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1

Male dominance, paternity, and relatedness in the Jamaican fruit-eating bat ( Artibeus jamaicensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed variation at 14 nuclear microsatellite loci to assess the genetic structure, relatedness, and paternity of polygynous Jamaican fruit-eating bats. A total of 84 adults captured in two caves exhibited little genetic differentiation between caves ( F ST = 0.008). Average relatedness among adult females in 10 harem groups was very low ( R = 0.014 ± ± ±

JORGE ORTEGA; JESÚS E. MALDONADO; GERALD S. WILKINSON; HÉCTOR T. ARITA; ROBERT C. FLEISCHER

2003-01-01

2

Transcriptome Sequencing and Annotation for the Jamaican Fruit Bat (Artibeus jamaicensis)  

PubMed Central

The Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) is one of the most common bats in the tropical Americas. It is thought to be a potential reservoir host of Tacaribe virus, an arenavirus closely related to the South American hemorrhagic fever viruses. We performed transcriptome sequencing and annotation from lung, kidney and spleen tissues using 454 and Illumina platforms to develop this species as an animal model. More than 100,000 contigs were assembled, with 25,000 genes that were functionally annotated. Of the remaining unannotated contigs, 80% were found within bat genomes or transcriptomes. Annotated genes are involved in a broad range of activities ranging from cellular metabolism to genome regulation through ncRNAs. Reciprocal BLAST best hits yielded 8,785 sequences that are orthologous to mouse, rat, cattle, horse and human. Species tree analysis of sequences from 2,378 loci was used to achieve 95% bootstrap support for the placement of bat as sister to the clade containing horse, dog, and cattle. Through substitution rate estimation between bat and human, 32 genes were identified with evidence for positive selection. We also identified 466 immune-related genes, which may be useful for studying Tacaribe virus infection of this species. The Jamaican fruit bat transcriptome dataset is a resource that should provide additional candidate markers for studying bat evolution and ecology, and tools for analysis of the host response and pathology of disease.

Shaw, Timothy I.; Srivastava, Anuj; Chou, Wen-Chi; Liu, Liang; Hawkinson, Ann; Glenn, Travis C.; Adams, Rick; Schountz, Tony

2012-01-01

3

Efficiency of food utilization by fruit bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neotropical fruit bats consume figs (Ficus spp.) and other fruit in small bites which they suck dry and drop as pellets. The swallowed juice transits the short digestive system in 0.5 h or less. The efficiency of this unusual mode of feeding was determined by comparing the nutritional content of pellets, feces and urine of captive Artibeus jamaicensis to that

Douglas W. Morrison

1980-01-01

4

Impact of Posttyphoon Hunting on Mariana Fruit Bats (Pteropus mariannus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the abundance of Mariana fruit bats (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest) on the Pacific islands of Rota and Guam before and after a severe typhoon in December 2002. After the typhoon, bat abundance declined by 70% on Rota. On Guam, bat abundance initially increased by ca. 100 individuals (103%), perhaps due to immigration from Rota, but then declined an average

Jacob A. Esselstyn; Arjun Amar; Dustin Janeke

2006-01-01

5

Fellatio by Fruit Bats Prolongs Copulation Time  

PubMed Central

Oral sex is widely used in human foreplay, but rarely documented in other animals. Fellatio has been recorded in bonobos Pan paniscus, but even then functions largely as play behaviour among juvenile males. The short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx exhibits resource defence polygyny and one sexually active male often roosts with groups of females in tents made from leaves. Female bats often lick their mate's penis during dorsoventral copulation. The female lowers her head to lick the shaft or the base of the male's penis but does not lick the glans penis which has already penetrated the vagina. Males never withdrew their penis when it was licked by the mating partner. A positive relationship exists between the length of time that the female licked the male's penis during copulation and the duration of copulation. Furthermore, mating pairs spent significantly more time in copulation if the female licked her mate's penis than if fellatio was absent. Males also show postcopulatory genital grooming after intromission. At present, we do not know why genital licking occurs, and we present four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that may explain the function of fellatio in C. sphinx.

Tan, Min; Jones, Gareth; Zhu, Guangjian; Ye, Jianping; Hong, Tiyu; Zhou, Shanyi; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Libiao

2009-01-01

6

Chemical Ecology of Fruit Bat Foraging Behavior in Relation to the Fruit Odors of Two Species of Paleotropical Bat-Dispersed Figs ( Ficus hispida and Ficus scortechinii )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the fruit odors of two bat-dispersed fig species in the Paleotropics, in relation to the foraging behavior\\u000a of fruit bats, to test the following hypotheses: 1) fruit odor plays a critical role for detection and selection of ripe figs\\u000a by fruit bats; 2) bat-dispersed fig species are characterized by the same, or similar, chemical compounds; and 3) total

Robert Hodgkison; Manfred Ayasse; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko; Christopher Häberlein; Stefan Schulz; Wan Aida Wan Mustapha; Akbar Zubaid; Thomas H. Kunz

2007-01-01

7

Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.

Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter

2013-01-01

8

Feeding by the short?tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) on fruit and possibly nectar  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand's short?tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata Gray, 1843) feeds on fruit, insects, and possibly nectar in North Island kauri (Agathis australis) forest. Fruits eaten by members of a colony of 500 bats in May included those of Freycinetia baueriana (Pandanaceae), Collospermum hastatum, and C. microspermum (Liliaceae). Pollen analyses of bat guano, and of the stomach contents of 4 short?tailed bats

M. J. Daniel

1976-01-01

9

Tropical secondary forest management influences frugivorous bat composition, abundance and fruit consumption in chiapas, Mexico.  

PubMed

Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H') was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests' structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029

Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

2013-10-11

10

Tropical Secondary Forest Management Influences Frugivorous Bat Composition, Abundance and Fruit Consumption in Chiapas, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H’) was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests’ structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats.

Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-Gonzalez, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

2013-01-01

11

Habitat structure, wing morphology, and the vertical stratification of Malaysian fruit bats (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the vertical stratification of Old World fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in relation to habitat structure and wing morphology, in a lowland Malaysian rain forest. In total, 352 fruit bats of eight species were captured within the subcanopy of the structurally complex old-growth forest during 72 306 m2 mist net hours of sampling. Fruit bat species that were

Robert Hodgkison; Sharon T. Balding; Akbar Zubaid; Thomas H. Kunz

2004-01-01

12

Artibeus lituratus, the Great Fruit Bat, Feeding on the Infructescences of Cecropia sp.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Artibeus lituratus, the great fruit bat, feeding on the infructescences of Cecropia sp. Species of Artibeus are important dispersers of Cecropia. Morphological and anatomical study has revealed that the dispersal unit of Cecropia is the entire fruit, not just the seed. Bats consume the fleshy floral parts surrounding the fruits and disperse the fruits.

Tuttle, Merlin D.

2004-03-09

13

Uncovering the fruit bat bushmeat commodity chain and the true extent of fruit bat hunting in Ghana, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Harvesting, consumption and trade of bushmeat are important causes of both biodiversity loss and potential zoonotic disease emergence. In order to identify possible ways to mitigate these threats, it is essential to improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which bushmeat gets from the site of capture to the consumer’s table. In this paper we highlight the previously unrecognized scale of hunting of the African straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, a species which is important in both ecological and public health contexts, and describe the commodity chain in southern Ghana for its trade. Based on interviews with 551 Ghanaians, including bat hunters, vendors and consumers, we estimate that a minimum of 128,000 E. helvum bats are sold each year through a commodity chain stretching up to 400 km and involving multiple vendors. Unlike the general bushmeat trade in Ghana, where animals are sold in both specialized bushmeat markets and in restaurants, E. helvum is sold primarily in marketplaces; many bats are also kept by hunters for personal consumption. The offtake estimated in this paper raises serious conservation concerns, while the commodity chain identified in this study may offer possible points for management intervention. The separation of the E. helvum commodity chain from that of other bushmeat highlights the need for species-specific research in this area, particularly for bats, whose status as bushmeat is largely unknown.

Kamins, A.O.; Restif, O.; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y.; Suu-Ire, R.; Hayman, D.T.S.; Cunningham, A.A.; Wood, J.L.N.; Rowcliffe, J.M.

2011-01-01

14

Impact of Post-typhoon Hunting on Mariana Fruit Bats (Pteropus mariannus) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the abundance of Mariana fruit bats (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest) on the Pacific islands of Rota and Guam before and after a severe typhoon in December 2002. After the typhoon, bat abundance declined by 70% on Rota. On Guam, bat abundance initially increased by ca. 100 individuals (103%), perhaps due to immigration from Rota, but then declined an average

Jacob A. Esselstyn; Arjun Amar; Dustin Janeke

15

Is the Egyptian fruit-bat Rousettus aegyptiacus a pest in Israel? An analysis of the bat's diet and implications for its conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Egyptian fruit-bat Rousettus aegyptiacus is regarded as a pest for agriculture. However, no quantitative data on its diet have been collected in Israel or in other Mediterranean areas, and control measures in the past reduced populations of insectivorous bats in Israel. We therefore studied the relative importance of native versus commercially cultivated fruit plants by analysis of bat faeces.

Carmi Korine; Ido Izhaki; Zeev Arad

1999-01-01

16

Authentication of the R06E Fruit Bat Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Fruit bats and insectivorous bats are believed to provide a natural reservoir for a wide variety of infectious diseases. Several lines of evidence, including the successful isolation of infectious viruses, indicate that Marburg virus and Ravn virus have found a major reservoir in colonies of the Egyptian rousette (Rousettus aegyptiacus). To facilitate molecular studies on virus-reservoir host interactions and isolation of viruses from environmental samples, we established cell lines from primary cells of this animal. The cell lines were given to several laboratories until we realized that a contamination with Vero cells in one of the cultures had occurred. Here we describe a general diagnostic procedure for identification of cross-species contamination with the focus on Vero and Rousettus cell lines, and summarize newly discovered properties of the cell lines that may pertain to pathogen discovery.

Jordan, Ingo; Munster, Vincent J.; Sandig, Volker

2012-01-01

17

A novel approach for collecting samples from fruit bats for isolation of infectious agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis involving pigs and humans in peninsular Malaysia in 1998\\/1999, a conventional approach was initially undertaken to collect specimens from fruit bats by mist-netting and shooting, as an integral part of wildlife surveillance of the natural reservoir host of Nipah virus. This study describes a novel method of collecting fruit bats’ urine samples using

Kaw Bing Chua

2003-01-01

18

Molecular detection of a novel paramyxovirus in fruit bats from Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background Fruit bats are known to harbor zoonotic paramyxoviruses including Nipah, Hendra, and Menangle viruses. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of paramyxovirus RNA in fruit bats from Indonesia. Methods RNA samples were obtained from the spleens of 110 fruit bats collected from four locations in Indonesia. All samples were screened by semi-nested broad spectrum reverse transcription PCR targeting the paramyxovirus polymerase (L) genes. Results Semi-nested reverse transcription PCR detected five previously unidentified paramyxoviruses from six fruit bats. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these virus sequences were related to henipavirus or rubulavirus. Conclusions This study indicates the presence of novel paramyxoviruses among fruit bat populations in Indonesia.

2012-01-01

19

Comparative analysis of the digestive efficiency and nitrogen and energy requirements of the phyllostomid fruit-bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) and the pteropodid fruit-bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) and energy (E) requirements of the phyllostomid fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, and the pteropodid fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus, were measured in adults that were fed on four experimental diets. Mean daily food intake by A. jamaicensis and R. aegyptiacus ranged from 1.1–1.6 times body mass and 0.8–1.0 times body mass, respectively. Dry matter digestibility and metabolizable\\u000a E coefficient

M. Delorme; D. W. Thomas

1999-01-01

20

Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson could be used for any age. My target group is first graders. Most of it is for whole group and the games can be played on the Smartboard or on the computer Click on this to learn all about bats. Bats4kids website Echolocation Movie Movie on echolocation - cute More bat information Creature Feature - Vampire Bats What good are bats? What good are bats - informative website Why are bats scary? Why are bats so scary? - informative with pictures FUN AND GAMES Online bat puzzles Origami bat Bat crafts TEACHER RESOURCES All About Bats worksheet Bat dinner worksheet coloring page Bat book cover Bat book picture paper Bat coloring pages Bat fact worksheet coloring page Bat life cycle with words Bat maze Writing paper - What I learned about bats ...

Stearns, Ms.

2008-10-25

21

Adaptive evolution of the myo6 gene in old world fruit bats (family: pteropodidae).  

PubMed

Myosin VI (encoded by the Myo6 gene) is highly expressed in the inner and outer hair cells of the ear, retina, and polarized epithelial cells such as kidney proximal tubule cells and intestinal enterocytes. The Myo6 gene is thought to be involved in a wide range of physiological functions such as hearing, vision, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Bats (Chiroptera) represent one of the most fascinating mammal groups for molecular evolutionary studies of the Myo6 gene. A diversity of specialized adaptations occur among different bat lineages, such as echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing in laryngeal echolocating bats, large eyes and a strong dependence on vision in Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae), and specialized high-carbohydrate but low-nitrogen diets in both Old World and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). To investigate what role(s) the Myo6 gene might fulfill in bats, we sequenced the coding region of the Myo6 gene in 15 bat species and used molecular evolutionary analyses to detect evidence of positive selection in different bat lineages. We also conducted real-time PCR assays to explore the expression levels of Myo6 in a range of tissues from three representative bat species. Molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that the Myo6 gene, which was widely considered as a hearing gene, has undergone adaptive evolution in the Old World fruit bats which lack laryngeal echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing. Real-time PCR showed the highest expression level of the Myo6 gene in the kidney among ten tissues examined in three bat species, indicating an important role for this gene in kidney function. We suggest that Myo6 has undergone adaptive evolution in Old World fruit bats in relation to receptor-mediated endocytosis for the preservation of protein and essential nutrients. PMID:23620821

Shen, Bin; Han, Xiuqun; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

2013-04-19

22

Wing morphology and flight development in the short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postnatal changes in wing morphology, flight development and aerodynamics were studied in captive free-flying short-nosed fruit bats, Cynopterus sphinx. Pups were reluctant to move until 25 days of age and started fluttering at the mean age of 40 days. The wingspan and wing area increased linearly until 45 days of age by which time the young bats exhibited clumsy flight

Vadamalai Elangovan; Elangovan Yuvana Satya Priya; Hanumanth Raghuram; Ganapathy Marimuthu

2007-01-01

23

Bats.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)|

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

24

Bats.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

25

Nutritional and nutraceutical comparison of Jamaican Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) and Psidium guajava (common guava) fruits.  

PubMed

Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) is one of many underutilised edible fruits that grow wild in Jamaica, and could potentially be commercially exploited to yield health and economic benefits. In this study, the total phenolics, proximate contents, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of P. cattleianum and P. guajava (common guava), a well-known species, were compared. Strawberry guavas were found to be superior to common guavas in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, total phenolics and vitamin C content. They also possessed relatively high fibre content (24.9%). The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of strawberry guavas showed cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitory activities of 18.3% and 26.5%, respectively (250 ?g/mL), indicating anti-inflammatory activity. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of P. guajava showed 56.4% (COX-2) and 44.1% (COX-1) inhibitory activity, respectively. Additionally, nine compounds were isolated from strawberry guava fruits, some of which demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. These results indicate that strawberry guavas are beneficial for health. PMID:23107729

McCook-Russell, Kayanne P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Facey, Petrea C; Bowen-Forbes, Camille S

2012-03-16

26

Sugar assimilation and digestive efficiency in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi).  

PubMed

Fruit- and nectar-feeding bats have high energy demands because of the cost of flight, and sugar is a good fuel because it is easily digested and absorbed. This study investigated the digestive efficiency of different sugars at different concentrations in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi). We predicted that the sugar type and concentration would affect the total amount of solution consumed, while the total energy gained and the apparent assimilation efficiency would be high, irrespective of sugar type or concentration. Equicaloric solutions of two sugar types, glucose and sucrose, at low (10%), medium (15%) and high (25%) concentrations were offered in separate trials to bats. Total amount of solution consumed, total energy gained from each solution, and apparent assimilation efficiency, were measured. Bats had higher total volumetric intake of glucose and sucrose at the low concentrations than at the higher concentrations. However, bats maintained similar total energy intake on the respective glucose and sucrose concentrations. Bats were found to have high assimilation efficiencies on both glucose and sucrose irrespective of concentration. As bats used both sugars efficiently to maximize and maintain energy gain, it is expected that they feed opportunistically on fruit in the wild depending on temporal and spatial availability to obtain their energy requirements. Furthermore, fruit with high sucrose or glucose content will be consumed. PMID:22178662

Downs, Colleen T; Mqokeli, Babalwa; Singh, Preshnee

2011-12-13

27

Reproduction elevates the corticosterone stress response in common fruit bats.  

PubMed

Changes in reproductive state or the environment may affect the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-andrenal (HPA) axis. However, little is known about the dynamics of the resulting corticosteroid stress response, in particular in tropical mammals. In this study, we address the modulation of corticosterone release in response to different reproductive conditions and seasonality in 326 free-living common fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) on Barro Colorado Island in Panama during dry and wet seasons. We present strong evidence that stress sensitivity is primarily modulated by reproductive condition. In reproductively active females, corticosterone increases were more rapid and reached higher levels, but also decreased significantly faster than in inactive females. The corticosterone response was weaker in reproducing males than in females and delayed compared to non-reproductive males. Testes volume in reproductively active males was negatively correlated with corticosterone concentrations. Our findings suggest differentiated dynamics in the corticosterone stress response between sexes, potentially reflecting conflicting ecological demands. In females, a strong acute corticosterone response may represent high stress- and risk-sensitivity that facilitates escape and thus helps to protect reproduction. In males, suppression during reproductive activity could reflect lowered stress sensitivity to avoid chronically elevated corticosterone levels in times of frequent aggressive and therefore costly inter-male encounters. PMID:16273409

Klose, Stefan M; Smith, Carolynn L; Denzel, Andrea J; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

2005-11-05

28

The sweet side of life: nectar sugar type and concentration preference in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat.  

PubMed

Whether nectarivores or frugivores place selective pressure on the plants they feed on, in terms of nectar or fruit traits, is much debated. Globally sugar preferences, concentration preference and digestive ability of avian nectarivores have been extensively researched. In contrast, relatively little is known about mammalian nectarivores or frugivores in terms of these, particularly Old World species. Consequently effect of sugar type and concentration on food preference in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat Epomophorus wahlbergi was investigated. Pair-wise choice tests were conducted using equicaloric hexose and sucrose solutions at five different concentrations (5%-25%). It was expected that they would prefer hexose sugars as these are dominant in available indigenous fruits. However, bats preferred hexoses only when offered dilute (5%) concentrations. From 10% to 25% they showed a decrease in volume intake. Their body mass was generally higher and similar after feeding during the night with the exception of 5% concentration where the mean body mass decreased. When E. wahlbergi were offered a range of sucrose or hexose solutions (10%-25%) respectively, they showed no concentration preference in terms of total volume consumed, nor energy intake. These findings suggest that these fruit bats do not appear to act as a selective pressure on sugar composition in Old World fruit. In fruit bats with high energy requirements, dietary flexibility may be an advantage when faced with seasonal and unpredictable fruit availability. PMID:22575606

Coleman, J C; Downs, C T

2012-05-01

29

Fecundity, fruiting pattern, and seed dispersal in Piper amalago (Piperaceae), a bat-dispersed tropical shrub  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the nightly and seasonal production of ripe fruit by Piper amalago (Piperaceae), a patchily distributed, bat-dispersed forest shrub, at Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. Phenological observations over several years indicate that individuals produce a low (usually 1–3) and variable number of ripe fruit each night for 3–4 wks in the early wet season (June and July).

Theodore H. Fleming

1981-01-01

30

Demography and natural history of the common fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats were marked and monitored on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, to study seasonal and annual variation in distribution, abundance, and natural history from 1975 through 1980. Data gathered advances our knowledge about flocking; abundance; feeding strategies; social behavior; species richness; population structure and stability; age and sex ratios; life expectancy and longevity; nightly, seasonal, and annual movements; synchrony within and between species in reproductive activity; timing of reproductive cycles; survival and dispersal of recruits; intra-and inter-specific relationships; and day and night roost selection. Barro Colorado Island (BCI) harbors large populations of bats that feed on the fruit of canopy trees, especially figs. These trees are abundant, and the individual asynchrony of their fruiting rhythms results in a fairly uniform abundance of fruit. When figs are scarce, a variety of other fruits is available to replace them. This relatively dependable food supply attracts a remarkably rich guild of bats. Although we marked all bats caught, we tried to maximize the number of Artibeus jamaicensis netted, because it is abundant (2/3 of the total catch of bats on BCI), easily captured by conventional means (mist nets set at ground level), and responds well to handling and marking. An average Artibeus jamaicensis is a 45 g frugivore that eats roughly its weight in fruit every night. These bats prefer figs and often seek them out even when other types of fruit they might eat are far more abundant. They commute several hundred meters to feeding trees on the average, feeding on fruit from one to four trees each night, and returning to a single fruiting tree an average of four nights in succession. The bats tend to fly farther when fewer fig trees are bearing ripe fruit, and they feed from fewer trees, on the average, when the moon is nearly full. These bats, like their congeners, do not feed in the fruiting tree itself. Instead, they select a fruit and carry it to a feeding roost typically about 100 m away before eating it. We utilized radio telemetry to assess feeding rates from the number of ?feeding passes??transits between fruit tree and feeding roost. Bats are often netted while carrying fruit, revealing their diet. Feces also reveal dietary information. Adult female A. jamaicensis live in harems of three to 30 individuals with a single adult male. On BCI the harem groups roost during the day in hollow trees. There is presumably a large population of surplus males that roost together with nonadults of both sexes in foliage. Females commute an average of 600 m from their day roosts to feeding sites, and harem males travel less than 300 m. Twice a year most females give birth to a single young, once in March or April, and again in July or August; active gestation averages about 19 weeks. Juveniles are first netted when they are about ten weeks old, and females usually first bear young in March or April following their year of birth.

1991-01-01

31

Henipavirus Neutralising Antibodies in an Isolated Island Population of African Fruit Bats  

PubMed Central

Isolated islands provide valuable opportunities to study the persistence of viruses in wildlife populations, including population size thresholds such as the critical community size. The straw-coloured fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, has been identified as a reservoir for henipaviruses (serological evidence) and Lagos bat virus (LBV; virus isolation and serological evidence) in continental Africa. Here, we sampled from a remote population of E. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on Annobón island in the Gulf of Guinea to investigate whether antibodies to these viruses also exist in this isolated subspecies. Henipavirus serological analyses (Luminex multiplexed binding and inhibition assays, virus neutralisation tests and western blots) and lyssavirus serological analyses (LBV: modified Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test, LBV and Mokola virus: lentivirus pseudovirus neutralisation assay) were undertaken on 73 and 70 samples respectively. Given the isolation of fruit bats on Annobón and their lack of connectivity with other populations, it was expected that the population size on the island would be too small to allow persistence of viruses that are thought to cause acute and immunising infections. However, the presence of antibodies against henipaviruses was detected using the Luminex binding assay and confirmed using alternative assays. Neutralising antibodies to LBV were detected in one bat using both assays. We demonstrate clear evidence for exposure of multiple individuals to henipaviruses in this remote population of E. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on Annobón island. The situation is less clear for LBV. Seroprevalences to henipaviruses and LBV in Annobón are notably different to those in E. helvum in continental locations studied using the same sampling techniques and assays. Whilst cross-sectional serological studies in wildlife populations cannot provide details on viral dynamics within populations, valuable information on the presence or absence of viruses may be obtained and utilised for informing future studies.

Peel, Alison J.; Baker, Kate S.; Crameri, Gary; Barr, Jennifer A.; Hayman, David T. S.; Wright, Edward; Broder, Christopher C.; Fernandez-Loras, Andres; Fooks, Anthony R.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L. N.

2012-01-01

32

The modularity of seed dispersal: differences in structure and robustness between bat- and bird-fruit networks.  

PubMed

In networks of plant-animal mutualisms, different animal groups interact preferentially with different plants, thus forming distinct modules responsible for different parts of the service. However, what we currently know about seed dispersal networks is based only on birds. Therefore, we wished to fill this gap by studying bat-fruit networks and testing how they differ from bird-fruit networks. As dietary overlap of Neotropical bats and birds is low, they should form distinct mutualistic modules within local networks. Furthermore, since frugivory evolved only once among Neotropical bats, but several times independently among Neotropical birds, greater dietary overlap is expected among bats, and thus connectance and nestedness should be higher in bat-fruit networks. If bat-fruit networks have higher nestedness and connectance, they should be more robust to extinctions. We analyzed 1 mixed network of both bats and birds and 20 networks that consisted exclusively of either bats (11) or birds (9). As expected, the structure of the mixed network was both modular (M = 0.45) and nested (NODF = 0.31); one module contained only birds and two only bats. In 20 datasets with only one disperser group, bat-fruit networks (NODF = 0.53 ± 0.09, C = 0.30 ± 0.11) were more nested and had a higher connectance than bird-fruit networks (NODF = 0.42 ± 0.07, C = 0.22 ± 0.09). Unexpectedly, robustness to extinction of animal species was higher in bird-fruit networks (R = 0.60 ± 0.13) than in bat-fruit networks (R = 0.54 ± 0.09), and differences were explained mainly by species richness. These findings suggest that a modular structure also occurs in seed dispersal networks, similar to pollination networks. The higher nestedness and connectance observed in bat-fruit networks compared with bird-fruit networks may be explained by the monophyletic evolution of frugivory in Neotropical bats, among which the diets of specialists seem to have evolved from the pool of fruits consumed by generalists. PMID:21479592

Mello, Marco Aurelio Ribeiro; Marquitti, Flávia Maria Darcie; Guimarães, Paulo R; Kalko, Elisabeth Klara Viktoria; Jordano, Pedro; de Aguiar, Marcus Aloizio Martinez

2011-04-09

33

Co-circulation of diverse paramyxoviruses in an urban African fruit bat population  

PubMed Central

Bats constitute a reservoir of zoonotic infections and some bat paramyxoviruses are capable of cross-species transmission, often with fatal consequences. Determining the level of viral diversity in reservoir populations is fundamental to understanding and predicting viral emergence. This is particularly relevant for RNA viruses where the adaptive mutations required for cross-species transmission can be present in the reservoir host. We report the use of non-invasively collected, pooled, neat urine samples as a robust sample type for investigating paramyxoviruses in bat populations. Using consensus PCR assays we have detected a high incidence and genetic diversity of novel paramyxoviruses in an urban fruit bat population over a short period of time. This may suggest a similarly unique relationship between bats and the members of the family Paramyxoviridae as proposed for some other viral families. Additionally, the high rate of bat–human contact at the study site calls for the zoonotic potential of the detected viruses to be investigated further.

Baker, K. S.; Todd, S.; Marsh, G.; Fernandez-Loras, A.; Suu-Ire, R.; Wood, J. L. N.; Wang, L. F.

2012-01-01

34

Ethanol concentration in food and body condition affect foraging behavior in Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethanol occurs in fleshy fruit as a result of sugar fermentation by both microorganisms and the plant itself; its concentration [EtOH] increases as fruit ripens. At low concentrations, ethanol is a nutrient, whereas at high concentrations, it is toxic. We hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on the foraging behavior of frugivorous vertebrates depend on its concentration in food and the body condition of the forager. We predicted that ethanol stimulates food consumption when its concentration is similar to that found in ripe fruit, whereas [EtOH] below or above that of ripe fruit has either no effect, or else deters foragers, respectively. Moreover, we expected that the amount of food ingested on a particular day of feeding influences the toxic effects of ethanol on a forager, and consequently shapes its feeding decisions on the following day. We therefore predicted that for a food-restricted forager, ethanol-rich food is of lower value than ethanol-free food. We used Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a model to test our hypotheses, and found that ethanol did not increase the value of food for the bats. High [EtOH] reduced the value of food for well-fed bats. However, for food-restricted bats, there was no difference between the value of ethanol-rich and ethanol-free food. Thus, microorganisms, via their production of ethanol, may affect the patterns of feeding of seed-dispersing frugivores. However, these patterns could be modified by the body condition of the animals because they might trade-off the costs of intoxication against the value of nutrients acquired.

Sánchez, Francisco; Korine, Carmi; Kotler, Burt P.; Pinshow, Berry

2008-06-01

35

Characterization of the sleep architecture in two species of fruit bat.  

PubMed

Bats (Chiroptera) are the second-most abundant mammalian order in the world, occupying a diverse range of habitats and exhibiting many different life history traits. In order to contribute to this highly underrepresented group we describe the sleep architecture of two species of frugivorous bat, the greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) and the lesser dawn fruit bat (Eonycteris spelaea). Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) data were recorded from multiple individuals (>or=5) by telemetry over a 72-h period in a laboratory setting with light/dark cycles equivalent to those found in the wild. Our results show that over a 24-h period both species spent more time asleep than awake (mean 15 h), less than previous reported for Chiroptera (20 h). C. sphinx spent significantly more of its non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM) quotas during the light phase, while E. spelaea divided its sleep-wake architecture equally between both light and dark phases. Comparing the sleep patterns of the two species found that C. sphinx had significantly fewer NREM and REM episodes than E. spelaea but each episode lasted for a significantly longer period of time. Potential hypotheses to explain the differences in the sleep architecture of C. sphinx with E. spelaea, including risk of predation and social interaction are discussed. PMID:20043956

Zhao, Xudong; Sun, Huaying; Tang, Zhanhui; Flanders, Jon; Zhang, Shuyi; Ma, Yuanye

2010-01-04

36

Novel, Potentially Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses from the African Straw-Colored Fruit Bat Eidolon helvum  

PubMed Central

Bats carry a variety of paramyxoviruses that impact human and domestic animal health when spillover occurs. Recent studies have shown a great diversity of paramyxoviruses in an urban-roosting population of straw-colored fruit bats in Ghana. Here, we investigate this further through virus isolation and describe two novel rubulaviruses: Achimota virus 1 (AchPV1) and Achimota virus 2 (AchPV2). The viruses form a phylogenetic cluster with each other and other bat-derived rubulaviruses, such as Tuhoko viruses, Menangle virus, and Tioman virus. We developed AchPV1- and AchPV2-specific serological assays and found evidence of infection with both viruses in Eidolon helvum across sub-Saharan Africa and on islands in the Gulf of Guinea. Longitudinal sampling of E. helvum indicates virus persistence within fruit bat populations and suggests spread of AchPVs via horizontal transmission. We also detected possible serological evidence of human infection with AchPV2 in Ghana and Tanzania. It is likely that clinically significant zoonotic spillover of chiropteran paramyxoviruses could be missed throughout much of Africa where health surveillance and diagnostics are poor and comorbidities, such as infection with HIV or Plasmodium sp., are common.

Todd, Shawn; Marsh, Glenn A.; Crameri, Gary; Barr, Jennifer; Kamins, Alexandra O.; Peel, Alison J.; Yu, Meng; Hayman, David T. S.; Nadjm, Behzad; Mtove, George; Amos, Benjamin; Reyburn, Hugh; Nyarko, Edward; Suu-Ire, Richard; Murcia, Pablo R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L. N.

2013-01-01

37

Demography of straw-colored fruit bats in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Eidolon helvum is widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa where it forms large, dense colonies. The species is migratory and satellite telemetry studies have demonstrated that individuals can migrate over 2,500 km. It is a common source of bush meat in West Africa and evidence of infection with potentially zoonotic viruses has been found in West African colonies. The species, therefore, is of interest to both ecologists and those interested in public health. Despite this, demographic parameters of the species are unknown. We focused our study primarily on a colony of up to 1,000,000 bats that roost in trees in Accra, Ghana to obtain estimates of birth rate and survival probability. Aging of bats by examination of tooth cementum annuli allowed use of life tables to indicate an annual survival probability for juveniles of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.77) and for adults of 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.93). Additionally, an annual adult survival probability of 0.63 (95% CI 0.27–0.88) was estimated by following 98 radiocollared bats over a year; capture–recapture data were analyzed using multistate models to address the confounding factor of emigration. True survival probabilities may be in between the 2 estimates, because permanent emigration may lead to underestimation in the capture–recapture study, and population decline may lead to overestimation in the life table analysis. Birth rates (0.96 young per female per year, 95% CI 0.92–0.98) and colony size changes were also estimated. Estimation of these key parameters will allow future analyses of both infection dynamics within, and harvest sustainability of, E. helvum populations.

Hayman, David T. S.; McCrea, Rachel; Restif, Olivier; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Wood, James L. N.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus

2012-01-01

38

Molecular Characterization of Menangle Virus, a Novel Paramyxovirus which Infects Pigs, Fruit Bats, and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menangle virus (MenV), isolated in August 1997 following an outbreak of reproductive disease in a piggery in New South Wales, is the second previously unclassified member of the family Paramyxoviridae to be identified in Australia since 1994. Similar to Hendra virus (HeV), MenV appears to be a virus of fruit bats (flying foxes) in the genus Pteropus. No serological cross-reactivity

Timothy R Bowden; Marcel Westenberg; Lin-Fa Wang; Bryan T Eaton; David B Boyle

2001-01-01

39

Flower Bats (Glossophaga soricina) and Fruit Bats (Carollia perspicillata) Rely on Spatial Cues over Shapes and Scents When Relocating Food  

PubMed Central

Background Natural selection can shape specific cognitive abilities and the extent to which a given species relies on various cues when learning associations between stimuli and rewards. Because the flower bat Glossophaga soricina feeds primarily on nectar, and the locations of nectar-producing flowers remain constant, G. soricina might be predisposed to learn to associate food with locations. Indeed, G. soricina has been observed to rely far more heavily on spatial cues than on shape cues when relocating food, and to learn poorly when shape alone provides a reliable cue to the presence of food. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we determined whether G. soricina would learn to use scent cues as indicators of the presence of food when such cues were also available. Nectar-producing plants fed upon by G. soricina often produce distinct, intense odors. We therefore expected G. soricina to relocate food sources using scent cues, particularly the flower-produced compound, dimethyl disulfide, which is attractive even to G. soricina with no previous experience of it. We also compared the learning of associations between cues and food sources by G. soricina with that of a related fruit-eating bat, Carollia perspicillata. We found that (1) G. soricina did not learn to associate scent cues, including dimethyl disulfide, with feeding sites when the previously rewarded spatial cues were also available, and (2) both the fruit-eating C. perspicillata and the flower-feeding G. soricina were significantly more reliant on spatial cues than associated sensory cues for relocating food. Conclusions/Significance These findings, taken together with past results, provide evidence of a powerful, experience-independent predilection of both species to rely on spatial cues when attempting to relocate food.

Carter, Gerald G.; Ratcliffe, John M.; Galef, Bennett G.

2010-01-01

40

Nitrogen and energy requirements of the short-tailed fruit bat ( Carollia perspicillata ): fruit bats are not nitrogen constrained  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) and energy (E) requirements were measured in adultCarollia perspicillata which were fed on four experimental diets. Bats ate 1.3–1.8 times their body massday-1 and ingested 1339.5–1941.4 kJkg-0.75day-1. Despite a rapid transit time, dry matter digestibility and metabolizable E coeflicient were high (83.3% and 82.4%, respectively),\\u000a but true N digestibility was low (67.0%). Mass change was not correlated with

M. Delorme; D. W. Thomas

1996-01-01

41

Kinematics of slow turn maneuvering in the fruit bat Cynopterus brachyotis.  

PubMed

Maneuvering abilities have long been considered key factors that influence habitat selection and foraging strategies in bats. To date, however, very little experimental work has been carried out to understand the mechanisms that bats use to perform maneuvers. In the present study, we examined the kinematics of slow-speed turning flight in the lesser short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, to understand the basic mechanics employed to perform maneuvers and to compare them with previous findings in bats and other flying organisms. Four individuals were trained to fly in L-shaped flight enclosure that required them to make a 90 deg. turn midway through each flight. Flights were recorded with three low-light, high-speed videocameras, allowing the three-dimensional reconstruction of the body and wing kinematics. For any flying organisms, turning requires changes of the direction of travel and the reorientation of the body around the center of mass to maintain the alignment with the flight direction. In C. brachyotis, changes in body orientation (i.e. heading) took place during upstroke and preceded the changes in flight direction, which were restricted to the downstroke portion of the wingbeat cycle. Mean change in flight direction was significantly correlated to the mean heading angular velocity at the beginning of the downstroke and to the mean bank angle during downstroke, although only heading velocity was significant when both variables were considered. Body reorientation prior to changes in direction might be a mechanism to maintain the head and body aligned with the direction of travel and, thus, maximizing spatial accuracy in three-dimensionally complex environments. PMID:18931320

Iriarte-Díaz, José; Swartz, Sharon M

2008-11-01

42

The roles of echolocation and olfaction in two Neotropical fruit-eating bats, Carollia perspicillata and C. castanea , feeding on Piper  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the echolocation and foraging behavior of two Neotropical frugivorous leaf-nosed bats (Carollia perspicillata, C. castanea: Phyllostomidae) in a flight cage. To test which cues Carollia uses to detect, identify, and localize ripe Piper fruit, their preferred natural food, we conducted experiments under semi-natural conditions with ripe, unripe, and artifical\\u000a fruits. We first offered the bats ripe fruits and

Wibke Thies; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

1998-01-01

43

The modularity of seed dispersal: differences in structure and robustness between bat– and bird–fruit networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In networks of plant–animal mutualisms, different animal groups interact preferentially with different plants, thus forming\\u000a distinct modules responsible for different parts of the service. However, what we currently know about seed dispersal networks\\u000a is based only on birds. Therefore, we wished to fill this gap by studying bat–fruit networks and testing how they differ from\\u000a bird–fruit networks. As dietary overlap

Marco Aurelio Ribeiro Mello; Flávia Maria Darcie Marquitti; Paulo R. Guimarães; Elisabeth Klara Viktoria Kalko; Pedro Jordano; Marcus Aloizio Martinez de Aguiar

44

Establishment of Fruit Bat Cells (Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a Model System for the Investigation of Filoviral Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe fruit bat species Rousettus aegyptiacus was identified as a potential reservoir for the highly pathogenic filovirus Marburg virus. To establish a basis for a molecular understanding of the biology of filoviruses in the reservoir host, we have adapted a set of molecular tools for investigation of filovirus replication in a recently developed cell line, R06E, derived from the species

Verena Krähling; Olga Dolnik; Larissa Kolesnikova; Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit; Ingo Jordan; Volker Sandig; Stephan Günther; Stephan Becker

2010-01-01

45

Environmental margin and island evolution in Middle Eastern populations of the Egyptian fruit bat.  

PubMed

Here, we present a study of the population genetic architecture and microevolution of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) at the environmental margins in the Middle East using mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellites. In contrast to the rather homogenous population structure typical of cave-dwelling bats in climax tropical ecosystems, a relatively pronounced isolation by distance and population diversification was observed. The evolution of this pattern could be ascribed to the complicated demographic history at higher latitudes related to the range margin fragmentation and complex geomorphology of the studied area. Lineages from East Africa and Arabia show divergent positions. Within the northwestern unit, the most marked pattern of the microsatellite data set is connected with insularity, as demonstrated by the separate status of populations from Saharan oases and Cyprus. These demes also exhibit a reduction in genetic variability, which is presumably connected with founder effects, drift and other potential factors related to island evolution as site-specific selection. Genetic clustering indicates a semipermeability of the desert barriers in the Sahara and Arabian Peninsula and a corridor role of the Nile Valley. The results emphasize the role of the island environment in restricting the gene flow in megabats, which is also corroborated by biogeographic patterns within the family, and suggests the possibility of nascent island speciation on Cyprus. Demographic analyses suggest that the colonization of the region was connected to the spread of agricultural plants; therefore, the peripatric processes described above might be because of or strengthened by anthropogenic changes in the environment. PMID:23094994

Hulva, P; Marešová, T; Dundarova, H; Bilgin, R; Benda, P; Bartoni?ka, T; Horá?ek, I

2012-10-24

46

Comparative population structure of Cynopterus fruit bats in peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand.  

PubMed

The extent to which response to environmental change is mediated by species-specific ecology is an important aspect of the population histories of tropical taxa. During the Pleistocene glacial cycles and associated sea level fluctuations, the Sunda region in Southeast Asia experienced concurrent changes in landmass area and the ratio of forest to open habitat, providing an ideal setting to test the expectation that habitat associations played an important role in determining species' response to the opportunity for geographic expansion. We used mitochondrial control region sequences and six microsatellite loci to compare the phylogeographic structure and demographic histories of four broadly sympatric species of Old World fruit bats in the genus, Cynopterus. Two forest-associated species and two open-habitat generalists were sampled along a latitudinal transect in Singapore, peninsular Malaysia, and southern Thailand. Contrary to expectations based on habitat associations, the geographic scale of population structure was not concordant across ecologically similar species. We found evidence for long and relatively stable demographic history in one forest and one open-habitat species, and inferred non-coincident demographic expansions in the second forest and open-habitat species. Thus, while these results indicate that Pleistocene climate change did not have a single effect on population structure across species, a correlation between habitat association and response to environmental change was supported in only two of four species. We conclude that interactions between multiple factors, including historical and contemporary environmental change, species-specific ecology and interspecific interactions, have shaped the recent evolutionary histories of Cynopterus fruit bats in Southeast Asia. PMID:16367828

Campbell, Polly; Schneider, Christopher J; Adnan, Adura M; Zubaid, Akbar; Kunz, Thomas H

2006-01-01

47

Cobalamin inactivation by nitrous oxide produces severe neurological impairment in fruit bats: protection by methionine and aggravation by folates  

SciTech Connect

Nitrous oxide, which inactivates cobalamin when administered to fruit bats, results in severe neurological impairment leading to ataxia, paralysis and death. This occurs after about 6 weeks in animals depleted of cobalamin by dietary restriction, and after about 10 weeks in cobalamin replete bats. Supplementation of the diet with pteroylglutamic acid caused acceleration of the neurological impairment--the first unequivocal demonstration of aggravation of the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency by pteroylglutamic acid. The administration of formyltetrahydropteroylglutamic acid produced similar aggravation of the neurological lesion. Supplementation of the diet with methionine protected the bats from neurological impairment, but failed to prevent death. Methionine supplementation protected against the exacerbating effect of folate, preventing the development of neurological changes. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency may be related to a deficiency in the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine which follows diminished synthesis of methionine.

van der Westhuyzen, J.; Fernandes-Costa, F.; Metz, J.

1982-11-01

48

Flower Bats (Glossophaga soricina) and Fruit Bats (Carollia perspicillata) Rely on Spatial Cues over Shapes and Scents When Relocating Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNatural selection can shape specific cognitive abilities and the extent to which a given species relies on various cues when learning associations between stimuli and rewards. Because the flower bat Glossophaga soricina feeds primarily on nectar, and the locations of nectar-producing flowers remain constant, G. soricina might be predisposed to learn to associate food with locations. Indeed, G. soricina has

Gerald G. Carter; John M. Ratcliffe; Bennett G. Galef

2010-01-01

49

Jamaican American Child Disciplinary Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about child disciplinary practices in Jamaican American families. Literature on child discipline in Jamaica and other Caribbean nations has mainly focused on physical discipline, and no empirical studies have investigated the types of discipline used in the Jamaican American community. The purpose of this study was to describe…

Carter, Stephaney

2011-01-01

50

Metastatic pancreatic carcinoma and bronchioloalveolar adenomas in an Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus).  

PubMed

An adult female, intact Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) was presented for lethargy, anorexia, and markedly reduced flying activity. Physical and ultrasound examinations were suggestive of an abdominal mass with free fluid within the abdomen. Based on the poor and deteriorating clinical condition of the animal, euthanasia was elected. Gross necropsy revealed an irregular thickening at the root of the mesentery and a diffusely, dark-red liver with rounded hepatic margins. Histologic examination revealed extensive neoplastic effacement of the pancreas with invasion into the surrounding mesentery and mesenteric lymph nodes and metastatic spread to the liver. Based on the morphology of the neoplastic cells, the involvement of the pancreas, and immunohistochemistry, a diagnosis of metastatic pancreatic carcinoma was made. Additionally, two small neoplasms were identified in the lungs. These masses were distinct from the carcinoma, and their morphology was consistent with bronchioloalveolar adenomas. This is the first known report of either benign pulmonary lesions or pancreatic carcinomas in the order Chiroptera. PMID:24063117

Cushing, Andrew C; Ossiboff, Robert; Buckles, Elizabeth; Abou-Madi, Noha

2013-09-01

51

Distress calls of the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in conspecifics.  

PubMed

In a stressful situation, greater short-nosed fruit bats (Cynopterus sphinx) emit audible vocalization either to warn or to inform conspecifics. We examined the effect of distress calls on bats emitting the call as well as the bats receiving the distress signal through analysis of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and catacholaminargic systems. We measured the levels of neurotransmitters [serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE)] and stress hormones [(adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT)]. Our results showed that distress call emission elevated the level of ACTH and CORT, as well as 5-HT, DA and NE in the amygdala, for both the call emitting bat and the responding bat. Subsequently, we observed increased activity of glucocorticoid receptor and its steroid receptor co-activator (SRC-1). An expression of SRC-1 was up-regulated in the distress call emitter only, whereas it was at a similar level in both the call responder and silent bats. These findings suggest that bats emitting distress calls and also bats responding to such calls have similar neurotransmitter expression patterns, and may react similarly in response to stress. PMID:23832467

Mariappan, Subramanian; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

2013-07-06

52

Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Signatures of Bat Guanos as a Record of Past Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured for various ecogeochemical samples relevant to bat guano ecosystems. In particular, ca. 800-year-old subfossil guano from Jackson's Bay Cave Compex, Jamaica, yielded ratios similar to the modern guano from other Jamaican bat caves but quite different from modern guano of the same area. Diagenetic change and differences in bat food habits were unlikely

Hiroshi Mizutani; Donald A. McFarlane; Yuko Kabaya

1992-01-01

53

Habitat fragmentation and haemoparasites in the common fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis (Phyllostomidae) in a tropical lowland forest in Panamá.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic influence on ecosystems, such as habitat fragmentation, impacts species diversity and interactions. There is growing evidence that degradation of habitats favours disease and hence affects ecosystem health. The prevalence of haemoparasites in the Common Fruit Bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) in a tropical lowland forest in Panamá was studied. We assessed the relation of haemoparasite to the general condition of the animals and tested for possible association of haemoparasite prevalence to habitat fragmentation, with special focus on trypanosomes. Overall, a total of 250 A. jamaicensis sampled from fragmented sites, here man-made, forested islands in Lake Gatùn, and sites in the adjacent, continuous forest in and around the Barro Colorado Nature Monument were examined. Using microscopy and DNA-sequencing 2 dominant types of haemoparasite infections, trypanosomes and Litomosoides (Nematoda) were identified. Trypanosome prevalence was significantly higher in bats from forest fragments, than in bats captured in continuous forest. We attribute this to the loss of species richness in forest fragments and specific characteristics of the fragments favouring trypanosome transmission, in particular changes in vegetation cover. Interestingly, the effect of habitat fragmentation on the prevalence of trypanosomes as multi-host parasites could not be observed in Litomosoides which probably has a higher host specificity and might be affected less by overall diversity loss. PMID:19627629

Cottontail, V M; Wellinghausen, N; Kalko, E K V

2009-07-23

54

Efficiency of facultative frugivory in the nectar-feeding bat Glossophaga commissarisi: the quality of fruits as an alternative food source.  

PubMed

The efficiency of food exploitation correlates positively with the extent of dietary specialization. Neotropical nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaginae) have one of the most specialized diets among mammals, as floral nectar constitutes a sugar-rich and highly digestible but protein and fiber depleted food source. However, dietary constraints, such as a temporary scarcity of nectar, or protein demands may sometimes require the uptake of alternative food items. We investigated the influence of a diet switch from nectar to fruit on intestinal morphology, body mass, and energy budget in the nectar-feeding bat Glossophaga commissarisi and quantified feeding efficiency. We hypothesized that these nectar specialists depend on a constant supply of nectar, if they were lacking the ability for morphological and physiological plasticity in response to a fiber-rich diet. Although capable of harvesting infructescences of Piper hispidum, G. commissarisi was less efficient in extracting energy from fruits (48% digestive efficiency of total fruit energy content) than from nectar (c. 99% digestive efficiency). The intestinal morphology and organ masses did not change after bats were switched from nectar to fruits. Captive bats exhibited lower daily energy expenditures and flight activity when feeding on fruits than during nectarivory. Possibly, this may have been a deliberate regulation to balance reduced feeding efficiency, or simply the consequence of extended digestive pauses. The low digestibility of Piper, in combination with slow digestion and the bats' inability for morphological and physiological plasticity may cause nectar-feeders to reduce their maximum energy expenditure when feeding on fruits. We argue that although fruits may substitute for nectar, they may cause restricted maximum energy assimilation compared with nectar. PMID:18594836

Kelm, Detlev H; Schaer, Juliane; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Speakman, John R; Voigt, Christian C

2008-07-02

55

Home range, territoriality, and flight time budgets in the black-bellied fruit bat, Melonycteris melanops (Pteropodidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on 1,362 radiotelemetry positions, mean home range for 10 adult black-bellied fruit bats, Melonycteris melanops (Pteropodidae), in lowland rainforest at Mount Garbuna, West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea, was 2.3 ha ?? 1.2 SD. Mean core-use area of adults was 0.5 ha ?? 0.4 SD, and mean long axis of home range was 370 m ?? 90 SD. Core-use areas were associated with day-roost shelters or flowering bananas. Means of home range, core-use area, and long axis across home range were significantly larger in subadults than in adults. During the day, M. melanops roosted singly under banana leaves or in subcanopy foliage, often showing extended fidelity to day-roost sites. Adults excluded other same-sex adults from feeding territories around bananas, but mixed-sex pairs overlapped strongly. During the first 2 h of the night, individual bats made 69-99 flights of 2- to 139-s duration. Cumulative flight represented 24-36% of the 2-h sampling periods. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

Bonaccorso, F. J.; Winkelmann, J. R.; Byrnes, D. G. P.

2005-01-01

56

Ethanol concentration in food and body condition affect foraging behavior in Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol occurs in fleshy fruit as a result of sugar fermentation by both microorganisms and the plant itself; its concentration\\u000a [EtOH] increases as fruit ripens. At low concentrations, ethanol is a nutrient, whereas at high concentrations, it is toxic.\\u000a We hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on the foraging behavior of frugivorous vertebrates depend on its concentration\\u000a in food and

Francisco Sánchez; Carmi Korine; Burt P. Kotler; Berry Pinshow

2008-01-01

57

Establishment of Fruit Bat Cells (Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a Model System for the Investigation of Filoviral Infection  

PubMed Central

Background The fruit bat species Rousettus aegyptiacus was identified as a potential reservoir for the highly pathogenic filovirus Marburg virus. To establish a basis for a molecular understanding of the biology of filoviruses in the reservoir host, we have adapted a set of molecular tools for investigation of filovirus replication in a recently developed cell line, R06E, derived from the species Rousettus aegyptiacus. Methodology/Principal Findings Upon infection with Ebola or Marburg viruses, R06E cells produced viral titers comparable to VeroE6 cells, as shown by TCID50 analysis. Electron microscopic analysis of infected cells revealed morphological signs of filovirus infection as described for human- and monkey-derived cell lines. Using R06E cells, we detected an unusually high amount of intracellular viral proteins, which correlated with the accumulation of high numbers of filoviral nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm. We established protocols to produce Marburg infectious virus-like particles from R06E cells, which were then used to infect naïve target cells to investigate primary transcription. This was not possible with other cell lines previously tested. Moreover, we established protocols to reliably rescue recombinant Marburg viruses from R06E cells. Conclusion/Significance These data indicated that R06E cells are highly suitable to investigate the biology of filoviruses in cells derived from their presumed reservoir.

Krahling, Verena; Dolnik, Olga; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Jordan, Ingo; Sandig, Volker; Gunther, Stephan; Becker, Stephan

2010-01-01

58

Genetic consequences of polygyny and social structure in an Indian fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx. I. Inbreeding, outbreeding, and population subdivision.  

PubMed

Population subdivision into behaviorally cohesive kin groups influences rates of inbreeding and genetic drift and has important implications for the evolution of social behavior. Here we report the results of a study designed to test the hypothesis that harem social structure promotes inbreeding and genetic subdivision in a population with overlapping generations. Genetic consequences of harem social structure were investigated in a natural population of a highly polygynous fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), in western India. The partitioning of genetic variance within and among breeding groups was assessed using 10-locus microsatellite genotypes for 431 individually marked bats. Genetic analysis of the C. sphinx study population was integrated with field data on demography and social structure to determine the specific ways in which mating, dispersal, and new social group formation influenced population genetic structure. Microsatellite data revealed striking contrasts in genetic structure between consecutive offspring cohorts and between generations. Relative to the 1998 (dry-season) offspring cohort, the 1997 (wet-season) cohort was characterized by a more extensive degree of within-group heterozygote excess (F(IS) = -0.164 vs. -0.050), a greater degree of among-group subdivision (F(ST) = 0.123 vs. 0.008), and higher average within-group relatedness (r = 0.251 vs. 0.017). Differences in genetic structure between the two offspring cohorts were attributable to seasonal differences in the number and proportional representation of male parents. Relative to adult age-classes, offspring cohorts were characterized by more extensive departures from allelic and genotypic equilibria and a greater degree of genetic subdivision. Generational differences in F-statistics indicated that genetic structuring of offspring cohorts was randomized by natal dispersal prior to recruitment into the breeding population. Low relatedness among harem females (r = 0.002-0.005) was primarily attributable to high rates of natal dispersal and low rates of juvenile survivorship. Kin selection is therefore an unlikely explanation for the formation and maintenance of behaviorally cohesive breeding groups in this highly social mammal. PMID:11475057

Storz, J F; Bhat, H R; Kunz, T H

2001-06-01

59

The evolution of echolocation in bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent molecular phylogenies have changed our per- spective on the evolution of echolocation in bats. These phylogenies suggest that certain bats with sophisti- cated echolocation (e.g. horseshoe bats) share a common ancestry with non-echolocating bats (e.g. Old World fruit bats). One interpretation of these trees presumes that laryngeal echolocation (calls produced in the larynx) probably evolved in the ancestor of

Gareth Jones; Emma C. Teeling

2006-01-01

60

Evidence for Exploitative Competition: Comparative Foraging Behavior and Roosting Ecology of Short-Tailed Fruit Bats (Phyllostomidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chestnut short-tailed bats, Carollia castanea, and Seba's short-tailed bats, C. perspicillata (Phyllostomidae), were radio-tracked (N = 1593 positions) in lowland rain forest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Orellana Province, Ecuador. For 11 C. castanea, mean home range was 6.8 ± 2.2 ha, mean core-use area was 1.7 ± 0.8 ha, and mean long axis across home range was 438 ± 106

Frank J. Bonaccorso; John R. Winkelmann; Danny Shin; Caroline I. Agrawal; Nadia Aslami; Caitlin Bonney; Andrea Hsu; Phoebe E. Jekielek; Allison K. Knox; Stephen J. Kopach; Tara D. Jennings; Jesse R. Lasky; Sarah A. Menesale; Jeannine H. Richards; Jessica A. Rutland; Anna K. Sessa; Luba Zhaurova; Thomas H. Kunz

2007-01-01

61

75 FR 15723 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or Fanihi (Pteropus mariannus mariannus...Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or Fanihi (Pteropus mariannus mariannus...provided. This subspecies of the Mariana fruit bat or fanihi (Pteropus mariannus...

2010-03-30

62

Immunoglobulins in Jamaicans and Nigerians with immunogenetic typing of myeloma and lymphoma in Jamaicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum IgG concentration was lower in Jamaicans than in Nigerians. The maternalfoetal IgG ratio was also lower in Jamaican sera than in Nigerian sera. It is suggested that endemic malaria in Nigeria may be responsible for these differences. The higher IgM concentration in the Nigerian cord sera may be further evidence of this. Eighteen new cases of myeloma were detected

H. McFarlane; A. Talerman; A. G. Steinberg

1970-01-01

63

The Movement Ecology of the Straw-Colored Fruit Bat, Eidolon helvum, in Sub-Saharan Africa Assessed by Stable Isotope Ratios  

PubMed Central

Flying foxes (Pteropodidae) are key seed dispersers on the African continent, yet their migratory behavior is largely unknown. Here, we studied the movement ecology of the straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, and other fruit bats by analyzing stable isotope ratios in fur collected from museum specimens. In a triple-isotope approach based on samples of two ecologically similar non-migratory pteropodids, we first confirmed that a stable isotope approach is capable of delineating between geographically distinct locations in Sub-Saharan Africa. A discriminant function analysis assigned 84% of individuals correctly to their capture site. Further, we assessed how well hydrogen stable isotope ratios (?2H) of fur keratin collected from non-migratory species (n?=?191 individuals) records variation in ?2H of precipitation water in sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, we found positive, negative and no correlations within the six studied species. We then developed a reduced major axis regression equation based on individual data of non-migratory species to predict where potentially migratory E. helvum (n?=?88) would come from based on their keratin ?2H. Across non-migratory species, ?2H of keratin and local water correlated positively. Based on the isoscape origin model, 22% of E. helvum were migratory, i.e. individuals had migrated over at least 250 km prior to their capture. Migratory individuals came from locations at a median distance of about 860 km from the collection site, four even from distances of at least 2,000 km. Ground-truthing of our isoscape origin model based on keratin ?2H of extant E. helvum (n?=?76) supported a high predictive power of assigning the provenance of African flying foxes. Our study highlights that stable isotope ratios can be used to explain the migratory behavior of flying foxes, even on the isotopically relatively homogenous African continent, and with material collected by museums many decades or more than a century ago.

Ossa, Gonzalo; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Peel, Alison J.; Scharf, Anne K.; Voigt, Christian C.

2012-01-01

64

High risk health behaviours among adult Jamaicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of high risk health behaviours among adult Jamaicans aged 15-49 years in 2000, and to compare the results with the 1993 survey. A nationally representative sample of 2013 persons aged 15-74 years was surveyed in 2000 using cluster sampling in the Jamaica Healthy Lifestyle Survey (Wilks et al, unpublished). Interviewer

JP Figueroa; E Ward; C Walters; DE Ashley; RJ Wilks

2005-01-01

65

Adaptive Evolution in the Glucose Transporter 4 Gene Slc2a4 in Old World Fruit Bats (Family: Pteropodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats are able to ingest large quantities of sugar in a short time span while avoiding the potentially adverse side-effects of elevated blood glucose. The glucose transporter 4 protein (GLUT4) encoded by the Slc2a4 gene plays a critical role in transmembrane skeletal muscle glucose uptake and thus glucose homeostasis. To test whether the Slc2a4 gene has undergone

Bin Shen; Xiuqun Han; Junpeng Zhang; Stephen J. Rossiter; Shuyi Zhang

2012-01-01

66

Henipavirus RNA in African Bats  

PubMed Central

Background Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus) are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. Methodology/Principal Findings Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. Conclusions/Significance The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans.

Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Seebens, Antje; Annan, Augustina; Ipsen, Anne; Kruppa, Thomas; Muller, Marcel A.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian

2009-01-01

67

Bat talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in RealPlayer, introduces students to the research that Maryland biologists are conducting to assess the status of bat populations in their state. Technologies are discussed that help scientists study the often elusive bats. The clip shows that when researchers descend into a cave to survey the number of hibernating bats there, they discover fewer bats are present than in previous years. The clip also notes that efforts to conserve bat populations are needed. Bats contribute significantly to the functioning of ecosystems, but many species are decreasing in numbers nationwide. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE); Maryland Public Television (MPT)

2004-01-01

68

Bat talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in Windows Media Player, introduces students to the research that Maryland biologists are conducting to assess the status of bat populations in their state. Technologies are discussed that help scientists study the often elusive bats. The clip shows that when researchers descend into a cave to survey the number of hibernating bats there, they discover fewer bats are present than in previous years. The clip also notes that efforts to conserve bat populations are needed. Bats contribute significantly to the functioning of ecosystems, but many species are decreasing in numbers nationwide. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE); Maryland Public Television (MPT)

2004-01-01

69

Breaking Bat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

2013-01-01

70

Adaptive Evolution of Leptin in Heterothermic Bats  

PubMed Central

Heterothermy (hibernation and daily torpor) is a key strategy that animals use to survive in harsh conditions and is widely employed by bats, which are found in diverse habitats and climates. Bats comprise more than 20% of all mammals and although heterothermy occurs in divergent lineages of bats, suggesting it might be an ancestral condition, its evolutionary history is complicated by complex phylogeographic patterns. Here, we use Leptin, which regulates lipid metabolism and is crucial for thermogenesis of hibernators, as molecular marker and combine physiological, molecular and biochemical analyses to explore the possible evolutionary history of heterothermy in bat. The two tropical fruit bats examined here were homeothermic; in contrast, the two tropical insectivorous bats were clearly heterothermic. Molecular evolutionary analyses of the Leptin gene revealed positive selection in the ancestors of all bats, which was maintained or further enhanced the lineages comprising mostly heterothermic species. In contrast, we found evidence of relaxed selection in homeothermic species. Biochemical assays of bat Leptin on the activity on adipocyte degradation revealed that Leptin in heterothermic bats was more lipolytic than in homeothermic bats. This shows that evolutionary sequence changes in this protein are indeed functional and support the interpretation of our physiological results and the molecular evolutionary analyses. Our combined data strongly support the hypothesis that heterothermy is the ancestral state of bats and that this involved adaptive changes in Leptin. Subsequent loss of heterothermy in some tropical lineages of bats likely was associated with range and dietary shifts.

Yuan, Lihong; Zhao, Xudong; Lin, Benfu; Rossiter, Stephen J.; He, Lingjiang; Zuo, Xueguo; He, Guimei; Jones, Gareth; Geiser, Fritz; Zhang, Shuyi

2011-01-01

71

Novel adenoviruses and herpesviruses detected in bats.  

PubMed

Samples from native Hungarian or captive bats were tested by PCR for the presence of adenoviruses and herpesviruses. Two novel adenoviruses from a common noctule (Nyctalus noctula) and a greater horseshoe (Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum) bat were detected. In captive Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), DNA from two novel herpesviruses was demonstrated. Phylogenetic analysis facilitated provisional taxonomic placement of the newly detected viruses. Such analysis and the existence of unique, shared early proteins (E3 and E4) suggest that canine adenoviruses may have originated in vespertilinoid bats. PMID:20813566

Jánoska, Máté; Vidovszky, Márton; Molnár, Viktor; Liptovszky, Mátyás; Harrach, Balázs; Benko, Mária

2010-09-01

72

The effect of bat ( Rousettus aegyptiacus ) dispersal on seed germination in eastern Mediterranean habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit-bat Rousettus aegyptiacus (Pteropodidae) in Israel consumes a variety of cultivated and wild fruits. The aim of this study was to explore some of its qualities as a dispersal agent for six fruit-bearing plant species. The feeding roosts of the fruit-bat are located an average of 30 m from its feeding trees and thus the bats disperse the seeds

I. Izhaki; C. Korine; Z. Arad

1995-01-01

73

Are Bats Dangerous?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are many reasons people are afraid of bats but most are myths. Many people are also afraid of bats because they believe all bats are vampire bats, or bats that feed on blood. There are a few species of bats called "vampire" bats;however, these bats are found in Central and South America--there are no vampire bats in the United States or…

Williams, Kim

2004-01-01

74

Breaking Bat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created by the collision with the ball.1 The kind of wood that is used plays a role in the manner in which the bat breaks---its ``failure mode.'' We report on a simple experiment to compare the breaking strength and failure modes of ash and maple dowels. The results illustrate some of the features of breaking bats under game conditions.

Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

2013-02-01

75

An Island Radiation: Allozyme Evolution in Jamaican Frogs of the Genus Eleutherodactylus (Leptodactylidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships of the 17 native species of Jamaican frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus (subgenus Euhyas) and 10 additional species were examined by sequential electrophoresis at 29 loci. Whereas previous morphological studies have suggested multiple origins, the allozyme data support the monophyly of the Jamaican species. Together with immunological and chromosomal data (presented elsewhere), five species groups of Jamaican Eleutherodactylus

S. B LAIR HEDGES

76

Birds and bats diverge in the qualitative and quantitative components of seed dispersal of a pioneer tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the overlap in fruit diet between birds and bats is low, they sometimes consume and compete for fruits of the same plant species. What is poorly known is how birds and bats compare with each other in relation to the effectiveness of seed dispersal. In this paper we contrasted birds and bats in relation to quantitative (the amount of

Fábio André F. Jacomassa; Marco Aurélio Pizo

2010-01-01

77

Use of binaural cues for sound localization in two species of Phyllostomidae: the Greater spear-nosed bat (Phyllostomus hastatus) and the Short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata).  

PubMed

Unlike humans, not all mammals use both of the binaural cues for sound localization. Whether an animal uses these cues can be determined by testing its ability to localize pure tones; specifically, low frequencies are localized using time-difference cues, and high frequencies are localized using intensity-difference cues. We determined the ability to use binaural cues in 2 New World bats, Phyllostomus hastatus, large omnivores, and Carollia perspicillata, small frugivores, by testing their tone-localization ability using a conditioned avoidance procedure. Both species easily localized high-frequency tones, indicating that they could use the interaural intensity-difference cue. However, neither species was able to use the phase-difference cue to localize either low-frequency pure tones or amplitude-modulated tones (which provided an envelope for additional time analysis). We now know of 3 bat species that cannot use binaural time cues and 2 that can. Further exploration of localization in bats may provide insight into the neural analysis of time cues in species that do not hear low frequencies. PMID:21090890

Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

2010-11-01

78

Lagos Bat Virus in Kenya?  

PubMed Central

During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection.

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Y.; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2008-01-01

79

Distant Relatives of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Close Relatives of Human Coronavirus 229E in Bats, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested 12 bat species in Ghana for coronavirus (CoV) RNA. The virus prevalence in insectivorous bats (n = 123) was 9.76%. CoV was not detected in 212 fecal samples from Eidolon helvum fruit bats. Leaf-nosed bats pertaining to Hipposideros ruber by morphology had group 1 and group 2 CoVs. Virus concentrations were <45,000 copies\\/100 mg of bat feces. The

Susanne Pfefferle; Samuel Oppong; Jan Felix Drexler; Florian Gloza-Rausch; Anne Ipsen; Antje Seebens; Marcel A. Müller; Augustina Annan; Peter Vallo; Yaw Adu-Sarkodie; Thomas F. Kruppa; Christian Drosten

2009-01-01

80

JAMAICAN POSSES: A NEW FORM OF ORGANIZED CRIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jamaican organized crime activities have dramatically increased over the past two decades in the United States. These criminals organized into groups called posses initially trafficked in marijuana. However, posses have recently moved into the lucrative cocaine trade and now dominate the street- level marketing of crack cocaine in many American urban areas. This paper examines the rise of posse activity

Bruce W. Gay; James W. Marquart

1993-01-01

81

Early deaths in Jamaican children with sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Jamaican children with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease diagnosed at birth two-year survival was 87%, compared with 95% in children with sickle cell-haemoglobin C (CS) disease, and 99% in normal controls. Death among those with SS disease occurred most often between the ages of 6 and 12 months. Principal causes were acute splenic sequestration and pneumococcal infection. Neonatal diagnosis

D W Rogers; J M Clarke; L Cupidore; A M Ramlal; B R Sparke; G R Serjeant

1978-01-01

82

Jamaican Child-Rearing Practices: The Role of Corporal Punishment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. Also examines the plausibility of the assumption that harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for current social problems of that nation. Recommends approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and…

Smith, Delores E.; Mosby, Gail

2003-01-01

83

Physiological basis of habitat partitioning in Jamaican Eleutherodactylus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate of evaporation, resistance to drying, temperature selection, and critical thermal maximum were measured for Jamaican Eleutherodactylus acclimated to 20° C and a 12:12 L:D photoperiod. Two introduced species, E. planirostris and E. johnstonei, selected higher temperatures and had higher CTMs than two native species, E. cundalli and E. gossei. The introduced species lost water as rapidly as the native

F. Harvey Pough; Margaret M. Stewart; Richard G. Thomas

1977-01-01

84

Where Do Jamaican Adolescents Turn for Psychological Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Stigma about mental health is a significant problem in Jamaica and the wider English-speaking Caribbean. In general, negative attitudes and opinions about mental illness have been found to negatively impact psychological help-seeking among several populations. Objective: This study examined Jamaican adolescents' preferential sources…

Williams, Dahra Jackson

2012-01-01

85

Note on the Habits of a Jamaican Spider  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBSERVING in your issue of January 11, p. 253, an interesting note on the Nephila madagascariensis, I am prompted to send you some unpublished observations on the Jamaican species, N. clavipes. They are from the MSS. of the late Mr. William Jones (concerning whom see journ. Inst. Jamaica, 1893, p. 301), and date from over fifty years ago. The record

T. D. A. Cockerell

1894-01-01

86

Efficiency of facultative frugivory in the nectar-feeding bat Glossophaga commissarisi : the quality of fruits as an alternative food source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of food exploitation correlates positively with the extent of dietary specialization. Neotropical nectar-feeding\\u000a bats (Glossophaginae) have one of the most specialized diets among mammals, as floral nectar constitutes a sugar-rich and\\u000a highly digestible but protein and fiber depleted food source. However, dietary constraints, such as a temporary scarcity of\\u000a nectar, or protein demands may sometimes require the uptake

Detlev H. Kelm; Juliane Schaer; Sylvia Ortmann; Gudrun Wibbelt; John R. Speakman; Christian C. Voigt

2008-01-01

87

PSC 424: Bats & Owls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Check out the links on this page to learn about bats and owls, including the sounds they make! Click here for the sound a bat makes during echolocation!------- Bat Echolocation Click here for the hooting of a Great Horned Owl!--------- Owl Sound Print out this Bat Book for us to fill out in class as we learn about Bats!--------- My Bat Book Here are some fun bookmarks for you to print about owls!--------- Owl Bookmarks Go ...

Yero, Miss

2011-10-13

88

Bats and bees are pollinating Parkia biglobosa in The Gambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pollination experiment was conducted with Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae) in The Gambia. P. biglobosa is integrated in the farming systems and produces fruit pulp and seeds used in cooking. The species is bat-pollinated, and\\u000a in areas with few bats the main pollinators are assumed to be honey bees. A higher rate of effective pollination will in many\\u000a instances increase fruit

Kristin Marie Lassen; Anders Ræbild; Henrik Hansen; Camilla J. Brødsgaard; Erik Nymann Eriksen

89

Tridimensional acculturation and adaptation among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States.  

PubMed

A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A tridimensional model is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S. immigrant dyads (473 dyads, M adolescent age?=?14?years). Jamaican immigrants evidence tridimensional acculturation, orienting toward Jamaican, African American, and European American cultures. Integration is favored (70%), particularly tricultural integration; moreover, Jamaican and other Black U.S. immigrants are more oriented toward African American than European American culture. Jamaican immigrant youth adapt at least as well as nonimmigrant peers in Jamaica and the United States. However, assimilated adolescents, particularly first generation immigrants, have worse sociocultural adaptation than integrated and separated adolescents. PMID:22966917

Ferguson, Gail M; Bornstein, Marc H; Pottinger, Audrey M

90

Bats of Carlsbad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This short film details with the bats and bat flights at Carlsbad Caverns and includes footage of the evening bat flight out of the caverns. It gives off-season visitors an idea of what the bat flight looks like as many visitors come to Carlsbad Caverns d...

1994-01-01

91

Bat Facts and Fun.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a unit of study for elementary school science on bats. Students investigate the different types of bats; examine their behavior; find facts that other students are unlikely to know; write stories about bats; and examine the concept of echolocation, the means by which bats navigate. Suggests integrated activities for mathematics…

McKee, Judith A.

1992-01-01

92

Rapid evolution to terrestrial life in Jamaican crabs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crabs of the family Grapsidae are abundant organisms in most intertidal communities. However, relatively few species live in complete independence of the sea. Of those species that do, Jamaica's nine endemic species of land crabs are unique in their exceptional adaptations to terrestrial life, which include the only active brood-care for larvae and juveniles known in crabs. These adaptations, and the morphological similarity to a group of southeast Asian land-dwelling crabs, have raised the question of the number and age of land invasions of the Jamaican species. Here we present molecular evidence that Jamaican land crabs represent a single adaptive radiation from a marine ancestor that invaded terrestrial habitats only 4 million years (Myr) ago. A Late-Tertiary origin has also been found for lizards and frogs of Jamaica and probably reflects the Mid-Tertiary inundation of that island.

Schubart, Christoph D.; Diesel, Rudolf; Hedges, S. Blair

1998-05-01

93

Strategic opportunities from diaspora tourism: The Jamaican perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on a broader multi-country, multi-participant case study research of the Jamaica\\/London migration stream and explores the range of immediate to long term benefits associated with return visits to Jamaica by Jamaican nationals living in London. These short return visits to one's homeland or place of origin, birth or heritage is referred to as diaspora tourism and

Natasha Kay Mortley

2011-01-01

94

Physical Discipline and Socioemotional Adjustment Among Jamaican Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the relationship between physical punishment and socioemotional well-being in a sample of Jamaican adolescents.\\u000a The data indicated that the overwhelming majority of adolescent respondents experienced physical punishment within their families.\\u000a Physical punishment was significantly associated with adverse psychological and behavioral consequences, in that adolescents\\u000a reporting being victims of physical punishment also indicated a greater propensity to developmental

Delores E. Smith; Cary M. Springer; Sheila Barrett

2011-01-01

95

Recent Transmission of a Novel Alphacoronavirus, Bat Coronavirus HKU10, from Leschenault's Rousettes to Pomona Leaf-Nosed Bats: First Evidence of Interspecies Transmission of Coronavirus between Bats of Different Suborders  

PubMed Central

Although coronaviruses are known to infect various animals by adapting to new hosts, interspecies transmission events are still poorly understood. During a surveillance study from 2005 to 2010, a novel alphacoronavirus, BatCoV HKU10, was detected in two very different bat species, Ro-BatCoV HKU10 in Leschenault's rousettes (Rousettus leschenaulti) (fruit bats in the suborder Megachiroptera) in Guangdong and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 in Pomona leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros pomona) (insectivorous bats in the suborder Microchiroptera) in Hong Kong. Although infected bats appeared to be healthy, Pomona leaf-nosed bats carrying Hi-BatCoV HKU10 had lower body weights than uninfected bats. To investigate possible interspecies transmission between the two bat species, the complete genomes of two Ro-BatCoV HKU10 and six Hi-BatCoV HKU10 strains were sequenced. Genome and phylogenetic analyses showed that Ro-BatCoV HKU10 and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 represented a novel alphacoronavirus species, sharing highly similar genomes except in the genes encoding spike proteins, which had only 60.5% amino acid identities. Evolution of the spike protein was also rapid in Hi-BatCoV HKU10 strains from 2005 to 2006 but stabilized thereafter. Molecular-clock analysis dated the most recent common ancestor of all BatCoV HKU10 strains to 1959 (highest posterior density regions at 95% [HPDs], 1886 to 2002) and that of Hi-BatCoV HKU10 to 1986 (HPDs, 1956 to 2004). The data suggested recent interspecies transmission from Leschenault's rousettes to Pomona leaf-nosed bats in southern China. Notably, the rapid adaptive genetic change in BatCoV HKU10 spike protein by ?40% amino acid divergence after recent interspecies transmission was even greater than the ?20% amino acid divergence between spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related Rhinolophus bat coronavirus (SARSr-CoV) in bats and civets. This study provided the first evidence for interspecies transmission of coronavirus between bats of different suborders.

Lau, Susanna K. P.; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Shek, Chung-Tong; Wang, Ming; Choi, Garnet K. Y.; Guo, Rongtong; Wong, Beatrice H. L.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Wang, Sylvia Y. H.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian

2012-01-01

96

Bat Conservation Trust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the folks at the Bat Conservation Trust (BCT) in the UK, "Bats are amazing animals, and an important part of our natural environment." In the UK there are 18 different species of bats, and all of them are protected by law due to rapidly decreasing populations. To start visitors should visit the "About Bats" section found on the toolbar near the top of the page. Here, they will find more information about bats, threats to bats, bats and the law, bats and rabies, and the White-Nose Syndrome plaguing bat populations. Back on the homepage visitors should also check out the "News, Training, & Events" and "Publications & Resources". In addition, you can follow the BCT on Twitter, Facebook, and through their blog.

2010-12-20

97

An examination of diet, acculturation and risk factors for heart disease among Jamaican immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The South Florida region is home to over 85,000 Jamaican immigrants. Yet, little is known about the dietary intakes and predictors of risk of disease within this immigrant group. An assessment of dietary intakes and the development of dietary intake methodologies specific to the Jamaican population was important as it permitted accurate estimation of the nutrient intakes of this

Carol Renee Oladele

2011-01-01

98

Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A "tridimensional model" is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S.…

Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

2012-01-01

99

The riddim method: aesthetics, practice, and ownership in Jamaican dancehall1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jamaican system of recording and performance, from the 1950s to the present, constitutes a distinctive approach to notions of composition, originality and ownership. Emerging from a tradition of live performance practice mediated by (and informing) sound recordings, the relative autonomy of riddims and voicings in the Jamaican system challenges conventional ideas about the integrity of a song and the

PETER M ANUEL; W AYNE M ARSHALL

100

Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A "tridimensional model" is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S.…

Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

2012-01-01

101

Novel Paramyxoviruses in Free-Ranging European Bats  

PubMed Central

The zoonotic potential of paramyxoviruses is particularly demonstrated by their broad host range like the highly pathogenic Hendra and Nipah viruses originating from bats. But while so far all bat-borne paramyxoviruses have been identified in fruit bats across Africa, Australia, South America, and Asia, we describe the detection and characterization of the first paramyxoviruses in free-ranging European bats. Moreover, we examined the possible impact of paramyxovirus infection on individual animals by comparing histo-pathological findings and virological results. Organs from deceased insectivorous bats of various species were sampled in Germany and tested for paramyxovirus RNA in parallel to a histo-pathological examination. Nucleic acids of three novel paramyxoviruses were detected, two viruses in phylogenetic relationship to the recently proposed genus Jeilongvirus and one closely related to the genus Rubulavirus. Two infected animals revealed subclinical pathological changes within their kidneys, suggestive of a similar pathogenesis as the one described in fruit bats experimentally infected with Hendra virus. Our findings indicate the presence of bat-born paramyxoviruses in geographic areas free of fruit bat species and therefore emphasize a possible virus–host co-evolution in European bats. Since these novel viruses are related to the very distinct genera Rubulavirus and Jeilongvirus, a similarly broad genetic diversity among paramyxoviruses in other Microchiroptera compared to Megachiroptera can be assumed. Given that the infected bats were either found in close proximity to heavily populated human habitation or areas of intensive agricultural use, a potential risk of the emergence of zoonotic paramyxoviruses in Europe needs to be considered.

Brinkmann, Annika; Ebinger, Arnt; Harper, Jennifer A.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Muhldorfer, Kristin; Wibbelt, Gudrun

2012-01-01

102

Bat Conservation International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1982, the mission of Bat Conservation International (BCI) is Âto teach people the value of bats, to protect and conserve critical bat habitats, and to advance scientific knowledge through researchÂ. On their website, visitors will be able to learn about their advocacy and outreach efforts, along with learning more about these fascinating and important creatures. The ÂAll About Bats section is a fine place to start, as it has a number of illustrated essays that include brief overview of the natural history of bats and suggestions on photographing bats as they fly through the air. Equally compelling is the section is the conservation programs area, which details the various programs BCI operates in various bat habitats, including bridges and caves. Finally, visitors can also elect to send one of a number of electronic bat postcards to friends or colleagues.

2005-01-01

103

Novel Betaherpesvirus in Bats  

PubMed Central

Because bats are associated with emerging zoonoses, identification and characterization of novel viruses from bats is needed. Using a modified rapid determination system for viral RNA/DNA sequences, we identified a novel bat betaherpesvirus 2 not detected by herpesvirus consensus PCR. This modified system is useful for detecting unknown viruses.

Watanabe, Shumpei; Maeda, Ken; Suzuki, Kazuo; Ueda, Naoya; Iha, Koichiro; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Kato, Kentaro; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Morikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro; Akashi, Hiroomi

2010-01-01

104

Jamaican Mothers' Influences of Adolescent Girls' Sexual Beliefs and Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which urban Jamaican mothers influence their adolescent daughters’ sexual beliefs and behaviors in order to incorporate them into the design of a family-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention program. Design Focus groups were conducted with 46 14- to 18-year-old adolescent girls and 30 mothers or female guardians of adolescent girls recruited from community-based organizations in and around Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica. Separate focus groups were held with mothers and daughters; each included 6 to 10 participants. Focus group sessions were scripted, led by teams that included trained Jamaican and American facilitators and note-takers, and audio-taped to ensure data accuracy. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Findings Four major maternal influences were identified: mother-daughter relationship quality, mother-daughter sexual communication, monitoring or supervision, and maternal sexual role modeling. Mothers’ and daughters’ reports were consistent; both groups identified positive and negative influences within each category. Conclusions Some maternal influences were positive and health promoting; others were negative and promoted unsafe sexual activity and risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. These influences were incorporated into the design of a culture-specific family-based HIV risk reduction intervention tailored to the needs of urban Jamaican adolescent girls and their mothers. Clinical Relevance In order to be effective, family-based HIV risk reduction interventions should be theory based and tailored to the target audience. The four maternal influences identified in this formative study were incorporated into the subsequent intervention design.

Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Kahwa, Eulalia; Waldron, Norman; Brown, Cerese Hepburn; Hamilton, Pansy I.; Hewitt, Hermi H.; Aiken, Joyette; Cederbaum, Julie; Alter, Emily; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

2012-01-01

105

The antihypertensive effects of the Jamaican Cho-Cho (Sechium edule).  

PubMed

The experiments reported in this study constitute a preliminary investigation into the possible hypotensive effect of the Jamaican Cho-Cho (Sechium edule). Experiments were conducted in a random and blind fashion on two sub species of Sechium edule. Both the pulp and the peel were examined for hypotensive activity. Water-soluble extracts were prepared from these components of the fruit and injected into anaesthetised rats. Various cardiovascular parameters were measured including heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and several ECG intervals. We report that all extracts tested produced a fall in blood pressure with little change in ECG intervals. Extract B produced the least change in heart rate with a fall in MAP of approximately 23 mmHg. Changes in heart rate with all extracts appeared to be minimal as an ED25 value could only be determined for extract A, and ED10 values could not be evaluated for extracts C and D. The mechanism(s) by which these extracts produce their hypotensive effects could not be determined in these preliminary experiments. However, it appears not to involve direct effects on cardiac tissue. This conclusion is based on the finding that it took a minimum of 10 to 15 seconds for the hypotensive action to manifest post bolus. Future experiments will be aimed at delineating the mechanism(s) involved in decreasing MAP. PMID:10786447

Gordon, E A; Guppy, L J; Nelson, M

2000-03-01

106

Bat Conservation International, Inc.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web site for Bat Conservation International, Inc. (last mentioned in the November 12, 1997_Scout Report for Science and Engineering_) has added significant content since our last coverage of the site. Although the site still has information about the organization, bat facts, FAQs, and information on bat biology, in-depth sections on a wide variety of research projects have been added, ranging from bats in Latin American ecosystems to bats in your very own yard. Although there is a large focus on research, the text is still written for a general audience, and most sections include a variety of photos.

107

The hearing gene Prestin reunites echolocating bats  

PubMed Central

The remarkable high-frequency sensitivity and selectivity of the mammalian auditory system has been attributed to the evolution of mechanical amplification, in which sound waves are amplified by outer hair cells in the cochlea. This process is driven by the recently discovered protein prestin, encoded by the gene Prestin. Echolocating bats use ultrasound for orientation and hunting and possess the highest frequency hearing of all mammals. To test for the involvement of Prestin in the evolution of bat echolocation, we sequenced the coding region in echolocating and nonecholocating species. The resulting putative gene tree showed strong support for a monophyletic assemblage of echolocating species, conflicting with the species phylogeny in which echolocators are paraphyletic. We reject the possibilities that this conflict arises from either gene duplication and loss or relaxed selection in nonecholocating fruit bats. Instead, we hypothesize that the putative gene tree reflects convergence at stretches of functional importance. Convergence is supported by the recovery of the species tree from alignments of hydrophobic transmembrane domains, and the putative gene tree from the intra- and extracellular domains. We also found evidence that Prestin has undergone Darwinian selection associated with the evolution of specialized constant-frequency echolocation, which is characterized by sharp auditory tuning. Our study of a hearing gene in bats strongly implicates Prestin in the evolution of echolocation, and suggests independent evolution of high-frequency hearing in bats. These results highlight the potential problems of extracting phylogenetic signals from functional genes that may be prone to convergence.

Li, Gang; Wang, Jinhong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Jones, Gareth; Cotton, James A.; Zhang, Shuyi

2008-01-01

108

Learning about Bats and Rabies  

MedlinePLUS

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Learning about bats and rabies Most bats don t have rabies. ... is easily approached could very well be sick. Bats and human rabies in the United States Rabies ...

109

Bat Predation by Spiders  

PubMed Central

In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (?90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S). Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences), Asia (28.8%), and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%). Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter). The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64%) and Emballonuridae (22%) and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death), there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation). This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed.

Nyffeler, Martin; Knornschild, Mirjam

2013-01-01

110

Complex echo classification by echo-locating bats: a review.  

PubMed

Echo-locating bats constantly emit ultrasonic pulses and analyze the returning echoes to detect, localize, and classify objects in their surroundings. Echo classification is essential for bats' everyday life; for instance, it enables bats to use acoustical landmarks for navigation and to recognize food sources from other objects. Most of the research of echo based object classification in echo-locating bats was done in the context of simple artificial objects. These objects might represent prey, flower, or fruit and are characterized by simple echoes with a single up to several reflectors. Bats, however, must also be able to use echoes that return from complex structures such as plants or other types of background. Such echoes are characterized by superpositions of many reflections that can only be described using a stochastic statistical approach. Scientists have only lately started to address the issue of complex echo classification by echo-locating bats. Some behavioral evidence showing that bats can classify complex echoes has been accumulated and several hypotheses have been suggested as to how they do so. Here, we present a first review of this data. We raise some hypotheses regarding possible interpretations of the data and point out necessary future directions that should be pursued. PMID:20848111

Yovel, Yossi; Franz, Matthias O; Stilz, Peter; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

2010-09-17

111

Host cell tropism mediated by Australian bat lyssavirus envelope glycoproteins.  

PubMed

Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a rhabdovirus of the lyssavirus genus capable of causing fatal rabies-like encephalitis in humans. There are two variants of ABLV, one circulating in pteropid fruit bats and another in insectivorous bats. Three fatal human cases of ABLV infection have been reported with the third case in 2013. Importantly, two equine cases also arose in 2013; the first occurrence of ABLV in a species other than bats or humans. We examined the host cell entry of ABLV, characterizing its tropism and exploring its cross-species transmission potential using maxGFP-encoding recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses that express ABLV G glycoproteins. Results indicate that the ABLV receptor(s) is conserved but not ubiquitous among mammalian cell lines and that the two ABLV variants can utilize alternate receptors for entry. Proposed rabies virus receptors were not sufficient to permit ABLV entry into resistant cells, suggesting that ABLV utilizes an unknown alternative receptor(s). PMID:23849788

Weir, Dawn L; Smith, Ina L; Bossart, Katharine N; Wang, Lin-Fa; Broder, Christopher C

2013-07-10

112

Frugivory by phyllostomid bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a restored area in Southeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the potential contribution of frugivorous bats to the reestablishment of vegetational diversity in a restored area. We analysed the diets of the bat species and the differences between them in the consumption of fruits of autochtonous and allochthonous species. Planted (autochtonous) species were the basis of diets, especially Solanum mauritianum and Cecropia pachystachya, whereas for allochthonous species we found that Piperaceae to be of particular importance. Carollia perspicillata was the main seed disperser for allochthonous species, and potentially the most important bat in the promotion of vegetation diversity in the study area. Our results suggest that frugivorous bats are especially important in the reestablishment of vegetation in disturbed areas, and that restorarion efforts should focus on the planting of different zoochorous species that would guarantee a high year-round fruit production, thereby facilitating natural plant reestablishment by frugivorous bats in regenerating areas.

Silveira, Maurício; Trevelin, Leonardo; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Godoi, Simone; Mandetta, Elizabeth Neuenhaus; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P.

2011-01-01

113

Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat.  

PubMed

To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. We compare the aerodynamics of T. brasiliensis with those of other, frugivorous bats and with common swifts, Apus apus, a bird with wing morphology, kinematics and flight ecology similar to that of these bats. The comparison reveals that, for the range of speeds evaluated, the cyclical pattern of aerodynamic forces associated with a wingbeat shows more similarities between T. brasiliensis and A. apus than between T. brasiliensis and other frugivorous bats. PMID:22258554

Hubel, Tatjana Y; Hristov, Nickolay I; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

2012-01-18

114

Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat  

PubMed Central

To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. We compare the aerodynamics of T. brasiliensis with those of other, frugivorous bats and with common swifts, Apus apus, a bird with wing morphology, kinematics and flight ecology similar to that of these bats. The comparison reveals that, for the range of speeds evaluated, the cyclical pattern of aerodynamic forces associated with a wingbeat shows more similarities between T. brasiliensis and A. apus than between T. brasiliensis and other frugivorous bats.

Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Hristov, Nickolay I.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

2012-01-01

115

The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and sexual dysfunction in Jamaican adults.  

PubMed

This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and experimental groups based on sociodemographic characteristics. Results indicated that childhood sexual abuse is a likely factor in the development of sexual dysfunction in Jamaican adults, especially in the domains of Orgasm and Sexual Drive and Relationship. Gender, frequency, and age of abuse are also seen to impact specific areas of an individual's sexual functioning. Results are discussed in light of previous research for their implications in order to better understand sexuality in the Jamaican context. PMID:19856732

Swaby, Antoneal N; Morgan, Kai A D

116

Food niche overlap among neotropical frugivorous bats in Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Food habits of 15 species of frugivorous bats were studied at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Eight hundred and fifty-four (854) fecal samples and 169 samples from fruit parts and seeds discarded by bats beneath feeding roosts were analyzed. During eight months of study, 47 fruit species consumed by bats were identified. Five plant genera (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper Solanum, and Vismia) constituted 85% of all plants found in fecal samples. Feeding niche breadth differed significantly among the six most common species of frugivorous bats (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia sowelli, C. castanea, C. perspicillata, Dermanura sp., and Glossophaga commissarisi). All species, except for Dermanura sp., showed a diet dominated by one or two plant species. This suggests a pattern of resource partitioning at a generic level, in which Carollia consumed mainly Piper, Artibeus consumed Ficus and Cecropia, and Glossophaga consumed Vismia. Cluster analysis revealed higher values of food niche overlap in congeneric species than among species of different genera. Results show that if food is a limiting factor, mechanisms other than trophic selection must reduce interspecific interference or competition for food in this frugivorous bat guild. PMID:18457139

Lopez, Jorge E; Vaughan, Christopher

2007-03-01

117

New world bats harbor diverse influenza a viruses.  

PubMed

Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus, designated as H18N11, in a flat-faced fruit bat (Artibeus planirostris) from Peru. Serologic studies with the recombinant H18 protein indicated that several Peruvian bat species were infected by this virus. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that, in some gene segments, New World bats harbor more influenza virus genetic diversity than all other mammalian and avian species combined, indicative of a long-standing host-virus association. Structural and functional analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase indicate that sialic acid is not a ligand for virus attachment nor a substrate for release, suggesting a unique mode of influenza A virus attachment and activation of membrane fusion for entry into host cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that bats constitute a potentially important and likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza viruses. PMID:24130481

Tong, Suxiang; Zhu, Xueyong; Li, Yan; Shi, Mang; Zhang, Jing; Bourgeois, Melissa; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xianfeng; Recuenco, Sergio; Gomez, Jorge; Chen, Li-Mei; Johnson, Adam; Tao, Ying; Dreyfus, Cyrille; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Carney, Paul J; Gilbert, Amy T; Chang, Jessie; Guo, Zhu; Davis, Charles T; Paulson, James C; Stevens, James; Rupprecht, Charles E; Holmes, Edward C; Wilson, Ian A; Donis, Ruben O

2013-10-10

118

New World Bats Harbor Diverse Influenza A Viruses  

PubMed Central

Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus, designated as H18N11, in a flat-faced fruit bat (Artibeus planirostris) from Peru. Serologic studies with the recombinant H18 protein indicated that several Peruvian bat species were infected by this virus. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that, in some gene segments, New World bats harbor more influenza virus genetic diversity than all other mammalian and avian species combined, indicative of a long-standing host-virus association. Structural and functional analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase indicate that sialic acid is not a ligand for virus attachment nor a substrate for release, suggesting a unique mode of influenza A virus attachment and activation of membrane fusion for entry into host cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that bats constitute a potentially important and likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza viruses.

Tong, Suxiang; Zhu, Xueyong; Li, Yan; Shi, Mang; Zhang, Jing; Bourgeois, Melissa; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xianfeng; Recuenco, Sergio; Gomez, Jorge; Chen, Li-Mei; Johnson, Adam; Tao, Ying; Dreyfus, Cyrille; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Carney, Paul J.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Chang, Jessie; Guo, Zhu; Davis, Charles T.; Paulson, James C.; Stevens, James; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Wilson, Ian A.; Donis, Ruben O.

2013-01-01

119

Pre-adolescent gunshot injuries: anatomy of a Jamaican problem.  

PubMed

This retrospective analysis explores the apparent increase in gunshot injuries among pre-adolescent Jamaican children. During the five-year study period (2001-2005), 74 children less than 12 years old were treated for gunshot injuries at the Bustamante Hospital for Children. In the last four years of the study, the hospital incidence of such child shootings rose by 155%. Children between six and eleven years of age were seen to be at particular risk. Shootings were likely to occur between 4:00 pm and 10:00 pm in the evening, at or near home, in inner city communities. Affected children were unlikely to have been under direct adult supervision at the time of injury and were reported to be intended targets of the shooting in 49% of cases. Injuries to the limbs occurred most frequently, resulting chiefly in soft tissue injuries and open fractures. Half required operative intervention, most avoiding blood transfusion. Hospital stay was usually less than a week. Though clearly needed, social support services were underutilized A mortality rate of 4% was seen but long-term morbidity was uncommon. Routine social and psychiatric evaluation of victims, organized after school-care, establishment of paediatric paramedical services, establishment of a dedicated paediatric interhospital transfer team and more widespread training in paediatric trauma management are recommended to improve the quality of care given to paediatric victims of firearm injuries. PMID:18646494

Dundas, S E; Abel, C; Duncan, N D; Pinnock-Ramsaran, C; Sawh, D M

2007-12-01

120

Eight Bats from Trinidad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses eight species of bats found in the West Indies. The physical features as well as the behavior characteristics of the blood-sucking vampires, the fish-eaters, insect eaters, and nectar-sippers are described.

J. D. Pye

1966-01-01

121

Creature Feature: Vampire Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from National Geographic (last mentioned in the October 11, 2002 Scout Report) offers a short multimedia introduction to vampire bats. Geared toward younger kids, this site includes vampire bat audio and video files, Fun Facts in the form of a brief but educational article, a map of vampire bat global distribution, links to bat-related Web sites, and an email postcard. It may be too late to get much Halloween mileage out of this site, but teachers and students should enjoy this quick and very visual look at a fascinating animal. The site includes links to other National Geographic Creature Features, and could be useful for reports and other activities.

2002-01-01

122

Bat Rabies in Ontario  

PubMed Central

Rabies has been diagnosed for the first time in the bat population of Ontario. In the course of a study involving 72 bats from 24 counties of the province, five big brown bats (E. fuscus) were found to be infected with rabies through the mouse inoculation test. At the present time, it does not look as if bats have been connected with the epizootic of sylvatic rabies in Ontario. La rage est apparue pour la première fois chez les chauves-souris en Ontario. Au cours d'une étude qui a porté sur 72 de ces animaux provenant de 24 comtés de la province, l'inoculation d'animaux de laboratoire a permis confirmer la présence de la maladie chez cinq grosses chauves-souris brunes (E. fuscus). A date, il ne semble toutefois pas que les chauves-souris soient impliquées dans l'épizootie de rage sylvatique qui sévit en Orntario.

Beauregard, M.; Stewart, R. C.

1964-01-01

123

Birds and bats diverge in the qualitative and quantitative components of seed dispersal of a pioneer tree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the overlap in fruit diet between birds and bats is low, they sometimes consume and compete for fruits of the same plant species. What is poorly known is how birds and bats compare with each other in relation to the effectiveness of seed dispersal. In this paper we contrasted birds and bats in relation to quantitative (the amount of fruits removed from plants) and qualitative (germination performance of seeds) components of the seed dispersal of Solanum granuloso- leprosum, a pioneer, small-seeded tree of open areas and forest edges in south Brazil. We tagged fruits on the plants and monitored their removal by day and night. We compared the final percent of germination and speed of germination of seeds ingested by birds and bats with non-ingested, control seeds. While bats removed more fruits than birds, performing better in the quantitative component, birds improved the germination performance of seeds, an aspect of the qualitative component of seed dispersal effectiveness. Although bats are more likely to deposit seeds in highly disturbed sites that favor the recruitment of pioneer plant species, birds frequent forest edges, which is also suitable habitat for S. granuloso- leprosum, We concluded that birds and bats are not 'redundant' seed dispersers for S. granuloso- leprosum because in conjunction they may enhance its recruitment by diversifying the microsites where seeds are deposited, performing in addition different ecological functions in terms of quantity and quality of dispersal.

Jacomassa, Fábio André F.; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

2010-09-01

124

BATS IN AMERICAN BRIDGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bridges and culverts were evaluated as bat roosting habitat in 25 U.S. states at elevations from sea level to 10,000 feet. Field surveys were conducted at 2,421 highway structures. Scientific literature was reviewed, and local biologists and engineers were interviewed, leading to the discovery of approximately 4,250,000 bats of 24 species living in 211 highway structures. Only one percent of

Brian W. Keeley; Merlin D. Tuttle

125

Science 101: Are Bats Dangerous?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bats are fascinating and beneficial animals, but students often have many misconceptions and fears about them. This introduction to bats will provide teachers with the information they need to help students learn more about these night flyers.

Williams, Kim

2004-10-01

126

Bat rabies, public health and European bat conservation.  

PubMed

Most records of European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs) are confined to three species - the serotine bat for EBLV1 (900 records) and Daubenton's bat and the pond bat for EBLV2 (25 records). High levels of seroprevalence, which may vary from year to year, are also recorded. All bat vectors of EBLVs are synanthropic, some exclusively so. Despite this, there have been only five cases of human rabies resulting from EBLV infection in the 590?million people of greater Europe during the last 35?years. These have triggered major programmes of surveillance in many European countries. The emphasis on active versus passive surveillance and the intensity with which they have been carried out has varied from country to country. Both involve cooperation between bat researchers, virologists and public health officials and the latter, in particular, engages amateur bat workers and members of the public. Bat NGOs throughout Europe have worked to persuade the public not to handle bats or to do so only with gloved hands and, in the case of bat workers, to receive pre-exposure immunization. They have also countered negative media coverage of bat rabies. Householders with bat roosts in their dwellings have in general been persuaded to retain their bats. Attempts have been made to persuade all European countries to establish comparable EBLV surveillance programmes. In the last 25?years, virologists, public health officials, bat biologists and conservationists, both amateur and professional have worked closely and collaboratively for the protection of the public and the conservation of bats, with little polarization of views. PMID:22909028

Racey, P A; Hutson, A M; Lina, P H C

2012-08-22

127

Bathymetric distribution of foraminifera in Jamaican reef environments  

SciTech Connect

Recent foraminifera inhabiting Jamaican north-coast fringing reefs display variations in distributional patterns that are related to bathymetry and reef morphology. Sediment samples containing foraminifera were collected along a profile that traversed the back reef (depth 1-2 m), fore-reef terrace (3-15 m), fore-reef escarpment (15-27 m), fore-reef slope (30-55 m), and upper deep fore reef (70 m). Approximately 150 species distributed among 80 genera were identified from the samples. Preliminary analyses indicate that diversity values (S, H') are lowest on the fore-reef terrace (79, 3.0, respectively), increase similarly in back-reef and fore-reef escarpment and slope settings (93, 3.4), and are highest on the deep fore reef (109, 3.7). Larger groupings (suborders) exhibit distinct bathymetric trends with miliolids occurring more commonly in back-reef (comprising 51% of the fauna) than in fore-reef (28%) zones, whereas agglutinated and planktonic species occur more commonly in deeper reef (> 15 m, 9% and 4%, respectively) than in shallower reef zones (< 15 m, 3%, and 0.5%, respectively). Among the more common species Amphistegina gibbosa (Rotolina) is much more abundant in fore-reef (3%) environments, and Sorites marginalis (Miliolina) occurs almost exclusively in the back reef, where it comprises 5.5% of the fauna. Q-mode cluster analysis, involving all species collected, enabled the delineation of back-reef, shallow fore-reef, and deeper fore-reef biofacies, also indicating the potential utility of foraminiferal distributions in detailed paleoenvironment interpretations of ancient reef settings.

Martin, R.E.; Liddell, W.D.

1985-02-01

128

Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain  

PubMed Central

A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

Moron, Sonia Vazquez; Berciano, Jose M.; Nicolas, Olga; Lopez, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodriguez; Setien, Alvaro Aguilar; Echevarria, Juan E.

2013-01-01

129

Fixing wind power's bat problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fact one: Wind energy is booming around the world. Fact two: Wind turbines kill lots of bats. Fact three: Bats are worth billions to North American agriculture. Conclusion? Wind power has a bat problem. And with the Global Wind Energy Council predicting that worldwide wind capacity will double by 2016, the problem will only get worse. At a handful of

Jean Kumagai

2012-01-01

130

Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain.  

PubMed

A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus. PMID:23648051

Aréchiga Ceballos, Nidia; Vázquez Morón, Sonia; Berciano, José M; Nicolás, Olga; Aznar López, Carolina; Juste, Javier; Rodríguez Nevado, Cristina; Aguilar Setién, Alvaro; Echevarría, Juan E

2013-05-01

131

From Cultural Dissonance to Diasporic Affinity: The Experience of Jamaican Teachers in New York City Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This phenomenological study was designed to investigate the experience of Jamaican teachers recruited to serve in elementary and high schools in New York City. The study explored three broad questions: (1) What was teaching like for the participants before they assumed their assignments in the US? (2) What is teaching in the US like for them? and…

Bailey, Erold K.

2013-01-01

132

Ecology of the Jamaican Slider Turtle (Trachemys terrapen), with Implications for Conservation and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated populations of the Jamaican slider turtle (Trachemys terrapen), a species apparently endemic to Jamaica and the only native freshwater turtle species known to occur there. We captured 54 turtles at four sites (three along the southern coast and one in the northwest) representing a variety of habitats, including a permanently ponded wetland, farm ponds, and a stream in

TRACEY D. TUBERVll-LEI; KURT A. BUHLMANNI

133

Sonic diaspora, vibrations, and rhythm: thinking through the sounding of the Jamaican dancehall session  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propagation of vibrations may provide a better way of understanding the spread of diasporas than the conventional focus on the circulation of products (Hall 1980, Appadurai 1986, 1996, Gilroy 1993a, Brah 1996). Jamaican sound systems operate as a broadcast medium and a source of CDs, DVDs, and other commercial products (Henriques 2007a). But the dancehall sound system session also

Julian Henriques

2008-01-01

134

‘YOU CAN'T BE TWO PLACES AT ONCE’: RETHINKING TRANSNATIONALISM THROUGH JAMAICAN RETURN MIGRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines transnational social fields among returned migrants in Jamaica. Comparing the experience of return to Jamaica by individuals who migrated to England and the United States, I explore how migration dynamics shaped the possibilities and predicaments of life upon return. Despite sharing an identity as ‘returning residents,’ I argue that post-World War II Jamaican migrants in England who

Heather A. Horst

2007-01-01

135

Social factors mediating social class differences in blood pressure in a Jamaican community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the factors mediating social class differences in blood pressure was carried out in a Jamaican community. It was found in a previous report that higher social class is related to lower blood pressure for females, while for males higher social class is related to higher blood pressure. These differences are examined in greater detail here, especially in terms

William W. Dressler; Gerald A. C. Grell; Philip N. Gallagher; Fernando E. Viteri

1992-01-01

136

Fall of beauty: The story of a Jamaican waterfall — a tragedy in three acts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The story of Dunn's River Falls, a famous Jamaican beauty spot, illustrates Butler's tourist area cycle of evolution, and shows how excessive development of a scenic resource can threaten its sustainability. These cascades rose to prominence after the implementation of hydroelectric power schemes destroyed other waterfalls which had long been known to lovers of landscape beauty. Now marketed as one

Brian J. Hudson

1999-01-01

137

A Survey of Bahamian and Jamaican Teachers' Level of Motivation and Job Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of self-reported job satisfaction and motivation among teachers in the Bahamas and Jamaica. A total of 168 Bahamian (n = 75) and Jamaican (n = 93) teachers completed the Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction Survey. Overall results indicate that teachers in the Bahamas reported higher levels…

Griffin, David K.

2010-01-01

138

Correlations among Five Variables and the Biology Performance of a Sample of Jamaican High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether or not (a) 252 Jamaican high school students (168 boys, 84 girls, 171 grade 10 and 81 grade 11 students) had favourable attitudes to biology, (b) their level of biology performance was satisfactory, (c) there were significant differences in their performance based on their gender, grade level, school-type,…

Blair-Walters, Shonette; Soyibo, Kola

2004-01-01

139

Collapsing the ‘Oral-Literary’ Continuum: Jamaican Dancehall and Anglophone Caribbean Literary Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I investigate the potential for a relationship between Jamaican dancehall and anglophone Caribbean literary culture by examining the productive, receptive and generic obstacles to their union. Interactions between the oral and literary traditions in the Caribbean are frequent and productive enough to allow critics to propose a continuum between our oral and literary expressive traditions and even

Idara Hippolyte

2004-01-01

140

Transitions of the 18th Century Jamaican Plantocracy: Edward Long and Bryan Edwards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on the mid- to-late eighteenth century the purpose of this thesis is to examine the ways in which white slaveholders in Jamaica developed a unique West Indian ideology grounded in the institution of slavery and the survival of the white plantocracy. Whites were a minority in Jamaican slave society, slaveholding was widespread amongst white settlers, and all white men

Robert Braxton Bird

2007-01-01

141

Ethnic/Racial Attitudes and Self-Identification of Black Jamaican and White New England Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Black and white researchers interviewed black Jamaican and white New England elementary students in urban and rural schools regarding skin color, body size preference, and self-identification, using a modified dolls test. Children from all three communities showed white favoritism and average body size favoritism. Within communities, there were…

Cramer, Phebe; Anderson, Gail

2003-01-01

142

Identifying Factors That Affect Higher Educational Achievements of Jamaican Seventh-Day Adventists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This mixed-method explanatory research examined factors that influenced Jamaican Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) members to pursue higher education. It sought to investigate whether the source of the motivation is tied to the Church's general philosophy on education or to its overall programs as experienced by the membership at large. The question of…

Campbell, Samuel P.

2011-01-01

143

The Influence of Youth Assets on the Career Decision Self-Efficacy in Unattached Jamaican Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study expands the career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) literature by focusing on a sample of unattached Jamaican youth to determine if youth assets (protective factors like family communication and peer role models) were predictive of increased CDSE. Unattached youth are defined as those that do not have a job or are not currently…

Hayes, DeMarquis; Huey, Erron L.; Hull, Darrell M.; Saxon, Terrill F.

2012-01-01

144

Assessing Power Issues in Canadian and Jamaican Women's Experiences in Learning via Distance in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines a qualitative research study which examines the experiences of ten Jamaican and Canadian women engaged in learning via distance in a graduate adult education program. Using a critical feminist perspective, three power issues emerged as topics for discussion that are important for distance educators in higher education to take…

Gouthro, Patricia A.

2004-01-01

145

Parenting style and psychosocial outcomes in a sample of Jamaican adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between parenting style and adolescents' psychological and behavioural well-being in the Jamaican context. Consistent with pertinent studies from western societies, our data indicated that authoritarian parenting was associated with diminished psychological and behavioural adjustment, such that adolescents who reported their parents as more authoritarian also reported a greater risk of anger depression, suicide ideation, and conduct

Delores E. Smith; Todd M. Moore

2012-01-01

146

The relationship between maternal work patterns and infant feeding practices in Jamaican female headed households  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings from a one?year longitudinal study of 109 Jamaican women and their infants are reported. The study was designed to examine the relationship between maternal work patterns and infant feeding practices during the infants’ first year. All women had at least one other preschool child, and identified themselves as having primary responsibility for economic maintenance of their household. The majority

Joanne Leslie; Dorian Powell; Jean Jackson; Karen Searle

2001-01-01

147

Correlations among Jamaican 12th-Graders' Five Variables and Performance in Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was aimed at finding out if the level of performance of selected Jamaican Grade 12 students on an achievement test on the concept of genetics was satisfactory; if there were statistically significant differences in their performance on the concept linked to their gender, self-esteem, cognitive abilities in biology, school-type and…

Bloomfield, Deen-Paul; Soyibo, Kola

2008-01-01

148

Identifying Factors That Affect Higher Educational Achievements of Jamaican Seventh-Day Adventists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed-method explanatory research examined factors that influenced Jamaican Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) members to pursue higher education. It sought to investigate whether the source of the motivation is tied to the Church's general philosophy on education or to its overall programs as experienced by the membership at large. The question of…

Campbell, Samuel P.

2011-01-01

149

The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Dysfunction in Jamaican Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…

Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.

2009-01-01

150

Temporal variation in the organization of a Neotropical assemblage of leaf-nosed bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, I described the organization of a Neotropical bat assemblage, and tested whether this organization was variable in time. In an Atlantic Forest reserve in southeastern Brazil bats were captured monthly with mist nets over 4 years, and individuals were classified into guilds. I analyzed only leaf-nosed bats, and observed that guilds of fruit-eating bats dominated the assemblage. This pattern was repeated across months and years. However, among frugivores, canopy and understory guilds peaked during different months, but in both cases during the rainy season, while variation among habitat-opportunistic species was not explained by rainfall. The most reliable ecological service delivered by phyllostomid bats in the area is seed dispersal, although other services may be also important in particular seasons. My results suggest that the observed patterns of temporal species turnover are related to the abundance of preferred food items.

Ribeiro Mello, Marco Aurelio

151

Discover Bats! with Merlin Tuttle and Bat Conservation International. The Multimedia Education Kit about Bats.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This multimedia package contains a book and a videotape on bats. The videotape uses video sequences of bats in action which are designed to support 21 lessons, each designed to teach essential elements of classroom curricula to students ages 9-15. The video is divided into four 12-minute segments that include footage of bats, direct relevance to…

Tuttle, Merlin D.; Tyburec, Janet, Ed.

152

Discover Bats! with Merlin Tuttle and Bat Conservation International. The Multimedia Education Kit about Bats.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multimedia package contains a book and a videotape on bats. The videotape uses video sequences of bats in action which are designed to support 21 lessons, each designed to teach essential elements of classroom curricula to students ages 9-15. The video is divided into four 12-minute segments that include footage of bats, direct relevance to…

Tuttle, Merlin D.; Tyburec, Janet, Ed.

153

Turning flight of bats.  

PubMed

The turning flight of six microchiropteran bat species is described. The bats' abilities to turn tightly were determined by their abilities to fly slowly and to generate high lateral accelerations. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum developed high lateral accelerations by flapping its banked wings while flying at very low speed. Plecotus auritus turned at relatively low speed and at low lateral acceleration. The other species were all moving fast as they turned and generated lateral accelerations either by developing high bank angles or by flapping their wings with low bank angles. There was a significant correlation between wing loading and turning curvature, indicating that low wing loadings improve manoeuvrability. PMID:3559468

Aldridge, H D

1987-03-01

154

Two Novel Parvoviruses in Frugivorous New and Old World Bats  

PubMed Central

Bats, a globally distributed group of mammals with high ecological importance, are increasingly recognized as natural reservoir hosts for viral agents of significance to human and animal health. In the present study, we evaluated pools of blood samples obtained from two phylogenetically distant bat families, in particular from flying foxes (Pteropodidae), Eidolon helvum in West Africa, and from two species of New World leaf-nosed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae), Artibeus jamaicensis and Artibeus lituratus in Central America. A sequence-independent virus discovery technique (VIDISCA) was used in combination with high throughput sequencing to detect two novel parvoviruses: a PARV4-like virus named Eh-BtPV-1 in Eidolon helvum from Ghana and the first member of a putative new genus in Artibeus jamaicensis from Panama (Aj-BtPV-1). Those viruses were circulating in the corresponding bat colony at rates of 7–8%. Aj-BtPV-1 was also found in Artibeus lituratus (5.5%). Both viruses were detected in the blood of infected animals at high concentrations: up to 10E8 and to 10E10 copies/ml for Aj-BtPV-1 and Eh-BtPV-1 respectively. Eh-BtPV-1 was additionally detected in all organs collected from bats (brain, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys and intestine) and spleen and kidneys were identified as the most likely sites where viral replication takes place. Our study shows that bat parvoviruses share common ancestors with known parvoviruses of humans and livestock. We also provide evidence that a variety of Parvovirinae are able to cause active infection in bats and that they are widely distributed in these animals with different geographic origin, ecologies and climatic ranges.

Deijs, Martin; de Vries, Michel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Oppong, Samuel K.; Muller, Marcel A.; Klose, Stefan M.; Wellinghausen, Nele; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Drosten, Christian; van der Hoek, Lia

2011-01-01

155

Marburg Virus Infection Detected in a Common African Bat  

PubMed Central

Marburg and Ebola viruses can cause large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with high case fatality (80–90%) in human and great apes. Identification of the natural reservoir of these viruses is one of the most important topics in this field and a fundamental key to understanding their natural history. Despite the discovery of this virus family almost 40 years ago, the search for the natural reservoir of these lethal pathogens remains an enigma despite numerous ecological studies. Here, we report the discovery of Marburg virus in a common species of fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in Gabon as shown by finding virus-specific RNA and IgG antibody in individual bats. These Marburg virus positive bats represent the first naturally infected non-primate animals identified. Furthermore, this is the first report of Marburg virus being present in this area of Africa, thus extending the known range of the virus. These data imply that more areas are at risk for MHF outbreaks than previously realized and correspond well with a recently published report in which three species of fruit bats were demonstrated to be likely reservoirs for Ebola virus.

Towner, Jonathan S.; Pourrut, Xavier; Albarino, Cesar G.; Nkogue, Chimene Nze; Bird, Brian H.; Grard, Gilda; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Stuart T.; Leroy, Eric M.

2007-01-01

156

Satellite Telemetry and Long-Range Bat Movements  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the long-distance movement of bats has direct relevance to studies of population dynamics, ecology, disease emergence, and conservation. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed and trialed several collar and platform terminal transmitter (PTT) combinations on both free-living and captive fruit bats (Family Pteropodidae: Genus Pteropus). We examined transmitter weight, size, profile and comfort as key determinants of maximized transmitter activity. We then tested the importance of bat-related variables (species size/weight, roosting habitat and behavior) and environmental variables (day-length, rainfall pattern) in determining optimal collar/PTT configuration. We compared battery- and solar-powered PTT performance in various field situations, and found the latter more successful in maintaining voltage on species that roosted higher in the tree canopy, and at lower density, than those that roost more densely and lower in trees. Finally, we trialed transmitter accuracy, and found that actual distance errors and Argos location class error estimates were in broad agreement. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that no single collar or transmitter design is optimal for all bat species, and that species size/weight, species ecology and study objectives are key design considerations. Our study provides a strategy for collar and platform choice that will be applicable to a larger number of bat species as transmitter size and weight continue to decrease in the future.

Smith, Craig S.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Breed, Andrew C.; Plowright, Raina K.; Olival, Kevin J.; de Jong, Carol; Daszak, Peter; Field, Hume E.

2011-01-01

157

Evolutionary history of Indian ocean nycteribiid bat flies mirroring the ecology of their hosts.  

PubMed

Bats and their parasites are increasingly investigated for their role in maintenance and transmission of potentially emerging pathogens. The islands of the western Indian Ocean hold nearly 50 bat species, mostly endemic and taxonomically well studied. However, investigation of associated viral, bacterial, and external parasites has lagged behind. In the case of their ectoparasites, more detailed information should provide insights into the evolutionary history of their hosts, as well as pathogen cycles in these wild animals. Here we investigate species of Nycteribiidae, a family of obligate hematophagous wingless flies parasitizing bats. Using morphological and molecular approaches, we describe fly species diversity sampled on Madagascar and the Comoros for two cave-roosting bat genera with contrasting ecologies: Miniopterus and Rousettus. Within the sampling area, 11 endemic species of insect-feeding Miniopterus occur, two of which are common to Madagascar and Comoros, while fruit-consuming Rousettus are represented by one species endemic to each of these zones. Morphological and molecular characterization of flies reveals that nycteribiids associated with Miniopterus bats comprise three species largely shared by most host species. Flies of M. griveaudi, one of the two bats found on Madagascar and certain islands in the Comoros, belong to the same taxon, which accords with continued over-water population exchange of this bat species and the lack of inter-island genetic structuring. Flies parasitizing Rousettus belong to two distinct species, each associated with a single host species, again in accordance with the distribution of each endemic bat species. PMID:24086470

Tortosa, Pablo; Dsouli, Najla; Gomard, Yann; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dick, Carl W; Goodman, Steven M

2013-09-27

158

Evolutionary History of Indian Ocean Nycteribiid Bat Flies Mirroring the Ecology of Their Hosts  

PubMed Central

Bats and their parasites are increasingly investigated for their role in maintenance and transmission of potentially emerging pathogens. The islands of the western Indian Ocean hold nearly 50 bat species, mostly endemic and taxonomically well studied. However, investigation of associated viral, bacterial, and external parasites has lagged behind. In the case of their ectoparasites, more detailed information should provide insights into the evolutionary history of their hosts, as well as pathogen cycles in these wild animals. Here we investigate species of Nycteribiidae, a family of obligate hematophagous wingless flies parasitizing bats. Using morphological and molecular approaches, we describe fly species diversity sampled on Madagascar and the Comoros for two cave-roosting bat genera with contrasting ecologies: Miniopterus and Rousettus. Within the sampling area, 11 endemic species of insect-feeding Miniopterus occur, two of which are common to Madagascar and Comoros, while fruit-consuming Rousettus are represented by one species endemic to each of these zones. Morphological and molecular characterization of flies reveals that nycteribiids associated with Miniopterus bats comprise three species largely shared by most host species. Flies of M. griveaudi, one of the two bats found on Madagascar and certain islands in the Comoros, belong to the same taxon, which accords with continued over-water population exchange of this bat species and the lack of inter-island genetic structuring. Flies parasitizing Rousettus belong to two distinct species, each associated with a single host species, again in accordance with the distribution of each endemic bat species.

Tortosa, Pablo; Dsouli, Najla; Gomard, Yann; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dick, Carl W.; Goodman, Steven M.

2013-01-01

159

Sperm competition in bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and

D. J. Hosken

1997-01-01

160

Bat Echolocation Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how bats use echolocation to get information about objects in their environment. During the activity, one learner whispers into a tube. Another learner listens for the sound to bounce off the pie plate and come back through the other tube. Use this activity to discuss the different ways animals learn about their environments.

Kindernature

2004-01-01

161

A cross-sectional study of Jamaican adolescents' risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare obese versus non-obese Jamaican adolescents’ risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); and to explore a suitable and economical method of screening for these risk factors in the school settings. Design A descriptive cross-sectional study of adolescents’ risk for T2D and CVD. All the participants were examined at their respective schools. Setting Jamaica, West Indies. Population 276 Jamaican adolescents aged 14–19?years, randomly selected from grades 9 to 12 from 10 high schools on the island and included both boys and girls. All ethnicities on the island were represented. Main outcome measures High fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, family history of obesity, T2D and CVDs, low physical activity, and presence of Acanthosis Nigricans. All blood measures were analysed using the finger prick procedure. Results Waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, Acanthosis Nigricans, total cholesterol, family history of T2D and blood pressure were the strongest predictors of BMI (p=0.001). Over one-third of the participants were overweight. Jamaican adolescent females had a significantly higher number of risk factors and were less physically active than males (p<0.05). Over 80% of participants reported ?3 risk factors for T2D and CVD. Participants with BMI ?25 reported five or more risk factors. One-third of the overweight participants were classified with metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Jamaican adolescents are at risk of T2D and CVD. Family history of disease and anthropometric measures identified more participants at risk than did the blood measures. Jamaican adolescent females reported more risk factors for T2D and CVD as compared to males. Collection of this type of data was feasible within the school settings. All data were collected in 1?day per school. Intervention measures are needed to educate Jamaican adolescents to reduce overweight and subsequently the risk factors.

Barrett, Sheila C; Huffman, Fatma G; Johnson, Paulette; Campa, Adriana; Magnus, Marcia; Ragoobirsingh, Dalip

2013-01-01

162

Bat Inventory of Assateague Island National Seashore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As significant nocturnal insectivores, bats are an integral part of many ecosystems. Determining bat species composition in an area is a critical first step in managing for this important resource. Little information exists concerning the bat species comp...

J. B. Johnson J. E. Gates

2010-01-01

163

Surveillance for European bat lyssavirus in Swiss bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most countries in Western Europe are currently free of rabies in terrestrial mammals. Nevertheless, rabies remains a residual\\u000a risk to public health due to the natural circulation of bat-specific viruses, such as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs). European\\u000a bat lyssavirus types 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) are widely distributed throughout Europe, but little is known of their true\\u000a prevalence and

A. Megali; G. Yannic; M.-L. Zahno; D. Brügger; G. Bertoni; P. Christe; R. Zanoni

2010-01-01

164

Science Nation: Batty for Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are 5,000 species of mammals alive at present, and nearly a quarter of them are bats. They're found in almost every location on Earth. In fact, bats are the only mammals that can fly under their own power! With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), two scientists from very different disciplines have set up a special facility, including a wind tunnel, to study bats in flight.

165

European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and 251 (21%) were positive for lyssavirus antigen. Five (4%) of 129 specimens from the pond bat, Myotis dasycneme, were positive. Recently detected EBLV RNA segments encoding the nucleoprotein were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically (45 specimens). All recent serotine bat specimens clustered with genotype 5 (EBLV1) sequences, and homologies within subgenotypes EBLV1a and EBLV1b were 99.0%–100% and 99.2%–100%, respectively. Our findings indicate that EBLVs of genotype 5 are endemic in the serotine bat in the Netherlands. Since EBLVs can cause fatal infections in humans, all serotine and pond bats involved in contact incidents should be tested to determine whether the victim was exposed to EBLVs.

Van der Heide, Reina; Verstraten, Elisabeth R.A.M.; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Lina, Peter H.C.; Kramps, Johannes A.

2005-01-01

166

European Bat Lyssavirus Infection in Spanish Bat Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1992 to 2000, 976 sera, 27 blood pellets, and 91 brains were obtained from 14 bat species in 37 localities in Spain. Specific anti-European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBL1)-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in Myotis myotis, Miniopterus schreibersii, Tadarida teniotis, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in the region of Aragon and the Balearic Islands. Positive results were also obtained by nested reverse

Jordi Serra-Cobo; Blanca Amengual; Carlos Abellán; Hervé Bourhy

2002-01-01

167

Do Bat Gantries and Underpasses Help Bats Cross Roads Safely?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major roads can reduce bat abundance and diversity over considerable distances. To mitigate against these effects and comply with environmental law, many European countries install bridges, gantries or underpasses to make roads permeable and safer to cross. However, through lack of appropriate monitoring, there is little evidence to support their effectiveness. Three underpasses and four bat gantries were investigated in

Anna Berthinussen; John Altringham

2012-01-01

168

THE INFLUENCE OF BAT DETECTOR BRAND ON THE QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF BAT ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bat detectors are commonly used to monitor bat behaviour. Earlier research has suggested that there may be systematic differences in the response of different detectors to bat calls. Such differences would have important implications for the comparability of quantitative surveys conducted with bat detectors. The present study examines variability within and between brands of bat detector in accuracy of tuning,

DEAN A. WATERS; ALLYSON L. WALSH

1994-01-01

169

High diversity of West African bat malaria parasites and a tight link with rodent Plasmodium taxa.  

PubMed

As the only volant mammals, bats are captivating for their high taxonomic diversity, for their vital roles in ecosystems-particularly as pollinators and insectivores-and, more recently, for their important roles in the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic viral diseases. Genome sequences have identified evidence for a striking expansion of and positive selection in gene families associated with immunity. Bats have also been known to be hosts of malaria parasites for over a century, and as hosts, they possess perhaps the most phylogenetically diverse set of hemosporidian genera and species. To provide a molecular framework for the study of these parasites, we surveyed bats in three remote areas of the Upper Guinean forest ecosystem. We detected four distinct genera of hemosporidian parasites: Plasmodium, Polychromophilus, Nycteria, and Hepatocystis. Intriguingly, the two species of Plasmodium in bats fall within the clade of rodent malaria parasites, indicative of multiple host switches across mammalian orders. We show that Nycteria species form a very distinct phylogenetic group and that Hepatocystis parasites display an unusually high diversity and prevalence in epauletted fruit bats. The diversity and high prevalence of novel lineages of chiropteran hemosporidians underscore the exceptional position of bats among all other mammalian hosts of hemosporidian parasites and support hypotheses of pathogen tolerance consistent with the exceptional immunology of bats. PMID:24101466

Schaer, Juliane; Perkins, Susan L; Decher, Jan; Leendertz, Fabian H; Fahr, Jakob; Weber, Natalie; Matuschewski, Kai

2013-10-07

170

Evolution of European bat lyssaviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven European bat lyssaviruses (EBL) and two African insectivorous bat lyssaviruses (Duvenhage viruses) were selected for a comparison to be made of their evolutionary relationships. Studies were based on direct sequencing of the PCR-amplified products of the 400 nucleotides coding for the amino terminus of the nucleoprotein. Phylogenetic relationships were analysed after bootstrap resampling using the maximum parsi- mony and

B. Amengual; J. E. Whitby; A. King; J. Serra Cobo; H. Bourhy

1997-01-01

171

Novel Astroviruses in Insectivorous Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats are increasingly recognized to harbor a wide range of viruses, and in most instances these viruses appear to establish long-term persistence in these animals. They are the reservoir of a number of human zoonotic diseases including Nipah, Ebola, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We report the identi- fication of novel groups of astroviruses in apparently healthy insectivorous bats found

D. K. W. Chu; L. L. M. Poon; Y. Guan; J. S. M. Peiris

2008-01-01

172

Evolutionary aspects of bat echolocation.  

PubMed

This review is yet another attempt to explain how echolocation in bats or bat-like mammals came into existence. Attention is focused on neuronal specializations in the ascending auditory pathway of echolocating bats. Three different mechanisms are considered that may create a specific auditory sensitivity to echos: (1). time-windows of enhanced echo-processing opened by a corollary discharge of neuronal vocalization commands; (2). differentiation and expansion of ensembles of combination-sensitive neurons in the midbrain; and (3). corticofugal top-down modulations. The second part of the review interprets three different types of echolocation as adaptations to ecological niches, and presents the sophisticated cochlear specializations in constant-frequency/frequency-modulated bats as a case study of finely tuned differentiation. It is briefly discussed how a resonant mechanism in the inner ear of constant-frequency/frequency-modulated bats may have evolved in common mammalian cochlea. PMID:12743729

Neuweiler, G

2003-03-28

173

Ecological correlates of cortisol levels in two bat species with contrasting feeding habits.  

PubMed

The immediate release of adrenal glucocorticoids can be crucial for an animal's survival when facing a stressor, but constantly elevated or exceptionally high glucocorticoid levels are usually detrimental for health. Although baseline and maximal secretion of glucocorticoids are regulated within narrow ranges within species, plasma glucocorticoid levels vary largely across vertebrates. We asked what ecological factors affect baseline plasma cortisol levels (CortI) and maximum levels (CortMax) following a physiological challenge through administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Specifically, we studied whether seasonal fluctuations in food abundance correlate with the capacity of cortisol increases in two phyllostomid bat species with contrasting feeding habits: the sanguinivorous vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the frugivorous short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). Both species coexist in habitats with various levels of seasonality (dry and rainforest). On a seasonal basis, resource abundance is more stable for vampire than for fruit bats, but previous studies suggested that daily foraging success may vary more for vampire than for fruit bats. CortI and CortMax varied seasonally in C. perspicillata from dry and rainforests, with the exception of CortMax in rainforest bats. Although we expected food availability to be stable year-round for vampire bats, we found CortI and CortMax of vampires to be higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Also, we found CortMax to be higher in vampires from the rainforest than in those from the dry forest. CortMax of vampires were among the highest measured for a free-ranging mammal; a pattern that could be related to the species' vulnerability to starvation. We conclude that food availability modulates cortisol levels in free-ranging species that face seasonally fluctuating resources; in species, however, that benefit from food which is constantly abundant, other factors than food may become more important in modulating cortisol levels. PMID:22429728

Lewanzik, Daniel; Kelm, Detlev H; Greiner, Sabine; Dehnhard, Martin; Voigt, Christian C

2012-03-10

174

Roosts as information centres: social learning of food preferences in bats  

PubMed Central

The short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, lives in groups in tree hollows and caves. To investigate whether these roosts might serve as information centres, we tested whether individuals' preferences for novel foods could be enhanced through social learning at the roost. We also determined whether socially learned preferences for novel foods were reversed through interaction with other roost mates by simulating changes in available food resources such as those associated with variations in timing of fruit production in different plant species. Bats exhibited socially induced preferences that were readily reversible. We suggest that for frugivorous bats, roosts can serve as centres for information exchange about novel and familiar, ephemeral foods without requiring conspecific recruitment to these resources.

Ratcliffe, John M; ter Hofstede, Hannah M

2005-01-01

175

Sources of assimilated protein in five species of New World frugivorous bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits are N-poor items and their availability in the tropics varies throughout the year. Field and experimental studies debate whether frugivorous bats have to switch to N-rich sources of food during part of the year or if they are able to subsist on a fruit-only diet. Different strategies to meet their N requirements may influence the way in which frugivorous

Gerardo L. Herrera; Elizabeth Gutierrez; Keith A. Hobson; Baldo Altube; Waldemar G. Díaz; Víctor Sánchez-Cordero

2002-01-01

176

Nutrition or Detoxification: Why Bats Visit Mineral Licks of the Amazonian Rainforest  

PubMed Central

Many animals in the tropics of Africa, Asia and South America regularly visit so-called salt or mineral licks to consume clay or drink clay-saturated water. Whether this behavior is used to supplement diets with locally limited nutrients or to buffer the effects of toxic secondary plant compounds remains unclear. In the Amazonian rainforest, pregnant and lactating bats are frequently observed and captured at mineral licks. We measured the nitrogen isotope ratio in wing tissue of omnivorous short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata, and in an obligate fruit-eating bat, Artibeus obscurus, captured at mineral licks and at control sites in the rainforest. Carollia perspicillata with a plant-dominated diet were more often captured at mineral licks than individuals with an insect-dominated diet, although insects were more mineral depleted than fruits. In contrast, nitrogen isotope ratios of A. obscurus did not differ between individuals captured at mineral lick versus control sites. We conclude that pregnant and lactating fruit-eating bats do not visit mineral licks principally for minerals, but instead to buffer the effects of secondary plant compounds that they ingest in large quantities during periods of high energy demand. These findings have potential implications for the role of mineral licks for mammals in general, including humans.

Voigt, Christian C.; Capps, Krista A.; Dechmann, Dina K. N.; Michener, Robert H.; Kunz, Thomas H.

2008-01-01

177

Nutrition or detoxification: why bats visit mineral licks of the Amazonian rainforest.  

PubMed

Many animals in the tropics of Africa, Asia and South America regularly visit so-called salt or mineral licks to consume clay or drink clay-saturated water. Whether this behavior is used to supplement diets with locally limited nutrients or to buffer the effects of toxic secondary plant compounds remains unclear. In the Amazonian rainforest, pregnant and lactating bats are frequently observed and captured at mineral licks. We measured the nitrogen isotope ratio in wing tissue of omnivorous short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata, and in an obligate fruit-eating bat, Artibeus obscurus, captured at mineral licks and at control sites in the rainforest. Carollia perspicillata with a plant-dominated diet were more often captured at mineral licks than individuals with an insect-dominated diet, although insects were more mineral depleted than fruits. In contrast, nitrogen isotope ratios of A. obscurus did not differ between individuals captured at mineral lick versus control sites. We conclude that pregnant and lactating fruit-eating bats do not visit mineral licks principally for minerals, but instead to buffer the effects of secondary plant compounds that they ingest in large quantities during periods of high energy demand. These findings have potential implications for the role of mineral licks for mammals in general, including humans. PMID:18431492

Voigt, Christian C; Capps, Krista A; Dechmann, Dina K N; Michener, Robert H; Kunz, Thomas H

2008-04-23

178

What Good Are Bats?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mosquito population in your area is increasing at an alarming rate. You and your team have been called in to become experts on the local bat species and what you can do to promote their health. TASK Each person in your group is to choose an area in which to become an expert. Each person in your group will have a designated area of which they are in charge. As a team you will choose a Captain, a Navigator, an Engineer, an Operations Specialist, and ...

Stanford, Mrs.

2008-11-17

179

A Bat on the Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A miniature nighttime drama -- a bat capturing a flying insect -- unfolds, courtesy of Cynthia Moss and Kaushik Ghose, in a video diptych consisting of infrared imaging in the left panel and a schematic animated graph on the right. As the ghostly shape of the bat closes in on a flying mantis, the right-hand panel shows the track of predator and prey, and also pinpoints the direction of the bat's sonar (both action and sound have been slowed down by a factor of 16).

Cynthia Moss (University of Maryland, College Park;); Kaushik Ghose (University of Maryland, College Park ;)

2004-09-24

180

Seafood consumption and blood mercury concentrations in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Mercury is a toxic metal shown to have harmful effects on human health. Several studies have reported high blood mercury concentrations as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), while other studies have reported no such association. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between blood mercury concentrations in children and ASDs. Moreover, we investigated the role of seafood consumption in relation to blood mercury concentrations in Jamaican children. Based on data for 65 sex- and age-matched pairs (2-8 years), we used a General Linear Model to test whether there is an association between blood mercury concentrations and ASDs. After controlling for the child's frequency of seafood consumption, maternal age, and parental education, we did not find a significant difference (P = 0.61) between blood mercury concentrations and ASDs. However, in both cases and control groups, children who ate certain types of seafood (i.e., salt water fish, sardine, or mackerel fish) had significantly higher (all P < 0.05) geometric means blood mercury concentration which were about 3.5 times that of children living in the US or Canada. Our findings also indicate that Jamaican children with parents who both had education up to high school are at a higher risk of exposure to mercury compared to children with at least one parent who had education beyond high school. Based on our findings, we recommend additional education to Jamaican parents regarding potential hazards of elevated blood mercury concentrations, and its association with seafood consumption and type of seafood. PMID:22488160

Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Bloom, Kari; Pearson, Deborah A; Lalor, Gerald C; Boerwinkle, Eric

2012-04-10

181

Bat Coronaviruses and Experimental Infection of Bats, the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-two bats captured during July 2008 in the Philip- pines were tested by reverse transcription-PCR to detect bat coronavirus (CoV) RNA. The overall prevalence of vi- rus RNA was 55.8%. We found 2 groups of sequences that belonged to group 1 (genus Alphacoronavirus) and group 2 (genus Betacoronavirus) CoVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene showed that groups

Shumpei Watanabe; Joseph S. Masangkay; Noriyo Nagata; Shigeru Morikawa; Tetsuya Mizutani; Shuetsu Fukushi; Phillip Alviola; Tsutomu Omatsu; Naoya Ueda; Koichiro Iha; Satoshi Taniguchi; Hikaru Fujii; Shumpei Tsuda; Maiko Endoh; Kentaro Kato; Yukinobu Tohya; Shigeru Kyuwa; Yasuhiro Yoshikawa; Hiroomi Akashi

2010-01-01

182

Midcycle Toxicology Review Memo - BAT  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Midcycle Toxicology Review Memo - BAT. ... Toxicology, Main Findings There were no dedicated toxicity studies performed to support this BLA. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

183

Chemical Control of Vampire Bats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two different chemical methods for reducing populations of vampire bat populations are described. Both methods are based on an anitcoagulant, diphenadione. The chemical is either injected into the rumen of cattle or applied directly to the back of vampire...

G. C. Mitchell R. J. Burns

1973-01-01

184

Aeromechanics of Highly Maneuverable Bats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bats fly with astounding agility, maneuverability and efficiency. Their flight mechanics are completely different from those of insects and birds and characterized by several unique aeromechanical features including: (1) complex three-dimensional articula...

K. S. Breuer S. M. Swartz

2008-01-01

185

Major League Baseball's MLB @BAT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Major League Baseball's MLB @BAT, the only official source for MLB information on the world wide web. MLB @BAT provides you with access to daily updated scores, statistics, rosters, league leaders, and MLB Club related information. In addition, check out News & Notes for late-breaking Official Major League Baseball press releases, view photos of the current NL/AL Players of the Week in MLB Photo Gallery, or purchase official MLB merchandise in the MLB Clubhouse Shop.

186

Young Jamaicans' Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Experimental and Demographic Factors Associated with Social Distance and Stigmatizing Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two large-scale studies assessed the nature and correlates of young Jamaicans' attitudes toward mental illness. In study 1, students viewed a videotaped job interview for a teacher whose history was manipulated to include a history of mental illness, or not. Students desired significantly less social distance (i.e., more contact) with the…

Jackson, Dahra; Heatherington, Laurie

2006-01-01

187

Young Jamaicans' Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Experimental and Demographic Factors Associated with Social Distance and Stigmatizing Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two large-scale studies assessed the nature and correlates of young Jamaicans' attitudes toward mental illness. In study 1, students viewed a videotaped job interview for a teacher whose history was manipulated to include a history of mental illness, or not. Students desired significantly less social distance (i.e., more contact) with the "normal"…

Jackson, Dahra; Heatherington, Laurie

2006-01-01

188

Health-hazard-evaluation report HETA 87-371-2000, Technical Assistance to the Jamaican Ministry of Health, Kingston, Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a request from the Jamaican Ministry of Health, a study was made of possible health hazards existing due to the operation of a secondary lead smelter in Saint Catherine Parish, Jamaica. Emission controls at the site were upgraded in 1974. A cottage industry of clandestine backyard smelters was also in operation in the area. The survey investigated

T. D. Matte; G. A. Burr

1989-01-01

189

Materialist Culture and Teacher Attrition in the Caribbean: Motivational Differences between Novice and Experienced Jamaican Teacher Trainees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined motivational factors responsible for the retention of experienced teachers in Jamaica. Using a stratified sample of Jamaican teachers in training, the study compared the motivations for teaching of 821 novice student teachers with the motivations of 206 student teachers having more than 3 years of teaching experience. Data…

Bastick, Tony

190

Self-Esteem among Jamaican Children: Exploring the Impact of Skin Color and Rural/Urban Residence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the extent to which two different models predict the relation of self-esteem to skin color and rural/urban residence among Jamaican children. To explain this relation, Crocker and Major's Self-protective hypothesis and Harter's Additive model were examined among 200 African-Caribbean children from rural (n=85) and urban…

Ferguson, Gail M. (Anderson); Cramer, Phebe

2007-01-01

191

The occurrence of black corals in Jamaican reef environments, with special reference to Stichopathes lutkeni (Antipatharia: Antipathidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to record the species of Antipatharia on Jamaican reefs and to carry out limited studies on densities and sizes of the common species. In addition, a cliff face created by dredging in 2002 provided the opportunity to study growth of newly settled colonies. Observations since 1998 and measurements since 2001 were made using SCUBA

G. F. Warner

192

Roosting habits of bats affect their parasitism by bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smithsonian Venezuela Project (SVP) conducted extensive surveys of mammals and ectoparasites in the 1960s. The 25 238 individuals and 130 species of bat collected by SVP hosted 36 663 streblid bat flies, representing 116 species of these ectoparasitic dipterans. Roosts of bat species differ in durability and protection, and bat flies separate from the host to pupate in the

Bruce D. Patterson; Carl W. Dick; Katharina Dittmar

2007-01-01

193

IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF WARM UP BY OVERWEIGHED BAT IMPLEMENT ON BAT SWING VELOCITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of warming up by overweighed bat implement on bat swing velocity. Five softball players worked in this experiment and processed the following steps: swing official bat with and without overweight warm-ups (5 and 10 times). The maximal velocity of official bat swing was recorded by a 3-D cinematograph. By

Hui-Ping Tu; Chen-Ju Chien; Gin-Chang Liu

2002-01-01

194

Characterisation of an Australian bat lyssavirus variant isolated from an insectivorous bat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996 a variant lyssavirus was isolated from an insectivorous bat (yellow bellied, sheath tail bat—Saccolaimus flaviventris) in Australia. The nucleocapsid protein (N), matrix protein (M), phosphoprotein (P), glycoprotein (G) and polymerase (L) genes of the Australian bat lyssavirus (ABL) insectivorous isolate were compared with that previously described from a frugivorous bat (Pteropus sp.), and showed sequence divergence at both

Allan R Gould; Jacqueline A Kattenbelt; Sarah G Gumley; Ross A Lunt

2002-01-01

195

Experimental study of European bat lyssavirus type-2 infection in Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) can be transmitted from Daubenton's bats to humans and cause rabies. EBLV-2 has been repeatedly isolated from Daubenton's bats in the UK but appears to be present at a low level within the native bat population. This has prompted us to investigate the disease in its natural host under experimental conditions, to assess its

Nicholas Johnson; Ad Vos; Larissa Neubert; Conrad Freuling; Karen L. Mansfield; Ingrid Kaipf; Annette Denzinger; Dan Hicks; Alex Nunez; Richard Franka; Charles E. Rupprecht; Thomas Muller; Anthony R. Fooks

2008-01-01

196

The Evolution of Bat Vestibular Systems in the Face of Potential Antagonistic Selection Pressures for Flight and Echolocation  

PubMed Central

The vestibular system maintains the body’s sense of balance and, therefore, was probably subject to strong selection during evolutionary transitions in locomotion. Among mammals, bats possess unique traits that place unusual demands on their vestibular systems. First, bats are capable of powered flight, which in birds is associated with enlarged semicircular canals. Second, many bats have enlarged cochleae associated with echolocation, and both cochleae and semicircular canals share a space within the petrosal bone. To determine how bat vestibular systems have evolved in the face of these pressures, we used micro-CT scans to compare canal morphology across species with contrasting flight and echolocation capabilities. We found no increase in canal radius in bats associated with the acquisition of powered flight, but canal radius did correlate with body mass in bat species from the suborder Yangochiroptera, and also in non-echolocating Old World fruit bats from the suborder Yinpterochiroptera. No such trend was seen in members of the Yinpterochiroptera that use laryngeal echolocation, although canal radius was associated with wing-tip roundedness in this group. We also found that the vestibular system scaled with cochlea size, although the relationship differed in species that use constant frequency echolocation. Across all bats, the shape of the anterior and lateral canals was associated with large cochlea size and small body size respectively, suggesting differential spatial constraints on each canal depending on its orientation within the skull. Thus in many echolocating bats, it seems that the combination of small body size and enlarged cochlea together act as a principal force on the vestibular system. The two main groups of echolocating bats displayed different canal morphologies, in terms of size and shape in relation to body mass and cochlear size, thus suggesting independent evolutionary pathways and offering tentative support for multiple acquisitions of echolocation.

Davies, Kalina T. J.; Bates, Paul J. J.; Maryanto, Ibnu; Cotton, James A.; Rossiter, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

197

The evolution of bat vestibular systems in the face of potential antagonistic selection pressures for flight and echolocation.  

PubMed

The vestibular system maintains the body's sense of balance and, therefore, was probably subject to strong selection during evolutionary transitions in locomotion. Among mammals, bats possess unique traits that place unusual demands on their vestibular systems. First, bats are capable of powered flight, which in birds is associated with enlarged semicircular canals. Second, many bats have enlarged cochleae associated with echolocation, and both cochleae and semicircular canals share a space within the petrosal bone. To determine how bat vestibular systems have evolved in the face of these pressures, we used micro-CT scans to compare canal morphology across species with contrasting flight and echolocation capabilities. We found no increase in canal radius in bats associated with the acquisition of powered flight, but canal radius did correlate with body mass in bat species from the suborder Yangochiroptera, and also in non-echolocating Old World fruit bats from the suborder Yinpterochiroptera. No such trend was seen in members of the Yinpterochiroptera that use laryngeal echolocation, although canal radius was associated with wing-tip roundedness in this group. We also found that the vestibular system scaled with cochlea size, although the relationship differed in species that use constant frequency echolocation. Across all bats, the shape of the anterior and lateral canals was associated with large cochlea size and small body size respectively, suggesting differential spatial constraints on each canal depending on its orientation within the skull. Thus in many echolocating bats, it seems that the combination of small body size and enlarged cochlea together act as a principal force on the vestibular system. The two main groups of echolocating bats displayed different canal morphologies, in terms of size and shape in relation to body mass and cochlear size, thus suggesting independent evolutionary pathways and offering tentative support for multiple acquisitions of echolocation. PMID:23637943

Davies, Kalina T J; Bates, Paul J J; Maryanto, Ibnu; Cotton, James A; Rossiter, Stephen J

2013-04-24

198

Contributing factors for increased bat swing velocity.  

PubMed

Bat swing velocity is an important characteristic of successful hitters in baseball and softball. The purpose of this literature review is threefold. First, before describing what components and training methods have been investigated to improve bat swing velocity, it is necessary to discuss the importance of bat swing velocity and batted-ball velocity. The second purpose is to discuss bat weight during on-deck circle warm-up, bat weight during resistance training, resistance training with an overload of force, performance of additional supplemental resistance exercises, the relationship between strength, power, lean body mass, and angular velocity and bat swing velocity, and the relationship between improvements in strength, power, lean body mass, and angular velocity and improvements in bat swing velocity. The third purpose of this review is to recommend some practical applications based on research results. PMID:19528868

Szymanski, David J; DeRenne, Coop; Spaniol, Frank J

2009-07-01

199

Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

Russell, Dan

2010-01-01

200

Case Study of Natural Population Collapse: Post-Hurricane Predation on Jamaican Staghorn Corals. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, Number 31.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis, formerly a dominant reef builder at intermediate depths along the Jamaican north coast, was devastated in 1980 by Hurricane Allen and its short-term aftereffects. Between 1982 and 1987, populations of A. cervicorni...

B. D. Keller J. C. Lang N. Knowlton

1990-01-01

201

Utah Bat Conservation Plan, 2008-2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is conservational concern for nearly all bats. Great declines have been observed in some populations of even the most widespread and abundant bat species in America. Of the bat species that inhabit Utah, six are on the Utah Division of Wildlife Reso...

A. Kozlowski G. V. Oliver K. Bunnell K. Day

2008-01-01

202

Variation in the reproductive rate of bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many respects, bats have relatively slow life histories. However, the reproductive rate of bats (i.e., the proportion of females that reproduce in any breeding season) has not been critically examined. We compiled data on the reproductive rates of bats to test predictions based on life-history theory. Among 257 samples from 103 species, re - productive rate varied considerably and

Robert M. R. Barclay; Joel Ulmer; Cameron J. A. MacKenzie; Megan S. Thompson; Leif Olson; Julianne McCool; Elvie Cropley; Graeme Poll

2004-01-01

203

Guide to the BATS Resource Trunk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide provides detailed information, resources, and activities to teach students about the bats of Arizona. Chapters include: (1) "What is a Bat?"; (2) "Megabat or Microbat?"; (3) "Bat Anatomy"; (4) Diet and Feeding"; (5) Echolocation"; (6) Reproduction and Lifespan"; (7) "Flight"; (8) "Migration and Hibernation"; (9) Habitat and Roost…

Arizona Game and Fish Dept., Phoenix.

204

Guide to the BATS Resource Trunk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides detailed information, resources, and activities to teach students about the bats of Arizona. Chapters include: (1) "What is a Bat?"; (2) "Megabat or Microbat?"; (3) "Bat Anatomy"; (4) Diet and Feeding"; (5) Echolocation"; (6) Reproduction and Lifespan"; (7) "Flight"; (8) "Migration and Hibernation"; (9) Habitat and Roost…

Arizona Game and Fish Dept., Phoenix.

205

The sweet spot of a baseball bat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sweet spot of a baseball bat, like that of a tennis racket, can be defined either in terms of a vibration node or a centre of percussion. In order to determine how each of the sweet spots influences the ``feel'' of the bat, measurements were made of the impact forces transmitted to the hands. Measurements of the bat velocity,

Rod Cross

1998-01-01

206

Habitat Use by Bats in Fragmented Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Habitat disturbance associated with forest harvesting has various effects on wildlife. To assess the impact on bats, I used ultrasonic detectors to monitor relative habitat use by bats ,in disturbed ,forested sites and riparian areas. In addition, I experimentally tested the effect of spatial clutter on the foraging activity of bats. My results suggest that habitat use by foraging

D. Grindal

207

Coccidioides posadasii infection in bats, Brazil.  

PubMed

To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats. PMID:22469192

Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; e Silva, Kylvia Rocha de Castro; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Cordeiro, Rebecca de Aguiar; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; de Araújo, Roberto Wagner Bezerra; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

2012-04-01

208

Falling with Style - Bat flight maneuvers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remarkable maneuverability of flying animals results from precise movements of their highly specialized wings. Among these flyers, bats have evolved a particularly impressive capacity to control their flight. This adeptness is, in part, determined by bats' ability to modulate their wing shape through many independently controlled joints. However, the many-jointed wings of bats have higher inertia relative to their

Attila Bergou; Daniel Riskin; Gabriel Taubin; Sharon Swartz; Kenneth S. Breuer

2010-01-01

209

A Study of Bat Rabies in Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the observation of 23 bats reported positive for rabies in 1976 might have been due to a higher prevalence of rabies in the bat population, the present study was undertaken to analyze available data on bat rabies in Ohio and to sample the colonial b...

R. A. Korgwold

1977-01-01

210

Behavior and emotional problems among Jamaican children and adolescents: an epidemiological survey of parent, teacher, and self-reports for ages 6–18 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study compared general population samples of Jamaican children ages 6–18 years, via Jamaican versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) parent-, teacher-, and self-report forms. Repeated measures ANOVAs with informant as a repeated measures factor, assessed base-rate problem score differences according to children’s area of residence (i.e., urban vs rural), gender, and age. No between subjects residence effects emerged

MICHAEL C. LAMBERT; Mikhail Lyubansky

1999-01-01

211

Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses.  

PubMed

The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Oppong, Samuel; Adu Sarkodie, Yaw; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R N; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G; Leroy, Eric M; Drosten, Christian

2012-04-24

212

Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.

Constantine, Denny G.; Edited by Blehert, David S.

2009-01-01

213

Development of a reverse genetics system to generate recombinant Marburg virus derived from a bat isolate.  

PubMed

Recent investigations have shown the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) to be a natural reservoir for marburgviruses. To better understand the life cycle of these viruses in the natural host, a new reverse genetics system was developed for the reliable rescue of a Marburg virus (MARV) originally isolated directly from a R. aegyptiacus bat (371Bat). To develop this system, the exact terminal sequences were first determined by 5' and 3' RACE, followed by the cloning of viral proteins NP, VP35, VP30 and L into expression plasmids. Novel conditions were then developed to efficiently replicate virus mini-genomes followed by the construction of full-length genomic clones from which recombinant wild type and GFP-containing MARVs were rescued. Surprisingly, when these recombinant MARVs were propagated in primary human macrophages, a dramatic difference was found in their ability to grow and to elicit anti-viral cytokine responses. PMID:24074586

Albariño, César G; Uebelhoer, Luke S; Vincent, Joel P; Khristova, Marina L; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; McElroy, Anita; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

2013-09-05

214

Falling with Style - Bat flight maneuvers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remarkable maneuverability of flying animals results from precise movements of their highly specialized wings. Among these flyers, bats have evolved a particularly impressive capacity to control their flight. This adeptness is, in part, determined by bats' ability to modulate their wing shape through many independently controlled joints. However, the many-jointed wings of bats have higher inertia relative to their bodies compared with all other extant flyers. To understand the role that wing inertia plays in bat flight, we use a novel tracking algorithm to measure the kinematics of bats performing aerial flips. Using a dynamical model of a flying bat, we show how bats modulate their wings' inertia, usually a detriment to maneuvering, to supplement aerodynamic forces in performing flight maneuvers.

Bergou, Attila; Riskin, Daniel; Taubin, Gabriel; Swartz, Sharon; Breuer, Kenneth S.

2010-11-01

215

Emerging infectious diseases associated with bat viruses.  

PubMed

Bats play important roles as pollen disseminators and pest predators. However, recent interest has focused on their role as natural reservoirs of pathogens associated with emerging infectious diseases. Prior to the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), about 60 bat virus species had been reported. The number of identified bat viruses has dramatically increased since the initial SARS outbreak, and most are putative novel virus species or genotypes. Serious infectious diseases caused by previously identified bat viruses continue to emerge throughout in Asia, Australia, Africa and America. Intriguingly, bats infected by these different viruses seldom display clinical symptoms of illness. The pathogenesis and potential threat of bat-borne viruses to public health remains largely unknown. This review provides a brief overview of bat viruses associated with emerging human infectious diseases. PMID:23917838

Shi, ZhengLi

2013-08-07

216

Evidence for delayed mortality in hurricane-damaged Jamaican staghorn corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severe tropical storms can cause widespread mortality in reef corals1,2. The Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, although dependent on fragmentation for asexual propagation3-5, is particularly vulnerable to hurricane damage6,7. The most important agents of post-hurricane mortality are assumed to be high wave energy6 and change in salinity8, factors which typically soon diminish in intensity. We report here that there was substantial delayed tissue and colony death in A. cervicornis on a Jamaican reef damaged by Hurricane Alien. This previously undocumented degree of secondary mortality, sustained for 5 months and unrelated to emersion9, was over one order of magnitude more severe than that caused by the immediate effects of the storm. The elimination of >98% of the original survivors suggests potentially complex responses to catastrophes, involving disease10,11 and predation, which may explain the widely variable rates of reef recovery previously reported12-15.

Knowlton, Nancy; Lang, Judith C.; Christine Rooney, M.; Clifford, Patricia

1981-11-01

217

Antiproliferative activity and absolute configuration of zonaquinone acetate from the Jamaican alga Stypopodium zonale.  

PubMed

The chemical investigation of specimens of the Jamaican brown alga Stypopodium zonale led to the isolation of a cytotoxic compound, zonaquinone acetate (1), along with known compounds flabellinone, not previously identified in S. zonale, stypoldione, 5',7'-dihydroxy-2'-pentadecylchromone and sargaol. The structures of the metabolites were established by analysis of the spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR experiments while the stereochemistry of 1 was assessed by VCD measurements. Cytotoxic activity was reported in vitro for 1 against breast cancer and colon cancer cell lines at IC(50) values of 19.22-21.62 ?M and 17.11-18.35 ?M respectively, comparing favorably with standard treatments tamoxifen (17.22-17.32 ?M) and fluorouracil (27.03-31.48 ?M). When tested with liver cancer cells (Hep G2), no activity was observed. Weak antioxidant activity was observed with 1 but sargaol exhibited high activity. PMID:23257707

Penicooke, Najair; Walford, Kemil; Badal, Simone; Delgoda, Rupika; Williams, Lawrence A D; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; Gordillo-Román, Bárbara; Gallimore, Winklet

2012-12-17

218

How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis)  

PubMed Central

Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball) and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals.

Pacheco, Karen; Dawson, Jeff W.; Jutting, Michael

2013-01-01

219

Characteristics related to sexual experience and condom use among Jamaican female adolescents.  

PubMed

Young women in Jamaica face significant risk for HIV and other STIs. A clearer understanding of the factors associated with sexual experience and unprotected intercourse is needed. Data were collected from 330 adolescent females aged 13 to 17 recruited through community based organizations in Kingston, Jamaica, from 2009-2011. Nearly one-third of sexually experienced participants reported not using a condom the last time they had sex. Characteristics associated with sexual experience included older age, marijuana use, and less comfort talking to mother about sexual topics. Characteristics associated with condom use included perceived importance of religion, positive attitudes toward condoms, and not-having multiple sexual partners. Sexually experienced Jamaican female adolescents were engaging in behaviors that made them vulnerable to HIV and other STIs. Interventions with young adolescent girls and their mothers are recommended to postpone sexual debut and promote safer sexual behaviors in those who do engage in sex. PMID:23377730

Kang, Sung-Yeon; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Waldron, Norman

2013-02-01

220

Social structure of three sympatric bat species (Vespertilionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social structure of three sympatric bat species occupying bat boxes in woodland in southern England was studied: Pipistrellus pipistrellus (pipistrelle), Plecotus auritus (brown long-eared bat) and Myotis nattereri (Natterer's bat). Before parturition, P. pipistrellus populations were heavily skewed towards solitary males. After parturition, the sex ratio was closer to unity. Recaptures of marked bats suggested that after parturition a

K. J. Park; E. Masters; J. D. Altringham

1998-01-01

221

Seasonal Pulses of Marburg Virus Circulation in Juvenile Rousettus aegyptiacus Bats Coincide with Periods of Increased Risk of Human Infection  

PubMed Central

Marburg virus (family Filoviridae) causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Bats have been implicated as likely natural reservoir hosts based most recently on an investigation of cases among miners infected in 2007 at the Kitaka mine, Uganda, which contained a large population of Marburg virus-infected Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. Described here is an ecologic investigation of Python Cave, Uganda, where an American and a Dutch tourist acquired Marburg virus infection in December 2007 and July 2008. More than 40,000 R. aegyptiacus were found in the cave and were the sole bat species present. Between August 2008 and November 2009, 1,622 bats were captured and tested for Marburg virus. Q-RT-PCR analysis of bat liver/spleen tissues indicated ?2.5% of the bats were actively infected, seven of which yielded Marburg virus isolates. Moreover, Q-RT-PCR-positive lung, kidney, colon and reproductive tissues were found, consistent with potential for oral, urine, fecal or sexual transmission. The combined data for R. aegyptiacus tested from Python Cave and Kitaka mine indicate low level horizontal transmission throughout the year. However, Q-RT-PCR data show distinct pulses of virus infection in older juvenile bats (?six months of age) that temporarily coincide with the peak twice-yearly birthing seasons. Retrospective analysis of historical human infections suspected to have been the result of discrete spillover events directly from nature found 83% (54/65) events occurred during these seasonal pulses in virus circulation, perhaps demonstrating periods of increased risk of human infection. The discovery of two tags at Python Cave from bats marked at Kitaka mine, together with the close genetic linkages evident between viruses detected in geographically distant locations, are consistent with R. aegyptiacus bats existing as a large meta-population with associated virus circulation over broad geographic ranges. These findings provide a basis for developing Marburg hemorrhagic fever risk reduction strategies.

Amman, Brian R.; Carroll, Serena A.; Reed, Zachary D.; Sealy, Tara K.; Balinandi, Stephen; Swanepoel, Robert; Kemp, Alan; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Comer, James A.; Campbell, Shelley; Cannon, Deborah L.; Khristova, Marina L.; Atimnedi, Patrick; Paddock, Christopher D.; Kent Crockett, Rebekah J.; Flietstra, Timothy D.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Unfer, Robert; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

2012-01-01

222

Ultraviolet vision in a bat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most mammals, with the exception of primates, have dichromatic vision and correspondingly limited colour perception. Ultraviolet vision was discovered in mammals only a decade ago, and in the few rodents and marsupials where it has been found, ultraviolet light is detected by an independent photoreceptor. Bats orient primarily by echolocation, but they also use vision. Here we show that a

York Winter; Jorge López; Otto von Helversen

2003-01-01

223

Comparison of the Chemical Composition of East Indian, Jamaican and Other West Indian Essential Oils of Myristica fragrans Houtt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the essential oil of Myristica fragrans Houttuyn (nutmeg oil), from St. Catherine, Jamaica were compared with the literature data (1976–1997) for West Indian (primarily Grenadian) and East Indian nutmeg oils. GC, GC\\/MS and RP-HPLC strategies were used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the Jamaican oil which was found to contain lower quantities (weight percent) of the phenylpropanoids myristicin

Gregory I. C. Simpson; Yvette A. Jackson

2002-01-01

224

The role of drinking water sources, consumption of vegetables and seafood in relation to blood arsenic concentrations of Jamaican children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders.  

PubMed

Arsenic is a toxic metal with harmful effects on human health, particularly on cognitive function. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are lifelong neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders manifesting in infancy or early childhood. We used data from 130 children between 2 and 8 years (65 pairs of ASD cases with age- and sex-matched control), to compare the mean total blood arsenic concentrations in children with and without ASDs in Kingston, Jamaica. Based on univariable analysis, we observed a significant difference between ASD cases and controls (4.03 ?g/L for cases vs. 4.48 ?g/L for controls, P<0.01). In the final multivariable General Linear Model (GLM), after controlling for car ownership, maternal age, parental education levels, source of drinking water, consumption of "yam, sweet potato, or dasheen", "carrot or pumpkin", "callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi", cabbage, avocado, and the frequency of seafood consumption per week, we did not find a significant association between blood arsenic concentrations and ASD status (4.36 ?g/L for cases vs. 4.65 ?g/L for controls, P=0.23). Likewise, in a separate final multivariable GLM, we found that source of drinking water, eating avocado, and eating "callaloo, broccoli, or pak choi" was significantly associated with higher blood arsenic concentrations (all three P<0.05). Based on our findings, we recommend assessment of arsenic levels in water, fruits, and vegetables, as well as increased awareness among the Jamaican population regarding potential risks for various exposures to arsenic. PMID:22819887

Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Loveland, Katherine A; Dickerson, Aisha S; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Bloom, Kari; Wirth, Julie; Pearson, Deborah A; Boerwinkle, Eric

2012-07-20

225

Contaminant Studies on Endangered Bats in Northeastern Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three federally listed endangered bat species are known to inhabit Oklahoma. The gray bat (Mvotis qrisescens) is probably the most abundant, and is presently known to occur in Adair, Cherokee, Delaware, and Ottawa Counties. Gray bats are almost unknown ou...

D. B. Martin

1992-01-01

226

Prey detection in trawling insectivorous bats: duckweed affects hunting behaviour in Daubenton's bat, Myotis daubentonii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daubenton's bat, a trawling vespertilionid bat species, hunts for insects that fly close to, or rest on, the water surface.\\u000a During summer, many ponds at which Daubenton's bats hunt become gradually covered with duckweed. The purpose of this study\\u000a was to investigate the effects of duckweed cover on the hunting behaviour of Daubenton's bats and on the ultrasound-reflecting\\u000a properties of

Arjan M. Boonman; Martijn Boonman; Frank Bretschneider; Wim A. van de Grind

1998-01-01

227

76 FR 67238 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by BATS...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65619, File No. SR-BATS-2011-032] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Adopt Rules Applicable to Auctions...

2011-10-31

228

76 FR 5418 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63766; File No. SR-BATS-2011-002] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rules in Connection With the Implementation of Amendments...

2011-01-31

229

The pollination biology of two paniculate agaves (Agavaceae) from northwestern Mexico: contrasting roles of bats as pollinators.  

PubMed

Paniculate agaves from tropical deserts depend on nectar-feeding bats for their reproduction, while species from extratropical areas near the northern limit of Leptonycteris curasoae are pollinated by diurnal and nocturnal insects and birds. Agave angustifolia is a paniculate agave with a broad distribution in Mexico whose range coincides with the distribution of L. curasoae, while A. subsimplex has a narrow distribution in Sonora within the range of nectar-feeding bats. We studied the pollination biology of A. angustifolia and A. subsimplex in northwestern Mexico to evaluate the relative importance of bat pollination in a region where L. curasoae is seasonal. Flower visitors included a wide variety of animals, with bats having greater visitation rates in A. angustifolia. A pollinator-exclusion experiment revealed that bats were responsible for most of the control fruit set in A. angustifolia, whereas for A. subsimplex, diurnal and nocturnal visitors were equally effective. Overall, our data indicate that in central Sonora, A. angustifolia depends on nectar-feeding bats for its sexual reproductive success, while A. subsimplex relies on both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators. Given the contrasting distribution ranges of paniculate agaves, our results seem to support the trend from specialization to generalization along the continuum of tropical to extratropical deserts. PMID:21659200

Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Eguiarte, Luis E

2003-07-01

230

Endemic Circulation of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in Serotine Bats, Spain  

PubMed Central

To determine the presence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in southern Spain, we studied 19 colonies of serotine bats (Eptesicus isabellinus), its main reservoir, during 1998–2003. Viral genome and antibodies were detected in healthy bats, which suggests subclinical infection. The different temporal patterns of circulation found in each colony indicate independent endemic circulation.

Juste, Javier; Ibanez, Carlos; Ruiz-Villamor, Eduardo; Avellon, Ana; Vera, Manuel; Echevarria, Juan E.

2008-01-01

231

A comparative study of baseball bat performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a comparative study of five aluminum and one wood baseball bats are presented. The study includes an analysis\\u000a of field data, high-speed laboratory testing, and modal analysis. It is found that field performance is strongly correlated\\u000a with the ball–bat coefficient of restitution (BBCOR) and only weakly correlated with other parameters of the bat, suggesting\\u000a that the BBCOR

Alan M. Nathan; Joseph J. Crisco; R. M. Greenwald; D. A. Russell; Lloyd V. Smith

2011-01-01

232

Flying bats take cue from bugs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bats use the same aerodynamic trick as flying insects do to stay aloft, scientists have discovered. When the bat wing flaps downward, the motion produces a tiny cyclone of air above the wing, called a "leading edge vortex," that pulls the animal upward. Researchers have known that insects create these vortices while flying, but theyve wondered whether same thing works for larger, heavier animals like bats.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-02-28

233

Identification of a Novel Bat Papillomavirus by Metagenomics  

PubMed Central

The discovery of novel viruses in animals expands our knowledge of viral diversity and potentially emerging zoonoses. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology gives millions or even billions of sequence reads per run, allowing a comprehensive survey of the genetic content within a sample without prior nucleic acid amplification. In this study, we screened 156 rectal swab samples from apparently healthy bats (n?=?96), pigs (n?=?9), cattles (n?=?9), stray dogs (n?=?11), stray cats (n?=?11) and monkeys (n?=?20) using a HTS metagenomics approach. The complete genome of a novel papillomavirus (PV), Miniopterus schreibersii papillomavirus type 1 (MscPV1), with L1 of 60% nucleotide identity to Canine papillomavirus (CPV6), was identified in a specimen from a Common Bent-wing Bat (M. schreibersii). It is about 7.5kb in length, with a G+C content of 45.8% and a genomic organization similar to that of other PVs. Despite the higher nucleotide identity between the genomes of MscPV1 and CPV6, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the L1 gene sequence showed that MscPV1 and Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus (EdPV1) are most closely related. Estimated divergence time of MscPV1 from the EdPV1/MscPV1 common ancestor was approximately 60.2–91.9 millions of years ago, inferred under strict clocks using the L1 and E1 genes. The estimates were limited by the lack of reliable calibration points from co-divergence because of possible host shifts. As the nucleotide sequence of this virus only showed limited similarity with that of related animal PVs, the conventional approach of PCR using consensus primers would be unlikely to have detected the novel virus in the sample. Unlike the first bat papillomavirus RaPV1, MscPV1 was found in an asymptomatic bat with no apparent mucosal or skin lesions whereas RaPV1 was detected in the basosquamous carcinoma of a fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus. We propose MscPV1 as the first member of the novel Dyolambda-papillomavirus genus.

Leung, Andy S. P.; Ho, Chi-Chun; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2012-01-01

234

Bat habitat research. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes activities over the current reporting period to characterize the habitats of bats on the INEL. Research tasks are entitled Monitoring bat habitation of caves on the INEL to determine species present, numbers, and seasons of use; Monitor bat use of man-made ponds at the INEL to determine species present and rates of use of these waters; If the Big Lost River is flowing on the INEL and/or if the Big Lost River sinks contain water, determine species present, numbers and seasons of use; Determine the habitat requirement of Townsend`s big-eared bats, including the microclimate of caves containing Townsend`s big-eared bats as compared to other caves that do not contain bats; Determine and describe an economical and efficient bat census technique to be used periodically by INEL scientists to determine the status of bats on the INEL; and Provide a suggestive management and protective plan for bat species on the INEL that might, in the future, be added to the endangered and sensitive list;

Keller, B.L.; Bosworth, W.R.; Doering, R.W.

1993-12-31

235

Arkansas Range Extensions of the Eastern Small-Footed Bat (Myotis leibii) and Northern Long-Eared Bat (Myotisseptentrionalis) and Additional County Records for the Silver-Haired Bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus), Southeastern Bat (Myotis austroriparius), and Rafinesque's Big-Eared Bat (Plecotus rafinesquii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We continued field studies of bats in non-cave regions of Arkansas from 1989 to present and utilized specimens submit- ted to the Arkansas Department of Health Rabies Laboratory to establish Arkansas range extensions for the eastern small- footed bat (Myotisleibii) and northern long-eared bat (Myotisseptentrionalis).In addition, we documented additional county records for the silver-haired bat (Lasionycterisnoctivagans),hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus),soudieastern bat

David A. Saugey; V. Rick McDaniel

236

Science Explorations: Soar with Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations are a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. The Soar with Bats: Night Fliers of the Sky exploration includes a documentary-style introduction, two Level 1 online activities for students in grades 3-6, two Level 2 online activities for students in grades 6-10, and links to additional articles and activities.

237

Neurological changes in fruit bats deficient in vitamin B12  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAEMATOLOGICAL and neurological sequelae are the two major effects of vitamin B12 deficiency in man. In the haemopoietic system, megaloblastic change leading to anaemia seems to be caused by deranged DNA synthesis1. The cause of central nervous system demyelination, however, is unknown and progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of a suitable experimental animal model. We

Ralph Green; Susan V. van Tonder; G. Julien Oettle; Gillian Cole; Jack Metz

1975-01-01

238

Bat-species richness in the Pantanal floodplain and its surrounding uplands.  

PubMed

We studied the bat fauna of the Pantanal floodplain and its surrounding plateaus in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, based on the scientific collection at Universidade Anhanguera-Uniderp and on the Projeto Morcegos do Pantanal data bank at UFMS, comprising 9,037 captures of 56 species recorded from 1994 to 2007. The Pantanal surveys were carried out in the Nhecolândia, Aquidauana, Miranda, and Paraguai sub-regions; the uplands surveys took place in the Maracaju, Bodoquena, and Urucum formations. Bat specimens were mist-netted over 376 nights in 35 sites, predominantly near fruiting trees, bat shelters, and forest patches. In the floodplain 46 species were recorded (n = 6,292 individuals), and 44 species were found in the uplands (n = 2,745 individuals). Six families were recorded: Phyllostomidae (30 species), Molossidae (12 species), Verpertilionidae (nine species) Noctilionidae (two species), Emballorunidae (two species) and Mormoopidae (one species). The bat fauna was predominantly composed of insectivore (32) and frugivore (15) species. The frugivorous Artibeus planirostris (n = 3,101 individuals) was the commonest species in floodplain and uplands. Other common species were Myotis nigricans (n = 762), Molossus molossus (n = 692), Noctilio albiventris (n = 681), Platyrrhinus lineatus (n = 633), Sturnira lilium (n = 461), Carollia perspicillata (n = 451), Glossophaga soricina (n = 436), Artibeus lituratus (n = 320), and Desmodus rotundus (n = 281). In the floodplain there were three insectivores among the most common species, contrasting with the uplands dominated by the frugivores. The diversity for the 35 sites assembled (H' = 2.5) is comparable to that recorded for tropical forests. The bat fauna presented here represents 34% of the Brazilian bat species, and 62% of species reported for the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Additionally, five species are reported for the first time in Mato Grosso do Sul. PMID:21537604

Alho, C J R; Fischer, E; Oliveira-Pissini, L F; Santos, C F

2011-04-01

239

Darwinian natural selection for orange bioluminescent color in a Jamaican click beetle  

PubMed Central

The Jamaican click beetle Pyrophorus plagiophthalamus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) is unique among all bioluminescent organisms in displaying a striking light color polymorphism [Biggley, W. H., Lloyd, J. E. & Seliger, H. H. (1967) J. Gen. Physiol. 50, 1681–1692]. Beetles on the island vary in the color of their ventral light organs from yellow–green to orange and their dorsal organs from green to yellow–green. The genetic basis for the color variation involves specific amino acid substitutions in the enzyme luciferase. Here, we show that dorsal and ventral light color in P. plagiophthalamus are under separate genetic control, we resolve the allelic basis for color variation, and, through analyses of luciferase sequence variation, we demonstrate that natural selection has produced a long-term adaptive trend for longer wavelength (more orange) ventral light on Jamaica. Our results constitute a novel example connecting the selective fixation of specific nucleotides in nature to their precisely determined phenotypic effects. We also present evidence suggesting that a recently derived ventral orange luciferase allele on the island has deterministically increased in frequency. Thus, the current luciferase polymorphism for P. plagiophthalamus appears to be mirroring the long-term anagenic trend on Jamaica, revealing a possible ongoing adaptive color transition in progress.

Stolz, Uwe; Velez, Sebastian; Wood, Keith V.; Wood, Monika; Feder, Jeffrey L.

2003-01-01

240

Mating system and brain size in bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of sexual selection to brain evolution has been little investigated. Through comparative analyses of bats, we show that multiple mating by males, in the absence of multiple mating by females, has no evolutionary impact on relative brain dimension. In contrast, bat species with promiscuous females have relatively smaller brains than do species with females exhibiting mate fidelity. This

Scott Pitnick; Kate E. Jones; Gerald S. Wilkinson

2005-01-01

241

Bat Collisions with High Performance Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microscopic examination of animal remains from 'birdstrikes' showed that bats account for at least some of the 'birdstrikes' reported at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas. The distribution of the Mexican Free-tailed bat during the night at ground level seems...

T. C. Williams J. M. Williams H. K. Buechner

1967-01-01

242

Dynamics of the baseball-bat collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is developed for the collision between the baseball and bat, taking into account the transverse bending vibrations of the bat. By coupling the flexible bat to the ball via a parametrized force that each mutually exerts on the other, a complete description of the collision process is obtained, including the exit speed of the ball vf. It is shown that vibrations play an important role in determining vf. The model is in excellent agreement with experimental data at low impact velocities. At the higher velocities more appropriate to the game of baseball, vf is shown to coincide with the rigid-body value only over a very small region in the barrel of the bat and to drop off sharply for impacts removed from that region. Some interesting insights into the collision process are obtained, including the observation that for impacts in the barrel of the bat, the momentum transferred to the ball is essentially complete by the time the elastic wave first arrives at the handle and that any clamping action of the hands will affect the bat at the impact point only after the ball and bat have separated. This suggests that vf is independent of the size, shape, and method of support of the bat at distances far from the impact location.

Nathan, Alan M.

2000-11-01

243

Social organization and foraging in emballonurid bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Five species of emballonurid bats (Rhynchonycteris naso, Saccopteryx leptura, Balantiopteryx plicata, Saccopteryx bilineata, and Peropteryx kappleri), were studied in Costa Rica and Trinidad. Stomach contents suggest that prey size generally increases for bat body size, but within these species there is considerable overlap. R. naso, S. leptura, and P. kappleri each appear to be specialized for foraging in a particular

J. W. Bradbury; S. L. Vehrencamp

1976-01-01

244

Harmonic-hopping in Wallacea's bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary divergence between species is facilitated by ecological shifts, and divergence is particularly rapid when such shifts also promote assortative mating. Horseshoe bats are a diverse Old World family (Rhinolophidae) that have undergone a rapid radiation in the past 5 million years. These insectivorous bats use a predominantly pure-tone echolocation call matched to an auditory fovea (an over-representation of the

Stephen J. Rossiter

2004-01-01

245

Information transfer at evening bat colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract . Four lines of evidence indicate that evening bats, Nycticeius humeralis, at nursery colonies in northern,Missouri,transfer,information,by following,each,other,to feeding,and,roosting,sites . (1) Daily estimates,of insect,density,from,five,automated,suction,traps,showed,that,common,prey,in evening,bat faecal samples, small beetles and flies, occur in rich patches that persist for several days . Bats apparently respond,to prey,density,and,variability,because,these,variables,independently,predict,the,number,of trips and,capture,success,of foraging,bats,. (2) Videotape,records,of the,time,and,weight,of bats,arriving,and departing,from,a colony,indicated,that,adult,females,leave,within,10 s of each,other,on second,and subsequent,foraging,trips,more,often,than,expected,within,a night

GERALD S. WILKINSON

1992-01-01

246

Causes and Consequences of Sociality in Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bats are among the most diverse and most gregarious of all mammals. This makes them highly interesting for research on the causes and consequences of sociality in animals. Detailed studies on bat sociality are rare, however, when compared with the information available for other social mammals, such as primates, carnivores, ungulates, and rodents. Modern field technologies and new molecular methods are now providing opportunities to study aspects of bat biology that were previously inaccessible. Consequently, bat social systems are emerging as far more complex than had been imagined. Variable dispersal patterns, complex olfactory and acoustic communication, flexible context-related interactions, striking cooperative behaviors, and cryptic colony structures in the form of fission-fusion systems have been documented. Bat research can contribute to the understanding of animal sociality, and specifically to important topics in behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology, such as dispersal, fission-fusion behavior, group decisionmaking, and cooperation.

Gerald Kerth (University of Lausanne - Switzerland;)

2008-09-01

247

Indirect flight of an African bat to Israel: an example of the potential for zoonotic pathogens to move between continents.  

PubMed

The transmission of harmful pathogens during commercial air flights is an increasing health concern. A potential, yet relatively overlooked source of zoonotic infectious diseases involves collisions of birds and bats with aircraft and long distance transport of their carcasses. We report a case of aerial transportation of the remains of an African fruit bat over three continents, following a collision with an aircraft, and demonstrate the relative ease with which zoonotic pathogens, such as rabies virus or other viruses associated with bats, may cross national boundaries and continents even. Improper handling and disposal of animal remains by airport personnel, may lead to exposure of both humans and local fauna to exotic pathogens. This in turn may trigger an epidemic with potentially devastating results. PMID:17187568

Leader, Noam; Mokady, Ofer; Yom-Tov, Yoram

2006-01-01

248

Genomic and Genetic Evidence for the Loss of Umami Taste in Bats  

PubMed Central

Umami taste is responsible for sensing monosodium glutamate, nucleotide enhancers, and other amino acids that are appetitive to vertebrates and is one of the five basic tastes that also include sour, salty, sweet, and bitter. To study how ecological factors, especially diets, impact the evolution of the umami taste, we examined the umami taste receptor gene Tas1r1 in a phylogenetically diverse group of bats including fruit eaters, insect eaters, and blood feeders. We found that Tas1r1 is absent, unamplifiable, or pseudogenized in each of the 31 species examined, including the genome sequences of two species, suggesting the loss of the umami taste in most, if not all, bats regardless of their food preferences. Most strikingly, vampire bats have also lost the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 and the gene required for both umami and sweet tastes (Tas1r3), being the first known mammalian group to lack two of the five tastes. The puzzling absence of the umami taste in bats calls for a better understanding of the roles that this taste plays in the daily life of vertebrates.

Zhao, Huabin; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

2012-01-01

249

Multiple episodes of convergence in genes of the dim light vision pathway in bats.  

PubMed

The molecular basis of the evolution of phenotypic characters is very complex and is poorly understood with few examples documenting the roles of multiple genes. Considering that a single gene cannot fully explain the convergence of phenotypic characters, we choose to study the convergent evolution of rod vision in two divergent bats from a network perspective. The Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) are non-echolocating and have binocular vision, whereas the sheath-tailed bats (Emballonuridae) are echolocating and have monocular vision; however, they both have relatively large eyes and rely more on rod vision to find food and navigate in the night. We found that the genes CRX, which plays an essential role in the differentiation of photoreceptor cells, SAG, which is involved in the desensitization of the photoactivated transduction cascade, and the photoreceptor gene RH, which is directly responsible for the perception of dim light, have undergone parallel sequence evolution in two divergent lineages of bats with larger eyes (Pteropodidae and Emballonuroidea). The multiple convergent events in the network of genes essential for rod vision is a rare phenomenon that illustrates the importance of investigating pathways and networks in the evolution of the molecular basis of phenotypic convergence. PMID:22509324

Shen, Yong-Yi; Lim, Burton K; Liu, He-Qun; Liu, Jie; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2012-04-11

250

Evolution of nectarivory in phyllostomid bats (Phyllostomidae Gray, 1825, Chiroptera: Mammalia)  

PubMed Central

Background Bats of the family Phyllostomidae show a unique diversity in feeding specializations. This taxon includes species that are highly specialized on insects, blood, small vertebrates, fruits or nectar, and pollen. Feeding specialization is accompanied by morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations. Several attempts were made to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this family in order to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions accompanied by nutritional specialization. Nevertheless, the evolution of nectarivory remained equivocal. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on a concatenated nuclear-and mitochondrial data set, revealed a paraphyletic relationship of nectarivorous phyllostomid bats. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the nectarivorous genera Lonchophylla and Lionycteris are closer related to mainly frugivorous phyllostomids of the subfamilies Rhinophyllinae, Stenodermatinae, Carolliinae, and the insectivorous Glyphonycterinae rather than to nectarivorous bats of the Glossophaginae. This suggests an independent origin of morphological adaptations to a nectarivorous lifestyle within Lonchophyllinae and Glossophaginae. Molecular clock analysis revealed a relatively short time frame of about ten million years for the divergence of subfamilies. Conclusions Our study provides strong support for diphyly of nectarivorous phyllostomids. This is remarkable, since their morphological adaptations to nutrition, like elongated rostrums and tongues, reduced teeth and the ability to use hovering flight while ingestion, closely resemble each other. However, more precise examinations of their tongues (e.g. type and structure of papillae and muscular innervation) revealed levels of difference in line with an independent evolution of nectarivory in these bats.

2010-01-01

251

Prevalence and Diversity of Bartonella spp. in Bats in Peru  

PubMed Central

Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.–bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity.

Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Gomez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y.

2012-01-01

252

Translocation as a conservation tool to supplement relict bat colonies: a pioneer study with endangered horseshoe bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relocation has become an important tool in conservation biology. So far little is known about the suitability of translocation to restore bat populations. We evaluated the conditions for suc- cessful translocations amongst 2 bat species: the greater horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and the lesser horseshoe bat R. hipposideros. Both species underwent a dramatic decline in Western and Central Europe in

Irene C. Weinberger; Fabio Bontadina; Raphaël Arlettaz

2009-01-01

253

Terrestrial locomotion of the New Zealand short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata and the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We sought to determine whether these bats move

Daniel K. Riskin; Stuart Parsons; William A. Schutt; Gerald G. Carter; John W. Hermanson

2006-01-01

254

FRUIT SPLIT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water stage fruit split is a noninfectious disorder of pecan. Its occurrence and severity varies greatly depending upon cultivar, crop load, water status of trees, and atmospheric conditions. This review article discusses the symptoms, causes, and control measures for water stage fruit split in pe...

255

Shocking Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how a piece of fruit can act as an electrolyte, conducting electricity between two different metals. In this way, learners construct a simple battery and record their observations. Educators can use this activity to introduce circuits, electrodes, and electrolytes. After completing this activity, learners can explore other fruit and vegetable conductors.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

256

Bats of the Savannah River Site and vicinity.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), hoary bat (L. cinereus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). There are extralimital capture records for two additional species: little brown bat (M. lucifigus) and northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius). Acoustical sampling has documented the presence of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), but none has been captured. Among those species common to the Site, the southeastern myotis and Rafinesque's big-eared bat are listed in South Carolina as threatened and endangered, respectively. The presence of those two species, and a growing concern for the conservation of forest-dwelling bats, led to extensive and focused research on the Savannah River Site between 1996 and 2002. Summarizing this and other bat research, we provide species accounts that discuss morphology and distribution, roosting and foraging behaviors, home range characteristics, habitat relations, and reproductive biology. We also present information on conservation needs and rabies issues; and, finally, identification keys that may be useful wherever the bat species we describe are found.

M.A. Menzel; J.M. Menzel; J.C. Kilgo; W.M. Ford; T.C. Carter; J.W. Edwards

2003-10-01

257

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interventions to Impede Date Palm Sap Contamination by Bats to Prevent Nipah Virus Transmission in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV) infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm’s sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. Methods During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant), jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. Results During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [p<0.001]. Bats were able to contact the sap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, p<0.001] less frequently in trees protected with skirts compared to control trees. No bats contacted sap in trees with bamboo (p<0.001 compared to control), dhoincha skirt (p<0.001) or polythene covering (p<0.001), but bats did contact sap during one night (7%) with the jute stick skirt (p<0.001). Conclusion Bamboo, dhoincha, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the sap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human.

Khan, Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Nahar, Nazmun; Sharker, M. A. Yushuf; Luby, Stephen P.

2012-01-01

258

Bats and Gaps: The Role of Early Successional Patches in the Roosting and Foraging Ecology of Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Early successional habitats are important foraging and commuting sites for the 14 species of bats that inhabit the Central\\u000a Hardwood Region, especially larger open-adapted species such as hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), red bats (L. borealis), silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans), and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Forest gaps, small openings, and the edges between early successional patches and mature forest are

Susan C. Loeb; Joy M. O’Keefe

259

Reproductive patterns and feeding habits of three nectarivorous bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) from the Brazilian Cerrado.  

PubMed

The reproductive patterns and feeding habits of three sympatric nectarivorous bats, Glossophaga soricina, Anoura caudifera, and A. geoffroyi were studied in the Pousada das Araras Natural Reserve, located in Central Brazil. The bats were captured with mist nets from August 2000 to July 2001. Reproductive condition was determined by external analyses of the specimens and feeding habits from fecal samples. Glossophaga soricina was the most abundant species (65%), followed by A. geoffroyi (30%) and A. caudifera (5%). Significant differences were observed in the sex-ratio of the two more abundant species. Anoura geoffroyi showed a monoestrous pattern; its reproductive peaks occurred between the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rain season. A seasonal bimodal pattern was recorded for G. soricina, with pregnant specimens showing one peak observed in the dry season and another in the middle of the rainy season. The reproductive pattern of A. caudifera could not be satisfactorily defined because of the small sample size. However, this species apparently has a reproductive cycle similar to that of G. soricina. The patterns observed in this study seem to be related with the climate in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), with two well-defined seasons (dry and wet). By adjusting the parturition close to or in the rain season the three species could be favoring a greates survival rate for the offspring, since the critical lactation period would then occur in a time of maximum food availability. The three bat species showed a generalist diet, consuming fruits, pollennectar, and arthropods. Significant differences were observed in the diet of G. soricina: fruits and arthropods predominated in the dry season and pulp (fruits) in the rainy season. Males and females of this species ate the same items in similar proportions. Although A. geoffroyi has not showed a preference for a specific item, consumption of fruits and arthropods was generally greater than that of pollen. PMID:12914427

Zortéa, M

2003-08-14

260

Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. IV: the Common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus.  

PubMed

We behaviorally determined the audiograms of three Common vampire bats (Phyllostomidae, Desmodus rotundus), a species specialized to exist exclusively on blood. The bats were trained to respond to pure tones in a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure for a blood reward and a mild punisher for failures to detect the tones. Common vampire bats have a hearing range from 716 Hz to 113 kHz at a level of 60 dB. Their best hearing is at 20 kHz where they are slightly more sensitive than other bats, and they have a second peak of good sensitivity at 71 kHz. They have unusually good sensitivity to low frequencies compared to other bats, but are less sensitive to low frequencies than most mammals. Selective pressures affecting high-frequency hearing in bats and mammals in general are discussed. PMID:23194991

Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

2012-11-27

261

Highly diversified coronaviruses in neotropical bats.  

PubMed

Bats host a broad diversity of coronaviruses (CoVs), including close relatives of human pathogens. There is only limited data on neotropical bat CoVs. We analysed faecal, blood and intestine specimens from 1562 bats sampled in Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador and Brazil for CoVs by broad-range PCR. CoV RNA was detected in 50 bats representing nine different species, both frugivorous and insectivorous. These bat CoVs were unrelated to known human or animal pathogens, indicating an absence of recent zoonotic spill-over events. Based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)-based grouping units (RGUs) as a surrogate for CoV species identification, the 50 viruses represented five different alphacoronavirus RGUs and two betacoronavirus RGUs. Closely related alphacoronaviruses were detected in Carollia perspicillata and C. brevicauda across a geographical distance exceeding 5600 km. Our study expands the knowledge on CoV diversity in neotropical bats and emphasizes the association of distinct CoVs and bat host genera. PMID:23761408

Corman, Victor Max; Rasche, Andrea; Diallo, Thierno Diawo; Cottontail, Veronika M; Stöcker, Andreas; Souza, Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez; Corrêa, Jefferson Ivan; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Ghanem, Simon J; Morales, Karen D Sibaja; Salsamendi, Egoitz; Spínola, Manuel; Herrler, Georg; Voigt, Christian C; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix

2013-06-12

262

Bats: Important Reservoir Hosts of Emerging Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats (order Chiroptera, suborders Megachiroptera [“flying foxes”] and Microchiroptera) are abundant, diverse, and geographically widespread. These mammals provide us with resources, but their importance is minimized and many of their populations and species are at risk, even threatened or endangered. Some of their characteristics (food choices, colonial or solitary nature, population structure, ability to fly, seasonal migration and daily movement patterns, torpor and hibernation, life span, roosting behaviors, ability to echolocate, virus susceptibility) make them exquisitely suitable hosts of viruses and other disease agents. Bats of certain species are well recognized as being capable of transmitting rabies virus, but recent observations of outbreaks and epidemics of newly recognized human and livestock diseases caused by viruses transmitted by various megachiropteran and microchiropteran bats have drawn attention anew to these remarkable mammals. This paper summarizes information regarding chiropteran characteristics and information regarding 66 viruses that have been isolated from bats. From these summaries, it is clear that we do not know enough about bat biology; we are doing too little in terms of bat conservation; and there remain a multitude of questions regarding the role of bats in disease emergence.

Calisher, Charles H.; Childs, James E.; Field, Hume E.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Schountz, Tony

2006-01-01

263

Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution  

PubMed Central

Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge.

Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

2007-01-01

264

Presence of European bat lyssavirus RNAs in apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats were randomly chosen from a Dutch colony naturally infected with European bat lyssavirus subgenotype 1a (EBL1a). These\\u000a bats were euthanised three months after the first evidence of an EBL1a infection in the colony. EBL1a genomic and antigenomic\\u000a RNAs of the nucleoprotein gene were detected by nested reverse transcriptase PCR in 75% of the examined Rousettus

G. J. Wellenberg; L. Audry; L. Rønsholt; W. H. M. van der Poel; C. J. M. Bruschke; H. Bourhy

2002-01-01

265

Ecological Factors Associated with European Bat Lyssavirus Seroprevalence in Spanish Bats  

PubMed Central

Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii). Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1)–neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2). EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7%) ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July). EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1–prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials.

Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Lopez-Roig, Marc; Segui, Magdalena; Sanchez, Luisa Pilar; Nadal, Jacint; Borras, Miquel; Lavenir, Rachel; Bourhy, Herve

2013-01-01

266

76 FR 12155 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Release No. 34-63969; File No. SR-BATS-2011-007] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. to Adopt BATS Rule...

2011-03-04

267

40 CFR 449.10 - Effluent limitations representing the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...available technology economically achievable (BAT). 449.10 Section 449.10 Protection...available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR...reduction attainable by the application of BAT. The BAT requirements for point...

2013-07-01

268

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in relation to socioeconomic status among Jamaican young adults: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome has a high prevalence in many countries and has been associated with socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components among Jamaican young adults and evaluate its association with parental SES. METHODS: A subset of the participants from the 1986 Jamaica Birth Cohort was evaluated at ages

Trevor S Ferguson; Marshall K Tulloch-Reid; Novie OM Younger; Jennifer M Knight-Madden; Maureen Samms-Vaughan; Deanna Ashley; Jan Van den Broeck; Rainford J Wilks

2010-01-01

269

Relationships among Four Learner Variables and the Performance of Selected Jamaican 11th-Graders on Some Structured Questions on the Mole Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study sought to find out if (a) the performance of 113 Jamaican 11th-graders on a mole concept test was satisfactory or not; (b) there were significant differences in their performance linked to their chemical and mathematical abilities, gender and socioeconomic background (SEB); and, (c) there were significant relationships among the four…

Ellis-Hall, Nadine; Soyibo, Kola

2004-01-01

270

Relation of Birth Weight, Maternal Intelligence and Mother-Child Interactions to Cognitive and Play Competence of Jamaican Two-Year Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study assessed whether birth weight, maternal child rearing behaviors, and maternal intelligence combine in an additive or in a non-linear interactive fashion to influence cognitive performance in a sample of 24-month old full-term appropriate and low birth weight Jamaican children. Child cognitive performance was measured using the…

Wachs, Theodore D.; Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Meeks Gardner, Julie M.

2007-01-01

271

Child behavior and emotional problems in Jamaican classrooms: a multimethod study using direct observations and teacher reports for ages 6–11  

Microsoft Academic Search

International research on children's problems relies heavily on parent and teacher ratings. Such ratings are helpful to professionals who assess children but are subjected to biases emerging from adults’ personal involvement with the children they rate, and their own cultural experiences. This study investigated whether ratings of teachers versus observers on Jamaican children ages 6–11 differed according to informant, urban

Michael Canute Lambert; Marieva Puig; Mikhail Lyubansky; George T Rowan; Martin Hill; Beth Milburn; Stanley D Hannah

2001-01-01

272

Bat fly species richness in Neotropical bats: correlations with host ecology and host brain.  

PubMed

Patterns of ectoparasite species richness in mammals have been investigated in various terrestrial mammalian taxa such as primates, ungulates and carnivores. Several ecological or life traits of hosts are expected to explain much of the variability in species richness of parasites. In the present comparative analysis we investigate some determinants of parasite richness in bats, a large and understudied group of flying mammals, and their obligate blood-sucking ectoparasite, streblid bat flies (Diptera). We investigate the effects of host body size, geographical range, group size and roosting ecology on the species richness of bat flies in tropical areas of Venezuela and Peru, where both host and parasite diversities are high. We use the data from a major sampling effort on 138 bat species from nine families. We also investigate potential correlation between bat fly species richness and brain size (corrected for body size) in these tropical bats. We expect a relationship if there is a potential energetic trade-off between costly large brains and parasite-mediated impacts. We show that body size and roosting in cavities are positively correlated with bat fly species richness. No effects of bat range size and group size were observed. Our results also suggest an association between body mass-independent brain size and bat fly species richness. PMID:18679724

Bordes, Frédéric; Morand, Serge; Ricardo, Guerrero

2008-08-05

273

Bats at risk? Bat activity and insecticide residue analysis of food items in an apple orchard.  

PubMed

Although bats are reported as being threatened by pesticides, they are currently not considered in European Union pesticide risk assessments. The reason for that contradiction is probably related to the scarcity of information on bat activity in pesticide-treated fields and the pesticide residues on their food items. The authors recorded bat activity and measured pesticide residues on bat-specific food items following applications of two insecticides in an apple orchard. High activity levels of the common pipistrelle bat, a foraging habitat generalist, were detected. Airborne foragers and bats that take part of their food by gleaning arthropods from the vegetation were recorded frequently. The initial value and the decline of pesticide residues were found to depend on the arthropod type, their surface to volume ratio, their mobility, and the mode of action of the applied pesticide. The highest initial residue values were measured on foliage-dwelling arthropods. By following the toxicity-exposure ratio approaches of the current pesticide risk assessment, no acute dietary risk was found for all recorded bat species. However, a potential reproductive risk for bat species that include foliage-dwelling arthropods in their diet was indicated. The results emphasize the importance of adequately evaluating the risks of pesticides to bats, which, compared to other mammals, are potentially more sensitive due to their ecological traits. PMID:22505289

Stahlschmidt, Peter; Brühl, Carsten A

2012-05-09

274

Investigating White-Nose Syndrome in Bats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

Blehert, David S.

2009-01-01

275

Bat wing sensors support flight control  

PubMed Central

Bats are the only mammals capable of powered flight, and they perform impressive aerial maneuvers like tight turns, hovering, and perching upside down. The bat wing contains five digits, and its specialized membrane is covered with stiff, microscopically small, domed hairs. We provide here unique empirical evidence that the tactile receptors associated with these hairs are involved in sensorimotor flight control by providing aerodynamic feedback. We found that neurons in bat primary somatosensory cortex respond with directional sensitivity to stimulation of the wing hairs with low-speed airflow. Wing hairs mostly preferred reversed airflow, which occurs under flight conditions when the airflow separates and vortices form. This finding suggests that the hairs act as an array of sensors to monitor flight speed and/or airflow conditions that indicate stall. Depilation of different functional regions of the bats’ wing membrane altered the flight behavior in obstacle avoidance tasks by reducing aerial maneuverability, as indicated by decreased turning angles and increased flight speed.

Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne; Chadha, Mohit; Chiu, Chen; Falk, Ben; Xian, Wei; Barcelo, Janna; Zook, John M.; Moss, Cynthia F.

2011-01-01

276

Pome fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the beneficial influences of controlled atmosphere (CA) and modified atmosphere (MA) on the major quality deterioration, physiological disorders and diseases of pome fruits, and the problems resulting from improper atmosphere conditions. It discusses the interactions between ...

277

Bat guilds, a concept to classify the highly diverse foraging and echolocation behaviors of microchiropteran bats  

PubMed Central

Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore, we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats' echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies patterns of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning.

Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

2013-01-01

278

Bat guilds, a concept to classify the highly diverse foraging and echolocation behaviors of microchiropteran bats.  

PubMed

Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore, we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats' echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies patterns of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning. PMID:23840190

Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

2013-07-03

279

Adaptive Vocal Behavior Drives Perception by Echolocation in Bats  

PubMed Central

Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat’s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat’s active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene.

Moss, Cynthia F.; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

2011-01-01

280

Morphology-Induced Information Transfer in Bat Sonar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been argued that an important part of understanding bat echolocation comes down to understanding the morphology of the bat sound processing apparatus. In this Letter we present a method based on information theory that allows us to assess target localization performance of bat sonar, without a priori knowledge on the position, size, or shape of the reflecting target. We demonstrate this method using simulated directivity patterns of the frequency-modulated bat Micronycteris microtis. The results of this analysis indicate that the morphology of this bat’s sound processing apparatus has evolved to be a compromise between sensitivity and accuracy with the pinnae and the noseleaf playing different roles.

Reijniers, Jonas; Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert

2010-10-01

281

The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer, to be launched in 2003, will observe hundreds of gamma ray bursts per year and study their X-ray and optical afterglow with its multiwavelength complement of three instruments: a large gamma ray telescope called the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), an X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and a UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT). The BAT is a large coded aperture gamma ray telescope with a wide field-of-view that provides the gamma ray burst triggers for the Swift Mission. BAT will observe and locate hundreds of bursts per year to better than 4 arc minutes accuracy. Using this prompt burst location information, Swift can slew quickly (within 20 - 70 s) to point the on-board narrow field-of-view XRT and UVOT instruments at the burst for continued afterglow studies. The BAT instrument consists of a large (5200 cm2) hard x-ray detector plane positioned one meter away from an even larger (3.2 m2) coded aperture mask. The BAT detector plane consists of 256 CdZnTe semiconductor detector modules each containing 128 individual, planar 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm CdZnTe detectors that are read out by a single XA1 Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The BAT mask will be constructed using 5 mm x 5 mm x 1 mm lead plates attached to a self-supporting 0.4 g/cm2 substrate fabricated from Kevlar fiber/honeycomb materials. With 4 mm square focal plane detector elements and 5 mm square mask pixels, BAT will have angular resolution better than 17 arc minutes and will determine GRB source locations to 4 arc minutes for bursts detected at 5 sigma or brighter. A full description of the BAT instrument and its capabilities will be presented along with results from performance tests of prototype detector modules. This work is funded by NASA's MIDEX program.

Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Barbier, L.; Gehrels, N.; Palmer, D.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.

1999-12-01

282

Bat mortality: pesticide poisoning and migratory stress.  

PubMed

Organochlorine residues in the fat of young Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, reached the brain and caused symptoms of poisoning after the fat mobilization that takes place during migratory flight was simulated. These chemical body burdens were obtained naturally under free-living conditions at the maternity roost. The data obtained support the hypothesis that pesticides have contributed to recent declines in populations of this bat. PMID:959845

Geluso, K N; Altenbach, J S; Wilson, D E

1976-10-01

283

Identifying Hendra Virus Diversity in Pteropid Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hendra virus (HeV) causes a zoonotic disease with high mortality that is transmitted to humans from bats of the genus Pteropus (flying foxes) via an intermediary equine host. Factors promoting spillover from bats to horses are uncertain at this time, but plausibly encompass host and\\/or agent and\\/or environmental factors. There is a lack of HeV sequence information derived from the

Ina Smith; Alice Broos; Carol de Jong; Anne Zeddeman; Craig Smith; Greg Smith; Fred Moore; Jennifer Barr; Gary Crameri; Glenn Marsh; Mary Tachedjian; Meng Yu; Yu Hsin Kung; Lin-Fa Wang; Hume Field; Leo L. M. Poon

2011-01-01

284

Hawkmoths produce anti-bat ultrasound.  

PubMed

Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences. PMID:23825084

Barber, Jesse R; Kawahara, Akito Y

2013-07-03

285

The communicative potential of bat echolocation pulses.  

PubMed

Ecological constraints often shape the echolocation pulses emitted by bat species. Consequently some (but not all) bats emit species-specific echolocation pulses. Because echolocation pulses are often intense and emitted at high rates, they are potential targets for eavesdropping by other bats. Echolocation pulses can also vary within species according to sex, body size, age, social group and geographic location. Whether these features can be recognised by other bats can only be determined reliably by playback experiments, which have shown that echolocation pulses do provide sufficient information for the identification of sex and individual in one species. Playbacks also show that bats can locate conspecifics and heterospecifics at foraging and roost sites by eavesdropping on echolocation pulses. Guilds of echolocating bat species often partition their use of pulse frequencies. Ecology, allometric scaling and phylogeny play roles here, but are not sufficient to explain this partitioning. Evidence is accumulating to support the hypothesis that frequency partitioning evolved to facilitate intraspecific communication. Acoustic character displacement occurs in at least one instance. Future research can relate genetic population structure to regional variation in echolocation pulse features and elucidate those acoustic features that most contribute to discrimination of individuals. PMID:20686895

Jones, Gareth; Siemers, Björn M

2010-08-05

286

Interactions among Frugivores and Fleshy Fruit Trees in a Philippine Submontane Rainforest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the potential effect of frugivore extinctions on forest regeneration in the North Negros Forest Reserve, a forest fragment that is one of the last remaining wet tropical rainforest ecosystems in the biogeographic region of the central Philippine Islands. We evaluated foraging observations of 19 species of birds, fruit bats, and other mammals in three successional habitats and identified

Andreas Hamann; Eberhard Curio

1999-01-01

287

Detection of European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2) in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) from Magdeburg, Germany.  

PubMed

In Europe bat rabies in Daubenton's bats (Myotisdaubentonii) and in Pond bats (Myotis dasycneme) caused by the European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2) has been confirmed in less than 20 cases to date. Here we report the second encounter of this virus species in Germany. A Daubenton's bat found grounded in the zoological garden in Magdeburg died shortly after. In the frame of a retrospective study the bat carcass was eventually transferred to the national reference laboratory for rabies at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute for rabies diagnosis. Lyssavirus was isolated and characterized as EBLV-2. PMID:22712424

Freuling, Conrad M; Kliemt, Jeannette; Schares, Susann; Heidecke, Dietrich; Driechciarz, René; Schatz, Juliane; Müller, Thomas

288

Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines, and there is at present no direct method of reducing or preventing this mortality. We therefore determine whether the electromagnetic radiation associated with radar installations can elicit an aversive behavioural response in foraging bats. Four civil air traffic control (ATC) radar stations, three military ATC radars and three weather

Barry Nicholls; Paul A. Racey

2007-01-01

289

THE NONHIBERNATING ECOLOGY OF BATS IN INDIANA WITH EMPHASIS ON THE ENDANGERED INDIANA BAT, MYOTIS SODALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution and habitat of the endangered Indiana bat, Myotis sodalis, in Indiana during the season of reproduction. Because interspecific relationships may exist between M. sodalis and several other species of chiroptera, the distributions and habitats of these bats were also determined. Distributions were determined from past records, supplemented with captures at

VIRGIL WILLMER BRACK

1983-01-01

290

Development of bat flight: Morphologic and molecular evolution of bat wing digits  

PubMed Central

The earliest fossil bats resemble their modern counterparts in possessing greatly elongated digits to support the wing membrane, which is an anatomical hallmark of powered flight. To quantitatively confirm these similarities, we performed a morphometric analysis of wing bones from fossil and modern bats. We found that the lengths of the third, fourth, and fifth digits (the primary supportive elements of the wing) have remained constant relative to body size over the last 50 million years. This absence of transitional forms in the fossil record led us to look elsewhere to understand bat wing evolution. Investigating embryonic development, we found that the digits in bats (Carollia perspicillata) are initially similar in size to those of mice (Mus musculus) but that, subsequently, bat digits greatly lengthen. The developmental timing of the change in wing digit length points to a change in longitudinal cartilage growth, a process that depends on the relative proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. We found that bat forelimb digits exhibit relatively high rates of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We show that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) can stimulate cartilage proliferation and differentiation and increase digit length in the bat embryonic forelimb. Also, we show that Bmp2 expression and Bmp signaling are increased in bat forelimb embryonic digits relative to mouse or bat hind limb digits. Together, our results suggest that an up-regulation of the Bmp pathway is one of the major factors in the developmental elongation of bat forelimb digits, and it is potentially a key mechanism in their evolutionary elongation as well.

Sears, Karen E.; Behringer, Richard R.; Rasweiler, John J.; Niswander, Lee A.

2006-01-01

291

Ectoparasitic mites (Acari) of sympatric Brazilian free-tailed bats and big brown bats in Alabama.  

PubMed

Seven species of mites were recovered from 133 Brazilian free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, and 94 big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, from February through November 1990 in colonies that shared roosting space in east-central Alabama. The macronyssid Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing) was the most common mite on T. brasiliensis (964 mites, 87% of bats infested) and on E. fuscus (109 mites, 29% of bats infested). However, C. rubustipes normally is a specific parasite of T. brasiliensis. The macronyssids Steatonyssus ceratognathus (Ewing) and S. occidentalis (Ewing) were recovered from both species of bats in low numbers. S. ceratognathus is not a typical parasite of either species of bat, but S. occidentalis normally is specific to E. fuscus. Predictably, S. occidentalis was most frequently collected from E. fuscus (16 mites, 9% of bats infested), but two specimens were recovered from T. brasiliensis. Five specimens of the laelapid Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese) (a mite that is frequently associated with rodents) and one specimen of the myobiid mite Ewingana (Doreyana) longa (Ewing) (a specific ectoparasite of T. brasiliensis) were also recovered from T. brasiliensis. Singletons of the rosensteiniids Mydopholeus sp. and Nycteriglyphites pennsylvanicus Fain, Lukoschus & Whitaker were the only additional mites collected from E. fuscus; both of these mites have previously been collected from bats or their guano but are recorded here from Alabama for the first time. With respect to ectoparasite cross-infestations, E. fuscus appears to be at greater risk from sharing roots with T. brasiliensis. This is highlighted by the comparatively large numbers of C. robustipes that occurred on E. fuscus and the low numbers of S. occidentalis on T. brasiliensis. Although mites were the only arthropods recovered from bats in this study, a separate survey in 1991 revealed that the bat bug Cimex adjunctus Barber infested some other colonies of T. brasiliensis and E. fuscus in Alabama. PMID:1625301

Durden, L A; Best, T L; Wilson, N; Hilton, C D

1992-05-01

292

Asthma and allergies in Jamaican children aged 2-17 years: a cross-sectional prevalence survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence and severity of asthma and allergies as well as risk factors for asthma among Jamaican children aged 2–17?years. Design A cross-sectional, community-based prevalence survey using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. The authors selected a representative sample of 2017 children using stratified, multistage cluster sampling design using enumeration districts as primary sampling units. Setting Jamaica, a Caribbean island with a total population of approximately 2.6 million, geographically divided into 14 parishes. Participants Children aged 2–17?years, who were resident in private households. Institutionalised children such as those in boarding schools and hospitals were excluded from the survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures The prevalence and severity of asthma and allergy symptoms, doctor-diagnosed asthma and risk factors for asthma. Results Almost a fifth (19.6%) of Jamaican children aged 2–17?years had current wheeze, while 16.7% had self-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma. Both were more common among males than among females. The prevalence of rhinitis, hay fever and eczema among children was 24.5%, 25% and 17.3%, respectively. Current wheeze was more common among children with rhinitis in the last 12?months (44.3% vs 12.6%, p<0.001), hay fever (36.8% vs 13.8%, p<0.001) and eczema (34.1% vs 16.4%, p<0.001). Independent risk factors for current wheeze (ORs, 95% CI) were chest infections in the first year of life 4.83 (3.00 to 7.77), parental asthma 4.19 (2.8 to 6.08), rhinitis in the last 12?months 6.92 (5.16 to 9.29), hay fever 4.82 (3.62 to 6.41), moulds in the home 2.25 (1.16 to 4.45), cat in the home 2.44 (1.66 to 3.58) and dog in the home 1.81 (1.18 to 2.78). Conclusions The prevalence of asthma and allergies in Jamaican children is high. Significant risk factors for asthma include chest infections in the first year of life, a history of asthma in the family, allergies, moulds and pets in the home.

Waldron, Norman K; Younger, Novie O; Edwards, Nancy C; Knight-Madden, Jennifer M; Bailey, Kay A; Wint, Yvonne B; Lewis-Bell, Karen N

2012-01-01

293

Using echolocation monitoring to model bat occupancy and inform ...  

Treesearch

Accordingly, strategies to improve compatibility between wind energy ... We used a site occupancy approach to model nightly LowF bat presence while accounting ... bat presence could improve efficiency of turbine operational mitigations (e.g., ...

294

Bats in the Classroom: A Conceptual Guide for Biology Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains how to use bats to introduce different biological concepts such as classification and phylogeny, altruistic behavior, flight, coevolution, or physiological adaptations. Discusses common myths regarding bats and provides information on additional classroom materials. (YDS)|

Rankin, W. T.; Lewis, Norma G.

2002-01-01

295

Bats of the Savannah River Site and Vicinity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Energys Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humer...

M. A. Menzel J. M. Menzel J. C. Kilgo W. M. Ford T. C. Carter J. W. Edwards

2003-01-01

296

Detection of group 1 coronaviruses in bats in North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bats of several species in southern People's Republic of China harbor SARS-like CoVs and may be reservoir hosts for them. To determine whether bats in North America also harbor coronaviruses, we used reverse transcription-PCR to detect coronavirus RNA in bats. We found coronavirus RNA in 6 of 28 fecal specimens from bats of 2 of 7 species tested. The prevalence of viral RNA shedding was high: 17% in Eptesicus fuscus and 50% in Myotis occultus. Sequence analysis of a 440-bp amplicon in gene 1b showed that these Rocky Mountain bat coronaviruses formed 3 clusters in phylogenetic group 1 that were distinct from group 1 coronaviruses of Asian bats. Because of the potential for bat coronaviruses to cause disease in humans and animals, further surveillance and characterization of bat coronaviruses in North America are needed.

Dominguez, S. R.; O'Shea, T. J.; Oko, L. M.; Holmes, K. V.

2007-01-01

297

Bats in the Classroom: A Conceptual Guide for Biology Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to use bats to introduce different biological concepts such as classification and phylogeny, altruistic behavior, flight, coevolution, or physiological adaptations. Discusses common myths regarding bats and provides information on additional classroom materials. (YDS)

Rankin, W. T.; Lewis, Norma G.

2002-01-01

298

Recovery Plan for the Hawaiian Hoary Bat ('Lasiurus cinereus semotus').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) is federally listed as endangered. It is known from the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, Kauai, and Molokai. Population numbers are not known, but Hawaiian hoary bats are observed regularly only on Hawaii, ...

1998-01-01

299

Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is

Donald R. Clark; Arnulfo Moreno-Valdez; Miguel A. Mora

1995-01-01

300

Epidemiology of rabies in bats in Texas (2001-2010).  

PubMed

Objective-To obtain epidemiological information on rabies in bats in Texas. Design-Epidemiological study. Sample-Laboratory reports of bats that had been submitted for rabies testing in Texas from 2001 through 2010. Procedures-Laboratory reports were reviewed to obtain information on seasonality of rabies in bats; distribution, species, and rabies virus variants of rabid bats; and human and domestic animal exposures to rabid bats. Results-The number of rabid bats during the first 5 years of the study period remained static until a > 2-fold increase in 2006; during the subsequent 4 years, the annual number of rabid bats remained at this higher level, including a peak in 2008. The highest proportions of rabid bats were seen in late summer and early fall. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) was the most often affected species. Additionally, the rabies virus variant associated with the Brazilian free-tailed bat was the most prevalent. The percentage of rabid bats from urban areas was greater than that from rural areas. Dogs and cats were the domestic animals most frequently exposed to rabid bats. Most humans exposed to rabid bats did not report a known bite or scratch. The highest numbers of humans exposed to rabid bats were males between 11 to 15 years old. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Information on the epidemiology of rabies in bats and the epidemiology of exposures to rabid bats may be useful in planning and implementing local, state, and national rabies control and prevention campaigns and in encouraging rabies vaccination of domestic animals. PMID:24094260

Mayes, Bonny C; Wilson, Pamela J; Oertli, Ernest H; Hunt, Patrick R; Rohde, Rodney E

2013-10-15

301

Accuracy of target ranging in echolocating bats: acoustic information processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Echolocating bats use the time delay between emitted sounds and returning echoes to determine the distance to an object. This study examined the accuracy of target ranging by bats and the effect of echo bandwidth on the bat's performance in a ranging task.2.Six big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were trained in a yes-no procedure to discriminate between two phantom targets,

Cynthia F. Moss; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

1989-01-01

302

Rod Press Fruit Harvester.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to an apparatus for removing or harvesting fruit and more particularly to an apparatus that will harvest fruit especially from narrow fruit growing canopies by pressing the fruit out of the production canopy.

D. L. Peterson

1982-01-01

303

Variability of feeding buzzes in little brown bats (Myotis lucifigus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Myotis lucifigus are hunting actively in the early evening, search phase echolocation signals are easily detected by heterodyne bat detectors. Feeding or terminal buzzes are sometimes also detected, especially if the bat detector is tuned to 35 kHz. On other evenings when all conditions appeared comparable we detected no approach phase or buzz. Feeding bats and prey insects were

Donald R. Griffin; Gregory J. Auger

2001-01-01

304

Echolocating bats can use acoustic landmarks for spatial orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the echolocating bat's use of an acoustic landmark for orientation in a complex environment with no visual information. Three bats of the species Eptesicus fuscus were trained to fly through a hole in a mist net to receive a food reward on the other side. In all experiments, the vocal behavior of the bats was recorded simultaneously using

Marianne Egebjerg Jensen; Cynthia F. Moss; Annemarie Surlykke

2005-01-01

305

When Ball Meets Bat, the Hands No Longer Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the American Journal of Physics describes research showing that the grip on a bat during contact with a baseball does nothing to affect the power delivered to the ball. Even if the hitters were to let go of the bat right before contact, the batted ball would have the same speed and trajectory.

Nathan, Alan

2004-12-15

306

Cryptogenic rabies, bats, and the question of aerosol transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rabies is rare in the United States; however, an estimated 40,000 patients receive rabies postexposure prophylaxis each year. Misconceptions about the transmission of rabies are plentiful, particularly regarding bats. Most cases of human rabies caused by bat variants have no definitive history of animal bite. Three hypotheses are proposed and reviewed for the transmission of rabies from bats to

Robert V. Gibbons

2002-01-01

307

CONTROL OF BOVINE RABIES THROUGH VAMPIRE BAT CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bstract: An area 30 by 50 km was selected for destruction of vampire bats (Des- modus rotundus). The area was located in the path of an advancing epizootic of vampire bat-borne bovine rabies which had been moving southward at the average rate of 40 km per year for 14 years. The bats were exterminated in their roosts in water

ABEL FORNES; REXFORD D. LORD; MERLE L. KUNS; OSCAR P. LARGHI

308

Possible Emergence of West Caucasian Bat Virus in Africa  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of neutralizing antibody against West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV) in Miniopterus bats collected in Kenya ranged from 17% to 26%. Seropositive bats were detected in 4 of 5 locations sampled across the country. These findings provide evidence that WCBV, originally isolated in Europe, may emerge in other continents.

Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Yu; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2008-01-01

309

Further Records of Bats From Jordan and a Synopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent records along with a synopsis of the known bats of Jordan are given. Twenty-four species of bats are reported from Jordan, including two additional records, Rhinolophus mehelyi and Asellia tridens. Five other bat species are suspected to occur.

Mazin Botros QUMSIYEH; Zuhair Sami AMR; Ratib Musa AL-ORAN

310

Second Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time,...

A. M. Parsons B. Zhang C. B. Markwardt D. M. Palmer E. E. Fenimore G. Sato H. A. Krimm J. Tueller J. R. Cummings M. Stamatikos N. Gehrels S. D. Barthelmy T. N. Ukwatta W. H. Baumgartner

2010-01-01

311

INCORPORATING BATS IN AGROECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT AND CROP PROTECTION DECISIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

By characterizing the diet of bats in agroecosystems, this research likely will document that bats are important consumers of pest species. Additionally, this investigation will document which pest species are consumed and the relative contribution of these species to bat d...

312

Detection of Australian bat lyssavirus using a fluorogenic probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has been transmitted to humans following a scratch or bite from an infected bat in two cases. Following a scratch or bite to a person, the bat is usually submitted for testing and diagnosis is made using a direct fluorescent antibody test on a brain smear. A nested RT-PCR assay has also been utilised to

Ina L Smith; Judy A Northill; Bruce J Harrower; Greg A Smith

2002-01-01

313

Shimoni bat virus, a new representative of the Lyssavirus genus  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2009, 616 bats representing at least 22 species were collected from 10 locations throughout Kenya. A new lyssavirus, named Shimoni bat virus (SHIBV), was isolated from the brain of a dead Commerson's leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros commersoni), found in a cave in the coastal region of Kenya. Genetic distances and phylogenetic reconstructions, implemented for each gene and for the concatenated

Ivan V. Kuzmin; Anne E. Mayer; Michael Niezgoda; Wanda Markotter; Bernard Agwanda; Robert F. Breiman; Charles E. Rupprecht

2010-01-01

314

The use of edge habitats by commuting and foraging bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Travelling routes and foraging areas of many bat species are mainly along edge habitats, such as treelines, hedgerows, forest edges, and canal banks. This thesis deals with the effects of density, configuration, and structural features of edge habitats on the occurrence of bats. Four hypothetical functions of edge habitats for bats were studied: foraging areas, shelter from wind, shelter from

B. Verboom

1998-01-01

315

Habitat associations of bats in Northern Ireland: implications for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural intensification in Northern Ireland has brought about large-scale changes to the landscape with a detrimental effect on biodiversity. Between 1996 and 1998, we surveyed a stratified random sample of 1 km squares for bats using a spot-sample technique and time expansion bat detector to establish linear and area habitat associations. Bats strongly selected water bodies with bankside vegetation, treelines,

J. M Russ; W. I Montgomery

2002-01-01

316

Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem.

Blehert, David S; Maluping, Ramón P.; Green, David E.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Langenberg, Julia

2013-01-01

317

Indiana Bat, Myotis Sodalis, Maternity Roosts in the Southern United ...  

Treesearch

Using radio telemetry, we tracked six bats a total of 40 bat days (range 4-9 days/ bat). ... two red oak (Quercus rubra) snags, and one live sweet birch (Betula lenta ). All three primary roosts located in this study were not used during ... However it is a larger file size and some people may experience long download times.

318

Interspecific acoustic recognition in two European bat communities  

PubMed Central

Echolocating bats emit echolocation calls for spatial orientation and foraging. These calls are often species-specific and are emitted at high intensity and repetition rate. Therefore, these calls could potentially function in intra- and/or inter-specific bat communication. For example, bats in the field approach playbacks of conspecific feeding buzzes, probably because feeding buzzes indicate an available foraging patch. In captivity, some species of bats recognize and distinguish the echolocation calls of different sympatric species. However, it is still unknown if and how acoustic species-recognition mediates interspecific interactions in the field. Here we aim to understand eavesdropping on bat echolocation calls within and across species boundaries in wild bats. We presented playbacks of conspecific and heterospecific search calls and feeding buzzes to four bat species with different foraging ecologies. The bats were generally more attracted by feeding buzzes than search calls and more by the calls of conspecifics than their heterospecifics. Furthermore, bats showed differential reaction to the calls of the heterospecifics. In particular, Myotis capaccinii reacted equally to the feeding buzzes of conspecifics and to ecologically more similar heterospecifics. Our results confirm eavesdropping on feeding buzzes at the intraspecific level in wild bats and provide the first experimental quantification of potential eavesdropping in European bats at the interspecific level. Our data support the hypothesis that bat echolocation calls have a communicative potential that allows interspecific, and potentially intraspecific, eavesdropping in the wild.

Dorado-Correa, Adriana M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.; Siemers, Bjorn M.

2013-01-01

319

Geographic Translocation of Bats: Known and Potential Problems  

PubMed Central

Natural, accidental, and intentional translocation of bats, both intra- and intercontinentally, has been documented. Some bats have been translocated while incubating infectious diseases, including rabies or related lyssavirus infections; others have escaped confinement en route to or at their destinations, while others have been released deliberately. Known events and potential consequences of bat translocation are reviewed, including a proposed solution to the attendant problems.

2003-01-01

320

From spatial orientation to food acquisition in echolocating bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field research on echolocation behavior in bats has emphasized studies of food acquisition, and the adaptive value of sonar signal design as been considered largely in the context of foraging. However, echolocation tasks related to spatial orientation also differ among bats and are relevant to understanding signal structure. Here, we argue that the evolution of echolocation in bats is characterized

Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler; Cynthia F. Moss; Annette Denzinger

2003-01-01

321

Bats of Ouray National Wildlife Refuge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is located in the northeast corner of Utah along the Green River and is part of the Upper Colorado River System and the Colorado Plateau. The Colorado Plateau is home to 19 species of bats, some of which are quite rare. Of those 19 species, a few have a more southern range and would not be expected to be found at Ouray NWR, but it is unknown what species occur at Ouray NWR or their relative abundance. The assumption is that Ouray NWR provides excellent habitat for bats, since the riparian habitat consists of a healthy population of cottonwoods with plenty of older, large trees and snags that would provide foraging and roosting habitat for bats. The more than 4,000 acres of wetland habitat, along with the associated insect population resulting from the wetland habitat, would provide ideal foraging habitat for bats. The overall objective of this project is to conduct a baseline inventory of bat species occurring on the refuge using mist nets and passive acoustic monitoring.

Ellison, Laura E.

2011-01-01

322

Design and characterization of a multi-articulated robotic bat wing.  

PubMed

There are many challenges to measuring power input and force output from a flapping vertebrate. Animals can vary a multitude of kinematic parameters simultaneously, and methods for measuring power and force are either not possible in a flying vertebrate or are very time and equipment intensive. To circumvent these challenges, we constructed a robotic, multi-articulated bat wing that allows us to measure power input and force output simultaneously, across a range of kinematic parameters. The robot is modeled after the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, and contains seven joints powered by three servo motors. Collectively, this joint and motor arrangement allows the robot to vary wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. We describe the design, construction, programing, instrumentation, characterization, and analysis of the robot. We show that the kinematics, inputs, and outputs demonstrate good repeatability both within and among trials. Finally, we describe lessons about the structure of living bats learned from trying to mimic their flight in a robotic wing. PMID:23385471

Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

2013-02-06

323

A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans  

PubMed Central

Respiratory infections constitute the most widespread human infectious disease, and a substantial proportion of them are caused by unknown etiological agents. Reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were first isolated from humans in the early 1950s and so named because they were not associated with any known disease. Here, we report a previously unknown reovirus (named “Melaka virus”) isolated from a 39-year-old male patient in Melaka, Malaysia, who was suffering from high fever and acute respiratory disease at the time of virus isolation. Two of his family members developed similar symptoms ?1 week later and had serological evidence of infection with the same virus. Epidemiological tracing revealed that the family was exposed to a bat in the house ?1 week before the onset of the father's clinical symptoms. Genome sequence analysis indicated a close genetic relationship between Melaka virus and Pulau virus, a reovirus isolated in 1999 from fruit bats in Tioman Island, Malaysia. Screening of sera collected from human volunteers on the island revealed that 14 of 109 (13%) were positive for both Pulau and Melaka viruses. This is the first report of an orthoreovirus in association with acute human respiratory diseases. Melaka virus is serologically not related to the different types of mammalian reoviruses that were known to infect humans asymptomatically. These data indicate that bat-borne reoviruses can be transmitted to and cause clinical diseases in humans.

Chua, Kaw Bing; Crameri, Gary; Hyatt, Alex; Yu, Meng; Tompang, Mohd Rosli; Rosli, Juliana; McEachern, Jennifer; Crameri, Sandra; Kumarasamy, Verasingam; Eaton, Bryan T.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2007-01-01

324

Effect of different types of cricket batting pads on the running and turning speed in cricket batting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare a batsman's running and turning speed during three runs while wearing either traditional batting pads or one of two models of newly designed cricket batting pads. Fifteen cricketers participated. The running and turning speeds were measured on three different days with players using the three pairs of batting pads for each trial

N. Loock; D. E. Du Toit; D. J. L. Ventner; R. A. Stretch

2006-01-01

325

North American Bats and Mines Project: A Cooperative Interagency Approach to Bat Conservation Through Mine Land Reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human safety and liability concerns prompted a national campaign to close abandoned mines. These closures, along with renewed mining in historic districts, present a significant threat to mine-dwelling bat populations. Over half of North America's 45 bat species have been documented using abandoned underground mines. The need for mine habitat increases as traditional cave and tree hollow roosts disappear. Bats

Faith A. Watkins

2002-01-01

326

Session: Bat ecology related to wind development and lessons learned about impacts on bats from wind development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This session at the Wind Energy and Birds\\/Bats workshop consisted of two paper presentations followed by a discussion\\/question and answer period. It was the first of the sessions to shift the focus to the issue of wind energy development's impacts specifically to bats. The presentations discussed lessons that have been learned regarding direct and indirect impacts on bats and strategies

Greg Johnson; Thomas Kunz

2004-01-01

327

Scattering of a baseball by a bat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ball can be hit faster if it is projected without spin, but it can be hit farther if it is projected with backspin. Measurements of the tradeoff between the speed and spin for a baseball impacting a baseball bat are presented. The results are inconsistent with a collision model in which the ball rolls off the bat and instead imply tangential compliance in the ball, the bat, or both. If the results are extrapolated to the higher speeds that are typical of the game of baseball, they suggest that a curveball can be hit with greater backspin than a fastball, but by an amount that is less than would be the case in the absence of tangential compliance.

Cross, Rod; Nathan, Alan M.

2006-10-01

328

The 54-month Palermo BAT-survey catalogue (Cusumano+, 2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2nd Palermo BAT Catalogue contains the 1256 sources detected in the first 54 months of BAT survey data. It include the BAT position, together with the offset with respect to the identified counterpart (if any), the detection significance, the flux in the 15-150keV band, the hardness ratio in the [30-150]/[15-150] bands and the source luminosity, when a redshift is reported. It also contains information on the correlation of the BAT sources with the INTEGRAL, ROSAT and Fermi catalogue. Multiple lines are present for a single BAT source if it has been associated to more than one counterpart. (1 data file).

Cusumano, G.; La Parola, V.; Segreto, A.; Ferrigno, C.; Maselli, A.; Sbarufatti, B.; Romano, P.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.; Masetti, N.; Moretti, A.; Parisi, P.; Tagliaferri, G.

2010-09-01

329

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 Aminotransferases Have Functionally Diverged from the Ancestral-Like Kluyveromyces lactis Orthologous Enzyme  

PubMed Central

Background Gene duplication is a key evolutionary mechanism providing material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The fate of duplicated gene copies has been amply discussed and several models have been put forward to account for duplicate conservation. The specialization model considers that duplication of a bifunctional ancestral gene could result in the preservation of both copies through subfunctionalization, resulting in the distribution of the two ancestral functions between the gene duplicates. Here we investigate whether the presumed bifunctional character displayed by the single branched chain amino acid aminotransferase present in K. lactis has been distributed in the two paralogous genes present in S. cerevisiae, and whether this conservation has impacted S. cerevisiae metabolism. Principal Findings Our results show that the KlBat1 orthologous BCAT is a bifunctional enzyme, which participates in the biosynthesis and catabolism of branched chain aminoacids (BCAAs). This dual role has been distributed in S. cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 paralogous proteins, supporting the specialization model posed to explain the evolution of gene duplications. BAT1 is highly expressed under biosynthetic conditions, while BAT2 expression is highest under catabolic conditions. Bat1 and Bat2 differential relocalization has favored their physiological function, since biosynthetic precursors are generated in the mitochondria (Bat1), while catabolic substrates are accumulated in the cytosol (Bat2). Under respiratory conditions, in the presence of ammonium and BCAAs the bat1? bat2? double mutant shows impaired growth, indicating that Bat1 and Bat2 could play redundant roles. In K. lactis wild type growth is independent of BCAA degradation, since a Klbat1? mutant grows under this condition. Conclusions Our study shows that BAT1 and BAT2 differential expression and subcellular relocalization has resulted in the distribution of the biosynthetic and catabolic roles of the ancestral BCAT in two isozymes improving BCAAs metabolism and constituting an adaptation to facultative metabolism.

Colon, Maritrini; Hernandez, Fabiola; Lopez, Karla; Quezada, Hector; Gonzalez, James; Lopez, Geovani; Aranda, Cristina; Gonzalez, Alicia

2011-01-01

330

Bats: Twilight Zone (ScienceWorld)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy. Written for students in grades 6-10, this article from Science World magazine has an interview with AMNH zoologist Nancy Simmons, in which she discusses her research and the scientific challenges she faces in her quest to build a more complete bat family tree. There are Web links that offer further opportunities for learning about bat adaptations and their role in the planet's biodiversity.

331

[Trematodes (Trematoda) of bats (Chiroptera) from the Middle Volga Region].  

PubMed

The data on species diversity of trematodes from bats collected in the Middle Volga Region are summarized. According to original and literary data, 20 trematode species were recorded in bats of the region examined. Plagiorchis elegans, Lecithodendrium skrjabini, L. rysavyi, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, and Pycnoporus megacotyle are specified for the bat fauna of Russia for the first time. For 11 species of parasites, new hosts are recorded. The analysis of bat helminthes demonstrated that the fauna of trematodes of the northern bat (12 species of trematodes), of the pond, and of the Brandt's bats is the most diverse, constituting more than 10 parasite species per bat species. The largest number of final hosts in the Middle Volga Region is characteristic of Plagiorchis koreanus and Prosthodendrium chilostomum; the latter species were revealed in 8 and 7 bat species, respectively. Trematodes of bats possess a high degree of host specificity. 17 species parasitize exclusively in bats out of 20 parasite species registered for the order Chiroptera. Only 3 species (Plagiorchis elegans, P. vespertilionis, and Prosthodendrium chilostomum) show wide degree of specificity, being found in other animals. Taxonomic position, the circle of hosts, collecting sites, and brief data in biology and geographical distribution for each helminth species are specified. Morphological descriptions and original figures for all the trematode species revealed in bats of the Middle Volga Region are given. PMID:23458016

Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu; Vekhnik, V P

332

Grid cells without theta oscillations in the entorhinal cortex of bats.  

PubMed

Grid cells provide a neural representation of space, by discharging when an animal traverses through the vertices of a periodic hexagonal grid spanning the environment. Although grid cells have been characterized in detail in rats, the fundamental question of what neural dynamics give rise to the grid structure remains unresolved. Two competing classes of models were proposed: network models, based on attractor dynamics, and oscillatory interference models, which propose that interference between somatic and dendritic theta-band oscillations (4-10?Hz) in single neurons transforms a temporal oscillation into a spatially periodic grid. So far, these models could not be dissociated experimentally, because rodent grid cells always co-exist with continuous theta oscillations. Here we used a novel animal model, the Egyptian fruit bat, to refute the proposed causal link between grids and theta oscillations. On the basis of our previous finding from bat hippocampus, of spatially tuned place cells in the absence of continuous theta oscillations, we hypothesized that grid cells in bat medial entorhinal cortex might also exist without theta oscillations. Indeed, we found grid cells in bat medial entorhinal cortex that shared remarkable similarities to rodent grid cells. Notably, the grids existed in the absence of continuous theta-band oscillations, and with almost no theta modulation of grid-cell spiking--both of which are essential prerequisites of the oscillatory interference models. Our results provide a direct demonstration of grid cells in a non-rodent species. Furthermore, they strongly argue against a major class of computational models of grid cells. PMID:22051680

Yartsev, Michael M; Witter, Menno P; Ulanovsky, Nachum

2011-11-02

333

Iron Deficiency, Fruit Yield and Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is a major constraint for many fruit crops grown on calcareous soils. Iron deficiency is often assumed tacitly to affect negatively both fruit yield and fruit quality, but to our knowledge no review has been done so far on these specific issues. This review discusses first the negative effects of Fe deficiency in fruit yield, including as an

Ana Àlvarez-Fernàndez; Javier Abadía; Anunciación Abadía

334

Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

Clark, D.R., Jr.

1980-01-01

335

White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P. M.; Blehert, D. S.

2010-01-01

336

Reported Hours of Sleep, Diabetes Prevalence and Glucose Control in Jamaican Adults: Analysis from the Jamaica Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

Background. There are limited data on sleep duration and diabetes from developing countries. We therefore examined the relationship between reported hours of sleep, diabetes prevalence and glucose control in Jamaican adults. Methods. Data on reported hours of sleep and diabetes (based on glucose measurement and medication use) from a national survey of 15–74-year-old Jamaicans were analyzed. Results. The 2,432 participants (31% M, Age 42 ± 16 years, BMI 27.6 ± 6.6?kg/m2, diabetes prevalence 12%) reported sleeping 8.2 ± 1.8 hours. In men, sleeping less than 6 hours (OR (95% CI) = 2.65 (1.09–6.48)) or more than 10 hours (OR (95% CI) = 4.36 (1.56–12.19)) was associated with diabetes when adjusted for age, BMI, and family history of diabetes. In women sleeping less than 6 hours was associated with a reduced likelihood of diabetes after adjusting for the same confounders ((OR (95% CI) = 0.43 (0.23–0.78)). There was no significant association between sleep and glucose control. Conclusion. Insufficient and excessive sleep was associated with increased diabetes prevalence in Jamaican men but not women.

Cumberbatch, Chisa G.; Younger, Novie O.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; McFarlane, Shelly R.; Francis, Damian K.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.

2011-01-01

337

Bat use of a high-plains urban wildlife refuge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are significant components of mammalian diversity and in many areas are of management concern. However, little attention has been given to bats in urban or prairie landscapes. In 1997 and 1998, we determined species richness, relative abundance, roosting habits, and echolocation activity of bats at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA), the largest urban unit in the United States refuge system, located on the high plains near Denver, Colorado. An inventory using mist nets revealed 3 species foraging at the site: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Big brown bats comprised 86% of captures (n=176). This pattern was consistent with continental-scale predictions of bat species richness and evenness based on availability of potential roosts. Relative abundance based on captures was similar to that revealed by echolocation detector surveys, except that the latter revealed the likely presence of at least 2 additional species (Myotis spp. and red bats [Lasiurus borealis]). Echolocation activity was significantly greater (P=0.009) in areas with tree or water habitat edges than in open prairie, suggesting that maintaining such features is important for bats. Big brown bats commuted greater distances (9.20-18.8 km) from roosts in urban core areas to foraging sites on the refuge than typically reported for this species elsewhere, emphasizing the value of the site to these bats. Urban refuges can provide habitat of importance to bat populations, but may be characterized by abundant bats that roost in buildings if a variety of other kinds of roosting habitats are unavailable.

Everette, A.L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stone, L.A; McCance, J.L.

2001-01-01

338

Techno-economic Feasibility Analysis of Stand-alone Renewable Energy Systems (PV\\/bat, Wind\\/bat and Hybrid PV\\/wind\\/bat) in Kerman, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a feasibility analysis of renewable energy systems for supplying the electrical load requirements of a typical community (50 rural households) in a remote location in Kerman, Iran. The renewable energy systems (photovoltaic\\/battery [PV\\/bat], wind\\/battery [wind\\/bat] and hybrid photovoltaic\\/wind\\/battery [PV\\/wind\\/bat]) considered in the analysis were comprised of different combinations of PV modules and wind energy conversion systems (WECS)

I. Baniasad Askari; M. Ameri

2012-01-01

339

Molecular diagnostics for the detection of Bokeloh bat lyssavirus in a bat from Bavaria, Germany.  

PubMed

A brain sample of a Natterer's bat tested positive for rabies with classical virological techniques. Molecular techniques confirmed the presence of Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) in Germany for the second time. Sequence analysis revealed a close genetic relationship to the initial German BBLV case. Using a TaqMan RT-PCR specific for BBLV viral RNA was detected in various other organs albeit with differences in the relative viral load. PMID:23932899

Freuling, Conrad M; Abendroth, Björn; Beer, Martin; Fischer, Melina; Hanke, Dennis; Hoffmann, Bernd; Höper, Dirk; Just, Frank; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Schatz, Juliane; Müller, Thomas

2013-08-07

340

Neural mechanisms of target ranging in FM bats: physiological evidence from bats and frogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echolocating bats assess target range by the delay in echo relative to the emitted sonar pulse. Earlier studies in FM bats\\u000a showed that a population of neurons in auditory centers above the inferior colliculus (IC) is tuned to echo delay, with different\\u000a neurons tuned to different echo delays. A building block for delay-tuned responses is paradoxical latency shift (PLS), featuring

Albert S. Feng

2011-01-01

341

76 FR 71396 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed...Introduction On September 7, 2011, BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. (``BYX'' or ``Exchange...Functions of BATS Exchange, Inc. and BAT-Y Exchange,...

2011-11-17

342

Lesser Long-Nosed Bat Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lesser long-nosed bat is listed as endangered throughout its range in the United States and Mexico. There is no designated critical habitat. Scientists familiar with the species disagree on the present population sizes of roosts. Recent surveys by som...

1994-01-01

343

Bat Mortality: Pesticide Poisoning and Migratory Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine residues in the fat of young Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, reached the brain and caused symptoms of poisoning after the fat mobilization that takes place during migratory flight was simulated. These chemical body burdens were obtained naturally under free-living conditions at the maternity roost. The data obtained support the hypothesis that pesticides have contributed to recent declines in

Kenneth N. Geluso; J. Scott Altenbach; Don E. Wilson

1976-01-01

344

Bats of the Colorado oil shale region  

SciTech Connect

New records for Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibii, M. lucifugus, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus cinereus, Plecotus townsendii, and Antrozous pallidus and their habitat occurrence in northwestern Colorado are reported. Mortality of 27 bats of six species trapped in an oil sludge pit is described. 7 references.

Finley, R.B. Jr.; Caire, W.; Wilhelm, D.E.

1984-10-31

345

Neuroecology and diet selection in phyllostomid bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many birds and mammals relative brain and hippocampus volume are positively related to enhanced behavioral flexibility and spatial memory. I tested for correlations between species-specific diet selection and relative brain and hippocampus volumes in the New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). To this end, I classified each of 53 species from this ecologically diverse family as one of the following:

John M. Ratcliffe

2009-01-01

346

Response of neotropical bat assemblages to human land use.  

PubMed

Neotropical bats are sensitive to human-induced habitat changes, and some authors believe bats can be used as bioindicators. In the literature, however, the results are disparate. Some results show bat diversity deceases as disturbance increases, whereas others indicate no effect. Determining the general response patterns of bats when they encounter different degrees of human-induced disturbance across the Neotropics would help to determine their usefulness as bioindicators. In a series of meta-analyses, we compared the occurrence frequency of bat species between well-preserved forests and human-use areas. We obtained data through an extensive review of published peer-reviewed articles, theses, and reports. The overall effect size indicated that human-use areas harbored more bat species than well-preserved forests. Different response patterns emerged when meta-analyses were conducted separately by family, feeding habit, vegetation stratum, and conservation status. Our results suggest that bat assemblages display strong responses to forest loss and land-use change and that the direction and magnitude of these responses depends on the bat group under study and the type of disturbance. Our results are consistent with the idea that bats are useful for assessing the effects of habitat changes in the Neotropics. However, with our meta-analyses we could not detect fine differences in bat feeding habits, especially within Phyllostomidae, or elucidate the effect of landscape configuration. Respuesta de Ensambles de Murciélagos Neotropicales al Uso de Suelo por Humanos. PMID:23869786

García-Morales, Rodrigo; Badano, Ernesto I; Moreno, Claudia E

2013-07-21

347

Hybridization Hotspots at Bat Swarming Sites  

PubMed Central

During late summer and early autumn in temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere, thousands of bats gather at caves, mainly for the purpose of mating. We demonstrated that this swarming behavior most probably leads not only to breeding among bats of the same species but also interbreeding between different species. Using 14 nuclear microsatellites and three different methods (the Bayesian assignment approaches of STRUCTURE and NEWHYBRIDS and a principal coordinate analysis of pairwise genetic distances), we analyzed 375 individuals belonging to three species of whiskered bats (genus Myotis) at swarming sites across their sympatric range in southern Poland. The overall hybridization rate varied from 3.2 to 7.2%. At the species level, depending on the method used, these values ranged from 2.1–4.6% in M. mystacinus and 3.0–3.7% in M. brandtii to 6.5–30.4% in M. alcathoe. Hybrids occurred in about half of the caves we studied. In all three species, the sex ratio of hybrids was biased towards males but the observed differences did not differ statistically from those noted at the population level. In our opinion, factors leading to the formation of these admixed individuals and their relatively high frequency are: i) swarming behaviour at swarming sites, where high numbers of bats belonging to several species meet; ii) male-biased sex ratio during the swarming period; iii) the fact that all these bats are generally polygynous. The highly different population sizes of different species at swarming sites may also play some role. Swarming sites may represent unique hybrid hotspots, which, as there are at least 2,000 caves in the Polish Carpathians alone, may occur on a massive scale not previously observed for any group of mammal species in the wild. Evidently, these sites should be treated as focal points for the conservation of biodiversity and evolutionary processes.

Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Piksa, Krzysztof; Tereba, Anna

2012-01-01

348

77 FR 54633 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-09-05

349

Combate Quimico de los Murcielagos Vampiros (Chemical Control of Vampire Bats).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vampire bats attack farm animals to obtain blood for nourishment. These bats range from northern Mexico to central Argentina; thus vast numbers of cattle and livestock are affected. Bat bites are very debilatating because the wounds they cause continue to...

G. C. Mitchell R. J. Burns

1973-01-01

350

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2013-10-02

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2011-05-13

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2012-07-06

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2013-02-13

354

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2013-04-12

355

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78 FR 58583 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

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361

15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.  

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2013-02-04

368

Migration of bats past a remote island offers clues toward the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wind energy is rapidly becoming a viable source of alternative energy, but wind turbines are killing bats in many areas of North America. Most of the bats killed by turbines thus far have been migratory species that roost in trees throughout the year, and the highest fatality events appear to coincide with autumn migration. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) are highly migratory and one of the most frequently killed species at wind turbines. We analyzed a long-term data set to investigate how weather and moonlight influenced the occurrence of hoary bats at an island stopover point along their migration route. We then related our results to the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines. We found that relatively low wind speeds, low moon illumination, and relatively high degrees of cloud cover were important predictors of bat arrivals and departures, and that low barometric pressure was an additional variable that helped predict arrivals. Slight differences in the conditions under which bats arrived and departed from the island suggest that hoary bats may be more likely to arrive on the island with passing storm fronts in autumn. These results also indicate that fatalities of hoary bats at wind turbines may be predictable events, that the species may be drawn to prominent landmarks that they see during migration, and that they regularly migrate over the ocean. Additional observations from this and other studies suggest that the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines may be associated with flocking and autumn mating behaviors.

Cryan, P. M.; Brown, A. C.

2007-01-01

369

Survey for bats in the Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park, with special emphasis on the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum  

SciTech Connect

To increase knowledge about the presence of endangered species and their habitat at the LANL, 3D/Environmental Services, Inc. conducted a mist net survey for bats on Laboratory lands. In addition to documenting the presence of threatened and endangered species, this survey was conducted to gain more knowledge about the diversity and distribution of the bat fauna existing on the Laboratory. There are 25 species of bats found in New Mexico, about 16 of which are likely to occur in the region of the Laboratory. Of particular interest was documentation of the presence of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. The spotted bat is listed as Endangered, Group 2 by the State of New Mexico, and is a Federal Candidate for listing as endangered. As such, conservation of this species and its habitat should be a management priority on the Laboratory. A total of 94 bats were captured in 16 net nights, between 30 June and 05 July 1992. Thirteen species of bats were caught during the study: Antrozous pallidus (pallid bat), 10.6 percent; Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat), 10.6 percent; Lasionycteris noctivigans (silver-haired bat), 16 percent; Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat), 11.7 percent; Myotis californicus (California myotis), 4.3 percent; M. evotis (long-eared myotis), 7.4 percent; M. leibii (small-footed myotis), 5.3 percent; M. thysanodes (fringed myotis), 13.8 percent; M. volans (long-legged myotis), 7.4 percent of the catch; M. yumanensis,(Yuma myotis), 5.3 percent; Pipistrellus hesperus (western pipistrelle), 1.1 percent; Plecotus townsendii (Townsend's big-eared bat), 1.1 percent, and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat), 5.3 percent.

Tyrell, K.; Brack, V. Jr.

1992-10-29

370

Survey for bats in the Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park, with special emphasis on the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum  

SciTech Connect

To increase knowledge about the presence of endangered species and their habitat at the LANL, 3D/Environmental Services, Inc. conducted a mist net survey for bats on Laboratory lands. In addition to documenting the presence of threatened and endangered species, this survey was conducted to gain more knowledge about the diversity and distribution of the bat fauna existing on the Laboratory. There are 25 species of bats found in New Mexico, about 16 of which are likely to occur in the region of the Laboratory. Of particular interest was documentation of the presence of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. The spotted bat is listed as Endangered, Group 2 by the State of New Mexico, and is a Federal Candidate for listing as endangered. As such, conservation of this species and its habitat should be a management priority on the Laboratory. A total of 94 bats were captured in 16 net nights, between 30 June and 05 July 1992. Thirteen species of bats were caught during the study: Antrozous pallidus (pallid bat), 10.6 percent; Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat), 10.6 percent; Lasionycteris noctivigans (silver-haired bat), 16 percent; Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat), 11.7 percent; Myotis californicus (California myotis), 4.3 percent; M. evotis (long-eared myotis), 7.4 percent; M. leibii (small-footed myotis), 5.3 percent; M. thysanodes (fringed myotis), 13.8 percent; M. volans (long-legged myotis), 7.4 percent of the catch; M. yumanensis,(Yuma myotis), 5.3 percent; Pipistrellus hesperus (western pipistrelle), 1.1 percent; Plecotus townsendii (Townsend`s big-eared bat), 1.1 percent, and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat), 5.3 percent.

Tyrell, K.; Brack, V. Jr.

1992-10-29

371

Enzootic and epizootic rabies associated with vampire bats, peru.  

PubMed

During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002-2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non-vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans. PMID:23969087

Condori-Condori, Rene Edgar; Streicker, Daniel G; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

2013-09-01

372

Great tits search for, capture, kill and eat hibernating bats  

PubMed Central

Ecological pressure paired with opportunism can lead to surprising innovations in animal behaviour. Here, we report predation of great tits (Parus major) on hibernating pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) at a Hungarian cave. Over two winters, we directly observed 18 predation events. The tits specifically and systematically searched for and killed bats for food. A substantial decrease in predation on bats after experimental provisioning of food to the tits further supports the hypothesis that bat-killing serves a foraging purpose in times of food scarcity. We finally conducted a playback experiment to test whether tits would eavesdrop on calls of awakening bats to find them in rock crevices. The tits could clearly hear the calls and were attracted to the loudspeaker. Records for tit predation on bats at this cave now span more than ten years and thus raise the question of whether cultural transmission plays a role for the spread of this foraging innovation.

Estok, Peter; Zsebok, Sandor; Siemers, Bjorn M.

2010-01-01

373

Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Turner, Gregory G.; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michell; Russell, Robin E.; Castle, Kevin T.

2013-01-01

374

Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia Species in Bat Ticks, France, 2010  

PubMed Central

Argas vespertilionis, an argasid tick associated with bats and bat habitats in Europe, Africa, and Asia has been reported to bite humans; however, studies investigating the presence of vector-borne pathogens in these ticks are lacking. Using molecular tools, we tested 5 A. vespertilionis ticks collected in 2010 from the floor of a bat-infested attic in southwestern France that had been converted into bedrooms. Rickettsia sp. AvBat, a new genotype of spotted fever group rickettsiae, was detected and cultivated from 3 of the 5 ticks. A new species of the Ehrlichia canis group, Ehrlichia sp. AvBat, was also detected in 3 ticks. Four ticks were infected with Borrelia sp. CPB1, a relapsing fever agent of the Borrelia group that caused fatal borreliosis in a bat in the United Kingdom. Further studies are needed to characterize these new agents and determine if the A. vespertilionis tick is a vector and/or reservoir of these agents.

Socolovschi, Cristina; Kernif, Tahar; Raoult, Didier

2012-01-01

375

Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats.  

PubMed

The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances. PMID:23568916

Cryan, Paul M; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Turner, Gregory G; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle; Russell, Robin E; Castle, Kevin T

2013-04-01

376

Genome Analysis of Bat Adenovirus 2: Indications of Interspecies Transmission  

PubMed Central

The genome of bat adenovirus 2 was sequenced and analyzed. It is similar in size (31,616 bp) to the genomes of bat adenovirus 3 and canine adenoviruses 1 and 2. These four viruses are monophyletic and share an identical genome organization, with one E3 gene and four E4 genes unique to this group among the mastadenoviruses. These findings suggest that canine adenoviruses may have originated by interspecies transfer of a vespertilionid bat adenovirus.

Vidovszky, Marton Z.; Muhldorfer, Kristin; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojtek; Radonic, Aleksandar; Nitsche, Andreas; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Harrach, Balazs

2012-01-01

377

Genome analysis of bat adenovirus 2: indications of interspecies transmission.  

PubMed

The genome of bat adenovirus 2 was sequenced and analyzed. It is similar in size (31,616 bp) to the genomes of bat adenovirus 3 and canine adenoviruses 1 and 2. These four viruses are monophyletic and share an identical genome organization, with one E3 gene and four E4 genes unique to this group among the mastadenoviruses. These findings suggest that canine adenoviruses may have originated by interspecies transfer of a vespertilionid bat adenovirus. PMID:22130531

Kohl, Claudia; Vidovszky, Márton Z; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojtek; Radoni?, Aleksandar; Nitsche, Andreas; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Harrach, Balázs

2011-11-30

378

Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

Cryan, P. M.; Barclay, R. M. R.

2009-01-01

379

Interindividual use of echolocation calls: Eavesdropping by bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of other individual's echolocation calls by little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, was tested by observing the response of free-flying bats to presentations of recorded echolocation calls and artificial sounds. Bats responded by approaching conspecific calls while searching for food, night roosts, nursery colonies and mating\\/hibernation sites. Response was low or non-existant to other sounds. While searching for prey,

Robert M. R. Barclay

1982-01-01

380

Changes in the contents of oleoresin and pungent bioactive principles of Jamaican ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.) during maturation.  

PubMed

Changes in the yields of the oleoresin and content of pungent bioactive principles: [6], [8], [10] gingerols and [6] shogaol of Jamaican ginger ( Zingiber officinale) were investigated during different stages of maturity (7-9 months). Ethanolic oleoresin extracts were prepared (95%, w/w) by cold maceration of dried ginger powder, and their percentage yields were calculated (w/w). The pungent bioactive principles in the ginger oleoresin were extracted with methanol and quantitatively analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ginger harvested at 8 months from Bourbon, Portland had the highest oleoresin yield (8.46 +/- 0.46%). [6] Gingerol was found to be the most abundant pungent bioactive principle in all the oleoresin samples investigated, with the 9 months sample from Bourbon, Portland containing the highest level (28.94 +/- 0.39%). The content of [6] gingerols was also found to be consistently high (7-9 months) in oleoresin samples from Johnson Mountain, St. Thomas (15.12 +/- 0.39 to 16.02 +/- 0.95%). The results suggest that Bourbon in Portland may be the most ideal location for cultivating ginger for high yields and quality, however, Johnson Mountain in St. Thomas could prove to be the least restrictive location, allowing for harvesting of good quality material throughout the maturity period (7-9 months). PMID:18564850

Bailey-Shaw, Yvonne A; Williams, Lawrence A D; Junor, Grace-Ann O; Green, Cheryl E; Hibbert, Sheridan L; Salmon, Colleen N A; Smith, Ann Marie

2008-06-20

381

Determinants of adequate follow-up of an abnormal Papanicolaou result among Jamaican women in Portland, Jamaica  

PubMed Central

Background Among Jamaican women, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality but factors that facilitate follow-up of women receiving abnormal Pap smear results are not known. We examined whether socio-demographic factors, factors reported by the women, and assistance received for follow-up facilitate adequate follow-up of abnormal Pap smears. Methods One hundred-and-twenty-one women who had abnormal Pap results during June 1998–September 2005 in Portland, Jamaica were interviewed to identify determinants of adequate follow-up. Chi-square, t-test and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify determinants. Results Only half of the women in this sample sought adequate follow-up. These women had a lower number of surviving children, higher monthly income, and perceived the cost of services to be inexpensive. Advice about the timing of the follow-up activity and the next step to take by the healthcare workers were significant determinants of adequate follow-up. Women who received advice on the timing of follow-up were almost six times (adjusted OR: 5.99, 95% CI: 1.17, 30.66, p<0.05) more likely to seek adequate follow-up after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions Perceived low cost of services as well as assistance provided by healthcare workers regarding follow-up action helps to facilitate adequate follow-up of abnormal Pap smear results.

Jeong, Su Jin; Saroha, Ekta; Knight, Jeremy; Roofe, Michele; Jolly, Pauline E.

2010-01-01

382

Health-hazard-evaluation report HETA 87-371-2000, Technical Assistance to the Jamaican Ministry of Health, Kingston, Jamaica  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from the Jamaican Ministry of Health, a study was made of possible health hazards existing due to the operation of a secondary lead smelter in Saint Catherine Parish, Jamaica. Emission controls at the site were upgraded in 1974. A cottage industry of clandestine backyard smelters was also in operation in the area. The survey investigated the health of residents in 58 households in the Red Pond Road community and 21 households in Ebony Vale. Soil lead levels in Red Pond exceeded 500 parts per million at 24% of the households tested. Ten paint samples taken from Red Pond homes exceeded 1% lead by weight. The geometric mean blood lead level of those tested in Red Pond was more than twice the level found in those tested in Ebony Vale. Forty four percent of the children under 6 years of age in Red Pond had blood lead levels above 25 micrograms/deciliter. Soil lead contamination was the strongest predictor of blood lead levels among the Red Pond subjects under 12 years of age. Lead smelter work was an important predictor in the older subjects. The authors conclude that the backyard smelters in combination with the secondary smelter caused a high lead poisoning risk for area residents. The authors recommend that residents stop the backyard smelting operations, and that efforts be made to reduce exposure through hazard abatement, education, and establishment of clean play areas for children.

Matte, T.D.; Burr, G.A.

1989-12-01

383

Longitudinal variation in the composition of the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of a typical North coast Jamaican river.  

PubMed

Benthic macroinvertebrate fauna plays a major role in river ecosystems, especially those of tropical islands. Since there is no information on the distribution of benthic invertebrates along a Jamaican river, we report here on the composition of the benthic fauna of the Buff Bay river, on the Northern coast of Jamaica. A total of 14 samples were collected from five sites, using kick nets and a Surber sampler, between May 1997 and October 1998. We also examined the applicability of the rhithron/potamon model, and some of the premises of the River Continuum Concept (RCC) in relation to the distribution of invertebrate taxa. The results showed a total of 38 taxa of identified invertebrates. A group of dominant taxa, composed mainly of immature stages of insects, occurred at all sites. Two notable characteristics of the river were the absence of a true potamonic fauna and the low representation of the shredder functional feeding group in the community We conclude that, while there was minor variation in the composition of the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna among the sites, this was a response to local conditions within the river system. The characteristics of the community did not conform to either of the models. PMID:22458225

Hyslop, Eric J; Hunte-Brown, Meshagae

2012-03-01

384

STUDIES ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF RABIES IN INSECTIVOROUS BATS  

PubMed Central

Studies on the influence of environmental temperature on the pathogenesis of rabies in two species of experimentally infected Chiroptera, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida mexicana) and the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), provided evidence that little or no viral multiplication occurs in the inactive host during experimentally induced hibernation. When inoculated animals are wakened from hibernation by transfer to a warm room, virus previously in "cold storage" multiplies, reaching detectable levels in various tissues. Similar results were obtained with two strains of rabies virus, a canine rabies street virus which produced a fatal infection in man and a strain isolated from the pooled brown fat of naturally infected little brown bats. However, certain differences in the characteristics of these virus strains were observed. The canine rabies virus strain produced an encephalitic disease in mice and overt symptoms in bats; the bat rabies virus producing an encephalomyelitic disease in mice and infrequent symptoms in bats. The bat rabies virus had a greater predilection for brown adipose tissue than the canine strain. Results obtained with the bat rabies virus in hibernating animals indicate that after a period of latency in a dormant animal activated virus may reach the salivary gland more rapidly, with greater frequency, and attain higher concentrations than in animals which have not experienced a period of hibernation. The significance of these results as they relate to the natural history of bat rabies is discussed.

Sulkin, S. Edward; Allen, Rae; Sims, Ruth; Krutzsch, Philip H.; Kim, Chansoo

1960-01-01

385

A mechanism for antiphonal echolocation by Free-tailed bats  

PubMed Central

Bats are highly social and spend much of their lives echolocating in the presence of other bats. To reduce the effects of acoustic interferences from other bats' echolocation calls, we hypothesized that bats might shift the timing of their pulse emissions to minimize temporal overlap with another bat's echolocation pulses. To test this hypothesis we investigated whether free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) echolocating in the lab would shift the timing of their own pulse emissions in response to regularly repeating artificial acoustic stimuli. A robust phase-locked temporal pattern in pulse emissions was displayed by every bat tested which included an initial suppressive phase lasting more than 60 ms after stimulus onset, during which the probability of emitting pulses was reduced by more than fifty percent, followed by a compensatory rebound phase, the timing and amplitude of which were dependent on the temporal pattern of the stimulus. The responses were non-adapting and were largely insensitive to broad changes in the acoustic properties of the stimulus. Randomly occurring noise-bursts also suppressed calling for up to 60 ms, but the time-course of the compensatory rebound phase was more rapid than when the bats were responding to regularly repeating patterns of noise bursts. These findings provide the first quantitative description of how external stimuli may cause echolocating bats to alter the timing of subsequent pulse emissions.

Jarvis, Jenna; Bohn, Kirsten M.; Tressler, Jedediah; Smotherman, Michael

2010-01-01

386

Ectoparasites (Insecta and Acari) associated with bats in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The result of a survey of ectoparasites infesting bats in southeastern Brazil is presented. Of 181 bats belonging to 16 species, 10 (34.1%) were infested by streblid flies (Streblidae), nine (33.5%) by spinturnicid mites (Spinturnicidae), and five (8.3%) by macronyssid mites (Macronyssidae). One species of the families Trombiculidae and Myobiidae was found. A total of 195 streblids, 178 spinturnicids, and 76 macronyssids was collected. Paratrichobius longicrus was the most abundant bat fly species (50 specimens). The spinturnicid mite Periglischrus iheringi was the most abundant ectoparasite species (159 specimens) and was recorded on three different bat species; Radfordiella desmodi was the most numerous macronyssid (69 specimens). PMID:21845932

Almeida, Juliana C; Silva, Shirley S P; Serra-Freire, Nicolau M; Valim, Michel P

2011-07-01

387

The evolution of bat pollination: a phylogenetic perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Most tropical and subtropical plants are biotically pollinated, and insects are the major pollinators. A small but ecologically and economically important group of plants classified in 28 orders, 67 families and about 528 species of angiosperms are pollinated by nectar-feeding bats. From a phylogenetic perspective this is a derived pollination mode involving a relatively large and energetically expensive pollinator. Here its ecological and evolutionary consequences are explored. Scope and Conclusions This review summarizes adaptations in bats and plants that facilitate this interaction and discusses the evolution of bat pollination from a plant phylogenetic perspective. Two families of bats contain specialized flower visitors, one in the Old World and one in the New World. Adaptation to pollination by bats has evolved independently many times from a variety of ancestral conditions, including insect-, bird- and non-volant mammal-pollination. Bat pollination predominates in very few families but is relatively common in certain angiosperm subfamilies and tribes. We propose that flower-visiting bats provide two important benefits to plants: they deposit large amounts of pollen and a variety of pollen genotypes on plant stigmas and, compared with many other pollinators, they are long-distance pollen dispersers. Bat pollination tends to occur in plants that occur in low densities and in lineages producing large flowers. In highly fragmented tropical habitats, nectar bats play an important role in maintaining the genetic continuity of plant populations and thus have considerable conservation value.

Fleming, Theodore H.; Geiselman, Cullen; Kress, W. John

2009-01-01

388

Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats.  

PubMed

Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat's perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene. PMID:21705213

Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

2011-06-24

389

Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

George, D. B.; Webb, C. T.; Farnsworth, M. L.; O'Shea, T. J.; Bowen, R. A.; Smith, D. L.; Stanley, T. R.; Ellison, L. E.; Rupprecht, C. E.

2011-01-01

390

Parasitism by bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) on neotropical bats: effects of host body size, distribution, and abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the correlations between prevalence (proportion of infested individuals), mean intensity (number of parasites\\u000a per infested individual), and the number of bat fly species parasitizing bats in Venezuela with host body mass, distribution,\\u000a and abundance. Of 133 bat species sampled, 53 species in six families were captured frequently enough to allow estimation\\u000a of their parasite loads. Over all species

Bruce D. Patterson; Carl W. Dick; Katharina Dittmar

2008-01-01

391

Repeated detection of European bat lyssavirus type 2 in dead bats found at a single roost site in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 2007, European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) was isolated from a Daubenton’s bat found at Stokesay Castle. In September\\u000a 2008, another bat from the same vicinity of Stokesay Castle also tested positive for EBLV-2. This is the first occurrence\\u000a of repeated detection of EBLV-2 from a single site. Here, we report the detection of low levels of viral

Ashley C. Banyard; N. Johnson; K. Voller; D. Hicks; A. Nunez; M. Hartley; A. R. Fooks

2009-01-01

392

The developmental basis of bat wing muscle.  

PubMed

By acquiring wings, bats are the only mammalian lineage to have achieved flight. To be capable of powered flight, they have unique muscles associated with their wing. However, the developmental origins of bat wing muscles, and the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are unknown. Here we report, first, that the wing muscles are derived from multiple myogenic sources with different embryonic origins, and second, that there is a spatiotemporal correlation between the outgrowth of wing membranes and the expansion of wing muscles into them. Together, these findings imply that the wing membrane itself may regulate the patterning of wing muscles. Last, through comparative gene expression analysis, we show Fgf10 signalling is uniquely activated in the primordia of wing membranes. Our results demonstrate how components of Fgf signalling are likely to be involved in the development and evolution of novel complex adaptive traits. PMID:23250432

Tokita, Masayoshi; Abe, Takaaki; Suzuki, Kazuo

2012-01-01

393

Win(d)-Win(d) Solutions for wind developers and bats  

SciTech Connect

Bat Conservation International initiated a multi-year, pre-construction study in mid-summer 2009 to investigate patterns of bat activity and evaluate the use of acoustic monitoring to predict mortality of bats at the proposed Resolute Wind Energy Project (RWEP) in east-central Wyoming. The primary objectives of this study were to: (1) determine levels and patterns of activity for three phonic groups of bats (high-frequency emitting bats, low-frequency emitting bats, and hoary bats) using the proposed wind facility prior to construction of turbines; (2) determine if bat activity can be predicted based on weather patterns; correlate bat activity with weather variables; and (3) combine results from this study with those from similar efforts to determine if indices of pre-construction bat activity can be used to predict post-construction bat fatalities at proposed wind facilities. We report results from two years of pre-construction data collection.

Cris Hein; Michael Schirmacher; Ed Arnett; Manuela Huso

2011-10-31

394

Ecological and economic services provided by birds on Jamaican Blue Mountain coffee farms.  

PubMed

Coffee farms can support significant biodiversity, yet intensification of farming practices is degrading agricultural habitats and compromising ecosystem services such as biological pest control. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the world's primary coffee pest. Researchers have demonstrated that birds reduce insect abundance on coffee farms but have not documented avian control of the berry borer or quantified avian benefits to crop yield or farm income. We conducted a bird-exclosure experiment on coffee farms in the Blue Mountains, Jamaica, to measure avian pest control of berry borers, identify potential predator species, associate predator abundance and borer reductions with vegetation complexity, and quantify resulting increases in coffee yield. Coffee plants excluded from foraging birds had significantly higher borer infestation, more borer broods, and greater berry damage than control plants. We identified 17 potential predator species (73% were wintering Neotropical migrants), and 3 primary species composed 67% of migrant detections. Average relative bird abundance and diversity and relative resident predator abundance increased with greater shade-tree cover. Although migrant predators overall did not respond to vegetation complexity variables, the 3 primary species increased with proximity to noncoffee habitat patches. Lower infestation on control plants was correlated with higher total bird abundance, but not with predator abundance or vegetation complexity. Infestation of fruit was 1-14% lower on control plants, resulting in a greater quantity of saleable fruits that had a market value of US$44-$105/ha in 2005/2006. Landscape heterogeneity in this region may allow mobile predators to provide pest control broadly, despite localized farming intensities. These results provide the first evidence that birds control coffee berry borers and thus increase coffee yield and farm income, a potentially important conservation incentive for producers. PMID:18616745

Kellermann, Jherime L; Johnson, Matthew D; Stercho, Amy M; Hackett, Steven C

2008-10-01

395

An autocorrelation model of bat sonar.  

PubMed

Their sonar system allows echolocating bats to navigate with high skill through a complex, three- dimensional environment at high speed and low light. The auditory analysis of the echoes of their ultrasonic sounds requires a detailed comparison of the emission and echoes. Here an auditory model of bat sonar is introduced and evaluated against a set of psychophysical phantom-target, echo-acoustic experiments. The model consists of a relatively detailed simulation of auditory peripheral processing in the bat, Phyllostomus discolor, followed by a functional module consisting of a strobed, normalised, autocorrelation in each frequency channel. The model output is accumulated in a sonar image buffer. The model evaluation is based on the comparison of the image-buffer contents generated in individually simulated psychophysical trials. The model provides reasonably good predictions for both temporal and spectral behavioural sonar processing in terms of sonar delay-, roughness, and phase sensitivity and in terms of sensitivity to the temporal separations in two-front targets and the classification of spectrally divergent phantom targets. PMID:18491168

Wiegrebe, Lutz

2008-05-20

396

NCEP Exercise- Bats of Madagascar: How to Manage a Landscape to Protect Bats.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise students analyze given data to assess which areas in a landscape are important areas for bat conservation. Students will identify potential areas of importance on a map, prioritize these areas, assess threats to bat conservation, evaluate what additional information is needed, and justify their priorities based on data and evidence. Additional teaching materials on topics relating to biodiversity conservation and ecology can be obtained free of charge by registering at the Network for Conservation Educators and PractitionersÃÂ website (http://ncep.amnh.org).

Cardiff, S. G.

2010-02-16

397

Mosquito Consumption by Insectivorous Bats: Does Size Matter?  

PubMed Central

Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito control activities.

Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

2013-01-01

398

Mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?  

PubMed

Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito control activities. PMID:24130851

Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

2013-10-10

399

Population Data on the Thirteen CODIS Core Short Tandem Repeat Loci in African Americans, U.S. Caucasians, Hispanics, Bahamians, Jamaicans, and Trinidadians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allele distributions for 13 tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) loci, CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, and D21S11, were determined in African American, United States Cau- casian, Hispanic, Bahamian, Jamaican, and Trinidadian sample populations. There was little evidence for departures from Hardy- Weinberg expectations (HWE) in any of the populations. Based on the exact

Bruce Budowle; Tamyra R. Moretti; Anne L. Baumstark; Debra A. Defenbaugh; Kathleen M. Keys

400

Mechanism of Fruit Ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The making of a fruit is a developmental process unique to plants. It requires a complex network of interacting genes and\\u000a signaling pathways. In fleshy fruit, it involves three distinct stages, namely, fruit set, fruit development, and fruit ripening.\\u000a Of these, ripening has received most attention from geneticists and breeders, as this important process activates a whole\\u000a set of biochemical

M. Bouzayen; A. Latché; P. Nath; J. C. Pech

401

Hepatitis virus in long-fingered bats, myanmar.  

PubMed

During an analysis of the virome of bats from Myanmar, a large number of reads were annotated to orthohepadnaviruses. We present the full genome sequence and a morphological analysis of an orthohepadnavirus circulating in bats. This virus is substantially different from currently known members of the genus Orthohepadnavirus and represents a new species. PMID:23631923

He, Biao; Fan, Quanshui; Yang, Fanli; Hu, Tingsong; Qiu, Wei; Feng, Ye; Li, Zuosheng; Li, Yingying; Zhang, Fuqiang; Guo, Huancheng; Zou, Xiaohuan; Tu, Changchun

2013-04-01

402

A Batting Average: Does It Represent Ability or Luck?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently Bickel and Stotz (2003) explored differences in players' batting average (AVG) over pitch count, and noted that many people misinterpreted the drop in batting average when there was two strikes. Stotz (2004) decomposes AVG as a product of two terms, the rate of not striking out, and an \\

Jim Albert

2004-01-01

403

Babesia vesperuginis: natural and experimental infections in British bats (Microchiroptera).  

PubMed

Babesia vesperuginis is described from blood of two species of British bat: Pipistrellus pipistrellus and Myotis mystacinus. Reticulocytes appeared significantly elevated in blood films of P. pipistrellus infected with B. vesperuginis compared with uninfected laboratory-maintained bats or apparently uninfected wild-caught bats. Infected captive bats had significantly enlarged spleens. B. vesperuginis was transmitted by inoculation of infected blood to 5 uninfected captive P. pipistrellus. The course of infection followed a pattern of a rising parasitaemia accompanied by a rise in reticulocytes, followed by a fall in parasitaemia to low (less than 0.1%) or undetectable levels. When sacrificed, the Babesia-infected bats had significantly lowered blood haemoglobin, significantly raised white blood cell counts and enlarged spleens compared to uninfected bats. Attempts to transmit the parasite to irradiated and athymic 'nude' mice by inoculation of infected blood were unsuccessful. The experimental results and observations of infected wild bats indicate the potential pathogenicity of B. vesperuginis to bats. It is likely that the vector of B. vesperuginis is Argas vespertilionis because no Ixodid ticks were found on P. pistrellus. PMID:3696774

Gardner, R A; Molyneux, D H

1987-12-01

404

Baseball bat injuries to the maxillofacial region caused by assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Baseball bats, although meant for recreational use, are also frequently used as assault weapons, resulting in multiple types of injuries including those in the maxillofacial region. This report reviews the patients admitted to the Maryland Institute of Emergency Medical Service with maxillofacial injuries caused by blunt trauma from assault with a baseball bat between July 1989 and January 1994.Patients

Robert A. Ord; Richard M. Benian

1995-01-01

405

Wing Kinematics and Wake Velocity Characteristics of Bat Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats demonstrate unequalled flight characteristics and are capable of highly efficient flight as well as extreme maneuverability at high speeds. They have morphological properties that are unique in the animal world including jointed wings skeletons, elastic wing membranes and very complex wing motions. We report on a series of experiments on bats flying in a flight cage along both a

Sharon Swartz

2005-01-01

406

Bats: Swift Shadows in the Twilight. The Wonder Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide is all about bats and provides information through the telling of stories about bats and their history and folklore. The activities contained in this guide employ an interdisciplinary approach and use mazes, puzzles, model-building, and board games to interest and inform students. Topics covered include the physical…

Cooper, Ann C.

407

High duty cycle echolocation and prey detection by bats.  

PubMed

There are two very different approaches to laryngeal echolocation in bats. Although most bats separate pulse and echo in time by signalling at low duty cycles (LDCs), almost 20% of species produce calls at high duty cycles (HDCs) and separate pulse and echo in frequency. HDC echolocators are sensitive to Doppler shifts. HDC echolocation is well suited to detecting fluttering targets such as flying insects against a cluttered background. We used two complementary experiments to evaluate the relative effectiveness of LDC and HDC echolocation for detecting fluttering prey. We measured echoes from fluttering targets by broadcasting artificial bat calls, and found that echo amplitude was greatest for sounds similar to those used in HDC echolocation. We also collected field recordings of syntopic LDC and HDC bats approaching an insect-like fluttering target and found that HDC bats approached the target more often (18.6% of passes) than LDC bats (1.2% of passes). Our results suggest that some echolocation call characteristics, particularly duty cycle and pulse duration, translate into improved ability to detect fluttering targets in clutter, and that HDC echolocation confers a superior ability to detect fluttering prey in the forest understory compared with LDC echolocation. The prevalence of moths in the diets of HDC bats, which is often used as support for the allotonic frequency hypothesis, can therefore be partly explained by the better flutter detection ability of HDC bats. PMID:21389198

Lazure, Louis; Fenton, M Brock

2011-04-01

408

Assessing bat detectability and occupancy with multiple automated ...  

Treesearch

... Anabat, bat, detection probability, echolocation, occupancy, sampling design ... its ability to account for differential detection probabilities is important for studies in which ... Acceptable accuracy often was not attained until at least 15 sites or 15 visits ... The method has significant potential for use in monitoring trends in bat ...

409

Hepatitis Virus in Long-Fingered Bats, Myanmar  

PubMed Central

During an analysis of the virome of bats from Myanmar, a large number of reads were annotated to orthohepadnaviruses. We present the full genome sequence and a morphological analysis of an orthohepadnavirus circulating in bats. This virus is substantially different from currently known members of the genus Orthohepadnavirus and represents a new species.

He, Biao; Fan, Quanshui; Yang, Fanli; Hu, Tingsong; Qiu, Wei; Feng, Ye; Li, Zuosheng; Li, Yingying; Zhang, Fuqiang; Guo, Huancheng; Zou, Xiaohuan

2013-01-01

410

Plasminogen Activator in Saliva of the Vampire Bat Desmodus rotundus  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT was generally accepted that vampire bats were bloodsucking animals until 1932 when Dunn1 observed that these animals use their tongues to lap blood from freely bleeding wounds inflicted by means of razor-sharp superior incisors. This observation was confirmed by Ditmars and Greenhall2 and by many subsequent investigators, and it has been noticed that bites inflicted by vampire bats not

Christine Hawkey

1966-01-01

411

A review of batting in men’s cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we critically evaluate the scientific research into the morphology and physiology of cricket batsmen. We consider all aspects of the motor control of this skill, in the context of research into dynamic interceptive actions, the biomechanics (kinematics and kinetics) of the various phases of batting strokes and injuries to batsmen. Some attention is also devoted to batting

Richard A. Stretch; Roger Bartlett; Keith Davids

2000-01-01

412

Dolphin and bat sonar: Convergence, divergence, or parallelism  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the explosive period of mammalian radiation, two groups emerged with highly effective biosonar systems, bats and toothed whales. In the intervening 50 million years, these groups evolutionarily honed their hearing for operation in radically different media. This paper addresses what functional aspects the media influenced in the biosonar receptors of bats versus dolphins by comparing the auditory peripheries of

Darlene R. Ketten; James Simmons; Allyn E. Hubbard

2001-01-01

413

Bats: Swift Shadows in the Twilight. The Wonder Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is all about bats and provides information through the telling of stories about bats and their history and folklore. The activities contained in this guide employ an interdisciplinary approach and use mazes, puzzles, model-building, and board games to interest and inform students. Topics covered include the physical…

Cooper, Ann C.

414

Bimodal Echolocation in Pipistrelle Bats: Are Cryptic Species Present?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pipistrelle bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus is the most widespread in Europe, and is often the most abundant bat species in northern and central Europe. P. pipistrellus has traditionally been considered as one species throughout Europe. Here we show that: (i) the echolocation calls of pipistrelles fall into two distinct frequency bands in Britain, with frequencies containing most energy averaging 46

Gareth Jones; Sofie M. van Parijs

1993-01-01

415

Going, Going, Gone! The Making of a Baseball Bat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From little league players to professional athletes, baseball has become a sport that is not only fun to play and watch, but also a sport driven by innovation and technology. One particular piece of baseball equipment that has undergone many changes is the baseball bat. Prior to the early 1970s, wooden bats were the only choice available. Today,…

Cantu, Diana

2012-01-01

416

New Ornithological Radar Technologies for Bird & Bat Discrimination & Species Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radars are more frequently being used to develop data on bird and bat activity at proposed wind turbine sites for determination of mortality risk. Radar provides superior data compared to traditional bird and bat survey techniques generating highly robust datasets to support the risk analysis. Most radar systems to date, however, have used marine radars and, while some are capable

Scott McLaughlin; Andreas Smith

417

Causes of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines: Hypotheses and Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been

Paul M. Cryan; Robert M. R. Barclay

2009-01-01

418

Session: Avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This session at the Wind Energy and Birds\\/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion\\/question answer period. The session addressed a variety of questions related to avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating the avian and bat impacts of wind power development including: what has been learned from operating turbines and mitigating impacts where they are unavoidable, such as at Altamont

Carl Thelander; Paul Kerlinger

2004-01-01

419

Going, Going, Gone! The Making of a Baseball Bat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From little league players to professional athletes, baseball has become a sport that is not only fun to play and watch, but also a sport driven by innovation and technology. One particular piece of baseball equipment that has undergone many changes is the baseball bat. Prior to the early 1970s, wooden bats were the only choice available. Today,…

Cantu, Diana

2012-01-01

420

Australian Bat Lyssavirus: A Recently Discovered New Rhabdovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV), first identified in 1996, has been associated with two human fatalities. ABLV is genetically and serologically distinct from, but is closely related to, classical rabies. It has a bullet-shaped morphology by electron microscopy. There are two strains of ABLV known: one circulates in frugivorous bats, sub-order Megachiroptera, and the other circulates in the smaller, mainly insectivorous

D. Warrilow

421

Human rabies due to lyssavirus infection of bat origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitis and results from infection with viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus. Infection usually results from a bite from a dog infected with classical rabies virus. However, a small number of cases result from contact with bats. It is within bats that most lyssavirus variants, referred to as genotypes, are found. The lyssaviruses found in

N. Johnson; A. Vos; C. Freuling; N. Tordo; A. R. Fooks; T. Müller

2010-01-01

422

European Bat Lyssavirus Type 2 RNA in Myotis daubentonii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organ distribution of European bat lyssavirus type 2 viral RNA in its reservoir host, Myotis daubentonii (Daubenton's bat), was measured with a novel quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. High levels of genomic RNA were found in the brain and were also detectable in the tongue, bladder, and stomach.

Nicholas Johnson; Philip R. Wakeley; Sharon M. Brookes; Anthony R. Fooks

423

Bat wing structures important for aerodynamics and rigidity (Mammalia, chiroptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From comparisons between bat wing structures and aerofoils and high-lift devices with known aerodynamic data, from the aeronautical literature, deductions are made regarding the function of some bat wing structures. Special arrangements in the hand wing add to rigidity and reduce the demands for powerful muscles and thick digits, thereby reducing the mass of the wing.1.The anterior part of the

Ulla M. Norberg

1972-01-01

424

The implications of food hardness for diet in bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Neotropical bat communities are characterized by a broad species diversity, which can be achieved and maintained only through partitioning of the available resources. 2. Here patterns of trophic resource utilization within a single neotropical savanna bat community are investigated. Moreover, the physical properties of food items (i.e. hardness), its variation with food size, and whether food hardness differs

L. F. Aguirre; A. Herrel; R. Van Damme; E. MatThysen

2003-01-01

425

Comparative auditory neurophysiology of neotropical bats employing different echolocation signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Five species of neotropical bats, which emit echolocation pulses different than those employed by bats previously studied, were investigated in an attempt to find corresponding differences in mechanisms of neural analysis. Evoked potentials were recorded from the posterior colliculi and more peripheral levels in anesthetized specimens.2.Each species was found to be most sensitive in approximately the same frequency range it

Alan D. Grinnell

1970-01-01

426

Brevity is prevalent in bat short-range communication.  

PubMed

Animal communication follows many coding schemes. Less is known about the coding strategy for signal length and rates of use in animal vocal communication. A generalized brevity (negative relation between signal length and frequency of use) is innovatively explored but remains controversial in animal vocal communication. We tested brevity for short-range social and distress sounds from four echolocating bats: adult black-bearded tomb bat Taphozous melanopogon, Mexican free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis, adult greater horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, and adult least horseshoe bat Rhinolophus pusillus. There was a negative association between duration and number of social but not distress calls emitted. The most frequently emitted social calls were brief, while most distress calls were long. Brevity or lengthiness was consistently selected in vocal communications for each species. Echolocating bats seem to have convergent coding strategy for communication calls. The results provide the evidence of efficient coding in bat social vocalizations, and lay the basis of future researches on the convergence for neural control on bats' communication calls. PMID:23377576

Luo, Bo; Jiang, Tinglei; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Lin, Aiqing; Wei, Xuewen; Feng, Jiang

2013-02-02

427

75 FR 57097 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Release No. 34-62901; File No. SR-BATS-2010-024] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt BATS Rule 2.12, Entitled ``BATS Trading,...

2010-09-17

428

77 FR 33798 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Release No. 34-67093; File No. SR-BATS-2012-018] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rules Related to the Operation of BATS...

2012-06-07

429

Dieldrin-induced mortality in an endangered species, the gray bat (Myotis grisescens)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Brains of juvenile gray bats, Myotis grisescens, found dead beneath maternity roosts in two Missouri caves contained lethal concentrations of dieldrin. One colony appeared to be abnormally small, and more dead bats were found a year after the juvenile bats had been collected. This is the first report to link the field mortality of bats directly to insecticide residues acquired through the food chain.

Clark, D.R., Jr.; LaVal, R.K.; Swineford, D.M.

1978-01-01

430

The BIO-acoustic feature extraction and classification of bat echolocation calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are reports that large number of bat fatalities occur near wind turbines. Acoustic characteristics can be employed for bat call recognition to better understand the effects of turbines on different bat species. Acoustic features of bat echolocation calls are extracted based on three different techniques: Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient (MFCC) and Discrete Wavelet Transform

Golrokh Mirzaei; Mohammad Wadood Majid; Jeremy Ross; Mohsin M. Jamali; Peter V. Gorsevski; Joseph P. Frizado; Verner P. Bingman

2012-01-01

431

Public health risk analysis of European bat lyssavirus infection in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the frequency and the nature of contact incidents of the Serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus, with humans and with companion animals (specifically cats and dogs), in The Netherlands between 2000 and 2005. Out of 17 bats in bite contact with humans, five tested positive for European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) type 1a. Cats had the most numerous contacts with bats

K. Takumi; P. H. C. Lina; Poel van der W. H. M; J. A. Kramps; Giessen van der J. W. B

2009-01-01

432

Evolutionary Relationships between Bat Coronaviruses and Their Hosts  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have suggested that bats are the natural reservoir of a range of coronaviruses (CoVs), and that rhinolophid bats harbor viruses closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV, which caused an outbreak of respiratory illness in humans during 2002–2003. We examined the evolutionary relationships between bat CoVs and their hosts by using sequence data of the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene and the bat cytochrome b gene. Phylogenetic analyses showed multiple incongruent associations between the phylogenies of rhinolophid bats and their CoVs, which suggested that host shifts have occurred in the recent evolutionary history of this group. These shifts may be due to either virus biologic traits or host behavioral traits. This finding has implications for the emergence of SARS and for the potential future emergence of SARS-CoVs or related viruses.

Cui, Jie; Han, Naijian; Streicker, Daniel; Li, Gang; Tang, Xianchun; Shi, Zhengli; Hu, Zhihong; Zhao, Guoping; Fontanet, Arnaud; Guan, Yi; Wang, Linfa; Jones, Gareth; Field, Hume E.

2007-01-01

433

DDE in brown and white fat of hibernating bats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of brown and white fat from hibernating bats (big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus; little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus; and eastern pipistrelle, Pipistrellus subflavus) collected in western Maryland, USA, were analysed to determine lipid and DDE content. Amounts of brown fat, expressed as percentages of total bat weight, were the same for all three species. Lipid content of brown fat was significantly less than that of white fat. Lipids of brown fat contained significantly higher (28%) concentrations of DDE than did lipids of white fat. In our mixed-species sample of 14 bats, concentrations of DDE increased exponentially in both brown and white fat as white fat reserves declined. Brown fat facilitates arousal from hibernation by producing heat through rapid metabolism of triglycerides. The question is raised whether organochlorine residues, such as DDE, may be concentrated and then liberated in lethal amounts by the processes of hibernation and arousal.

Clark, D.R., Jr.; Krynitsky, A.J.

1983-01-01

434

A Novel Circuit in the Bat’s Midbrain Recruits Neurons into Sound Localization Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe neurons in the auditory midbrain of an echolocating bat that process both the “where” and the “what” of acoustic signals. These two features are temporally segregated in the neural response of these neurons such that the initial component codes the “where” and the late component codes the “what” of a sound that the animal hears. The underlying mechanism

Thomas J. Park; Achim Klug; Jeffrey P. Oswald; Benedikt Grothe

1998-01-01

435

Session: Bat ecology related to wind development and lessons learned about impacts on bats from wind development  

SciTech Connect

This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two paper presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. It was the first of the sessions to shift the focus to the issue of wind energy development's impacts specifically to bats. The presentations discussed lessons that have been learned regarding direct and indirect impacts on bats and strategies planned to address such issues. Presenters addressed what the existing science demonstrates about land-based wind turbine impacts on bats, including: mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts, species and numbers killed, per turbine rates/per MW generated, and impacts on threatened and endangered species. They discussed whether there is sufficient data for wind turbines and bat impacts for projects in the eastern US, especially on ridge tops. Finally, the subject of offshore impacts on bats was briefly addressed, including what lessons have been learned in Europe and how these can be applied in the U S. Paper one, by Greg Johnson, was titled ''A Review of Bat Impacts at Wind Farms in the US''. Paper two, by Thomas Kunz, was titled ''Wind Power: Bats and Wind Turbines''.

Johnson, Greg; Kunz, Thomas

2004-09-01

436

Wind turbines and bat mortality: Doppler shift profiles and ultrasonic bat-like pulse reflection from moving turbine blades.  

PubMed

Bat mortality resulting from actual or near-collision with operational wind turbine rotors is a phenomenon that is widespread but not well understood. Because bats rely on information contained in high-frequency echoes to determine the nature and movement of a target, it is important to consider how ultrasonic pulses similar to those used by bats for echolocation may be interacting with operational turbine rotor blades. By assessing the characteristics of reflected ultrasonic echoes, moving turbine blades operating under low wind speed conditions (<6 m s(-1)) were found to produce distinct Doppler shift profiles at different angles to the rotor. Frequency shifts of up to ±700-800 Hz were produced, which may not be perceptible by some bat species. Monte Carlo simulation of bat-like sampling by echolocation revealed that over 50 rotor echoes could be required by species such as Pipistrellus pipistrellus for accurate interpretation of blade movement, which may not be achieved in the bat's approach time-window. In summary, it was found that echoes returned from moving blades had features which could render them attractive to bats or which might make it difficult for the bat to accurately detect and locate blades in sufficient time to avoid a collision. PMID:20968394

Long, Chloe V; Flint, James A; Lepper, Paul A

2010-10-01

437

The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats---A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines and there is at present no accepted method of reducing or preventing this mortality. Following our demonstration that bat activity is reduced in the vicinity of large air traffic control and weather radars, we tested the hypothesis that an electromagnetic signal from a small portable radar can act as

Barry Nicholls; Paul A. Racey; Raphaël Arlettaz

2009-01-01

438

Temporal Dynamics of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 and Survival of Myotis myotis Bats in Natural Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many emerging RNA viruses of public health concern have recently been detected in bats. However, the dynamics of these viruses in natural bat colonies is presently unknown. Consequently, prediction of the spread of these viruses and the establishment of appropriate control measures are hindered by a lack of information. To this aim, we collected epidemiological, virological and ecological data during

Blanca Amengual; Hervé Bourhy; Marc López-Roig; Jordi Serra-Cobo

2007-01-01

439

Mark's Fruit Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Mark Rieger, a Professor of Horticulture at the University of Georgia, Mark's Fruit Crops is a great educational website on the world's major fruit crops. The site features a Fruit Crops Encyclopedia containing links to information about different types of fruit. The separate fruit pages include attractive photographs intermingled with brief sections on Origin, History of Cultivation, Botanical Description, Production Statistics, and more. Site visitors can access more in-depth information by connecting to Professor Rieger's HORT 320, Introduction to Fruit Crops site which includes PDF files of the course text, a Glossary of Fruit Crops, and other resources. This website also contains links to Fruit Catalogs, and a list of relevant fruit links. [NL

Rieger, Mark

440

Alphacoronaviruses in New World Bats: Prevalence, Persistence, Phylogeny, and Potential for Interaction with Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and\\/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats

Christina Osborne; Paul M. Cryan; Thomas J. O'Shea; Lauren M. Oko; Christina Ndaluka; Charles H. Calisher; Andrew D. Berglund; Mead L. Klavetter; Richard A. Bowen; Kathryn V. Holmes; Samuel R. Dominguez; Joel Mark Montgomery

2011-01-01

441

Molecular species identification boosts bat diversity  

PubMed Central

The lack of obvious morphological differences between species impedes the identification of species in many groups of organisms. Meanwhile, DNA-based approaches are increasingly used to survey biological diversity. In this study we show that sequencing the mitochondrial protein-coding gene NADH dehydrogenase, subunit 1 (nd1) from 534 bats of the Western Palaearctic region corroborates the promise of DNA barcodes in two major respects. First, species described with classical taxonomic tools can be genetically identified with only a few exceptions. Second, substantial sequence divergence suggests an unexpected high number of undiscovered species.

Mayer, Frieder; Dietz, Christian; Kiefer, Andreas

2007-01-01

442

The "bat sign" of pectoral rhabdomyolysis.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old man with foot pain was referred for evaluation of sesamoiditis. A Tc-99m methylene-diphosphonate bone scan was performed which revealed increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in the big toes, but also showed curious abnormal thoracic activity. Normal activity at sternoclavicular joints and sternum mimics ears, head and body of a bat, and the pectorals mimic the wings. The patient mentioned that he had started lifting weights a few days earlier. Clinical and echographic evaluations were diagnostic of pectoral inflammation suggesting rhabdomyolysis. PMID:19692835

Armijo, Soledad; Peña, Mónica; Bustos, Felipe; Morales, Bárbara

2009-09-01

443

Complex sound analysis in the FM bat Eptesicus fuscus , correlated with structural parameters of frequency modulated signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were presented with artificial frequency modulated (FM) echoes that simulated an object becoming progressively closer to the bat. A stereotyped approach phase behavioral response of the bat to the virtual approaching target was used to determine the ability of the bat to analyze FM signals for target distance information. The degree to which the bats

R. C. Roverud; E. R. Rabitoy

1994-01-01

444

Isolation and Characterization of Three Mammalian Orthoreoviruses from European Bats  

PubMed Central

In recent years novel human respiratory disease agents have been described in South East Asia and Australia. The causative pathogens were classified as pteropine orthoreoviruses with strong phylogenetic relationship to orthoreoviruses of flying foxes inhabiting these regions. Subsequently, a zoonotic bat-to-human transmission has been assumed. We report the isolation of three novel mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) from European bats, comprising bat-borne orthoreovirus outside of South East Asia and Australia and moreover detected in insectivorous bats (Microchiroptera). MRVs are well known to infect a broad range of mammals including man. Although they are associated with rather mild and clinically unapparent infections in their hosts, there is growing evidence of their ability to also induce more severe illness in dogs and man. In this study, eight out of 120 vespertilionid bats proved to be infected with one out of three novel MRV isolates, with a distinct organ tropism for the intestine. One isolate was analyzed by 454 genome sequencing. The obtained strain T3/Bat/Germany/342/08 had closest phylogenetic relationship to MRV strain T3D/04, isolated from a dog. These novel reoviruses provide a rare chance of gaining insight into possible transmission events and of tracing the evolution of bat viruses.

Kohl, Claudia; Lesnik, Rene; Brinkmann, Annika; Ebinger, Arnt; Radonic, Aleksandar; Nitsche, Andreas; Muhldorfer, Kristin; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas

2012-01-01

445

Toxicity of methyl parathion to bats: Mortality and coordination loss  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 24-h oral LD50 of methyl parathion (phosphorothioic acid O,O-dimethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) ester) to little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) (372 mg/kg) was 8.5 times the LD50 for mice (Mus musculus) (44 mg/kg). However, orally dosed mice either died or appeared behaviorally normal after 2 to 3 h, whereas many dosed bats, although alive at 24 h, could not right themselves when placed on their backs. The oral dose estimated to cause this loss of coordination in 50% of a sample of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) was one-third or less the LD50 of this species. Cholinesterase activity depression in brains of little brown bats was similar whether dosage was oral or dermal. With death as the criterion, bats proved relatively insensitive to methyl parathion in 24-h tests, but considerations of the chemical's potential to cause coordination loss, leading to capture and death by predators, coupled with bats' naturally low reproductive rates, suggest possible injury to exposed bat populations.

Clark, D.R., Jr.

1986-01-01

446

A quantitative comparison of bird and bat wakes.  

PubMed

Qualitative comparison of bird and bat wakes has demonstrated significant differences in the structure of the far wake. Birds have been found to have a unified vortex wake of the two wings, while bats have a more complex wake with gradients in the circulation along the wingspan, and with each wing generating its own vortex structure. Here, we compare quantitative measures of the circulation in the far wake of three bird and one bat species. We find that bats have a significantly stronger normalized circulation of the start vortex than birds. We also find differences in how the circulation develops during the wingbeat as demonstrated by the ratio of the circulation of the dominant start vortex and the total circulation of the same sense. Birds show a more prominent change with changing flight speed and a relatively weaker start vortex at minimum power speed than bats. We also find that bats have a higher normalized wake loading based on the start vortex, indicating higher relative induced drag and therefore less efficient lift generation than birds. Our results thus indicate fundamental differences in the aerodynamics of bird and bat flight that will further our understanding of the evolution of vertebrate flight. PMID:19324669

Johansson, L Christoffer; Wolf, Marta; Hedenström, Anders

2009-03-25

447

The sonar aperture and its neural representation in bats.  

PubMed

As opposed to visual imaging, biosonar imaging of spatial object properties represents a challenge for the auditory system because its sensory epithelium is not arranged along space axes. For echolocating bats, object width is encoded by the amplitude of its echo (echo intensity) but also by the naturally covarying spread of angles of incidence from which the echoes impinge on the bat's ears (sonar aperture). It is unclear whether bats use the echo intensity and/or the sonar aperture to estimate an object's width. We addressed this question in a combined psychophysical and electrophysiological approach. In three virtual-object playback experiments, bats of the species Phyllostomus discolor had to discriminate simple reflections of their own echolocation calls differing in echo intensity, sonar aperture, or both. Discrimination performance for objects with physically correct covariation of sonar aperture and echo intensity ("object width") did not differ from discrimination performances when only the sonar aperture was varied. Thus, the bats were able to detect changes in object width in the absence of intensity cues. The psychophysical results are reflected in the responses of a population of units in the auditory midbrain and cortex that responded strongest to echoes from objects with a specific sonar aperture, regardless of variations in echo intensity. Neurometric functions obtained from cortical units encoding the sonar aperture are sufficient to explain the behavioral performance of the bats. These current data show that the sonar aperture is a behaviorally relevant and reliably encoded cue for object size in bat sonar. PMID:22031907

Heinrich, Melina; Warmbold, Alexander; Hoffmann, Susanne; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

2011-10-26

448

Bats Track and Exploit Changes in Insect Pest Populations  

PubMed Central

The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators.

McCracken, Gary F.; Westbrook, John K.; Brown, Veronica A.; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

449

Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations.  

PubMed

The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators. PMID:22952782

McCracken, Gary F; Westbrook, John K; Brown, Veronica A; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H

2012-08-31

450

Ectoparasitic Mites (Acari) of Sympatric Brazilian Free-Tailed Bats and Big Brown Bats in Alabama. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven species of mites were recovered from 133 Brazilian free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, and 94 big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, from February through November 1990 in colonies that shared roosting space in east-central Alabama. The macronyssid ...

L. A. Durden T. L. Best N. Wilson C. D. Hilton

1992-01-01

451

Altitudinal migration in bats: evidence, patterns, and drivers.  

PubMed

Altitudinal migrations are common in all major vertebrate and some invertebrate lineages. Such migrations have important implications for the basic and applied ecology of animals making these movements. The idea that bats make altitudinal migrations has been suggested for nearly a century. However, studies documenting the existence and causes of altitudinal bat migrations are scarce, and are frequently published in the 'grey' literature. For the first time, we comprehensively review the evidence supporting the existence of altitudinal bat migrations worldwide, describe basic patterns of migration in temperate and tropical regions, and articulate and propose tests of hypotheses potentially explaining these migrations. We compiled a list of 50 studies indicative of altitudinal bat migration in 61 species (five families) from 21 countries (four continents). The temporal and spatial patterns of these migrations grouped biogeographically. Temperate bats generally exhibit sex-biased migrations with females inhabiting lower elevations than males during reproductive periods. Although there is less information on tropical bat migration, few studies report sex-biased migration. We compiled hypotheses proposed in the bat and (more extensive) avian literature to provide a list of hypotheses potentially explaining altitudinal bat migrations. These hypotheses rely upon temporal availability of (and competition for) food resources, spatial distribution of geomorphological features suitable for hibernation, sex-related differences in the use of torpor, mating opportunities, and climatic factors that impose direct physiological challenges to survival or that restrict the ability to forage. A more thorough description of the migration patterns of most species will be required to distinguish effectively among these hypotheses. We identify research avenues that would broaden our understanding of bat migration patterns and provide critical information required for effective conservation. PMID:23480862

McGuire, Liam P; Boyle, W Alice

2013-03-11

452

Hematological survey of common neotropical bat species from Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Although bats are one of the largest groups within the class Mammalia and may carry several zoonotic diseases, basic information about their hematology is limited. In this study, hematocrit (Hct), total white blood cell counts (TWBC; leukocytes), and differential white blood cell counts (DWBC) of free-ranging Neotropical bats were quantified. Blood samples from 255 bats representing 26 species from the families of Emballonuridae (3 species; 33 individuals), Molossidae (2 species; 26 individuals), Mormoopidae (1 species; 1 individual), Phyllostomidae (18 species; 180 individuals), and Vespertilionidae (2 species; 15 individuals) were collected in a Caribbean lowland rainforest of Costa Rica. Hct was measured after centrifugation of microhematocrit capillaries, TWBCs were performed using the Unopette system and a hemocytometer, and DWBCs were performed on eosin methylene blue stained blood films. Hct of bats ranged between 51.8 +/- 0.7% for Phyllostomus discolor (n = 27) and 65.8 +/- 2.2% for Molossus sinaloae (n = 6). Bat species of the same taxonomic family had comparable TWBCs; these were lower for insectivorous emballonurid, molossid, and vespertilionid bat species than for mostly phytophagous phyllostomid bat species. However, Ectophylla alba (Phyllostomidae) exhibited exceptionally low TWBCs (836 +/- 166 /microl; n = 10); this was less than half of the TWBCs of all other bat species, which ranged from 1,714 +/- 297/microl for Molossus bondae (n = 20) to 7,339 +/- 1,503/microl for Trachops cirrhosus (n = 6). Species with higher TWBCs tended to have lower Hct values. Overall, blood cell morphology was similar to other mammalian species. A large number of polychromatophilic erythrocytes and differences in lymphocyte morphology were noted. This study provides important hematological values for Neotropical bat species and significantly expands the knowledge on basal physiological measurements of Chiroptera. PMID:22950309

Schinnerl, Martin; Aydinonat, Denise; Schwarzenberger, Franz; Voigt, Christian C

2011-09-01

453

A survey of acarine ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera) in Malaysia.  

PubMed

A comprehensive 8-yr survey of acarine ectoparasites (ticks and mites) of bats was carried out in 18 localities from 2002 to 2009. Most of the surveys were conducted during 14 national biodiversity scientific expeditions throughout Malaysia. The objective was to identify acarines of known public health importance from bats and thus determine whether there is any potential public health risk in Malaysia. Trapping of bats was conducted using Harp traps and Mist nets. In total, 1,579 individuals comprising of 6 families and 52 species of bats were examined alive. In general, 25.6% of the bats were infested with acarines. Infestation rates of ticks, mesostigmatid mites, and chiggers on bats examined were 0.4, 10.4, and 14.7%, respectively. Their prevalence and mean intensity were tabulated. Genera of ticks extracted were Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Ixodes, and Ornithodoros. Of these genera, only two species can be identified to species level and they are Amblyomma cordiferum and Ixodes simplex. In total, 8 genera and 15 species of mesostigmatid mites were found; the species were Ancystropus eonycteris, Ancystropus zeleborii, Echinonysus nasutus, Laelaps aingworthae, Laelaps nuttalli, Laelaps sanguisugus, Laelaps sculpturatus, Longolaelaps longulus, Longolaelaps whartonii, Meristaspis lateralis, Meristaspis macroglossi, Paraperiglischrus rhinolophinus, Spinturnix acuminatus, Spinturnix americanus, and Spinturnix bakeri. Chiggers on bats were represented by 12 genera and 6 species; the species identified were Gahrliepia fletcheri, Riedlinia lipoxena, Trombigastia cadei, Walchiella impar, Walchiella oudemansi, and Whartonia caobangensis. The study produced an up-to-date list of acarine ectoparasites of bats in Malaysia where a total of 38 genera and 47 species of acarines were listed. Findings of the study demonstrated that 5 genera and 1 species of acarines that may pose potential health risks, can be found on bats. PMID:23427663

Ahamad, Mariana; Ibrahim, Halimaton; Bujang, Mohd Kulaimi; Sah, Shahrul-Anuar Mohd; Mohamad, Norzalipah; Nor, Shukor Mohd; Ahmad, Abdul Hamid; Ho, Tze-Ming

2013-01-01

454

Monitoring seasonal bat activity on a coastal barrier island in Maryland, USA.  

PubMed

Research on effects of wind turbines on bats has increased dramatically in recent years because of significant numbers of bats killed by rotating wind turbine blades. Whereas most research has focused on the Midwest and inland portions of eastern North America, bat activity and migration on the Atlantic Coast has largely been unexamined. We used three long-term acoustic monitoring stations to determine seasonal bat activity patterns on the Assateague Island National Seashore, a barrier island off the coast of Maryland, from 2005 to 2006. We recorded five species, including eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Seasonal bat activity (number of bat passes recorded) followed a cosine function and gradually increased beginning in April, peaked in August, and declined gradually until cessation in December. Based on autoregressive models, inter-night bat activity was autocorrelated for lags of seven nights or fewer but varied among acoustic monitoring stations. Higher nightly temperatures and lower wind speeds positively affected bat activity. When autoregressive model predictions were fitted to the observed nightly bat pass totals, model residuals>2 standard deviations from the mean existed only during migration periods, indicating that periodic increases in bat activity could not be accounted for by seasonal trends and weather variables alone. Rather, the additional bat passes were attributable to migrating bats. We conclude that bats, specifically eastern red, hoary, and silver-haired bats, use this barrier island during migration and that this phenomenon may have implications for the development of near and offshore wind energy. PMID:20364316

Johnson, Joshua B; Gates, J Edward; Zegre, Nicolas P

2010-03-25

455

Female reproductive patterns in nonhibernating bats.  

PubMed

The major reproductive events in the oestrous cycles of nonhibernating mega- and microchiropteran species are reviewed. However, special attention is given to the reproductive biology of the temperate North American species, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana (Molossidae), the Mexican free-tailed bat, which expresses dextral uterine and ovarian dominance. Only the larger right ovary is capable of producing an ovulatory follicle and the left has long been considered atrophic. In order to elucidate the normal oestrous cycle and define the structural and functional characteristics of the ovaries of this nonhibernating bat several analytical technique were utilized. These included light microscopic analysis, histochemical localization of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activity, and radioimmunoassay of seasonal plasma progesterone levels. Interstitial tissue was found in both ovaries, but the left was almost entirely an interstitial organ. Histochemical analysis demonstrated that the gonads have seasonally varying amounts of delta 5-2 beta-HSD localized either in the thecal cells of the Graafian follicle or in the interstitium. The corpus luteum persisted throughout gestation, reaching maximum development just prior to parturition. Circulating progesterone levels correlated directly with luteal gland size and peaked at 106 ng/ml when the corpus luteum was largest. PMID:572874

Jerrett, D P

1979-05-01

456

How Do Fruits Ripen?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

Sargent, Steven A.

2005-01-01

457

Precooked Fruits and Vegetables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precooked fruits and vegetables are prepared by a process wherein the fruits and vegetables are cooked to their centers at a temperature below the temperature at which sloughing of the surface tissue would occur if the fruits or vegetables were cooked to ...

M. L. Weaver K. C. Ng

1978-01-01

458

Biosonar acoustic images for target localization and classification by bats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Echolocating bats use sonar to guide interception of insects, recognize objects by shape, and even track prey in clutter. Broadcasts of the big brown bat are 0.5 to 20 ms FM signals in the 20-100 kHz ultrasonic band. Insects consist of several reflecting glints, each equivalent in cross- section to a small sphere of 2 mm to 2 cm radius, while clutter is typically composed of numerous glints distributed over a large volume. The bats' signals extend in space for many target lengths, while ka values for each glint are 0.5 to 30 across the broadcast band. Bats perceive acoustic images having echo delay as their primary dimension, and space is perceived in terms of the distribution of target glints in range. Range disparities between the ears provide two 'looks' at each target from slightly different locations as well as inform