainen, Peter; Lyons, Leslie A.; Liberles, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The blood feeding vampire bats emerged from New World leaf-nosed bats that fed on fruit and insects. Plasminogen activator, a serine protease that regulates blood coagulation, is known to be expressed in the saliva of Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat) and is thought to be a key enzyme for the emergence of blood feeding in vampire bats. To better understand the evolution of this biological function, we studied the plasminogen activator (PA) genes from all vampire bat species in light of their feeding transition to bird and subsequently mammalian blood. We include the rare species Diphylla ecaudata and Diaemus youngi, where plasminogen activator had not previously been studied and demonstrate that PA gene duplication observed in Desmodus is not essential to the vampire phenotype, but relates to the emergence of predominant mammalian blood feeding in this species. Plasminogen activator has evolved through gene duplication, domain loss, and sequence evolution leading to change in fibrin-specificity and susceptibility to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Before undertaking this study, only the four plasminogen activator isoforms from Desmodus were known. The evolution of vampire bat plasminogen activators can now be linked phylogenetically to the transition in feeding behavior among vampire bat species from bird to mammalian blood.

  2. High diversity of West African bat malaria parasites and a tight link with rodent Plasmodium taxa

    PubMed Central

    Schaer, Juliane; Perkins, Susan L.; Decher, Jan; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Fahr, Jakob; Weber, Natalie; Matuschewski, Kai

    2013-01-01

    As the only volant mammals, bats are captivating for their high taxonomic diversity, for their vital roles in ecosystems—particularly as pollinators and insectivores—and, more recently, for their important roles in the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic viral diseases. Genome sequences have identified evidence for a striking expansion of and positive selection in gene families associated with immunity. Bats have also been known to be hosts of malaria parasites for over a century, and as hosts, they possess perhaps the most phylogenetically diverse set of hemosporidian genera and species. To provide a molecular framework for the study of these parasites, we surveyed bats in three remote areas of the Upper Guinean forest ecosystem. We detected four distinct genera of hemosporidian parasites: Plasmodium, Polychromophilus, Nycteria, and Hepatocystis. Intriguingly, the two species of Plasmodium in bats fall within the clade of rodent malaria parasites, indicative of multiple host switches across mammalian orders. We show that Nycteria species form a very distinct phylogenetic group and that Hepatocystis parasites display an unusually high diversity and prevalence in epauletted fruit bats. The diversity and high prevalence of novel lineages of chiropteran hemosporidians underscore the exceptional position of bats among all other mammalian hosts of hemosporidian parasites and support hypotheses of pathogen tolerance consistent with the exceptional immunology of bats. PMID:24101466

  3. Bat Airway Epithelial Cells: A Novel Tool for the Study of Zoonotic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Eckerle, Isabella; Ehlen, Lukas; Kallies, René; Wollny, Robert; Corman, Victor M.; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Marcel A.

    2014-01-01

    Bats have been increasingly recognized as reservoir of important zoonotic viruses. However, until now many attempts to isolate bat-borne viruses in cell culture have been unsuccessful. Further, experimental studies on reservoir host species have been limited by the difficulty of rearing these species. The epithelium of the respiratory tract plays a central role during airborne transmission, as it is the first tissue encountered by viral particles. Although several cell lines from bats were established recently, no well-characterized, selectively cultured airway epithelial cells were available so far. Here, primary cells and immortalized cell lines from bats of the two important suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera, Carollia perspicillata (Seba's short-tailed bat) and Eidolon helvum (Straw-colored fruit bat), were successfully cultured under standardized conditions from both fresh and frozen organ specimens by cell outgrowth of organ explants and by the use of serum-free primary cell culture medium. Cells were immortalized to generate permanent cell lines. Cells were characterized for their epithelial properties such as expression of cytokeratin and tight junctions proteins and permissiveness for viral infection with Rift-Valley fever virus and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana. These cells can serve as suitable models for the study of bat-borne viruses and complement cell culture models for virus infection in human airway epithelial cells. PMID:24454736

  4. Functional characterization of piggyBat from the bat Myotis lucifugus unveils an active

    E-print Network

    Feschotte, Cedric

    Functional characterization of piggyBat from the bat Myotis lucifugus unveils an active mammalian the genome of the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) and is a member of the piggyBac superfamily, is active of the genome of the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus (6­8). The most recently active bat transposons include

  5. Rabies in Bats from Alabama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura C. Hester; Troy L. Best; M. Keith Hudson

    2007-01-01

    Data on rabies virus infection in bats that were submitted to the Alabama Department of Public Health from 1995-2005 were analyzed. Demographic factors, such as species and sex, and temporal aspects, such as yearly and monthly trends, were investigated. Thirteen species of bats were submitted, and of those, individuals from seven species were rabid; prevalence was highest in Lasiurus borealis

  6. Parallel and Convergent Evolution of the Dim-Light Vision Gene RH1 in Bats (Order: Chiroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yong-Yi; Liu, Jie; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Rhodopsin, encoded by the gene Rhodopsin (RH1), is extremely sensitive to light, and is responsible for dim-light vision. Bats are nocturnal mammals that inhabit poor light environments. Megabats (Old-World fruit bats) generally have well-developed eyes, while microbats (insectivorous bats) have developed echolocation and in general their eyes were degraded, however, dramatic differences in the eyes, and their reliance on vision, exist in this group. In this study, we examined the rod opsin gene (RH1), and compared its evolution to that of two cone opsin genes (SWS1 and M/LWS). While phylogenetic reconstruction with the cone opsin genes SWS1 and M/LWS generated a species tree in accord with expectations, the RH1 gene tree united Pteropodidae (Old-World fruit bats) and Yangochiroptera, with very high bootstrap values, suggesting the possibility of convergent evolution. The hypothesis of convergent evolution was further supported when nonsynonymous sites or amino acid sequences were used to construct phylogenies. Reconstructed RH1 sequences at internal nodes of the bat species phylogeny showed that: (1) Old-World fruit bats share an amino acid change (S270G) with the tomb bat; (2) Miniopterus share two amino acid changes (V104I, M183L) with Rhinolophoidea; (3) the amino acid replacement I123V occurred independently on four branches, and the replacements L99M, L266V and I286V occurred each on two branches. The multiple parallel amino acid replacements that occurred in the evolution of bat RH1 suggest the possibility of multiple convergences of their ecological specialization (i.e., various photic environments) during adaptation for the nocturnal lifestyle, and suggest that further attention is needed on the study of the ecology and behavior of bats. PMID:20098620

  7. African bats: evolution of reproductive patterns and delays.

    PubMed

    Bernard, R T; Cumming, G S

    1997-09-01

    Patterns of reproduction in African bats can be compared in three taxon-based groups: fruit bats (Megachiroptera), freetailed bats (Microchiroptera: Molossidae) and the nonmolossid Microchiroptera. In the fruit bats and nonmolossid Microchiroptera there is a trend from either seasonal or aseasonal polyestry, with prolonged or continuous spermatogenesis in the tropics, towards seasonal monestry and seasonal spermatogenesis at more temperate latitudes. Reproductive delays (sperm storage, delayed implantation and delayed development) are rare at tropical latitudes, but are the norm in the nonmolossid Microchiroptera away from the tropics. The molossids are mostly polyestrous at tropical and temperate latitudes, although the duration of the reproductive season decreases with increasing latitude. The molossids appear to have escaped the constraints that affect reproduction of the other Microchiroptera. We propose that this may be due to their flight capabilities and foraging behavior, which give them access to year-round food, and to the thermal characteristics of their roots. We suggest that the ancestral reproductive pattern of the Chiroptera was probably aseasonal or seasonal polyestry, as seen in extant tropical species, and therefore that reproductive cycles have evolved from the polyestrous to the monestrous condition. Short periods of reproductive delay occur in some species of tropical bats; we suggest that these reproductive delays originally were not adaptations to temperate latitudes but rather to the long dry season, which is characteristic of African tropical latitudes. With the move away from the tropics, selective pressures, acting on the timing of lactation and spermatogenesis, would have ensured that these processes continued to occur in the warm wet season, and that the length of the reproductive delay increased. This model accommodates the probable evolutionary origin of bats and links the evolution and development of reproductive delays to the differences in climate that occur with changes in latitude. There is evidence that mate choice and sperm competition may be important to modern bats, but we believe that they need not be involved as causal factors in the evolution of reproductive delays, which can be adequately explained using purely energetic arguments. PMID:9293029

  8. Analysis of Cathepsin and Furin Proteolytic Enzymes Involved in Viral Fusion Protein Activation in Cells of the Bat Reservoir Host

    PubMed Central

    El Najjar, Farah; Lampe, Levi; Baker, Michelle L.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing. PMID:25706132

  9. Analysis of cathepsin and furin proteolytic enzymes involved in viral fusion protein activation in cells of the bat reservoir host.

    PubMed

    El Najjar, Farah; Lampe, Levi; Baker, Michelle L; Wang, Lin-Fa; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing. PMID:25706132

  10. Poxviruses in Bats … so What?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate S.; Murcia, Pablo R.

    2014-01-01

    Poxviruses are important pathogens of man and numerous domestic and wild animal species. Cross species (including zoonotic) poxvirus infections can have drastic consequences for the recipient host. Bats are a diverse order of mammals known to carry lethal viral zoonoses such as Rabies, Hendra, Nipah, and SARS. Consequent targeted research is revealing bats to be infected with a rich diversity of novel viruses. Poxviruses were recently identified in bats and the settings in which they were found were dramatically different. Here, we review the natural history of poxviruses in bats and highlight the relationship of the viruses to each other and their context in the Poxviridae family. In addition to considering the zoonotic potential of these viruses, we reflect on the broader implications of these findings. Specifically, the potential to explore and exploit this newfound relationship to study coevolution and cross species transmission together with fundamental aspects of poxvirus host tropism as well as bat virology and immunology. PMID:24704730

  11. Blood manganese concentrations in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Manganese is an essential element for human health and development. Previous studies have shown neurotoxic effects in children exposed to higher levels of manganese. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs social interaction and communication. Several studies have hypothesized that ASD is caused through environmental exposures during crucial stages in brain development. We investigated the possible association between blood manganese concentrations (BMC) and ASD. We also identified factors associated with BMC in typically developing (TD) Jamaican children. Methods We used data from 109 ASD cases with their 1:1 age- and sex-matched TD controls to compare mean BMC in Jamaican children (2–8 years of age) with and without ASD. We administered a pre-tested questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information, medical history, and potential exposure to manganese. Finally, we collected 2 mL of whole blood from each child for analysis of manganese levels. Using General Linear Models (GLM), we assessed the association between BMC and ASD status. Furthermore, we used two independent sample t-tests to identify factors associated with BMC in TD children. Results In univariable GLM analysis, we found no significant association between BMC and ASD, (10.9 ?g/L for cases vs. 10.5 ?g/L for controls; P?=?0.29). In a multivariable GLM adjusting for paternal age, parental education, place of child’s birth (Kingston parish), consumption of root vegetables, cabbage, saltwater fish, and cakes/buns, there was still no significant association between BMC and ASD status, (11.5 ?g/L for cases vs. 11.9 ?g/L for controls; P?=?0.48). Our findings also indicated TD children who ate fresh water fish had a higher BMC than children who did not (11.0 ?g/L vs. 9.9 ?g/L; P?=?0.03) as younger TD children (i.e., 2???age ?4), (12.0 ?g/L vs. 10.2 ?g/L; P?=?0.01). Conclusions While these results cannot be used to assess early exposure at potentially more susceptible time period, our findings suggest that there is no significant association between manganese exposures and ASD case status in Jamaica. Our findings also indicate that BMC in Jamaican children resemble those of children in the developed world and are much lower than those in the developing countries. PMID:25149876

  12. Sperm competition in bats.

    PubMed Central

    Hosken, D J

    1997-01-01

    Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and investment in spermatogenesis across 31 species of microchiropteran bat using new and published data on testis mass and sperm length. In addition to male competition, I examined the effects of female reproductive biology on characteristics of spermatogenesis. Comparative studies indicate that relative testis mass is positively related to sperm competition risk in a wide range of taxa. Social group size may also influence the level of sperm competition, and one of the costs of living in groups may be decreased confidence of paternity. I used comparative analysis of independent contrast (CAIC) to control for phylogeny. Using two possible phylogenies and two measures of social group size, I found a significant positive relationship between social group size and testis mass. There was no relationship between testis mass and the dimension of the female reproductive tract or oestrus duration. Sperm length was not significantly related to body mass or group size, nor was it related to oestrus duration. PMID:9107054

  13. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis)

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Karen; Dawson, Jeff W.; Jutting, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball) and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals. PMID:23940839

  14. Antiproliferative activity and absolute configuration of zonaquinone acetate from the Jamaican alga Stypopodium zonale.

    PubMed

    Penicooke, Najair; Walford, Kemil; Badal, Simone; Delgoda, Rupika; Williams, Lawrence A D; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; Gordillo-Román, Bárbara; Gallimore, Winklet

    2013-03-01

    The chemical investigation of specimens of the Jamaican brown alga Stypopodium zonale led to the isolation of a cytotoxic compound, zonaquinone acetate (1), along with known compounds flabellinone, not previously identified in S. zonale, stypoldione, 5',7'-dihydroxy-2'-pentadecylchromone and sargaol. The structures of the metabolites were established by analysis of the spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR experiments while the stereochemistry of 1 was assessed by VCD measurements. Cytotoxic activity was reported in vitro for 1 against breast cancer and colon cancer cell lines at IC(50) values of 19.22-21.62 ?M and 17.11-18.35 ?M respectively, comparing favorably with standard treatments tamoxifen (17.22-17.32 ?M) and fluorouracil (27.03-31.48 ?M). When tested with liver cancer cells (Hep G2), no activity was observed. Weak antioxidant activity was observed with 1 but sargaol exhibited high activity. PMID:23257707

  15. Bats of the Savannah River Site and vicinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Menzel; J. M. Menzel; J. C. Kilgo; W. M. Ford; T. C. Carter; J. W. Edwards

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), hoary bat (L. cinereus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus).

  16. Vocal Timing in the Bat

    E-print Network

    Jarvis, Jenna N

    2013-05-01

    exposed to both artificially generated interfering noises and noise generated by conspecifics, and the temporal characteristics of their resulting echolocation calls were analyzed. In addition, bats were given injections of dopaminergic and serotonergic...

  17. Rabies in bats from Alabama.

    PubMed

    Hester, Laura C; Best, Troy L; Hudson, M Keith

    2007-04-01

    Data on rabies virus infection in bats that were submitted to the Alabama Department of Public Health from 1995-2005 were analyzed. Demographic factors, such as species and sex, and temporal aspects, such as yearly and monthly trends, were investigated. Thirteen species of bats were submitted, and of those, individuals from seven species were rabid; prevalence was highest in Lasiurus borealis and Pipistrellus subflavus and lowest in Eptesicus fuscus and Nycticeius humeralis. There was no difference in prevalence of rabies between sexes or years. Statistically, more rabid bats were submitted in August, September, and November; and fewer were submitted in March, June, and July. Results were similar to those from other regions of North America; these data from Alabama can help to present a more complete view of rabies in bats in North America. PMID:17495316

  18. Niche-specific cognitive strategies: object memory interferes with spatial memory in the predatory bat Myotis nattereri.

    PubMed

    Hulgard, Katrine; Ratcliffe, John M

    2014-09-15

    Related species with different diets are predicted to rely on different cognitive strategies: those best suited for locating available and appropriate foods. Here we tested two predictions of the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis in bats, which suggests that predatory species should rely more on object memory than on spatial memory for finding food and that the opposite is true of frugivorous and nectivorous species. Specifically, we predicted that: (1) predatory bats would readily learn to associate shapes with palatable prey and (2) once bats had made such associations, these would interfere with their subsequent learning of a spatial memory task. We trained free-flying Myotis nattereri to approach palatable and unpalatable insect prey suspended below polystyrene objects. Experimentally naïve bats learned to associate different objects with palatable and unpalatable prey but performed no better than chance in a subsequent spatial memory experiment. Because experimental sequence was predicted to be of consequence, we introduced a second group of bats first to the spatial memory experiment. These bats learned to associate prey position with palatability. Control trials indicated that bats made their decisions based on information acquired through echolocation. Previous studies have shown that bat species that eat mainly nectar and fruit rely heavily on spatial memory, reflecting the relative consistency of distribution of fruit and nectar compared with insects. Our results support the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis and suggest that for gleaning and clutter-resistant aerial hawking bats, learning to associate shape with food interferes with subsequent spatial memory learning. PMID:25013105

  19. Persistent paradox of natural history of human T lymphotropic virus type I: parallel analyses of Japanese and Jamaican carriers.

    PubMed

    Hisada, Michie; Stuver, Sherri O; Okayama, Akihiko; Li, Hong-Chuan; Sawada, Takashi; Hanchard, Barrie; Mueller, Nancy E

    2004-11-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is endemic in southern Japan and the Caribbean, but the incidence of HTLV-I-associated diseases varies across geographic areas. We compared markers of disease pathogenesis among 51 age- and sex-matched HTLV-I carrier pairs from Japan and Jamaica. The mean antibody titer (P=.03) and detection of anti-Tax antibody (P=.002) were higher in Jamaican subjects than in Japanese subjects, but provirus load was similar between the 2 groups (P=.26). The correlation between antibody titer and provirus load was more prominent among Jamaican subjects than among Japanese subjects (P=.06). These findings underscore the differences in host immune response to HTLV-I infection in 2 populations. PMID:15478065

  20. Roles of Birds and Bats in Early Tropical-Forest Restoration

    PubMed Central

    de la Peña-Domene, Marinés; Martínez-Garza, Cristina; Palmas-Pérez, Sebastián; Rivas-Alonso, Edith; Howe, Henry F.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of tropical forest depended in large part on seed dispersal by fruit-eating animals that transported seeds into planted forest patches. We tested effectiveness of dispersal agents as revealed by established recruits of tree and shrub species that bore seeds dispersed by birds, bats, or both. We documented restoration of dispersal processes over the first 76 months of experimental restoration in southern Mexico. Mixed-model repeated-measures randomized-block ANOVAs of seedlings recruited into experimental controls and mixed-species plantings from late-secondary and mature forest indicated that bats and birds played different roles in the first years of a restoration process. Bats dispersed pioneer tree and shrub species to slowly regenerating grassy areas, while birds mediated recruitment of later-successional species into planted stands of trees and to a lesser extent into controls. Of species of pioneer trees and shrubs established in plots, seven were primarily dispersed by birds, three by bats and four by both birds and bats. Of later-successional species recruited past the seedling stage, 13 were of species primarily dispersed by birds, and six were of species dispersed by both birds and bats. No later-successional species primarily dispersed by bats established in control or planted plots. Establishment of recruited seedlings was ten-fold higher under cover of planted trees than in grassy controls. Even pre-reproductive trees drew fruit-eating birds and the seeds that they carried from nearby forest, and provided conditions for establishment of shade-tolerant tree species. Overall, after 76 months of cattle exclusion, 94% of the recruited shrubs and trees in experimental plots were of species that we did not plant. PMID:25118608

  1. Major League Baseball's MLB @BAT

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Major League Baseball's MLB @BAT, the only official source for MLB information on the world wide web. MLB @BAT provides you with access to daily updated scores, statistics, rosters, league leaders, and MLB Club related information. In addition, check out News & Notes for late-breaking Official Major League Baseball press releases, view photos of the current NL/AL Players of the Week in MLB Photo Gallery, or purchase official MLB merchandise in the MLB Clubhouse Shop.

  2. Human-Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa.

    PubMed

    Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human-bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011-2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human-bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse. PMID:26177344

  3. Click-based echolocation in bats: not so primitive after all.

    PubMed

    Yovel, Yossi; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Ulanovsky, Nachum

    2011-05-01

    Echolocating bats of the genus Rousettus produce click sonar signals, using their tongue (lingual echolocation). These signals are often considered rudimentary and are believed to enable only crude performance. However, the main argument supporting this belief, namely the click's reported long duration, was recently shown to be an artifact. In fact, the sonar clicks of Rousettus bats are extremely short, ~50-100 ?s, similar to dolphin vocalizations. Here, we present a comparison between the sonar systems of the 'model species' of laryngeal echolocation, the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), and that of lingual echolocation, the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). We show experimentally that in tasks, such as accurate landing or detection of medium-sized objects, click-based echolocation enables performance similar to laryngeal echolocators. Further, we describe a sophisticated behavioral strategy for biosonar beam steering in clicking bats. Finally, theoretical analyses of the signal design--focusing on their autocorrelations and wideband ambiguity functions--predict that in some aspects, such as target ranging and Doppler-tolerance, click-based echolocation might outperform laryngeal echolocation. Therefore, we suggest that click-based echolocation in bats should be regarded as a viable echolocation strategy, which is in fact similar to the biosonar used by most echolocating animals, including whales and dolphins. PMID:21465138

  4. Street lighting disturbs commuting bats.

    PubMed

    Stone, Emma Louise; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2009-07-14

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a major cause of worldwide declines in biodiversity. Understanding the implications of this disturbance for species and populations is crucial for conservation biologists wishing to mitigate negative effects. Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasing global problem, affecting ecological interactions across a range of taxa and impacting negatively upon critical animal behaviors including foraging, reproduction, and communication (for review see). Almost all bats are nocturnal, making them ideal subjects for testing the effects of light pollution. Previous studies have shown that bat species adapted to foraging in open environments feed on insects attracted to mercury vapor lamps. Here, we use an experimental approach to provide the first evidence of a negative effect of artificial light pollution on the commuting behavior of a threatened bat species. We installed high-pressure sodium lights that mimic the intensity and light spectra of streetlights along commuting routes of lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Bat activity was reduced dramatically and the onset of commuting behavior was delayed in the presence of lighting, with no evidence of habituation. These results demonstrate that light pollution may have significant negative impacts upon the selection of flight routes by bats. PMID:19540116

  5. The physics of bat biosonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Rolf

    2011-10-01

    Bats have evolved one of the most capable and at the same time parsimonious sensory systems found in nature. Using active and passive biosonar as a major - and often sufficient - far sense, different bat species are able to master a wide variety of sensory tasks under very dissimilar sets of constraints. Given the limited computational resources of the bat's brain, this performance is unlikely to be explained as the result of brute-force, black-box-style computations. Instead, the animals must rely heavily on in-built physics knowledge in order to ensure that all required information is encoded reliably into the acoustic signals received at the ear drum. To this end, bats can manipulate the emitted and received signals in the physical domain: By diffracting the outgoing and incoming ultrasonic waves with intricate baffle shapes (i.e., noseleaves and outer ears), the animals can generate selectivity filters that are joint functions of space and frequency. To achieve this, bats employ structural features such as resonance cavities and diffracting ridges. In addition, some bat species can dynamically adjust the shape of their selectivity filters through muscular actuation.

  6. The role of drinking water sources, consumption of vegetables and seafood in relation to blood arsenic concentrations of Jamaican children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Loveland, Katherine A; Dickerson, Aisha S; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Bloom, Kari; Wirth, Julie; Pearson, Deborah A; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metal with harmful effects on human health, particularly on cognitive function. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are lifelong neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders manifesting in infancy or early childhood. We used data from 130 children between 2 and 8 years (65 pairs of ASD cases with age- and sex-matched control), to compare the mean total blood arsenic concentrations in children with and without ASDs in Kingston, Jamaica. Based on univariable analysis, we observed a significant difference between ASD cases and controls (4.03 ?g/L for cases vs. 4.48 ?g/L for controls, P<0.01). In the final multivariable General Linear Model (GLM), after controlling for car ownership, maternal age, parental education levels, source of drinking water, consumption of "yam, sweet potato, or dasheen", "carrot or pumpkin", "callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi", cabbage, avocado, and the frequency of seafood consumption per week, we did not find a significant association between blood arsenic concentrations and ASD status (4.36 ?g/L for cases vs. 4.65 ?g/L for controls, P=0.23). Likewise, in a separate final multivariable GLM, we found that source of drinking water, eating avocado, and eating "callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi" was significantly associated with higher blood arsenic concentrations (all three P<0.05). Based on our findings, we recommend assessment of arsenic levels in water, fruits, and vegetables, as well as increased awareness among the Jamaican population regarding potential risks for various exposures to arsenic. PMID:22819887

  7. BGD: A Database of Bat Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jianfei; Wang, Xuan; Mu, Shuo; Zhang, Shuyi; Dong, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD). BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/. PMID:26110276

  8. The Evolution of Bat Vestibular Systems in the Face of Potential Antagonistic Selection Pressures for Flight and Echolocation

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kalina T. J.; Bates, Paul J. J.; Maryanto, Ibnu; Cotton, James A.; Rossiter, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The vestibular system maintains the body’s sense of balance and, therefore, was probably subject to strong selection during evolutionary transitions in locomotion. Among mammals, bats possess unique traits that place unusual demands on their vestibular systems. First, bats are capable of powered flight, which in birds is associated with enlarged semicircular canals. Second, many bats have enlarged cochleae associated with echolocation, and both cochleae and semicircular canals share a space within the petrosal bone. To determine how bat vestibular systems have evolved in the face of these pressures, we used micro-CT scans to compare canal morphology across species with contrasting flight and echolocation capabilities. We found no increase in canal radius in bats associated with the acquisition of powered flight, but canal radius did correlate with body mass in bat species from the suborder Yangochiroptera, and also in non-echolocating Old World fruit bats from the suborder Yinpterochiroptera. No such trend was seen in members of the Yinpterochiroptera that use laryngeal echolocation, although canal radius was associated with wing-tip roundedness in this group. We also found that the vestibular system scaled with cochlea size, although the relationship differed in species that use constant frequency echolocation. Across all bats, the shape of the anterior and lateral canals was associated with large cochlea size and small body size respectively, suggesting differential spatial constraints on each canal depending on its orientation within the skull. Thus in many echolocating bats, it seems that the combination of small body size and enlarged cochlea together act as a principal force on the vestibular system. The two main groups of echolocating bats displayed different canal morphologies, in terms of size and shape in relation to body mass and cochlear size, thus suggesting independent evolutionary pathways and offering tentative support for multiple acquisitions of echolocation. PMID:23637943

  9. Bat Rabies in Canada 1963-1967

    PubMed Central

    Beauregard, M.

    1969-01-01

    Six hundred and twenty-eight insectivorous bats originating from seven provinces were submitted to this Institute for rabies diagnosis between August 1, 1963 and December 31, 1967. Brain tissue was examined by the fluorescent antibody technique and the mouse infectivity test was carried out with brain, salivary gland, interscapular adipose tissue and kidney samples. Rabies virus was detected in 44 bats, 29 of which were from Ontario, 12 from British Columbia and three from Manitoba. Most of the positive cases were diagnosed in summer months. Seven species were represented among the specimens found to be rabid; there were 32 big brown bats, three hoary bats, three silver-haired bats, two little brown bats, one eastern pipistrelle, one Keen myotis and one red bat. Another bat which was not identified also proved to be infected with rabies. PMID:4242773

  10. The sweet spot of a baseball bat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rod Cross

    1998-01-01

    The sweet spot of a baseball bat, like that of a tennis racket, can be defined either in terms of a vibration node or a centre of percussion. In order to determine how each of the sweet spots influences the ``feel'' of the bat, measurements were made of the impact forces transmitted to the hands. Measurements of the bat velocity,

  11. Ageing Studies on Bats: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja K. Brunet-Rossinni; Steven N. Austad

    2004-01-01

    Bat biologists have long known about the exceptional longevity of bats (Order: Chiroptera), which is unusual for mammals of such a small size and a high metabolic rate. Yet relatively few mechanistic studies have focused on this longevity. On average, species of Chiroptera live three times longer than predicted by their body size. In addition, bats have other life history

  12. Distributional Limits of Bats in Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOREEN I. PARKER; BRIAN E. LAWHEAD; JOSEPH A. COOK

    1997-01-01

    Bats in temperate regions are relatively well studied, yet little research has focused on the northern limit of their distribution. We document the northwestern extent of bats in North America using museum holdings, literature records, and field research in Alaska. Six bat species are confirmed from Alaska: Myotis lucifugus, M. keenii, M. californicus, M. volans, Lasionycteris noctivagans, and Eptesicus fuscus.

  13. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R.N.; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H.; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

  14. [Bats and other reservoir hosts of Filoviridae. Danger of epidemic on the African continent?--a deductive literature analysis].

    PubMed

    Laminger, Felix; Prinz, Armin

    2010-10-01

    Ebola and Marburg virus, forming the Filoviridae family, cause hemorrhagic fever in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. These viral diseases are characterized by a sudden epidemic occurrence as well as a high lethality. Even though a reservoir host has not been approved yet, literature indicates the order of bats (Chiroptera) as a potential reservoir host. Significant references lead to a delineation of a hypothetical ecosystem of Filoviridae including Chiroptera. IgG-specific Ebola-Zaire antibodies were detected in Hammer-headed Bats (Hypsignathus monstrosus), Epauletted Fruit Bats (Epomops franqueti), and Little Collared Fruit Bats (Myonycteris torquata) during Ebola outbreaks between 2001 and 2005 in Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. The discovery of IgG-specific-Marburg virus antibodies and virus-specific ribonucleic acid in Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) provided further indication for the exploration of the reservoir host. In 2007, the Marburg virus isolation could for the first time be accomplished directly from apparently healthy and naturally infected Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in Kitaka Mine (Uganda). Risk groups can be defined through chronological reprocessing and interpretation of existing epidemic-outbreaks on the African continent and the search for infection reasons of the index cases. The following risk factors for an infection with Ebola or Marburg virus must be put into consideration: Contact with and consumption of wild animal carcasses, sightseeing in caves as well as work in mines. The focus of this review is the demonstration of risk profiles and their exposure to Chiroptera and other potential reservoir hosts. PMID:20924703

  15. Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed "whispering" can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency, duration, intensity, and directionality of echolocation signals) in unison define the search volume probed by bats and in turn how bats perceive their surroundings. Small changes to individual parameters can, in combination, drastically change the bat's perception, facilitating successful navigation and food acquisition across a vast range of ecological niches. To better understand the function of echolocation in the natural habitat it is critical to determine multiple acoustic features of the echolocation calls. The combined (interactive) effects, not only of frequency and time parameters, but also of intensity and directionality, define the bat's view of its acoustic scene. PMID:23630501

  16. Darwinian natural selection for orange bioluminescent color in a Jamaican click beetle.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Uwe; Velez, Sebastian; Wood, Keith V; Wood, Monika; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2003-12-01

    The Jamaican click beetle Pyrophorus plagiophthalamus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) is unique among all bioluminescent organisms in displaying a striking light color polymorphism [Biggley, W. H., Lloyd, J. E. & Seliger, H. H. (1967) J. Gen. Physiol. 50, 1681-1692]. Beetles on the island vary in the color of their ventral light organs from yellow-green to orange and their dorsal organs from green to yellow-green. The genetic basis for the color variation involves specific amino acid substitutions in the enzyme luciferase. Here, we show that dorsal and ventral light color in P. plagiophthalamus are under separate genetic control, we resolve the allelic basis for color variation, and, through analyses of luciferase sequence variation, we demonstrate that natural selection has produced a long-term adaptive trend for longer wavelength (more orange) ventral light on Jamaica. Our results constitute a novel example connecting the selective fixation of specific nucleotides in nature to their precisely determined phenotypic effects. We also present evidence suggesting that a recently derived ventral orange luciferase allele on the island has deterministically increased in frequency. Thus, the current luciferase polymorphism for P. plagiophthalamus appears to be mirroring the long-term anagenic trend on Jamaica, revealing a possible ongoing adaptive color transition in progress. PMID:14623957

  17. Enhanced Passive Bat Rabies Surveillance in Indigenous Bat Species from Germany - A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117

  18. Seasonal Pulses of Marburg Virus Circulation in Juvenile Rousettus aegyptiacus Bats Coincide with Periods of Increased Risk of Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Amman, Brian R.; Carroll, Serena A.; Reed, Zachary D.; Sealy, Tara K.; Balinandi, Stephen; Swanepoel, Robert; Kemp, Alan; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Comer, James A.; Campbell, Shelley; Cannon, Deborah L.; Khristova, Marina L.; Atimnedi, Patrick; Paddock, Christopher D.; Kent Crockett, Rebekah J.; Flietstra, Timothy D.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Unfer, Robert; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Marburg virus (family Filoviridae) causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Bats have been implicated as likely natural reservoir hosts based most recently on an investigation of cases among miners infected in 2007 at the Kitaka mine, Uganda, which contained a large population of Marburg virus-infected Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. Described here is an ecologic investigation of Python Cave, Uganda, where an American and a Dutch tourist acquired Marburg virus infection in December 2007 and July 2008. More than 40,000 R. aegyptiacus were found in the cave and were the sole bat species present. Between August 2008 and November 2009, 1,622 bats were captured and tested for Marburg virus. Q-RT-PCR analysis of bat liver/spleen tissues indicated ?2.5% of the bats were actively infected, seven of which yielded Marburg virus isolates. Moreover, Q-RT-PCR-positive lung, kidney, colon and reproductive tissues were found, consistent with potential for oral, urine, fecal or sexual transmission. The combined data for R. aegyptiacus tested from Python Cave and Kitaka mine indicate low level horizontal transmission throughout the year. However, Q-RT-PCR data show distinct pulses of virus infection in older juvenile bats (?six months of age) that temporarily coincide with the peak twice-yearly birthing seasons. Retrospective analysis of historical human infections suspected to have been the result of discrete spillover events directly from nature found 83% (54/65) events occurred during these seasonal pulses in virus circulation, perhaps demonstrating periods of increased risk of human infection. The discovery of two tags at Python Cave from bats marked at Kitaka mine, together with the close genetic linkages evident between viruses detected in geographically distant locations, are consistent with R. aegyptiacus bats existing as a large meta-population with associated virus circulation over broad geographic ranges. These findings provide a basis for developing Marburg hemorrhagic fever risk reduction strategies. PMID:23055920

  19. Frozen Fruit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-04-30

    In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

  20. Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Hullinger, D.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. In this talk, we describe the BAT instrument response as determined to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies. We will also discuss the public data analysis tools developed to calculate the BAT response to sources at different energies and locations in the FOV. The level of accuracy required for the BAT instrument response used for the hard x-ray survey is significantly higher because this response must be used in the iterative clean algorithm for finding fainter sources. Because the bright sources add a lot of coding noise to the BAT sky image, fainter sources can be seen only after the counts due to the bright sources are removed. The better we know the BAT response, the lower the noise in the cleaned spectrum and thus the more sensitive the survey. Since the BAT detector plane consists of 32768 individual, 4 mm square CZT gamma-ray detectors, the most accurate BAT response would include 32768 individual detector response functions to separate mask modulation effects from differences in detector efficiencies! We describe OUT continuing work to improve the accuracy of the BAT instrument response and will present the current results of Monte Carlo simulations as well as BAT ground calibration data.

  1. 77 FR 3590 - Covered Securities of Bats Exchange, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ...3235-AL20 Covered Securities of Bats Exchange, Inc. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission...authorized for listing, on BATS Exchange, Inc. (``BATS'' or ``Exchange'') as...Tier 1 of the Pacific Exchange, Inc. (``PCX'') (now known as NYSE...

  2. FRUIT SPLIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water stage fruit split is a noninfectious disorder of pecan. Its occurrence and severity varies greatly depending upon cultivar, crop load, water status of trees, and atmospheric conditions. This review article discusses the symptoms, causes, and control measures for water stage fruit split in pe...

  3. Significance of fever in Jamaican patients with homozygous sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Wierenga, K; Hambleton, I; Wilson, R; Alexander, H; Serjeant, B; Serjeant, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the cause and outcome of high fever in Jamaican children with homozygous sickle cell disease.?DESIGN—Retrospective review of febrile episodes in a three year period (1 September 1993 to 31 August 1996).?SETTING—Sickle cell clinic, an outpatient clinic in Kingston run by the Medical Research Council Laboratories (Jamaica).?PATIENTS—Patients with homozygous sickle cell disease under 17 years of age presenting with an axillary temperature ? 39.0°C (102.4°F).?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Diagnosis, death.?RESULTS—There were 165 events in 144 patients (66 (45.8%) boys) with a median age of 6.1 years. Bacteraemia was found in 10 (6.1%) events (three Streptococcus pneumoniae, two Haemophilus influenzae type b, two Salmonella sp, one Escherichia coli, one Enterobacter sp, and one Acinetobacter sp), and urinary tract infections in four (2.4%). All cultures of cerebrospinal fluid were sterile. Acute chest syndrome occurred in 36 (21.8%) events. A painful crisis was associated with 45 (27.3%) events and was the only pathology identified in 20 events (12.1%). Hospital admission was necessary in 66 cases including all those with bacteraemia and 31 with acute chest syndrome. There were two deaths: a 5 year old boy with septic shock associated with H influenzae septicaemia, and a 3 year old boy with the acute chest syndrome.?CONCLUSIONS—Painful crisis and acute chest syndrome were the most common complications associated with high fever, but other important associated features included bacteraemia and urinary tract infection. Enteric Gram negative organisms accounted for 50% of positive blood cultures.?? PMID:11159294

  4. A Study of Factors Affecting the Adoption of E-Learning Systems Enabled with Cultural Contextual Features by Instructions in Jamaican Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoden, Niccardo S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors affecting the acceptance of E-Learning Systems Enabled with Cultural Contextual Features by lnstructors in Jamaican Tertiary Institutions is an important topic that's relevant to not only educational institutions, but developers of software for on line learning. The use of the unified theory of acceptance and use of…

  5. Quantitative comparison of tree roosts used by red bats ( Lasiurus borealis ) and Seminole bats ( L. seminolus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Menzel; Timothy C. Carter; Brian R. Chapman; Joshua Laerm

    1998-01-01

    We radio-tracked 11 red bats and 5 Seminole bats (L. seminolus) to 64 and 34 day roosts, 'd ! respectively. Individuals of both species were found roosting within the canopy of the roost trees, clinging to leaf petioles or the tips of small branches (~4 cm in diameter). Red bats roosted primarily in hardwoods (970\\/o), whereas the roosts of Seminole

  6. Identification of a novel bat papillomavirus by metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Tse, Herman; Tsang, Alan K L; Tsoi, Hoi-Wah; Leung, Andy S P; Ho, Chi-Chun; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of novel viruses in animals expands our knowledge of viral diversity and potentially emerging zoonoses. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology gives millions or even billions of sequence reads per run, allowing a comprehensive survey of the genetic content within a sample without prior nucleic acid amplification. In this study, we screened 156 rectal swab samples from apparently healthy bats (n = 96), pigs (n = 9), cattles (n = 9), stray dogs (n = 11), stray cats (n = 11) and monkeys (n = 20) using a HTS metagenomics approach. The complete genome of a novel papillomavirus (PV), Miniopterus schreibersii papillomavirus type 1 (MscPV1), with L1 of 60% nucleotide identity to Canine papillomavirus (CPV6), was identified in a specimen from a Common Bent-wing Bat (M. schreibersii). It is about 7.5kb in length, with a G+C content of 45.8% and a genomic organization similar to that of other PVs. Despite the higher nucleotide identity between the genomes of MscPV1 and CPV6, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the L1 gene sequence showed that MscPV1 and Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus (EdPV1) are most closely related. Estimated divergence time of MscPV1 from the EdPV1/MscPV1 common ancestor was approximately 60.2-91.9 millions of years ago, inferred under strict clocks using the L1 and E1 genes. The estimates were limited by the lack of reliable calibration points from co-divergence because of possible host shifts. As the nucleotide sequence of this virus only showed limited similarity with that of related animal PVs, the conventional approach of PCR using consensus primers would be unlikely to have detected the novel virus in the sample. Unlike the first bat papillomavirus RaPV1, MscPV1 was found in an asymptomatic bat with no apparent mucosal or skin lesions whereas RaPV1 was detected in the basosquamous carcinoma of a fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus. We propose MscPV1 as the first member of the novel Dyolambda-papillomavirus genus. PMID:22937142

  7. Identification of a Novel Bat Papillomavirus by Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Andy S. P.; Ho, Chi-Chun; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of novel viruses in animals expands our knowledge of viral diversity and potentially emerging zoonoses. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology gives millions or even billions of sequence reads per run, allowing a comprehensive survey of the genetic content within a sample without prior nucleic acid amplification. In this study, we screened 156 rectal swab samples from apparently healthy bats (n?=?96), pigs (n?=?9), cattles (n?=?9), stray dogs (n?=?11), stray cats (n?=?11) and monkeys (n?=?20) using a HTS metagenomics approach. The complete genome of a novel papillomavirus (PV), Miniopterus schreibersii papillomavirus type 1 (MscPV1), with L1 of 60% nucleotide identity to Canine papillomavirus (CPV6), was identified in a specimen from a Common Bent-wing Bat (M. schreibersii). It is about 7.5kb in length, with a G+C content of 45.8% and a genomic organization similar to that of other PVs. Despite the higher nucleotide identity between the genomes of MscPV1 and CPV6, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the L1 gene sequence showed that MscPV1 and Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus (EdPV1) are most closely related. Estimated divergence time of MscPV1 from the EdPV1/MscPV1 common ancestor was approximately 60.2–91.9 millions of years ago, inferred under strict clocks using the L1 and E1 genes. The estimates were limited by the lack of reliable calibration points from co-divergence because of possible host shifts. As the nucleotide sequence of this virus only showed limited similarity with that of related animal PVs, the conventional approach of PCR using consensus primers would be unlikely to have detected the novel virus in the sample. Unlike the first bat papillomavirus RaPV1, MscPV1 was found in an asymptomatic bat with no apparent mucosal or skin lesions whereas RaPV1 was detected in the basosquamous carcinoma of a fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus. We propose MscPV1 as the first member of the novel Dyolambda-papillomavirus genus. PMID:22937142

  8. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hine, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T.S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin W.; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  9. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Paul. M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T. S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines. PMID:25267628

  10. Echolocation by free-tailed bats ( Tadarida )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Simmons; W. A. Lavender; B. A. Lavender; J. E. Childs; K. Hulebak; M. R. Rigden; J. Sherman; B. Woolman; Michael J. O'Farrell

    1978-01-01

    The echolocation of bats in the genusTadarida is highly adaptive to different acoustic conditions. These bats use different types of sonar signals with a diversity usually observed in comparisons across families of bats.Tadarida brasiliensis andT. macrotis search for airborne prey in open, uncluttered spaces using narrow-band, short CF signals with no FM components. They add broadband FM components while dropping

  11. Behavior of bats at wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C

    2014-10-21

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines. PMID:25267628

  12. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. PMID:25740899

  13. Economic importance of bats in agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

  14. Science Explorations: Soar with Bats

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Explorations are a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. The Soar with Bats: Night Fliers of the Sky exploration includes a documentary-style introduction, two Level 1 online activities for students in grades 3-6, two Level 2 online activities for students in grades 6-10, and links to additional articles and activities.

  15. Pome fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the beneficial influences of controlled atmosphere (CA) and modified atmosphere (MA) on the major quality deterioration, physiological disorders and diseases of pome fruits, and the problems resulting from improper atmosphere conditions. It discusses the interactions between ...

  16. How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2011-07-15

    The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (?15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms. PMID:21697434

  17. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

  18. Community Ecology of Bats in Southern Lower Michigan, with Emphasis on Roost Selection by Myotis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Winhold

    2007-01-01

    I studied the roosting niche of three sympatric species of Myotis (little brown bat, M. lucifugus; northern bat, M. septentrionalis; and Indiana bat, M. sodalis) and examined changes in composition of the entire bat community in southern Lower Michigan over long periods. Little brown bats roosted in buildings, whereas northern and Indiana bats used trees. Northern and Indiana bats differed

  19. Understanding human – bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand these human – bat interactions in order to identify additional risk communication messages that could lower the risk of potential ABLV exposure. All people aged 18 years or over whom received PET for non-occupation related potential ABLV exposure in the Hunter New England Local Health District of Australia between July 2011 and July 2013 were considered eligible for the study. Eligible participants were invited to a telephone interview to explore the circumstances of their bat contact. Interviews were then transcribed and thematically analysed by two independent investigators. Results Of 21 eligible participants that were able to be contacted, 16 consented and participated in a telephone interview. Participants reported bats as being widespread in their environment but reported a general lack of awareness about ABLV, particularly the risk of disease from bat scratches. Participants who attempted to ‘rescue’ bats did so because of a deep concern for the bat’s welfare. Participants reported a change in risk perception after the exposure event and provided suggestions for public health messages that could be used to raise awareness about ABLV. Conclusions Reframing the current risk messages to account for the genuine concern of people for bat welfare may enhance the communication. The potential risk to the person and possible harm to the bat from an attempted ‘rescue’ should be promoted, along with contact details for animal rescue groups. The potential risk of ABLV from bat scratches merits greater emphasis. PMID:24984790

  20. Vampire bat rabies: ecology, epidemiology and control.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

    2014-05-01

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

  1. Peregrine Falcon feeding on bats in Suriname

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Erik Pierson; Paul Donahue

    source in the New World, especially m the Neotropics (Morris, 1965 andpers. obs ), and a number of raptors have been reported to feed on them. Published re- ports on bat predation in the Neotropics include Aplomado Falcon, Falcofemor- ahs (fiYench, 1967), Bat Falcon, F. ruff- gularis (Brown & Amadon, 1968, Cade, 1982), Orange-breasted Falcon, F. deiro- leucus (Cade, 1982),

  2. USGS and Partners Win Bat Conservation Award

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) working group was hosted by the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis in Knoxville, Tenn., to design a program for coordinated bat monitoring across North America. Front row: (L to R) Tushar Kansal, Laura El...

  3. THE BATS OF THE OUACHITA MOUNTAINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GARY A. HEIDT

    A survey was conducted from June, 1982 through January, 1989 to determine the occurrence of bat species in the Ouachita Mountain region of west-central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma, with emphasis on censusing lands managed by the USDA Forest Service, Ouachita National Forest. Seven genera and 13 species of bats in the families Vespertilionidae and Molossidae were captured. Species represented included:

  4. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  5. Halloween Treat: Bat Facts and Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Thomas H.

    1984-01-01

    Information on bats is provided, focusing on their diversity and distribution, characteristics, food habits, activities, roosting and social habits, reproduction, number of young and size at birth, hibernation, mortality and longevity, and movements and navigation. Additional information related to public health/disease concerns and bat management…

  6. Are torpid bats immune to anthropogenic noise?

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinhong; Clarin, B-Markus; Borissov, Ivailo M; Siemers, Björn M

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic noise has a negative impact on a variety of animals. However, many bat species roost in places with high levels of anthropogenic noise. Here, we tested the hypothesis that torpid bats are insensitive to anthropogenic noise. In a laboratory experiment, we recorded skin temperature (Tsk) of bats roosting individually that were subjected to playbacks of different types of noise. We found that torpid bats with Tsk ~10°C lower than their active Tsk responded to all types of noise by elevating Tsk. Bats responded most strongly to colony and vegetation noise, and most weakly to traffic noise. The time of day when torpid bats were exposed to noise had a pronounced effect on responses. Torpid bats showed increasing responses from morning towards evening, i.e. towards the onset of the active phase. Skin temperature at the onset of noise exposure (Tsk,start, 17-29°C) was not related to the response. Moreover, we found evidence that torpid bats rapidly habituated to repeated and prolonged noise exposure. PMID:24311817

  7. Bat rabies in Illinois: 1965 to 1986.

    PubMed

    Burnett, C D

    1989-01-01

    From 1968 to 1986, Illinois (USA) citizens and agencies submitted 4,272 bats to the Illinois Department of Public Health for rabies testing. Of this number, 6% tested positive, a rate comparable to similar studies from other parts of North America. Due to sampling biases, the true infection rate among bats in Illinois is probably lower than 6%. Additional analysis relied on a subsample (n = 2,433) of the specimens collected from 1965 to 1986. Prevalences were significantly different among years, but no linear trends were found over the study period. Evidence for a local outbreak of bat rabies was found. Prevalences for the species with sample sizes adequate for statistical analysis were, from high to low: hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), 11%; red bat (L. borealis), 5%; silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), 4%; little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), 4%; big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), 3%; Keen's bat (Myotis keenii), 2%; and evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), 2%. The higher prevalences found among the non-colonial species (hoary, red and silver-haired bats) were consistent with similar studies. Considerable annual variation in prevalences was found within species, and the prevalence rankings of the species varied over the study period. Prevalences were significantly higher in females (6%) than in males (4%) when species were pooled, but no significant differences between sexes were found within species. In contrast to the other species analyzed, all of which had sex ratios favoring females, the big brown bat sample had a large majority of males. Prevalences were significantly higher in adults (6%) than in juveniles (3%) when species were pooled. Within individual species, significant differences between age groups were found only for hoary and red bats; in two species, juveniles had higher prevalences. Above average prevalences were observed in May and August to November. Southern Illinois had the highest prevalences; prevalences were intermediate in the north and lowest in the central region. Overall, the patterns of rabies prevalence among bats submitted by the public in Illinois from 1965 to 1986 were similar to those reported from other parts of North America. PMID:2915390

  8. Asthma and allergies in Jamaican children aged 2–17?years: a cross-sectional prevalence survey

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Norman K; Younger, Novie O; Edwards, Nancy C; Knight-Madden, Jennifer M; Bailey, Kay A; Wint, Yvonne B; Lewis-Bell, Karen N

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and severity of asthma and allergies as well as risk factors for asthma among Jamaican children aged 2–17?years. Design A cross-sectional, community-based prevalence survey using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. The authors selected a representative sample of 2017 children using stratified, multistage cluster sampling design using enumeration districts as primary sampling units. Setting Jamaica, a Caribbean island with a total population of approximately 2.6 million, geographically divided into 14 parishes. Participants Children aged 2–17?years, who were resident in private households. Institutionalised children such as those in boarding schools and hospitals were excluded from the survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures The prevalence and severity of asthma and allergy symptoms, doctor-diagnosed asthma and risk factors for asthma. Results Almost a fifth (19.6%) of Jamaican children aged 2–17?years had current wheeze, while 16.7% had self-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma. Both were more common among males than among females. The prevalence of rhinitis, hay fever and eczema among children was 24.5%, 25% and 17.3%, respectively. Current wheeze was more common among children with rhinitis in the last 12?months (44.3% vs 12.6%, p<0.001), hay fever (36.8% vs 13.8%, p<0.001) and eczema (34.1% vs 16.4%, p<0.001). Independent risk factors for current wheeze (ORs, 95% CI) were chest infections in the first year of life 4.83 (3.00 to 7.77), parental asthma 4.19 (2.8 to 6.08), rhinitis in the last 12?months 6.92 (5.16 to 9.29), hay fever 4.82 (3.62 to 6.41), moulds in the home 2.25 (1.16 to 4.45), cat in the home 2.44 (1.66 to 3.58) and dog in the home 1.81 (1.18 to 2.78). Conclusions The prevalence of asthma and allergies in Jamaican children is high. Significant risk factors for asthma include chest infections in the first year of life, a history of asthma in the family, allergies, moulds and pets in the home. PMID:22798254

  9. Causes and Consequences of Sociality in Bats

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gerald Kerth (University of Lausanne - Switzerland; )

    2008-09-01

    Bats are among the most diverse and most gregarious of all mammals. This makes them highly interesting for research on the causes and consequences of sociality in animals. Detailed studies on bat sociality are rare, however, when compared with the information available for other social mammals, such as primates, carnivores, ungulates, and rodents. Modern field technologies and new molecular methods are now providing opportunities to study aspects of bat biology that were previously inaccessible. Consequently, bat social systems are emerging as far more complex than had been imagined. Variable dispersal patterns, complex olfactory and acoustic communication, flexible context-related interactions, striking cooperative behaviors, and cryptic colony structures in the form of fission-fusion systems have been documented. Bat research can contribute to the understanding of animal sociality, and specifically to important topics in behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology, such as dispersal, fission-fusion behavior, group decisionmaking, and cooperation.

  10. BAT RABIES IN SOUTH CAROLINA, 1970-90

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth K. Parker; Harold Dowda; Sarah E. Redden; Marsha W. Tolson; Nena Turner; William Kemick

    This retrospective study examines the geographic and temporal distribution of bat species submitted for rabies testing in South Carolina (USA) from 1970 to 1990. Histories of human or animal exposures to rabid and nonrabid bats submitted during this time period were compared. Two hundred and thirty-one bats were found to be rabid from the 2,657 bats submitted over this 20

  11. Interspecific aggression by a rabid eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis).

    PubMed

    Sasse, D Blake; Weinstein, Susan; Saugey, David A

    2014-07-01

    On 16 March 2012 a rabid eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) was found attached to an evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis) in Randolph County, Arkansas, USA. This appears to be the first confirmed case of a rabid bat attacking a bat of another species. PMID:24807361

  12. Genomic and genetic evidence for the loss of umami taste in bats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huabin; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2012-01-01

    Umami taste is responsible for sensing monosodium glutamate, nucleotide enhancers, and other amino acids that are appetitive to vertebrates and is one of the five basic tastes that also include sour, salty, sweet, and bitter. To study how ecological factors, especially diets, impact the evolution of the umami taste, we examined the umami taste receptor gene Tas1r1 in a phylogenetically diverse group of bats including fruit eaters, insect eaters, and blood feeders. We found that Tas1r1 is absent, unamplifiable, or pseudogenized in each of the 31 species examined, including the genome sequences of two species, suggesting the loss of the umami taste in most, if not all, bats regardless of their food preferences. Most strikingly, vampire bats have also lost the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 and the gene required for both umami and sweet tastes (Tas1r3), being the first known mammalian group to lack two of the five tastes. The puzzling absence of the umami taste in bats calls for a better understanding of the roles that this taste plays in the daily life of vertebrates. PMID:22117084

  13. Judy Loven, Animal Damage Managament Specialist Bats are among Indiana's most interesting and unique

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    occupiedbuildingsduringthewarm-weathermonths.The twospeciesmostfrequentlyencounteredbyhomeowners are the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) and the little brown myotis bat (Myotis spp.). The big brown bat is relatively large, measuring

  14. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-08-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  15. First record of bat-pollination in the species-rich genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Rodríguez, Pedro Adrián; MacSwiney G., M. Cristina; Krömer, Thorsten; García-Franco, José G.; Knauer, Anina; Kessler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Bromeliaceae is a species-rich neotropical plant family that uses a variety of pollinators, principally vertebrates. Tillandsia is the most diverse genus, and includes more than one-third of all bromeliad species. Within this genus, the majority of species rely on diurnal pollination by hummingbirds; however, the flowers of some Tillandsia species show some characteristics typical for pollination by nocturnal animals, particularly bats and moths. In this study an examination is made of the floral and reproductive biology of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia macropetala in a fragment of humid montane forest in central Veracruz, Mexico. Methods The reproductive system of the species, duration of anthesis, production of nectar and floral scent, as well as diurnal and nocturnal floral visitors and their effectiveness in pollination were determined. Key Results Tillandsia macropetala is a self-compatible species that achieves a higher fruit production through outcrossing. Nectar production is restricted to the night, and only nocturnal visits result in the development of fruits. The most frequent visitor (75 % of visits) and the only pollinator of this bromeliad (in 96 % of visits) was the nectarivorous bat Anoura geoffroyi (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae). Conclusions This is the first report of chiropterophily within the genus Tillandsia. The results on the pollination biology of this bromeliad suggest an ongoing evolutionary switch from pollination by birds or moths to bats. PMID:24651370

  16. Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats in Peru.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2012-09-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.-bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. PMID:22826480

  17. Structuring of Amazonian bat assemblages: the roles of flooding patterns and floodwater nutrient load.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maria João Ramos; Marques, João Tiago; Santana, Joana; Santos, Carlos David; Valsecchi, João; de Queiroz, Helder Lima; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M

    2009-11-01

    1. River system dynamics results in ecological heterogeneities that play a central role in maintaining biodiversity in riverine regions. In central Amazonia, large expanses of forest are seasonally flooded by nutrient-rich water (várzea forests) or by nutrient-poor water (igapó forests). Inundation patterns and the nutrient load of floodwaters are perhaps the most important abiotic factors determining spatial ecological variations in lowland Amazonia, and so they are expected to strongly influence the structuring of animal communities. 2. We examined how inundation patterns and water-nutrient load influence the structure of neotropical assemblages of bats, one of the most diverse vertebrate groups in tropical forests. Bat assemblages were sampled with mist nets in central Brazilian Amazonia, across a mosaic of várzea, igapó, and non-flooding nutrient-poor terra firme forests in the low- and high-water seasons. 3. An ordination analysis clearly separated the assemblages of the three forest types, demonstrating the structural relevance of both flooding and floodwater-nutrient load. Flooded forests had lower species richness because of the absence or rarity of species that make roosts out of leaves of understorey plants, and of those that feed on fruits of shrubs. Gleaning insectivores, also partly dependent on the understorey, were less abundant in flooded forests, but aerial insectivores more abundant, presumably because they benefited from a less cluttered foraging environment. These differences suggest that flooding affects bat assemblages mostly because it reduces the availability of niches associated with understorey vegetation, which tends to be sparser in flooded forests. 4. Nutrient-rich várzea forests had a bat biomass twice that of nutrient-poor igapó and unflooded forests. This difference was not only mostly due to a greater overall abundance of bats, but also attributable to a disproportionate higher abundance of large-bodied bat species. 5. We concluded that both flooding and floodwater-nutrient load are very important in the structuring of lowland Amazonian bat assemblages, with inundation mostly constraining the species composition of the assemblages, and water-nutrient load mostly influencing the abundance of species. The distinctiveness of bat assemblages associated with flooding emphasizes the need to preserve inundated forests, which are under particular pressure in Amazonia. PMID:19627393

  18. Genetic diversity of bat rabies viruses in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kobayashi; G. Sato; M. Kato; T. Itou; E. M. S. Cunha; M. V. Silva; C. S. Mota; F. H. Ito; T. Sakai

    2007-01-01

    Summary  Thirty-three Brazilian bat rabies viruses (RVs) were studied by sequence analysis and were compared against sequences of bat-related\\u000a RVs from other regions of the Americas. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that bat-related RVs formed several monophyletic lineages\\u000a and that these were associated with bat species. Brazilian bat RVs were found to include nine major lineages, one of which\\u000a grouped with RVs isolated

  19. Bats of the Savannah River Site and vicinity.

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Menzel; J.M. Menzel; J.C. Kilgo; W.M. Ford; T.C. Carter; J.W. Edwards

    2003-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), hoary bat (L. cinereus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). There are extralimital capture records for two additional species: little brown bat (M. lucifigus) and northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius). Acoustical sampling has documented the presence of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), but none has been captured. Among those species common to the Site, the southeastern myotis and Rafinesque's big-eared bat are listed in South Carolina as threatened and endangered, respectively. The presence of those two species, and a growing concern for the conservation of forest-dwelling bats, led to extensive and focused research on the Savannah River Site between 1996 and 2002. Summarizing this and other bat research, we provide species accounts that discuss morphology and distribution, roosting and foraging behaviors, home range characteristics, habitat relations, and reproductive biology. We also present information on conservation needs and rabies issues; and, finally, identification keys that may be useful wherever the bat species we describe are found.

  20. Convergent evolution of anti-bat sounds.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Hristov, Nickolay I

    2014-09-01

    Bats and their insect prey rely on acoustic sensing in predator prey encounters--echolocation in bats, tympanic hearing in moths. Some insects also emit sounds for bat defense. Here, we describe a previously unknown sound-producing organ in Geometrid moths--a prothoracic tymbal in the orange beggar moth (Eubaphe unicolor) that generates bursts of ultrasonic clicks in response to tactile stimulation and playback of a bat echolocation attack sequence. Using scanning electron microscopy and high-speed videography, we demonstrate that E. unicolor and phylogenetically distant tiger moths have evolved serially homologous thoracic tymbal organs with fundamentally similar functional morphology, a striking example of convergent evolution. We compared E. unicolor clicks to that of five sympatric tiger moths and found that 9 of 13 E. unicolor clicking parameters were within the range of sympatric tiger moths. Remaining differences may result from the small size of the E. unicolor tymbal. Four of the five sympatric clicking tiger moth species were unpalatable to bats (0-20% eaten), whereas E. unicolor was palatable to bats (86% eaten). Based on these results, we hypothesize that E. unicolor evolved tymbal organs that mimic the sounds produced by toxic tiger moths when attacked by echolocating bats. PMID:24980483

  1. Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. IV: the Common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

    2013-02-01

    We behaviorally determined the audiograms of three Common vampire bats (Phyllostomidae, Desmodus rotundus), a species specialized to exist exclusively on blood. The bats were trained to respond to pure tones in a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure for a blood reward and a mild punisher for failures to detect the tones. Common vampire bats have a hearing range from 716 Hz to 113 kHz at a level of 60 dB. Their best hearing is at 20 kHz where they are slightly more sensitive than other bats, and they have a second peak of good sensitivity at 71 kHz. They have unusually good sensitivity to low frequencies compared to other bats, but are less sensitive to low frequencies than most mammals. Selective pressures affecting high-frequency hearing in bats and mammals in general are discussed. PMID:23194991

  2. Unique characteristics of bat rabies viruses in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Davis, April D; Gordy, Paul A; Bowen, Richard A

    2013-04-01

    Rabies virus infection has been documented in several North American bat species, including Eptesicus fuscus. The virus-host relationship between bats and rabies virus (RV) is not well understood. The incidence of non-lethal RV exposure, based on the presence of viral neutralizing antibodies, demonstrates that exposure to RV does not always lead to clinical infection in bats. It is unknown how the route of exposure, rabies virus variant, or health of the bat affects the outcome following exposure. This paper describes the pathogenesis of two big brown bat RV variants in homologous host species. Our study demonstrates that RV variants obtained from the same species of bat from similar geographical areas may result in a diverse clinical progression of disease. PMID:23208279

  3. Bats and Gaps: The Role of Early Successional Patches in the Roosting and Foraging Ecology of Bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan C. Loeb; Joy M. O’Keefe

    \\u000a Early successional habitats are important foraging and commuting sites for the 14 species of bats that inhabit the Central\\u000a Hardwood Region, especially larger open-adapted species such as hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), red bats (L. borealis), silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans), and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Forest gaps, small openings, and the edges between early successional patches and mature forest are

  4. Rabies Virus Infection in Eptesicus fuscus Bats Born in Captivity (Naïve Bats)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, April D.; Jarvis, Jodie A.; Pouliott, Craig; Rudd, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV) studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA) may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats), naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1). Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2. PMID:23741396

  5. Rabies virus infection in Eptesicus fuscus bats born in captivity (naïve bats).

    PubMed

    Davis, April D; Jarvis, Jodie A; Pouliott, Craig; Rudd, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV) studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA) may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats), naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1). Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2. PMID:23741396

  6. Lyssaviruses and Bats: Emergence and Zoonotic Threat

    PubMed Central

    Banyard, Ashley C.; Evans, Jennifer S.; Luo, Ting Rong; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    The continued detection of zoonotic viral infections in bats has led to the microbial fauna of these mammals being studied at a greater level than ever before. Whilst numerous pathogens have been discovered in bat species, infection with lyssaviruses is of particular significance from a zoonotic perspective as, where human infection has been reported, it is invariably fatal. Here we review the detection of lyssaviruses within different bat species and overview what is understood regarding their maintenance and transmission following both experimental and natural infection. We discuss the relevance of these pathogens as zoonotic agents and the threat of newly discovered viruses to human populations. PMID:25093425

  7. A New Metaheuristic Bat-Inspired Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    Metaheuristic algorithms such as particle swarm optimization, firefly algorithm and harmony search are now becoming powerful methods for solving many tough optimization problems. In this paper, we propose a new metaheuristic method, the Bat Algorithm, based on the echolocation behaviour of bats. We also intend to combine the advantages of existing algorithms into the new bat algorithm. After a detailed formulation and explanation of its implementation, we will then compare the proposed algorithm with other existing algorithms, including genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm seems much superior to other algorithms, and further studies are also discussed.

  8. Molecular systematics of Vampyressine bats (Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) with comparison of direct and indirect surveys of mitochondrial DNA variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. Hoofer; Robert J. Baker

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 29 species in seven genera (Chiroderma, Mesophylla, Platyrrhinus, Uroderma, Vampyressa, Vampyriscus, and Vampyrodes) compose the Subtribe Vampyressina, a group of New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) specialized in fruit-eating. A recent study of restriction-site variability within the mitochondrial ND3–ND4 gene region contrasts with other molecular data, including sequence data from other mitochondrial genes, by suggesting that the monotypic genus Ectophylla

  9. Population size and contaminant exposure of bats using caves on Fort Hood Military Base

    E-print Network

    Land, Tarisha Ann

    2001-01-01

    the style and format of the Journal of Mammalogy. bat (J. asiurus borealis), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), and Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasi1iensis) (Schmidly, 1991). Of these 7 species, the cave myotis...

  10. Serological Evidence of Influenza A Viruses in Frugivorous Bats from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Marcel Alexander; de Bruin, Erwin; van Beek, Janko; Corman, Victor Max; Rasche, Andrea; Drexler, Jan Felix; Sylverken, Augustina; Oppong, Samuel K.; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Tschapka, Marco; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Drosten, Christian; Koopmans, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Bats are likely natural hosts for a range of zoonotic viruses such as Marburg, Ebola, Rabies, as well as for various Corona- and Paramyxoviruses. In 2009/10, researchers discovered RNA of two novel influenza virus subtypes – H17N10 and H18N11 – in Central and South American fruit bats. The identification of bats as possible additional reservoir for influenza A viruses raises questions about the role of this mammalian taxon in influenza A virus ecology and possible public health relevance. As molecular testing can be limited by a short time window in which the virus is present, serological testing provides information about past infections and virus spread in populations after the virus has been cleared. This study aimed at screening available sera from 100 free-ranging, frugivorous bats (Eidolon helvum) sampled in 2009/10 in Ghana, for the presence of antibodies against the complete panel of influenza A haemagglutinin (HA) types ranging from H1 to H18 by means of a protein microarray platform. This technique enables simultaneous serological testing against multiple recombinant HA-types in 5?l of serum. Preliminary results indicate serological evidence against avian influenza subtype H9 in about 30% of the animals screened, with low-level cross-reactivity to phylogenetically closely related subtypes H8 and H12. To our knowledge, this is the first report of serological evidence of influenza A viruses other than H17 and H18 in bats. As avian influenza subtype H9 is associated with human infections, the implications of our findings from a public health context remain to be investigated. PMID:25965069

  11. Migration and evolution of lesser long-nosed bats Leptonycteris curasoae, inferred from mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, G S; Fleming, T H

    1996-06-01

    We used sequence variation within 297 bp of control region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) amplified from 53 lesser long-nosed bats, Leptonycteris curasoae (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) captured at 13 locations in south-western United States and Mexico and one site in Venezuela to infer population structure and possible migration routes of this endangered nectar- and fruit-eating species. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony and UPGMA confirmed species and subspecies distinctions within Leptonycteris and revealed two clades exhibiting 3% sequence divergence within the Mexican subspecies, L. c. yerbabuenae. Even though many roots contained L. c. yerbabuenae from both clades, weak population structure was detected both by a correlation between genetic differentiation, F(st), and geographical distance and by a cladistic estimate of the number of migration events required to align bat sequences with geographical location on maximum parsimony, as compared to random, trees. Three results suggest that L. c. yerbabuenae are more likely to migrate between sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico or along the foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental than between these regions. (1) Seventeen of 20 bats which shared an identical sequence were captured up to 1800 km apart but within the same putative migration corridor. (2) Residuals from a regression of F(st) on distance were greater between than within these regions. (3) Fewer migration events were required to align bats with these two groups than expected from random assignment. We recommend analysing independent genetic data and monitoring bat visitation to roost sites during migration to confirm these postulated movements. PMID:8688955

  12. Evaluating baseball bat performance L. V. Smith

    E-print Network

    Smith, Lloyd V.

    was observed to be an unreliable indicator of its sweet spot (i.e. impact location providing the maximum hit conditions; (2) the ball should impact the bat at its experimentally determined sweet spot; and (3

  13. Take Caution When Bats Are Near

    MedlinePLUS

    ... occupied spaces. Consider " bat-proofing " your living space. Screens or mosquito netting can provide a useful barrier ... a half-inch should be caulked. Use window screens, chimney caps, and draft-guards beneath doors to ...

  14. Investigating White-Nose Syndrome in Bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

  15. INTRODUCTION Microchiropteran bats are altricial in

    E-print Network

    Auckland, University of

    of young bats exist for several fam- ilies, including Vespertilionidae (e.g., Epte- sicus fuscus and Myotis lucifugus -- Gould, 1971; Antrozous pallidus -- Brown et al., 1978; Pipistrellus pipistrellus -- Jones et al

  16. Temperature regulation in subtropical tree bats.

    PubMed

    Genoud, M

    1993-02-01

    1. Rate of metabolism and temperature regulation were studied in five species of subtropical tree bats (Lasiurus seminolus, L. borealis, L. intermedius, L. cinereus and Nycticeius humeralis). 2. All species showed two states while resting below thermal neutrality: normothermia and torpor. Below 0-5 degrees C, bats in torpor maintained an intermediate body temperature. 3. Basal rate of metabolism was lower than expected on the basis of body mass (44-78%) and average body temperature in the normothermic state ranged between 32.5 and 35.7 degrees C. 4. Lasiurines have a high thermogenic capacity. 5. The metabolic and thermoregulatory traits studied in tree bats are generally similar to those of non-tropical bats roosting in caves and buildings. PMID:8095883

  17. White-nose Syndrome Threatens Bats

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeffrey P. Cohn (freelance science writer; )

    2008-12-01

    Scientists from federal and state wildlife agencies, universities, and conservation groups have launched a major research effort to understand, identify, and counter a mysterious ailment that has killed perhaps a half-million insect-eating bats in the northeastern United States during the last two winters. So far, little is known about white-nose syndrome, named for the white fungus that grows on affected bats' muzzles, wing membranes, or other exposed skin. A number of theories seek to explain the how and why of white-nose syndrome. The one most researchers favor says the fungus causes an irritation that induces hibernating bats to rouse and groom themselves. That causes them to burn more fat to keep warm in the cold, damp caves and mines where they hibernate. Hungry, the bats leave their hibernation quarters in search of food but die when they cannot find any.

  18. Somatosensory substrates of flight control in bats.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kara L; Chadha, Mohit; deSouza, Laura A; Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne J; Moss, Cynthia F; Lumpkin, Ellen A

    2015-05-12

    Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections. PMID:25937277

  19. Bat distribution size or shape as determinant of viral richness in african bats.

    PubMed

    Maganga, Gaël D; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Vallo, Peter; Dallo, Thierno D; Ngoagouni, Carine; Drexler, Jan Felix; Drosten, Christian; Nakouné, Emmanuel R; Leroy, Eric M; Morand, Serge

    2014-01-01

    The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID) is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera) in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio) with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa. PMID:24959855

  20. Hibernation by tree-roosting bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Turbill; Fritz Geiser

    2008-01-01

    In summer, long-eared bats (Nyctophilus spp.) roost under bark and in tree cavities, where they appear to benefit from diurnal heating of roosts. In contrast, hibernation\\u000a is thought to require a cool stable temperature, suggesting they should prefer thermally insulated tree cavities during winter.\\u000a To test this prediction, we quantified the winter thermoregulatory physiology and ecology of hibernating tree-roosting bats,

  1. Morphology-Induced Information Transfer in Bat Sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijniers, Jonas; Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert

    2010-10-01

    It has been argued that an important part of understanding bat echolocation comes down to understanding the morphology of the bat sound processing apparatus. In this Letter we present a method based on information theory that allows us to assess target localization performance of bat sonar, without a priori knowledge on the position, size, or shape of the reflecting target. We demonstrate this method using simulated directivity patterns of the frequency-modulated bat Micronycteris microtis. The results of this analysis indicate that the morphology of this bat’s sound processing apparatus has evolved to be a compromise between sensitivity and accuracy with the pinnae and the noseleaf playing different roles.

  2. Adaptive Vocal Behavior Drives Perception by Echolocation in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Cynthia F.; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat’s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat’s active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene. PMID:21705213

  3. Ectoparasite associations of bats from central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Dick, Carl W; Gannon, Michael R; Little, Wendy E; Patrick, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Between April and October 1997, 689 bats representing seven species were captured at Pennsylvania's Canoe Creek State Park. Each bat was sampled for ectoparasitic arthropods, and four species were collected from 13.2% of the host individuals. Ectoparasites include the bat flea Myodopsylla insignis (Rothschild), the wing mite Spinturnix americanus (Banks), the bed bug Cimex adjunctus Barber, and the soft tick Ornithodoros kelleyi Cooley & Kohls. Prevalence, relative density, and mean intensity were calculated for ectoparasites of Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte), which harbored all four ectoparasite species and was the most commonly captured host. Patterns of ectoparasite associations were examined with respect to host sex and habitat (roost characteristics). Female M. lucifugus hosted higher densities of ectoparasites than did males. Moreover, relative densities of ectoparasites from M. lucifugus were dependent on the proximate roost; hosts captured near Bat Church were more heavily parasitized than those captured near Hartman Mine. Two other bat species were infested with at least one ectoparasite, but sample sizes were too small to analyze statistically. These bat species included Myotis septentrionalis (Trouessart), harboring M. insignis, S. americanus, and O. kelleyi, and Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois), which harbored M. insignis and O. kelleyi. PMID:14765658

  4. How the bat got its buzz

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, John M.; Elemans, Coen P. H.; Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of echolocation in bats, the final phase of an attack on a flying insect, the ‘terminal buzz’, has proved enigmatic. During the buzz, bats increase information update rates by producing vocalizations up to 220 times s?1. The buzz's ubiquity in hawking and trawling bats implies its importance for hunting success. Superfast muscles, previously unknown in mammals, are responsible for the extreme vocalization rate. Some bats produce a second phase—buzz II—defined by a large drop in the fundamental frequency (F0) of their calls. By doing so, bats broaden their acoustic field of view and should thereby reduce the likelihood of insect escape. We make the case that the buzz was a critical adaptation for capturing night-flying insects, and suggest that the drop in F0 during buzz II requires novel, unidentified laryngeal mechanisms in order to counteract increasing muscle tension. Furthermore, we propose that buzz II represents a countermeasure against the evasive flight of eared prey in the evolutionary arms-race that saw the independent evolution of bat-detecting ears in various groups of night-flying insects. PMID:23302868

  5. Hawkmoths produce anti-bat ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jesse R.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2013-01-01

    Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences. PMID:23825084

  6. Bat rabies in urban centers in Chile.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, C A; Favi, M; Yung, V; Pavletic, C; de Mattos, C C

    2000-04-01

    One hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectivorous bats in Chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. These isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the Americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in Chile. The phylogenetic analyses showed that none of the Chilean isolates segregated with viruses from the terrestrial reservoirs. No non-rabies lyssaviruses were found in this study. The Chilean samples were not related to viruses of the sylvatic cycle maintained by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in Latin America. Five genetic variants were identified from insectivorous bats in Chile. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) was identified as the reservoir for the rabies genetic variant most frequently isolated in the country between 1977 and 1998. The close association of a group of viruses obtained from a domestic dog (Canis familiaris), Brazilian free-tailed bats, and a red bat (Lasiurus borealis) with viruses maintained by Lasiurus spp. in North America implicated species of this genus as the possible reservoirs of this particular genetic variant in Chile. Reservoirs for the other three variants remain unknown. PMID:10813604

  7. How the bat got its buzz.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, John M; Elemans, Coen P H; Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-04-23

    Since the discovery of echolocation in bats, the final phase of an attack on a flying insect, the 'terminal buzz', has proved enigmatic. During the buzz, bats increase information update rates by producing vocalizations up to 220 times s(-1). The buzz's ubiquity in hawking and trawling bats implies its importance for hunting success. Superfast muscles, previously unknown in mammals, are responsible for the extreme vocalization rate. Some bats produce a second phase-buzz II-defined by a large drop in the fundamental frequency (F(0)) of their calls. By doing so, bats broaden their acoustic field of view and should thereby reduce the likelihood of insect escape. We make the case that the buzz was a critical adaptation for capturing night-flying insects, and suggest that the drop in F(0) during buzz II requires novel, unidentified laryngeal mechanisms in order to counteract increasing muscle tension. Furthermore, we propose that buzz II represents a countermeasure against the evasive flight of eared prey in the evolutionary arms-race that saw the independent evolution of bat-detecting ears in various groups of night-flying insects. PMID:23302868

  8. Scrotal melanins in bats (Chiroptera): description, distribution, and function

    E-print Network

    Kermott, L. Henry; Timm, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Several species of bats contain pigment granules within the scrotal skin, tunica vaginalis or tunica albuginea surrounding the testis and/or epididymis. Seventy-two species of bats, representing 49 genera were examined ...

  9. Choke up on that bat! Questions Section 4.2

    E-print Network

    ? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Choke up on that bat! Questions · Section 4.2 STOPfor science Science Topic Outreach pChoke up on that bat! Questions · Section 4.2 Choke up on that bat! Questions · Section 4.2 STOPfor science Science Topic Outreach posters STOPfor science Science Topic Outreach posters Name Grade

  10. From spatial orientation to food acquisition in echolocating bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler; Cynthia F. Moss; Annette Denzinger

    2003-01-01

    Field research on echolocation behavior in bats has emphasized studies of food acquisition, and the adaptive value of sonar signal design as been considered largely in the context of foraging. However, echolocation tasks related to spatial orientation also differ among bats and are relevant to understanding signal structure. Here, we argue that the evolution of echolocation in bats is characterized

  11. Bat White-Nose Syndrome: An Emerging Fungal Pathogen?

    E-print Network

    Wilmers, Chris

    Bat White-Nose Syndrome: An Emerging Fungal Pathogen? David S. Blehert,1 * Alan C. Hicks,2 Melissa T he first evidence of bat white-nose syn- drome (WNS) was documented in a photo- graph taken at Howes characterized as a condition of hibernating bats and was named for the visually striking white fungal growth

  12. Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David S.; Maluping, Ramón P.; Green, David E.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Langenberg, Julia

    2014-01-01

    We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem.

  13. Late Quaternary Bats From Cebada Cave, Chiquibul Cave System, Belize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NICOLAS J. CZAPLEWSKI; J EAN KREJCA; THOMAS E. MILLER

    The second occurrence of fossil bats for Central America is reported from Belize. A cranium and articulated atlas of the extinct vampire bat Desmodus draculae (Phyllostomidae) were recovered from a corridor of Cebada Cave, a segment of the Chiquibul Cave System. Unlike other bat skeletons found in the cave, the vampire specimen was covered with a thin layer of calcite

  14. Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species

    PubMed Central

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

  15. INCORPORATING BATS IN AGROECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT AND CROP PROTECTION DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    By characterizing the diet of bats in agroecosystems, this research likely will document that bats are important consumers of pest species. Additionally, this investigation will document which pest species are consumed and the relative contribution of these species to bat d...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS FAVORING BAT INFECTION WITH HISTOPLASMA CAPSULATUMIN MEXICAN SHELTERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. TAYLOR; C. B. CHAVEZ-TAPIA; R. VARGAS-YANEZ; G. RODRIGUEZ-ARELLANES; G. R. PENA-SANDOVAL; C. TORIELLO; A. PEREZ; M. R. REYES-MONTES

    1999-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum was isolated from gut, lung, liver, and spleen of 17 of 208 captured bats belonging to 6 different genera and species. Three of the 17 infected bats were from the State of Guerrero and 14 were from the State of Morelos. All were adult bats: 6 males (1 Pteronotus parnellii, 2 Natalus stramineus,2 Artibeus hirsutus, and 1 Leptonycteris

  17. Auditory scene analysis by echolocation in bats Cynthia F. Mossa)

    E-print Network

    Moss, Cynthia

    in bats. In the perceptual experiments, FM bats Eptesicus fuscus learned to discriminate between of flying E. fuscus taking tethered insects in a large room. In each trial, the bats consistently produced of sonar vocalizations was also observed in the field recordings from E. fuscus, thus suggesting

  18. Distinct Lineage of Vesiculovirus from Big Brown Bats, United States

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Cindy; Carlos, Maria Paz; Prioleau, Algernon; Schmieder, Robert; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Wong, Jakk; Cha, Yunhee; Head, Steven; Breitbart, Mya; Delwart, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We identified a novel rhabdovirus, American bat vesiculovirus, from postmortem tissue samples from 120 rabies-negative big brown bats with a history of human contact. Five percent of the tested bats were infected with this virus. The extent of zoonotic exposure and possible health effects in humans from this virus are unknown. PMID:24274823

  19. Experimental rabies virus infection of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Jackson, Felix R; Turmelle, Amy S; Farino, David M; Franka, Richard; McCracken, Gary F; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2008-07-01

    A captive colony of adult Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus) was experimentally infected with a rabies virus (RABV) variant isolated from the salivary glands of a naturally infected Big Brown Bat and passaged once through murine neuroblastoma cell culture. Bats were divided into 11 groups, which were composed of one to three noninfected and one to three infected individuals each. Twenty of 38 animals were infected intramuscularly into both left and right masseter muscles; they received a total of 10(3.2) median mouse intracerebral lethal dose (MICLD50) of Big Brown Bat RABV variant. Experimental outcome after viral exposure was followed in the bats for 140 days postinoculation (PI). Of 20 infected bats, 16 developed clinical rabies, and the mean incubation period was 24 days (range: 13-52 days). Three infected bats never seroconverted and succumbed early to infection (13 days). Four infected bats that survived until the end of the experiment without any signs of disease maintained detectable antibody titers until the third month PI, peaking between days 13 and 43, and consequent drop-off below the threshold for detection occurred by day 140. Limited excretion of virus in saliva of infected bats during the clinical course of disease was observed in two individuals on days 13 and 15 PI (<24 hr prior to onset of clinical illness). No bat-to-bat transmission of RABV to noninfected bats was detected. PMID:18689646

  20. Distinct lineage of vesiculovirus from big brown bats, United States.

    PubMed

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Driscoll, Cindy; Carlos, Maria Paz; Prioleau, Algernon; Schmieder, Robert; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Wong, Jakk; Cha, Yunhee; Head, Steven; Breitbart, Mya; Delwart, Eric

    2013-12-01

    We identified a novel rhabdovirus, American bat vesiculovirus, from postmortem tissue samples from 120 rabies-negative big brown bats with a history of human contact. Five percent of the tested bats were infected with this virus. The extent of zoonotic exposure and possible health effects in humans from this virus are unknown. PMID:24274823

  1. Versatility of biosonar in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Simmons; Kyler M. Eastman; Seth S. Horowitz; Michael J. O’Farrell; David N. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Infrared cameras and ultrasonic microphones were used to record big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) flying in natural conditions at night while they hunted for insects. As expected, bats avoided obstacles while flying through vegetation and intercepted flying prey in the open. But bats also appeared to capture insects near and possibly on the ground and near or in vegetation, flew

  2. Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Blehert, David S; Maluping, Ramón P; Green, D Earl; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M; Ballmann, Anne E; Langenberg, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem. PMID:24171580

  3. Food resource partitioning inb syntopic nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    We analyzed stable isotopes (d13C, d15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...

  4. Sexually Selected Infanticide in a Polygynous Bat

    PubMed Central

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Ueberschaer, Katja; Helbig, Maria; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adult individuals of many species kill unrelated conspecific infants for several adaptive reasons ranging from predation or resource competition to the prevention of misdirected parental care. Moreover, infanticide can increase the reproductive success of the aggressor by killing the offspring of competitors and thereafter mating with the victimized females. This sexually selected infanticide predominantly occurs in polygynous species, with convincing evidence for primates, carnivores, equids, and rodents. Evidence for bats was predicted but lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the first case, to our knowledge, of sexually selected infanticide in a bat, the polygynous white-throated round-eared bat, Lophostoma silvicolum. Behavioral studies in a free-living population revealed that an adult male repeatedly attacked and injured the pups of two females belonging to his harem, ultimately causing the death of one pup. The infanticidal male subsequently mated with the mother of the victimized pup and this copulation occurred earlier than any other in his harem. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that sexually selected infanticide is more widespread than previously thought, adding bats as a new taxon performing this strategy. Future work on other bats, especially polygynous species in the tropics, has great potential to investigate the selective pressures influencing the evolution of sexually selected infanticide and to study how infanticide impacts reproductive strategies and social structures of different species. PMID:21949829

  5. [Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus. PMID:25123871

  6. Role of Metabolic Genes in Blood Arsenic Concentrations of Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Ma, Jianzhong; Bressler, Jan; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Grove, Megan L.; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Beecher, Compton; McLaughlin, Wayne; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid with known adverse effects on human health. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes, including GSTT1, GSTP1, and GSTM1, play a major role in detoxification and metabolism of xenobiotics. We investigated the association between GST genotypes and whole blood arsenic concentrations (BASC) in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used data from 100 ASD cases and their 1:1 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) controls (age 2–8 years) from Jamaica. Using log-transformed BASC as the dependent variable in a General Linear Model, we observed a significant interaction between GSTP1 and ASD case status while controlling for several confounding variables. However, for GSTT1 and GSTM1 we did not observe any significant associations with BASC. Our findings indicate that TD children who had the Ile/Ile or Ile/Val genotype for GSTP1 had a significantly higher geometric mean BASC than those with genotype Val/Val (3.67 µg/L vs. 2.69 µg/L, p < 0.01). Although, among the ASD cases, this difference was not statistically significant, the direction of the observed difference was consistent with that of the TD control children. These findings suggest a possible role of GSTP1 in the detoxification of arsenic. PMID:25101770

  7. New antiinfective and human 5-HT2 receptor binding natural and semisynthetic compounds from the Jamaican sponge Smenospongia aurea.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jin-Feng; Schetz, John A; Kelly, Michelle; Peng, Jiang-Nan; Ang, Kenny K H; Flotow, Horst; Leong, Chung Yan; Ng, Siew Bee; Buss, Antony D; Wilkins, Scott P; Hamann, Mark T

    2002-04-01

    In addition to the sesquiterpene-phenol aureols (1), 6'-chloroaureol (2), and aureol acetate (3), eight indole alkaloids including the new N-3'-ethylaplysinopsin (9) have been isolated from the Jamaican sponge Smenospongia aurea. Makaluvamine O (10), a new member of the pyrroloiminoquinone class, was also isolated. The structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods, and two new derivatives of aureol were prepared to optimize the biological activity. Aureol N,N-dimethyl thiocarbamate (1a) and 6-bromoaplysinopsin (7) exhibit significant antimalarial and antimycobacterial activity in vitro. Compound 6 showed activity against the Plasmodium enzyme plasmepsin II. The 6-bromo-2'-de-N-methylaplysinopsin (6), 6-bromoaplysinopsin (7), and N-3'-ethylaplysinopsin (9) displaced high-affinity [(3)H]antagonist ligands from cloned human serotonin 5-HT(2) receptor subtypes, whereas the other compounds tested did not. Remarkably, the 6-bromo-2'-de-N-methylaplysinopsin (6) showed a > 40-fold selectivity for the 5-HT(2C) subtype over the 5-HT(2A) subtype. PMID:11975483

  8. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of the Crude Extract and two Dicinnamate Isolates from the Jamaican Ball Moss (Tillandsia Recurvata L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Henry IC; Toyang, Ngeh J.; Watson, Charah; Badal, Simone; Bahado-Singh, Perceval; Bryant, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    A crude chloroform extract from the Jamaican Ball Moss (Tillandsia recurvata L.) was tested for activity against three human cancer cell lines including; A375 (human melanoma), MCF-7 (human breast) and PC-3 (human prostate cancer) using the WST-1 assay. IC50s obtained against these cell lines; A375, MCF-7 and PC-3 in the presence of the crude extract are; 0.9?g/ml, 40.51?g/ml and 5.97?g/ml respectively indicating the promising anti-cancer activity of the ball moss extract. Further, preliminary phytochemical study was conducted in an attempt to identify and isolate the phytochemicals that could possibly be responsible for the observed bioactivity of the ball moss chloroform extract. As a result, two dicinnamates were isolated; 1,3-di-O-Cinnamoyl-glycerol (1) and (E)-3-(cinnamoyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl 3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylate (2) and we report for the first time isolation of compound 2. Even though the bioactivity of these two islaotes were fairly weak against the cell lines, the results presented here will prove useful for further research aimed at identifying molecules that maybe effective against melanoma, breast and prostate cancers associated with fewer side-effects.

  9. Frugivory is associated with low measures of plasma oxidative stress and high antioxidant concentration in free-ranging bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeberger, Karin; Czirják, Gábor Á.; Voigt, Christian C.

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative stress—an imbalance between reactive pro- and neutralising antioxidants—damages cell structures and impairs fitness-relevant traits such as longevity and reproduction. Theory predicts that feeding on diets with high antioxidant content such as fruits should reduce oxidative stress; however, there is no support of this idea in free-ranging mammals. Bats cover a large variety of ecological niches, and therefore, we asked if measures of oxidative stress are lower in species with fruit diets. We measured reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) representing total pro-oxidants produced and antioxidants in the plasma of 33 Neotropical bat species. Species with a fruit diet showed the lowest level of ROM and the highest concentration of antioxidants, followed by omnivorous and animalivorous species. Potentially, frugivorous species ingest more antioxidants with food and thus are able to neutralise more pro-oxidants than species not feeding on fruits, resulting in an overall lower level of oxidative stress. We therefore showed for the first time that measures of oxidative stress vary according to diets in free-ranging mammals.

  10. Roost tree use by maternity colonies of Indiana bats and northern long-eared bats in southern Illinois

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy C. Carter; George A. Feldhamer

    2005-01-01

    Roost trees used by female Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis), a federally endangered species, and sympatric northern long-eared bats (Myotis septentrionalis) at two locations in southern Illinois greatly impacted by past flooding were located using radiotelemetry. For 30 Indiana bats, we located 49 roosts in 7 species of trees. Green ash snags (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and pin oak snags (Quercus palustris) were

  11. Tick (Acari) infestations of bats in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Steinlein, D B; Durden, L A; Cannon, W L

    2001-07-01

    A total of 278 bats belonging to 16 species was examined for ticks from various sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998. Seven species of bats were parasitized by ticks: larvae of Ornithodoros kelleyi Cooley & Kohls, Ornithodoros rossi Kohls, Sonenshine & Clifford (Argasidae), or both. Both species of ticks are reported from New Mexico for the first time. Infestation prevalences for parasitized bats ranged from 2 to 25% on different host species for O. kelleyi and from 7 to 25% for O. rossi. The pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus, and the big brown bat. Eptesicus fuscus, were parasitized by both tick species. No distinct host specificity was noted for either tick species. PMID:11476346

  12. Bat Rabies in British Columbia 1971-1985

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Bert; Loewen, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Rabies virus was demonstrated in 99 of 1154 bats submitted from British Columbia between 1971 and 1985. Rabies was diagnosed in seven species including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), the latter accounting for 51% of all positive cases. Colonial species represented 92.9% of all identified bats and 87.7% of all rabid cases. Most bats were submitted from the more densely populated areas of the province, and submissions and positive cases both peaked in the month of August. Daytime activity and inability to fly were the most common behaviors reported in rabid bats. PMID:17422945

  13. Evolution of the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 in bats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huabin; Zhou, Yingying; Pinto, C Miguel; Charles-Dominique, Pierre; Galindo-González, Jorge; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-11-01

    Taste perception is an important component of an animal's fitness. The identification of vertebrate taste receptor genes in the last decade has enabled molecular genetic studies of the evolution of taste perception in the context of the ecology and dietary preferences of organisms. Although such analyses have been conducted in a number of species for bitter taste receptors, a similar analysis of sweet taste receptors is lacking. Here, we survey the sole sweet taste-specific receptor gene Tas1r2 in 42 bat species that represent all major lineages of the order Chiroptera, one of the most diverse groups of mammals in terms of diet. We found that Tas1r2 is under strong purifying selection in the majority of the bats studied, with no significant difference in the strength of the selection between insect eaters and fruit eaters. However, Tas1r2 is a pseudogene in all three vampire bat species and the functional relaxation likely started in their common ancestor, probably due to the exclusive feeding of vampire bats on blood and their reliance on infrared sensors rather than taste perception to locate blood sources. Our survey of available genome sequences, together with previous reports, revealed additional losses of Tas1r2 in horse, cat, chicken, zebra finch, and western clawed frog, indicating that sweet perception is not as conserved as previously thought. Nonetheless, we found no common dietary pattern among the Tas1r2-lacking vertebrates, suggesting different causes for the losses of Tas1r2 in different species. The complexity of the ecological factors that impact the evolution of Tas1r2 calls for a better understanding of the physiological roles of sweet perception in different species. PMID:20558596

  14. Bats: Twilight Zone (ScienceWorld)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article is from the Museum's Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy. Written for students in grades 6-10, this article from Science World magazine has an interview with AMNH zoologist Nancy Simmons, in which she discusses her research and the scientific challenges she faces in her quest to build a more complete bat family tree. There are Web links that offer further opportunities for learning about bat adaptations and their role in the planet's biodiversity.

  15. DBatVir: the database of bat-associated viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lihong; Liu, Bo; Yang, Jian; Jin, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases remain a significant threat to public health. Most emerging infectious disease agents in humans are of zoonotic origin. Bats are important reservoir hosts of many highly lethal zoonotic viruses and have been implicated in numerous emerging infectious disease events in recent years. It is essential to enhance our knowledge and understanding of the genetic diversity of the bat-associated viruses to prevent future outbreaks. To facilitate further research, we constructed the database of bat-associated viruses (DBatVir). Known viral sequences detected in bat samples were manually collected and curated, along with the related metadata, such as the sampling time, location, bat species and specimen type. Additional information concerning the bats, including common names, diet type, geographic distribution and phylogeny were integrated into the database to bridge the gap between virologists and zoologists. The database currently covers >4100 bat-associated animal viruses of 23 viral families detected from 196 bat species in 69 countries worldwide. It provides an overview and snapshot of the current research regarding bat-associated viruses, which is essential now that the field is rapidly expanding. With a user-friendly interface and integrated online bioinformatics tools, DBatVir provides a convenient and powerful platform for virologists and zoologists to analyze the virome diversity of bats, as well as for epidemiologists and public health researchers to monitor and track current and future bat-related infectious diseases. Database URL: http://www.mgc.ac.cn/DBatVir/ PMID:24647629

  16. Isolation of fungi from bats of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed Central

    Mok, W Y; Luizão, R C; Barreto da Silva, M do S

    1982-01-01

    A total of 2,886 bats captured in the Amazon Basin of Brazil were processed for the isolation of fungi. From the livers, spleens, and lungs of 155 bats (5.4%), 186 fungal isolates of the genera Candida (123 isolates), Trichosporon (26 isolates), Torulopsis (25 isolates), Kluyveromyces (11 isolates), and Geotrichum (1 isolate) were recovered. Seven known pathogenic species were present: Candida parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. albicans, C. stellatoidea, C. pseudotropicalis, Trichosporon beigelii, and Torulopsis glabrata. Twenty-three culture-positive bats showed identical fungal colonization in multiple organs or mixed colonization in a single organ. The fungal isolation rates for individual bat species varied from 1 fungus per 87 bats to 3 fungi per 13 bats, and the mycoflora diversity for members of an individual fungus-bearing bat species varied from 16 fungi per 40 bats to 7 fungi per 6 bats. Of the 38 fungal species isolated, 36 had not been previously described as in vivo bat isolates. Of the 27 culture-positive bat species, 21 had not been previously described as mammalian hosts for medically or nonmedically important fungi. PMID:6890326

  17. Roosting ecology of the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, Terry A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Daytime roosting behavior of pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) was studied in central Arizona. Bats were present in the area from March or April until November and roosted in cliffs in colonies generally including 20 or more individuals. Pallid bats were highly selective in their choice of roost sites and minimized diurnal energy output by adaptive hypothermia and behavioral thermo-regulation. In spring and autumn the bats roosted in vertical crevices responsive to changes in ambient temperatures. Here temperatures remained low and the bats were torpid for much of the day, but when the crevices became heated in the late afternoon the bats were passively warmed prior to emergence. Deep, horizontal crevices were preferred in summer; cliffs function as massive heat sinks, and in summer crevice temperatures remained moderate and relatively stable. Throughout most of the day both the deep parts of the crevices and the body temperatures of the bats remained close to 30ºC; at this body temperature pallid bats have unexpectedly low metabolic rates (Trune, 1974). By adjusting their positions and closeness to other bats in the thermal gradient within the crevice, bats dissipate heat early in the day, maintain a low metabolic rate through most of the fat and elevate the body temperature prior to emergence in the evening. Of vital important to pallid bats in the summer are social behaviors that promote communal roosting at "traditional" crevices.

  18. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  19. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus. PMID:20678317

  20. FRUIT & NUT Blackberries

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    and set fruit on flo- ricanes; and Primocane-bearing, which flower on primo-canes late in the growingTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Blackberries Monte Nesbitt, Jim Kamas & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Introduction Brambles or caneberries are fruits in the Ru- bus genus

  1. Frozen Fruit Pops Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , with fruit 6 ounces orange juice, frozen concentrate, thawed Directions 1. Mix the ingredients in a mediumFrozen Fruit Pops Ingredients: 8 ounces crushed pineapple in juice 6 ounces nonfat yogurt instead of cups, making great "ice cubes" in fruit juice or diet soda. Try other fruits or juice

  2. Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines?

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Barry; Racey, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines, and there is at present no direct method of reducing or preventing this mortality. We therefore determine whether the electromagnetic radiation associated with radar installations can elicit an aversive behavioural response in foraging bats. Four civil air traffic control (ATC) radar stations, three military ATC radars and three weather radars were selected, each surrounded by heterogeneous habitat. Three sampling points matched for habitat type and structure, dominant vegetation species, altitude and surrounding land class were located at increasing distances from each station. A portable electromagnetic field meter measured the field strength of the radar at three distances from the source: in close proximity (<200 m) with a high electromagnetic field (EMF) strength >2 volts/metre, an intermediate point within line of sight of the radar (200–400 m) and with an EMF strength <2 v/m, and a control site out of sight of the radar (>400 m) and registering an EMF of zero v/m. At each radar station bat activity was recorded three times with three independent sampling points monitored on each occasion, resulting in a total of 90 samples, 30 of which were obtained within each field strength category. At these sampling points, bat activity was recorded using an automatic bat recording station, operated from sunset to sunrise. Bat activity was significantly reduced in habitats exposed to an EMF strength of greater than 2 v/m when compared to matched sites registering EMF levels of zero. The reduction in bat activity was not significantly different at lower levels of EMF strength within 400 m of the radar. We predict that the reduction in bat activity within habitats exposed to electromagnetic radiation may be a result of thermal induction and an increased risk of hyperthermia. PMID:17372629

  3. J.ScottAltenbach,ProfessorofBiology,UniversityofNewMexico Bats in the Air

    E-print Network

    Wang, Z. Jane

    ;6 Bat Fascination Bats have always been a great fascination for scientists. The vampire bat, for example present many implica- tions. Scientists have enormous interest in vampire bats because of their potential clots associated with heart attacks in humans. Cornell has a history of bat biology, going back

  4. Habitat Use by Forest Bats in South Carolina in Relation to Local, Stand, and Landscape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O'KEEFE

    Knowledge and understanding of bat habitat associations and the responses of bats to forest management are critical for effective bat conservation and management. Few studies have been conducted on bat habitat use in the southeast, despite the high number of endangered and sensitive species in the region. Our objective was to identify important local, stand, and landscape factors influencing bat

  5. When should fig fruit produce volatiles? Pattern in a ripening process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Renee M.; Ranganathan, Yuvaraj; Krishnan, Anusha; Ghara, Mahua; Pramanik, Gautam

    2011-11-01

    Ripe fruit need to signal their presence to attract dispersal agents. Plants may employ visual and/or olfactory sensory channels to signal the presence of ripe fruit. Visual signals of ripe fruit have been extensively investigated. However, the volatile signatures of ripe fruit that use olfactorily-oriented dispersers have been scarcely investigated. Moreover, as in flowers, where floral scents are produced at times when pollinators are active (diurnal versus nocturnal), whether plants can modulate the olfactory signal to produce fruit odours when dispersers are active in the diel cycle is completely unknown. We investigated day-night differences in fruit odours in two species of figs, Ficus racemosa and Ficus benghalensis. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. racemosa that are largely dispersed by bats and other mammals was dominated by fatty acid derivatives such as esters. In this species in which the ripe fig phase is very short, and where the figs drop off soon after ripening, there were no differences between day and night in fruit volatile signature. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. benghalensis that has a long ripening period, however, and that remain attached to the tree for extended periods when ripe, showed an increase in fatty acid derivatives such as esters and of benzenoids such as benzaldehyde at night when they are dispersed by bats, and an elevation of sesquiterpenes during the day when they are dispersed by birds. For the first time we provide data that suggest that the volatile signal produced by fruit can show diel differences based on the activity period of the dispersal agent.

  6. Analysis of bat wings for morphing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leylek, Emily A.; Manzo, Justin E.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The morphing of wings from three different bat species is studied using an extension of the Weissinger method. To understand how camber affects performance factors such as lift and lift to drag ratio, XFOIL is used to study thin (3% thickness to chord ratio) airfoils at a low Reynolds number of 100,000. The maximum camber of 9% yielded the largest lift coefficient, and a mid-range camber of 7% yielded the largest lift to drag ratio. Correlations between bat wing morphology and flight characteristics are covered, and the three bat wing planforms chosen represent various combinations of morphological components and different flight modes. The wings are studied using the extended Weissinger method in an "unmorphed" configuration using a thin, symmetric airfoil across the span of the wing through angles of attack of 0°-15°. The wings are then run in the Weissinger method at angles of attack of -2° to 12° in a "morphed" configuration modeled after bat wings seen in flight, where the camber of the airfoils comprising the wings is varied along the span and a twist distribution along the span is introduced. The morphed wing configurations increase the lift coefficient over 1000% from the unmorphed configuration and increase the lift to drag ratio over 175%. The results of the three different species correlate well with their flight in nature.

  7. The BAT-Swift Science Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, D. M.; Fenimore, E.; Galassi, M.; McLean, K.; Tavenner, T.; Barthelmy, S.; Blau, M.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Mason, R.; Ong, J.; Polk, J.; Parsons, A.; Shackelford, L.; Tueller, J.; Walling, S.; Okada, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Toshiro, M.; Suzuki, M.; Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.

    2004-09-01

    The BAT instrument tells Swift where to point to make immediate follow-up observations of GRBs. The science software on board must efficiently process ?-ray events coming in at up to 34 kHz, identify rate increases that could be due to GRBs while disregarding those from known sources, and produce images to accurately and rapidly locate new Gamma-ray sources.

  8. INTRODUCTION Several species of microchiropteran bats

    E-print Network

    Auckland, University of

    -generated noise by the Indian false vampire bat Megaderma lyra GANAPATHY MARIMUTHU1 , KOILMANI EMMANUVEL RAJAN1, 3, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, India; E-mail: gmari@eth.net 2School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, Great Britain

  9. BATS OF KARTCHNER CAVERNS STATE PARK, ARIZONA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEBBIE C. BUECHER; RONNIE M. SIDNER

    Kartchner Caverns, in southeastern Arizona, is a summer maternity roost for approximately 1000-2000 cave myotis (Myotis velifer). The pregnant females first arrive at the cave in late April, give birth in June, and have left by mid- September. These bats are an important element in the cave ecosystem because their excrement introduces nutrients, which support a complex invertebrate cave fauna.

  10. Personality Variation in Little Brown Bats

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, Allyson K.; Timonin, Mary E.; McGuire, Liam P.; Willis, Craig K. R.

    2013-01-01

    Animal personality or temperament refers to individual differences in behaviour that are repeatable over time and across contexts. Personality has been linked to life-history traits, energetic traits and fitness, with implications for the evolution of behaviour. Personality has been quantified for a range of taxa (e.g., fish, songbirds, small mammals) but, so far, there has been little work on personality in bats, despite their diversity and potential as a model taxon for comparative studies. We used a novel environment test to quantify personality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and assess the short-term repeatability of a range of behaviours. We tested the hypothesis that development influences values of personality traits and predicted that trait values associated with activity would increase between newly volant, pre-weaning young-of-the-year (YOY) and more mature, self-sufficient YOY. We identified personality dimensions that were consistent with past studies of other taxa and found that these traits were repeatable over a 24-hour period. Consistent with our prediction, older YOY captured at a fall swarming site prior to hibernation had higher activity scores than younger YOY bats captured at a maternity colony, suggesting that personality traits vary as development progresses in YOY bats. Thus, we found evidence of short-term consistency of personality within individuals but with the potential for temporal flexibility of traits, depending on age. PMID:24312205

  11. Population Trends of Wintering Bats in Vermont

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Trombulak; Philip E. Higuera; Mark DesMeules

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of all readily available inventories of wintering bats in Vermont. Surveys at 23 hibernacula were compiled from the literature and unpublished data of numerous biologists and cavers. The earliest Vermont records date back to 1934. Only five hibernacula were systematically surveyed for more than 45 years. Despite data limitations, several trends have emerged. Since the 1930s,

  12. Biaxial mechanical characterization of bat wing skin.

    PubMed

    Skulborstad, A J; Swartz, S M; Goulbourne, N C

    2015-06-01

    The highly flexible and stretchable wing skin of bats, together with the skeletal structure and musculature, enables large changes in wing shape during flight. Such compliance distinguishes bat wings from those of all other flying animals. Although several studies have investigated the aerodynamics and kinematics of bats, few have examined the complex histology and mechanical response of the wing skin. This work presents the first biaxial characterization of the local deformation, mechanical properties, and fiber kinematics of bat wing skin. Analysis of these data has provided insight into the relationships among the structural morphology, mechanical properties, and functionality of wing skin. Large spatial variations in tissue deformation and non-negligible fiber strains in the cross-fiber direction for both chordwise and spanwise fibers indicate fibers should be modeled as two-dimensional elements. The macroscopic constitutive behavior was anisotropic and nonlinear, with very low spanwise and chordwise stiffness (hundreds of kilopascals) in the toe region of the stress-strain curve. The structural arrangement of the fibers and matrix facilitates a low energy mechanism for wing deployment and extension, and we fabricate examples of skins capturing this mechanism. We propose a comprehensive deformation map for the entire loading regime. The results of this work underscore the importance of biaxial field approaches for soft heterogeneous tissue, and provide a foundation for development of bio-inspired skins to probe the effects of the wing skin properties on aerodynamic performance. PMID:25895436

  13. Bat Rabies, Texas, 1996–2000

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, Bonny C.; Smith, Jean S.; Neill, Susan U.

    2004-01-01

    Bats submitted to the Texas Department of Health (1996–2000) were speciated and tested for rabies virus antigen by direct immunofluorescence microscopy. Antigenic analysis of rabies virus–positive specimens was performed with monoclonal antibodies against the nucleoprotein of the virus; atypical or unexpected results were confirmed by genetic analysis of nucleoprotein sequence. PMID:15200840

  14. BAT RABIES IN URBAN CENTERS IN CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos A. de Mattos; Myriam Favi; Veronica Yung; Carlos Pavletic

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectiv- orous bats in Chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. These isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the Americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in Chile. The phylogenetic analyses showed

  15. Male reproductive patterns in nonhibernating bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Krutzsch

    Summary. Knowledge relative to the reproduction of nonhibernating bats is reviewed. Events in the male, as they are now understood, are summarized for all families for which data exist. Attention is given to the wide species diversity of male accessory sex organs in respect to gross structure and glandular complement. Stability or variability of organization of the male reproductive system

  16. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 ?T; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 ?T), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  17. 76 FR 71396 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ...Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed...Introduction On September 7, 2011, BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. (``BYX'' or ``Exchange...Functions of BATS Exchange, Inc. and BAT-Y Exchange,...

  18. Hybridization hotspots at bat swarming sites.

    PubMed

    Bogdanowicz, Wies?aw; Piksa, Krzysztof; Tereba, Anna

    2012-01-01

    During late summer and early autumn in temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere, thousands of bats gather at caves, mainly for the purpose of mating. We demonstrated that this swarming behavior most probably leads not only to breeding among bats of the same species but also interbreeding between different species. Using 14 nuclear microsatellites and three different methods (the Bayesian assignment approaches of STRUCTURE and NEWHYBRIDS and a principal coordinate analysis of pairwise genetic distances), we analyzed 375 individuals belonging to three species of whiskered bats (genus Myotis) at swarming sites across their sympatric range in southern Poland. The overall hybridization rate varied from 3.2 to 7.2%. At the species level, depending on the method used, these values ranged from 2.1-4.6% in M. mystacinus and 3.0-3.7% in M. brandtii to 6.5-30.4% in M. alcathoe. Hybrids occurred in about half of the caves we studied. In all three species, the sex ratio of hybrids was biased towards males but the observed differences did not differ statistically from those noted at the population level. In our opinion, factors leading to the formation of these admixed individuals and their relatively high frequency are: i) swarming behaviour at swarming sites, where high numbers of bats belonging to several species meet; ii) male-biased sex ratio during the swarming period; iii) the fact that all these bats are generally polygynous. The highly different population sizes of different species at swarming sites may also play some role. Swarming sites may represent unique hybrid hotspots, which, as there are at least 2,000 caves in the Polish Carpathians alone, may occur on a massive scale not previously observed for any group of mammal species in the wild. Evidently, these sites should be treated as focal points for the conservation of biodiversity and evolutionary processes. PMID:23300912

  19. Hybridization Hotspots at Bat Swarming Sites

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanowicz, Wies?aw; Piksa, Krzysztof; Tereba, Anna

    2012-01-01

    During late summer and early autumn in temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere, thousands of bats gather at caves, mainly for the purpose of mating. We demonstrated that this swarming behavior most probably leads not only to breeding among bats of the same species but also interbreeding between different species. Using 14 nuclear microsatellites and three different methods (the Bayesian assignment approaches of STRUCTURE and NEWHYBRIDS and a principal coordinate analysis of pairwise genetic distances), we analyzed 375 individuals belonging to three species of whiskered bats (genus Myotis) at swarming sites across their sympatric range in southern Poland. The overall hybridization rate varied from 3.2 to 7.2%. At the species level, depending on the method used, these values ranged from 2.1–4.6% in M. mystacinus and 3.0–3.7% in M. brandtii to 6.5–30.4% in M. alcathoe. Hybrids occurred in about half of the caves we studied. In all three species, the sex ratio of hybrids was biased towards males but the observed differences did not differ statistically from those noted at the population level. In our opinion, factors leading to the formation of these admixed individuals and their relatively high frequency are: i) swarming behaviour at swarming sites, where high numbers of bats belonging to several species meet; ii) male-biased sex ratio during the swarming period; iii) the fact that all these bats are generally polygynous. The highly different population sizes of different species at swarming sites may also play some role. Swarming sites may represent unique hybrid hotspots, which, as there are at least 2,000 caves in the Polish Carpathians alone, may occur on a massive scale not previously observed for any group of mammal species in the wild. Evidently, these sites should be treated as focal points for the conservation of biodiversity and evolutionary processes. PMID:23300912

  20. Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-01-01

    To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. PMID:24860509

  1. Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Ninad B.; Wohlgemuth, Melville J.; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. PMID:24860509

  2. Mark's Fruit Crops

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rieger, Mark

    Created by Mark Rieger, a Professor of Horticulture at the University of Georgia, Mark's Fruit Crops is a great educational website on the world's major fruit crops. The site features a Fruit Crops Encyclopedia containing links to information about different types of fruit. The separate fruit pages include attractive photographs intermingled with brief sections on Origin, History of Cultivation, Botanical Description, Production Statistics, and more. Site visitors can access more in-depth information by connecting to Professor Rieger's HORT 320, Introduction to Fruit Crops site which includes PDF files of the course text, a Glossary of Fruit Crops, and other resources. This website also contains links to Fruit Catalogs, and a list of relevant fruit links. [NL

  3. Migration of bats past a remote island offers clues toward the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, P.M.; Brown, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Wind energy is rapidly becoming a viable source of alternative energy, but wind turbines are killing bats in many areas of North America. Most of the bats killed by turbines thus far have been migratory species that roost in trees throughout the year, and the highest fatality events appear to coincide with autumn migration. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) are highly migratory and one of the most frequently killed species at wind turbines. We analyzed a long-term data set to investigate how weather and moonlight influenced the occurrence of hoary bats at an island stopover point along their migration route. We then related our results to the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines. We found that relatively low wind speeds, low moon illumination, and relatively high degrees of cloud cover were important predictors of bat arrivals and departures, and that low barometric pressure was an additional variable that helped predict arrivals. Slight differences in the conditions under which bats arrived and departed from the island suggest that hoary bats may be more likely to arrive on the island with passing storm fronts in autumn. These results also indicate that fatalities of hoary bats at wind turbines may be predictable events, that the species may be drawn to prominent landmarks that they see during migration, and that they regularly migrate over the ocean. Additional observations from this and other studies suggest that the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines may be associated with flocking and autumn mating behaviors.

  4. Monitoring Sensitive Bat Species at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenberg, Kari M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Bats play a critical role in ecosystems and are vulnerable to disturbance and disruption by human activities. In recent decades, bat populations in the United States and elsewhere have decreased tremendously. There are 47 different species of bat in the United States and 28 of these occur in New Mexico with 15 different species documented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and surrounding areas. Euderma maculatum(the spotted bat) is listed as “threatened” by the state of New Mexico and is known to occur at LANL. Four other species of bats are listed as “sensitive” and also occur here. In 1995, a four year study was initiated at LANL to assess the status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites. There have been no definitive studies since then. Biologists in the Environmental Protection Division at LANL initiated a multi-year monitoring program for bats in May 2013 to implement the Biological Resources Management Plan. The objective of this ongoing study is to monitor bat species diversity and seasonal activity over time at LANL. Bat species diversity and seasonal activity were measured using an acoustic bat detector, the Pettersson D500X. This ultrasound recording unit is intended for long-term, unattended recording of bat and other high frequency animal calls. During 2013, the detector was deployed at two locations around LANL. Study sites were selected based on proximity to water where bats may be foraging. Recorded bat calls were analyzed using Sonobat, software that can help determine specific species of bat through their calls. A list of bat species at the two sites was developed and compared to lists from previous studies. Species diversity and seasonal activity, measured as the number of call sequences recorded each month, were compared between sites and among months. A total of 17,923 bat calls were recorded representing 15 species. Results indicate that there is a statistically significant relationship between bat diversity and month of the year. Future studies will be implemented based on these findings.

  5. Risk for rabies transmission from encounters with bats, Colorado, 1977-1996.

    PubMed Central

    Pape, W. J.; Fitzsimmons, T. D.; Hoffman, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the risk for rabies transmission to humans by bats, we analyzed the prevalence of rabies in bats that encountered humans from 1977 to 1996 and characterized the bat-human encounters. Rabies was diagnosed in 685 (15%) of 4,470 bats tested. The prevalence of rabies in bats that bit humans was 2.1 times higher than in bats that did not bite humans. At least a third of the encounters were preventable. PMID:10341181

  6. Enzootic and Epizootic Rabies Associated with Vampire Bats, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Streicker, Daniel G.; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002–2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non–vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans.

  7. Enzootic and epizootic rabies associated with vampire bats, peru.

    PubMed

    Condori-Condori, Rene Edgar; Streicker, Daniel G; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002-2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non-vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans. PMID:23969087

  8. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats.

    PubMed

    Cryan, Paul M; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Turner, Gregory G; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle; Russell, Robin E; Castle, Kevin T

    2013-04-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances. PMID:23568916

  9. Bat rabies in South Carolina, 1970-90.

    PubMed

    Parker, E K; Dowda, H; Redden, S E; Tolson, M W; Turner, N; Kemick, W

    1999-07-01

    This retrospective study examines the geographic and temporal distribution of bat species submitted for rabies testing in South Carolina (USA) from 1970 to 1990. Histories of human or animal exposures to rabid and nonrabid bats submitted during this time period were compared. Two hundred and thirty-one bats were found to be rabid from the 2,657 bats submitted over this 20 yr period. The two species most frequently submitted for testing were Lasiurus borealis with 785 specimens (30% of the total) and Nycticeius humeralis with 607 specimens (22% of the total). Lasiurus borealis also had the highest prevalence of rabies (18%) while N. humeralis had the lowest prevalence (3%). Fifty-one percent (1,259) of the bats received for testing were submitted from June through August. The majority (54%) of rabid bats were received from August through October. PMID:10479091

  10. Naturally acquired rabies virus infections in wild-caught bats.

    PubMed

    Davis, April; Gordy, Paul; Rudd, Robert; Jarvis, Jodie A; Bowen, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    The study of a zoonotic disease requires an understanding of the disease incidence in animal reservoirs. Rabies incidence in bats submitted to diagnostic laboratories does not accurately reflect the true incidence in wild bat populations as a bias exists for testing bats that have been in contact with humans or pets. This article details the rabies incidence in two species of bats collected from natural settings without such bias. In this study, brain smears from 0.6% and 2.5% of wild-caught and apparently healthy Tadarida brasiliensis and Eptesicus fuscus, respectively, were positive for rabies virus (RV) antigen. Conversely, 92% of the grounded T. brasiliensis were positive for RV. Serology performed on captive colony and sick bats reveal an immune response to rabies. This work illustrates the complex interplay between immunity, disease state, and the conundrum of RV maintenance in bats. PMID:21923271

  11. Interindividual use of echolocation calls: Eavesdropping by bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. R. Barclay

    1982-01-01

    The use of other individual's echolocation calls by little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, was tested by observing the response of free-flying bats to presentations of recorded echolocation calls and artificial sounds. Bats responded by approaching conspecific calls while searching for food, night roosts, nursery colonies and mating\\/hibernation sites. Response was low or non-existant to other sounds. While searching for prey,

  12. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  13. Fine control of call frequency by horseshoe bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Smotherman; W. Metzner

    2003-01-01

    The auditory system of horseshoe bats is narrowly tuned to the sound of their own echoes. During flight these bats continuously adjust the frequency of their echolocation calls to compensate for Doppler-effects in the returning echo. Horseshoe bats can accurately compensate for changes in echo frequency up to 5 kHz, but they do so through a sequence of small, temporally-independent, step

  14. Geographic Translocation of Bats: Known and Potential Problems

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Natural, accidental, and intentional translocation of bats, both intra- and intercontinentally, has been documented. Some bats have been translocated while incubating infectious diseases, including rabies or related lyssavirus infections; others have escaped confinement en route to or at their destinations, while others have been released deliberately. Known events and potential consequences of bat translocation are reviewed, including a proposed solution to the attendant problems. PMID:12533276

  15. The development of hearing in the pallid bat, antrozous pallidus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia E. Brown; Alan D. Grinnell; Jean B. Harrison

    1978-01-01

    1.Adult pallid bats possess auditory capabilities similar to those of other echolocating Vespertilionids, albeit with unusually great sensitivity to frequencies below 15 kHz.2.Newborn bats show no behavioral or neurophysiological responses to auditory stimuli.3.Evoked potentials were detected first in a six day old bat in response to loud, low frequency sound. Absolute sensitivity and frequency range increase rapidly in the maturing

  16. Sensory Ecology of Water Detection by Bats: A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Danilo; Cistrone, Luca; Jones, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Bats face a great risk of dehydration, so sensory mechanisms for water recognition are crucial for their survival. In the laboratory, bats recognized any smooth horizontal surface as water because these provide analogous reflections of echolocation calls. We tested whether bats also approach smooth horizontal surfaces other than water to drink in nature by partly covering watering troughs used by hundreds of bats with a Perspex layer mimicking water. We aimed 1) to confirm that under natural conditions too bats mistake any horizontal smooth surface for water by testing this on large numbers of individuals from a range of species and 2) to assess the occurrence of learning effects. Eleven bat species mistook Perspex for water relying chiefly on echoacoustic information. Using black instead of transparent Perspex did not deter bats from attempting to drink. In Barbastella barbastellus no echolocation differences occurred between bats approaching the water and the Perspex surfaces respectively, confirming that bats perceive water and Perspex to be acoustically similar. The drinking attempt rates at the fake surface were often lower than those recorded in the laboratory: bats then either left the site or moved to the control water surface. This suggests that bats modified their behaviour as soon as the lack of drinking reward had overridden the influence of echoacoustic information. Regardless of which of two adjoining surfaces was covered, bats preferentially approached and attempted to drink from the first surface encountered, probably because they followed a common route, involving spatial memory and perhaps social coordination. Overall, although acoustic recognition itself is stereotyped and its importance in the drinking process overwhelming, our findings point at the role of experience in increasing behavioural flexibility under natural conditions. PMID:23133558

  17. Thermal energetics of female big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig K. R. Willis; Eric T. Liknes; David L. Swanson; R. Mark Brigham

    2005-01-01

    We investigated thermoregulation and energetics in female big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois, 1796). We exposed bats to a range of ambient temperatures (Ta) and used open-flow respirometry to record their metabolic re- sponses. The bats were typically thermoconforming and almost always entered torpor at Tas below the lower critical temperature Tlc of 26.7 °C. Basal metabolic rate (BMR, 16.98

  18. Fruit Juice Slush Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Fruit Juice Slush Ingredients: 12 ounces frozen concentrated orange juice, or any other 100% fruit juice concentrate 1 1/2 cups water 3 cups ice Directions In a blender, place juice concentrate, water

  19. The First Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Barbier, L.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), which contains bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2007 June 16. This catalog (hereafter BAT1 catalog) contains burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, and time averaged spectral parameters for each of 237 GRBs, as measured by the BAT. The BAT-determined position reported here is within 1.75' of the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT)-determined position for 90% of these GRBs. The BAT T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) durations peak at 80 and 20 seconds, respectively. From the fluence-fluence correlation, we conclude that about 60% of the observed peak energies, E(sup obs)(sub peak) of BAT GRBs could be less than 100 keV. We confirm that GRB fluence to hardness and GRB peak flux to hardness are correlated for BAT bursts in analogous ways to previous missions' results. The correlation between the photon index in a simple power-law model and E(sup obs)(sub peak) is also confirmed. We also report the current status for the on-orbit BAT calibrations based on observations of the Crab Nebula.

  20. Bat white-nose syndrome: An emerging fungal pathogen?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Behr, M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Buckles, E.L.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Darling, S.R.; Gargas, A.; Niver, R.; Okoniewski, J.C.; Rudd, R.J.; Stone, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychro-philic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  1. STUDIES ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF RABIES IN INSECTIVOROUS BATS

    PubMed Central

    Sulkin, S. Edward; Allen, Rae; Sims, Ruth; Krutzsch, Philip H.; Kim, Chansoo

    1960-01-01

    Studies on the influence of environmental temperature on the pathogenesis of rabies in two species of experimentally infected Chiroptera, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida mexicana) and the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), provided evidence that little or no viral multiplication occurs in the inactive host during experimentally induced hibernation. When inoculated animals are wakened from hibernation by transfer to a warm room, virus previously in "cold storage" multiplies, reaching detectable levels in various tissues. Similar results were obtained with two strains of rabies virus, a canine rabies street virus which produced a fatal infection in man and a strain isolated from the pooled brown fat of naturally infected little brown bats. However, certain differences in the characteristics of these virus strains were observed. The canine rabies virus strain produced an encephalitic disease in mice and overt symptoms in bats; the bat rabies virus producing an encephalomyelitic disease in mice and infrequent symptoms in bats. The bat rabies virus had a greater predilection for brown adipose tissue than the canine strain. Results obtained with the bat rabies virus in hibernating animals indicate that after a period of latency in a dormant animal activated virus may reach the salivary gland more rapidly, with greater frequency, and attain higher concentrations than in animals which have not experienced a period of hibernation. The significance of these results as they relate to the natural history of bat rabies is discussed. PMID:19867178

  2. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance.

    PubMed

    George, Dylan B; Webb, Colleen T; Farnsworth, Matthew L; O'Shea, Thomas J; Bowen, Richard A; Smith, David L; Stanley, Thomas R; Ellison, Laura E; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-06-21

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases. PMID:21646516

  3. A mechanism for antiphonal echolocation by Free-tailed bats

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Jenna; Bohn, Kirsten M.; Tressler, Jedediah; Smotherman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Bats are highly social and spend much of their lives echolocating in the presence of other bats. To reduce the effects of acoustic interferences from other bats' echolocation calls, we hypothesized that bats might shift the timing of their pulse emissions to minimize temporal overlap with another bat's echolocation pulses. To test this hypothesis we investigated whether free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) echolocating in the lab would shift the timing of their own pulse emissions in response to regularly repeating artificial acoustic stimuli. A robust phase-locked temporal pattern in pulse emissions was displayed by every bat tested which included an initial suppressive phase lasting more than 60 ms after stimulus onset, during which the probability of emitting pulses was reduced by more than fifty percent, followed by a compensatory rebound phase, the timing and amplitude of which were dependent on the temporal pattern of the stimulus. The responses were non-adapting and were largely insensitive to broad changes in the acoustic properties of the stimulus. Randomly occurring noise-bursts also suppressed calling for up to 60 ms, but the time-course of the compensatory rebound phase was more rapid than when the bats were responding to regularly repeating patterns of noise bursts. These findings provide the first quantitative description of how external stimuli may cause echolocating bats to alter the timing of subsequent pulse emissions. PMID:20419063

  4. The evolution of bat pollination: a phylogenetic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Theodore H.; Geiselman, Cullen; Kress, W. John

    2009-01-01

    Background Most tropical and subtropical plants are biotically pollinated, and insects are the major pollinators. A small but ecologically and economically important group of plants classified in 28 orders, 67 families and about 528 species of angiosperms are pollinated by nectar-feeding bats. From a phylogenetic perspective this is a derived pollination mode involving a relatively large and energetically expensive pollinator. Here its ecological and evolutionary consequences are explored. Scope and Conclusions This review summarizes adaptations in bats and plants that facilitate this interaction and discusses the evolution of bat pollination from a plant phylogenetic perspective. Two families of bats contain specialized flower visitors, one in the Old World and one in the New World. Adaptation to pollination by bats has evolved independently many times from a variety of ancestral conditions, including insect-, bird- and non-volant mammal-pollination. Bat pollination predominates in very few families but is relatively common in certain angiosperm subfamilies and tribes. We propose that flower-visiting bats provide two important benefits to plants: they deposit large amounts of pollen and a variety of pollen genotypes on plant stigmas and, compared with many other pollinators, they are long-distance pollen dispersers. Bat pollination tends to occur in plants that occur in low densities and in lineages producing large flowers. In highly fragmented tropical habitats, nectar bats play an important role in maintaining the genetic continuity of plant populations and thus have considerable conservation value. PMID:19789175

  5. Micropropagation of Small Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir C. Debnath

    \\u000a The small fruit plants are predominantly woody perennial dicot angiosperms, bear small to moderate-sized fruits on herbs,\\u000a vines, or shrubs; and are usually vegetatively propagated to maintain true-to-type. The importance of small fruits in horticulture\\u000a lies in their dual role as in the landscape and of food. The fruits themselves are highly prized for their varying shapes,\\u000a textures, flavors, and

  6. Fun Fruit: Advanced

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Children's Museum of Houston

    2004-01-01

    This math challenge, played with two players or a whole group, engages your problem solving skills. Remove pieces of fruit from the fruit bowl, trying to find a strategy to be the person to take the last piece of fruit. You can substitute different materials if you do not have fruit available. This activity guide contains a material list, game instructions, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

  7. Reciprocal food sharing in the vampire bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    1984-03-01

    Behavioural reciprocity can be evolutionarily stable1-3. Initial increase in frequency depends, however, on reciprocal altruists interacting predominantly with other reciprocal altruists either by associating within kin groups or by having sufficient memory to recognize and not aid nonreciprocators. Theory thus suggests that reciprocity should evolve more easily among animals which live in kin groups. Data are available separating reciprocity from nepotism only for unrelated nonhuman animals4. Here, I show that food sharing by regurgitation of blood among wild vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) depends equally and independently on degree of relatedness and an index of opportunity for recipro cation. That reciprocity operates within groups containing both kin and nonkin is supported further with data on the availability of blood-sharing occasions, estimates of the economics of shar ing blood, and experiments which show that unrelated bats will reciprocally exchange blood in captivity.

  8. Identification of a Novel Coronavirus in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Poon, L. L. M.; Chu, D. K. W.; Chan, K. H.; Wong, O. K.; Ellis, T. M.; Leung, Y. H. C.; Lau, S. K. P.; Woo, P. C. Y.; Suen, K. Y.; Yuen, K. Y.; Guan, Y.; Peiris, J. S. M.

    2005-01-01

    Exotic wildlife can act as reservoirs of diseases that are endemic in the area or can be the source of new emerging diseases through interspecies transmission. The recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) highlights the importance of virus surveillance in wild animals. Here, we report the identification of a novel bat coronavirus through surveillance of coronaviruses in wildlife. Analyses of the RNA sequence from the ORF1b and S-gene regions indicated that the virus is a group 1 coronavirus. The virus was detected in fecal and respiratory samples from three bat species (Miniopterus spp.). In particular, 63% (12 of 19) of fecal samples from Miniopterus pusillus were positive for the virus. These findings suggest that this virus might be commonly circulating in M. pusillus in Hong Kong. PMID:15681402

  9. BREEDING FOR FRUIT QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While fruit breeding programs have many different goals, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, tree architecture, precocity, and productivity, they all have in common the need to develop high quality fruit. Fruits come in a wide spectrum of size, flavor, color, firmness, and texture. Qu...

  10. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  11. The BAT-Swift Science Software

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.M.; Fenimore, E.; Galassi, M.; Mclean, K.; Tavenner, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Barthelmy, S.; Blau, M.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Mason, R.; Ong, J.; Polk, J.; Parsons, A.; Shackelford, L.; Tueller, J.; Walling, S. [Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA (United States); Okada, Y. [University of Tokyo, Saitama University (Japan) and ISAS (Japan)] [and others

    2004-09-28

    The BAT instrument tells Swift where to point to make immediate follow-up observations of GRBs. The science software on board must efficiently process {gamma}-ray events coming in at up to 34 kHz, identify rate increases that could be due to GRBs while disregarding those from known sources, and produce images to accurately and rapidly locate new Gamma-ray sources.

  12. The Adventure of Echo, the Bat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive adventure uses a Landsat mosaic of Arizona as the interface. Students need to interpret satellite imagery to receive clues to Echo the Bat's location. As students find Echo, additional content about remote sensing and biodiversity is introduced. This web site provides teachers with a vehicle for introducing complex content that can be reinforced back in the classroom through the Remote Sensing and Biodiversity units linked to this website.

  13. Bats: Night Fliers (SuperScience)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article is from the Museum's Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy. Written for students in grades 3-6, this article from SuperScience magazine has an interview with AMNH zoologist Nancy Simmons, in which she discusses the difficulties of studying bats. There is a hands-on activity, Chip Challenge, that introduces students to the idea of sorting according to physical characteristics.

  14. Multicentric malignant lymphoma in a pallid bat.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, C B; Dulmstra, J R

    1996-07-01

    A 2.5-year-old, female pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus) was captured in Oregon (USA) in 1990 and later died in 1992. At the time of death, abdominal distension due to ascites, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, and a cheek mass were noted. Based on histologic examination of these tissues, a diagnosis of multicentric lymphoma was made. Retroviral particles were not found on electron microscopic examination. PMID:8827686

  15. Multicentric Malignant Lymphoma in a Pallid Bat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire B. Andreasen; Julie R. Dulmstra

    1996-01-01

    A 2.5-year-old, female pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus) was captured in Oregon (USA) in 1990 and later died in 1992. At the time of death, abdominal distension due to as- cites, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, and a cheek mass were noted. Based on histologic ex- amination of these tissues, a diagnosis of mu!- ticentric !ymphoma was made. Retrovira! par- tides were not

  16. Global patterns in fruiting seasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Ting; Stephen Hartley; K. C. Burns

    2008-01-01

    Aim To identify geographical and climatic correlates of the timing of fruit production in fleshy fruited plant communities. Location Global. Methods We searched the literature for studies documenting monthly variation in the number of fleshy fruited species bearing ripe fruits in plant communities (i.e. fruit phenologies). From these data, we used circular vector algebra to characterize seasonal peaks in fruit

  17. Dynamics of jamming avoidance in echolocating bats.

    PubMed Central

    Ulanovsky, Nachum; Fenton, M. Brock; Tsoar, Asaf; Korine, Carmi

    2004-01-01

    Animals using active sensing systems such as echolocation or electrolocation may experience interference from the signals of neighbouring conspecifics, which can be offset by a jamming avoidance response (JAR). Here, we report JAR in one echolocating bat (Tadarida teniotis: Molossidae) but not in another (Taphozous perforatus: Emballonuridae) when both flew and foraged with conspecifics. In T. teniotis, JAR consisted of shifts in the dominant frequencies of echolocation calls, enhancing differences among individuals. Larger spectral overlap of signals elicited stronger JAR. Tadarida teniotis showed two types of JAR: (i) for distant conspecifics: a symmetric JAR, with lower- and higher-frequency bats shifting their frequencies downwards and upwards, respectively, on average by the same amount; and (ii) for closer conspecifics: an asymmetric JAR, with only the upper-frequency bat shifting its frequency upwards. In comparison, 'wave-type' weakly electric fishes also shift frequencies of discharges in a JAR, but unlike T. teniotis, the shifts are either symmetric in some species or asymmetric in others. We hypothesize that symmetric JAR in T. teniotis serves to avoid jamming and improve echolocation, whereas asymmetric JAR may aid communication by helping to identify and locate conspecifics, thus minimizing chances of mid-air collisions. PMID:15306318

  18. Mosquito Consumption by Insectivorous Bats: Does Size Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito control activities. PMID:24130851

  19. Experimental rabies virus infection in Artibeus jamaicensis bats with CVS-24 variants.

    PubMed

    Reid, J E; Jackson, A C

    2001-12-01

    An experimental model of rabies was established in the fruit-eating bat species Artibeus jamaicensis. The infections caused by CVS-N2c and CVS-B2c, which are both stable variants of CVS-24, were compared after inoculation of adult bats in the right masseter muscle. CVS-N2c produced neurologic signs of rabies with paresis, ataxia, and inability to fly, while CVS-B2c did not produce neurologic signs. Bats were sacrificed and the distribution of rabies virus antigen was assessed in tissue sections with immunoperoxidase staining. Both viruses spread to the brain stem and bilaterally to the trigeminal ganglia by days 2 to 3. CVS-N2c had disseminated widely in the central nervous system (CNS) by day 4 and had involved the spinal cord, thalamus, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex. CVS-B2c had infected neurons in the spinal cord on day 5 and in the cerebellum, thalamus, and cerebral cortex on day 6. Infected pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus were observed on day 5 in CVS-N2c infection, but infected neurons were never noted in the hippocampus in CVS-B2c infection. CVS-N2c infected many more neurons and more prominently involved neuronal processes than CVS-B2c. CVS-N2c spread more efficiently in the CNS than CVS-B2c. Morphologic changes of apoptosis or biochemical evidence of DNA fragmentation were not observed in neurons with either virus after this route of inoculation. The different neurovirulent properties of these CVS variants in this model were not related to their in vivo ability to induce apoptosis. PMID:11704883

  20. Neighbourhood support to families with a disabled child: observations on a coping strategy of caregivers in a Jamaican community-based rehabilitation programme.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, R; Thorburn, M J; Reitmaier, P

    1996-11-01

    In Jamaica, a low degree of practical helpfulness of neighbours of families with a disabled child has been described. This seems to cast doubt on the World Health Organization's concept of community-based rehabilitation which simply assumes that the community is a source of support. Our study tries to elucidate which reasons, in a Jamaican socio-cultural setting, make neighbours give support to or withhold it from disabled children and their caregivers. A concept of neighbourhood help is identified, according to which help is something to be asked for and provided under exceptional circumstances only. Caregivers claim to give and receive support in child rearing within the limits of this definition, generally irrespective of the presence of a disability. The impression that neighbours are unconcerned can arise when the support needed becomes too extensive to fit into the local definition of neighbourhood help--which is more likely in the case of disabled children. PMID:8937751

  1. Foraging by bats in cleared, thinned and unharvested boreal forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krista J. Patriquin; Robert M. R. Barclay

    2003-01-01

    Summary 1. Modern silvicultural methods employ various styles of selective harvesting in addi- tion to traditional clear-cutting. This can create a mosaic of patches with different tree densities that may influence habitat use by foraging bats. Use of forest patches may also vary among bat species due to variation in their manoeuvrability. Apart from studies investigating use of clear-cuts, few

  2. Bat metacommunity structure on Caribbean islands and the role

    E-print Network

    Willig, Michael

    RESEARCH PAPER Bat metacommunity structure on Caribbean islands and the role of endemicsgeb_505 185) to determine the structure of bat metacommunities and metaensembles from Caribbean islands. We evaluate-five Caribbean islands throughout the Bahamas, Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles. Methods Metacommunity

  3. Terrestrial locomotion imposes high metabolic requirements on bats.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Borrisov, Ivailo M; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L

    2012-12-15

    The evolution of powered flight involved major morphological changes in Chiroptera. Nevertheless, all bats are also capable of crawling on the ground and some are even skilled sprinters. We asked if a highly derived morphology adapted for flapping flight imposes high metabolic requirements on bats when moving on the ground. We measured the metabolic rate during terrestrial locomotion in mastiff bats, Molossus currentium, a species that is both a fast-flying aerial-hawking bat and an agile crawler on the ground. Metabolic rates of bats averaged 8.0±4.0 ml CO(2) min(-1) during a 1-min period of sprinting at 1.3±0.6 km h(-1). With rising average speed, mean metabolic rates increased, reaching peak values that were similar to those of flying conspecifics. Metabolic rates of M. currentium were higher than those of similar-sized rodents that sprinted at similar velocities under steady-state conditions. When M. currentium sprinted at peak velocities, its aerobic metabolic rate was 3-5 times higher than those of rodent species running continuously in steady-state conditions. Costs of transport (J kg(-1) m(-1)) were more than 10 times higher for running than for flying bats. We conclude that at the same speed bats experience higher metabolic rates during short sprints than quadruped mammals during steady-state terrestrial locomotion, yet running bats achieve higher maximal mass-specific aerobic metabolic rates than non-volant mammals such as rodents. PMID:22972883

  4. Complicated systems Prof. B.A.T. Petersson

    E-print Network

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Acoustics Statistical Energy Analysis · Power balance equation -- Matrix notation C E = P © Prof. B Akustik Statistical Energy Analysis Power balance © Prof. B.A.T. Petersson in 0 ® ¯ ½ ¾ ¿ = 11n1 + 21n1 measurements and calculations © Prof. B.A.T. Petersson #12;Institute of Technical Acoustics Statistic Energy

  5. Comparative auditory neurophysiology of neotropical bats employing different echolocation signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan D. Grinnell

    1970-01-01

    1.Five species of neotropical bats, which emit echolocation pulses different than those employed by bats previously studied, were investigated in an attempt to find corresponding differences in mechanisms of neural analysis. Evoked potentials were recorded from the posterior colliculi and more peripheral levels in anesthetized specimens.2.Each species was found to be most sensitive in approximately the same frequency range it

  6. Integrated fossil and molecular data reconstruct bat echolocation

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    Integrated fossil and molecular data reconstruct bat echolocation Mark S. Springer , Emma C innovative features in the evolutionary history of mammals--laryngeal echolocation in bats. Molecular data that microbats are paraphyletic but do not resolve whether laryngeal echolocation evolved indepen- dently

  7. "Seeing" in the Dark: Neuromorphic VLSI Modeling of Bat Echolocation

    E-print Network

    Horiuchi, Timothy K.

    "Seeing" in the Dark: Neuromorphic VLSI Modeling of Bat Echolocation IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING and Ranging, which includes echolocation. It is most com- monly associated with underwater sens- ing an airborne echolocation system, bats have incredible aerial agility, flying in complete darkness through

  8. European Bats as Carriers of Viruses with Zoonotic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Claudia; Kurth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Bats are being increasingly recognized as reservoir hosts of highly pathogenic and zoonotic emerging viruses (Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Rabies virus, and coronaviruses). While numerous studies have focused on the mentioned highly human-pathogenic bat viruses in tropical regions, little is known on similar human-pathogenic viruses that may be present in European bats. Although novel viruses are being detected, their zoonotic potential remains unclear unless further studies are conducted. At present, it is assumed that the risk posed by bats to the general public is rather low. In this review, selected viruses detected and isolated in Europe are discussed from our point of view in regard to their human-pathogenic potential. All European bat species and their roosts are legally protected and some European species are even endangered. Nevertheless, the increasing public fear of bats and their viruses is an obstacle to their protection. Educating the public regarding bat lyssaviruses might result in reduced threats to both the public and the bats. PMID:25123684

  9. SmartBat : a baseball swing analysis and training product

    E-print Network

    Trangle, Ethan S

    2005-01-01

    Few products exist that offer any form of feedback on a hitter's baseball swing. Since bat speed is so critical in hitting for power, a low cost device that gives information on bat speed and/or acceleration is needed. By ...

  10. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bat, France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sébastien J. Puechmaille; Pascal Verdeyroux; Hubert Fuller; Michaël Bekaert; Emma C. Teeling

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat with this disease in France and assessed the implications of this finding.

  11. Summer 2010 BOSTONIA 21 Little brown bats, those

    E-print Network

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    of the jour- nal Science. It's not clear how white-nose syndrome (WNS), named for the bleached fungus found MAY SOON VANISH IN THE NORTHEAST BY RICH BARLOW WEB EXTRA Watch a video about white-nose syndrome in little brown bats at bu.edu/ bostonia. Thomas Kunz says bats afflicted with white-nose syndrome rouse

  12. Gray bats and pollution in Missouri and northern Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bunck, C.M.; Cromartie, E.; LaVal, R.K.; Tuttle, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    Gray bats died with lethal brain concentrations of dieldrin and rising levels of heptachlor epoxide in 1976, 1977, and 1978 at Bat Caves No. 2-3, Franklin County, Missouri. The colony disappeared in 1979. Dieldrin was banned in 1974 and 1981 was the last year for heptachlor use in Missouri. The State is recommendiing three organophosphates (chlorpyrifos or Dursban, dyfonate or Fonophos, and ethoprop or Mocap) as substitutes for heptachlor. All three compounds have excellent records in the environment. Analyses of insects collected where bats of this colony fed showed beetles, particularly rove beetles (Staphylinidae), to be the most heavily contaminated part of the bat's diet. Lactation concentrated these residues so that levels in milk were approximately 30 times those in the insect diet. Gray bats found dead in caves in northern Alabama showed DDD (a DDT derivative) contamination. Bats from the colony at Cave Springs Cave on the Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge contained up to 29 ppm DDD in their brains, but this is probably less than one-half the lethal level. Bats from other colonies contained less. The DDD contamination enters the Terinessee River just above the Wheeler Refuge and is seen in gray bat colonies as far as 60 miles downriver.

  13. Classification of insects by echolocating greater horseshoe bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard von der Emde; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

    1990-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) detect insects by concentrating on the characteristic amplitude- and frequency modulation pattern fluttering insects impose on the returning echoes. This study shows that horseshoe bats can also further analyse insect echoes and thus recognize and categorize the kind of insect they are echolocating.

  14. Hoop frequency as a predictor of performance for softball bats

    E-print Network

    Russell, Daniel A.

    for the both the "ping" sound of a metal bat and the so-called "trampoline effect." Modal analysis is used-spring model of the trampoline effect suggests that hoop frequency might be correlated to measured performance of the metal bats. The existence of a "trampoline effect" is given as a reason for higher performance

  15. THE BATS OF HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK, ARKANSAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GARYA. HEIDT

    A survey wasconducted fromJune 1982 through January 1987 to determine the occurrence of bat species in Hot Springs National Park, Garland County, Arkansas; an area of approximately 2025 hectares. A total of 309 bats in the families Molossidae and Vespertilionidae were captured. Species represented included: Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus borealis, Lasiurus cinereus, Nycticeius humeralis, Pipistrellus subflavus, and Tadarida brasiliensis cynocephala.

  16. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Genevieve S.; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species. PMID:23966949

  17. Repeated Homing Exhibited by a Female Pallid Bat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell Davis; E. Lendell Cockrum

    1962-01-01

    A pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus) returned home from eight consecutive releases from six distinctly different directions and from distances ranging from 21 to 68 miles. This performance indicates that chance alone cannot be a major factor in homing, and that certain abilities possessed by this bat, and not simply randomness, must have been in operation.

  18. Tick (Acari) Infestations of Bats in New Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Bonilla Steinlein; Lance A. Durden; William L. Gannon

    2001-01-01

    A total of 278 bats belonging to 16 species was examined for ticks from various sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998. Seven species of bats were parasitized by ticks: larvae of Ornithodoros kelleyi Cooley & Kohls, Ornithodoros rossi Kohls, Sonenshine & Clifford (Argasidae), or both. Both species of ticks are reported from New Mexico for the first time.

  19. Postnatal changes in hematology of the bat Antrozous pallidus.

    PubMed

    Bassett, J E; Wiederhielm, C A

    1984-01-01

    Blood oxygen capacity increases with growth as the result of increasing hemoglobin concentration, which is accompanied by increasing red blood cell count and hematocrit. Hematological profile of the postnatal bat approaches that of the adult by 42 days of age when the animal begins to fly. Hematological development in the bat is similar to that in other altricial small mammals. PMID:6149046

  20. Repeated Homing Exhibited by a Female Pallid Bat.

    PubMed

    Davis, R; Cockrum, E L

    1962-08-01

    A pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus) returned home from eight consecutive releases from six distinctly different directions and from distances ranging from 21 to 68 miles. This performance indicates that chance alone cannot be a major factor in homing, and that certain abilities possessed by this bat, and not simply randomness, must have been in operation. PMID:17740812

  1. Avoidance of bats by water striders ( Aquarius najas , Hemiptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Monica Svensson; Ingela Danielsson; Jens Rydell

    2002-01-01

    Our study showed that one species of water strider (Aquarius najas) dominated the insect fauna (>90% of the biomass) on and near the surface of a small stream in southern Sweden, but the diet of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii), regularly feeding over the same stream, contained <1% of these insects. To explain why the bats did not eat water striders

  2. The Effects of Geomyces Destructans Infection on Bat Wings

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Back-lit photographs of wings of White-nose Syndrome (WNS)-positive little brown bats, one with subtle circular and irregular pale areas (arrows) indicating areas of fungal infection (A) and another bat (B) with areas of relatively normal tone and elasticity (black arrow), compared to a WNS affected...

  3. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Wright, Genevieve S; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Moss, Cynthia F

    2013-01-01

    Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species. PMID:23966949

  4. Eavesdropping on echolocation: recording the bat's auditory experience.

    PubMed

    Austin, Kevin B; Moosman, Paul R; Thomas, Howard H

    2011-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are able to locate and capture insects in complete darkness while flying at high speeds. They may consume hundreds of insects each night while avoiding obstacles in a complex environment. To investigate the processes associated with bat echolocation, we have developed instrumentation that allows us to record and visualize what a bat hears while flying through its natural environment. Recordings were made using a miniaturized radio telemetry system mounted directly on the back of the bat. This paper describes the design and testing of the components of this system, presents echolocation data collected from bats and discusses issues associated with the visualization and analysis of echoes recorded in a natural setting from the bat's point-of-view. It presents a new tool for visualizing a bat's experience by generating call sequence sonograms (CSSs) based on various signal parameters. CSSs based on time series amplitude, band-limited spectral magnitude and Q-factor are presented. This work demonstrates that CSSs based on Q-factor (computed by dividing a peak frequency estimate by a bandwidth estimate) provides a relatively clear representation of the objects producing echoes encountered by a bat during a continuous flight. PMID:22256118

  5. Planning and Control for Planar Batting and Hopping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig K. Black; Kevin M. Lynch

    1998-01-01

    Manipulation by batting and locomotion by hopping share several common features. We look at planning and control methods for these types of dynamic underactuated ma- nipulation using predictive model optimiza- tion. This generates optimal control se- quences for reaching a desired goal state. Results are given for disk batting simula- tions. Current work is focused on experi- mental implementation. 1.

  6. Insectivorous bat pollinates columnar cactus more effectively per visit than specialized nectar bat.

    PubMed

    Frick, Winifred F; Price, Ryan D; Heady, Paul A; Kay, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions are great model systems to investigate mutualistic relationships. We compared pollinator effectiveness between facultative and obligate nectar-feeding bats to determine how foraging specialization influences mutualistic interactions in a bat-adapted cactus. We predicted that a specialized nectarivorous bat would deliver more pollen than an opportunistic nectar-feeding bat because of specialized adaptations to nectar feeding that indicate close association with their food plants. Counter to our predictions, the opportunistic Antrozous pallidus delivered significantly more pollen grains per visit than the specialized Leptonycteris yerbabuenae. Higher pollinator effectiveness, based on visitation rates and pollen deposition levels, varied between species by site, and although A. pallidus visits flowers much less frequently than L. yerbabuenae over all sites, it is likely an effective and reliable pollinator of Pachycereus pringlei in Baja, Mexico. Our results suggest that morphological adaptations and dietary specialization on nectar do not necessarily confer advantages for pollination over less specialized plant visitors and highlight the reciprocally exploitative nature of mutualisms. PMID:23234851

  7. Vaccinating the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus against rabies.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M F; Martorelli, L F A; Aires, C C; Barros, R F; Massad, E

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to extend the previous work of indirect oral rabies immunization of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) maintained in captivity, which demonstrated the immunogenicity of the V-RG vaccine (Vaccinia-Rabies Glycoprotein) and indicated that although the results had been encouraging, a new method for concentrating the vaccine should be tested in order to avoid vaccine loss and increase the survival proportion of bats after rabies challenge. In this study, three groups of seven bats each were tested with vaccine concentrated by ultrafiltration through a cellulose membrane. The vaccine was homogenized in Vaseline paste and applied to the back of one vector bat, which was then reintroduced into its group. A dose of 10(5.0) MICLD(50) rabies virus was used by intramuscular route to challenge the bats postvaccination. The survival proportion in the three groups after the challenge was 71.4%, 71.4% and 100%. PMID:18761044

  8. A plan for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loeb, Susan C.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ellison, Laura E.; Lausen, Cori L.; Reichard, Jonathan D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Ingersoll, Thomas E.; Coleman, Jeremy T. H.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Sauer, John R.; Francis, Charles M.; Bayless, Mylea L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decisionmaking and the long-term viability of bat populations across the continent. This is an international, multiagency program. Four approaches will be used to gather monitoring data to assess changes in bat distributions and abundances: winter hibernaculum counts, maternity colony counts, mobile acoustic surveys along road transects, and acoustic surveys at stationary points. These monitoring approaches are described along with methods for identifying species recorded by acoustic detectors. Other chapters describe the sampling design, the database management system (Bat Population Database), and statistical approaches that can be used to analyze data collected through this program.

  9. DDE in brown and white fat of hibernating bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of brown and white fat from hibernating bats (big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus; little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus; and eastern pipistrelle, Pipistrellus subflavus) collected in western Maryland, USA, were analysed to determine lipid and DDE content. Amounts of brown fat, expressed as percentages of total bat weight, were the same for all three species. Lipid content of brown fat was significantly less than that of white fat. Lipids of brown fat contained significantly higher (28%) concentrations of DDE than did lipids of white fat. In our mixed-species sample of 14 bats, concentrations of DDE increased exponentially in both brown and white fat as white fat reserves declined. Brown fat facilitates arousal from hibernation by producing heat through rapid metabolism of triglycerides. The question is raised whether organochlorine residues, such as DDE, may be concentrated and then liberated in lethal amounts by the processes of hibernation and arousal.

  10. Parallel Evolution of KCNQ4 in Echolocating Bats Zhen Liu1,2.

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Bob

    Parallel Evolution of KCNQ4 in Echolocating Bats Zhen Liu1,2. , Shude Li3. , Wei Wang1,2 , Dongming Abstract High-frequency hearing is required for echolocating bats to locate, range and identify objects from 15 species of bats, including echolocating bats that have higher frequency hearing and non-echolocating

  11. Wing pathology of white-nose syndrome in bats suggests life-threatening disruption of physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M Cryan; Carol Uphoff Meteyer; Justin G Boyles; David S Blehert

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is causing unprecedented declines in several species of North American bats. The characteristic lesions of WNS are caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans, which erodes and replaces the living skin of bats while they hibernate. It is unknown how this infection kills the bats. We review here the unique physiological importance of wings to hibernating bats in

  12. Evolutionary timescale of rabies virus adaptation to North American bats inferred from the

    E-print Network

    , Lasiurus borealis, Lasiurus cinereus), suggesting that the process of virus adaptation may be dependent?5 %), Lasiurus borealis (red bat; 4?3 %), Myotis lucifugus (little brown bat; 3?7 %), Lasionycteris noctivagans-tailed bat; 28?3 %). In addition, small numbers of cases were attributed to Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat; 5

  13. Diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in Arizona as indicated by fecal analysis and stable isotopes

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum (J.A. Allen, 1891)) by visual analysis of bat feces and stable carbon (d13C) and nitrogen (d15N) isotope analysis of bat feces, wing, hair, and insect prey. We collected 33 fecal samples from spotted bats and trapped 3755 insect...

  14. The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats—A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Barry; Racey, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines and there is at present no accepted method of reducing or preventing this mortality. Following our demonstration that bat activity is reduced in the vicinity of large air traffic control and weather radars, we tested the hypothesis that an electromagnetic signal from a small portable radar can act as a deterrent to foraging bats. From June to September 2007 bat activity was compared at 20 foraging sites in northeast Scotland during experimental trials (radar switched on) and control trials (no radar signal). Starting 45 minutes after sunset, bat activity was recorded for a period of 30 minutes during each trial and the order of trials were alternated between nights. From July to September 2008 aerial insects at 16 of these sites were sampled using two miniature light-suction traps. At each site one of the traps was exposed to a radar signal and the other functioned as a control. Bat activity and foraging effort per unit time were significantly reduced during experimental trials when the radar antenna was fixed to produce a unidirectional signal therefore maximising exposure of foraging bats to the radar beam. However, although bat activity was significantly reduced during such trials, the radar had no significant effect on the abundance of insects captured by the traps. PMID:19606214

  15. BAT2 and BAT3 polymorphisms as novel genetic risk factors for rejection after HLA-related SCT.

    PubMed

    Piras, I S; Angius, A; Andreani, M; Testi, M; Lucarelli, G; Floris, M; Marktel, S; Ciceri, F; La Nasa, G; Nasa, G La; Fleischhauer, K; Roncarolo, M G; Bulfone, A; Gregori, S; Bacchetta, R

    2014-11-01

    The genetic background of donor and recipient is an important factor determining the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-HSCT). We applied whole-genome analysis to investigate genetic variants-other than HLA class I and II-associated with negative outcome after HLA-identical sibling allo-HSCT in a cohort of 110 ?-Thalassemic patients. We identified two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BAT2 (A/G) and BAT3 (T/C) genes, SNP rs11538264 and SNP rs10484558, both located in the HLA class III region, in strong linkage disequilibrium between each other (R(2)=0.92). When considered as single SNP, none of them reached a significant association with graft rejection (nominal P<0.00001 for BAT2 SNP rs11538264, and P<0.0001 for BAT3 SNP rs10484558), whereas the BAT2/BAT3 A/C haplotype was present at significantly higher frequency in patients who rejected as compared to those with functional graft (30.0% vs 2.6%, nominal P=1.15 × 10(-8); and adjusted P=0.0071). The BAT2/BAT3 polymorphisms and specifically the A/C haplotype may represent a novel immunogenetic factor associated with graft rejection in patients undergoing allo-HSCT. PMID:25111513

  16. Island biogeography of bats in Baja California, Mexico: patterns of bat species richness in a near-shore archipelago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winifred F. Frick; John P. Hayes; Paul A. Heady III

    2007-01-01

    Aim We studied the relationship between the size and isolation of islands and bat species richness in a near-shore archipelago to determine whether communities of vagile mammals conform to predictions of island biogeography theory. We compared patterns of species richness in two subarchipelagos to determine whether area per se or differences in habitat diversity explain variations in bat species richness.

  17. Echo-location of bats after ablation of auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Suga, N.

    1969-01-01

    1. Echo-location of blinded Yuma bats (Myotis yumanensis) was studied after ablation of the auditory cortex (A.C.). A task of obstacle-avoidance was given to the bats. Hits and misses of strands were counted, and orientation sounds emitted by the bats during flight were recorded. 2. After bilateral ablation of A.C., two bats out of six failed to avoid even large obstacles such as 3·7 mm strands and wall. These bats emitted orientation sounds at a rate of 10-15/sec during flight, but did not change that rate before crossing the obstacles and crashed into them. In these bats, other cortical areas in addition to A.C. were probably ablated. 3. In three bats out of six, obstacle-avoidance performance was quite normal. These bats avoided even 0·2 mm strands with orientation sounds, the repetition rate of which was systematically increased before crossing the obstacles. In two of them, the dorsal half of the inferior colliculus (I.C.) was bilaterally ablated in addition to A.C. But ability to avoid the obstacles was not impaired at all. Their cerebral cortices did not show the normal positive—negative diphasic potential change in response to tonal stimuli, although the normal diphasic potential change was retained in A.C. of bats which could not echo-locate as a result of bilateral ablation of the main nucleus of I.C. A.C. appeared to be not essential for echo-location. 4. Unilateral ablation of A.C. and the internal capsule had no effect on echo-location, but bilateral ablation of them usually resulted in death from operational trauma. 5. It was suggested that A.C. was less important for sound localization in bats than in cats. PMID:16992341

  18. Echo-location of bats after ablation of auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Suga, N

    1969-08-01

    1. Echo-location of blinded Yuma bats (Myotis yumanensis) was studied after ablation of the auditory cortex (A.C.). A task of obstacle-avoidance was given to the bats. Hits and misses of strands were counted, and orientation sounds emitted by the bats during flight were recorded.2. After bilateral ablation of A.C., two bats out of six failed to avoid even large obstacles such as 3.7 mm strands and wall. These bats emitted orientation sounds at a rate of 10-15/sec during flight, but did not change that rate before crossing the obstacles and crashed into them. In these bats, other cortical areas in addition to A.C. were probably ablated.3. In three bats out of six, obstacle-avoidance performance was quite normal. These bats avoided even 0.2 mm strands with orientation sounds, the repetition rate of which was systematically increased before crossing the obstacles. In two of them, the dorsal half of the inferior colliculus (I.C.) was bilaterally ablated in addition to A.C. But ability to avoid the obstacles was not impaired at all. Their cerebral cortices did not show the normal positive-negative diphasic potential change in response to tonal stimuli, although the normal diphasic potential change was retained in A.C. of bats which could not echo-locate as a result of bilateral ablation of the main nucleus of I.C. A.C. appeared to be not essential for echo-location.4. Unilateral ablation of A.C. and the internal capsule had no effect on echo-location, but bilateral ablation of them usually resulted in death from operational trauma.5. It was suggested that A.C. was less important for sound localization in bats than in cats. PMID:16992341

  19. Rabies surveillance in bats in Northwestern State of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Daiene Karina Azevedo; Favaro, Ana Beatriz Botto de Barros da Cruz; de Carvalho, Cristiano; Picolo, Mileia Ricci; Hernandez, Janaína Camila Borges; Lot, Monique Serra; Albas, Avelino; Araújo, Danielle Bastos; André Pedro, Wagner; Queiroz, Luzia Helena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rabies is an important zoonosis that occurs in mammals, with bats acting as Lyssavirus reservoirs in urban, rural and natural areas. Rabies cases in bats have been recorded primarily in urban areas in Northwestern State of São Paulo since 1998. This study investigated the circulation of rabies virus by seeking to identify the virus in the brain in several species of bats in this region and by measuring rabies-virus neutralizing antibody levels in the hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus. Methods From 2008 to 2012, 1,490 bat brain samples were sent to the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Rabies Laboratory in Araçatuba, and 125 serum samples from vampire bats that were captured in this geographical region were analyzed. Results Rabies virus was detected in the brains of 26 (2%) of 1,314 non-hematophagous bats using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and the mouse inoculation test (MIT). None of the 176 hematophagous bat samples were positive for rabies virus when a virus detection test was utilized. Out of 125 vampire bat serum samples, 9 (7%) had levels of rabies virus neutralization antibodies (RVNAs) that were higher than 0.5IU/mL; 65% (81/125) had titers between 0.10IU/mL and 0.5IU/mL; and 28% (35/125) were negative for RVNAs using the simplified fluorescent inhibition microtest (SFIMT) in BHK21 cells. The observed positivity rate (1.7%) was higher than the average positivity rate of 1.3% that was previously found in this region. Conclusions The high percentage of vampire bats with neutralizing antibodies suggests that recent rabies virus exposure has occurred, indicating the necessity of surveillance measures in nearby regions that are at risk to avoid diffusion of the rabies virus and possible rabies occurrences. PMID:25626649

  20. Habitat Use by Forest Bats in South Carolina in Relation to Local, Stand, and Landscape Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUSAN C. LOEB; JOY M. O'KEEFE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge,and understanding,of bat habitat associations,and,the responses,of bats to forest management,are critical for effective bat conservation and management. Few studies have been conducted on bat habitat use in the southeast, despite the high number of endangered and sensitive species in the region. Our objective was to identify important local, stand, and landscape factors influencing bat habitat use in northwestern South

  1. Home Fruit Production - Figs. 

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Calvin G.; McEachern, George Ray

    1987-01-01

    are required for normal fruit development. If this fertilization process does not occur, fruit will not develop properly and will fall from the tree. Smyrna-type figs are commonly sold as dried figs. San Pedro. These figs can bear two crops of fruit in one... season-one crop on last season's growth and a second crop on current growth. The first crop, called the Breba crop, is parthenocarpic and does not require pollination. Fruit of the second crop is the Smyrna type and requires pollination from...

  2. Bats Track and Exploit Changes in Insect Pest Populations

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Gary F.; Westbrook, John K.; Brown, Veronica A.; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators. PMID:22952782

  3. Social Calls Predict Foraging Success in Big Brown Bats

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Genevieve Spanjer; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    Animals foraging in the dark are simultaneously engaged in prey pursuit, collision avoidance and interactions with conspecifics, making efficient, non-visual communication essential. A variety of birds and mammals emit food-associated calls that inform, attract, or repel conspecifics [e.g., 1]. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are insectivorous aerial hawkers that may forage near conspecifics and are known to emit social calls [e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5]. Calls recorded in a foraging setting might attract [e.g., 6] or repel conspecifics [7] and could denote territoriality or food-claiming. Here, we provide evidence that a social call emitted only by male bats, exclusively in a foraging context [5], the “frequency-modulated bout” (FMB), is used to claim food and is individually distinct. Bats were studied individually and in pairs in a flight room equipped with synchronized high-speed stereo video and audio recording equipment, while sex and experience with a foraging task were experimentally manipulated. Male bats emitting the FMB showed greater success in capturing prey. Following FMB emission, inter-bat distance, diverging flight, and the other bat’s distance to the prey each increased. These findings highlight the importance and utility of vocal communication for a nocturnal animal mediating interactions with conspecifics in a fast-paced foraging setting. PMID:24684936

  4. Monitoring seasonal bat activity on a coastal barrier island in Maryland, USA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joshua B; Gates, J Edward; Zegre, Nicolas P

    2011-02-01

    Research on effects of wind turbines on bats has increased dramatically in recent years because of significant numbers of bats killed by rotating wind turbine blades. Whereas most research has focused on the Midwest and inland portions of eastern North America, bat activity and migration on the Atlantic Coast has largely been unexamined. We used three long-term acoustic monitoring stations to determine seasonal bat activity patterns on the Assateague Island National Seashore, a barrier island off the coast of Maryland, from 2005 to 2006. We recorded five species, including eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Seasonal bat activity (number of bat passes recorded) followed a cosine function and gradually increased beginning in April, peaked in August, and declined gradually until cessation in December. Based on autoregressive models, inter-night bat activity was autocorrelated for lags of seven nights or fewer but varied among acoustic monitoring stations. Higher nightly temperatures and lower wind speeds positively affected bat activity. When autoregressive model predictions were fitted to the observed nightly bat pass totals, model residuals>2 standard deviations from the mean existed only during migration periods, indicating that periodic increases in bat activity could not be accounted for by seasonal trends and weather variables alone. Rather, the additional bat passes were attributable to migrating bats. We conclude that bats, specifically eastern red, hoary, and silver-haired bats, use this barrier island during migration and that this phenomenon may have implications for the development of near and offshore wind energy. PMID:20364316

  5. Echolocating Bats Cry Out Loud to Detect Their Prey

    PubMed Central

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

    2008-01-01

    Echolocating bats have successfully exploited a broad range of habitats and prey. Much research has demonstrated how time-frequency structure of echolocation calls of different species is adapted to acoustic constraints of habitats and foraging behaviors. However, the intensity of bat calls has been largely neglected although intensity is a key factor determining echolocation range and interactions with other bats and prey. Differences in detection range, in turn, are thought to constitute a mechanism promoting resource partitioning among bats, which might be particularly important for the species-rich bat assemblages in the tropics. Here we present data on emitted intensities for 11 species from 5 families of insectivorous bats from Panamá hunting in open or background cluttered space or over water. We recorded all bats in their natural habitat in the field using a multi-microphone array coupled with photographic methods to assess the bats' position in space to estimate emitted call intensities. All species emitted intense search signals. Output intensity was reduced when closing in on background by 4–7 dB per halving of distance. Source levels of open space and edge space foragers (Emballonuridae, Mormoopidae, Molossidae, and Vespertilionidae) ranged between 122–134 dB SPL. The two Noctilionidae species hunting over water emitted the loudest signals recorded so far for any bat with average source levels of ca. 137 dB SPL and maximum levels above 140 dB SPL. In spite of this ten-fold variation in emitted intensity, estimates indicated, surprisingly, that detection distances for prey varied far less; bats emitting the highest intensities also emitted the highest frequencies, which are severely attenuated in air. Thus, our results suggest that bats within a local assemblage compensate for frequency dependent attenuation by adjusting the emitted intensity to achieve comparable detection distances for prey across species. We conclude that for bats with similar hunting habits, prey detection range represents a unifying constraint on the emitted intensity largely independent of call shape, body size, and close phylogenetic relationships. PMID:18446226

  6. Probing the Natural Scene by Echolocation in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Cynthia F.; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    Bats echolocating in the natural environment face the formidable task of sorting signals from multiple auditory objects, echoes from obstacles, prey, and the calls of conspecifics. Successful orientation in a complex environment depends on auditory information processing, along with adaptive vocal-motor behaviors and flight path control, which draw upon 3-D spatial perception, attention, and memory. This article reviews field and laboratory studies that document adaptive sonar behaviors of echolocating bats, and point to the fundamental signal parameters they use to track and sort auditory objects in a dynamic environment. We suggest that adaptive sonar behavior provides a window to bats’ perception of complex auditory scenes. PMID:20740076

  7. FRUIT & NUT NATIVE PECANS

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    TEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION NATIVE PECANS Larry Stein, Monte Nesbitt & Jim Kamas Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension There are 600,000 to one million acres of native pecans along is seldom over 20 mil- lion pounds. A native pecan management pro- gram should include nut production

  8. Fruit and Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased by more than 30% over the last few decades in the U.S. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruit and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on mi...

  9. Regulation of fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a process unique to plants in which floral seed bearing organs mature into fleshy structures attractive and nutritious to seed dispersing organisms. While the specific characteristics of ripening fruit vary among species, a number of general themes are exhibited in many fleshy rip...

  10. Mutant Fruit Flies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A general audience discussion of common fruit fly mutations. The site includes simplified illustrations, and a discussion of fruit fly chromosomes. Presented by Exploratorium at the museum of science art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts San Francisco.

  11. The Second Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parametert:; measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8% and 2% respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX and HETE-2 GRB samples. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 70 s and 30 s, respectively. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT S-GRBs are generally harder than those of the L-GRBs. The time-averaged spectra of the BAT S GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the L-GRBs. Whereas, the spectra of the initial short spikes of the S-GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the S-GRBs. We show that the BAT GRB samples are significantly softer than the BATSE bright GRBs, and that the time-averaged E obs/peak of the BAT GRBs peaks at 80 keV which is significantly lower energy than those of the BATSE sample which peak at 320 keV. The time-averaged spectral properties of the BAT GRB sample are similar to those of the HETE-2 GRB samples. By time-resolved spectral analysis, we find that 10% of the BAT observed photon indices are outside the allowed region of the synchrotron shock model. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate red shift GRBs. Furthermore, the observed spectra of the BAT high red shift GRBs are similar to or harder than the moderate red shift GRBs. The T90 and T50 distributions measured at the 140-220 keY band in the GRB rest frame form the BAT known redshift GRBs peak at 19 sand 8 s, respectively. We also provide an update on the status of the on-orbit BAT calibrations.

  12. Molecular detection of the causative agent of white-nose syndrome on Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) and two species of migratory bats in the southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Riley F; Foster, Jeffrey T; Willcox, Emma V; Parise, Katy L; McCracken, Gary F

    2015-04-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causal agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), is responsible for widespread mortality of hibernating bats across eastern North America. To document P. destructans exposure and infections on bats active during winter in the southeastern US, we collected epidermal swabs from bats captured during winters 2012-13 and 2013-14 in mist nets set outside of hibernacula in Tennessee. Epidermal swab samples were collected from eight Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), six eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), and three silver-hair bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Using real-time PCR methods, we identified DNA sequences of P. destructans from skin swabs of two Rafinesque's big-eared bats, two eastern red bats, and one silver-haired bat. This is the first detection of the WNS fungus on Rafinesque's big-eared bats and eastern red bats and the second record of the presence of the fungus on silver-haired bats. PMID:25647588

  13. Range Extent and Stand Selection for Roosting and Foraging in Forest-Dwelling Northern Long Eared Bats and Little Brown Bats in the Greater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HUGH G. BRODERS; GRAHAM J. FORBES; STEPHEN WOODLEY

    To understand bat biology and appreciate their dependence on and role within forested ecosystems, the biological resolution at which studies are directed must elucidate species and gender patterns. We studied species- and gender-specific aspects of summer range extent and stand selection in northern long-eared bats (Myotis septentrionalis) and little brown bats (M. lucifugus )i n the Greater Fundy Ecosystem, New

  14. Day 1 Day 5 Adaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscusAdaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    E-print Network

    Moss, Cynthia

    Day 1 Day 5 Adaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscusAdaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus Ben Falk1,2, Lasse Jakobsen3 in a complex environment. We recorded the navigation behavior of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus

  15. JAMMING BAT ECHOLOCATION: THE DOGBANE TIGER MOTH CYCNIA TENERA TIMES ITS CLICKS TO THE TERMINAL ATTACK CALLS OF THE BIG BROWN BAT EPTESICUS FUSCUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES H. FULLARD; JAMES A. SIMMONS; PRESTOR A. SAILLANT

    Summary Certain tiger moths emit high-frequency clicks to an attacking bat, causing it to break off its pursuit. The sounds may either orient the bat by providing it with information that it uses to make an attack decision (aposematism) or they may disorient the bat by interrupting the normal flow of echo information required to complete a successful capture (startle,

  16. Understanding phylogenetic incongruence: lessons from phyllostomid bats.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Cirranello, Andrea L; Geisler, Jonathan H; Simmons, Nancy B

    2012-11-01

    All characters and trait systems in an organism share a common evolutionary history that can be estimated using phylogenetic methods. However, differential rates of change and the evolutionary mechanisms driving those rates result in pervasive phylogenetic conflict. These drivers need to be uncovered because mismatches between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic models can lead to high confidence in incorrect hypotheses. Incongruence between phylogenies derived from morphological versus molecular analyses, and between trees based on different subsets of molecular sequences has become pervasive as datasets have expanded rapidly in both characters and species. For more than a decade, evolutionary relationships among members of the New World bat family Phyllostomidae inferred from morphological and molecular data have been in conflict. Here, we develop and apply methods to minimize systematic biases, uncover the biological mechanisms underlying phylogenetic conflict, and outline data requirements for future phylogenomic and morphological data collection. We introduce new morphological data for phyllostomids and outgroups and expand previous molecular analyses to eliminate methodological sources of phylogenetic conflict such as taxonomic sampling, sparse character sampling, or use of different algorithms to estimate the phylogeny. We also evaluate the impact of biological sources of conflict: saturation in morphological changes and molecular substitutions, and other processes that result in incongruent trees, including convergent morphological and molecular evolution. Methodological sources of incongruence play some role in generating phylogenetic conflict, and are relatively easy to eliminate by matching taxa, collecting more characters, and applying the same algorithms to optimize phylogeny. The evolutionary patterns uncovered are consistent with multiple biological sources of conflict, including saturation in morphological and molecular changes, adaptive morphological convergence among nectar-feeding lineages, and incongruent gene trees. Applying methods to account for nucleotide sequence saturation reduces, but does not completely eliminate, phylogenetic conflict. We ruled out paralogy, lateral gene transfer, and poor taxon sampling and outgroup choices among the processes leading to incongruent gene trees in phyllostomid bats. Uncovering and countering the possible effects of introgression and lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphism on gene trees will require great leaps in genomic and allelic sequencing in this species-rich mammalian family. We also found evidence for adaptive molecular evolution leading to convergence in mitochondrial proteins among nectar-feeding lineages. In conclusion, the biological processes that generate phylogenetic conflict are ubiquitous, and overcoming incongruence requires better models and more data than have been collected even in well-studied organisms such as phyllostomid bats. PMID:22891620

  17. Understanding phylogenetic incongruence: lessons from phyllostomid bats

    PubMed Central

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Cirranello, Andrea L; Geisler, Jonathan H; Simmons, Nancy B

    2012-01-01

    All characters and trait systems in an organism share a common evolutionary history that can be estimated using phylogenetic methods. However, differential rates of change and the evolutionary mechanisms driving those rates result in pervasive phylogenetic conflict. These drivers need to be uncovered because mismatches between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic models can lead to high confidence in incorrect hypotheses. Incongruence between phylogenies derived from morphological versus molecular analyses, and between trees based on different subsets of molecular sequences has become pervasive as datasets have expanded rapidly in both characters and species. For more than a decade, evolutionary relationships among members of the New World bat family Phyllostomidae inferred from morphological and molecular data have been in conflict. Here, we develop and apply methods to minimize systematic biases, uncover the biological mechanisms underlying phylogenetic conflict, and outline data requirements for future phylogenomic and morphological data collection. We introduce new morphological data for phyllostomids and outgroups and expand previous molecular analyses to eliminate methodological sources of phylogenetic conflict such as taxonomic sampling, sparse character sampling, or use of different algorithms to estimate the phylogeny. We also evaluate the impact of biological sources of conflict: saturation in morphological changes and molecular substitutions, and other processes that result in incongruent trees, including convergent morphological and molecular evolution. Methodological sources of incongruence play some role in generating phylogenetic conflict, and are relatively easy to eliminate by matching taxa, collecting more characters, and applying the same algorithms to optimize phylogeny. The evolutionary patterns uncovered are consistent with multiple biological sources of conflict, including saturation in morphological and molecular changes, adaptive morphological convergence among nectar-feeding lineages, and incongruent gene trees. Applying methods to account for nucleotide sequence saturation reduces, but does not completely eliminate, phylogenetic conflict. We ruled out paralogy, lateral gene transfer, and poor taxon sampling and outgroup choices among the processes leading to incongruent gene trees in phyllostomid bats. Uncovering and countering the possible effects of introgression and lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphism on gene trees will require great leaps in genomic and allelic sequencing in this species-rich mammalian family. We also found evidence for adaptive molecular evolution leading to convergence in mitochondrial proteins among nectar-feeding lineages. In conclusion, the biological processes that generate phylogenetic conflict are ubiquitous, and overcoming incongruence requires better models and more data than have been collected even in well-studied organisms such as phyllostomid bats. PMID:22891620

  18. 75 FR 64771 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Order Approving Minor Rule Violation Plan for BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...Self-Regulatory Organizations; Order Approving Minor Rule Violation Plan for BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. October 15, 2010. On September 10, 2010, BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. (``BATS Y-Exchange'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and...

  19. 75 FR 58011 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Minor Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ...10-198] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Minor...hereby given that on September 10, 2010, the BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. (``BATS Y- Exchange'' or ``Exchange''), filed with...

  20. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

  1. Does food sharing in vampire bats demonstrate reciprocity?

    PubMed

    Carter, Gerald; Wilkinson, Gerald

    2013-11-01

    Claims of reciprocity (or reciprocal altruism) in animal societies often ignite controversy because authors disagree over definitions, naturalistic studies tend to demonstrate correlation not causation, and controlled experiments often involve artificial conditions. Food sharing among common vampire bats has been a classic textbook example of reciprocity, but this conclusion has been contested by alternative explanations. Here, we review factors that predict food sharing in vampire bats based on previously published and unpublished data, validate previous published results with more precise relatedness estimates, and describe current evidence for and against alternative explanations for its evolutionary stability. Although correlational evidence indicates a role for both direct and indirect fitness benefits, unequivocally demonstrating reciprocity in vampire bats still requires testing if and how bats respond to non-reciprocation. PMID:24505498

  2. BAT RESEARCH NEWS Volume 37: Number 4 Winter 1996

    E-print Network

    with.man-~ objects exist. ~ the ~Ler.lrure..".an Gelder (1956) reported lbat five red bats (Lasiurus borealIS) were killed after colliding Wlth a teleVISion tower in Kansas. and Crawford and Baker (1981

  3. Vocal communication in the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus.

    PubMed

    Brown, P

    1976-05-01

    The communication sounds of the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus, wre studied in the laboratory. Adult pallid bats communicate via four main types of sound emissions: directives, squabble notes, irritation buzzes, and FM orientation pulses. Newborn bats emit only isolation calls. These calls evolve into the adult directive by the twentieth day. Ultrasonic orientation pulses do not appear until 7--9 days postnatally. These appear to arise de novo or may be derived from a shortened isolation call. Irritation buzzes and squabble notees are first emitted at one and two weeks of age respectively, without an apparent precursor. Mother bats nurse only their own infants and recognize them on the basis of auditory and olfactory cues. An apparent vocal signature is present in the temporal patterning of frequencies in the isolation call, and this may function in individual recognition. PMID:961121

  4. Updated list of bat species positive for rabies in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sodré, Miriam Martos; da Gama, Adriana Ruckert; de Almeida, Marilene Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an updated list of bat species positive for rabies in Brazil. It was developed based on database research via the internet, of international and national literature and annals of the most important technical and scientific meetings related to rabies and chiroptera in Brazil from 1996 to 2009. The new list of rabies positive bats consists of 41 species, belonging to 25 genera and three families: Phyllostomidae 43.9%, Vespertilionidae 29.3% and Molossidae 26.8%. In addition, questions were raised regarding the lack of data, including sex, age, circumstances and location of bat capture and incomplete and outdated species identification. Results of genetic and antigenic studies performed on Brazilian rabies positive bats were shown. PMID:20464127

  5. Nutrition, digestive system and digestion specificity in phytophagous bats

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Nutrition, digestive system and digestion specificity in phytophagous bats NF Zhukova Schmalhausen the entire order specificity affects these processes. To tackle these issues, the digestive system, within the mouth cavity, when only liquid fraction is swollen. The digestive system specialisation

  6. Improved Bat Algorithm Applied to Multilevel Image Thresholding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed. PMID:25165733

  7. Improved bat algorithm applied to multilevel image thresholding.

    PubMed

    Alihodzic, Adis; Tuba, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed. PMID:25165733

  8. Alphacoronaviruses in New World Bats: Prevalence, Persistence, Phylogeny, and Potential for Interaction with Humans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborne, Christina; Cryan, Paul M.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Oko, Lauren M.; Ndaluka, Christina; Calisher, Charles H.; Berglund, Andrew D.; Klavetter, Mead L.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Dominguez, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans), 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis), 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10%) and known to have direct contact with people (19%), suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.

  9. Alphacoronaviruses in new World bats: Prevalence, persistence, phylogeny, and potential for interaction with humans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborne, C.; Cryan, P.M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Oko, L.M.; Ndaluka, C.; Calisher, C.H.; Berglund, A.D.; Klavetter, M.L.; Bowen, R.A.; Holmes, K.V.; Dominguez, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans), 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis), 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10%) and known to have direct contact with people (19%), suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.

  10. Alphacoronaviruses in New World bats: prevalence, persistence, phylogeny, and potential for interaction with humans.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Christina; Cryan, Paul M; O'Shea, Thomas J; Oko, Lauren M; Ndaluka, Christina; Calisher, Charles H; Berglund, Andrew D; Klavetter, Mead L; Bowen, Richard A; Holmes, Kathryn V; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2011-01-01

    Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans), 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis), 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10%) and known to have direct contact with people (19%), suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted. PMID:21589915

  11. Thermal energetics of torpid silver-haired bats Lasionycteris noctivagans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miranda B. Dunbar

    2007-01-01

    Heterothermic endotherms can reduce energy expenditure by using controlled reductions in various physiological processes,\\u000a collectively called torpor. Torpor is an important mechanism which allows many small endotherms to survive seasonal periods\\u000a of inactivity, but there are few data on metabolic rate during torpor (TMR) for small, tree-living bats during winter. Therefore,\\u000a I report TMR of silver-haired batsLasionycteris noctivagans (LeConte, 1831)

  12. Establishment, Immortalisation and Characterisation of Pteropid Bat Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Crameri, Gary; Todd, Shawn; Grimley, Samantha; McEachern, Jennifer A.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Smith, Craig; Tachedjian, Mary; De Jong, Carol; Virtue, Elena R.; Yu, Meng; Bulach, Dieter; Liu, Jun-Ping; Michalski, Wojtek P.; Middleton, Deborah; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2009-01-01

    Background Bats are the suspected natural reservoir hosts for a number of new and emerging zoonotic viruses including Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus. Since the discovery of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese horseshoe bats, attempts to isolate a SL-CoV from bats have failed and attempts to isolate other bat-borne viruses in various mammalian cell lines have been similarly unsuccessful. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help with these investigations and as tools to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions. Methodology/Findings Black flying foxes (Pteropus alecto) were captured from the wild and transported live to the laboratory for primary cell culture preparation using a variety of different methods and culture media. Primary cells were successfully cultured from 20 different organs. Cell immortalisation can occur spontaneously, however we used a retroviral system to immortalise cells via the transfer and stable production of the Simian virus 40 Large T antigen and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Initial infection experiments with both cloned and uncloned cell lines using Hendra and Nipah viruses demonstrated varying degrees of infection efficiency between the different cell lines, although it was possible to infect cells in all tissue types. Conclusions/Significance The approaches developed and optimised in this study should be applicable to bats of other species. We are in the process of generating further cell lines from a number of different bat species using the methodology established in this study. PMID:20011515

  13. Vampires Are Still Alive: Slovakian Students' Attitudes toward Bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavol Prokop; Jana Fan?ovi?ová; Milan Kubiatko

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Animals that pose a threat of disease are often in conflict with human appreciation of them, despite that they may be endangered in nature. This study examined undergraduate students’ knowledge of, attitudes to- ward, and belief in myths about, bats, controversial animals well known both from mythology,and movies. Factor analysis was,applied to 46 Likert-type items (Bat Attitude Questionnaire) and,five

  14. The echolocation and hunting behavior of the bat, Pipistrellus kuhli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler; Elisabeth Kalko; Lee Miller; Annemarie Surlykke

    1987-01-01

    The echolocation and hunting behavior ofPipistrellus kuhli was studied in the field using multi-exposure photography synchronized with high-speed tape recordings. During the search phase, the bats used 8–12 ms signals with sweeps (sweep width 3–6 kHz) and pulse intervals near 100 ms or less often near 200 ms (Figs. 1 and 2). The bats seemed to have individual terminal frequencies

  15. Hibernation energetics of free-ranging little brown bats.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Kristin A; Willis, Craig K R

    2012-06-15

    Hibernation physiology and energy expenditure have been relatively well studied in large captive hibernators, especially rodents, but data from smaller, free-ranging hibernators are sparse. We examined variation in the hibernation patterns of free-ranging little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) using temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters. First, we aimed to test the hypothesis that age, sex and body condition affect expression of torpor and energy expenditure during hibernation. Second, we examined skin temperature to assess whether qualitative differences in the thermal properties of the hibernacula of bats, compared with the burrows of hibernating rodents, might lead to different patterns of torpor and arousal for bats. We also evaluated the impact of carrying transmitters on body condition to help determine the potential impact of telemetry studies. We observed large variation in the duration of torpor bouts within and between individuals but detected no effect of age, sex or body condition on torpor expression or estimates of energy expenditure. We observed the use of shallow torpor in the midst of periodic arousals, which may represent a unique adaptation of bats for conservation of energy during the most costly phase of hibernation. There was no difference in the body condition of hibernating bats outfitted with transmitters compared with that of control bats captured from the same hibernaculum at the same time. This study provides new information on the energetics of hibernation in an under-represented taxon and baseline data important for understanding how white-nose syndrome, a new disease devastating populations of hibernating bats in North America, may alter the expression of hibernation in affected bats. PMID:22623203

  16. Trawling bats exploit an echo-acoustic ground effect

    PubMed Central

    Zsebok, Sandor; Kroll, Ferdinand; Heinrich, Melina; Genzel, Daria; Siemers, Björn M.; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    A water surface acts not only as an optic mirror but also as an acoustic mirror. Echolocation calls emitted by bats at low heights above water are reflected away from the bat, and hence the background clutter is reduced. Moreover, targets on the surface create an enhanced echo. Here, we formally quantified the effect of the surface and target height on both target detection and -discrimination in a combined laboratory and field approach with Myotis daubentonii. In a two-alternative, forced-choice paradigm, the bats had to detect a mealworm and discriminate it from an inedible dummy (20 mm PVC disc). Psychophysical performance was measured as a function of height above either smooth surfaces (water or PVC) or above a clutter surface (artificial grass). At low heights above the clutter surface (10, 20, or 35 cm), the bats' detection performance was worse than above a smooth surface. At a height of 50 cm, the surface structure had no influence on target detection. Above the clutter surface, also target discrimination was significantly impaired with decreasing target height. A detailed analysis of the bats' echolocation calls during target approach shows that above the clutter surface, the bats produce calls with significantly higher peak frequency. Flight-path reconstruction revealed that the bats attacked an target from below over water but from above over a clutter surface. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that trawling bats exploit an echo-acoustic ground effect, in terms of a spatio-temporal integration of direct reflections with indirect reflections from the water surface, to optimize prey detection and -discrimination not only for prey on the water but also for some range above. PMID:23576990

  17. Comparative social network analysis in a leaf-roosting bat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloriana Chaverri

    2010-01-01

    Even though social network analysis provides an important tool to characterize and compare societies, no studies have used\\u000a its analytical applications to characterize patterns of sociality in bats. Here I use social network analysis to characterize\\u000a and compare patterns of sociality between three populations of the leaf-roosting bat Thyroptera tricolor. Sites differed in the density of furled leaves used by

  18. Neural coding of echo-envelope disparities in echolocating bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Borina; Uwe Firzlaff; Lutz Wiegrebe

    2011-01-01

    The effective use of echolocation requires not only measuring the delay between the emitted call and returning echo to estimate\\u000a the distance of an ensonified object. To locate an object in azimuth and elevation, the bat’s auditory system must analyze\\u000a the returning echoes in terms of their binaural properties, i.e., the echoes’ interaural intensity and time differences (IIDs\\u000a and ITDs).

  19. Brightness Discrimination Thresholds in the Bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart R. Ellins; Fred A. Masterson

    1974-01-01

    Echolocating bats (Eptesicus fuscus)were trained on a brightness discrimination task. It was found that the ability of these bats to discriminate luminance differences at a fixed dim ambient illumination compares to that of rats and mice. The mean Weber ratio for four different standard-comparison stimulus sets was 0.85. When tested under varying conditions of ambient illumination, it was found that

  20. Strategies for Improved Biosonar Performance in Bat Social Networks 

    E-print Network

    Davis, Kaylee

    2013-12-04

    -course and characteristics of returning echoes (2) (Figure 1). Echolocation sounds are produced through constraint muscles in the larynx which can be further characterized by frequency, pitch, duration, and intensity (1). The majority of echolocation calls are greater... than 20 kHz, making them ultrasonic and beyond the range of human hearing. Bats use echoes from the time-frequency patterns of emitted calls to determine the distance to the target. Through echolocation, the bats can collect information about targets...

  1. Ovariohysterectomy of three vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus).

    PubMed

    Clarke, Elsburgh O; DeVoe, Ryan S

    2011-12-01

    Three sexually mature female common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) housed at the North Carolina Zoological Park, Asheboro, North Carolina, were selected for surgical ovariohysterectomy. All animals were induced and maintained with isoflurane anesthetic gas. Magnification loop glasses were worn by the surgeon for the procedure. A ventral midline incision was made into the abdominal cavity. Simple micro-ophthalmic surgical packs along with hemoclips were used to perform the ovariohysterectomies. The linea alba and muscular layers were closed using a simple continuous suture pattern with 4-0 polydioxanone suture. The skin was apposed using a horizontal mattress suture pattern with 4-0 polydioxanone suture. Animals recovered with minimal deleterious side effects. Animals were housed together in a recovery chamber and administered meloxicam at 0.2 mg/kg placed in their blood meal once daily for 7 days postoperatively, after which they were returned to their normal enclosures. PMID:22204078

  2. The Swift Burst and Transient Telescope (BAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The Swift Burst and Transient telescope (BAT) has surveyed the entire sky for the last 3.5 years obtaining the first sensitive all sky survey of the 14-195 kev sky. At high galactic latitudes the vast majority of the detected sources are AGN. Since hard x-rays penetrate all but Compton thick obscuring material (Column densities of 1.6324 atms/sq cm) this survey is unbiased with respect to obscuration, host galaxy type, optical , radio or IR properties. We will present results on the broad band x-ray properties, the nature of the host galaxies, the luminosity function and will discuss a few of the optical, IR and x-ray results in detail.

  3. Group Hunting—A Reason for Sociality in Molossid Bats?

    PubMed Central

    Dechmann, Dina K. N.; Kranstauber, Bart; Gibbs, David; Wikelski, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Many bat species live in groups, some of them in highly complex social systems, but the reasons for sociality in bats remain largely unresolved. Increased foraging efficiency through passive information transfer in species foraging for ephemeral insects has been postulated as a reason for group formation of male bats in the temperate zones. We hypothesized that benefits from group hunting might also entice tropical bats of both sexes to live in groups. Here we investigate whether Molossus molossus, a small insectivorous bat in Panama, hunts in groups. We use a phased antenna array setup to reduce error in telemetry bearings. Our results confirmed that simultaneously radiotracked individuals from the same colony foraged together significantly more than expected by chance. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that many bats are social because of information transfer between foraging group members. We suggest this reason for sociality to be more widespread than currently assumed. Furthermore, benefits from group hunting may also have contributed to the evolution of group living in other animals specialized on ephemeral food sources. PMID:20140247

  4. First confirmation of Pseudogymnoascus destructans in British bats and hibernacula.

    PubMed

    Barlow, A M; Worledge, L; Miller, H; Drees, K P; Wright, P; Foster, J T; Sobek, C; Borman, A M; Fraser, M

    2015-07-18

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fatal fungal infection of bats in North America caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans. P. destructans has been confirmed in Continental Europe but not associated with mass mortality. Its presence in Great Britain was unknown. Opportunistic sampling of bats in GB began during the winter of 2009. Any dead bats or samples from live bats with visible fungal growths were submitted to the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency for culture. Active surveillance by targeted environmental sampling of hibernacula was carried out during the winter of 2012/2013. Six hibernacula were selected by their proximity to Continental Europe. Five samples, a combination of surface swabs or sediment samples, were collected. These were sent to the Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, for P. destructans PCR. Forty-eight incidents were investigated between March 2009 and July 2013. They consisted of 46 bat carcases and 31 other samples. A suspected P. destructans isolate was cultured from a live Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) sampled in February 2013. This isolate was confirmed by the Mycology Reference Laboratory, Bristol (Public Health England), as P. destructans. A variety of fungi were isolated from the rest but all were considered to be saprophytic or incidental. P. destructans was also confirmed by the Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics in five of the six sites surveyed. PMID:25968064

  5. Detection of polyoma and corona viruses in bats of Canada.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vikram; Dumonceaux, Timothy; Dubois, Jack; Willis, Craig; Nadin-Davis, Susan; Severini, Alberto; Wandeler, Alex; Lindsay, Robbin; Artsob, Harvey

    2009-08-01

    Several instances of emerging diseases in humans appear to be caused by the spillover of viruses endemic to bats, either directly or through other animal intermediaries. The objective of this study was to detect, identify and characterize viruses in bats in the province of Manitoba and other regions of Canada. Bats were sampled from three sources: live-trapped Myotis lucifugus from Manitoba, rabies-negative Eptesicus fuscus, M. lucifugus, M. yumanensis, M. septentrionalis, M. californicus, M. evotis, Lasionycteris (L.) noctivagans and Lasiurus (Las.) cinereus, provided by the Centre of Expertise for Rabies of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), and L. noctivagans, Las. cinereus and Las. borealis collected from a wind farm in Manitoba. We attempted to isolate viruses from fresh tissue samples taken from trapped bats in cultured cells of bat, primate, rodent, porcine, ovine and avian origin. We also screened bat tissues by PCR using primers designed to amplify nucleic acids from members of certain families of viruses. We detected RNA of a group 1 coronavirus from M. lucifugus (3 of 31 animals) and DNA from an as-yet undescribed polyomavirus from female M. lucifugus (4 of 31 animals) and M. californicus (pooled tissues from two females). PMID:19357225

  6. Nocturnal and seasonal activities of the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Vaughan, Terry A.

    1977-01-01

    Nocturnal and seasonal activities of pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) were observed in central Arizona. The pallid bat night is characterized by two roaming periods with an intervening period of night roosting. Foraging pallid bats have a characteristic style of flight well suited to the taking of relatively large, substrate-roving or slow flying prey. After the initial foraging period pallid bats locate one another through vocal communication and gather in night roosting clusters where they enter torpor. Durations and scheduling of nocturnal activities vary seasonally. Cool months are characterized by smaller colonies of bats, greater fidelity to certain colony sites, slower and later emergence, briefer foraging periods and longer periods of night roosting. Up to 75 percent of the time spent away from diurnal retreats is devoted to night roosting in the autumn. Young are born in June, and during most of the summer adult males do not seem to occur sympatrically with females and young. Females and young appear to forage together in July and August, when little fidelity is shown to roosting sites, large colonies exist, emergence is faster and earlier, and more time is spent in foraging than in cooler months. In mid-August a postbreeding dispersal occurs. These activities and behaviors are discussed in terms of the energetic demands on the bats and the socialization of young.

  7. Spatial unmasking in the echolocating Big Brown Bat, Eptesicus fuscus.

    PubMed

    Sümer, Susan; Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2009-05-01

    Masking affects the ability of echolocating bats to detect a target in the presence of clutter targets. It can be reduced by spatially separating the targets. Spatial unmasking was measured in a two-alternative-forced-choice detection experiment with four Big Brown Bats detecting a wire at 1 m distance. Depth dependent spatial unmasking was investigated by the bats detecting a wire with a diameter of 1.2 mm in front of a masker with a threshold distance of 11 cm behind the wire. For angle dependent spatial unmasking the masker was turned laterally, starting from its threshold position at 11 cm. With increasing masker angles the bats could detect thinner wires with diameters decreasing from 1.2 mm (target strength -36.8 dB) at 0 degrees to 0.2 mm (target strength -63.0 dB) at 22 degrees. Without masker, the bats detected wire diameters of 0.16 mm (target strength -66.2 dB), reached with masker positions beyond 23 degrees (complete masking release). Analysis of the sonar signals indicated strategies in the echolocation behavior. The bats enhanced the second harmonics of their signals. This may improve the spatial separation between wire and masker due to frequency-dependent directionality increase of sound emission and echo reception. PMID:19263055

  8. Spatial release from simultaneous echo masking in bat sonar.

    PubMed

    Warnecke, Michaela; Bates, Mary E; Flores, Victoria; Simmons, James A

    2014-05-01

    Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) use biosonar to navigate and locate objects in their surroundings. During natural foraging, they often encounter echoes returned by a target of interest located to the front while other, often stronger, clutter echoes are returned from objects, such as vegetation, located to the sides or above. Nevertheless, bats behave as if they do not suffer interference from this clutter. Using a two-choice delay discrimination procedure, bats were tested for the masking effectiveness of clutter echoes on target echoes when the target echoes were delivered from the bat's front while clutter echoes were delivered from 90° overhead, a direction of lowpass filtering by the external ears. When clutter echoes are presented from the front at the same delay as target echoes, detection performance declines and clutter masking occurs. When the clutter echoes are presented at the same delay but from overhead, discrimination performance is unaffected and no masking occurs. Thus there is masking release for simultaneous off-axis lowpass clutter compared to masking by simultaneous clutter from the front. The bat's performance for simultaneous target and clutter echoes indicates a new role for the mechanism that separates overlapping echoes by decomposing the bat's auditory time-frequency representation. PMID:24926503

  9. Early diversification trend and Asian origin for extent bat lineages.

    PubMed

    Yu, W; Wu, Y; Yang, G

    2014-10-01

    Bats are a unique mammalian group, which belong to one of the largest and most diverse mammalian radiations, but their early diversification is still poorly understood, and conflicting hypotheses have emerged regarding their biogeographic history. Understanding their diversification is crucial for untangling the enigmatic evolutionary history of bats. In this study, we elucidated the rate of diversification and the biogeographic history of extant bat lineages using genus-level chronograms. The results suggest that a rapid adaptive radiation persisted from the emergence of crown bats until the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum, whereas there was a major deceleration in diversification around 35-49 Ma. There was a positive association between changes in the palaeotemperature and the net diversification rate until 35 Ma, which suggests that the palaeotemperature may have played an important role in the regulation of ecological opportunities. By contrast, there were unexpectedly higher diversification rates around 25-35 Ma during a period characterized by intense and long-lasting global cooling, which implies that intrinsic innovations or adaptations may have released some lineages from the intense selective pressures associated with these severe conditions. Our reconstruction of the ancestral distribution suggests an Asian origin for bats, thereby indicating that the current panglobal but disjunct distribution pattern of extant bats may be related to events involving seriate cross-continental dispersal and local extinction, as well as the influence of geological events and the expansion and contraction of megathermal rainforests during the Tertiary. PMID:25244322

  10. Seroepidemiology of selected alphaviruses and flaviviruses in bats in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Thompson, N N; Auguste, A J; Travassos da Rosa, A P A; Carrington, C V F; Blitvich, B J; Chadee, D D; Tesh, R B; Weaver, S C; Adesiyun, A A

    2015-02-01

    A serosurvey of antibodies against selected flaviviruses and alphaviruses in 384 bats (representing 10 genera and 14 species) was conducted in the Caribbean island of Trinidad. Sera were analysed using epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) specific for antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), all of which are zoonotic viruses of public health significance in the region. Overall, the ELISAs resulted in the detection of VEEV-specific antibodies in 11 (2.9%) of 384 bats. Antibodies to WNV and EEEV were not detected in any sera. Of the 384 sera, 308 were also screened using hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA) for antibodies to the aforementioned viruses as well as St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV; which also causes epidemic disease in humans), Rio Bravo virus (RBV), Tamana bat virus (TABV) and western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV). Using this approach, antibodies to TABV and RBV were detected in 47 (15.3%) and 3 (1.0%) bats, respectively. HIA results also suggest the presence of antibodies to an undetermined flavivirus(es) in 8 (2.6%) bats. Seropositivity for TABV was significantly (P<0.05; ?2) associated with bat species, location and feeding preference, and for VEEV with roost type and location. Differences in prevalence rates between urban and rural locations were statistically significant (P<0.05; ?2) for TABV only. None of the aforementioned factors was significantly associated with RBV seropositivity rates. PMID:24751420

  11. 76 FR 5418 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ...SR-BATS-2011-002] Self-Regulatory Organizations...Implementation of Amendments to Regulation SHO January 25, 2011...contradict the provisions of Regulation SHO or Regulation NMS...B) Self-Regulatory...

  12. Susceptibility of North American big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to infection with European bat lyssavirus type 1.

    PubMed

    Franka, R; Johnson, N; Müller, T; Vos, A; Neubert, L; Freuling, C; Rupprecht, C E; Fooks, A R

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of insectivorous bats (using the big brown bat as a model) to infection with European bat lyssavirus type 1a (EBLV-1a), to assess the dynamics of host immune responses and to evaluate the opportunity for horizontal viral transmission within colonies. Two isolates of EBLV-1a, originating from Slovakia (EBLV-1aSK) and Germany (EBLV-1aGE), were tested. Four different routes of inoculation were used with isolate EBLV-1aSK [10(4.8) mouse intracerebral median lethal dose (MICLD(50)) in 50 mul]: intramuscular (i.m.) in the deltoid area or masseter region, per os (p.o.) and intradermal (i.d.) scratches. Isolate EBLV-1aGE (10(3.2) and 10(2.2) MICLD(50) in 20 mul) was inoculated via the intranasal (i.n.), i.m. (low- and high-dose groups, into pectoral muscles); p.o. and intracerebral (i.c.) routes. None of the bats infected by the i.n., p.o. or i.d. route with either virus isolate developed disease during the experiments (91 or 120 days, respectively). Incubation periods were 9-12 days for i.c.-inoculated bats (66 % mortality), 12-33 days for bats inoculated i.m. with the higher dose (23-50 % mortality) and 21-58 days in bats inoculated i.m. with the lower dose of virus (57 % mortality). Virus or viral RNA in bat saliva was detected occasionally, as early as 37 days before death. All i.d.-inoculated and the majority of i.m.-inoculated bats seroconverted within 7-10 days of inoculation. These observations suggest that exposure of bats to varying doses of EBLV-1 from rabid conspecifics via natural (i.d.) routes could lead to an abortive infection and serve as a natural mode of immunization resulting in the presence of virus-neutralizing antibodies in free-ranging bats. PMID:18632972

  13. FRUIT & NUT Plums, Nectarines, Apricots,

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    having a groove running down one side of the fruit with a smooth seed. Like peaches, they also set fruitTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Plums, Nectarines, Apricots, Cherries, Almonds & Prunus hybrids Larry Stein, Jim Kamas & Monte Nesbitt Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Plums The stone

  14. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

    1996-01-01

    The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

  15. Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Canned fruits or vegetables Canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies, or preserves Oils for cooking (canola, olive

  16. Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Instant potatoes Beets Artichokes Vegetable broth Canned, jarred or packaged fruit Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes Rice milk Boxed, evaporated or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies

  17. Experimental infection of big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ) with Eurasian bat lyssaviruses Aravan, Khujand, and Irkut virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Hughes; I. V. Kuzmin; A. Schmitz; J. Blanton; J. Manangan; S. Murphy; C. E. Rupprecht

    2006-01-01

    Summary.  Here we describe the results of experimental infections of captive big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) with three newly isolated bat lyssaviruses from Eurasia (Aravan, Khujand, and Irkut viruses). Infection of E. fuscus was moderate (total, 55–75%). There was no evidence of transmission to in-contact cage mates. Incubation periods for Irkut\\u000a virus infection were significantly shorter (p?

  18. Metagenomic Analysis of the Viromes of Three North American Bat Species: Viral Diversity among Different Bat Species That Share a Common Habitat?

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Eric F.; Haskew, Aimee N.; Gates, J. Edward; Huynh, Jeremy; Moore, Clea J.; Frieman, Matthew B.

    2010-01-01

    Effective prediction of future viral zoonoses requires an in-depth understanding of the heterologous viral population in key animal species that will likely serve as reservoir hosts or intermediates during the next viral epidemic. The importance of bats as natural hosts for several important viral zoonoses, including Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Hendra, and rabies viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), has been established; however, the large viral population diversity (virome) of bats has been partially determined for only a few of the ?1,200 bat species. To assess the virome of North American bats, we collected fecal, oral, urine, and tissue samples from individual bats captured at an abandoned railroad tunnel in Maryland that is cohabitated by 7 to 10 different bat species. Here, we present preliminary characterization of the virome of three common North American bat species, including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). In samples derived from these bats, we identified viral sequences that were similar to at least three novel group 1 CoVs, large numbers of insect and plant virus sequences, and nearly full-length genomic sequences of two novel bacteriophages. These observations suggest that bats encounter and disseminate a large assortment of viruses capable of infecting many different animals, insects, and plants in nature. PMID:20926577

  19. Metagenomic analysis of the viromes of three North American bat species: viral diversity among different bat species that share a common habitat.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Eric F; Haskew, Aimee N; Gates, J Edward; Huynh, Jeremy; Moore, Clea J; Frieman, Matthew B

    2010-12-01

    Effective prediction of future viral zoonoses requires an in-depth understanding of the heterologous viral population in key animal species that will likely serve as reservoir hosts or intermediates during the next viral epidemic. The importance of bats as natural hosts for several important viral zoonoses, including Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Hendra, and rabies viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), has been established; however, the large viral population diversity (virome) of bats has been partially determined for only a few of the ?1,200 bat species. To assess the virome of North American bats, we collected fecal, oral, urine, and tissue samples from individual bats captured at an abandoned railroad tunnel in Maryland that is cohabitated by 7 to 10 different bat species. Here, we present preliminary characterization of the virome of three common North American bat species, including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). In samples derived from these bats, we identified viral sequences that were similar to at least three novel group 1 CoVs, large numbers of insect and plant virus sequences, and nearly full-length genomic sequences of two novel bacteriophages. These observations suggest that bats encounter and disseminate a large assortment of viruses capable of infecting many different animals, insects, and plants in nature. PMID:20926577

  20. Susceptibility and Pathogenesis of Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus) to Heterologous and Homologous Rabies Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Jodie A.; Pouliott, Craig E.; Morgan, Shannon, M. D.; Rudd, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) maintenance in bats is not well understood. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the United States. These colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the United States and Canada. This is of interest because silver-haired bats are more solitary bats with infrequent human interaction. Our goal was to determine the likelihood of a colonial bat species becoming infected with and transmitting a heterologous RABV. To ascertain the potential of heterologous RABV infection in colonial bat species, little brown bats were inoculated with a homologous RABV or one of two heterologous RABVs. Additionally, to determine if the route of exposure influenced the disease process, bats were inoculated either intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) with a homologous or heterologous RABV. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular inoculation results in a more rapid progression of disease onset, whereas the incubation time in bats inoculated s.c. is significantly longer. Additionally, cross protection was not consistently achieved in bats previously inoculated with a heterologous RABV following a challenge with a homologous RABV 6 months later. Finally, bats that developed rabies following s.c. inoculation were significantly more likely to shed virus in their saliva and demonstrated increased viral dissemination. In summary, bats inoculated via the s.c. route are more likely to shed virus, thus increasing the likelihood of transmission. PMID:23741002

  1. Social Learning of a Novel Foraging Task by Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Genevieve Spanjer; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring information via observation of others can be an efficient way to respond to changing situations or learn skills, particularly for inexperienced individuals. Many bat species are gregarious, yet few studies have investigated their capacity for learning from conspecifics. We tested whether big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) can learn a novel foraging task by interacting with knowledgeable conspecifics. In experimental trials 11 naïve bats (7 juveniles, 4 adults) interacted freely with trained bats that were capturing tethered mealworms, while in control trials 11 naïve bats (7 juveniles, 4 adults) flew with untrained bats. Naïve bats were then assessed for their ability to capture tethered mealworms. While no bat in the control group learned the task, a significant number of experimental bats, including juveniles with little or no experience foraging, showed evidence of learning. Eighty-two per cent of experimental bats and 27% of control bats directed feeding buzzes (echolocation calls associated with prey capture) at the mealworm. Furthermore, seven experimental bats (64%) showed evidence of learning by attacking and/or capturing the mealworm, while no bat in the control group attacked or captured the prey. Analyses of high-speed stereo video recordings revealed increased interaction with demonstrators among bats attacking or capturing the mealworm. At the time they displayed evidence of learning, bats flew closer together during feeding buzzes than during other portions of trials. Our results demonstrate that social interaction with experienced bats, and listening to feeding buzzes in particular, may play an integral role in development of foraging skills in bats. PMID:22328786

  2. Social Learning of a Novel Foraging Task by Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Wright, Genevieve Spanjer; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Moss, Cynthia F

    2011-11-01

    Acquiring information via observation of others can be an efficient way to respond to changing situations or learn skills, particularly for inexperienced individuals. Many bat species are gregarious, yet few studies have investigated their capacity for learning from conspecifics. We tested whether big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) can learn a novel foraging task by interacting with knowledgeable conspecifics. In experimental trials 11 naïve bats (7 juveniles, 4 adults) interacted freely with trained bats that were capturing tethered mealworms, while in control trials 11 naïve bats (7 juveniles, 4 adults) flew with untrained bats. Naïve bats were then assessed for their ability to capture tethered mealworms. While no bat in the control group learned the task, a significant number of experimental bats, including juveniles with little or no experience foraging, showed evidence of learning. Eighty-two per cent of experimental bats and 27% of control bats directed feeding buzzes (echolocation calls associated with prey capture) at the mealworm. Furthermore, seven experimental bats (64%) showed evidence of learning by attacking and/or capturing the mealworm, while no bat in the control group attacked or captured the prey. Analyses of high-speed stereo video recordings revealed increased interaction with demonstrators among bats attacking or capturing the mealworm. At the time they displayed evidence of learning, bats flew closer together during feeding buzzes than during other portions of trials. Our results demonstrate that social interaction with experienced bats, and listening to feeding buzzes in particular, may play an integral role in development of foraging skills in bats. PMID:22328786

  3. Susceptibility and pathogenesis of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) to heterologous and homologous rabies viruses.

    PubMed

    Davis, April D; Jarvis, Jodie A; Pouliott, Craig E; Morgan, Shannon M D; Rudd, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) maintenance in bats is not well understood. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the United States. These colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the United States and Canada. This is of interest because silver-haired bats are more solitary bats with infrequent human interaction. Our goal was to determine the likelihood of a colonial bat species becoming infected with and transmitting a heterologous RABV. To ascertain the potential of heterologous RABV infection in colonial bat species, little brown bats were inoculated with a homologous RABV or one of two heterologous RABVs. Additionally, to determine if the route of exposure influenced the disease process, bats were inoculated either intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) with a homologous or heterologous RABV. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular inoculation results in a more rapid progression of disease onset, whereas the incubation time in bats inoculated s.c. is significantly longer. Additionally, cross protection was not consistently achieved in bats previously inoculated with a heterologous RABV following a challenge with a homologous RABV 6 months later. Finally, bats that developed rabies following s.c. inoculation were significantly more likely to shed virus in their saliva and demonstrated increased viral dissemination. In summary, bats inoculated via the s.c. route are more likely to shed virus, thus increasing the likelihood of transmission. PMID:23741002

  4. Insect prey eaten by Hoary Bats (Lasiurus cinereus) prior to fatal collisions with wind turbines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdez, Ernest W.; Cryan, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines are being deployed all across the world to meet the growing demand for energy, and in many areas, these turbines are causing the deaths of insectivorous migratory bats. One of the hypothesized causes of bat susceptibility is that bats are attracted to insects on or near the turbines. We examined insect remains in the stomachs and intestines of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) found dead beneath wind turbines in New York and Texas to evaluate the hypothesis that bats die while feeding at turbines. Most of the bats we examined had full stomachs, indicating that they fed in the minutes to hours leading up to their deaths. However, we did not find prey in the mouths or throats of any bats that would indicate the bats died while capturing prey. Hoary bats fed mostly on moths, but we also detected the regular presence of beetles, true bugs, and crickets. Presence of terrestrial insects in stomachs indicates that bats may have gleaned them from the ground or the turbine surfaces, yet aerial capture of winged insect stages cannot be ruled out. Our findings confirm earlier studies that indicate hoary bats feed during migration and eat mostly moths. Future studies on bat behaviors and insect presence at wind turbines could help determine whether feeding at turbines is a major fatality risk for bats.

  5. Genetic approaches to the conservation of migratory bats: a study of the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis).

    PubMed

    Vonhof, Maarten J; Russell, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. However, for most bat species we have no knowledge of the size of populations and their demographic trends, the degree of structuring into discrete subpopulations, and whether different subpopulations use spatially segregated migratory routes. Here, we utilize genetic data from eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), one of the species most highly affected by wind power development in North America, to (1) evaluate patterns of population structure across the landscape, (2) estimate effective population size (Ne ), and (3) assess signals of growth or decline in population size. Using data on both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation, we demonstrate that this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population. Further, using coalescent estimates we estimate that the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions of individuals. The high levels of gene flow and connectivity across the population of eastern red bats indicate that monitoring and management of eastern red bats must integrate information across the range of this species. PMID:26038736

  6. Genetic approaches to the conservation of migratory bats: a study of the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis)

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. However, for most bat species we have no knowledge of the size of populations and their demographic trends, the degree of structuring into discrete subpopulations, and whether different subpopulations use spatially segregated migratory routes. Here, we utilize genetic data from eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), one of the species most highly affected by wind power development in North America, to (1) evaluate patterns of population structure across the landscape, (2) estimate effective population size (Ne), and (3) assess signals of growth or decline in population size. Using data on both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation, we demonstrate that this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population. Further, using coalescent estimates we estimate that the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions of individuals. The high levels of gene flow and connectivity across the population of eastern red bats indicate that monitoring and management of eastern red bats must integrate information across the range of this species.

  7. Fat Fruit Flies

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-08-11

    Broadcast Transcript: Breaking news from South Korea's hi-tech frontline. With the help of drosophila, or the fruit fly, scientists here have discovered strands of genetic material that control growth in the body. They're ...

  8. Name That Fruit!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lauri Christopher

    2012-07-20

    In this lesson, students, will read three informational texts about fruit. Students will identify key ideas and details in each text and use illustrations to help them identify the key ideas. This lesson also incorporates a science standard that asks students to sort objects by color, shape, and size. After reading each text, students will participate in several hands-on activities to sort fruit.

  9. Ethylene and Fruit Ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelius S. Barry; James J. Giovannoni

    2007-01-01

    The ripening of fleshy fruits represents the unique coordination of developmental and biochemical pathways leading to changes\\u000a in color, texture, aroma, and nutritional quality of mature seed-bearing plant organs. The gaseous plant hormone ethylene\\u000a plays a key regulatory role in ripening of many fruits, including some representing important contributors of nutrition and\\u000a fiber to the diets of humans. Examples include

  10. Time-varying frequency analysis of bat echolocation signals using Monte Carlo methods 

    E-print Network

    Nagappa, Sharad

    2010-01-01

    Echolocation in bats is a subject that has received much attention over the last few decades. Bat echolocation calls have evolved over millions of years and can be regarded as well suited to the task of active target-detection. ...

  11. Multiple dimensions of bat biodiversity along an extensive tropical elevational gradient

    E-print Network

    Willig, Michael

    Multiple dimensions of bat biodiversity along an extensive tropical elevational gradient Laura M) dimensions of bat biodiversity along an elevational gradient in the Manu Biosphere Reserve of Peru richness declined nonlinearly with elevation, whereas phylogenetic dispersion and functional dispersion

  12. Migration and molt patterns of red bats, Lasiurus borealis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), in Illinois

    E-print Network

    Timm, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    Red bats, Lasiurus borealis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), are widespread in North America, but many aspects of their biology are poorly known. In an attempt to elucidate patterns of migration and molt in red bats, data were collected over...

  13. Sensory Biology: Acoustic Reflectors Attract Bats to Roost in Pitcher Plants.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth

    2015-07-20

    A new study shows that a carnivorous plant attracts bats by possessing modified pitfall taps that increase the reflectivity of echolocation calls. Bats benefit by finding roosting sites, and the plants gain by receiving nitrogen from guano. PMID:26196488

  14. Organochlorine residues in females and nursing young of the big brown bat ( Eptesicus fuscus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Clark; Thair G. Lamont

    1976-01-01

    Summary Carcasses and brains of 18 big brown bats from Gaithersburg, Maryland, were analyzed for residues of organochlorine insecticides and PCB's. Eleven bats were adult females, and six of these had seven nursing young associated with them.

  15. Echolocating Bats Use a Nearly Time-Optimal Strategy to Intercept Prey

    E-print Network

    Moss, Cynthia

    bat, Eptesicus fuscus, as it chased erratically moving insects in a dark laboratory flight room. We for its needs. Using high-speed video and audio recordings of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) chasing

  16. BENEFITS OF LIVING IN A BUILDING: BIG BROWN BATS (EPTESICUS FUSCUS) IN ROCKS VERSUS BUILDINGS

    E-print Network

    Barclay, Robert

    BENEFITS OF LIVING IN A BUILDING: BIG BROWN BATS (EPTESICUS FUSCUS) IN ROCKS VERSUS BUILDINGS CORI to microclimate and compared reproductive timing for maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus

  17. Adult phyllostomid (bat) enamel by scanning electron microscopy--with a note on dermopteran enamel.

    PubMed

    Lester, K S; Hand, S J; Vincent, F

    1988-03-01

    This study assesses the enamel of five phyllostomids of differing feeding habits; only one example of the microchiropteran super-family Phyllostomoidae having previously been studied by SEM. A dermopteran was also examined to ascertain whether the enamel might reveal insectivore, chiropteran or primate characteristics. The five phyllostomids were found to display the additional crystallite discontinuity feature (minor boundary plane or seam) which is a major characteristic of all the bats we have so far examined - with the exception of two megachiropterans. The enamel of the four fruit and nectar feeders (Phyllostomus, Carollia, Glossophaga and Artibeus) is essentially similar and different to that of the blood feeder (Desmodus). The differentiating factor for the two groups is the poor degree of prism development in Desmodus; the prisms being restricted to the inner two thirds of the enamel over the cusps or sectorial ridge, and lacking in the greater part of the axial and the sulcular enamel. The poor prism development in the vampire bat raises interesting questions from both an ontological and a phylogenetic point of view. The dermopteran (Cynocephalus sp.) displays horse-shoe shaped prisms with associated minor boundary planes (seams); an appearance entirely similar to those microchiroptera we have examined. This finding could be advanced as evidence for a close phylogenetic relationship between the Dermoptera and Chiroptera as these features are not found to the same extent in insectivores or in primates; the other two orders to which dermopterans are assigned. The evolutionary significance of the seam feature is being studied further; it is very likely to be of importance in unravelling the history of mammalian enamel. PMID:3368766

  18. Bats Are Acoustically Attracted to Mutualistic Carnivorous Plants.

    PubMed

    Schöner, Michael G; Schöner, Caroline R; Simon, Ralph; Grafe, T Ulmar; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Ji, Liaw Lin; Kerth, Gerald

    2015-07-20

    Mutualisms between plants and animals shape the world's ecosystems [1, 2]. In such interactions, achieving contact with the partner species is imperative. Plants regularly advertise themselves with signals that specifically appeal to the partner's perceptual preferences [3-5]. For example, many plants have acquired traits such as brightly colored, fragrant flowers that attract pollinators with visual, olfactory, or-in the case of a few bat-pollinated flowers-even acoustic stimuli in the form of echo-reflecting structures [6-9]. However, acoustic attraction in plants is rare compared to other advertisements and has never been found outside the pollination context and only in the Neotropics. We hypothesized that this phenomenon is more widespread and more diverse as plant-bat interactions also occur in the Paleotropics. In Borneo, mutualistic bats fertilize a carnivorous pitcher plant while roosting in its pitchers [10, 11]. The pitcher's orifice features a prolonged concave structure, which we predicted to distinctively reflect the bats' echolocation calls for a wide range of angles. This structure should facilitate the location and identification of pitchers even within highly cluttered surroundings. Pitchers lacking this structure should be less attractive for the bats. Ensonifications of the pitchers around their orifice revealed that this structure indeed acts as a multidirectional ultrasound reflector. In behavioral experiments where bats were confronted with differently modified pitchers, the reflector's presence clearly facilitated the finding and identification of pitchers. These results suggest that plants have convergently acquired reflectors in the Paleotropics and the Neotropics to acoustically attract bats, albeit for completely different ecological reasons. PMID:26166777

  19. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  20. Convergent acoustic field of view in echolocating bats.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Ratcliffe, John M; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    Most echolocating bats exhibit a strong correlation between body size and the frequency of maximum energy in their echolocation calls (peak frequency), with smaller species using signals of higher frequency than larger ones. Size-signal allometry or acoustic detection constraints imposed on wavelength by preferred prey size have been used to explain this relationship. Here we propose the hypothesis that smaller bats emit higher frequencies to achieve directional sonar beams, and that variable beam width is critical for bats. Shorter wavelengths relative to the size of the emitter translate into more directional sound beams. Therefore, bats that emit their calls through their mouths should show a relationship between mouth size and wavelength, driving smaller bats to signals of higher frequency. We found that in a flight room mimicking a closed habitat, six aerial hawking vespertilionid species (ranging in size from 4 to 21?g, ref. 5) produced sonar beams of extraordinarily similar shape and volume. Each species had a directivity index of 11?±?1?dB (a half-amplitude angle of approximately 37°) and an on-axis sound level of 108?±?4?dB sound pressure level referenced to 20??Pa root mean square at 10?cm. Thus all bats adapted their calls to achieve similar acoustic fields of view. We propose that the necessity for high directionality has been a key constraint on the evolution of echolocation, which explains the relationship between bat size and echolocation call frequency. Our results suggest that echolocation is a dynamic system that allows different species, regardless of their body size, to converge on optimal fields of view in response to habitat and task. PMID:23172147

  1. Climate and Weather Impact Timing of Emergence of Bats

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Winifred F.; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Howard, Kenneth W.; Kuster, Charles M.; Kunz, Thomas H.; Chilson, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in forecasting impacts of climate change have heightened attention in recent decades to how animals respond to variation in climate and weather patterns. One difficulty in determining animal response to climate variation is lack of long-term datasets that record animal behaviors over decadal scales. We used radar observations from the national NEXRAD network of Doppler weather radars to measure how group behavior in a colonially-roosting bat species responded to annual variation in climate and daily variation in weather over the past 11 years. Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) form dense aggregations in cave roosts in Texas. These bats emerge from caves daily to forage at high altitudes, which makes them detectable with Doppler weather radars. Timing of emergence in bats is often viewed as an adaptive trade-off between emerging early and risking predation or increased competition and emerging late which restricts foraging opportunities. We used timing of emergence from five maternity colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats in south-central Texas during the peak lactation period (15 June–15 July) to determine whether emergence behavior was associated with summer drought conditions and daily temperatures. Bats emerged significantly earlier during years with extreme drought conditions than during moist years. Bats emerged later on days with high surface temperatures in both dry and moist years, but there was no relationship between surface temperatures and timing of emergence in summers with normal moisture levels. We conclude that emergence behavior is a flexible animal response to climate and weather conditions and may be a useful indicator for monitoring animal response to long-term shifts in climate. PMID:22876331

  2. Scanning Behavior in Echolocating Common Pipistrelle Bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus)

    PubMed Central

    Seibert, Anna-Maria; Koblitz, Jens C.; Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Echolocating bats construct an auditory world sequentially by analyzing successive pulse-echo pairs. Many other mammals rely upon a visual world, acquired by sequential foveal fixations connected by visual gaze saccades. We investigated the scanning behavior of bats and compared it to visual scanning. We assumed that each pulse-echo pair evaluation corresponds to a foveal fixation and that sonar beam movements between pulses can be seen as acoustic gaze saccades. We used a two-dimensional 16 microphone array to determine the sonar beam direction of succeeding pulses and to characterize the three dimensional scanning behavior in the common pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) flying in the field. We also used variations of signal amplitude of single microphone recordings as indicator for scanning behavior in open space. We analyzed 33 flight sequences containing more than 700 echolocation calls to determine bat positions, source levels, and beam aiming. When searching for prey and orienting in space, bats moved their sonar beam in all directions, often alternately back and forth. They also produced sequences with irregular or no scanning movements. When approaching the array, the scanning movements were much smaller and the beam was moved over the array in small steps. Differences in the scanning pattern at various recording sites indicated that the scanning behavior depended on the echolocation task that was being performed. The scanning angles varied over a wide range and were often larger than the maximum angle measurable by our array. We found that echolocating bats use a “saccade and fixate” strategy similar to vision. Through the use of scanning movements, bats are capable of finding and exploring targets in a wide search cone centered along flight direction. PMID:23580164

  3. Space-time models for a panzootic in bats, with a focus on the endangered Indiana bat.

    PubMed

    Thogmartin, Wayne E; King, R Andrew; Szymanski, Jennifer A; Pruitt, Lori

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge of current trends of quickly spreading infectious wildlife diseases is vital to efficient and effective management. We developed space-time mixed-effects logistic regressions to characterize a disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), quickly spreading among endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in eastern North America. Our goal was to calculate and map the risk probability faced by uninfected colonies of hibernating Indiana bats. Model covariates included annual distance from and direction to nearest sources of infection, geolocational information, size of the Indiana bat populations within each wintering population, and total annual size of populations known or suspected to be affected by WNS. We considered temporal, spatial, and spatiotemporal formulae through the use of random effects for year, complex (a collection of interacting hibernacula), and year × complex. Since first documented in 2006, WNS has spread across much of the range of the Indiana bat. No sizeable wintering population now occurs outside of the migrational distance of an infected source. Annual rates of newly affected wintering Indiana bat populations between winter 2007 to 2008 and 2010 to 2011 were 4, 6, 8, and 12%; this rate increased each year at a rate of 3%. If this increasing rate of newly affected populations continues, all wintering populations may be affected by 2016. Our models indicated the probability of a wintering population exhibiting infection was a linear function of proximity to affected Indiana bat populations and size of the at-risk population. Geographic location was also important, suggesting broad-scale influences. For every 50-km increase in distance from a WNS-affected population, risk of disease declined by 6% (95% CI=5.2-5.7%); for every increase of 1,000 Indiana bats, there was an 8% (95% CI = 1-21%) increase in disease risk. The increasing rate of infection seems to be associated with the movement of this disease into the core of the Indiana bat range. Our spatially explicit estimates of disease risk may aid managers in prioritizing surveillance and management for wintering populations of Indiana bats and help understand the risk faced by other hibernating bat species. PMID:23060489

  4. Space-time models for a panzootic in bats, with a focus on the endangered Indiana bat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; King, R. Andrew; Szymanski, Jennifer A.; Pruitt, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of current trends of quickly spreading infectious wildlife diseases is vital to efficient and effective management. We developed space-time mixed-effects logistic regressions to characterize a disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), quickly spreading among endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in eastern North America. Our goal was to calculate and map the risk probability faced by uninfected colonies of hibernating Indiana bats. Model covariates included annual distance from and direction to nearest sources of infection, geolocational information, size of the Indiana bat populations within each wintering population, and total annual size of populations known or suspected to be affected by WNS. We considered temporal, spatial, and spatiotemporal formulae through the use of random effects for year, complex (a collection of interacting hibernacula), and yearxcomplex. Since first documented in 2006, WNS has spread across much of the range of the Indiana bat. No sizeable wintering population now occurs outside of the migrational distance of an infected source. Annual rates of newly affected wintering Indiana bat populations between winter 2007 to 2008 and 2010 to 2011 were 4, 6, 8, and 12%; this rate increased each year at a rate of 3%. If this increasing rate of newly affected populations continues, all wintering populations may be affected by 2016. Our models indicated the probability of a wintering population exhibiting infection was a linear function of proximity to affected Indiana bat populations and size of the at-risk population. Geographic location was also important, suggesting broad-scale influences. For every 50-km increase in distance from a WNS-affected population, risk of disease declined by 6% (95% CI=5.2-5.7%); for every increase of 1,000 Indiana bats, there was an 8% (95% CI = 1-21%) increase in disease risk. The increasing rate of infection seems to be associated with the movement of this disease into the core of the Indiana bat range. Our spatially explicit estimates of disease risk may aid managers in prioritizing surveillance and management for wintering populations of Indiana bats and help understand the risk faced by other hibernating bat species.

  5. Movement as a specific stimulus for prey catching behaviour in rhinolophid and hipposiderid bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Link; G. Marimuthu; G. Neuweiler

    1986-01-01

    1.The echolocating ‘long CF\\/FM-bat’Rhinolophus rouxi and the ‘short CF\\/FM-bats’Hipposideros bicolor andHipposideros speoris were tested for catching responses to moving and non-moving targets.2.Under our experimental conditions (freshly caught caged bats in a natural environment)Rhinolophus rouxi andHipposideros speoris only responded to insects of any sort that were beating their wings. The bats showed no reactions whatsoever to nonmoving insects or those walking

  6. Habitat Selection by Bats in Temperate Old-Growth Forests, Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth van den Driessche; Trudy Chatwin; Monica Mather

    Clayoquot Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island, B.C. is an area of high-profile land-use conflict. In 1995, local scientific and management groups recognized bats as an important component of forest ecosystems. With almost no existing bat information for this area, we began studies of the bat community, with the goal of inventorying the bat community and identifying critical

  7. Phylogeography of the dark fruit-eating bat Artibeus obscurus in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Wallax Augusto Silva; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; Rodrigues-Antunes, Symara; de Andrade, Fernanda Atanaena Gonçalves; Aguiar, Gilberto Ferreira de Souza; de Sousa e Silva-Junior, José; Marques-Aguiar, Suely Aparecida; Harada, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Artibeus obscurus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) is endemic to South America, being found in at least 18 Brazilian states. Recent studies revealed that different populations of this genus present distinct phylogeographic patterns; however, very little is known on the population genetics structure of A. obscurus in the Amazon rainforest. Here, using a fragment (1010bp) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b from 87 samples, we investigated patterns of genetic divergence among populations of A. obscurus from different locations in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest and compared them with other Brazilian and South American regions. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), fixation index (Fst) analysis, and phylogeographic patterns showed divergence between two major monophyletic groups, each one corresponding to a geographic region associated with the Atlantic and Amazon forest biomes. The Atlantic forest clusters formed a monophyletic group with a high bootstrap support and a fragmented distribution that follows the pattern predicted by the Refuge Theory. On the other hand, a different scenario was observed for the Amazon forest, where no fragmentation was identified. The AMOVA results revealed a significant geographic heterogeneity in the distribution of genetic variation, with 70% found within populations across the studied populations (Fst values ranging from 0.05864 to 0.09673; ?ST = 0.55). The intrapopulational analysis revealed that one population (Bragança) showed significant evidence of population expansion, with the formation of 2 distinct phylogroups, suggesting the occurrence of a subspecies or at least a different population in this region. These results also suggest considerable heterogeneity for A. obscurus in the Amazon region. PMID:24127548

  8. Rise and fall of bat population induced from immobile elements and fossil helminth eggs of bat guano deposits, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Chang-Pyo; Lee, Seong-Joo

    2014-05-01

    Bat guano samples were collected from three carbonate caves located along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula: Gossi Cave (40 cm high and 200 cm wide dome), Baegryong Cave (50 cm high and 100 cm wide dome), and Seongryu Cave (20 cm high platform). The guano deposits are rich in organic materials including undigested insect fragments, together with authigenic minerals and imported clastic sediments. The guano profiles were calculated to have been deposited 1) from 3097 to 4200 BP yrs in Gossi guano, 2) from 3650 to 7150 BP yrs in Baegryong guano, and 3) from 150 to 6000 BP yrs in Seongryu guano. Among the immobile elements identified, three immobile elements including Al2O3, SiO2, and TiO2 were detected from all the bat guano profiles. Distributional pattern of these elements throughout each guano profile also shows a close similarity. Such immobile elements are those of clastic sediments blown into the caves as dust. The amount of such immobile elements is closely related with deposition rate of the bat guano; low concentration of those elements implies rapid deposition rate while high concentration represents slow deposition rate of bat guano profiles. Basically, deposition rate of bat guano is controlled by the population density of bat lived in the cave. The amount of immobile elements of the Gossi Cave, for example, tends to increase toward top layer with a sudden decrease at the middle-upper layer (4,000 BP yr). It is, thus be concluded that bat population experienced fluctuation showing an decrease from 6150 to 4150 BP yr and sudden increase at 4000 BP yr, followed by constant decrease to 3150 BP yr. Fossil parasite eggs were also found from the guano deposits, and the number of parasite eggs show similar trend to that of immobile elements.

  9. Research Paper Genetic Divergence of Rabies Viruses from Bat Species of Colorado, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VIDYA SHANKAR; LILLIAN A. ORCIARI; CECILIA DE MATTOS; IVAN V. KUZMIN; W. JOHN PAPE; THOMAS J. O'SHEA; CHARLES E. RUPPRECHT

    Molecular epidemiological studies have linked many cryptic human rabies cases in the United States with expo- sure to rabies virus (RV) variants associated with insectivorous bats. In Colorado, bats accounted for 98% of all reported animal rabies cases between 1977 and 1996. The genetic divergence of RV was investigated in bat and terrestrial animal specimens that were submitted for rabies

  10. Genetic Divergence of Rabies Viruses from Bat Species of Colorado, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vidya Shankar; Lillian A. Orciari; Cecilia De Mattos; Ivan V. Kuzmin; W. John Pape; Thomas J. O'Shea; Charles E. Rupprecht

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular epidemiological studies have linked many cryptic human rabies cases in the United States with expo- sure to rabies virus (RV) variants associated with insectivorous bats. In Colorado, bats accounted for 98% of all reported animal rabies cases between 1977 and 1996. The genetic divergence of RV was investigated in bat and terrestrial animal specimens that were submitted for

  11. HEDGEROW SURVEY, GREAT CRESTED NEWT SURVEY, DORMOUSE SURVEY AND HORSESHOE BAT ACTIVITY SURVEYS AT UNIVERSITY OF

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    HEDGEROW SURVEY, GREAT CRESTED NEWT SURVEY, DORMOUSE SURVEY AND HORSESHOE BAT ACTIVITY SURVEYS-UNIBAT-1624 HEDGEROW SURVEY, GREAT CRESTED NEWT SURVEY, DORMOUSE SURVEY AND HORSESHOE BAT ACTIVITY SURVEYS to undertake a hedgerow survey, a great crested newt survey, a dormouse survey and horseshoe bat activity

  12. Bats that walk: a new evolutionary hypothesis for the terrestrial behaviour of New Zealand's endemic mystacinids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne J Hand; Vera Weisbecker; Michael Archer; Henk Godthelp; Alan JD Tennyson; Trevor H Worthy

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New Zealand's lesser short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata is one of only two of c.1100 extant bat species to use a true walking gait when manoeuvring on the ground (the other being the American common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus). Mystacina tuberculata is also the last surviving member of Mystacinidae, the only mammalian family endemic to New Zealand (NZ) and a

  13. Management and Conservation Article Behavioral Responses of Bats to Operating Wind Turbines

    E-print Network

    Holberton, Rebecca L.

    Management and Conservation Article Behavioral Responses of Bats to Operating Wind Turbines JASON W used thermal infrared (TIR) cameras to assess the flight behavior of bats at wind turbines because with turbine blades, suggesting that bats may be at higher risk of fatality on nights with low wind speeds

  14. Common vampire bat attacks on humans in a village of the Amazon region of Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Many people in Amazonian communities have reported bat bites in the last decade. Bites by vampire bats can potentially transmit rabies to humans. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with bat biting in one of these communities. A cross-sectional sur- vey was conducted in a village of gold miners in the Amazonian region of Brazil (160

  15. Echolocation in two very small bats from Thailand Craseonycteris thonglongyai and Myotis siligorensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annemarie Surlykke; Lee A. Miller; Bertel Møhl; Bent Bach Andersen; Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard; Morten Buhl Jørgensen

    1993-01-01

    The echolocation and hunting behavior of two very small bats, Craseonycteris thonglongyai (Hill) and Myotis siligorensis (Horsfield), from Thailand, were investigated using multiflash photographs, video, and high-speed tape recordings with a microphone array that allowed determination of distance and direction to the bats. C. thonglongyai is the world's smallest mammal and M. siligorensis is only slightly larger. Both bats hunted

  16. The hearing gene Prestin reunites echolocating bats Gang Li*, Jinhong Wang*, Stephen J. Rossiter

    E-print Network

    Cotton, James

    The hearing gene Prestin reunites echolocating bats Gang Li*, Jinhong Wang*, Stephen J. Rossiter by the recently discovered protein prestin, encoded by the gene Prestin. Echolocating bats use ultrasound- ment of Prestin in the evolution of bat echolocation, we sequenced the coding region in echolocating

  17. Echolocation Calls of Bats are Influenced by Maternal Effects and Change over a Lifetime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth Jones; Roger D. Ransome

    1993-01-01

    The greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, is a model species in echolocation studies, and emits calls containing long constant-frequency (CF) components. The bats have auditory systems tuned sharply to frequencies close to the resting CF (RF) values. Call frequency and neural processing are both flexible within individual bats which use this mode of echolocation. The simple structure of the calls

  18. Dynamics of Hippocampal Spatial Representation in Echolocating Bats Nachum Ulanovsky* and Cynthia F. Moss

    E-print Network

    Moss, Cynthia

    Dynamics of Hippocampal Spatial Representation in Echolocating Bats Nachum Ulanovsky* and Cynthia F this question in big brown bats, echolocating mammals in which we can readily measure rapid changes in sensory, on a timescale of $300 ms: Bat hippocampal place fields were smallest immediately after an echolocation call

  19. Acoustic transect monitoring and White Nose Syndrome response plan for Iowa bats

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    Acoustic transect monitoring and White Nose Syndrome response plan for Iowa bats Principal Syndrome response and management plan for Iowa Progress: White Nose Syndrome (WNS), a devastating disease, and hoary bats. We also identified bats of the genus Myotis as a group. Objective 2. White nose syndrome

  20. Handling and blood collection in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus).

    PubMed

    Hooper, Sarah E; Amelon, Sybill K

    2014-06-01

    Bats are useful animal models for the study of unique physiological mechanisms such as echolocation and sensory integration as well as for research on white-nose syndrome. These studies may involve collecting blood samples from bats. This column describes safe techniques for restraint, weighing, fluid administration and blood collection from the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus). PMID:24845004

  1. Mortality of bats at wind turbines links to nocturnal insect migration?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    REVIEW Mortality of bats at wind turbines links to nocturnal insect migration? Jens Rydell & Lothar mortality data from wind farms in Europe (published elsewhere). We suggest that mortality of bats at wind. It is supported by the observation that mortality of bats at wind turbines is highly seasonal (August

  2. 76 FR 69779 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...Proposed Rule Change To Modify the Market Opening Procedures of BATS Options November 3...BATS Options'') in order to modify the opening procedures for BATS Options. The text...for each underlying security prior to opening trading in the related options. The...

  3. The Dependence of Bat Performance on Ball Properties Lloyd Smith and Joseph Duris

    E-print Network

    Smith, Lloyd V.

    surfaces and can affect a bat's hitting performance. Hollow bats exhibit a so-called "trampoline effect that ball weight may also contribute to the trampoline effect. Surprisingly neither the weight normalizing relations nor the weight-trampoline effect have been studied experimentally. Bat performance can be measured

  4. A Dietary Study of big brown (Eptesicus fuscus) and northern bats (Myotis septentrionalis) in Western Kentucky

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Elizabeth Asher

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge is lacking regarding the dietary habits of northern (Myotis septentrionalis) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Kentucky. The objective of this study was to determine the prey items consumed by both species at three sites in western Kentucky. Totals of 103 fecal pellet samples from northern bats and 36 fecal pellet samples from big brown bats were collected

  5. FIELD RECORDINGS OF ECHOLOCATION AND SOCIAL SIGNALS FROM THE GLEANING BAT MYOTIS SEPTENTRIONALIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEE A. MILLER; ASHER E. TREAT

    1993-01-01

    We recorded echolocation and ultrasonic social signals of the bat Myotis septentrionalis. The bats foraged for insects resting on or fluttering about an outdoor screen to which they were attracted by a ‘backlight’. The bats used nearly linearly modulated echolocation signals of high frequency (117 to 49 kHz, see Tables) with a weak second harmonic. The orientational signals from patrolling

  6. Internal cave gating for protection of colonies of the endangered gray bat (Myotis grisescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, K.W.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Payton, M.E.; Puckette, W.L.; Hensley, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    Persistent human disturbance is a major cause for the decline in populations of many cave-dwelling bats and other sensitive cave-obligate organisms. Cave gating has been used to climinate human disturbance, but few studies have assessed directly the impact of such management activities on resident bats. In northeastern Oklahoma, USA, 25 entrances of caves inhabited by two endangered species and one endangered subspecies of bats are protected from human entry with internal gates. Because cave gates may impede ingress and egress of bats at caves, we evaluated the impacts of internal gates before and after their construction at six colonies of endangered gray bats (Myotis grisescens) from 1981 to 2001. No caves were abandoned by gray bats after the construction of internal gates; in fact, total numbers of gray bats using the six caves increased from 60,130 in 1981 to 70,640 in 2001. Two caves harbored more gray bats after gating, and three caves had no change in gray bat numbers after gating. We also compared initiations of emergences at three gated and three open-passage caves in June and July 1999-2000. No differences in timing of initiation of emergence were found between colonies in gated versus open-passage caves. Our results support the use of internal gates to protect and thereby enhance recovery of colonies of endangered gray bats. Additional research is encouraged to confirm that our observations on gray bats are generally applicable to other species of cave-dwelling bats.

  7. The epidemiology of bat rabies in New York State, 1988-92.

    PubMed Central

    Childs, J. E.; Trimarchi, C. V.; Krebs, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 New York and Texas each reported a human rabies case traced to a rare variant of rabies virus found in an uncommon species of bat. This study examined the epidemiology of bat rabies in New York State. Demographic, species, and animal-contact information for bats submitted for rabies testing from 1988-92 was analysed. The prevalence of rabies in 6810 bats was 4.6%. Nearly 90% of the 308 rabid bats identified to species were the common big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), which comprised 62% of all submissions. Only 25 submissions were silver-haired bats (Lasionycterus noctivagans), the species associated with the two 1993 human cases of rabies, and only two of these bats were positive. Rabies was most prevalent in female bats, in bats submitted because of human [corrected] contact, and in animals tested during September and October. These results highlight the unusual circumstances surrounding the recent human rabies cases in the United States. A species of bat rarely encountered by humans, and contributing little to the total rabies cases in bats, has been implicated in the majority of the indigenously acquired human rabies cases in the United States. The factors contributing to the transmission of this rare rabies variant remain unclear. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7995360

  8. Bat response to shelterwood harvests and forest structure in oak-hickory forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marne A. Titchenell; Roger A. Williams; Stanley D. Gehrt

    2011-01-01

    Forest management practices, such as shelterwood harvesting, can greatly impact bat habitat relationships. Such practices can alter the amount of structural volume within a forest, which can influence bat foraging patterns. We determined the effects of shelterwood harvests of different retention levels (50% and 70% of full stocking) on bat activity patterns in oak-hickory forests located in southern Ohio. We

  9. Can two streams of auditory information be processed simultaneously? Evidence from the gleaning bat Antrozous pallidus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Barber; K. A. Razak; Z. M. Fuzessery

    2003-01-01

    A tenet of auditory scene analysis is that we can fully process only one stream of auditory information at a time. We tested this assumption in a gleaning bat, the pallid bat ( Antrozous pallidus) because this bat uses echolocation for general orientation, and relies heavily on prey-generated sounds to detect and locate its prey. It may therefore encounter situations

  10. The effect of signal complexity on localization performance in bats that localize frog calls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel A. Page; Michael J. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    The fringe-lipped bat, Trachops cirrhosus, uses frog mating calls to detect and locate its prey. The tungara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus, a preferred prey species of this bat, produces two types of sexual advertise- ment calls, simple and complex, and both female frogs and predatory bats prefer complex calls to simple ones. Complex calls differ from simple ones in that they

  11. Early On-Orbit Operation of the Loop Heat Pipe System on the Swift BAT Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenstein, Laura; Ku, Jentung; Choi, Mike; Feenan, Dave

    2005-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is one of three instruments on the Swift satellite. Two Loop Heat Pipes (LHP's), one at either side of the BAT's Detector Array Plate (DAP), transfer heat to a common radiator for rejection to space. This viewgraph presentation provides information on LHP design for the BAT, and the performance of the LHPs in orbit.

  12. It's an everyday scene, which only happens at night. A hungry bat pins its acoustic gaze

    E-print Network

    , and the tiger moth goes free. What triggered the bat to abort its attack? There are several possible explanations according to Jesse Barber. Tiger moths react to bat attacks with trains of ultrasound clicks, which could possibly jam the bat's echolocation cries, startle the airborne attacker into retreat

  13. The value of bat-boxes in the conservation of Pipistrellus pygmaeus in wetland rice paddies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carles Flaquer; Ignacio Torre; Ramon Ruiz-Jarillo

    2006-01-01

    Wetlands with rice paddies are key habitats in the conservation of biodiversity in the Mediterranean Region and are potentially suitable habitats for foraging bats, since they provide food (insects) and drinking places; nevertheless, many wetlands lack natural roosting sites. A bat-box program designed to ascertain bat-box preferences was initiated in 1999 in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain), one of the

  14. Female big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, recognize sex from a caller's echolocation signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karry A. Kazial; W. Mitchell Masters

    2004-01-01

    The echolocation calls of bats function in prey capture and navigation but are not commonly regarded as communicative signals. However, because bats' echolocation calls show patterns of variability, they may transmit information about a bat, such as its age, individual identity or sex. For echolocation calls to function in this manner, variation in calls must be reliably linked to the

  15. BENEFITS OF LIVING IN A BUILDING: BIG BROWN BATS (EPTESICUS FUSCUS) IN ROCKS VERSUS BUILDINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cori L. Lausen; Robert M. R. Barclay

    2006-01-01

    Individuals of some species of bats roost in human-made structures despite the apparent availability of natural roosts. We compared patterns of thermoregulation in relation to microclimate and compared reproductive timing for maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) roosting in natural and building roosts in the prairies of southeastern Alberta. During pregnancy, bats roosting in buildings used torpor less

  16. Bats, bugs, and wind turbines---is there a connection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Courtenay Danielle

    Large numbers of migratory tree-bats are being killed at wind turbines worldwide and it remains unclear why this is happening. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that prey items for bats are abundant in the immediate vicinity of wind turbines. During the 2012 fall migratory season (July to October), we used light taps and malaise traps to sample the aerial invertebrate community at Wolf Ridge Wind, LLC, in north-central Texas. Overall, we collected more invertebrates and a greater number of species earlier in the season compared to later in the season and the use of malaise traps significantly added to invertebrate diversity yielded by light traps. Invertebrate abundance and species richness did not differ between the base of turbines and 400 m away, but compilation of data from previous bat diet studies suggested that the area around wind turbines provided foraging resources for local bats. Further research is needed, however, to determine if bats are attracted to wind turbines as a foraging resource.

  17. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration. PMID:25227993

  18. Correlated evolution between hearing sensitivity and social calls in bats

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Kirsten M; Moss, Cynthia F; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2006-01-01

    Echolocating bats are auditory specialists, with exquisite hearing that spans several octaves. In the ultrasonic range, bat audiograms typically show highest sensitivity in the spectral region of their species-specific echolocation calls. Well-developed hearing in the audible range has been commonly attributed to a need to detect sounds produced by prey. However, bat pups often emit isolation calls with low-frequency components that facilitate mother–young reunions. In this study, we examine whether low-frequency hearing in bats exhibits correlated evolution with (i) body size; (ii) high-frequency hearing sensitivity or (iii) pup isolation call frequency. Using published audiograms, we found that low-frequency hearing sensitivity is not dependent on body size but is related to high-frequency hearing. After controlling for high-frequency hearing, we found that low-frequency hearing exhibits correlated evolution with isolation call frequency. We infer that detection and discrimination of isolation calls have favoured enhanced low-frequency hearing because accurate parental investment is critical: bats have low reproductive rates, non-volant altricial young and must often identify their pups within large crèches. PMID:17148288

  19. Social calls predict foraging success in big brown bats.

    PubMed

    Wright, Genevieve Spanjer; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-04-14

    Animals foraging in the dark are engaged simultaneously in prey pursuit, collision avoidance, and interactions with conspecifics, making efficient nonvisual communication essential. A variety of birds and mammals emit food-associated calls that inform, attract, or repel conspecifics (e.g.,). Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are insectivorous aerial hawkers that may forage near conspecifics and are known to emit social calls (e.g.,). Calls recorded in a foraging setting might attract (e.g.,) or repel conspecifics and could denote territoriality or food claiming. Here, we provide evidence that the "frequency-modulated bout" (FMB), a social call emitted only by male bats (exclusively in a foraging context), is used to claim food and is individually distinct. Bats were studied individually and in pairs in a flight room equipped with synchronized high-speed stereo video and audio recording equipment while sex and experience with a foraging task were experimentally manipulated. Male bats emitting the FMB showed greater success in capturing prey. Following FMB emission, interbat distance, diverging flight, and the other bat's distance to the prey each increased. These findings highlight the importance and utility of vocal communication for a nocturnal animal mediating interactions with conspecifics in a fast-paced foraging setting. PMID:24684936

  20. Social vocalizations of big brown bats vary with behavioral context.

    PubMed

    Gadziola, Marie A; Grimsley, Jasmine M S; Faure, Paul A; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J

    2012-01-01

    Bats are among the most gregarious and vocal mammals, with some species demonstrating a diverse repertoire of syllables under a variety of behavioral contexts. Despite extensive characterization of big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) biosonar signals, there have been no detailed studies of adult social vocalizations. We recorded and analyzed social vocalizations and associated behaviors of captive big brown bats under four behavioral contexts: low aggression, medium aggression, high aggression, and appeasement. Even limited to these contexts, big brown bats possess a rich repertoire of social vocalizations, with 18 distinct syllable types automatically classified using a spectrogram cross-correlation procedure. For each behavioral context, we describe vocalizations in terms of syllable acoustics, temporal emission patterns, and typical syllable sequences. Emotion-related acoustic cues are evident within the call structure by context-specific syllable types or variations in the temporal emission pattern. We designed a paradigm that could evoke aggressive vocalizations while monitoring heart rate as an objective measure of internal physiological state. Changes in the magnitude and duration of elevated heart rate scaled to the level of evoked aggression, confirming the behavioral state classifications assessed by vocalizations and behavioral displays. These results reveal a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a caller. PMID:22970247

  1. Speciation dynamics during the global radiation of extant bats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jeff J; Rabosky, Daniel L

    2015-06-01

    Species richness varies widely across extant clades, but the causes of this variation remain poorly understood. We investigate the role of diversification rate heterogeneity in shaping patterns of diversity across families of extant bats. To provide a robust framework for macroevolutionary inference, we assemble a time-calibrated, species-level phylogeny using a supermatrix of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data. We analyze the phylogeny using a Bayesian method for modeling complex evolutionary dynamics. Surprisingly, we find that variation in family richness can largely be explained without invoking heterogeneous diversification dynamics. We document only a single well-supported shift in diversification dynamics across bats, occurring at the base of the subfamily Stenodermatinae. Bat diversity is phylogenetically imbalanced, but-contrary to previous hypotheses-this pattern is unexplained by any simple patterns of diversification rate heterogeneity. This discordance may indicate that diversification dynamics are more complex than can be captured using the statistical tools available for modeling data at this scale. We infer that bats as a whole are almost entirely united into one macroevolutionary cohort, with decelerating speciation through time. There is also a significant relationship between clade age and richness, suggesting that global bat diversity may still be expanding. PMID:25958922

  2. Roosting Ecology and the Evolution of Pelage Markings in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Sharlene E.; Dial, Thomas O.; Eiting, Thomas P.; Alfaro, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple lineages of bats have evolved striking facial and body pelage makings, including spots, stripes and countershading. Although researchers have hypothesized that these markings mainly evolved for crypsis, this idea has never been tested in a quantitative and comparative context. We present the first comparative study integrating data on roosting ecology (roost type and colony size) and pelage coloration patterns across bats, and explore the hypothesis that the evolution of bat pelage markings is associated with roosting ecologies that benefit from crypsis. We find that lineages that roost in the vegetation have evolved pelage markings, especially stripes and neck collars, which may function in crypsis through disruptive coloration and a type of countershading that might be unique to bats. We also demonstrate that lineages that live in larger colonies and are larger in size tend not to have pelage markings, possibly because of reduced predation pressures due to the predator dilution effect and a lower number of potential predators. Although social functions for pelage color patterns are also possible, our work provides strong support for the idea that roosting ecology has driven the evolution of pelage markings in bats. PMID:21991371

  3. Accelerated FoxP2 Evolution in Echolocating Bats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wang, Jinhong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Jones, Gareth; Zhang, Shuyi

    2007-01-01

    FOXP2 is a transcription factor implicated in the development and neural control of orofacial coordination, particularly with respect to vocalisation. Observations that orthologues show almost no variation across vertebrates yet differ by two amino acids between humans and chimpanzees have led to speculation that recent evolutionary changes might relate to the emergence of language. Echolocating bats face especially challenging sensorimotor demands, using vocal signals for orientation and often for prey capture. To determine whether mutations in the FoxP2 gene could be associated with echolocation, we sequenced FoxP2 from echolocating and non-echolocating bats as well as a range of other mammal species. We found that contrary to previous reports, FoxP2 is not highly conserved across all nonhuman mammals but is extremely diverse in echolocating bats. We detected divergent selection (a change in selective pressure) at FoxP2 between bats with contrasting sonar systems, suggesting the intriguing possibility of a role for FoxP2 in the evolution and development of echolocation. We speculate that observed accelerated evolution of FoxP2 in bats supports a previously proposed function in sensorimotor coordination. PMID:17878935

  4. Fruit and vegetable allergy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable allergies are the most prevalent food allergies in adolescents and adults. The identification of the allergens involved and the elucidation of their intrinsic properties and cross-reactivity patterns has helped in the understanding of the mechanisms of sensitisation and how the allergen profiles determine the different phenotypes. The most frequent yet contrasting fruit and vegetable allergies are pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) syndrome. In PFS, fruit and vegetable allergies result from a primary sensitisation to labile pollen allergens, such as Bet v 1 or profilin, and the resulting phenotype is mainly mild, consisting of local oropharyngeal reactions. In contrast, LTP syndrome results from a primary sensitisation to LTPs, which are stable plant food allergens, inducing frequent systemic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Although much less prevalent, severe fruit allergies may be associated with latex (latex-fruit syndrome). Molecular diagnosis is essential in guiding the management and risk assessment of these patients. Current management strategies comprise avoidance and rescue medication, including adrenaline, for severe LTP allergies. Specific immunotherapy with pollen is not indicated to treat pollen-food syndrome, but sublingual immunotherapy with LTPs seems to be a promising therapy for LTP syndrome. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:26022876

  5. Resource partitioning by insectivorous bats in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Emrich, Matthew A; Clare, Elizabeth L; Symondson, William O C; Koenig, Susan E; Fenton, Melville Brock

    2014-08-01

    In this investigation, we use variation in wing morphology, echolocation behaviour, patterns of habitat use and molecular diet analysis to demonstrate that six species of sympatric insectivorous bats in Jamaica show significant differences that could explain resource partitioning among the species. High-intensity echolocating species that used shorter, broadband signals and had shorter, broader wings (Pteronotus macleayii, Pteronotus quadridens, Mormoops blainvillii) foraged most in edge habitats, but differed in timing of peak activity. P. macleayii and M. blainvillii differed in diet, but low sample size precluded diet analysis for P. quadridens. High-intensity echolocating species that used longer, more narrowband signals and had longer, narrower wings (Molossus molossus, Tadarida brasiliensis) foraged most in open areas and differed in diet from the other species. Two disparate species were most active in clutter (dense vegetation). Pteronotus parnellii used high-duty-cycle echolocation apparently specialized for detecting fluttering targets in clutter. Macrotus waterhousii used low-intensity, broadband echolocation calls and presumably uses prey-generated sounds when foraging. These two species also differed in diet. Our data show that differences in morphology and echolocation behaviour coincide with differences in habitat use and diet, resulting in minimal overlap in resource use among species. PMID:25187923

  6. 76 FR 51092 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...hereby given that on August 8, 2011, BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange...collectively to BATS Exchange, Inc., BATS Y-Exchange, Inc., NASDAQ OMX BX,...

  7. Macrohabitat factors affect day roost selection by eastern red bats and eastern pipistrelles in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy M. O’Keefe; Susan C. Loeb; J. Drew Lanham; Hoke S. Hill Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Although roost sites are critically important to bats, we have few data on macrohabitat factors that affect roost selection by foliage-roosting bats. Such data are needed so that forest managers can make informed decisions regarding conservation of bat roosts. Our objective was to examine roost selection by non-reproductive eastern pipistrelles (Perimyotis subflavus) and red bats (Lasiurus borealis) in a dense

  8. Genetic divergence of rabies viruses from bat species of Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Vidya; Orciari, Lillian A; De Mattos, Cecilia; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Pape, W John; O'Shea, Thomas J; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2005-01-01

    Molecular epidemiological studies have linked many cryptic human rabies cases in the United States with exposure to rabies virus (RV) variants associated with insectivorous bats. In Colorado, bats accounted for 98% of all reported animal rabies cases between 1977 and 1996. The genetic divergence of RV was investigated in bat and terrestrial animal specimens that were submitted for rabies diagnosis to the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE), Colorado, USA. RV isolates from animal specimens across the United States were also included in the analysis. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences, which revealed seven principal clades. RV associated with the colonial big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, an bats of the genus Myotis were found to segregate into two distinct clades (I and IV). Clade I was harbored by E. fuscus and Myotis species, but was also identified in terrestrial animals such as domestic cats and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Clade IV was divided into subclades IVA, IVB, and IVC; IVA was identified in E. fuscus, and Myotis species bats, and also in a fox; subclades IVB and IVC circulated predominantly in E. fuscus. Clade II was formed by big free-tailed bat (Nyctinomops macrotis) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) samples. Clade III included RVs that are maintained by generally solitary, migratory bats such as the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) and bats of the genus Lasiurus. Big brown bats were found to harbor this RV variant. None of the Colorado specimens segregated with clades V and VII that harbor RVs associated with terrestrial animals. Different species of bats had the same RV variant, indicating active inter-species rabies transmission. In Colorado, animal rabies occurs principally in bats, and the identification of bat RVs in cat, gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and striped skunks demonstrated the importance of rabies spillover from bats to domestic and terrestrial wildlife species. PMID:16417429

  9. First isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Cabral, A D; Gama, A R; Sodré, M M; Savani, E S M M; Galvão-Dias, M A; Jordão, L R; Maeda, M M; Yai, L E O; Gennari, S M; Pena, H F J

    2013-03-31

    There are currently no reports on the isolation and molecular examination of Toxoplasma gondii from bats. Here, we report the isolation and genotypic characterisation of two T. gondii isolates from bats. A total of 369 bats from different municipalities in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, were captured and euthanised, and collected tissues (heart and pectoral muscle) were processed for each bat or in pools of two or three bats and bioassayed in mice (a total of 283 bioassays). Eleven PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used to genotype positive samples: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, CS3 and Apico. The parasite was isolated from two bats from São Paulo city: an insectivorous bat, the velvety free-tailed bat Molossus molossus, and a hematophagous bat, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Isolates were designated TgBatBr1 and TgBatBr2, respectively. The genotype of the isolate from M. molossus (TgBatBr1) has been previously described in an isolate from a capybara from São Paulo state, and the genotype from the D. rotundus isolate (TgBatBr2) has already been identified in isolates from cats, chickens, capybaras, sheep, a rodent and a common rabbit from different Brazilian states, suggesting that this may be a common T. gondii lineage circulating in some Brazilian regions. Isolation of T. gondii from a hematophagous species is striking. This study reveals that bats can share the same isolates that are found in domesticated and wild terrestrial animals. This is the first report of the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in chiropterans. PMID:23200751

  10. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

  11. Salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats.

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Setien, A.; Loza-Rubio, E.; Salas-Rojas, M.; Brisseau, N.; Cliquet, F.; Pastoret, P. P.; Rojas-Dotor, S.; Tesoro, E.; Kretschmer, R.

    2005-01-01

    Salivary excretion of rabies virus was evaluated in 14 adult vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) intramuscularly injected with a large dose (10(6) MICLD50) of vampire rabies virus variant CASS88. Saliva samples were obtained from surviving bats every other day for 30 days, then weekly for 2 months, and finally 1 and 2 years later. Rabies virus was isolated in murine neuroblastoma cells and in randomly selected cases by PCR. Rabies virus was not detected in the saliva of any of the 11 animals that succumbed (somewhat early) to rabies challenge, nor in the control bats. In contrast, virus was detected early, and only once (days 6, 6 and 21) in each of the three animals that survived rabies challenge and remained healthy for at least 2 years after challenge. At that time even vigorous dexamethasone and cyclosporine administration failed to provoke further viral excretion. PMID:15966107

  12. Principles underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and its uses.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Michel

    2011-06-01

    The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any condition that results in language impairment (Alzheimer's, autism, cerebellar lesions, developmental language disorders, mild cognitive impairment, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, vascular dementia, etc.). It has also been used for research purposes on non-brain-damaged unilingual and bilingual populations. By means of its 32 tasks, it assesses comprehension and production of implicit linguistic competence and metalinguistic knowledge (which provide indications for apposite rehabilitation strategies). Versions of the BAT are available for free download at www.mcgill.ca/linguistics/research/bat/. PMID:21675824

  13. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pikula, J.; Bandouchova, H.; Novotny, L.; Meteyer, C.U.; Zukal, J.; Irwin, N.R.; Zima, J.; Martinkova, N.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2012.

  14. Multiple host-switching of Haemosporidia parasites in bats

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Linda; Robert, Vincent; Csorba, Gabor; Hassanin, Alexandre; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Walston, Joe; Nhim, Thy; Goodman, Steve M; Ariey, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    Background There have been reported cases of host-switching in avian and lizard species of Plasmodium (Apicomplexa, Haemosporidia), as well as in those infecting different primate species. However, no evidence has previously been found for host-swapping between wild birds and mammals. Methods This paper presents the results of the sampling of blood parasites of wild-captured bats from Madagascar and Cambodia. The presence of Haemosporidia infection in these animals is confirmed and cytochrome b gene sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic analysis. Results Results reveal at least three different and independent Haemosporidia evolutionary histories in three different bat lineages from Madagascar and Cambodia. Conclusion Phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests multiple host-switching of Haemosporidia parasites in bats with those from avian and primate hosts. PMID:18045505

  15. BAT3 Guides Misfolded Glycoproteins Out of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Claessen, Jasper H. L.; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2011-01-01

    Secretory and membrane proteins that fail to acquire their native conformation within the lumen of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) are usually targeted for ubiquitin-dependent degradation by the proteasome. How partially folded polypeptides are kept from aggregation once ejected from the ER into the cytosol is not known. We show that BAT3, a cytosolic chaperone, is recruited to the site of dislocation through its interaction with Derlin2. Furthermore, we observe cytoplasmic BAT3 in a complex with a polypeptide that originates in the ER as a glycoprotein, an interaction that depends on the cytosolic disposition of both, visualized even in the absence of proteasomal inhibition. Cells depleted of BAT3 fail to degrade an established dislocation substrate. We thus implicate a cytosolic chaperone as an active participant in the dislocation of ER glycoproteins. PMID:22174835

  16. Wing pathology of white-nose syndrome in bats suggests life-threatening disruption of physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Boyles, Justin G.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is causing unprecedented declines in several species of North American bats. The characteristic lesions of WNS are caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans, which erodes and replaces the living skin of bats while they hibernate. It is unknown how this infection kills the bats. We review here the unique physiological importance of wings to hibernating bats in relation to the damage caused by G. destructans and propose that mortality is caused by catastrophic disruption of wing-dependent physiological functions. Mechanisms of disease associated with G. destructans seem specific to hibernating bats and are most analogous to disease caused by chytrid fungus in amphibians.

  17. Wing pathology of white-nose syndrome in bats suggests life-threatening disruption of physiology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is causing unprecedented declines in several species of North American bats. The characteristic lesions of WNS are caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans, which erodes and replaces the living skin of bats while they hibernate. It is unknown how this infection kills the bats. We review here the unique physiological importance of wings to hibernating bats in relation to the damage caused by G. destructans and propose that mortality is caused by catastrophic disruption of wing-dependent physiological functions. Mechanisms of disease associated with G. destructans seem specific to hibernating bats and are most analogous to disease caused by chytrid fungus in amphibians. PMID:21070683

  18. Photoperiod influences the annual reproductive cycle of the male pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus).

    PubMed

    Beasley, L J; Zucker, I

    1984-03-01

    Adult pallids bats collected in April or May, were maintained in short or long photoperiods (10 or 14 h light/day) for 3-6 months. In August, the short-day bats had regressed testes, epididymal spermatozoa and fully developed accessory sex glands, corresponding to the autumnal reproductive condition of field animals; long-day bats had testes undergoing spermatogenesis, few epididymal spermatozoa and undeveloped accessory sex glands (summer reproductive condition). Bats in each photoperiod manifested the expected autumnal reproductive pattern in October. We suggest that photoperiod influences the reproductive physiology of male pallid bats by affecting an endogenous circannual reproductive rhythm. PMID:6699816

  19. Discrete bat algorithm for optimal problem of permutation flow shop scheduling.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qifang; Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Ma, Mingzhi; Li, Liangliang

    2014-01-01

    A discrete bat algorithm (DBA) is proposed for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSP). Firstly, the discrete bat algorithm is constructed based on the idea of basic bat algorithm, which divide whole scheduling problem into many subscheduling problems and then NEH heuristic be introduced to solve subscheduling problem. Secondly, some subsequences are operated with certain probability in the pulse emission and loudness phases. An intensive virtual population neighborhood search is integrated into the discrete bat algorithm to further improve the performance. Finally, the experimental results show the suitability and efficiency of the present discrete bat algorithm for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem. PMID:25243220

  20. Discrete Bat Algorithm for Optimal Problem of Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qifang; Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Ma, Mingzhi; Li, Liangliang

    2014-01-01

    A discrete bat algorithm (DBA) is proposed for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSP). Firstly, the discrete bat algorithm is constructed based on the idea of basic bat algorithm, which divide whole scheduling problem into many subscheduling problems and then NEH heuristic be introduced to solve subscheduling problem. Secondly, some subsequences are operated with certain probability in the pulse emission and loudness phases. An intensive virtual population neighborhood search is integrated into the discrete bat algorithm to further improve the performance. Finally, the experimental results show the suitability and efficiency of the present discrete bat algorithm for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem. PMID:25243220

  1. VIROLOGY: What Links Bats to Emerging Infectious Diseases?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrew P. Dobson (Princeton University; Ecology and Evolutionary Biology)

    2005-10-28

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: The discovery that bats are the reservoir hosts of the coronavirus that causes SARS in humans raises important questions about how we monitor and control emergent disease outbreaks. In his Perspective, Dobson focuses on the need to know more about the distribution of pathogens in their natural reservoir hosts and asks whether the absence of pathology that characterizes these relationships may reflect subtle differences in the immune responses of bats.

  2. Roost selection by the long-tailed bat, Chalinolobus tuberculatus, in temperate New Zealand rainforest and its implications for the conservation of bats in managed forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane A Sedgeley; Colin F. J. O'Donnell

    1999-01-01

    Roost selection by the threatened New Zealand long-tailed bat (Chalinolobus tuberculatus) was examined in temperate beech (Nothofagus) rainforest in New Zealand. Seventy-three bats were radio-tracked during the summers of 1993–1997 to 304 roost cavities in 291 different trees. Roost tree and site characteristics were compared with those of 593 randomly selected trees. Bats selected roosts on the basis of topography,

  3. Temperatures and Locations Used by Hibernating Bats, Including Myotis sodalis (Indiana Bat), in a Limestone Mine: Implications for Conservation and Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virgil Brack Jr

    2007-01-01

    Understanding temperatures used by hibernating bats will aid conservation and management efforts for many species. A limestone\\u000a mine with 71 km of passages, used as a hibernaculum by approximately 30,000 bats, was visited four times during a 6-year period.\\u000a The mine had been surveyed and mapped; therefore, bats could be precisely located and temperatures (T\\u000a s) of the entire hibernaculum

  4. Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): lethal brain concentrations.

    PubMed

    Clark, D R; Kroll, J C

    1977-12-01

    Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of carcass fat. During starvation, dosed bats lost weight faster than controls. Also, four dosed bats exhibited the prolonged tremoring that characterizes DDE poisoning. DDE increased in brains of starving bats as fat was metabolized. The estimated mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was 519 ppm with a range of 458-564 ppm. These values resemble diagnostic levels known for two species of passerine birds, but they exceed published levels for two free-tailed bats from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico. PMID:599587

  5. Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): Lethal brain concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Kroll, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of carcass fat. During starvation, dosed bats lost weight faster than controls. Also, four dosed bats exhibited the prolonged tremoring that characterizes DDE poisoning. DDE increased in brains of starving bats as fat was metabolized. The estimated mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was 519 ppm with a range of 458-564 ppm. These values resemble diagnostic levels known for two species of passerine birds, but they exceed published levels for two free-tailed bats from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.

  6. Spatial memory and stereotypy of flight paths by big brown bats in cluttered surroundings.

    PubMed

    Barchi, Jonathan R; Knowles, Jeffrey M; Simmons, James A

    2013-03-15

    The big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, uses echolocation for foraging and orientation. The limited operating range of biosonar implies that bats must rely upon spatial memory in familiar spaces with dimensions larger than a few meters. Prior experiments with bats flying in obstacle arrays have revealed differences in flight and acoustic emission patterns depending on the density and spatial extent of the obstacles. Using the same method, combined with acoustic microphone array tracking, we flew big brown bats in an obstacle array that varied in density and distribution in different locations in the flight room. In the initial experiment, six bats learned individually stereotyped flight patterns as they became familiar with the space. After the first day, the repetition rate of sonar broadcasts dropped to a stable level, consistent with low-density clutter. In a second experiment, after acquiring their stable paths, each bat was released from each of two unfamiliar locations in the room. Each bat still followed the same flight path it learned originally. In a third experiment, performed 1 month after the first two experiments, three of the bats were re-flown in the same configuration of obstacles; these three resumed flying in their accustomed path. The other three bats were flown in a mirror-image reconfiguration of the obstacles; these bats quickly found stable flight paths that differed from their originally learned paths. Overall, the flight patterns indicate that the bats perceive the cluttered space as a single scene through which they develop globally organized flight paths. PMID:23447667

  7. Emerging fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  8. Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients: 20 ounces pineapple chunks in juice 1/2 pound grapes, seedless 2 bananas 1 3/4 cups skim milk 4 ounces instant pudding mix, lemon flavored Directions 1. Open can to bowl. 3. Wash and peel bananas, and slice. Add to bowl. Set aside. 4. In separate bowl, pour lemon

  9. Dried Fruits and Nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current control of postharvest insect pests of dried fruits and tree nuts relies heavily on fumigants such as methyl bromide or phosphine. There is mounting pressure against the general use of chemical fumigants due to atmospheric emissions, safety or health concerns, and an increased interest in or...

  10. IMPROVING FRUIT-SET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit-drop in pecan can occur due to insufficient nickel nutrition. Timely foliar sprays of Ni can prevent loss. Nut yield loss to pollination related factors is likely far more significant in many orchards than commonly recognized. Pollination studies in the southeastern U.S. pecan belt, where t...

  11. Anthocyanins in Blackcurrant Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Chandler; K. A. Harper

    1958-01-01

    Robinson and Robinson1 investigated the anthocyanin pigments of the fruit of the blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) and stated that the skins contained a cyanidin-3-bioside. Gyanidin was the only aglycone found; but it was thought possible that small amounts of delphinidin were present. Fouassin2 has recently examined blackcurrant pigments by paper chromatography and has found two glycosides of cyanidin and two glycosides

  12. Fruits and vegetables

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2007-07-23

    Fruits and vegetables are healthy foods. Humans need to consume these in order to get the nutrients they need to grow and maintain their bodies. People with anorexia would probably not eat these foods or any other foods. Anorexia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted with anorexia doesn't eat or eats very little food.

  13. Fruit Chewy Cookies Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Fruit Chewy Cookies Ingredients: non stick cooking spray 3 bananas 1 cup raisins 2 cups rolled oats. Peel and coarsely mash bananas in mixing bowl. 3. Add raisins, oats, apple butter, walnuts, oil and vanilla extract with bananas and stir to mix well. 4. Let stand for 10 minutes. 5. Drop by teaspoonful

  14. Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients: 2 Golden Delicious apples 2 Red Delicious apples 2 banana 1 1/2 cups Directions 1. Leave the skin on the apple and cut in half through the core. Then cut each piece in half again

  15. Trypanosoma livingstonei: a new species from African bats supports the bat seeding hypothesis for the Trypanosoma cruzi clade

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bat trypanosomes have been implicated in the evolutionary history of the T. cruzi clade, which comprises species from a wide geographic and host range in South America, Africa and Europe, including bat-restricted species and the generalist agents of human American trypanosomosis T. cruzi and T. rangeli. Methods Trypanosomes from bats (Rhinolophus landeri and Hipposideros caffer) captured in Mozambique, southeast Africa, were isolated by hemoculture. Barcoding was carried out through the V7V8 region of Small Subunit (SSU) rRNA and Fluorescent Fragment Length barcoding (FFLB). Phylogenetic inferences were based on SSU rRNA, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) and Spliced Leader (SL) genes. Morphological characterization included light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Results New trypanosomes from bats clustered together forming a clade basal to a larger assemblage called the T. cruzi clade. Barcoding, phylogenetic analyses and genetic distances based on SSU rRNA and gGAPDH supported these trypanosomes as a new species, which we named Trypanosoma livingstonei n. sp. The large and highly polymorphic SL gene repeats of this species showed a copy of the 5S ribosomal RNA into the intergenic region. Unique morphological (large and broad blood trypomastigotes compatible to species of the subgenus Megatrypanum and cultures showing highly pleomorphic epimastigotes and long and slender trypomastigotes) and ultrastructural (cytostome and reservosomes) features and growth behaviour (when co-cultivated with HeLa cells at 37°C differentiated into trypomastigotes resembling the blood forms and do not invaded the cells) complemented the description of this species. Conclusion Phylogenetic inferences supported the hypothesis that Trypanosoma livingstonei n. sp. diverged from a common ancestral bat trypanosome that evolved exclusively in Chiroptera or switched at independent opportunities to mammals of several orders forming the clade T. cruzi, hence, providing further support for the bat seeding hypothesis to explain the origin of T. cruzi and T. rangeli. PMID:23915781

  16. A generalized pollination system in the tropics: bats, birds and Aphelandra acanthus

    PubMed Central

    Muchhala, Nathan; Caiza, Angelica; Vizuete, Juan Carlos; Thomson, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims A number of different types of flower-visiting animals coexist in any given habitat. What evolutionary and ecological factors influence the subset of these that a given plant relies on for its pollination? Addressing this question requires a mechanistic understanding of the importance of different potential pollinators in terms of visitation rate (pollinator ‘quantity’) and effectiveness at transferring pollen (pollinator ‘quality’) is required. While bat-pollinated plants typically are highly specialized to bats, there are some instances of bat-pollinated plants that use other pollinators as well. These generalized exceptions tend to occur in habitats where bat ‘quantity’ is poor due to low or fluctuating bat densities. Methods Aphelandra acanthus occurs in tropical cloud forests with relatively high densities of bat visitors, yet displays a mix of floral syndrome characteristics, suggesting adaptation to multiple types of pollinators. To understand its pollination system better, aspects of its floral phenology and the ‘quantity’ and ‘quality’ components of pollination by its floral visitors are studied here. Key Results Flowers were found to open and senesce throughout the day and night, although anther dehiscence was restricted to the late afternoon and night. Videotaping reveals that flowers are visited nocturnally by bats and moths, and diurnally by hummingbirds. Analysis of pollen deposition shows that bats regularly transfer large amounts of conspecific pollen, while hummingbirds occasionally transfer some pollen, and moths rarely do so. Conclusions Hummingbirds and bats were comparable in terms of pollination ‘quantity’, while bats were the most effective in terms of ‘quality’. Considering these components together, bats are responsible for approx. 70 % of A. acanthus pollination. However, bats also transferred remarkably large amounts of foreign pollen along with the conspecific grains (three of four grains were foreign). It is suggested that the negative effects of interspecific pollen transfer may decrease bat ‘quality’ for A. acanthus, and thus select for generalization on multiple pollinators instead of specialization on bats. PMID:19131378

  17. Fruit composition and patterns of fruit dispersal of two Cornus spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Borowicz; A. G. Stephenson

    1985-01-01

    Fruiting phenology and pattern of fruit removal of two shrubby dogwoods were examined in relation to fruit composition. It was predicted that fruit of the species bearing high fat fruit would disappear more rapidly and fall to the ground sooner than fruit of the species bearing low fat fruit. Field observation at two sites in central Pennsylvania contradicts these predictions.

  18. Sex-based population structure of ectoparasites from Neotropical bats

    E-print Network

    Willig, Michael

    Sex-based population structure of ectoparasites from Neotropical bats STEVEN J. PRESLEY* Center by multiple evolutionary and ecological mechanisms, with natural selection affecting sex ratios as well as the distributions of each sex throughout the environment. To address sex-based aspects of population structure, I

  19. The conservation status of New Zealand bats, 2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CFJ ODonnell; JE Christie; RA Hitchmough; B Lloyd; S Parsons

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS) is a national system used to assess the risk of extinction faced by New Zealand plants, animals and fungi. The system is specifically designed to be relevant to New Zealand's unusual ecological and geographic conditions. We undertook a re-evaluation of the status of seven bat taxa based on our knowledge of New Zealand

  20. Birth synchrony in greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Porter; G. S. Wilkinson

    2001-01-01

    For many animals, strategies for optimally timing reproduction involve monitoring not only the physical environment, but also the social context. To explore the potential for social factors to modulate reproductive seasonality, the influence of social and environmental cues on birth timing was examined in greater spear-nosed bats Phyllostomus hastatus. Births were observed or dated from pup growth curves in three