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Sample records for janeiro brasil um

  1. [Quality of life of primary care patients in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brasil: associations with stressful life events and mental health].

    PubMed

    Portugal, Flávia Batista; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Daniel Almeida; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Fortes, Sandra Lúcia Correia Lima

    2016-02-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is a subjective construct, which can be negatively associated with factors such as mental disorders and stressful life events (SLEs). This article seeks to identify the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables, common mental disorders, symptoms suggestive of depression and anxiety, SLEs with QoL in patients attended in Primary Care (PC). It is a transversal study, conducted with 1,466 patients attended in PC centers in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro in 2009 and 2010. Bivariate analysis was performed using the T-test and four multiple linear regressions for each QoL domain. The scores for the physical, psychological, social relations and environment domains were, respectively, 64.7; 64.2; 68.5 and 49.1. By means of multivariate analysis, associations of the physical domain were found with health problems and discrimination; of the psychological domain with discrimination; of social relations with financial/structural problems; of external causes and health problems; and of the environment with financial/structural problems, external causes and discrimination. Mental health variables, health problems and financial/structural problems were the factors negatively associated with QoL. PMID:26910157

  2. Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient ( β), Ångström's wavelength exponent ( α), aerosol single scattering albedo ( ω o ), forward scatterance ( F c ) and average surface albedo ( ρ g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27″ S, 43° 13' 58″ W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water ( u w ) and ozone concentration ( u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ångström's wavelength exponent α were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient β, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December

  3. Landslide Susceptibility Analysis by the comparison and integration of Random Forest and Logistic Regression methods; application to the disaster of Nova Friburgo - Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (January 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Carlo; Barra, Anna; Evans, Stephen G.; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele; Delaney, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The study of landslide susceptibility by multivariate statistical methods is based on finding a quantitative relationship between controlling factors and landslide occurrence. Such studies have become popular in the last few decades thanks to the development of geographic information systems (GIS) software and the related improved data management. In this work we applied a statistical approach to an area of high landslide susceptibility mainly due to its tropical climate and geological-geomorphological setting. The study area is located in the south-east region of Brazil that has frequently been affected by flood and landslide hazard, especially because of heavy rainfall events during the summer season. In this work we studied a disastrous event that occurred on January 11th and 12th of 2011, which involved Região Serrana (the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro State) and caused more than 5000 landslides and at least 904 deaths. In order to produce susceptibility maps, we focused our attention on an area of 93,6 km2 that includes Nova Friburgo city. We utilized two different multivariate statistic methods: Logistic Regression (LR), already widely used in applied geosciences, and Random Forest (RF), which has only recently been applied to landslide susceptibility analysis. With reference to each mapping unit, the first method (LR) results in a probability of landslide occurrence, while the second one (RF) gives a prediction in terms of % of area susceptible to slope failure. With this aim in mind, a landslide inventory map (related to the studied event) has been drawn up through analyses of high-resolution GeoEye satellite images, in a GIS environment. Data layers of 11 causative factors have been created and processed in order to be used as continuous numerical or discrete categorical variables in statistical analysis. In particular, the logistic regression method has frequent difficulties in managing numerical continuous and discrete categorical variables

  4. Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A dengue fever outbreak has plagued Rio de Janeiro since January 2002. Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease. The elimination of standing water, which is a breeding ground for the mosquitoes, is a primary defense against mosquito-borne diseases like dengue. Removing such water remains a difficult problem in many urban regions. The International Space Station astronauts took this image (ISS001-ESC-5418) of Rio de Janeiro in December 2000. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  5. IDD-BRASIL: Implementation and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.; Almeida, W. G.; Yoksas, T.; Cutrim, E. M.; Garrana, D.

    2007-05-01

    In response to the academic meteorological community's demand for real-time weather data, and access to datasets not readily available, the Unidata Program of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed the Internet Data Distribution, IDD system. With a modest beginning in the early 1990's, IDD has grown to become the leading Internet2 advanced-application by delivering over 20 terabytes of data per week to over 160 institutions in the US and around the world. Meteorological and related real-time data, model output, and a vast amount of experimental products are delivered at no cost to the Unidata participating institutions. In 2004, through a collaboration among three leading universities and research centers in Brazil, the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE), the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP), the Unidata IDD has expanded into Brazil creating a data sharing peer, the IDD-Brasil. Throughout a series of outreach initiatives, the IDD-Brasil is extending its reach, providing data to universities in Argentina, Chile, Africa and Portugal. By lowering the barrier between distant institutions, participants are now cooperating and sharing many datasets that were not generally available outside their organizations. Future plans include the deployment of a new data-relay node in cooperation with Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal in order to provide a local source of data for institutions in Portugal and Africa, and the distribution of products derived from the GOES-10 satellite, which covers mainly South America, through IDD in real-time. Jointly, the IDD and IDD-Brasil are fostering new collaborations among universities, WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers, and national meteorological agencies, empowering the Atmospheric Sciences across several countries.

  6. History of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro*

    PubMed Central

    Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Vianna, Francisco Reis

    2014-01-01

    The record of the first cases of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro dates from the seventeenth century. The first local host of leprosy patients was created from 1741, and the first colonies hospitals were built in the early twentieth century, in order to avoid contagion of the population. The first structures dedicated to research also date from this time: the Leprosy International Institute, the Leprology Institute, and the Leprosy Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, where the most prestigious leprologists of Rio de Janeiro worked. Currently, investigations are focused on the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation; additionally, leprosy patients are treated at municipal health centers and state hospitals, and former colony hospitals only accept patients with severe disabilities. PMID:24937834

  7. Improving weather modeling in South America through IDD-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.

    2007-05-01

    The IDD-Brasil constitutes of an international collaboration among Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LPM/UFRJ), Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE) and the Unidata Program Center (Unidata/UCAR), which connects several universities and research centers across the Americas in a network to share real-time hydro meteorological data. Using this network as a new path to deliver and acquire observational data, IDD-Brazil participants are capable of receiving observational data from GTS (Global Telecommunication System), locally ingested data from several automatic weather stations networks (mesonets) from INPE, the entire array of METAR and SYNOP observations, and several model outputs and satellite imagery. During recent years Numerical Models have been used constantly, especially in mesoscale research, but the lack of a dense observational network in South America leads to several constraints during the data assimilation and model validation. Since the IDD-Brasil offers an improved and simple method to have new datasets readily accessible, it has been used continuously as a new manner to distribute surface observations that are not currently available in GTS, such as several mesonets in Brazil that account for an increase in data density. Through the usage of data ingested in IDD-Brasil as guess fields it is possible to study how the assimilation in several global models frequently used as initial conditions for mesoscale simulations can be affected, since in certain areas in Brazil the density of data nearly doubles if compared to GTS. Therefore it is also possible to better validate the results generated in mesoscale simulations, in view of the fact that the network has an improved spatial distribution. It is expected that the increase of locally held numerical model output from South American institutions in IDD- Brasil leads to an increased awareness of the need to constantly validate these results with observational data, thus

  8. Carbon emissions in energy production and use in the tropical region: The case of the state of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Porto, R.M.G. Jr.; Peres, F.M. Jr.; Cecchi, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    The Brasil is one of the most important region in the tropics. An efficient management in energy use and production in this state of Rio de Janeiro could be an excellent model to others development regions in the tropics. In 1994, the State of the Rio de Janeiro represented around 13 millions of inhabitants, an economy of 42 billions US$ (gross national products), the biggest brazilian producer in petroleum and natural gas and a large market to energy products (electric power and fossil fuels). This state was responsible for 8.6 millions tonnes of carbon in CO2 emissions in 1994, issue to combustion of petroleum products (65.9%), coal (27.8%), natural gas (3.7%), charcoal and fuelwood (2.6%). The principals responsibles to these carbon emissions are the industrial activities (40%), the transport (35.7%) and energy production (12%). The main objectives of this work are analyze the carbon emissions in energy production and use in Rio de Janeiro between 1980 and 1994, the possibilities to reduction this amount and the perspectives to renewable energy.

  9. Income inequality and homicide rates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Szwarcwald, C L; Bastos, F I; Viacava, F; de Andrade, C L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of income inequality on homicide rates in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study at 2 geographical levels, municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro and administrative regions in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The association between homicide and income inequality was tested by multiple regression procedures, with adjustment for other socioeconomic indicators. RESULTS: For the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro State, no association between homicide and income concentration was found an outcome that can be explained by the municipalities' different degrees of urbanization. However, for the administrative regions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the 2 income inequality indicators were strongly correlated with the outcome variable (P < .01). Higher homicide rates were found precisely in the sector of the city that has the greatest concentration of slum residents and the highest degree of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that social policies specifically aimed at low-income urban youth, particularly programs to reduce the harmful effects of relative deprivation, may have an important impact on the homicide rate. PMID:10358673

  10. Distribution of Traffic Penalties in Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nóbrega, Rafaella A.; Rodegheri, Cricia C.; Povoas, Renato C.

    Brazilian drivers caught in traffic violations accumulate points in their official personal files. Here, we analyze the distribution probability of these data for the state of Rio de Janeiro where 4199 drivers accumulated 20 or more penalty points during one year.

  11. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Stuttering in Rio De Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Britto Pereira, Monica Medeiros; Rossi, Jamile Perni; Van Borsel, John

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the results of an investigation of public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total number of 606 street recruited respondents answered questions on various aspects of stuttering, including prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different cultures, cause, treatment, intelligence, and…

  12. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis. PMID:16485488

  13. Prediction of health risk due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in urban air in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rainho, C R; Velho, A M A; Corrêa, S M; Mazzei, J L; Aiub, C A F; Felzenszwalb, I

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessment can provide a comprehensive estimate of potential effects of contaminants under specific, well-defined, and well-described circumstances, providing quantitative relationships between exposure and effects to identify and to define areas of concern. We investigated the mutagenic activity of particulate matter in air samples collected from three sites in Rio de Janeiro city. Samples were collected using a high-volume sampler at Avenida Brasil, at Campus of Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, and at Rebouças Tunnel. Six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and the derivative strains TA98/1.8-DNP(6), YG1021, and YG1024, commonly used in mutagenicity assays, were treated (10-50 µg/plate), with and without exogenous metabolization. The highest values for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected at Rebouças Tunnel. For chrysene, as an example, the concentration was nearly 200 times higher than that established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Frequent traffic jams can place bus drivers who go through the Rebouças Tunnel at risk of exposure to up to 0.69 ng/m(3) benzo(a) pyrene. Independent of exogenous metabolization, mutagenicity was detected in strains YG1021 and YG1024 at all the sites, suggesting nitro and amino derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Rebouças Tunnel air samples gave the highest values for rev/µg and rev/m(3). This could be due to the fact that the long, enclosed passageway through a mountain restricts ventilation. The cancer risk estimate in this study was 10(-3) for the benzo(a)pyrene, at the two sites, indicating a high risk. PMID:23479151

  14. Social Entrepreneurs in Rio De Janeiro: Learning Experiences and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain insight into how social entrepreneurs dedicated to violence prevention in Rio de Janeiro learn to take on the role of a social entrepreneur. Based on a two-tiered interview process with 27 social entrepreneurs in Rio de Janeiro conducted over a period of nine months, the study explores the breadth of…

  15. Assessment of surgical adverse events in Rio de Janeiro hospitals.

    PubMed

    Moura, Maria de Lourdes de Oliveira; Mendes, Walter

    2012-09-01

    A study on surgical adverse events (AE) is relevant because of the frequency of these events, because they are in part attributable to deficiencies in health care, because of their considerable impact on patient health and economic consequences on social and health expenditures, and because this study is an assessment tool for quality of care. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and the contributive factors of surgical AE in hospitals of Rio de Janeiro. This retrospective cohort study aimed to perform a descriptive analysis of secondary data obtained from the Adverse Events Computer Program, which was developed for collecting data for the assessment of AE in three teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Incidence of patients with surgical AE was 3.5% (38 of 1,103 patients) (95% CI 2.4 - 4.4) and the proportion of patients submitted to surgery among patients with surgical AE was 5.9% (38 of 643) (95% CI 4.1 - 7.6). The proportion of avoidable surgical AE was 68.3% (28 of 41 events) and the proportion of patients with avoidable surgical AE was 65.8% (25 of 38 patients). One in five patients with surgical AE had a permanent disability or died. Over 60% of the cases were classified as not complex or of low complexity, and with low risk for care-related AE. PMID:23090300

  16. Regulating public space on the beachfronts of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Brian J; Arguinzoni, Olivia M

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fortification of buildings, streets, and public squares, Rio de Janeiro's beaches remain widely regarded as democratic spaces of social diversity and accessibility. Our study revisits the question of Rio's “democratic” beachfronts, based on local interviews, field observations, official reports, and newspaper accounts. We focus on historical and contemporary perceptions of planning, privatization, and public-order programs on the city's southern seaside. Institutional discourses have justified increasing regulation to combat threats of disorder and insecurity. While residents value the relative openness of beachfronts, they also acknowledge issues of safety, social segmentation, and subtle forms of bias. The public generally applauds recent “Shock of Order” policing and commercial revitalization, although critics lament the loss of traditional freedoms for informal beach vendors and casual sports. These paradoxes highlight enduring tensions between social order and hierarchy on one hand, and democratic rights and equality on the other. PMID:22530262

  17. Homicides and territorial struggles in Rio de Janeiro favelas

    PubMed Central

    Barcellos, Christovam; Zaluar, Alba

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risk of homicide in Rio de Janeiro’s favelas, taking into account the territorial disputes taking place in the city. METHODS The study is based on data on mortality from homicide in the city of Rio de Janeiro between 2006 and 2009. Risks in favelas and in surrounding areas were evaluated, as was the domination of armed groups and drug dealing. Geographic and ethnographic concepts and methods were employed, using participant observation, interviews and analysis of secondary data on health. RESULTS Within the favelas, mortality rates from homicide were equivalent to, or lower than, the rest of the city, although they were considerably higher in areas surrounding the favelas, especially in areas where there was conflict between armed rival gangs. CONCLUSIONS The presence of trafficking crews and turf war in strategic areas of the city increases homicide rates and promotes the “ecology of danger” in these areas. PMID:24789642

  18. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  19. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Coutinho, Felipe H; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E M; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A B; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km(2). In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay's degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay's water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  20. Possibility of profitable air traffic between Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherz, Walter

    1923-01-01

    Different aspects of an airship line between Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro are presented. Some of the factors discussed are: the number of passengers, fuel consumption, design, itinerary, airports, flight times, and income.

  1. Engineering acoustics: A pioneer undergraduate program at Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, Roberto A.; Zindeluk, Moyses

    2002-11-01

    Acoustics, essentially a multidisciplinary subject, still has in Brazil a small but increasing number of professionals with a solid background to deal with various aspects of this area. Since 1970 the faculty of the Acoustics and Vibration Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, offers graduate (M.Sc and D.Sc) programs, and some undergraduate courses in acoustics, vibration, and signal processing. In January 2000, this group launched a formal undergraduate engineering acoustics program in the Mechanical Engineering Department of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. After three years of mechanical engineering, with a firm foundation in physics, applied mathematics, and engineering basics, the undergraduate student may elect to take the engineering acoustics program for the remaining two years. In this program, a wide number of courses are offered, including basic acoustics, room acoustics, signal processing, musical acoustics, machine diagnosis, etc. Approximately 30 different courses may be chosen from. However, the student is not completely free, since the courses selected must fit within a subject concentration profile, e.g., noise control or musical acoustics. In this paper the programs curriculum are presented and its impact on the students is discussed. A first evaluation of the qualifications achieved by the graduate students in the area is also presented.

  2. Paediatric x-ray examinations in Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, A. C. P.; Osibote, O. A.; Boechat, M. C. B.

    2006-08-01

    This work presents the results of a dose survey performed for paediatric patients and carried out in two large paediatric public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro city. The entrance surface dose (ESD) and the effective dose (ED) were evaluated for chest, skull, abdomen, lumbar spine, cervical spine and pelvis in antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) projections. For each examination, four age groups 0-1, 1-5, 5-10 and 10-15 years were studied. The DoseCal software was used to calculate these doses. Wide variations for the same type of examination and projection have been detected. These variations were evident, in Brazil, from previous work. In spite of the present results being still preliminary, they can give an idea of what paediatric ESDs are like in Brazil. Also, with respect to the entrance surface dose, some of the results are above the reference levels, which cause high ED, as well. On the other hand, the wide range of ESD reflects the disparity of radiographic techniques and demonstrates that the ALARA principle is not being applied in Brazilian hospitals and becomes a concern in terms of public health.

  3. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  4. The Educational Background of Women Working for Women in Rio de Janeiro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with 20 women in governmental and nongovernmental organizations in Rio de Janeiro revealed the following: (1) formal education programs lacked courses on gender issues; (2) nonformal education was a potential source of gender awareness; and (3) informal education was the main source of gender awareness. (SK)

  5. Computer Skills and Digital Media Uses among Young Students in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Rosalia; Cazelli, Sibele; Migliora, Rita; Coimbra, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is provide information relevant for the formulation of new policies for the integration of technology in education from the discussion of research results that analyse computer skills and digital media uses among students (between 12 to 18 years old) from schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The schools…

  6. The Museum as a Catalyst for Education and Citizenship: Breaking Barriers in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottrel Tostes, Vera Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Brazil's National History Museum in Rio de Janeiro is reaching out to the most marginalized young people and establishing itself as an important partner in offering them alternatives to a life of crime and addiction. The target population for its programs includes disenfranchised children and young people aged 10 to 20--those living in the…

  7. Neighborhood Association Movements and the Fight for Public School in Rio de Janeiro State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulin, Nelly; And Others

    An exploratory study designed to analyze the evolution of neighborhood movements in Rio de Janeiro City (Brazil) focuses on actions related to the struggle for public schools. The effort seeks to determine the degree of political autonomy of the neighborhood associations and the nature of the educational demands and their relationship with the…

  8. What Puzzles Teachers in Rio de janeiro, and What Keeps Them Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyra, Isolina; Fish, Solange; Braga, Walewska Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the key mechanism of "puzzling" in Exploratory Practice (EP), a form of practitioner research, and the critical issue of sustainability in the context of volunteer teacher development work in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Investigated puzzles (concerns) of language teachers and grouped them into six categories; motivation, anxiety, teaching,…

  9. The Implementation and Use of Computers in Education in Brazil: Niteroi City/Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Fatima D'Assumpcao Castro, Maria; Alves, Luiz Anastacio

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of computer technology has touched off an actual revolution for teaching and learning activities. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the implementation and use of computers in the public school system, from the elementary grades to high school, in Niteroi city, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). This city, with a total…

  10. Outcomes of a Scientific Nonformal Educational Initiative for Youth in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to understand how former students view their professional and academic paths after taking part in a specific scientific nonformal educational initiative during high school. This program is called Vocational Scientific Program (Provoc) and is carried out in the Oswald Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.…

  11. Genome Sequence of an Epidemic Isolate of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebecca M; Reynolds, Paul R; Farias-Hesson, Eveline; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Jackson, Mary; Strong, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Multiple isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, collectively called BRA100, were associated with outbreaks of postsurgical skin infections across various regions of Brazil from 2003 to 2009. We announce the draft genome sequence of a newly sequenced BRA100 strain, M. abscessus subsp. bolletii CRM-0020, isolated from a patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23950125

  12. Cryptosporidium parvum pig genotype II diagnosed in pigs from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs may represent a source of Cryptosporidium sp. infection to humans. The objective of this study was to identify the species present in pigs from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and verify what risks pigs represent in transmission of human cryptosporidiosis, since there is no such informati...

  13. Exploratory Practice: Work at the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwright, Dick; Lenzuen, Rosa

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the aim of the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which is the development of a new, fully sustainable concept for classroom-based research--exploratory practice--and its assimilation into the normal working and professional-development practices of Rio Cultura teachers. (Author/VWL)

  14. Measuring Between-School Segregation in an Open Enrollment System: The Case of Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholo, Tiago Lisboa

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in Rio de Janeiro public schools has brought to light a "Hidden Quasi-Market" that combines purported freedom of choice for parents with school control over their pupil intake. The article analyzes patterns of segregation among schools, from 2004 to 2010, according to three indicators of potentially disadvantaged pupils:…

  15. Descoberta de um aglomerado estelar massivo associado a fonte IRAS 16177-5018

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman Lopes, A.; Abraham, Z.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos a descoberta de um aglomerado de estrelas jovens e massivas embebido em uma região HII extensa associado com a fonte IRAS 16177-5018, que se apresenta invisível na faixa óptica do espectro eletromagnético, onde a extinção é da ordem de AV = 26 magnitudes. As observações foram feitas com a camera infravermelha (CamIV) do Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasil, equipada com um detector Hawaii de HgCdTe de 1024´1024 pixel acoplada ao telescópio de 60 cm Boller & Chivens do IAG. A fotometria obtida a partir das imagens nas bandas J, H e K (filtro estreito) mostrou a presença de fontes com excesso de emissão no infravermelho em 2.2 mm, concentradas em uma área de aproximadamente um minuto de arco quadrado em torno da nebulosa na qual esta embebido o objeto identificado como a fonte IRAS. A fonte IRAS apresenta um índice espectral (entre 2.2 21.3 mm) a = d log(l Fl) / d log l = 4.78, característico de um objeto extremamente jovem com luminosidade bolométrica (obtida da integral da densidade de fluxo entre o infravermelho próximo (1.25mm) e o infravermelho distante (100mm)) de 2.8´105L¤, o qual corresponde a uma estrela da sequência principal de idade zero de cerca de 42 M¤. A partir do diagrama cor-magnitude foi possível classificar a maioria dos membros do aglomerado como estrelas massivas mais luminosas que tipo espectral B5.

  16. Phylogenetic analyses of chikungunya virus among travelers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2014-2015

    PubMed Central

    Conteville, Liliane Costa; Zanella, Louise; Marín, Michel Abanto; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; de Mendonça, Marcos César Lima

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that emerged in Brazil by late 2014. In the country, two CHIKV foci characterized by the East/Central/South Africa and Asian genotypes, were established in North and Northeast regions. We characterized, by phylogenetic analyses of full and partial genomes, CHIKV from Rio de Janeiro state (2014-2015). These CHIKV strains belong to the Asian genotype, which is the determinant of the current Northern Brazilian focus, even though the genome sequence presents particular single nucleotide variations. This study provides the first genetic characterisation of CHIKV in Rio de Janeiro and highlights the potential impact of human mobility in the spread of an arthropod-borne virus. PMID:27120007

  17. FIRST REPORT OF ACUTE CHAGAS DISEASE BY VECTOR TRANSMISSION IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; De Sousa, Andréa Silvestre; Sperandio Da Silva, Gilberto Marcelo; Xavier, Sérgio Salles; Machado, Carolina Romero Cardoso; Brasil, Patrícia; De Castro, Liane; Da Silva, Sidnei; Georg, Ingebourg; Saraiva, Roberto Magalhães; do Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is an endemic anthropozoonosis from Latin America of which the main means of transmission is the contact of skin lesions or mucosa with the feces of triatomine bugs infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. In this article, we describe the first acute CD case acquired by vector transmission in the Rio de Janeiro State and confirmed by parasitological, serological and PCR tests. The patient presented acute cardiomyopathy and pericardial effusion without cardiac tamponade. Together with fever and malaise, a 3 cm wide erythematous, non-pruritic, papule compatible with a "chagoma" was found on his left wrist. This case report draws attention to the possible transmission of CD by non-domiciled native vectors in non-endemic areas. Therefore, acute CD should be included in the diagnostic workout of febrile diseases and acute myopericarditis in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26422165

  18. Determination of cocaine in Real banknotes circulating at the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, V G K; Cassella, R J; Pacheco, W F

    2015-06-01

    This paper shows the result of a study on the extent of cocaine contamination in Real banknotes in circulation in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). A study of the percentage of contaminated banknotes was made, as well as a study on the contamination of banknotes based on different values, and a study of contamination depending on the region where the banknote was collected. The idea of this last study was to verify if the peculiar characteristics of the region of study (in particular, the city of Rio de Janeiro) influence the amount of cocaine in the banknotes. Some regions have higher consumption/drug trafficking of cocaine than others. Also, some contaminated banknotes confiscated directly from drug dealers and users were analyzed. Also, is showed in this paper all the optimization of the available analytical techniques for making the measurements possible. PMID:25863697

  19. Solid wastes integrated management in Rio de Janeiro: input-output analysis.

    PubMed

    Pimenteira, C A P; Carpio, L G T; Rosa, L P; Tolmansquim, M T

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the socioeconomic aspects of solid waste management in Rio de Janeiro. An "input-output" methodology was used to examine how the secondary product resulting from recycling is re-introduced into the productive process. A comparative profile was developed from the state of recycling and the various other aspects of solid waste management, both from the perspective of its economic feasibility and from the social aspects involved. This was done analyzing the greenhouse gas emissions and the decreased energy consumption. The effects of re-introducing recycled raw materials into the matrix and the ensuing reduction of the demand for virgin raw materials was based on the input-output matrix for the State of Rio de Janeiro. This paper also analyzes the energy savings obtained from recycling and measures the avoided emissions of greenhouse gases. PMID:15925763

  20. Slave mortality during the cholera epidemic in Rio de Janeiro (1855-1856): a preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Kaori; Pimenta, Tânia Salgado; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Bellido, Jaime Gregorio

    2012-12-01

    The article offers a preliminary analysis of the sociodemographic profile of deaths recorded during the first cholera epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, based on data gathered from death records at Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital. After cholera appeared in the country in 1855, Brazilian medical reports indicated a social bias, with slaves and the free poor suffering high mortality. From a historical perspective, however, little research has been done on the epidemic and its dynamics. The recovery of original data on cholera and the analysis of cholera mortality rates help us to better understand aspects of the slave universe in the urban zone of Rio de Janeiro in the period following the end of the slave trade. PMID:23370100

  1. [Teenage law offenders in Rio de Janeiro and institutions that "rehabilitate" them. The perpetuation of negligence].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M B; Assis, S G

    1999-01-01

    This article presents data from juvenile delinquents in the Rio de Janeiro Minors Court. It is an exploratory study with qualitative and quantitative approaches, conducted in 1994 in three schools (Padre Severino Institute, João Luiz Alves School, and Santos Dumont School) in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro and responsible for the legal custody of juvenile delinquents. Social and demographic aspects of the adolescents and families are shown, and the daily routines of employees, adolescents, and researchers are reported. This paper stresses the damaging effects on the lives of these youngsters by their families, society, and judiciary and legal custody institutions. It also suggests approaches and positive ways of reorienting the issue. PMID:10633205

  2. The first record of American visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alba Valéria Machado; de Souza Cândido, Claudia Dias; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first to report visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A relatively high seroprevalence of 25% was observed although none of them have presented any symptom. Our results support the observation of previous authors, suggesting that cats may be considered as alternative domestic hosts of visceral leishmaniasis and should be included in serological investigations performed in endemic areas. PMID:17953938

  3. [Mutagenic occurrence in teleoginae of Rhipicephalus sanguineus from intradomiciliary environment at Rio de Janeiro city].

    PubMed

    Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Borsoi, Ana Beatriz Pais

    2009-01-01

    From material collected by into a residence house at Rio de Janeiro city, using an aspirator machine during four continues hours in all house, it was captured 1,284 Rhipicephalus sanguineus including 289 females; one of them showed a mutagenic alteration like an asymmetry of opistosome, and monstrosity like a two anus. The first register of this phenomenon in R. sanguineus is reported. PMID:19602319

  4. Detection of Carbapenemase Genes in Aquatic Environments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Carlos Felipe Machado; Silva, Dalton Marcondes; Carneiro, Marcos Tavares; Ribeiro, Sthefanie; Fontana-Maurell, Marcela; Alvarez, Patricia; Asensi, Marise Dutra; Zahner, Viviane; Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula D'Alincourt

    2016-07-01

    This study reveals the presence of different carbapenemase genes (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaGES, and blaOXA48-like genes) detected directly from water samples and clonal dispersion (by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] and multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) of KPC-2-producing Enterobacteriaceae in two important urban aquatic matrixes from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, highlighting the role of aquatic environments as gene pools and the possibility of community spreading. PMID:27139469

  5. Relationship between ambient lead concentrations and lead in gasoline in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, Helena A.; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang C.

    Lead concentrations were determined in total suspended particulate matter (TSP) from August 1975 to April 1978, in two districts of Rio de Janeiro with different sources of airborne particulate matter. Correlation coefficients between lead content in gasoline and average atmospheric lead concentrations are calculated. Results show a clear effect in the atmosphere if there is a large increase in the lead content of consumed gasoline.

  6. Bottom water throughflows at the Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande Fracture Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Herlé; Weatherly, Georges L.; Arhan, Michel

    2000-05-01

    Bottom water throughflows at the Rio de Janeiro Fracture Zone (22°S) and Rio Grande Fracture Zone (26°S) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are identified from hydrographic anomalies observed along 9°W in the Angola Basin. The throughflow water is supplied by a meridional band of cold and fresh water lying against the western flank of the Ridge.

  7. Um Infixation and Prefixation in Toba Batak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Megan J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the behavior of the morpheme, um, in Toba Batak and Tagalog, which alternates as a prefix or an infix, arguing that the variation is conditioned by constraints on consonant clusters. Three patterns of variation that occur with um are described, noting that the stages involved in changing from infixed to prefixed positions over time are…

  8. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Denise Amaro; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  9. [Zika Virus - Impact on the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Warnke, K; Paul, J

    2016-08-01

    There is an ongoing discussion in the media about the Zika virus and the question of whether or not athletes and visitors will be at risk of an infection during the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. According to an assessment published on 31 May 2016 by the IOC and the WHO, participants and visitors have no reason to panic. However, increasing public pressure has caused the WHO to re-evaluate the current situation, and further recommendations will likely be given before the Olympic Games start. The current facts are as follows: 1) The Olympic Summer Games will be held during the winter months in Brazil, when the appearance of mosquitoes is expected to be low. 2) Extensive use of insecticides every 6 to 8 weeks in Rio de Janeiro and all Olympic venues has almost eradicated the mosquito population. 3) Individual protection of athletes, trainers and visitors is crucial (wearing appropriate clothing with skin coverage, sleeping under mosquito nets, using contact insecticides for clothing and mosquito nets, and applying insect repellents on a regular basis). 4) Pregnant women should avoid travelling to any country with current Zika virus activity. In sum, the risk to incur a Zika virus infection during the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro will likely be comparable to the risk in other countries where cases of Zika virus infections are registered. PMID:27490354

  10. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed. PMID:26496170

  11. Spatial distribution and socioeconomic context of tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Alessandra Gonçalves Lisbôa; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade; Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Valencia, Luis Iván Ortiz; Magalhães, Mônica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of risk for tuberculosis and its socioeconomic determinants in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS An ecological study on the association between the mean incidence rate of tuberculosis from 2004 to 2006 and socioeconomic indicators of the Censo Demográfico (Demographic Census) of 2000. The unit of analysis was the home district registered in the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Notifiable Diseases Information System) of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. The rates were standardized by sex and age group, and smoothed by the empirical Bayes method. Spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by Moran’s I. Multiple linear regression models were studied and the appropriateness of incorporating the spatial component in modeling was evaluated. RESULTS We observed a higher risk of the disease in some neighborhoods of the port and north regions, as well as a high incidence in the slums of Rocinha and Vidigal, in the south region, and Cidade de Deus, in the west. The final model identified a positive association for the variables: percentage of permanent private households in which the head of the house earns three to five minimum wages; percentage of individual residents in the neighborhood; and percentage of people living in homes with more than two people per bedroom. CONCLUSIONS The spatial analysis identified areas of risk of tuberculosis incidence in the neighborhoods of the city of Rio de Janeiro and also found spatial dependence for the incidence of tuberculosis and some socioeconomic variables. However, the inclusion of the space component in the final model was not required during the modeling process. PMID:26270014

  12. Checklist of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) primary types of the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a brief history of the collection.

    PubMed

    Monné, Miguel A; Monné, Marcela L

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) primary types deposited in the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is given. There are 1,044 primary types. Lectotype designation for Megacyllene castroi (Prosen, 1947) is proposed. A brief history of the collection of Cerambycidae of the Museu Nacional is presented. PMID:27394892

  13. Insect galls of Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ).

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Silva, L O

    2016-04-19

    Thirty-one morphotypes of insect galls and two flower damages were found on 16 families, 22 genera and 24 plant species in Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of insect galls (4 and 6 morphotypes, respectively), and the greatest number of galled plants (four and three species, respectively). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (77% and 10%, respectively). The galling insects are represented by Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. The majority of the galls (81%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera). PMID:27097094

  14. Spatial Evaluation and Modeling of Dengue Seroprevalence and Vector Density in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Honório, Nildimar Alves; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra Magalhães, Mônica; de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; de Araújo, Eliane Saraiva Machado; Gomes, Marcelo Quintela; Pinheiro, Luciane Silva; da Silva Pinel, Célio; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, experienced a severe dengue fever epidemic in 2008. This was the worst epidemic ever, characterized by a sharp increase in case-fatality rate, mainly among younger individuals. A combination of factors, such as climate, mosquito abundance, buildup of the susceptible population, or viral evolution, could explain the severity of this epidemic. The main objective of this study is to model the spatial patterns of dengue seroprevalence in three neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles in Rio de Janeiro. As blood sampling coincided with the peak of dengue transmission, we were also able to identify recent dengue infections and visually relate them to Aedes aegypti spatial distribution abundance. We analyzed individual and spatial factors associated with seroprevalence using Generalized Additive Model (GAM). Methodology/Principal Findings Three neighborhoods were investigated: a central urban neighborhood, and two isolated areas characterized as a slum and a suburban area. Weekly mosquito collections started in September 2006 and continued until March 2008. In each study area, 40 adult traps and 40 egg traps were installed in a random sample of premises, and two infestation indexes calculated: mean adult density and mean egg density. Sera from individuals living in the three neighborhoods were collected before the 2008 epidemic (July through November 2007) and during the epidemic (February through April 2008). Sera were tested for DENV-reactive IgM, IgG, Nested RT-PCR, and Real Time RT-PCR. From the before–after epidemics paired data, we described seroprevalence, recent dengue infections (asymptomatic or not), and seroconversion. Recent dengue infection varied from 1.3% to 14.1% among study areas. The highest IgM seropositivity occurred in the slum, where mosquito abundance was the lowest, but household conditions were the best for promoting contact between hosts and vectors. By fitting spatial GAM we found dengue

  15. A historical note on an imported case of loiasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1964.

    PubMed

    Giardulli, Antonio; Paulo Filho, Guilherme Dolanda; Colombini, Giovanni Nicola Urberto Italiano; Eyer-Silva, Walter de Araújo; Basilio-de-Oliveira, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Loiasis is a filarial disease transmitted by the Chrysops spp. tabanid flies in West and Central Africa. It is most commonly diagnosed by the clinical manifestations of Calabar swellings (transient localized inflammatory edema) or, most dramatically, by the appearance of a migrating worm through the conjunctival tissues or the bridge of the nose. We report the case of a 35-year-old resident in the city of Rio de Janeiro who displayed a moving Loa loa in the bulbar conjunctival tissue two years after returning from a six-month trip to Uganda. Surgical removal of the worm was performed. PMID:22012457

  16. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  17. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention. PMID:25830996

  18. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention. PMID:25830996

  19. Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air temperature have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to temperature, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is

  20. [Violence and psychosocial risks: narratives of adolescents living in shelters in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Botelho, Adriana Pedreira; Moraes, Mayara Cristina Muniz Bastos; Leite, Ligia Costa

    2015-01-01

    This article contains part of the results of the "Youth, Disaffiliation and Violence" extension project developed at the Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in 2008. It seeks to present experiences of violence experienced in three different contexts, namely in the family home, on the streets and in shelter units (SU), from the standpoint of adolescents. Thirty adolescents in five SUs in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro were interviewed. A qualitative approach was used in order to examine a relatively unknown reality, seeking a contextual understanding from the perspective of the social actors. To achieve this goal, this study sought the contribution of oral reports as the methodology for data collection. The theory of communication was the method of analysis, through the objective/subjective narratives of experiences of adolescents, establishing categories and points of analysis that permeate these experiences. The results revealed that youths housed in shelters are exposed to various psychosocial risks related to violence experienced in the environments visited. Lastly, the need for setting up an intersectorial network aiming at providing effective and comprehensive care for adolescents was highlighted. PMID:25650593

  1. Macrofauna associated to Mycale microsigmatosa (Porifera, Demospongiae) in Rio de Janeiro State, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Suzi M.; Omena, Elianne P.; Muricy, Guilherme

    2003-08-01

    The macrofauna (endo- and epi-biotic) associated to the sponge Mycale ( Carmia) microsigmatosa Arndt, 1927 was studied at three sites in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Arraial do Cabo, Niterói, and Rio de Janeiro). A total of 2235 individuals (over 1 mm long) of 75 invertebrate species were found associated to 19 specimens of the sponge. The most abundant and diverse taxa were the crustaceans (83%, 31 spp.), polychetes (10%, 18 spp.), and molluscs (3.7%, 15 spp.). Cnidarians, platyhelminthes, ascidians, echinoderms, pycnogonids, bryozoans, and sponges were also represented. Amphipod crustaceans were the dominant group, comprising 61% of all individuals collected. Species richness and abundance of associated fauna were highly correlated with sponge volume, but diversity and evenness were not. The site of collection influenced the species composition of the fauna associated to M. microsigmatosa but did not change significantly its diversity, abundance, richness, and dominance patterns of higher taxa. Pregnant females and juvenile stages of 29% of the species associated, including crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, and pycnogonids were frequently found inside M. microsigmatosa. Although many of these organisms do occur and reproduce in other habitats outside the sponge as well, M. microsigmatosa is also important for their reproduction and survivorship, thus contributing for the maintenance of biodiversity in Southwestern Atlantic sublittoral rocky shores.

  2. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna. PMID:27627066

  3. [Sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an incidence study].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Aded, Naura Liane; Galluzzi da Silva Dalcin, Bruno Luís; Cavalcanti, Maria Tavares

    2007-08-01

    We present an incidence analysis of forensic medical examinations at the Afrânio Peixoto Institute of Forensic Medicine in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to July 2000. A sample of 124 cases of suspected sexual abuse was selected, both male and female, aged 0 to 17 years. Minors from 0 to 14 years of age represented 81.45% of the sample, coinciding with rates from a former study spanning the first quarter of 2000. Other than vaginal rape, young male subjects prevailed in cases of suspected anal, oral, or other forms of sexual violence and comprised 20.97% of the total sample, with no such cases, either male or female, in the 15-17-year group. Most cases of alleged vaginal sexual abuse were detected in the 10-17-year group. 44.36% of the alleged aggressors were related to the victims; non-related aggressors represented 13.71% of the study group. 30.65% of all cases lacked information about the aggressor. Most police complaints were recorded in the North and East Sides of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The present study did not analyze the victims' social, economic, or cultural characteristics. PMID:17653415

  4. Psychiatric Reform in Rio de Janeiro: the current situation and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fagundes Júnior, Hugo Marques; Desviat, Manuel; Silva, Paulo Roberto Fagundes da

    2016-05-01

    This article analyzes the mental health network in the city of Rio de Janeiro. It provides a report on the current status of the implementation of psychiatric reform and identifies progress, limitations and challenges in this area. Documentary research was carried out by examining official documents, ordinances, SUS databases, information that was available at the Superintendency of Mental Health of the city of Rio de Janeiro, and a literature review of Brazilian and international scientific articles. The results point to important advances in the de-institutionalization of care, with a substantial reduction in the numbers of psychiatric beds, and increased community facilities. However, the following significant challenges remain: the need for increased coverage by psychosocial care centers; the implementation of psychiatric beds in general hospitals; the integration of mental health with primary health care; the de-institutionalization of people who remain in hospitals for long periods; the expansion of the number of residential facilities; and an increase in the provision of specific services for people using alcohol and other drugs. PMID:27166894

  5. Heart rate and energy expenditure during garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Luiz A; Ferreira, João A; Damião, Jorginete J

    2007-11-01

    Physiological workload is used to estimate the physical demand of tasks in the workforce, but limited information is available for the various work activities in developing countries. Eighty-three randomly selected male workers participated in the present study, aimed at assessing the physiological workload of garbage collection (GC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Heart rate (HR) was obtained on four consecutive workdays. Energy expenditure (EE) was extrapolated from heart rate data based on individual laboratory-established heart rate/oxygen consumption curve in 70 workers. Mean HR during GC was 104.0 +/- 11.7 bpm (+/- SD), representing 56.9 +/- 7.5% of maximum heart rate. EE was 1608.3 +/- 738.5 kcal for an average of 293.1 +/- 103.9 minutes of work per day. Based on all measurements, work in garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro can be considered excessively heavy. These data emphasize the need to develop appropriate classification of workload to be used in health-related research and in the development of maximum acceptable work time in association with the physiological workload, particularly in developing countries. PMID:17952267

  6. [Psychogical autopsies into suicide among the elderly in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves; Mangas, Raimunda Matilde do Nascimento; Souza, Juliana Rangel Alves de

    2012-10-01

    This study analyses psychological autopsies and contextualizes problems and issues that led to elderly people taking their own lives in the city of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2007. The study began with an analysis of 26 expert findings of elderly men and women who committed suicide in the central, northern and southern areas of Rio de Janeiro. The sample was contacted by letter and telephone and after that, by a one-on-one conversation. Eight psychological autopsies were conducted, in which identification data and family genograms were collected followed by an interview to profile the life style and the reasons for the self-inflicted violence. The interviewees were family members, friends and acquaintances of the victims. The suicides are associated with depression, serious physical and mental illness, as well as socio-cultural factors related to professional and socio-economic decline. The suicides occurred with and without family support, with and without medical care. The cumulative fragility of personal and social resources within the life cycle reveals that the risk of suicide among the elderly demands permanent care from the public health authorities. PMID:23099763

  7. Health Inequalities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Lower Healthy Life Expectancy in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Areas

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa da Mota, Jurema; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Sardinha Pereira, Tatiana Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated deprivation and inequalities in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy by location in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods. We conducted a health survey of 576 adults in 2006. Census tracts were stratified by income level and categorization as a slum. We determined health status by degree of functional limitation, according to the approach proposed by the World Health Organization. We calculated healthy life expectancies by Sullivan's method with abridged life table. Results. We found the worst indicators in the slum stratum. The life expectancy at birth of men living in the richest parts of the city was 12.8 years longer than that of men living in deprived areas. For both men and women older than age 65 years, healthy life expectancy was more than twice as high in the richest sector as in the slum sector. Conclusions. Our analysis detailed the excess burden of poor health experienced by disadvantaged populations of Rio de Janeiro. Policy efforts are needed to reduce social inequalities in health in this city, especially among the elderly. PMID:21233437

  8. Pharmaceutical services in Rio de Janeiro Municipality, Brazil: development regarding selected aspects from 2008 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rondineli Mendes da; Pereira, Nathalia Cano; Mendes, Luiz Villarinho Pereira; Luiza, Vera Lucia

    2016-05-01

    This article aims to analyze the development of pharmaceutical services in the context of the primary health care (PHC) in the period 2008- 2014, focusing on selection, procurement and financing of medicines. A retrospective study was undertaken, using as data sources administrative documents of Rio de Janeiro Municipality Health Secretariat (SMS-RJ) as well as secondary database. We found a growth of numbers medicines offered for PHC of 57 items in 2008 to 222 in 2014. Actual spending on drugs paid by the city has grown 38% in the period, with a reversal from 2010, of the proportion of PHC related to tertiary care drugs, reaching 2.4 times in 2014, the year that public spending on medicines per capita of PHC was 9% greater than the value agreed between the three federal levels. It can be concluded that there have been important changes in pharmaceutical services in Rio de Janeiro Municipality in the period following the reform of PHC held in this territory, with increasing the conditions for therapeutic coverage and increased drug funding. The growth of per capita public spending on medicines above the agreed value raises the need to strengthen the rationalization of management measures. PMID:27166892

  9. Paleoparasitological results from XVIII century human remains from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Taglioretti, Veronica; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Dias, Ondemar; Neto, Jandira; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2013-03-01

    Paleoparasitological studies of the Brazilian colonial period are scarce. A paleoparasitological analysis was performed on human remains from the archeological site Praça XV Cemetery in Rio de Janeiro, dating from the early 18th to 19th Centuries. The samples were obtained from the Institute of the Brazilian Archaeology collection, and showed evidence of washing and brushing. Sediments were extracted from sacral foramina by scraping. Sediments from skulls were used as negative paleoparasitological controls. Spontaneous sedimentation method was performed prior to microscopic analysis. The results revealed that 8 of 10 individuals were infected with intestinal helminths and/or protozoa. Eggs of the nematodes Trichuris sp. and Ascaris sp. as well as a single taeniid egg were found. Protozoa cysts suggestive of Entamoeba sp. were also observed. Trichuris sp. was the most frequent and abundant parasite, found in 70% of individuals (26 eggs). The study showed the importance of analysis of sediment from human remains preserved in museum or scientific collections, even those subjected to a curating procedure. The levels of infection revealed here should be considered underestimations. This is the first paleoparasitological study from Rio de Janeiro city for the Brazilian colonial period and the first report of human Taenia sp. in the New World. PMID:23200641

  10. Maternal Deaths in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2000–2003

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Antonio Jose Leal

    2009-01-01

    The study describes the characteristics of maternal deaths in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2000–2003. After investigation by public-health services, 217 maternal deaths were identified among predominantly non-white (48.9%), single (57.1%) women aged 29.6±7.3 years on average. Direct obstetric causes corresponded to 77.4% of the maternal deaths, mainly due to hypertensive disorders. HIV-related diseases accounted for 4% of the maternal deaths. Almost three-fourths of the mothers who died were aged 20–39 years, although the highest risk of maternal death corresponded to the age-group of 40–49 years (248.9 per 100,000 livebirths). The socioeconomic and demographic profiles of maternal deaths in the city of Rio de Janeiro reflected a vulnerable social situation. Appropriate interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality need to encompass all women of childbearing age, irrespective of the magnitude of the risk of maternal death. PMID:20099763

  11. Nosocomial candidiasis in Rio de Janeiro State: Distribution and fluconazole susceptibility profile.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Paulo Murillo; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Ribeiro, Marcos Dornelas; Amorim, Efigênia de Lourdes Teixeira; da Silva, Manuela; Lazéra, Marcia dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    One hundred and forty-one Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2002 to 2007, were analized in order to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility of these species to fluconazole. Candida albicans was the most frequent species (45.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis sensu lato (28.4%), C. tropicalis (14.2%), C. guilliermondii (6.4%), C. famata (2.8%), C. glabrata (1.4%), C. krusei (0.7%) and C. lambica (0.7%). The sources of fungal isolates were blood (47.5%), respiratory tract (17.7%), urinary tract (16.3%), skin and mucous membrane (7.1%), catheter (5.6%), feces (2.1%) and mitral valve tissue (0.7%). The susceptibility test was performed using the methodology of disk-diffusion in agar as recommended in the M44-A2 Document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The majority of the clinical isolates (97.2%) was susceptible (S) to fluconazole, although three isolates (2.1%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and one of them (0.7%) was resistant (R). The S-DD isolates were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. tropicalis. One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to fluconazole. This work documents the high susceptibility to fluconazole by Candida species isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:26273262

  12. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M.; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G.; Moreira, Rodrigo de C.; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. Methods We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls–FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Results Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. Conclusions We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events. PMID:27391355

  13. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  14. To Be "Cool" or Not to Be "Cool": Young People's Insights on Consumption and Social Issues in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrozo, Sueila

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of material goods consumption to young people and the perception that to be "cool" is fundamental to identity construction, this study investigates consumption in relation to social, economic and cultural inequalities. Qualitative individual interviews took place in November 2005, in Rio de Janeiro, with 14 high school…

  15. Kluyveromyces aestuarii, a potential environmental quality indicator yeast for mangroves in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, F.V.; Hagler, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    Kluyveromyces aestuarii was found in sediments from 7 of 8 mangroves in Rio de Janeiro; and absent only at one site with heavy plastic bag pollution. Its presence suggests influence in other habitats from a mangrove and its absence in a mangrove suggests some non- fecal pollution or other habitat alteration. PMID:24031711

  16. 78 FR 38687 - Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil, October 7-10, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil, October 7-10, 2013 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United...

  17. 78 FR 57619 - Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil, October 7-10, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Commercial Service is amending the Notice published at 78 FR 38687, June 27, 2013, regarding the Architecture... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife,...

  18. Freedom, Revolt and "Citizenship": Three Pillars of Identity for Youngsters Living on the Streets of Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Udi Mandel

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the experiences, identities and aspirations of children and adolescents living on the streets of Rio de Janeiro, formed as they are around the conditions of exclusion, violence and discrimination. Significant here are experiences of "revolta"--revolt or rage--the aspiration for freedom through life on the street and the…

  19. HIV risk behaviors among outpatients with severe mental illness in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    WAINBERG, MILTON L.; MCKINNON, KAREN; ELKINGTON, KATHERINE; MATTOS, PAULO E.; GRUBER MANN, CLAUDIO; DE SOUZA PINTO, DIANA; OTTO-SALAJ, LAURA; COURNOS, FRANCINE; AND THE INVESTIGATORS OF PRISSMA

    2008-01-01

    We conducted the first study to examine rates of sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors, sexual protective behaviors, injection drug use (IDU), needle sharing, and knowledge about HIV/AIDS among outpatients with severe mental illness (SMI) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a measure with demonstrated reliability, we found that 42% of 98 patients engaged in vaginal or anal sex within the past three months. Comorbid substance use disorder was significantly associated with sexual activity. Only 22% of sexually active patients used condoms consistently, despite having better HIV knowledge than those who were sexually abstinent. Overall, 45% of patients reported not engaging in any HIV protective behaviors. There were no reports of drug injection. Adults with SMI in Brazil are in need of efficacious HIV prevention programs and policies that can sustain these programs within mental health treatment settings. PMID:18836542

  20. Nuclear medicine annual external occupational dose distribution: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, year 2005.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Claudia L P; Lima, Ana L S; da Silva, Herica L R; Souza-Santos, Denison; Silva, Claudio R

    2011-03-01

    Brazil has about 300 nuclear medicine services (NMS), 44 of them located in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Most nuclear medicine staff are routinely monitored for external dose. This paper makes a statistical analysis of all the RJ NMS annual external occupational doses in year 2005. Around 100 professionals of RJ NMS received annual doses >4.0 mSv, considering only external doses, but no one receives doses higher than the mean annual dose limit of 20 mSv. Extremities dosemeters are used by about 10 % of the staff. In some cases, these doses are more than 10 times higher than the dose in thorax. The maximum ratio of extremity dose/thorax dose, in 2005, was 72. This study shows the importance to improve radiation protection procedures in nuclear medicine, mainly because the number of occupational individuals in nuclear medicine and their external doses are increasing. PMID:21051433

  1. Nosocomial occurrence of enterotoxigenic multiresistant Staphylococcus strains in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Tórtora, J C; De Sousa, T L; Lourenço, M C; Lopes, H R

    1996-01-01

    We studied 46 Staphylococcus aureus strains with three patterns of antimicrobial resistance (MARSA, MRSA and MSSA) obtained from inpatients of a large community hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The strains showed a single biochemical pattern. On the contrary, remarkable phage-typing differences could be observed. Thirteen strains were associated to phagic group III and the remainder could not be typed even though most of them had shown a weak sensitivity to phage 54. Fourteen strains synthesized one or more enterotoxins. Enterotoxin D was synthesized more often. Neither was EEB produced nor TSSF-1. The results suggested the widespreading of different staphylococci strains in that hospital. There was strong evidence that some cases of nosocomial infections leading to death have been caused by the same S. aureus strain recovered from some inpatients in the intensive care unit. PMID:8783900

  2. Tuberculosis control in prisons, from research to action: the Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, experience.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Alexandra; Larouzé, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    The high tuberculosis (TB) rates observed in the Brazilian prison population highlights the need for more efficient TB control measures in this population, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro where detection rates are 30 times higher than in the general population. We present results of epidemiological, biomathematics modelling, molecular biology, psychosocological, architectural and juridical studies carried out in this state in order to assess the situation and to develop TB control strategies adapted to the specificities of the prison context. The implementation of these strategies implies to take into account the day-to-day realty of prison life and to turn more effective the supervision of the prison health system by instances in charge of monitoring the fulfillment of sentences, so as to guarantee access of prisoners to health in conformity with international and national laws. PMID:27383341

  3. Desmodus rotundus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, L M; Esbérard, C E L

    2011-08-01

    Since the 1990s, attacks by hematophagous bats on humans and domestic animals have been reported both on the continent and on the islands on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The density of vampire bats was investigated based on percentage of captures during control of Desmodus rotundus samplings and during bat diversity research. In the present work, 203 individuals of D. rotundus were captured from 1993 to 2009, which corresponds to 11.88% of all bat captures carried out for species control in local villages and 1.58% of all captures in faunistic inventories. The density of D. rotundus is high even on the recently occupied islands where domestic animals have been introduced. It is probable that this species dispersed from the continent to the islands due to the introduction of domestic animals. PMID:21881799

  4. Mosquito communities in Nova Iguaçu Natural Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correa, Fabiana F; Gleiser, Raquel M; Leite, Paulo J; Fagundes, Ezequias; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Mello, Cecilia F; Gredilha, Rodrigo; Alencar, Jeronimo

    2014-06-01

    ABSTRACT. In order to gather information on the culicid fauna of Nova Iguaçu Municipal Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, adult and immature stages were collected with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps, and dippers and suction tubes, respectively. In all, 828 adult and 990 immature specimens were collected belonging to 12 genera. Among the species collected were Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. fluviatilis, Ae. scapularis, Haemagogus leucocelaenus, and Psorophora ferox that are considered of potential medical importance. Culicids used a variety of larval habitats and bred under diverse ecological conditions, mostly in natural water containers formed by bamboo, bromeliad, ground depression, rock pool, stream, tree hole, and in artificial containers such as abandoned bathtub, car carcass, abandoned sink, plastic cup, waste tire, and water tank. Species richness and diversity increased from lower to higher forest cover and was highest in sites with highest diversity and high number of larval habitats. PMID:25102590

  5. [Maria Bandeira: a pioneering botanist at the Botanic Garden of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Bediaga, Begonha; Peixoto, Ariane Luna; Filgueiras, Tarciso S

    2016-01-01

    This article sheds light on Maria Bandeira, the first female botanist to work at the Botanic Garden of Rio de Janeiro. She was active in the 1920s, but is absent from the historiography and little cited in the scientific literature. The significant number of plant, fungus, and lichen specimens she collected, her capacity to reach far-flung places, her extensive correspondence with foreign experts, and her studies at Sorbonne are all sources for the analysis of the way botany was practiced and the social networks at play in science at the time. The end of her scientific career, when she adopted a cloistered life with the Barefoot Carmelite nuns, can be interpreted variously, and partially explains why her contributions to Brazilian botany have been forgotten. PMID:26841840

  6. [Analisys of work-related accidents and incidents in an oil refinery in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Carlos Augusto Vaz; de Freitas, Carlos Machado

    2003-01-01

    Accidents in the chemical industry can have serious consequences for workers, communities, and the environment and are thus highly relevant to public health. This article is the result of an occupational surveillance project involving several public institutions. We analyze 800 work-related accidents that resulted in injuries, environmental damage, or loss of production in 1997 in an oil refinery located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology was based on managerial and organizational approaches to accident investigation, with the European Union reporting system as the reference. The results highlight various limitations in the process of reporting and investigating accidents, as well as a certain hierarchy of accidents, with more attention given to accidents involving loss of production and less to those resulting in injuries, particularly among outsourced workers. PMID:14666211

  7. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quinete, Natalia Soares; de Oliveira, Elba dos Santos; Fernandes, Daniella R; Avelar, Andre de Souza; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2011-12-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. PMID:21864959

  8. [Operational control of water fluoridation in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Maia, Lucianne Cople; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim; Soares, Eduardo Lúcio; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational control of water fluoridation at the city water supply plant in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to December 2000. The water treatment supervisor filled out a questionnaire on the control of water fluoridation. In addition, water samples were collected every two weeks for fluoride analysis before and after treatment. Samples were analyzed by an independent laboratory using an ion-specific electrode. According to the water treatment supervisor, the entire process for controlling fluoride concentration in the water was rigorous and complied with Brazilian guidelines, but according to testing, 96% of samples were inadequate in terms of risks/benefits of fluoride use from water. The information obtained from the plant supervisor and the test data were thus mutually inconsistent. Based on these data, an independent water fluoride concentration control program is needed to ensure the benefits of dental caries prevention for the population. PMID:12700784

  9. Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the results of an investigation into the possible association between air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. This investigation employed multiple linear regression analysis (stepwise method) for infant mortality from pneumonia in 1980, including the study population's areas of residence, incomes, and pollution exposure as independent variables. With the income variable included in the regression, a statistically significant association was observed between the average annual level of particulates and infant mortality from pneumonia. While this finding should be accepted with caution, it does suggest a biological association between these variables. The authors' conclusion is that air quality indicators should be included in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

  10. Anurofauna of an Atlantic Rainforest fragment and its surroundings in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Gomes, M; Almeida-Santos, M; Goyannes-Araújo, P; Borges-Júnior, V N T; Vrcibradic, D; Siqueira, C C; Ariani, C V; Dias, A S; Souza, V V; Pinto, R R; Van Sluys, M; Rocha, C F D

    2010-10-01

    We carried out a study on the anurofaunal community from an Atlantic Forest fragment (Monte Verde mountains) and the surrounding area in Cambuci municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, which constitutes one of the largest fragments remaining in the largely deforested landscape of the northern portion of the State. We combined three sampling methods: plot sampling, transects and pit-fall traps. We recorded twenty species of amphibians, of which only eleven were found within the forest fragment (and five of these also occurred in the surrounding matrix). Two of the species recorded in the present study (Crossodactylus sp. and Ischnocnema cf. parva) may represent undescribed taxa. Our records expand the distribution range of one species (Scinax trapicheiroi) to the north, and fill a geographic distribution gap for another one (Ischnocnema oea). The estimated overall density of frogs living in the leaf litter of the fragment (based on results of plot sampling) was 3.1 individuals/100 m², with Haddadus binotatus being the most abundant species (2.4 individuals/100 m²). Comparisons of our data with those of other studies suggest that anuran communities in forest fragments ca. 1,000 ha or smaller may be severely limited in their richness, and often include a large proportion of species tolerant to open areas, such as many hylids. Our results show the importance of increasing knowledge about the anurofaunal community of the northern portion of the State of Rio de Janeiro and preserve the forest remnants that still exist in the region. PMID:21085792

  11. Clonal Dissemination of OXA-370-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Polyana Silva; Borghi, Mirla; de Araújo, Carlos Felipe Machado; Aires, Caio Augusto Martins; Oliveira, Jane Cleide Ribeiro; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes of the OXA-48 family have become some of the most important beta-lactamases in the world. A new OXA-48 variant (OXA-370) was first described for an Enterobacter hormaechei strain isolated in Rio Grande do Sul (southern region of Brazil) in 2013. Here we report detection of the blaOXA-370 gene in 24 isolates belonging to three Enterobacteriaceae species (22 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 1 Enterobacter cloacae isolate, and 1 Enterobacter aerogenes isolate) collected from five hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2013 and 2014. The isolates showed a multidrug resistance profile, and 12.5% were resistant to polymyxin B. Besides blaOXA-370, no other carbapenemase genes were observed by PCR, whereas blaOXA-1 was found in all isolates and 22 isolates (91.6%) possessed blaCTX-M-15. Molecular typing of the K. pneumoniae isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed the presence of two clonal groups, i.e., KpA (21 isolates) and KpB (1 isolate). KpA was characterized as sequence type 16 (ST16) and KpB as ST1041 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). ST16 has been observed for KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Rio de Janeiro. Plasmid analysis performed with six representative OXA-370-producing isolates showed plasmids harboring the blaOXA-370 gene in all strains, ranging from 25 kb to 150 kb. This study suggests that there is an urgent need to investigate the presence of OXA-370 and dissemination of the K. pneumoniae ST16 clone carrying this gene in Brazil. PMID:25987619

  12. A forensic-psychiatric study of sexual offenders in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valença, Alexandre Martins; Meyer, Leonardo Fernandez; Freire, Rafael; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-04-01

    Sexual violence is defined as any sexual act forced upon a person who did not give his or her consent. Our objective is to investigate the socio-demographic features, clinical correlates, criminal behaviour characteristics, and the level of penal responsibility of sexual offenders who were referred to forensic psychiatric assessment in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. All written reports made in the year of 2008 by court-appointed psychiatric experts on individuals charged with having committed sexual crimes and referred to the main forensic hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for assessment were reviewed. Forty-four expert reports were identified. All alleged offenders were male. Nineteen (43.2%) offenders did not receive any psychiatric diagnostic. Nine offenders (20.4%) were diagnosed with mental retardation. In 16 cases (36.4%), some form of mental or neurological disorder was diagnosed. Thirty-one (70.4%) offenders were considered fully responsible, eight (18.2%) partially responsible, and five (11.4%) not responsible by reason of insanity. The sexual crimes allegedly perpetrated by the offenders were rape (n=14, 32%), attempted rape (n=4, 9%), indecent assault (n=26, 59%), and indecent exposure (n=5, 11.4%). In 10 cases (22.7%), the offender was under alcohol influence at the moment of the crime. The profile of Brazilian sex offenders subject to forensic psychiatric assessment were male, caucasian, single, working part time, with no mental disorder, who perpetrated indecent assault. PMID:25735780

  13. The Impact of Epidemic Violence on the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Quintana, Maria Inês; Dewey, Michael E.; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Aims To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007–2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001). Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027), depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006) generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021) and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027). Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses – e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001) and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001). Conclusion Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying such factors

  14. Studies on the flight medical aspects of the German Lufthansa non-stop route from Frankfurt to Rio de Janeiro, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegmann, H. M.; Klein, K. E.; Goeters, K. M.; Samel, A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of crew size for regularly scheduled flights between Frankfurt and Rio de Janeiro is discussed. Factors affecting crew performance are examined, comparisons are drawn to regulations of other countries and crew questionnaires and tests are presented.

  15. FIRST CASE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE URBAN CENTER OF RIO DE JANEIRO: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; de Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement. PMID:24553614

  16. An illustrated catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Couri, Márcia Souto; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes

    2016-01-01

    A catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) is presented. A total number of 50 type specimens of 18 valid Neotropical species were recognized and are listed in alphabetical order of subfamily, genus and specific epithet. Photos of 12 primary types of the species and bibliographical data of the original descriptions, labels and condition of all type specimens are also provided. PMID:27394269

  17. FIRST REPORT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BYLeishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi IN AN URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ANTONIO, Liliane de Fátima; LYRA, Janine Pontes de Miranda; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L.) infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement). We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases. PMID:26603237

  18. The panorama of animal leptospirosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, regarding the seroepidemiology of the infection in tropical regions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an important disease caused by various serovars of Leptospira sp. It can affect humans as well as domestic and wild animals; therefore, it has importance for public health, animal production, and wild species. The aim of this paper is to discuss the epidemiology of animal leptospirosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as a possible model for other tropical regions. In several studies conducted in the last 20 years, a total of 47 rats, 120 dogs, 875 cows, 695 horses, 1,343 goats, 308 sheep and 351 pigs from all regions of the state, in addition to 107 wild mammals and 73 golden-lion tamarins were tested (MAT) for anti-Leptospira antibodies. Results Seroreactivity was frequent in all studied species, confirming that the infection is endemic in Rio de Janeiro. Serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Sejroe were the most prevalent in urban and rural scenarios, respectively. This paper reviews the current knowledge on animal leptospirosis in Rio de Janeiro and describes important differences between urban versus rural cycles of the infection in various species. Conclusion Identification of the prevailing serogroups and their reservoirs is essential for understanding agent-host-environment interactions under tropical conditions. PMID:24289165

  19. [Epidemiological aspects of canine American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Municipality of Paraty, State of Rio de Janeiro, brazil].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, G M; Marzochi, M C; Massard, C L; Lima, G P; Confort, E M

    1999-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, with the highest incidence observed in the municipalities along the Southern coast. A total of 169 human cases were reported from 1993 to 1995 in the municipality of Paraty, representing 15% of all case reports in the State of Rio de Janeiro during that period. From March to December, 1996, a survey was conducted in endemic american tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) areas (Praia Grande, Taquari, Várzea do Machado, and Graúna) in Paraty. 326 households with 215 pet dogs were surveyed. The initial study consisted of taking venous blood samples to perform RIFI and ELISA tests. The canine skin test was performed during the same visit and was positive in 8.8% of dogs. Of the 215 dogs, 5 presented lesions suspected of ATL; biopsies and the vacuum aspiration technique were performed on these cases. Correlating the study areas with the results obtained, some dogs presented sub-clinical infection, highly relevant to studies on canine ATL infection in the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:10502161

  20. Epidemiology of Psychotropic Drug Use in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Gaps in Mental Illness Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Maria Ines; Andreoli, Sergio B.; Moreira, Fernanda G.; Ribeiro, Wagner S.; Feijo, Marcelo M.; Bressan, Rodrigo A.; Coutinho, Evandro S. F.; Mari, Jair J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drugs use in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and establish its relationship with the presence of mental disorders. Methods A probabilistic sample of non-institutionalized individuals, from the general population of Rio de Janeiro (n = 1208;turn out:81%), 15 years or older, who were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (depression, anxiety-phobia, OCD\\PTSD, alcoholism sections), and asked about their psychotropic use during a 12 and one-month period before the interview. Data were collected between June/2007-February/2008.The prevalence was estimated with a confidence interval of 95%. The associations between psychotropics use and mental disorders were analyzed through a logistic regression model (Odds Ration – OR). Results The one-month prevalence of psychotropic drug use was 6.55%, 3.19% for men and 9.13% for women. Antidepressants were the most frequently used drug (2.78%), followed by anorectics (1.65%), tranquilizers (1.61%) and mood stabilizers (1.23%). General practitioners issued the highest number of prescriptions (46.3%), followed by psychiatrists (29.3%); 86.6% of the psychotropic drugs used were paid for by the patient himself. Individuals with increased likelihood of using psychotropic drugs were those that had received a psychiatric diagnosis during a one-month period before the study (OR:3.93), females (OR:1.82), separated/divorced (OR:2.23), of increased age (OR:1.03), with higher income (OR:2.96), and family history of mental disorder (OR:2.59); only 16% of the individuals with a current DSM IV diagnosis were using a psychotropic drug; 17% among individuals with a depression-related diagnosis and 8% with Phobic Anxiety Disorders-related diagnosis used psychotropics. Conclusion Approximately 84% of individuals displaying some mental disorder did not use psychotropic drugs, which indicates an important gap between demand and access to treatment. A

  1. Zika Virus Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Clinical Characterization, Epidemiological and Virological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Calvet, Guilherme Amaral; Siqueira, André Machado; Wakimoto, Mayumi; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Nobre, Aline; Quintana, Marcel de Souza Borges; de Mendonça, Marco Cesar Lima; Lupi, Otilia; de Souza, Rogerio Valls; Romero, Carolina; Zogbi, Heruza; Bressan, Clarisse da Silveira; Alves, Simone Sampaio; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Carvalho, Marilia Sá

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2015, Brazil was faced with the cocirculation of three arboviruses of major public health importance. The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between diseases caused by ZIKV, Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult. Methodology / Principal Findings The outpatient service for acute febrile illnesses in Fiocruz initiated a syndromic clinical observational study in 2007 to capture unusual presentations of DENV infections. In January 2015, an increase of cases with exanthematic disease was observed. Trained physicians evaluated the patients using a detailed case report form that included clinical assessment and laboratory investigations. The laboratory diagnostic algorithm included assays for detection of ZIKV, CHIKV and DENV. 364 suspected cases of Zika virus disease were identified based on clinical criteria between January and July 2015. Of these, 262 (71.9%) were tested and 119 (45.4%) were confirmed by the detection of ZIKV RNA. All of the samples with sequence information available clustered within the Asian genotype. Conclusions / Significance This is the first report of a ZIKV outbreak in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a large number of suspected (n = 364) and laboratory confirmed cases (n = 119). We were able to demonstrate that ZIKV was circulating in Rio de Janeiro as early as January 2015. The peak of the outbreak was documented in May/June 2015. More than half of the patients reported headache, arthralgia, myalgia, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and lower back pain, consistent with the case definition of suspected ZIKV disease issued by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). However, fever, when present, was low-intensity and short-termed. In our opinion, pruritus, the second most common clinical sign presented by the confirmed cases, should be added

  2. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case

  3. Water resource management: a comparative evaluation of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union, and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ronaldo S; da Gloria Alves, Maria; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa; Chrispim, Zélia M P; Mendes, M Paula; Silva Júnior, Gerson C

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of water resource management in Brazil, in particular the state of Rio de Janeiro, and in the European Union, with an emphasis on member country Portugal. The study examines the primary laws, governing bodies and water resource plans. The paper describes the concerns and interests of the scientific community and other sectors of society with regard to water resource management. The paper also draws attention to challenges and opportunities concerning the main objective of water resource management, which is to ensure the availability of water of high quality and sustainable quantity. Additionally, it also mentions good and poor management practices. Among the concerns highlighted are integrated water resource management and water resource monitoring. The objective of this study was to contribute to water resource management processes. The primary reasons for this study are the growing scarcity of freshwater in the world, recurrent problems in managing this resource and a desire to contribute to the improvement of the current situation. The study of water management in different contexts allows for a greater understanding of the subject, thereby assisting the decision-making of managers and society in general with regard to environmental quality and ecological and human health. There is an increasing interest in efficient water resource management, which creates a demand for information on the subject. Both Brazil and the European Union are facing problems related to quantity and quality of water. Problems like scarcity of freshwater, contamination, salinization, and floods. This makes the realities of them quite close, despite the physical distance between them. In general, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union and Portugal have similar water resource management requirements. If these regions are to supply a consistent quantity of high-quality water to present and future generations, then they need effective laws and plans

  4. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered

  5. Outbreak of Bluetongue virus serotype 4 in dairy sheep in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Balaro, Mario Felipe Alvarez; Dos Santos Lima, Michele; Del Fava, Claudia; de Oliveira, Glenda Ribeiro; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Brandão, Felipe Zandonadi

    2014-06-10

    In late January 2013, 10 nonpregnant Lacaune dairy ewes raised under extensive husbandry management on a farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, presented with the general clinical signs of lethargy, hyporexia, edema of the face, hyperemia of the exposed parts of the skin, mouth lesions, pyrexia, and lameness. Additionally, 2 pregnant ewes died suddenly after the onset of respiratory signs. The complete blood counts and biochemistry analyses showed neutrophilic leukocytosis with monocytosis and reactive lymphocytes, normocytic normochromic anemia and increased aspartate aminotransferase levels. Postmortem examination revealed erosions on the lingual mucosa, bilateral submandibular ganglia infarctions, yellow foamy fluid accumulation in the trachea and bronchial bifurcation, pulmonary congestion, and edema associated with hemorrhagic lesions on the pulmonary artery and heart. The clinical and pathological findings were suggestive of bluetongue. For a molecular and virological diagnosis, tissue samples were analyzed by Bluetongue virus-specific real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and viral isolation was performed in embryonated chicken eggs. For viral typing, positive tissue and egg-isolated samples were analyzed by qRT-PCR using primers and probes specific for the structural VP2 gene in genome segment 2 of all 26 serotypes. There are still no contingency plans for responding to an outbreak of bluetongue disease in Brazil, and this episode emphasizes the need for continuing serological and entomological surveillance programs. Additionally, this report describes the isolation of Bluetongue virus serotype 4 in sheep in the Americas. PMID:24916443

  6. A monument to Lazarus: the leprosy hospital of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas Hunter

    2003-01-01

    Soon after the Portuguese made landfall in 1500, Europeans and, later, African slaves introduced leprosy, and Saint Lazarus, the patron saint of its victims, into Brazil. Social and political pressure mounted by the middle of the eighteenth century in the city of Rio de Janeiro to remove those unfortunates from the city's streets even before the move of Brazil's capital in 1763. Frei Antôniom the bishop of Rio, founded the venerable hospital that year in the neighborhood of São Cristóvão, He requested that the Irmandade do Santissimo Sacramento da Candelária provide oversight and administration. The brotherhood continues to honor its covenant of 239 years ago. The history of this hospital provides insight into the complex relationships that existed between the citizenry and church and state. Rio's leprosy hospital, now the Hospital Frei Antônio, had an important role in the evolution of the health care professions, progress in medical science, and the genesis of the hygienic movement in Brazil. This study also contributes to the history of a disease that persists in 2002 Brazil as a public health issue. PMID:14650410

  7. Genetic polymorphisms and cerebrovascular disease in children with sickle cell anemia from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Filho, Isaac Lima da Silva; Leite, Ana Claudia Celestino Bezerra; Moura, Patrícia Gomes; Ribeiro, Georgina Severo; Cavalcante, Andréa Cony; Azevedo, Flávia Carolina Marques de; Andrada-Serpa, Maria José de

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine possible genetic risk factors related to the occurrence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in Brazilian population, the frequency of β(S)-globin gene haplotypes and co-inheritance with α-thalassemia (-α(3.7kb)) and single nucleotide polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR-C677T), Factor V Leiden (FV-G1691A) and prothrombin (PT-G20210A) genes in children from Rio de Janeiro. Ninety four children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) were included, 24 patients with cerebrovascular involvement and 70 patients without CVD as control group. The mean age of children at the time of the cerebrovascular event was similar to the control group. The frequency of -α(3.7kb) thalassemia was similar in both groups (p=0.751). Children with Bantu/Atypical β(S)-globin gene haplotype presented 15 times more chance (OR=15.4 CI 95% 2.9-81.6) of CVD than the other β(S)-globin gene haplotypes. The C677T polymorphism of MTHFR gene was similar in both groups (p=0.085). No mutation in the FV Leiden or PT genes was found. A large study seems necessary to establish the role of these genetic polymorphisms in Brazilian miscegenated population. PMID:21755116

  8. Geochronology of anthropogenic radionuclides in Ribeira Bay sediments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Gomes, Franciane; Godoy, José Marcus; Godoy, Maria Luiza D P; de Carvalho, Zenildo Lara; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Osvath, Iolanda; de Lacerda, Luiz Drude

    2011-09-01

    Ribeira Bay is located approximately 130 km south of the city of Rio de Janeiro and receives discharges of liquid effluent from the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant (NPP) site, where two pressurized water reactors are located. To test whether the presence of anthropogenic radionuclides in sediments in Ribeira Bay could be correlated to the NPP operations, we sampled seven sediment cores and determined accumulation rates and chronologies. Only one sediment core did not exhibit a superficial mixing layer; this sample was used for dating purposes. Cesium-137 and (207)Bi were observed in this sediment profile, but their presence was associated with atmospheric fall-out rather than the nearby NPP. The exponential decay of (210)Pb concentration with sediment layer depth was verified below a superficial mixing layer for all other sediment cores. Calculated accumulation rates ranged from 1.2 mm y(-1) in the inner bay to 6.2 mm y(-1) close to its entrance. PMID:21624727

  9. Water quality assessment with simultaneous Landsat-5 TM data at Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Braga, C.Z.F.; Setzer, A.W. ); Lacerda, L.D. de )

    1993-06-01

    This study aims at determining relationships between water quality parameters and digital data from the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). The study area was the Guanabara Bay, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Water samples were collected on two dates, coincident with Landsat passages, and when different tide conditions were present at the Bay. TM Bands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, band ratios 1 / 3 and 2 / 3, and principal component analysis of TM Bands 1-4 were compared with in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of water samples. Some water quality parameters were very well correlated with the digital remotely sensed data, especially during high tide: for instance, iron and manganese concentrations in total suspended solids; salinity and Secchi depth; temperature and Secchi depth; temperature and total suspended solids; total suspended solids and Bands 4 and 6; Secchi depth and Bands 4 and 6; temperature and Band 6. Lower correlation coefficients, although also significant, were found for the low tide condition. No correlation was found with chlorophyll-a concentrations. TM data were shown to be adequate to analyze temperature, Secchi depth, total suspended solids, and iron and manganese contents in the total suspended solids for the polluted estuary area studied.

  10. Composition of extractable organic matter in aerosols from urban areas of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida Azevedo, Débora de; Silveira Moreira, Larissa; Soares de Siqueira, Denilson

    The hydrocarbon compositions of atmospheric particulate matter from urban areas of Rio de Janeiro city have been studied to assess the different pollution levels. Samples were acquired using a standard high-volume air sampler (Hi-Vol), extracts were prepared and fractionated into aliphatic and aromatic compounds. High-resolution gas chromatography and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used for the analysis of the organic matter. The results show that all samples contain n-alkanes, but the distributions are different for each sample, reflecting both the biogenic (vascular plant wax input) and fossil fuel contamination sources (vehicular exhaust). The fossil fuel biomarkers, hopanes and steranes, were also observed in all samples except in the Tijuca Forest, which is a mountain forest in the midst of the sea-level city. A decrease in the level of pollution was observed in the sequence for Rebouças Tunnel>Cinelândia (downtown)>Quinta da Boa Vista Park>Tijuca Forest, as expected from the traffic density. Unfortunately, all sites are polluted mainly from vehicular emissions, but at different degrees, with the lowest levels in Tijuca Forest.

  11. A non-enteric adenovirus A12 gastroenteritis outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello; Rocha, Monica Simões; Rebelo, Maria Cristina; Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro; de Assis, Rosane Maria; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2016-01-01

    A gastroenteritis outbreak that occurred in 2013 in a low-income community in Rio de Janeiro was investigated for the presence of enteric viruses, including species A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), astrovirus (HAstV), bocavirus (HBoV), aichivirus (AiV), and adenovirus (HAdV). Five of nine stool samples (83%) from patients were positive for HAdV, and no other enteric viruses were detected. Polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis, which revealed four strains and one strain of non-enteric HAdV-A12 and HAdV-F41, respectively. The HAdV-A12 nucleotide sequences shared 100% nucleotide similarity. Viral load was assessed using a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Stool samples that were positive for HAdV-A12 had high viral loads (mean 1.9 X 107 DNA copies/g stool). All four patients with HAdV-A12 were < 25 months of age and had symptoms of fever and diarrhoea. Evaluation of enteric virus outbreaks allows the characterisation of novel or unique diarrhoea-associated viruses in regions where RVA vaccination is routinely performed. PMID:27223654

  12. Highly Endemic, Waterborne Toxoplasmosis in North Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bahia-Oliveira, Lílian Maria Garcia; Azevedo-Silva, Juliana; Alves, Cristiane C.F.; Oréfice, Fernando; Addiss, David G.

    2003-01-01

    In Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, reports of uveitis consistent with toxoplasmosis led to a survey of the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1997–1999. The survey population was selected randomly from schools, randomly chosen communities, and an army battalion. Serum samples from 1,436 persons were tested. With results adjusted for age, 84% of the population in the lower socioeconomic group was seropositive, compared with 62% and 23% of the middle and upper socioeconomic groups, respectively (p<0.001). When multivariate analysis was performed, drinking unfiltered water was found to increase the risk of seropositivity for the lower socioeconomic (odds ratio [OR]: 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 6.9) and middle socioeconomic (OR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.3) populations. We also found a high T. gondii seroprevalence in this Brazilian community. Drinking unfiltered water increased the risk of T. gondii seropositivity, indicating the potential importance of oocyst transmission in water in this region. PMID:12533282

  13. [Sexual partners and practices of young homosexuals in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Rios, Luís Felipe

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on the organization of the erotic lives of young men who engage in homosexual practices. The reflections presented here are based on ethnographic research including observation in places of homosociability and interviews with young men in Rio de Janeiro reporting homosexual practices. By presenting erotic scenes pertaining to a homoerotic circuit and recording the sexual trajectories of young men engaging in homosexual practices, the article seeks to identify the implications of the observed erotic scripts and sex-partner patterns for the sexual health of these individuals. The text calls special attention to reports concerning the emergence of different forms of erotic interaction in childhood, as well as cross-age and crossgenerational partnerships that extend into adulthood, with a growing trend toward seeking younger partners as the young men themselves grow older. The article suggests that such phenomena require a more in-depth understanding, since they have serious implications for planning sexual health measures for young men (and boys) who engage in homosexual practices. PMID:15029342

  14. [Effects of environmental factors on the ant fauna of restinga community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vargas, André B; Mayhé-Nunes, Antônio J; Queiroz, Jarbas M; Souza, Guilherme O; Ramos, Elaine F

    2007-01-01

    The effects of environmental factors on the richness, diversity and abundance of ants were studied in the Restinga da Marambaia, south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The samples were taken using pitfall traps in August/2004 (winter) and March/2005 (summer) in three different vegetation types: (1) herbaceous ridge palmoid (homogeneous habitat); (2) shrub dune thicket and (3) ridge forest (heterogeneous habitats). At each habitat a range of environmental attributes was recorded: soil temperature and humidity, percentage of soil covering by litter and litter depth. Ninety-two ant species belonging to 36 genera and eight subfamilies were recorded. Density of ant species and abundance varied significantly between habitats and seasons; ant diversity varied only between habitats. Homogeneous habitat had lower ant species density, abundance and diversity than heterogeneous habitats. The two first variables were positively correlated with litter depth and both were higher in summer than in winter samples. There were more species of Ponerinae and Ectatomminae in heterogeneous than in the homogeneous habitat, whereas the Formicinae species were more abundant in the later. PMID:17420859

  15. Health conditions of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of a quantitative and qualitative study on the living conditions and health of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The goal was to produce strategic information to support the action of public officials who work in prisons. The results show that prisoners are young (average age: 30 years), poor, mostly black and brown (70.5%), have little education (only 1.5% of them have a higher education), and have been in prison for less than four years. Among the problems that indirectly affect their health, we emphasize: overcrowding (1.39 prisoners per one vacancy), idleness (only 4.4% of them work), lack of perspective, violence and relationships of conflict. The most common physical health problems include: musculoskeletal problems, such as pain in the neck, back, and spine (76.7%), joint dislocation (28.2%), bursitis (22.9%), sciatica (22, 1%), arthritis (15.9%), bone fracture (15.3%), problems with bone and cartilage (12.5%), and muscle and tendon injuries (15.7%); respiratory problems, such as sinusitis (55.6%), allergic rhinitis (47%), chronic bronchitis (15.6%), tuberculosis (4.7%) and others (11.9%); and skin diseases. Despite legal requirements that include prison health care among the Universal Health System's (SUS) obligations, services are scarce and inefficient and a major cause of inmate dissatisfaction. PMID:27383337

  16. Feeding Patterns of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; Araújo, Andressa Nunes; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Silva, Júlia Dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    The stomach contents of culicids from the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were analyzed using the precipitin technique to evaluate the feeding patterns of the species. Sampling was performed from February 2012 to December 2013, using CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps to catch mosquitoes from 15 00 to 07 00 hours. The following antisera were used: bird, rodent, opossum, human, horse, capybara, lizard, and frog. Of the 325 adult bloodfed females caught and analyzed, 273 (84.0%) reacted in the precipitin test. The percentage of specimens with a positive reaction to a single antiserum included bird (39.2%), rodent (22.5%), opossum (13.2%), capybara (6.6%), horse (5.7%), frog (6.2%), human (4.0%), and lizard (2.6%). The specimens that reacted positively against more than one blood source (46) most frequently presented the following combinations: bird + rodent and bird + frog (17.4%), followed by bird + human (13.0%). The predominance of positive results for birds suggested that the avian-rich environment might have influenced the feeding behavior of the culicids. PMID:26336238

  17. Factors associated with gastrointestinal parasite infection in dogs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Balassiano, Bianca Chiganer Cramer; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; Menezes, Rita de Cássia Alves Alcantara de; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim

    2009-10-01

    Factors associated with parasitism by helminths and protozoans in 500 dogs presented to three veterinary clinics in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro from November 2003 to September 2004 were evaluated. Dogs were submitted to physical examination and owners were interviewed about the animal's management. One fecal sample from each dog was examined by centrifugal flotation and sedimentation methods followed by the safranin-methylene blue staining technique. Positive results for gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 46.4% of the examined samples. Infection with protozoans (29.6%) was more frequent than with helminths (23.2%). Cryptosporidium sp. (26.2%) and Ancylostoma sp. (15.2%) were the most frequent parasites. Logistic regression analysis showed that age (p<0.001), access to soil (p<0.001), hygiene of the environment (p=0.001), illness (p=0.007), owner's level of education (p<0.006) and veterinary clinic (p=0.043) were associated with gastrointestinal parasite infections in dogs. Treatment and control are especially important for puppies. Adult dogs should be submitted to fecal examination before treatment, placing special emphasis on those that present one or more factors associated with infection. PMID:19577316

  18. Organic micropollutants on river sediments from Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Vieira, Elisa Diniz Reis; Japenga, Jan; Koopmans, Gerwin Ferdinand

    2002-01-01

    The paper is a contribution for the knowledge upon concentrations and fate of different kinds of organic micropollutants in Tropical River system from a very industrialized region in Brazil. The presented data was obtained during three years of an International Research Project between Brazilian and Dutch institutions. The sediments were sampled at the Paraiba do Sul-Guandu river watershed, the most important watercourse of Rio de Janeiro state, where up 90% of the population depends on its water for domestic uses. After extraction with non-polar solvents in a hot sohxlet device and clean up using chromatographic columns, three classes of organic micropollutants were analyzed: organochlorine insecticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The organochlorines, including the PCBs were scarcely present in the collected samples probably reflecting the restrictions of use of this class of compounds in the Brazilian market. However, the PAHs levels were high at the vicinity of a huge steelworks located in the city of Volta Redonda. This contamination is probably due to the massive use of coal in the above-cited metallurgical plant. PMID:11923889

  19. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, Amanda Codeço; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; SANTOS, Fernanda Nunes; de SOUZA, Marcos Barbosa; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ABRANTES, Tuanne Rotti; PÉRISSÉ, André Reynaldo Santos

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT). The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents) were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%). Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4), animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6), and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1) were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpiswas not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area. PMID:26422157

  20. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: assessment of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Maria Alice A; Paula, Adelzon A; Camacho, Luis Antonio B; Marzochi, Mauro Célio A; Xavier, Samanta C; da Silva, Alba Valéria M; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2003-01-01

    Barra de Guaratiba is a coastal area of the city of Rio de Janeiro where American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is endemic. Although control measures including killing of dogs and use of insecticides have been applied at this locality, the canine seroprevalence remains at 25% and during 1995 and 1997 eight autochthonous human cases were notified. In order to evaluate factors related to the increase of the risk for Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi infection in dogs we have screened 365 dogs by anti-Leishmania immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and captured sandflies in the domestic and peridomestic environment. Some variables related to the infection were assessed by uni- and multivariate analysis. The distance of the residence from the forest border, its altitude and the presence of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis in the backyard, were found predictor factors for L. (L.) chagasi infection in dogs in Barra de Guaratiba. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the peridomestic environment indicates the possibility of appearence of new human cases. Our data also suggest the presence of a sylvatic enzootic cycle at this locality. PMID:12754572

  1. A non-enteric adenovirus A12 gastroenteritis outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello; Rocha, Monica Simões; Rebelo, Maria Cristina; Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro; Assis, Rosane Maria de; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2016-05-24

    A gastroenteritis outbreak that occurred in 2013 in a low-income community in Rio de Janeiro was investigated for the presence of enteric viruses, including species A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), astrovirus (HAstV), bocavirus (HBoV), aichivirus (AiV), and adenovirus (HAdV). Five of nine stool samples (83%) from patients were positive for HAdV, and no other enteric viruses were detected. Polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis, which revealed four strains and one strain of non-enteric HAdV-A12 and HAdV-F41, respectively. The HAdV-A12 nucleotide sequences shared 100% nucleotide similarity. Viral load was assessed using a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Stool samples that were positive for HAdV-A12 had high viral loads (mean 1.9 X 107 DNA copies/g stool). All four patients with HAdV-A12 were < 25 months of age and had symptoms of fever and diarrhoea. Evaluation of enteric virus outbreaks allows the characterisation of novel or unique diarrhoea-associated viruses in regions where RVA vaccination is routinely performed. PMID:27223654

  2. [Consumption of licit and illicit substances by police officers in the city of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Schenker, Miriam; Constantino, Patrícia; Correia, Bruna Soares Chaves

    2013-03-01

    The consumption of psychoactive substances by civil and military police of the city of Rio de Janeiro was investigated. Data was gathered from two cross-sectional studies on a questionnaire on work and health conditions given to a sample from the two corporations. The results show higher frequencies of regular consumption of tobacco (23.3% by civil police and 19.1% by military police), daily use of alcohol (12% by civil police and 11% by military police) and tranquilizers in the past year (13.3% by civil police and 10.1% by military police). The consumption of marijuana among officers was 0.1% by civil police and 1.1% by military police, and cocaine use among the military police was 1.1%. Alcohol consumption proved to be intense and causes problems at work and in the social and family relationships of these officers. The need for preventive policies for addiction and the possible underestimation of information on illicit substances is emphasized. PMID:23546193

  3. [Psychic suffering among civil police officers in Rio de Janeiro State].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Figueiredo, Ana Elisa Bastos; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2013-03-01

    The paper discusses the relationship between work and psychic suffering among police officers in the State of Rio de Janeiro. A questionnaire was filled out by these professionals in three separate studies: Capital Baixada Fluminense and Interior. The socio-demographic profile, quality of life, health and working conditions were investigated. Psychic suffering was measured by the SRQ-20. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with psychic suffering. The results showed it to be associated with the following variables: level of satisfaction with the ability to react to difficult situations; performing the work for which the officers were trained; suffering some victimization; unit location; problems in the nervous system; and degree of satisfaction with life in general. Those who reported problems in the nervous system and victimization showed an OR of 7.25 and 3.08, respectively. The professionals who considered themselves dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with the ability to react to difficult situations and life in general showed an OR of 10.85 and 6.69, respectively, compared with those who considered themselves satisfied or very satisfied. Professionals from the Baixada showed an increased risk of psychic suffering compared to a reduced risk among those from the Interior. PMID:23546190

  4. Groundwater chemical characterization of a Rio de Janeiro coastal aquifer, SE - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.; Sobral Barcellos, Renato G.; Emblanch, Christophe; Blavoux, Bernard; Sella, Silvia Maria; Daniel, Michel; Simler, Roland; Wasserman, Julio Cesar

    2009-02-01

    Although the inhabitants of the studied area have been complaining of increasing salinity of the water and lowered water table, indicating reduction of groundwater quality, no scientific studies had been carried out to understand the degradation processes. In the present work, a geochemical characterization of the coastal aquifer from the Oceanic Region of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil, was carried out, using hydrogeochemical and isotopic (δ 18O) data, correlation matrices and factor analysis. Based on the hydrochemistry, the groundwater was classified into three types: Group 1 (53%) belongs to Na-Ca-Cl-HCO 3 facies, Group 2 (20%) belongs to Na-Ca-Cl-SO 4 facies and Group 3 (27%) belongs to an intermediate Na-Mg-Ca-HCO 3-Cl-SO 4 facies. The water geochemical evolution, from crystalline (bicarbonate facies) to a sedimentary aquifer (sulfate facies) seem to be controlled by environmental characteristics. The descriptive statistics and isotopic tracers indicate that the increasing salinity in the shallow coastal aquifer is caused by domestic wastewater and not by marine water encroachment.

  5. Parasite community of Pagrus pagrus (Sparidae) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: evidence of temporal stability.

    PubMed

    Soares, Iris Aparecida; Vieira, Fabiano Matos; Luque, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    One hundred specimens of Pagrus pagrus were necropsied for parasitological study between January and February 2012. These data were compared with data from 90 specimens that had been examined in the year 2000. The fish were collected from Cabo Frio (21-23 ° S, 41-45 ° W), in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In the current study a total of 19 parasite species were collected. Sixteen of these were collected in the samples of both 2012 and 2000, thus totaling 25 parasite species in the two studies. All the results were similar to those of the previous study with regard to: dominance of anisakid nematode larvae; correlation between abundance of parasites and host body size; absence of correlations between the size of parasite infrapopulations and host sex; and scarcity of interspecific associations. The only difference between the studies was in the abundance values for Anisakidae, which could be correlated with the seasonal factor of the collection period, which was concentrated in the summer. This is also the period of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) phenomenon, during which there is greater host reproductive activity. Therefore, significant stability of the metazoan community structure of P. pagrus was shown. PMID:25054501

  6. [Reliability of birth defect data on birth certificates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2004].

    PubMed

    Guerra, Fernando Antônio Ramos; Llerena Jr, Juan Clinton; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Cunha, Cynthia Braga da; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2008-02-01

    This study assessed the reliability of birth certificate data related to birth defects in Brazil's Live Birth Information System (SINASC). We selected 24 maternity hospitals in the Unified National Health System (SUS) and compared the reports of birth defects from birth certificates with medical records of mothers and live born infants in the city of Rio de Janeiro for the year 2004. After transposing the data to a specific form, the birth defects were coded by types and organ systems and compared to the SINASC data. The most commonly affected organs involved the central nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Agreement was more than 50% for the digestive, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems and chromosomal anomalies. Prevalence-adjusted kappa varied according to 2 or 3-digit ICD-10 analysis, with better results for the musculoskeletal, digestive, and genitourinary systems and congenital anomalies, and worse for the central nervous and cardio-circulatory systems, eye, neck, and ear malformations, and cleft lip and palate. The results were unsatisfactory, suggesting the need for more investments to train the persons responsible for completing birth certificates in maternity hospitals and develop a model for coding birth defects on these documents. PMID:18278291

  7. Evolution of mammographic image quality in the state of Rio de Janeiro*

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Vanessa Cristina Felippe Lopes; Seta, Marismary Horsth De; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares; Delamarque, Elizabete Vianna; de Azevedo, Ana Cecília Pedrosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the evolution of mammographic image quality in the state of Rio de Janeiro on the basis of parameters measured and analyzed during health surveillance inspections in the period from 2006 to 2011. Materials and Methods Descriptive study analyzing parameters connected with imaging quality of 52 mammography apparatuses inspected at least twice with a one-year interval. Results Amongst the 16 analyzed parameters, 7 presented more than 70% of conformity, namely: compression paddle pressure intensity (85.1%), films development (72.7%), film response (72.7%), low contrast fine detail (92.2%), tumor mass visualization (76.5%), absence of image artifacts (94.1%), mammography-specific developers availability (88.2%). On the other hand, relevant parameters were below 50% conformity, namely: monthly image quality control testing (28.8%) and high contrast details with respect to microcalcifications visualization (47.1%). Conclusion The analysis revealed critical situations in terms of compliance with the health surveillance standards. Priority should be given to those mammography apparatuses that remained non-compliant at the second inspection performed within the one-year interval. PMID:25987749

  8. Visceral leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: eco-epidemiological aspects and control.

    PubMed

    Marzochi, Mauro Celio de Almeida; Fagundes, Aline; Andrade, Moacir Vieira de; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Marzochi, Keyla Belizia Feldman

    2009-01-01

    From 1977 (index case) to 2006, 87 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were confirmed in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in periurban areas on the continental and coastal slopes of the Pedra Branca massif and the continental slopes of the Gericinó massif. The majority (65.5%) of the patients were more than five years old, predominantly males (61.5%), but without any difference between the sexes below the age of 14 years. The overall fatality rate was 10.4%. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were detected. Leishmania chagasi was isolated from human and canine cases. The associations between the presence of phlebotomines and human and canine migrations, disorderly occupation involving degradation of environmental preservation areas and poor socioeconomic conditions may have created a favorable setting for the establishment and propagation of the disease. Close epidemiological surveillance associated with traditional control measures and others (active case researches, land clearing and health education), reduced the incidence of human cases from 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1981 to less than 0.01 per 100,000 since 1997. The canine infection rates decreased from 4.6% in 1984 to 1.6% in 2008. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected in some locations where human and canine cases occurred. In the years 2007 and 2008, no new human cases were reported, but there is a persistent and worrisome residual canine seroprevalence. PMID:19967242

  9. [Work and psychological distress among bank tellers in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Palacios, Marisa; Duarte, Francisco; Camara Vd, Volney de Magalhães

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses key relations between psychological distress and bank tellers' working conditions in various bank offices in Rio de Janeiro. Different theoretical models are discussed: stress, the psychodynamics of the work, and the psychopathology of the work. The aim of this case study was to elucidate the role of the work process as a source of psychological distress among tellers in a large bank company. Analysis of the work process with its variability and difficulties showed that two highly stressful situations are 1) discrepancies in the amounts of money counted at the teller's window and 2) customer complaints or insults directed against the teller. Such situations arise from the work organization that forces tellers to streamline or skip security rules and blames them for "discrepancies" in the till. The form of work organization also fails to support tellers in answering customer demands appropriately. The context of low wages and major transformations favoring workers' isolation generates insecurity over their future, viewed as lack of individual recognition. An approach to tellers' actual working conditions allowed for an understanding of stress factors and their determinants. PMID:12048610

  10. Herpetofauna of Núcleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, A R; Bruno, S F; Navegantes, A Q

    2012-08-01

    The Atlantic Rain forest, which is considered the second largest pluvial forest in the American continent, has had an estimated 93% of its original area destroyed. Although studies concerning the herpetofaunal diversity in this biome have been intensified in the past years, its diversity is still underestimated. The Nucleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande (NEIG) is included in an Environmental Protection Area (APA de Sapeatiba) in the Iguaba Grande municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil (22º 51' S and 42º 10' W). The goal of this study was to conduct an inventory of the reptile and amphibian species that occur in this area between July 2008 and December 2009. We recorded 19 species of amphibians (18 anurans and one caecilian) and 15 species of reptiles (three lizards, 11 snakes and one amphisbaenian). Leptodactylus latrans and L. mystacinus had the highest capture rates among amphibians captured, and among reptiles, Ameiva ameiva, Hemidactylus mabouia and Mabuya agilis had the highest capture rates. Rarefaction curves for both amphibians and reptiles did not reach the asymptote, indicating that the species richness in the NEIG is still underestimated. PMID:22990826

  11. Organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyl environmental pollution in south coast of Rio De Janeiro state.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Maria Ferreira; Pavesi, Thelma; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Santos, Tatyane Pereira Dos; de Medeiros Tabalipa, Marianne; Lemes, Vera Regina Rossi; Alves, Sergio Rabello; de Novaes Sarcinelli, Paula

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the burden of environmental pollution by Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) in two localities of Rio de Janeiro coast, through the determination of these levels in specimens of mullets and croakers collected from May to August 2008, at Guanabara Bay (GB) and from Araújo Island (AI), at Paraty Bay. Twenty three organochlorine pollutants were detected in croakers at GB and twenty in mullets and all PCBs congeners investigated in the study were present in the two species. Ratio ∑DDT/∑PCB of 1.4 shows an important contribution of agricultural residues in GB and p,p'-DDE/∑DDT of 0.1 demonstrates a reintroduction of DDT. Consumption of mullet may represent a risk to the health of fishermen families from GB, with average and maximum estimated daily intake of ∑DDT of 9.012μg/kg p.c. and 26,174μg/kg p.c., representing 45% and 131% of ADI established by WHO. PMID:27184129

  12. [Homicides in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an analysis of lethal violence].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Francisca Letícia Miranda Gadelha; Cecchetto, Fátima Regina; Corrêa, Juliana Silva; Souza, Tiago Oliveira de

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of rates were analyzed for the following categories: murder, larceny, bodily harm followed by death, homicide for resistance to police resulting in death, policeman killed, missing persons and dead bodies found in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro and in Integrated Public Security Area 16 (AISP 16). An ecological study was conducted for the period from 2002 to 2013, using data from the Public Security Institute. To analyze the time trend and evolution of murder charges, resistance to police resulting in death and missing persons rates, Joinpoint regression was performed, using these rates as the dependent variables and the calendar year as the independent variable. For the other categories only the time trends of the rates were analyzed for the relative change in rates at the beginning and end of the period. There were falls in rates in all categories, except for missing persons. The murder rate showed a significant downward trend in the three locations. The results contributed to definition of the pattern of violence in the three locations based on the dialogue between the social sciences, public health and safety that made it possible to establish subjective and objective aspects linked to the study findings. PMID:27076026

  13. [Dietary pattern and nutritional status of metalworkers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade de; Anjos, Luiz Antonio dos; Lourenço, Paulo Maurício

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status, dietary and leisure-time physical activity patterns, and energy intake of 65 male metalworkers aged 19 to 58 years from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described in the context of a surveillance build-up system. Mean body mass index was 25.0 kg/m2 (44.6% of the workers were overweight), and mean daily energy intake was 3,209.1 kcal, with a macronutrient distribution of 17.8%, 21.8%, and 60.6% of protein, lipids, and carbohydrates, respectively. The most frequently eaten foods were rice, beans, bread, coffee, sugar, butter, juice, whole milk, soda, beef, and poultry. Vegetable, fruit, meat, and egg intakes were higher than the Food Pyramid Guide suggested portions. The results show a paradox for a surveillance system: (1) high prevalence of overweight, but dietary macronutrients within internationally recommended levels; (2) a well-balanced dietary pattern; and (3) some leisure-time physical activity in half of the workers. PMID:15300284

  14. On norms and bodies: findings from field research on cosmetic surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dorneles de Andrade, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Brazil has the second highest rate of cosmetic surgery worldwide, provided in a large number of public and private clinics and hospitals, especially in the southeast. This qualitative field research in Rio de Janeiro included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 18 women cosmetic surgery patients, 10 key informants (e.g. psychologists and sociologists) and 12 plastic surgeons. Fifteen of the women were either pre- or post-operative; three had not decided whether to have surgery. When asked about their motivations and expectations of the surgery, the majority of the women said they wanted to be "normal". Most of the surgeons said they acted as empathic companions from decision-making through surgery and beyond. Many of the key informants were critical of what was happening to medical ethics in relation to cosmetic surgery. With the growth in a consumer culture, they saw ethics in medicine becoming more bendable and subject to the "law" of the market. The cult of the body has become a mass phenomenon and taken on an important social dimension in a society where norms and images are broadcast widely by the media. The trend towards body-modification by cosmetic surgery at an early age is increasing dramatically. What demands critical thinking and further investigation are the consequences of cosmetic surgery for physical and mental health. PMID:20541086

  15. [Trade unionism, working conditions and health: the perspective of educational professionals in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Kátia Reis; de Brito, Jussara Cruz

    2012-02-01

    The scope of this paper is to analyze and interpret the problems and prospects of trade union activity, in order to achieve changes in the workplace and promote health in schools by means of the experience of the Training Program in Health, Gender and Work in Public Schools. In order to conduct this research we staged interviews with union leaders and education professionals. In our analysis we concentrated on the report of a specific case, namely the State Union of Education Professionals in Rio de Janeiro (SEPE-RJ). We perceived that, after the training program, the campaign began to focus not only on the defense of certain rights that are traditionally present on the union agenda. The concept of health broadens the union concept of working conditions; it also allows workers in schools to be the protagonists of movements for change. We note, moreover, the sense of renewal that the theme "work"--in its relation to health--has given to trade union militancy. PMID:22267033

  16. Noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in a children's day care facility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallimore, C I; Barreiros, M A B; Brown, D W G; Nascimento, J P; Leite, J P G

    2004-03-01

    Noroviruses (Norwalk-like viruses) are an important cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They are the most common cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the adult population and occur in nursing homes for the elderly, geriatric wards, medical wards, and in hotel and restaurant settings. Food-borne outbreaks have also occurred following consumption of contaminated oysters. This study describes the application of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using random primers (PdN6) and specific Ni and E3 primers, directed at a small region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-coding region of the norovirus genome, and DNA sequencing for the detection and preliminary characterisation of noroviruses in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in children in Brazil. The outbreak samples were collected from children <5 years of age at the Bertha Lutz children's day care facility at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, that occurred between 1996 and 1998, where no pathogen had been identified. At the Bertha Lutz day care center facility, only Fiocruz's employee children are provided for, and they come from different social, economic and cultural backgrounds. Three distinct genogroup II strains were detected in three outbreaks in 1997/98 and were most closely related to genotypes GII-3 (Mexico virus) and GII-4 (Grimsby virus), both of which have been detected in paediatric and adult outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. PMID:15060697

  17. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed. PMID:27404496

  18. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Gleiser, Raquel M.

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed. PMID:27404496

  19. Outcomes of a scientific nonformal educational initiative for youth in Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral Félix de Sousa, Isabela

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this research is to understand how former students view their professional and academic paths after taking part in a specific scientific nonformal educational initiative during high school. This program is called Vocational Scientific Program (Provoc) and is carried out in the Oswald Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This institution has for over 100 years played a pioneer role in public health research in the country. This institution has many graduate programs and a high school dedicated to training students in health issues. Provoc was originated in this school and has been part of it for the last 25 years. Since its beginning, this program has been characterized by a significant predominance of women which relates to the female predominance of professionals in this institution working in the traditional areas of Fiocruz, which are Biology, Medicine, Public Health, Humanities and Social Sciences. This study was qualitative in nature and involved observations and 34 individual interviews, which followed a semi structured questionnaire, designed for this research. The results indicate that the majority of participants see their program participation experiences as an asset in their academic and professional careers. Many describe feeling empowered by presenting their work in seminars and a few by writing a research article. Many former students also testified to the establishment of social long lasting relationships in the research work environment. And finally, the interviews reveal a few moments and the factors involved in the selection of a profession by youth.

  20. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in a high traffic street of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Sérgio M.; Martins, Eduardo M.; Arbilla, Graciela

    The data for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels in ambient air of the city of Rio de Janeiro, obtained in the period from 4 December 1998 to 17 January 2001 is presented. A total of 28 samples were collected at a downtown area, where emissions may be mainly attributed to the vehicular fleet. Values between 1.52 and 54.31 ppb for formaldehyde and between 2.36 and 45.60 ppb for acetaldehyde were obtained. The high acetaldehyde/formaldehyde ratios (0.76 to 1.61) are a consequence of the use of oxygenated fuels. Brazilian cities are unique in that the vehicles use hydrated ethanol (over 4 million of light duty vehicles), gasohol (a mixture with gasoline and 24% v/v of ethanol) and diesel fuels. The analysis of vehicle exhaust and model simulations of the air quality in August and December 1999, confirmed that the high levels of acetaldehyde could be attributed to direct emissions of the vehicular fleet and to the photochemical initiated oxidation of organic compounds.

  1. [A perspective on living conditions: child and adolescent mortality in Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Cruz Neto, Otavio; Sucena, Luiz Fernando Mazzei

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the Mortality Information System, this paper investigates the deaths of children and adolescents in the Manguinhos neighborhood from 1996 to 2000, to determine the main characteristics and associate key mortality aspects with local living conditions. An outlying working-class or "suburban" neighborhood of the city of Rio de Janeiro where the main campus of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation is located, Manguinhos consists of 12 "communities" characterized by poverty, social exclusion, drug traffic, and structural violence. In light of these factors and the cultural, social, and economic potential of the Manguinhos population, the authors begin with the theoretical/ practical premise that living conditions played a major role in the deaths of these young citizens. The study of these fatal events may therefore lead to the elucidation of issues and problems that must be included on the agendas and in forums involving both health promotion projects and the Municipal, State, and Federal governments so that they can be appropriately addressed in the scope of public policies. PMID:12700795

  2. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  3. Adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs in Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, Glauciene Santana; Guaraldo, Lusiele; Engstrom, Elyne Montenegro; Filha, Mariza Miranda Theme; Santos, Reinaldo Souza-; Vasconcelos, Ana Gloria Godoi; Rozenfeld, Suely

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize and estimate the frequency of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs in the population treated at the Centro de Saúde Escola Germano Sinval Faria, a primary health care clinic in Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro City, and to explore the relationship between adverse drug reactions and some of the patients' demographic and health characteristics. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted via patient record review of incident cases between 2004 and 2008. RESULTS: Of the 176 patients studied, 41.5% developed one or more adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs, totaling 126 occurrences. The rate of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs was higher among women, patients aged 50 years or older, those with four or more comorbidities, and those who used five or more drugs. Of the total reactions, 71.4% were mild. The organ systems most affected were as follows: the gastrointestinal tract (29.4%), the skin and appendages (21.4%), and the central and peripheral nervous systems (14.3%). Of the patients who experienced adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs, 65.8% received no drug treatment for their adverse reactions, and 4.1% had one of the antituberculosis drugs suspended because of adverse reactions. “Probable reactions” (75%) predominated over “possible reactions” (24%). In the study sample, 64.3% of the reactions occurred during the first two months of treatment, and most (92.6%) of the reactions were ascribed to the combination of rifampicin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide (Regimen I). A high dropout rate from tuberculosis treatment (24.4%) was also observed. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a high rate of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs. PMID:23644852

  4. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission among drug users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proper knowledge of HIV transmission is not enough for people to adopt protective behaviors, but deficits in this information may increase HIV/AIDS vulnerability. Objective To assess drug users' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the possible association between knowledge and HIV testing. Methods A Cross-sectional study conducted in 2006/7 with a convenience sample of 295 illicit drug users in Rio de Janeiro, assessing knowledge on AIDS/HIV transmission and its relationship with HIV testing. Information from 108 randomly selected drug users who received an educational intervention using cards illustrating situations potentially associated with HIV transmission were assessed using Multidimensional Scaling (MDS). Results Almost 40% of drug users reported having never used condoms and more than 60% reported not using condoms under the influence of substances. Most drug users (80.6%) correctly answered that condoms make sex safer, but incorrect beliefs are still common (e.g. nearly 44% believed HIV can be transmitted through saliva and 55% reported that HIV infection can be transmitted by sharing toothbrushes), with significant differences between drug users who had and who had not been tested for HIV. MDS showed queries on vaginal/anal sex and sharing syringes/needles were classified in the same set as effective modes of HIV transmission. The event that was further away from this core of properly perceived risks referred to blood donation, perceived as risky. Other items were found to be dispersed, suggesting inchoate beliefs on transmission modes. Conclusions Drug users have an increased HIV infection vulnerability compared to the general population, this specific population expressed relevant doubts about HIV transmission, as well as high levels of risky behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that possessing inaccurate HIV/AIDS knowledge may be a barrier to timely HIV testing. Interventions should be tailored to such specific characteristics. PMID:21324119

  5. Blood Pressure in Adolescence, Adipokines and Inflammation in Young Adults. The Rio de Janeiro Study

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Erika Maria Gonçalves; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; Pozzan, Roberto; Magalhães, Maria Eliane Campos; Fonseca, Flávia Lopes; Pizzi, Oswaldo Luiz; de Freitas, Elizabete Viana; Brandão, Ayrton Pires

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of blood pressure (BP) during adolescence on other cardiovascular risk factors in young adults is important for the primary prevention. Objective To evaluate BP, anthropometric indexes, metabolic and inflammatory profiles in young individuals stratified by their BP behavior recorded for 18 years. Methods A total of 116 individuals, of whom 63 were males, from the Rio de Janeiro study (follow-up of 17.76 ± 1.63 years), were assessed at two moments: A1 (12.40 ± 1.49 years) and A2 (30.09 ± 2.01 years). The 116 individuals were divided into two groups: GN (n = 71), of participants with normal BP at A1; and GH (n = 45), of those with abnormal BP at A1. BP, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were measured at A1 and A2. At A2, abdominal circumference (AC) and laboratory, metabolic and inflammatory variables were included. Results 1) No difference was observed between the groups as regards age and gender; 2) At A2, GH showed higher mean weight, BMI, BP, insulin, HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), leptin (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 and A1 (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 / apolipoprotein A1 ratio (p < 0.010); and higher prevalences of overweight/obesity (p < 0.001), of increased AC (p < 0.001) and of hypertension (p < 0.02); 3) No difference was observed between the groups as regards the inflammatory variables; 4) There was a positive correlation of BP at A1 with BP, BMI, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR at A2 (p < 0.05). Conclusion BP in adolescence was associated with higher values of BP, and anthropometric and metabolic variables in young adulthood, but not with inflammatory variables. PMID:24263778

  6. The epidemiology of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro: environmental and domestic risk factors.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, L. M.; Werneck, G. L.; Cairncross, S.; Coeli, C. M.; Costa, M. C.; Coletty, P. E.

    2001-01-01

    A serological study of hepatitis A was carried out in low-income areas scheduled for a major sanitation programme in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood spots were collected by finger puncture and transported on filter paper, and total antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected by ELISA. Households were also interviewed to collect information on their environmental conditions and socio-economic status. A generalized linear model using a complementary log-log function was fitted to the data, using the logarithm of age as an explanatory variable to derive adjusted rate ratios (RR). The risk of infection was greater among households with 2-3 members per room (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.04-1.8) or more than three per room (RR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0). People living on hilltops (RR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.02-2.2), near to open sewers (RR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.5) or lacking a kitchen (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.08-1.9) were also at greater risk than others. The number of taps and water-using fittings in the house was associated with a protective effect (RR = 0.9 for each tap; 95% CI = 0.9-0.98). A significant protective association was found with maternal education but not with gender or household income. The results do not suggest a strong association with water quality. Ownership of a ceramic water filter was associated with a protective effect on the margin of significance, but the practice of boiling drinking-water was not, nor was the type of water source used. The results suggest that that the risk of infection with hepatitis A is determined by environmental variables in the domestic and public domains. PMID:11693510

  7. Mortality from Circulatory System Diseases and Malformations in Children in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Thais Rocha; Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile of mortality in a population is important for the institution of measures to improve health care and reduce mortality Objective To estimate mortality rates and the proportional mortality from cardiovascular diseases and malformations of the circulatory system in children and adolescents. Methods This is a descriptive study of mortality from cardiovascular diseases, malformations of the circulatory system, from all causes, ill-defined causes and external causes in children and adolescents in the state of Rio de Janeiro from 1996 to 2012. Populations were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE) and deaths obtained from the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (DATASUS)/Ministry of Health. Results There were 115,728 deaths from all causes, 69,757 in males. The annual mortality from cardiovascular diseases was 2.7/100,000 in men and 2.6/100,000 in women. The annual mortality from malformations of the circulatory system was 7.5/100,000 in men and 6.6/100,000 in women. Among the specific causes of circulatory diseases, cardiomyopathies had the highest rates of annual proportional mortality, and from malformations of the circulatory system, it occurred due to unspecified malformations of the circulatory system, at all ages and in both genders. Conclusion Mortality from malformations of the circulatory system was most striking in the first years of life, while cardiovascular diseases were more relevant in adolescents. Low access to prenatal diagnosis or at birth probably prevented the proper treatment of malformations of the circulatory system. PMID:27192384

  8. APOE and LDLR Gene Polymorphisms and Dyslipidemia Tracking. Rio de Janeiro Study

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Rossana Ghessa Andrade; Campana, Erika Maria Gonçalves; Pozzan, Roberto; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; Brandão, Ayrton Pires; Magalhães, Maria Eliane Campos; da Silva, Dayse Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies show an association between changes in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and LDLR receptor with the occurrence of dyslipidemia. Objectives To investigate the association between polymorphisms of the APOE (ε2, ε3, ε4) and LDLR (A370T) genes with the persistence of abnormal serum lipid levels in young individuals followed up for 17 years in the Rio de Janeiro Study. Methods The study included 56 individuals (35 males) who underwent three assessments at different ages: A1 (mean age 13.30 ± 1.53 years), A2 (22.09 ± 1.91 years) and A3 (31.23 ± 1.99 years). Clinical evaluation with measurement of blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) was conducted at all three assessments. Measurement of waist circumference (WC) and serum lipids, and analysis of genetic polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP were performed at A2 and A3. Based on dyslipidemia tracking, three groups were established: 0 (no abnormal lipid value at A2 and A3), 1 (up to one abnormal lipid value at A2 or A3) and 2 (one or more abnormal lipid values at A2 and A3). Results Compared with groups 0 and 1, group 2 presented higher mean values of BP, BMI, WC, LDL-c and TG (p < 0.01) and lower mean values of HDL-c (p = 0.001). Across the assessments, all individuals with APOE genotypes ε2/ε4 and ε4/ε4 maintained at least one abnormal lipid variable, whereas those with genotype ε2/ε3 did not show abnormal values (χ2 = 16.848, p = 0.032). For the LDLR genotypes, there was no significant difference among the groups. Conclusions APOE gene polymorphisms were associated with dyslipidemia in young individuals followed up longitudinally from childhood. PMID:26131702

  9. Five years of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde monitoring in the Rio de Janeiro downtown area - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Sergio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela; Martins, Eduardo Monteiro; Quitério, Simone Lorena; de Souza Guimarães, Claudinei; Gatti, Luciana Vanni

    2010-06-01

    The fuel matrix used in Brazil is unique around the world. The intensive use of hydrated ethanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% v/v of ethanol), compressed natural gas (CNG), and biodiesel leads to a peculiar composition of the urban atmosphere. From 1998 to 2002 an increase in formaldehyde levels was observed and since then, a reduction. This work presents a monitoring campaign that was executed from March 2004 to February 2009 by sampling at early morning on every sunny Wednesday for a total of 183 samples. The results indicate a strong reduction in formaldehyde levels from 2004 (average of 135.8 μg m -3 with SD 28.4 μg m -3) to 2009 (average of 49.3 μg m -3 with SD 27.4 μg m -3). The levels of acetaldehyde showed a slight reduction from 2004 (average of 34.9 μg m -3 with SD 8.0 μg m -3) to 2009 (average of 26.8 μg m -3 with SD 11.5 μg m -3). Comparing the results with the concurrent evolution of the fleet and of fuel composition indicates that the observed formaldehyde levels could be associated with the increase in ethanol use and in CNG use by engines with improved technology over the first converted CNG engines. Modelling studies using the OZIPR trajectory model and the SAPRC chemical mechanism indicate that formaldehyde is the main ozone precursor in Rio de Janeiro and acetaldehyde is the forth one.

  10. Anthelmintic efficacy and management practices in sheep farms from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Daniela Guedes; da Rocha, Letícia Oliveira; Arruda, Sabrina Santos; Palieraqui, Jorge Guilherme Bergottini; Cordeiro, Rudymilla Cunha; Santos, Edizio; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Santos, Clóvis de Paula

    2010-06-24

    Anthelmintic resistance in parasites maybe a consequence of over-exposing populations of parasites to drugs or from the commerce/transit of animals harboring resistant parasites. Knowledge of the sensitivity of nematodes to anthelmintics is essential to establish an efficient integrated program of parasite control. In Brazil, producers rely on technology transfer from field professionals and non-technical labor for new management strategies of parasite control. The aim of this work was to determine the practices farmers used for anthelmintic management and to monitor drug efficacy on sheep farms from northern and northwestern regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A questionnaire was sent to 34 farms, and anthelmintics were tested on ten of these farms. Sheep (n=10/group) were weighed and treated with albendazole, closantel, doramectin, fenbendazole, ivermectin, levamisole, moxidectin, or nitroxynil with their recommended doses. Faeces were collected on the day of treatment and after 7-10 days. The faecal egg count reduction test was evaluated based on RESO 2.0. Among the farmers interviewed, 97% applied commercial anthelmintics to control parasites, 77% rotated anthelmintics annually, 72% used ivermectin as the principal anthelmintic, and 38% applied anthelmintics with a frequency of 30-60 days. On two farms, none of the anthelmintics was efficacious. Levamisole had the best overall efficacy (70%). Albendazole, ivermectin, and fenbendazole were efficacious (above 95%) on only two farms. The present work illustrates the alarming lack of efficacy of drugs even in an area new to sheep farming. It is important to establish alternative strategies of management in a broad program of parasite control for reducing the selection pressure on parasites by the commercially available anthelmintics. PMID:20356679

  11. Role of carbonyls and aromatics in the formation of tropospheric ozone in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Débora Bonfim Neves; Martins, Eduardo Monteiro; Corrêa, Sergio Machado

    2016-05-01

    The ozone in Rio de Janeiro has been in violation of national air quality standards. Among all of the monitoring stations, the Bangu neighbourhood has the most violations of the national standard of 160 μg m(-3) for the years 2012 and 2013. This study evaluated the reactivity of the carbonyls and aromatics in the tropospheric ozone formation processes. The samples were collected between July and October of 2013. Carbonyls were sampled using SiO2 cartridges coated with C18 and impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and were analysed by HPLC. Activated carbon cartridges and GC/MS were used to measure the concentration of monoaromatic hydrocarbons. An air quality monitoring station provided the concentrations of the criteria pollutants and the meteorological parameters. Cluster analysis and a Pearson correlation matrix were used to determine the formation of groups and the correlation of the variables. The evaluation of the volatile organic compounds (VOC) reaction with OH radicals and the MIR scale was used to extrapolate the reactivity of VOCs to the ozone formation. The average concentrations obtained were 19.7 and 51.9 μg m(-3) for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, respectively. The mean concentrations obtained for aromatics were 1.5, 6.7, 1.5, 2.6 and 1.6 μg m(-3) for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, m+p-xylene and o-xylene, respectively. The cluster analysis indicated the presence of three similar groups, with one formed by gaseous criteria pollutants, another formed by the meteorological parameters, ozone and fine particles, and the last group formed by the aromatics. For the two reactivity scales evaluated, acetaldehyde and toluene were the main ozone precursors. PMID:27080853

  12. Radiation exposure at sea level measurement between Rio de Janeiro and the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Freitas, A. C.; Alencar, A. S.; Coutinho, C. R.; Paschoa, A. S.

    2007-09-01

    A sea trip was made aboard the vessel NApOc Ary Rongel of the Brazilian Navy from Rio de Janeiro (Lat. 22°S) to Admiralty Bay (Lat. 62°S) in the King George Island in the Antarctic Peninsula. This trip was part of the Brazilian Antarctic Programme. Radiation measurements were carried out with a proportional counter along the ship round-trip route, which sailed partially under the South Atlantic Anomaly. Only those measurements, which were taken after the vessel was farther than one nautical mile offshore were used. This procedure minimizes radiation contributions from land. External radiation measurements made offshore give an indication of the secondary cosmic ray intensity at sea level. Barometric pressure measurements were registered along the round-trip route as well. Negative correlations between the measured external radiation and the barometric pressure on the vessel were observed in both ways of the round-trip. In latitudes above 42°S, the negative correlation became more prominent. In 1935 the variation of the secondary cosmic radiation with atmospheric pressure was known as the barometric paradox. Recently, an attempt was made to associate long-term variations of the surface pressure with solar activity and galactic cosmic rays. The results are discussed taking into account that as the barometric pressure increases the particle density in the atmosphere also increases. In such case, there are an increasing number of interactions with the particles produced in the hadronic showers, because of decreasing mean free path. Thus, the number of particles reaching a detector at the sea level decreases.

  13. Study of weather and thermal comfort influence on sport performance: prognostic analysis applied to Rio de Janeiro's city marathon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallotta, M.; Herdies, D. L.; Gonçalves, L. G.

    2013-05-01

    There is nowadays a growing interest in the influence and impacts of weather and climate in human life. The weather conditions analysis shows the utility of this type of tool when applied in sports. These conditions act as a differential in strategy and training, especially for outdoor sports. This study had as aim objective develop weather forecast and thermal comfort evaluation targeted to sports, and hoped that the results can be used to the development of products and weather service in the Olympic Games 2016 in Rio de Janeiro City. The use of weather forecast applied to the sport showed to be efficient for the case of Rio de Janeiro City Marathon, especially due to the high spatial resolution. The WRF simulations for the three marathons studied showed good results for temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. On the other hand, the forecast of the wind showed a pattern of overestimation of the real situation in all cases. It was concluded that the WRF model provides, in general, more representative simulations from 36 hours in advance, and with 18 hours of integration they were even better, describing efficiently the synoptic situation that would be found. A review of weather conditions and thermal comfort at specific points of the marathon route showed that there are significant differences between the stages of the marathon, which makes possible to plan the competition strategy under the thermal comfort. It was concluded that a relationship between a situation more thermally comfortable (uncomfortable) and the best (worst) time in Rio de Janeiro City Marathon

  14. Parylene supported 20um*20um uncooled thermoelectric infrared detector with high fill factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres-Zadeh, Mohammad J.; Carpenter, Zachary S.; Rockley, Mark G.; Abdolvand, Reza

    2012-06-01

    Presented is a novel design for an uncooled surface-micromachined thermoelectric (TE) infrared (IR) detector. The detector features a P-doped polysilicon/Nichrome (Cr20-Ni80) thermocouple, which is embedded into a thin layer of Parylene-N to provide structural support. The low thermal conductivity (~0.1W/m.K), chemical resistance, and ease of deposition/patterning of Parylene-N make it an excellent choice of material for use in MEMS thermal detectors. This detector also features an umbrella-like IR absorber composed of a three layer stack of NiCr/SiN/NiCr to optimize IR absorption. The total device area is 20 um * 20 um per pixel with an absorber area of ~19 um * 19 um resulting in a fill factor of 90%. At room temperature, a DC responsivity of ~170V/W with a rise time of less than 8 ms is measured from the fabricated devices in vacuum when viewing a 500K blackbody without any concentrating optics. The dominant source of noise in thermoelectric IR detectors is typically Johnson noise when the detectors are operating in an open circuit condition. The fabricated detectors have resistances about 85KOhm which results in Johnson noise of about 38nV/Hz^0.5. The D* is calculated to be 9 * 106 cm*Hz0.5/ W. Preliminary finite element analysis indicates that the thermal conduction from the hot junction to the substrate through the TE wires is dominant ( GTE >> Gparylene) considering the fabricated dimensions of the parylene film and the TE wires. Thus, by further reducing the size of the TE wires, GTE can be decreased and hence, responsivity can be improved while the parylene film sustains the structural integrity of the cell.

  15. The sand fly fauna (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the region of Saquarema, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Reginaldo P; Pontes, Michelle C de Queiroz; Passos, Wagner Lança; Rodrigues, Andressa A Fuzari; Brazil, Beatriz Gomes

    2011-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, is sporadic in many rural and suburban areas of Rio de Janeiro State. An investigation was carried out during 2008/9 in the Municipality of Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil, in order to identify the phlebotomine sand fly fauna. More than 2,100 sand flies were collected in peridomestic areas in two chicken coops using CDC light traps. Nine species of phlebotomine sand flies were identified: Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia (P.) pessoai, Pintomyia (P.) fischeri, Pintomyia (P.) bianchigalatiae, Migonemyia (M.) migonei, Lutzomyia (L.) longipalpis, Brumptomyia cunhai and Brumptomyia guimaraesi. Based on the results of this study together with related studies in other CL foci in Rio de Janeiro, both Nissomyia intermedia and Migonemyia migonei can be considered suspect vectors of the disease in the region. The potential risk of VL due to the presence of its proven vector L. longipalpis is discussed. PMID:21366786

  16. Viral etiology of acute respiratory diseases in Rio de Janeiro: first two years of a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Sutmoller, F.; Nascimento, J. P.; Chaves, J. R. S.; Ferreira, V.; Pereira, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    A two-year study was undertaken to establish the incidence and possible viral etiology of acute respiratory diseases among the child population of a shanty town in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results demonstrated that nearly half of all the illnesses seen were respiratory infections, 10% of them affecting the lower respiratory tract. Viruses were isolated from 20% of the throat swabs collected. Of the viruses identified, 47% were adenoviruses, 25% were enteroviruses, 9% were influenza A, 8% herpes simplex, 7% parainfluenza, 3% respiratory syncytial and 1% influenza B viruses. PMID:6606500

  17. PREVALENCE OF Calodium hepaticum (SYN. Capillaria hepatica) IN Rattus norvegicus IN THE URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Raquel O.; Luque, José L.; Faro, Marta Júlia; Motta, Ester; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The nematode Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a zoonotic helminth found mainly infecting rats. It was studied the prevalence of C. hepaticum infection in Rattus norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), with low urban planning and sanitation. The presence of C. hepaticum was identified through visible yellowish-white lesions in liver tissue and histological analyses. The total prevalence of infection was 45%, with no significant differences between sex and age. The presence of infected rodents near the peridomestic area poses substantial risk to human health. PMID:25229230

  18. "Holy scan" or "picture of the baby?" Biomedicalization and stratification in the use of obstetric ultrasound in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Chazan, Lilian Krakowski; Faro, Livi F T

    2016-01-01

    Based on ethnographic studies conducted at public and private healthcare facilities in Rio de Janeiro, we argue that the dissemination of (bio)medicalization varies in accordance with the social stratum of the expectant mothers, thereby producing thoroughly distinct fetal and pregnant bodies, as well as different gestational processes. Starting from the basic premise that biomedicalization represents a transformation in the process of medicalization, characterized by the growing incorporation of technoscience into biomedicine, the observed universes displayed different stages in this transformation, consonant with the social stratification of the women who underwent the scans. PMID:27008074

  19. Report of the second international symposium on molecular epidemiology in childhood leukaemia and embryonal tumours, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pombo de Oliveira, M S; Ferman, S; de Camargo, B

    2008-01-01

    The recent International Symposium on Molecular epidemiology in Embryonal Tumours and Paediatric Leukaemia was held on 4-6 March 2008 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It proved a very productive meeting in which studies relating to genetics, therapeutical trials, identification of risk factors in acute leukaemia neuroblastoma and Wilms' tumours were presented. Over 120 participants gathered for three days of fruitful discussions, including representatives of paediatrics, haematology, laboratory, epidemiology and pathology. Debates were held about strategies of applications of important biomarkers for clinical trials. Highlights of each of the scientific presentations are summarized below. PMID:22275972

  20. Catalogue of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Alexandre Dias; Monteiro, Júlio César; Barbosa, André Favaretto; Salgado, Norma Campos; Coelho, Arnaldo Campos Dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    A curatorial revision of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) revealed the existence of 518 lots of type specimens (holotypes, neotypes, syntypes and paratypes) for 285 names of molluscan taxa from 88 families, including 247 gastropods, 30 bivalves, three cephalopods and five scaphopods. A total of 106 holotypes and one neotype are deposited in the MNRJ. Type material for ten nominal taxa described as being deposited in the MNRJ was not located; the probable reasons are discussed. Some previously published erroneous information about types in the MNRJ is rectified. A total of 37 type specimens are illustrated. PMID:24871828

  1. The impact of sports mega-events on health and environmental rights in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vilani, Rodrigo Machado; Machado, Carlos José Saldanha

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss the contradictions of the Olympic Games legacy for health and environment in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Public policies for sports mega-events have been criticized for contributing to and deepening the city's historical socio-spatial inequalities. Based on document research and data analysis, the article focused on establishing a proposal for a sustainable city, as provided in Law 10,257/2001, the so-called City's Statute. The article concludes with remarks on Olympic urban planning, its market orientation, and failures to overcome public health and environmental sanitation problems that will persist as a legacy after 2016. PMID:26648362

  2. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  3. Atmospheric levels of aldehydes and BTEX and their relationship with vehicular fleet changes in Rio de Janeiro urban area.

    PubMed

    Martins, Eduardo Monteiro; Arbilla, Graciela; Bauerfeldt, Glauco Favilla; de Paula, Murilo

    2007-05-01

    A comprehensive monitoring campaign to assess aldehydes and BTEX concentrations was performed during 12 months, in the Tijuca district (Rio de Janeiro), an area with commercial activities and a high flux of vehicles. The mean concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were 151 and 30 ppb, respectively. The high formaldehyde/acetaldehyde ratio was attributed to extensive use of compressed natural gas (CNG). The number of CNG vehicles in the metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro increased from 23000 in January 2001 to 161000 in January 2005. Monitoring data show that, for the same period, methane and formaldehyde concentrations increased while NO(x) and CO levels diminished. Mean concentrations for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene, were 1.1, 4.8, 3.6, 10.4 and 3.0 micro gm(-3), respectively. Benzene and toluene concentrations were lower than the values determined in 1996, for the same location. The levels of ethylbenzene and xylenes determined in this work are similar to values obtained in 1996. This fact may be explained as a consequence of changes in the gasoline composition. PMID:17257646

  4. Dioxins and furans in breast milk: a case study of mothers from southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos

    2015-05-01

    A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 primiparous mothers living in 12 locations in the meso-region industrial area of southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2013. Questionnaires with questions regarding food habits, social and economic conditions and places of dwelling were applied. Milk was collected between four and six weeks after delivery from mothers were breast-feeding only one infant. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for applying better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It is important for pregnant women to have a diet that is as free as possible from chemical contaminants. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. The background contamination by PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs in mothers living at industrial area in Rio de Janeiro is lower than that generally found in industrialized countries. PMID:26083184

  5. Brazilian city planners, American city planning? New perspectives on urban planning in Rio de Janeiro, 1930-1945.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Vera F

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the connections between the ideas and principles of American city planning from 1920 with those articulated by Brazilian city planners in the 1930s and implemented by the administration of the City of Rio de Janeiro, then the capital of Brazil, notably during the period of the Estado Novo [The New State] from 1937 to 1945. In a period characterized by the centralization of political power and the concentration of decision-making in the hands of the president and the state, the City of Rio de Janeiro undertook a series of restructuring projects which utilized new forms of administration and organization. This article explores the links between urban planning in Brazil and the USA that were a notable feature of these projects. It examines particular requirements set down in city plans, city planning commissions and funding for urban activities, such as 'excess condemnation', by focusing upon articles and books written by four Brazilian engineers and proposals put forward by the American City Planning Institute, detailed in the proceedings of the National Conference on City Planning, in the periodical, City Planning and works by affiliated authors. PMID:20857605

  6. Assessment of the BTEX concentrations and reactivity in a confined parking area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Barbara Prestes; de Souza Machado, Gladson; Bauerfeldt, Glauco Favila; Nunes Fortes, Julio Domingos; Martins, Eduardo Monteiro

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the contribution of evaporative emissions from light passenger vehicles to the degradation of the air quality was investigated on the basis of the indoor quantification of the monoaromatic volatile compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX), specifically, a confined shopping mall parking area in the northern zone of Rio de Janeiro, a site that represents the reality of the vehicular fleet of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro. In order to evaluate the concentration of the BTEX compounds, samples were collected, by an active sampling system using charcoal cartridge as adsorbent. The samples were extracted with organic solvent and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The average results were 54.14 μg m-3 (benzene), 209.24 μg m-3 (toluene), 45.87 μg m-3 (ethylbenzene) and 118.93 μg m-3 (xylenes). These results are compared with results from the literature of vehicular emissions in confined spaces such as garages and tunnels. Possible correlations with emissions from moving vehicles, obtained from previous studies in a tunnel of large circulation and emissions obtained in other underground parkings, are also investigated. The results suggest different emission sources.

  7. Disaggregating health inequalities within Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2002-2010, by applying an urban health inequality index

    PubMed Central

    Bortz, Martin; Kano, Megumi; Ramroth, Heribert; Barcellos, Christovam; Weaver, Scott R.; Rothenberg, Richard; Magalhães, Monica

    2016-01-01

    An urban health index (UHI) was used to quantify health inequalities within Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the years 2002-2010. Eight main health indicators were generated at the ward level using mortality data. The indicators were combined to form the index. The distribution of the rank ordered UHI-values provides information on inequality among wards, using the ratio of the extremes and the gradient of the middle values. Over the decade the ratio of extremes in 2010 declined relative to 2002 (1.57 vs. 1.32) as did the slope of the middle values (0.23 vs. 0.16). A spatial division between the affluent south and the deprived north and east is still visible. The UHI correlated on an ecological ward-level with socioeconomic and urban environment indicators like square meter price of apartments (0.54, p < 0.01), low education of mother (-0.61, p < 0.01), low income (-0.62, p < 0.01) and proportion of black ethnicity (-0.55, p < 0.01). The results suggest that population health and equity have improved in Rio de Janeiro in the last decade though some familiar patterns of spatial inequality remain. PMID:26648367

  8. Chironomid larvae inhabiting bromeliad phytotelmata in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest in Rio de Janeiro State.

    PubMed

    Sodré, V M; Rocha, O; Messias, M C

    2010-08-01

    A study of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae) occurring in phytotelmata of Bromeliaceae was carried out in a fragment of the Atlantic Rain Forest in an area of the city of Magé, Pau Grande, one of the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro City, during a period of 13 months between September 2006 and September 2007. Eight samplings were performed at intervals of 1 (1/2) months and the content of the phytotelmata of the bromeliad species Neoregelia concentrica (Vellozo) L.B. Smith, 1934 and Aechmea nudicaulis (Linnaeus) Grisebach, 1864, were examined. A taxonomical inventory and evaluation of the numerical abundance of Chironomidae larvae were performed in 50 specimens of the bromeliads, being 13 individuals of N. concentrica and 37 of A. nudicaulis. Three taxa of Chironomidae belonging to three distinct subfamilies were recorded: Polypedilum sp., Orthocladiinae genus A and Monopelopia sp. A total of 293 individuals of Chironomidae, were recorded, being 9 Polypedilum sp., 233 Orthocladiinae genus A, and 51 Monopelopia sp., the latter representing the first record of Monopelopia in phytotelmata in Rio de Janeiro State. Considering all samples, a mean density of 3.32 +/- 2.62 chironomid larvae per phytotelmata was recorded. There was a positive relationship between the chironomid abundance and both precipitation and the volume of water in the phytotelmata. Apparently there is no preference by the chironomids regarding the colonistion of the bromeliad species. PMID:20730345

  9. Record of the First Cases of Human Myiasis by Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Wellington Thadeu de Alcantara; Figueiredo, Adriana Leal de; Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira de; Lemos, Gustavo Abrantes; Silva, Pôla Francine Cassiano Morais; Miranda, Taís Auricchio de; Lessa, Cláudia Soares Santos; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães

    2015-11-01

    Myiasis is a disease caused by an infestation of the tissues of vertebrates by developing fly larvae. We document the first cases of human myiasis by Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, analyzed the epidemiological and clinical profiles of the patients, and their risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease. Between May 2008 to July 2013, six cases of myiasis caused by larvae of L. cuprina were reported in patients treated in the Federal Hospital of Andaraí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The six patients ranged between 13 and 72 yr old, belonged to various ethnic groups, and both sexes were represented. The affected individuals were relatively uneducated, had low income and poor hygiene habits. Infections were more common in the legs. The following factors were found to predispose individuals to myiasis: trauma, pediculosis, erysipelas, skin infections, and wounds resulting from congestive heart failure. Myiasis by L. cuprina occurred predominantly in the summer when there is abundant rainfall. PMID:26336269

  10. The Men Who Have Sex with Men HIV Care Cascade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Corrêa, Renato Girade; Derrico, Monica; Lemos, Katia; Grangeiro, Jose Roberto; de Jesus, Beto; Pires, Denise; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has a concentrated HIV epidemic and men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected. Yet, no data is available on the HIV care cascade for this population. This study aimed to assess the HIV care cascade among MSM newly diagnosed through innovative testing strategies in Rio de Janeiro. Data from 793 MSM and travestites/transgender women (transwomen) tested for HIV at a non-governmental LGBT organization and a mobile testing unit located at a gay friendly venue were analyzed. A 12-month-after-HIV-diagnosis-censored cohort was established using CD4, viral load and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) longitudinal data from those diagnosed with HIV. A cross-sectional HIV care cascade was built using this data. The relative risks of achieving each cascade-stage were estimated using generalized linear models according to age, self-declared skin-color, education, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), drug use and prior HIV testing. From Jan-2013 to Jan-2014, 793 MSM and transwomen were tested, 131 (16.5%) were HIV-infected. As of January 2015, 95 (72.5%) were linked to HIV care, 90 (68.7%) were retained in HIV care, 80 (61.1%) were on cART, and 50 (38.2%) were virally suppressed one year after HIV diagnosis. Being non-white (Relative risk [lower bound; upper bound of 95% confidence interval] = 1.709 [1.145; 2.549]) and having a prior HIV-test (1.954 [1.278; 2.986]) were associated with an HIV-positive diagnosis. A higher linkage (2.603 [1.091; 6.211]) and retention in care (4.510 [1.880; 10.822]) were observed among those who were older than 30 years of age. Using community-based testing strategies, we were able to access a high-risk MSM population and a small sample of transwomen. Despite universal care coverage and the test-and-treat policy adopted in Brazil, the MSM cascade of care indicates that strategies to increase linkage to care and prompt cART initiation targeted to these populations are critically needed. Interventions

  11. Sporotrichosis: An Emerging Neglected Opportunistic Infection in HIV-Infected Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; do Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi; da Silva, Margarete Bernardo Tavares; Campos, Dayse Pereira; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; de Souza, Rogerio Valls; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez

    2014-01-01

    Sporotrichosis associated with zoonotic transmission remains a relevant public health problem in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, affecting a large at-risk population, which includes HIV-infected individuals. We assessed patients co-infected by Sporothrix spp. and HIV over time in the context of an unabated sporotrichosis epidemic. A retrospective cohort retrieved information from a National reference institute for infectious diseases regarding 48 patients with sporotrichosis-HIV co-infection (group 1) as well as 3,570 patients with sporotrichosis (group 2), from 1987 through March 2013. Most patients from group 1 were male (68.8%), whereas women were predominant in group 2 (69.1%; p<0.0001). Patients from group 1 were younger than those from group 2 (μ = 38.38±10.17 vs. 46.34±15.85; p<0.001) and differed from group 2 in terms of their race/ethnic background, with 70.8% non-white patients in group 1 vs. 38.6% from group 2 (p<0.0001). Close to half (∼44%) of the patients from group 1 were hospitalized due to sporotrichosis over time, whereas hospitalization was very unlikely in group 2, among whom approximately 1% were hospitalized over time. Dissemination of sporotrichosis was the main cause of hospitalization in both groups, although it was more common among hospitalized patients from group 1 (19/21 [90.5%] vs. 16/37 [43.2%]; p<0.001). Over the period under analysis, eight patients died due to sporotrichosis (3/48 vs. 5/3,570). The diagnosis of sporotrichosis elicited HIV testing and subsequent diagnosis in 19/48 patients, whereas 23/48 patients were simultaneously diagnosed with the two infections. HIV infection aggravates sporotrichosis, with a higher incidence of severe disseminated cases and a higher number of hospitalizations and deaths. Underserved populations, among whom sporotrichosis has been propagated, have been affected by different transmissible (e.g., HIV) and non-transmissible diseases. These populations should be targeted by community development

  12. The Men Who Have Sex with Men HIV Care Cascade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rodolfo; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Corrêa, Renato Girade; Derrico, Monica; Lemos, Katia; Grangeiro, Jose Roberto; Jesus, Beto de; Pires, Denise; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has a concentrated HIV epidemic and men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected. Yet, no data is available on the HIV care cascade for this population. This study aimed to assess the HIV care cascade among MSM newly diagnosed through innovative testing strategies in Rio de Janeiro. Data from 793 MSM and travestites/transgender women (transwomen) tested for HIV at a non-governmental LGBT organization and a mobile testing unit located at a gay friendly venue were analyzed. A 12-month-after-HIV-diagnosis-censored cohort was established using CD4, viral load and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) longitudinal data from those diagnosed with HIV. A cross-sectional HIV care cascade was built using this data. The relative risks of achieving each cascade-stage were estimated using generalized linear models according to age, self-declared skin-color, education, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), drug use and prior HIV testing. From Jan-2013 to Jan-2014, 793 MSM and transwomen were tested, 131 (16.5%) were HIV-infected. As of January 2015, 95 (72.5%) were linked to HIV care, 90 (68.7%) were retained in HIV care, 80 (61.1%) were on cART, and 50 (38.2%) were virally suppressed one year after HIV diagnosis. Being non-white (Relative risk [lower bound; upper bound of 95% confidence interval] = 1.709 [1.145; 2.549]) and having a prior HIV-test (1.954 [1.278; 2.986]) were associated with an HIV-positive diagnosis. A higher linkage (2.603 [1.091; 6.211]) and retention in care (4.510 [1.880; 10.822]) were observed among those who were older than 30 years of age. Using community-based testing strategies, we were able to access a high-risk MSM population and a small sample of transwomen. Despite universal care coverage and the test-and-treat policy adopted in Brazil, the MSM cascade of care indicates that strategies to increase linkage to care and prompt cART initiation targeted to these populations are critically needed. Interventions

  13. Conservation of colonial built heritage: practical considerations and cultural constraints in Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B.; Neto, J.; Silva, M.; Warke, P.; Curran, J.

    2003-04-01

    As the 500th anniversary of European arrival in Brazil approached in the year 2000, it provided a stimulus for the country to review the cultural and economic significance of its remaining colonial built heritage. This is not least because of the growing awareness that built heritage is an important attractor for high income tourism and an increasing willingness amongst the population at large to accept colonial artefacts as a legitimate component of national history. Nowhere is this revision more apposite than in the adjacent cities of Rio de Janeiro and Niteroi. In both cities much of the colonial heritage was swept away during the late twentieth century in a tide of reconstruction that was symbolic of self-proclaimed Brazilian modernity and that signified for many a break with their colonial past. Those elements of colonial heritage that have survived have done so largely because of their ownership either by the church or the military. However, whilst this has often protected the overall building, the detailed fabric of such structures has at best been neglected and in many cases abused. As a consequence, stonework, in particular, can exhibit a range of decay features that must be addressed if this heritage is to be preserved and its educational and economic potential realised. In this presentation, we review changing attitudes towards conservation as illustrated by a number of key structures, including the large stone forts that guard the entrance to Guanabara Bay. This is combined with a detailed examination of threats to the integrity of their stonework consequent on prolonged exposure in a humid tropical maritime environment. Most of these structures are built of local, very durable augen gneiss. However, studies of natural rock outcrops show that this rock does weather, and that breakdown can be episodic as localised strength thresholds are breached. Surveys suggest that some buildings may be approaching such threshold conditions, whereby stresses

  14. The BDS iGMAS RIOS station at Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Song, Shuli; Junqueira, Selma; Beauvalet, Laurene

    2016-07-01

    GNSS navigation satellites are currently being developed by all major players in the science and technology scene, to compete with the GPS system. Because their applications span many different areas, from traffic and cargo control, to geodesy and seismic monitoring, it is required to assess the coherence between the different constellations. BDS is the GNSS system currently developed in China. Its first generation of satellites consisted of 3 geostationnary satellites allowing geolocalisation in China only. In addition to these satellites, other satellites have been launched in geostationnary and geosynchronous orbits, as well as satellites orbiting with a classical GNSS semi-major axis. With these additions, the BDS system possesses 19 operating satellites, and though the system is mostly efficient for geolocalisation in Asia, the satellites are also visible in other parts of the globe. In parallel to the development of the BDS constellation, China has launched the iGMAS (International GNSS Monitoring and Assessment Service) project to develop a global tracking network of multi-GNSS geodetic receivers. One of the goals of this project is to evaluate the efficiency of the BDS constellation as well as the efficiency of the receivers developed by the Chinese laboratories. As part of the Brazilian program COSBAN leaded by the Foreign Affairs Ministry to foster up the science and technology partnership with China, materialized by the collaboration between the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory/CAS and the Observatório Nacional/MCTI, in Rio de Janeiro. Through it the RIOS-iGMAS station was installed at Observatório Nacional, where the RJEP GNSS station already operates as part of the Brazilian reference system. Thus at the Observatório Nacional can be observed satellites from any constellation with both systems of reception, leading to a direct, efficient way to compare the results obtained for each network. In this communication we focus on the determination of the

  15. Apportionment of particulate matter sources in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioda, A.; Mateus, V.; Ventura, L.; Amaral, B.

    2013-05-01

    Continuous monitoring of particulate matter (PM) is extremely important in order to observe possible trends and take measures to reduce emissions. In Brazil, few cities have network stations, which make these measurements even more crucial. Furthermore, there is a need to update and create new standards of air quality, which can only be done based on a suitable inventory. Levels of total suspended particles (TSP), PM10 and PM2.5 were monitored in the Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Mean concentrations of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 were 70, 60 and 14 μg/m3, respectively. Some of the monitored sampling points exceeded the Brazilian guidelines for PM10 (50 μg/m3) and TSP (80 μg/m3). However, the PM2.5 levels measured in the present study are of extreme concern, since they exceeded the guideline suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO - 10 μg/m3) in almost all the study sites. The average PM2.5/PM10 ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.3, being more dependent on traffic emissions, while PM10/PTS ratios ranged from 0.6 to 0.7. The particles were composed mainly of soil elements (~50%) and ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate (20-40%), which are recognized as secondary inorganic aerosols. Rural areas and sites near the ocean presented the lowest levels for all particle sizes. This is probably due to an enhanced dispersion of the particles by the sea breeze. On the other hand, higher PM concentrations were observed for the sites near industrial areas and heavy traffic, as expected. The monthly distribution profile observed for PM showed clear increases in PM levels from May to September at all stations. This increase is due to the stagnation of the air during winter, which is related to meteorological processes such as low relative humidity and low rainfall. Consequently, due to this stagnation pollutant concentrations show increases. According to the dataset from the Unified Health System there is a clear trend of increased hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in

  16. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  17. Where the Boys Are: Attitudes Related to Masculinity, Fatherhood, and Violence toward Women among Low-Income Adolescent and Young Adult Males in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Gary; Loewenstein, Irene

    1997-01-01

    Qualitative research with 127 low-income young men and women, aged 14 to 30, in Rio de Janeiro found rigid gender roles with males displaying widespread "machista" attitudes (an exaggerated deep structure of masculinity) and acceptance of violence against women that was greater in low-income urban areas. Implications for working with adolescent…

  18. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker's cooperatives: an alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina; Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city's main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers' cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:23347581

  19. 77 FR 1667 - Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, Respondent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ..., the most recent being that of August 12, 2011 (76 FR 50,661 (Aug. 16, 2011)), has continued the... Bureau of Industry and Security Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil... program from the United States to Iran via Brazil, without the required U.S. Government...

  20. Ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy for brain imaging at 6 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um resolution (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Akkin, Taner; Magnain, Caroline V.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Cramer, Avilash; Wang, Ruopeng; Sakadžic, Sava; Boas, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Neuroanatomical pathways form the basis for functional activity of brain circuits. In the past, we developed a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography with serial scanning to achieve large-scale brain imaging. The system was able to visualize 3D fiber tracts of ~20 um in diameter. To investigate the neuroanatomical pathways at finer scales, we have now built a polarization-maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscope (PS-OCM) at 1300 nm. The PS-OCM has an axial resolution of 3.5 um in tissue. The detection setup consists of two spectrometers, acquiring spectral interference on orthogonal polarization channels. With a single measurement, the setup generates four contrasts: reflectivity, cross-polarization, retardance and optic axis orientation. To investigate the capability of PS-OCM at different resolutions, we used three microscope objectives that yield lateral resolutions of 6.0 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um. Blocks of formalin fixed mouse brain and human brain were scanned. The cross-polarization and retardance images clearly depict the neuronal fiber structures, which are comparable with that generated by the maximum projection of volumetric reflectivity data. The optic axis orientation quantifies the in-plane fiber orientation. With the lateral resolution of 1.3 um, the retardance contrast is weak in white matter due to the shallow depth of focus. Overall, the ultra-high resolution PS-OCM provides a new tool to reveal neuroanatomical maps in the brain at cellular resolution.

  1. Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Ephydridae) from Brazil with an emphasis on the faunas from the states of Parana and Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Francisco de Assis; Mathis, Wayne Nielsen; Couri, Márcia Souto

    2014-01-01

    With more than 200 species worldwide, Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy is the largest genus of the family Ephydridae (Diptera). However, knowledge of this genus is much reduced in Brazil and throughout the Neotropical Region, where only 8 species are known, including one from Brazil (H. xanthocera Cresson). The objective of this study is to review the species of Hydrellia from Brazil, with an emphasis on the faunas of Paraná and Rio de Janeiro states. Six new species are described: H. bocaiuvensis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°14.9'S, 49°8.9'W, 890 m), H. longiseta sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú, 25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m),H. vilelai sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°16.6'S, 48°58.5'W, 770 m), H. simplex sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú, 25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m) e H. schneiderae sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú (25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m), H. similis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°14.9'S, 49°8.9'W, 890 m). Seven new registers are recorded: H. agitator (Pará), H. apalachee (Paraná and Rio de Janeiro), H. calverti (Amazonas and Paraná), H. cavator (Rio de Janeiro), H. tibialis (Amazonas, Paraná and Rio de Janeiro), H. vulgaris (Paraná, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro), H. wirthi (Pará, Paraná and Santa Catarina). Together with H. xanthocera, Hydrellia now includes 14 species from Brazil. PMID:24869512

  2. Shelf-edge sedimentary systems off Rio de Janeiro State, northern Santos basin-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, R. M. C.; Dos Reis, A. T.; Gorini, C.; Silva, C. G.; Rabineau, M.; Granjeon, D.

    2012-04-01

    The sedimentary record of the continental shelf off Rio de Janeiro State is related to the opening and evolution of Atlantic Ocean. The combined analysis of high resolution seismic acquired in the early 80's (Geomar cruises) and 2D seismic lines of petroleum industry, coupled with chronostratigraphic data from oil industry's exploratory wells, allowed us to observe two different orders of sequences: of 3-4th order, that represents sedimentary units related of the Milankovitch cycles (100/40/20ky), and of 2nd order (10-100my). High resolution seismic allowed us to outline a first architectural framework for the actual shelf that is composed of stacked seismic units making up the major seismic sequences bounded by angular unconformities. According to the intern and extern configuration of their clinoforms, the seismic sequences were grouped into two distinctive stratigraphic sets, identified as Set I (Pliocene) and Set II (Upper Quaternary). Some architectural components of note include: (1) the characteristic upbuilt-outbuilt geometry of sequences that compose Set I (SqA, SqB and SqC), indicating that deposition has probably been favoured by a combination of prevailing subsidence regime (upbuilt pattern) accompanied by forced regressive deposits (outbuilt pattern); (2) the majority of sequences that make up Set II outbuilts as a composite seaward-thickening progradational wedge formed under dominant forced regression conditions, implying that the generation of accommodation space was less important than during the build-up of Set I. However, these sequences consistently pinch out in a progressively landward direction, suggesting a prevailing and increasing subsidence regime able to induce the progressive seaward tilting of the margin during the middle-late Pleistocene, and the subsequent partial preservation of regressive sequences of about 100-200 m thick at the level of the present-day mid-shelf, that prograded seaward for circa 15-25 km. These architectural

  3. First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Calvet, Guilherme A; Filippis, Ana Maria B; Mendonça, Marcos Cesar L; Sequeira, Patricia C; Siqueira, Andre M; Veloso, Valdilea G; Nogueira, Rita M; Brasil, Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient. PMID:26615388

  4. Parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an approach in public health.

    PubMed

    Coronato, Beatriz; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira; Duarte, Rosemere; Duarte, Antonio Nascimento; Laurentino-Silva, Valmir; de Souza, Marcos Barbosa; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes

    2012-01-01

    This research aimed to describe the frequency of parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One hundred and five stool samples were collected and processed by the coproparasitological techniques ethyl acetate sedimentation and centrifuge-flotation using saturated sugar solution. Parasites were detected in 81.9% of the samples, hookworm being the most prevalent, followed by Trichuris vulpis. Ascaris sp. eggs were also found. A high level of evolutive forms of parasites with public health risk was found in stool samples of the environment studied. We propose that health education programs, allied to an improvement of human and animal health care, must be employed to reduce the environmental contamination. PMID:22499418

  5. [Reproduction, sexuality and power: the struggles and disputes over abortion and contraception in Rio de Janeiro, 1890-1930].

    PubMed

    Silva, Marinete Dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    This article examines the debate among physicians over abortion, from the turn of the nineteenth century through to the 1930s, especially in the Academia Nacional de Medicina (National Academy of Medicine). Considered a crime, abortion was seen as something that threatened the dominance of husbands over wives and the control over medical practice in relation to the female body. Midwives, seen as the propagators of the techniques of medical termination of pregnancy, were opposed as a serious threat to the established gender order. Ten theses of the Faculdade de Medicina do Rio de Janeiro were analyzed, as well as the bulletins of the Academia Nacional de Medicina and articles published in the Correio da Manhã and O Globo newspapers. PMID:23184238

  6. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Adult Psychiatric Outpatients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; McKinnon, Karen; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Collins, Pamela Y.; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the associations between perceived mental illness stigma and HIV risk and protective behaviors among adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We measured mental illness stigma across three domains (“Personal Experiences,” “Perceived Attractiveness,” and “Relationship Discrimination”), and examined the relationship between experiences of stigma in each domain and HIV risk and protective behaviors over the past three months in 98 outpatients with SMI. Those who reported greater “Relationship Discrimination” stigma were significantly more likely to be sexually active and to have unprotected sex; they were significantly less likely to report deliberately having fewer partners as a way to protect themselves from HIV. The role of stigma in unprotected sexual behavior should be examined further and considered in any HIV prevention intervention for people with SMI. PMID:19543974

  7. The insect gall collection of the Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro: biome cerrado, rupestrian fields.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Rodrigues, A R; Ascendino, S H S; Boggi, M

    2014-08-01

    An inventory of the insect gall from Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) was elaborated based on samples of the collection of the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Data on localities and host plants were obtained from the labels and information about the gall morphology (plant organ of occurrence, shape, and presence of trichomes) by observing the samples. The galling species was determined based on the literature. The collection includes 131 morphotypes of galls from Cerrado, obtained from 71 host plant species distributed in 50 genera and 30 botanical families (Table 1). All galls were collected in rupestrian fields (a rare vegetation physiognomy of the Brazilian Cerrado) in the state of Minas Gerais. As the collection comprises a great diversity of insect galls, it can be considered representative of this physiognomy. PMID:25627387

  8. [Hegemony and counter-hegemony in the process of implementing the Casa de Parto Birth Center in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Adriana Lenho de Figueiredo; Moura, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos

    2009-12-01

    This study addressed the process of implementing the first Casa de Parto Birth Center in the Unified Health System in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the determinants of the process of implementing the Birth Center and analyze the influence that hegemonic and counter-hegemonic groups have on that process. The theoretical framework used was the concept of hegemony. Data analysis was guided by the dialectic method of contradiction, totality and historicity. Semi-structured interviews were performed, from January to July 2007, with four municipal health administrators and 11 technical-administrative professionals assigned to implement the Birth Center. This study showed that the implementation of the Birth Center was determined by the counter-hegemony established in providing care during pregnancy and physiological deliveries. PMID:20085158

  9. An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by both rotavirus and Shigella sonnei in a private school in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed Central

    Sutmoller, F.; Azeredo, R. S.; Lacerda, M. D.; Barth, O. M.; Pereira, H. G.; Hoffer, E.; Schatzmayr, H. G.

    1982-01-01

    In May 1980 an extensive outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a private school in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Examination of faeces and paired sera showed that this outbreak was caused by both rotavirus and a virulent strain of Shigella sonnei. In the first 19 stool samples collected seven (37%) had rotavirus only, six (32%) had Sh. sonnei only, while four (21%) had both agents. Examination of the second and third stool collections revealed only the presence of Sh. sonnei. The 18 paired sera showed seroconversion for rotavirus in four cases (22%) and in seven cases (39%) for Sh. sonnei. The overall attack rate of the disease was approximately 75%, the nursery and kindergarten having higher attack rates. Students in all grades became sick at the same time, and the unimodal curve of the onset dates of symptoms indicates a common source outbreak. Evidence suggested a contaminated water supply. PMID:6278017

  10. [Vulnerability and health problems while traveling: the viewpoint of the tourist in the city of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Matos, Vanina; Barcellos, Christovam; Camargo, Luiz Octávio de Lima

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how a group of tourists perceives health issues related to safety, prevention and health care during their travels. Interviews were conducted with Brazilian tourists visiting the city of Rio de Janeiro, as well as local residents leaving the city on trips. The interviews were analyzed in accordance with the dimensions of vulnerability, information, prevention and health care, from which vulnerability emerged as a category of analysis. The reports of the trajectory of the tourists made it possible to identify problems and opportunities that could be used by the health sector for actions of prevention and promotion. The means of transport determines the trajectory of tourists and their security alternatives. Traveling in groups and visiting tourist attractions are seen as protective factors, which reinforces the role of information and social support networks as resources used by tourists in the absence of specific policies geared to this highly mobile and vulnerable population group. PMID:23338499

  11. Traffic and catalytic converter - related atmospheric contamination in the metropolitan region of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lílian Irene Dias; de Souza Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo; Zotin, Fátima Maria Zanon; Carneiro, Manuel Castro; Neto, Arnaldo Alcover; da Silva, Alzira dos Santos Amaral Gomes; Cardoso, Mauri José Baldini; Monteiro, Maria Inês Couto

    2008-03-01

    In this work, 24-h PM10 samples were collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and analysed for trace elements (Cd, Ce, Cu, La, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pd, Rh, Sb and Sn). The sampling was carried out at five locations (Bonsucesso; Centro, downtown city; Copacabana; Nova Iguaçu and Sumaré) with different traffic densities and anthropogenic activities. An analytical method based on the EPA method for the determination of trace elements in airborne particulate matter (PM), using ultrasonic-assisted extraction and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied. Our results suggest that vehicular traffic is the most important source of environmental pollution at the studied sites. The presence of Mo, Pd and Rh in the analysed filters reflects an additional source of pollution caused by the erosion and deterioration of automotive catalytic converters. PMID:18082244

  12. Governance mechanisms and the institutional design of the Health Secretariat in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José Mendes; Alcoforado, Flávio

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we outline the discussions about the mechanisms of governance and public administration taking into account the main political and economic schools of thought which affect the decisions taken by elected and public bodies. We discuss the pendulum-style approach of the reforms and the degree of minimization of the Weberian thesis on rational bureaucracy. Taking into account conceptual aspects and the trajectory of the debate on a new form of public governance and the 1995 State of Brazil reforms, we analyzed the institutional design of the Municipal Health Secretariat in Rio de Janeiro after the reforms were adopted, based on a social organizational model. We also took into account regulatory capacity and the sustainability of the governmental schools. PMID:27166885

  13. DNA-based identification of forensically important species of Sarcophagidae (Insecta: Diptera) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Napoleão, K S; Mello-Patiu, C A; Oliveira-Costa, J; Takiya, D M; Silva, R; Moura-Neto, R S

    2016-01-01

    Sarcophagidae, or flesh flies, are of great importance in forensic entomology, but their effective application requires precise taxonomic identification, which relies almost exclusively on characteristics of the male genitalia. Given that female flies and larvae are most abundant in animal carcasses or on corpses, precise morphological identification can be difficult; therefore, DNA sequencing can be an additional tool for use in taxonomic identification. This paper analyzes part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from three Sarcophagidae species of forensic importance in the City of Rio de Janeiro: Oxysarcodexia fluminensis, Peckia chrysostoma, and Peckia intermutans. COI fragments of 400 bp from 36 specimens of these three species were sequenced. No intraspecific differences were found among specimens of O. fluminensis, but P. chrysostoma and P. intermutans each had two haplotypes, ranging from 0 to 0.7%. The interspecific divergence was 8.5-11.6%, corroborating previously reported findings. PMID:27173314

  14. Salt tectonics and structural styles in the deep-water province of the Cabo Frio Region, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Mohriak, W.U.; Macedo, J.M.; Castellani, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Cabo Frio region, offshore Rio de Janeiro, lies between two of the most prolific Brazilian oil provinces, the Campos and Santos basins. Major geologic features have been identified using a multidisciplinary approach integrating seismic, gravity, petrographic, and borehole data. The Cabo Frio frontier region is characterized by marked changes in stratigraphy and structural style and is unique among the Brazilian marginal basins. Major geologic features include the deflection of the coastline and pre-Aptian hings line from northeast to east; a large east-striking offshore graben related to salt tectonics; a northwest-trending lineament extending from oceanic crust to the continent; basement-involved landward-dipping (antithetic) normal faults in shallow water; a stable platform in the southern Campos Basin; a thick sequence of postbreakup intrusive and extrusive rocks; and, near the Santos Basin, a mobilized sequence of deep-water postrift strata affected by landward-dipping listric normal faults. These faults are unusual in salt-related passive margins in that they dip landward, apparently detach on the Aptian salt, and show large late Tertiary offsets. Locally, the older sequences do not show substantial growth in the downthrown blocks. South of the Rio de Janeiro coast, a phenomenal landward-dipping fault system detaches blocks of the Albian platform to the north and, to the south, coincides with the depositional limit of the Albian platform. Two end-member processes of salt tectonics in the Cabo Frio region result in either synthetic or antithetic basal shear along the fault weld under the overburden: (1) thin-skinned processes, in which the listric faults were caused by salt flow in response to gravity forces related to massive clastic progradation from the continent; and (2) thick-skinned processes, in which faulting was indirectly triggered by diastrophic causes or disequilibrium in the basement topography.

  15. Difficulties in access and estimates of public beds in intensive care units in the state of Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Goldwasser, Rosane Sonia; Lobo, Maria Stella de Castro; de Arruda, Edilson Fernandes; Angelo, Simone Aldrey; Silva, José Roberto Lapa e; de Salles, André Assis; David, Cid Marcos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the required number of public beds for adults in intensive care units in the state of Rio de Janeiro to meet the existing demand and compare results with recommendations by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS The study uses a hybrid model combining time series and queuing theory to predict the demand and estimate the number of required beds. Four patient flow scenarios were considered according to bed requests, percentage of abandonments and average length of stay in intensive care unit beds. The results were plotted against Ministry of Health parameters. Data were obtained from the State Regulation Center from 2010 to 2011. RESULTS There were 33,101 medical requests for 268 regulated intensive care unit beds in Rio de Janeiro. With an average length of stay in regulated ICUs of 11.3 days, there would be a need for 595 active beds to ensure system stability and 628 beds to ensure a maximum waiting time of six hours. Deducting current abandonment rates due to clinical improvement (25.8%), these figures fall to 441 and 417. With an average length of stay of 6.5 days, the number of required beds would be 342 and 366, respectively; deducting abandonment rates, 254 and 275. The Brazilian Ministry of Health establishes a parameter of 118 to 353 beds. Although the number of regulated beds is within the recommended range, an increase in beds of 122.0% is required to guarantee system stability and of 134.0% for a maximum waiting time of six hours. CONCLUSIONS Adequate bed estimation must consider reasons for limited timely access and patient flow management in a scenario that associates prioritization of requests with the lowest average length of stay. PMID:27191155

  16. Genotypic Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Isolates in Immunocompromised Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Perse da Silva, Amanda; Lopes, Amanda de Oliveira; Vieira, Yasmine Rangel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Sion, Fernando Samuel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wagner, Sandra; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including an increased risk of developing more severe disease in HIV-infected individuals. In Brazil, there is no information about the molecular epidemiology of HSV-1 infection, especially in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to perform the genotypic characterization of HSV-1 among HIV-infected patients. A total of 214 serum samples from HIV-positive patients without HSV infection symptoms were enrolled in one of two reference hospitals for HIV infection managing in Rio de Janeiro. The gG and gI genes were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and full nucleotide sequencing of the US8 (1601 bp), UL44 (1996 bp), and UL23 (1244 bp) regions was performed. A total of 38.3% (82/214) and 32.7% (70/214) of the serum samples tested positive for gG and gI genes, respectively. RFLP analysis classified the HSV-1 as belonging to genotype A. Phylogenetic analysis of the Brazilian samples for the US8, UL44, and UL23 regions demonstrated that the nucleotide identity between Brazilian samples was higher than 97% for all genes. No acyclovir mutation was detected in the patients. The shedding of HSV in the serum samples from HIV-positive patients who were asymptomatic for HSV infection was detected in this work. This is the first report of molecular characterization of HSV-1 in Brazilian samples since there is no previous data available in the literature concerning the genotypic classification and stable distribution of Brazilian strains of HSV-1 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:26407292

  17. Uh and um revisited: are they interjections for signaling delay?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-11-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers uh and um are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of uh and um and of silent pauses (delays) immediately following them in six media interviews of Hillary Clinton. Our evidence indicates that uh and um cannot serve as signals of upcoming delay, let alone signal it differentially: In most cases, both uh and um were not followed by a silent pause, that is, there was no delay at all; the silent pauses that did occur after um were too short to be counted as major delays; finally, the distributions of durations of silent pauses after uh and um were almost entirely overlapping and could therefore not have served as reliable predictors for a listener. The discrepancies between Clark and Fox Tree's findings and ours are largely a consequence of the fact that their LL analyses reflect the perceptions of professional coders, whereas our data were analyzed by means of acoustic measurements with the PRAAT software (www.praat.org). A comparison of our findings with those of O'Connell, Kowal, and Ageneau (2005) did not corroborate the hypothesis of Clark and Fox Tree that uh and um are interjections: Fillers occurred typically in initial, interjections in medial positions; fillers did not constitute an integral turn by themselves, whereas interjections did; fillers never initiated cited speech, whereas interjections did; and fillers did not signal emotion, whereas interjections did. Clark and Fox Tree's analyses were embedded within a theory of ideal delivery that we find inappropriate for the explication of these phenomena. PMID:16341914

  18. QuorUM: An Error Corrector for Illumina Reads

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Guillaume; Yorke, James A.; Zimin, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Illumina Sequencing data can provide high coverage of a genome by relatively short (most often 100 bp to 150 bp) reads at a low cost. Even with low (advertised 1%) error rate, 100 × coverage Illumina data on average has an error in some read at every base in the genome. These errors make handling the data more complicated because they result in a large number of low-count erroneous k-mers in the reads. However, there is enough information in the reads to correct most of the sequencing errors, thus making subsequent use of the data (e.g. for mapping or assembly) easier. Here we use the term “error correction” to denote the reduction in errors due to both changes in individual bases and trimming of unusable sequence. We developed an error correction software called QuorUM. QuorUM is mainly aimed at error correcting Illumina reads for subsequent assembly. It is designed around the novel idea of minimizing the number of distinct erroneous k-mers in the output reads and preserving the most true k-mers, and we introduce a composite statistic π that measures how successful we are at achieving this dual goal. We evaluate the performance of QuorUM by correcting actual Illumina reads from genomes for which a reference assembly is available. Results We produce trimmed and error-corrected reads that result in assemblies with longer contigs and fewer errors. We compared QuorUM against several published error correctors and found that it is the best performer in most metrics we use. QuorUM is efficiently implemented making use of current multi-core computing architectures and it is suitable for large data sets (1 billion bases checked and corrected per day per core). We also demonstrate that a third-party assembler (SOAPdenovo) benefits significantly from using QuorUM error-corrected reads. QuorUM error corrected reads result in a factor of 1.1 to 4 improvement in N50 contig size compared to using the original reads with SOAPdenovo for the data sets investigated

  19. Local Impacts of Religious Discourses on Rights to Express Same-Sex Sexual Desires in Peri-Urban Rio de Janeiro1

    PubMed Central

    García, Jonathan; Laboy, Miguel Muñoz; de Almeida, Vagner; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusion—in Roman Catholic, evangelical Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditions—affected people’s rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors, and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the authors identified how sexual rights were constructed within religious discourses and conducted ethnographic interviews with 45 religious leaders. In the low-income and violent urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, religious leaders and institutions play key roles in molding community inclusion and exclusion. A comparison of the 3 major religious denominations shows a diversity of discourses about same-sex sexual desires and their impacts on community formation. PMID:20161503

  20. Analysis of land use and land cover change in a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro using high-resolution remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelar, Silvania; Tokarczyk, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Coastal areas offer great recreational and economic opportunities, but require intensive resource management and environmental protection. Land use and land cover information provides a rapid and cost-effective means for monitoring and planning coastal area development. This study quantitatively describes spatiotemporal changes of land use and land cover over the last four decades in a coastal area of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Historical aerial photographs from 1976 and satellite images from 1990 and 2012 were classified and analyzed. We used supervised classification and machine learning techniques to classify the images. An accuracy assessment of results was performed. Land use change statistics for the period indicate that urban areas have increased to the detriment of dense vegetation, salines, and bare soil. The analysis provides a basis for better control of anthropogenic impacts and geoconservation activities in this coastal area of Rio de Janeiro.

  1. [New documental evidence on the history of homeopathy in Latin America: a case study of links between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Tarcitano, Conrado Mariano; Waisse, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Homeopathy began to spread soon after it was formulated by Samuel Hahnemann in the early 1800s, reaching the Southern Cone in the 1830s. In processes of this kind, one figure is often cited as being responsible for introducing it, often attaining quasi-mythical status. Little is known, however, about how homeopathy reached Argentina at that time. Through archival research, we discovered that medical and lay homeopaths circulated between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires. Given the well-known proselytizing of the circles gravitating around lay homeopaths B. Mure and J.V. Martins in Rio de Janeiro, the documents indicate that this movement actually went as far as Argentina, which had not been confirmed until now. PMID:27438734

  2. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker’s cooperatives: An alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina; Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► In the marketing of recyclable materials, the waste-pickers are the least wins. ► It is proposed creating a network of recycling cooperatives to achieve viability. ► The waste-pickers contribute to waste management to the city. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city’s main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers’ cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  3. [Temporal analysis of the relationship between leptospirosis and the occurrence of flooding due to rainfall in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2007-2012].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Parreira, Viviane Gomes; Mazoto, Maíra Lopes; Vieira, Juliana Dias; Asmus, Carmen Ildes Rodrigues Fróes

    2014-09-01

    The scope of this study is to examine the effect of the average monthly rainfall on the risk of contracting leptospirosis in the city of Rio de Janeiro between 2007 and 2012. It involves an analytical ecological study conducted in the city of Rio de Janeiro in the 2007-2012 period. The variable for the outcome was the number of leptospirosis cases per month, and the independent variable was the average monthly rainfall recorded by the 32 monitoring stations per year. It was decided to model the relationship between cases of leptospirosis and the effects of rain by building a generalized linear model using negative binomial distribution. The rainfall-lag per month was found to be a strong explanatory factor for the number of cases of leptospirosis. This study indicates that the average monthly rainfall may constitute an indicator that enables the execution of actions in order to prepare the health sector for the probable increase in cases of this disease. Therefore, it is necessary to implement the interaction between the work of epidemiological surveillance, especially by situation rooms in periods of crisis, and the risk management teams of environmental surveillance, to increase the response capacity to natural disasters in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:25184575

  4. The carbon emissions in energy production and use in the tropical region: The case of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Porto, R.M.G.; Peres, F.M.; Freitas, M.A.V. de; Cecchi, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    Brazil is one of the most important regions in the tropics. An efficient management in energy use and production in this state of Rio de Janeiro could be an excellent model to other developing regions. In 1994, the state of Rio de Janeiro represented around 13 million inhabitants, an economy of 42 billion US$ (gross national products), the biggest Brazilian producer in petroleum and natural gas and a large market of energy products (electric power and fossil fuels). This state was responsible for 8.6 million tons of carbon in CO{sub 2} emissions in 1994, as a result of the combustion of petroleum products (65.9%), coal (27.8%), natural gas (3.7%), charcoal and fuelwood (2.65%). The principals responsible to these carbon emissions are industrial activities (40%), transport (35.7%) and energy production (12%). The main objectives of this work are to analyze carbon emissions in energy production and use in Rio de Janeiro between 1980 and 1994, and the possibilities of reducing this amount and the perspectives of renewable energy.

  5. [Intra-urban mobility in the city of Rio de Janeiro. From social stratification to spatial residential segregation].

    PubMed

    Smolka, M O

    1992-01-01

    The data used were derived from the IPPUR/ITBI/IPTU archive, which contains approximately 2 million annual real estate transactions for the period 1968-88 and more for 1990 for the city of Rio de Janeiro. These registers are maintained for levying taxes and they describe the property, the objective of the transaction, the type, location, size, value as well as participation in the financial system of residency (SFH). This information allows the construction of intraurban mobility matrices, first between 96 neighborhoods of the city and then for 24 administrative regions (RAs) of Rio de Janeiro. Problems were abundant: only 1483 (29%) of 5089 transactions for 1985-88 were used, and 35% for 1990 because of poor data quality. The determinants of intraurban mobility were: 1) demographic (life cycle of families), 2) socioeconomic (changes of employment), and 3) environmental and cultural (dilapidation, violence, pollution, and life style). Mobility trends demonstrated that 46.2% of changes were downward moves and only 33.1% were upward moves. Among upward changes 16.8% involved the acquisition of a new apartment, while among downward moves this constituted only 8.9%. SFH financially assisted the purchase of 14% of upward moves vs. 12.9% of downward moves. Among upward deals in the 6 most favored residential areas, 45.3% of transactions occurred in the city. The moves did not indicate a strong segmentation of the market reaffirming the process of residential segregation between rich and poor people. More than half of real estate acquisitions were realized by families residing in the same RA or in the adjacent RA. More than 75% of transactions for residents of 6 RAs were carried out in the same RA or in adjacent ones. The 10 most important moves (1.74% of all potential moves) involved 21.17% of transactions in the city. The most important moves affected the 3 RAs of Barra da Tijuca of the southern zone, which represented 57.1% of all transactions that occurred in the RA

  6. Molecular Characterization of Giardia lamblia: First Report of Assemblage B in Human Isolates from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the high prevalence of giardiasis, the genetic characterization of Giardia lamblia has been poorly documented in Brazil and molecular epidemiology research has only been conducted in the last few years. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different G. lamblia assemblages and detect mixed infections among patients with giardiasis. Methods and Principal Findings The cross-section survey was conducted among patients attending the FIOCRUZ in Rio de Janeiro. In order to discriminate the genetic assemblages/sub-assemblages, G. lamblia isolates were characterized by PCR-RFLP and qPCR using four loci genes (bg, gdh, tpi and orfC4). Of the 65 positive samples, 41 (63.1%) were successfully amplified by nested-PCR of bg and gdh genes. Among them, 16 were typed as sub-assemblage AII, 7 as BIII, 4 as BIV and 8 as a mixture of BIII and BIV. After the analysis by qPCR assay, a total of 55 (84.6%) samples were amplified using at least one locus: bg gene was amplified in 38 (58.5%) samples, gdh in 41 (63.1%), tpi in 39 (60%), and orfC4 in 39 (60%). Multilocus genotyping results showed that 29 (52.7%) samples belonged to Assemblage A and 26 (47.3%) samples belonged to Assemblage B. In 2011 and 2012, 20 (74.1%) samples belonged to Assemblage A and 7 (25.9%) belonged to Assemblage B. In subsequent years (2013–2015) there was a predominance of Assemblage B, 19 (67.9%) versus 9 (32.1%) Assemblage A. Conclusions This is the first time that Assemblage B of G. lamblia was reported in human clinical samples from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and is the first report about genetic characterization using four genes. The qPCR assemblage-specific showed no mixed infections by Assemblages A and B. A switch in genetic profile over the years was observed, firstly predominance of Assemblage A and lastly of Assemblage B. PMID:27517469

  7. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  8. [Voronoi s Diagram for defining catchment areas for public hospitals in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Rezende, F A; Almeida, R M; Nobre, F F

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important pieces of information for health resources planning is the definition of catchment areas for health units. Voronoi Diagrams are a potential technique for this purpose. They are polygons with the property whereby adjacent polygons have their borders located within the same distance of the respective generator points. One possible adjustment to the catchment areas thus defined is the use of weighted Voronoi Diagrams, which result in an improved representation of a health unit's actual capacity. In this study, the 21 public general hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were used as generator points for Voronoi Diagrams. Non-weighted Voronoi Diagrams were initially implemented and then used as the basis for obtaining weighted Voronoi Diagrams, using as weights the annual admission rates estimated for each unit. In the classic Voronoi Diagram case, some catchment areas had similar sizes, although their respective health units had different characteristics. In the weighted case the areas were modified in a way that appeared closer to the actual functioning of the units. The method appeared simple to implement, used easy-to-access data, and did not rely on geopolitical considerations such as existing administrative areas. It thus provided a more realistic picture of a unit's capacity to support basic health programs. PMID:10883045

  9. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area. PMID:24141956

  10. Characterization of soil fauna under the influence of mercury atmospheric deposition in Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Teixeira, Daniel Cabral; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2015-06-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere arising from anthropogenic sources, have been the object of great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of strong importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transference to the soil through litter, playing an important role as sink of this element. Soil microarthropods are keys to understanding the soil ecosystem, and for such purpose were characterized by the soil fauna of two Units of Forest Conservation of the state of the Rio de Janeiro, inwhich one of the areas suffer quite interference from petrochemicals and industrial anthropogenic activities and other area almost exempts of these perturbations. The results showed that soil and litter of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil tend to stock high mercury concentrations, which could affect the abundance and richness of soil fauna, endangering its biodiversity and thereby the functioning of ecosystems. PMID:26040748

  11. Marine protected area and the spatial distribution of the gill net fishery in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amorim, R B; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2016-02-01

    This study characterizes the gill net fishery at Colônia de Pescadores Z13 (CPZ13), in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, and its relationship with the marine protected area 'Monumento Natural do Arquipélago das Ilhas Cagarras - MoNa Cagarras', describing the fleet and fishing gears, identifying fishing spots, species and their associations by gillnet type. From June 2012 to May 2013, every Tuesday to Sunday, gill net landings were monitored and fishers interviewed regarding their catch. Small boats (dory whaleboats) are used to set three types of gillnets: "Corvineira" (target species - whitemouth croaker), "linguadeira" (target species - flounders) and "rede-alta" (target species - bluefish). Fifty-nine species within 37 families were captured at 14 fishing spots, showing association with bottom type and distance from shore. The use of fisher's local ecological knowledge defines gear placement at specific sites targeting fisheries resources. All fishing sites are not within the limits of MoNa Cagarras but would benefit from management plans including an MPA buffering zone. PMID:26909618

  12. [Prevalence of overburden in caregivers of dependent elderly and associated factors in a poor area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lino, Valéria Teresa Saraiva; Rodrigues, Nadia Cristina Pinheiro; Camacho, Luiz Antônio Bastos; OʼDwyer, Gisele; Lima, Idenalva Silva de; Andrade, Mônica Kramer de Noronha; Atie, Soraya

    2016-06-20

    Population aging has led to increased dependency and overburden of family caregivers of dependent elderly. The aim was to verify prevalence of family caregivers overburden and associated factors in a poor and violent area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study of 140 elderly and family caregivers, focusing on social support, abuse, cohabitation, and family caregivers overburden, in addition to dependency, cognitive decline, and depression in the elderly. Multiple logistic models were constructed to explain family caregivers overburden. The following characteristics of the elderly were associated with family caregivers overburden: age (OR = 0.94; p < 0.002), depression (OR = 2.59; p < 0.005), and cognitive decline (OR = 3.19; p < 0.03). As for family caregivers characteristics, only social support remained relevant (OR = 2.35; p < 0.005). In conclusion, investigating and treating depression and dementia in the elderly and promoting support for their caregivers can contribute to the effective management of family caregivers overburden and improve quality of care for both. PMID:27333144

  13. Stormwater impact in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro): Evidences of seasonal variability in the dynamic of the sediment heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, E. M.; Baptista Neto, J. A.; Silva, C. G.; McAlister, J. J.; Smith, B. J.; Fernandez, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Guanabara Bay is one of the most prominent coastal bays in Brazil. This environment is an estuary of 91 rivers and channels, surrounded by the metropolis of Rio de Janeiro. The bay receives considerable amounts of contaminants introduced from sewage effluents, industrial discharge, urban and agricultural runoff, atmospheric fallout, and the combined inputs from the rivers, making Guanabara Bay one of the most polluted coastal environments on the Brazilian coastline. The aim of this work is to study the concentration and fractionation of the heavy metals within the sediments of the bay. In order to understand the possible seasonal influence on the heavy metal fractionation, two campaigns were carried out in two different seasons of the year (rainy and dry). Twelve stations, in four different areas, with different oceanographic characteristics, where chosen. To assess the bioavailability of the metals a selective extraction procedure was used to study the geochemical fractionation and bioavailability of Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb. The rainy season was very important with respect to variation in the total concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb and their fractionation within different "operational" phases present in Guanabara Bay sediments. The water-soluble phase showed little importance, with respect to metal adsorption and this would suggest very low mobility of metals in the water column. Nevertheless, the potentially available metals within these sediments showed a high probability for their release and therefore cause contamination of the water column, since different parts of the bay are constantly subjected to dredging projects promoted by the harbor authorities.

  14. [Youths in the shantytowns (favelas) of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil: from social vulnerability to opportunities for human development].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Gustavo de Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Based on a review of living conditions in the complex and dynamic reality of the shantytowns ("favelas") of Rio de Janeiro and the main difficulties facing the human development of youths in this context, we analyze the social protection function involved in educational projects that offer new opportunities for life. In this article we analyze the relationship between the variables of social exclusion, poverty and violence, jointly grouped in the social vulnerability category, and the variables related to opportunities for human development grouped in the resilience category. The socio-educational projects constitute an important factor of resilience, able to influence the subjective development of young people and impact the improvement in the quality of life in the favelas. The social recognition and the relationship of trust established with educators and other youths in similar situations foster efforts to develop changes in attitude and to build new possibilities of life in spite of social vulnerability. The opportunity to experience interpersonal relationships, emotional bonds and positive social interaction can promote changes in the world view of youths and elicit a desire to change their living conditions and enhance their projects for the future. PMID:27557017

  15. Testing multivariate analysis in paleoenvironmental reconstructions using pollen records from Lagoa Salgada, NE Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Mauro B de; Barth, Ortrud M; Silva, Cleverson G; Barros, Marcia A

    2009-12-01

    Despite the indisputable significance of identification of modern analogs for Paleoecology research, relatively few studies attempted to integrate modern and fossil samples on paleoenvironmental reconstructions. In Palynology, this general pattern is not different from other fields of Paleoecology. This study demonstrates the practical application of modern pollen deposition data on paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on fossil pollen by using multivariate analysis. The main goal of this study was to use Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) to compare pollen samples from two sediment cores collected at Lagoa Salgada, a coastal lagoon located at northeastern Rio de Janeiro State. Furthermore, modern surface samples were also statistically compared with samples from both cores, providing new paleoecological insights. DCA demonstrated that samples from both cores are more similar than previously expected, and that a strong pattern, related to a paleoenvironmental event, is present within the fossil data, clearly identifying in the scatter plot samples that represent pre- and post-environmental change. Additionally, it became apparent that modern vegetation and environmental conditions were established in this region 2500 years before present (BP). Multivariate Analysis allowed a more reliable integration of modern and fossil pollen data, proving to be a powerful tool in Paleoecology studies that should be employed more often on paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. PMID:19893900

  16. Prediction of ozone concentration in tropospheric levels using artificial neural networks and support vector machine at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, A. S.; Paredes, M. L. L.; de Oliveira, G. C. G.; Corrêa, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that air quality is a complex function of emissions, meteorology and topography, and statistical tools provide a sound framework for relating these variables. The observed data were contents of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), scalar wind speed (SWS), global solar radiation (GSR), temperature (TEM), moisture content in the air (HUM), collected by a mobile automatic monitoring station at Rio de Janeiro City in two places of the metropolitan area during 2011 and 2012. The aims of this study were: (1) to analyze the behavior of the variables, using the method of PCA for exploratory data analysis; (2) to propose forecasts of O3 levels from primary pollutants and meteorological factors, using nonlinear regression methods like ANN and SVM, from primary pollutants and meteorological factors. The PCA technique showed that for first dataset, variables NO, NOx and SWS have a greater impact on the concentration of O3 and the other data set had the TEM and GSR as the most influential variables. The obtained results from the nonlinear regression techniques ANN and SVM were remarkably closely and acceptable to one dataset presenting coefficient of determination for validation respectively 0.9122 and 0.9152, and root mean square error of 7.66 and 7.85, respectively. For these datasets, the PCA, SVM and ANN had demonstrated their robustness as useful tools for evaluation, and forecast scenarios for air quality.

  17. Spider diversity (Arachnida: Araneae) in Atlantic Forest areas at Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Abel; Baptista, Renner L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background There has never been any published work about the diversity of spiders in the city of Rio de Janeiro using analytical tools to measure diversity. The only available records for spider communities in nearby areas indicate 308 species in the National Park of Tijuca and 159 species in Marapendi Municipal Park. These numbers are based on a rapid survey and on an one-year survey respectively. New information This study provides a more thorough understanding of how the spider species are distributed at Pedra Branca State Park. We report a total of 14,626 spider specimens recorded from this park, representing 49 families and 373 species or morphospecies, including at least 73 undescribed species. Also, the distribution range of 45 species was expanded, and species accumulation curves estimate that there is a minimum of 388 (Bootstrap) and a maximum of 468 species (Jackknife2) for the sampled areas. These estimates indicates that the spider diversity may be higher than observed. PMID:26929710

  18. [FIBRA-RJ Network: frailty and risk of hospitalization in the elderly in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Perez, Mariangela; Lourenço, Roberto Alves

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk profile and factors associated with frailty in elderly community residents. The population consisted of individuals 65 years or older living in the northern districts of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and who held private health insurance policies. The cross-sectional study was done at baseline in a cohort with a sample (N = 764) stratified by gender and age. Risk stratification used probability of repeated admissions (PRA) as the screening instrument. Following bivariate analyses, logistic regression analyses were performed to study associations between probability of repeated admissions and socio-demographic, health-status, functional, and cognitive variables. Of the total sample, 6.7% were classified as high risk. Cancer, falls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, use of medication, receiving a visit from a health professional, being bedridden at home, living alone, and level of activities of daily living were statistically associated with risk of hospitalization. The instrument appeared to be useful for stratifying risk in the elderly. PMID:23843005

  19. Abandonment of Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Socioeconomic Factors in Children and Adolescents: Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Angela Marcia Cabral; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Sant’Anna, Clemax Couto

    2016-01-01

    Background Routine data on the use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in children and adolescents are scarce in high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. Objective To describe the factors related to abandonment of IPT in children and adolescents with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) receiving routine care. Methods Retrospective (2005–2009) descriptive study of 286 LTBI cases with indication of IPT and serviced at a pediatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Survival analysis of the risk of abandonment of IPT over six months was performed, including multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Out of the 245 cases of LTBI included, 62 abandoned IPT (25.3%; 95% CI: 20%-31%). On multivariate analysis, the variables related to the IPT abandonment hazard ratio were the Human Development Index (HDI) (hazard ratio—HR: 0.004; 0.000–0.569) of the place of residence and the contact with adults that were not undergoing anti-TB treatment (HR: 7.30; 1.00–53.3). Conclusion This study reveals the relevance of the relation of abandonment of IPT to the socioeconomic conditions at the place of residence and poor adherence to the active TB treatment. Educational measures to stimulate preventive treatment of child contacts and curative treatment of index cases should target the full familial setting. PMID:27149514

  20. Traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers in Rio de Janeiro: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bojahr, Lisa S; van Emmerik, Arnold A P

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the occurrence of traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers (FDCS) in Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, the authors examined the relationship between the number of traumatic events and symptom severity, and compared symptom severity in perpetrators versus victims of traumatic events. They found high exposure rates to traumatic events, with 83.5% of the FDCS (n = 97) and 57.9% of the controls (n = 95) having experienced more than 5 events. FDCS had higher mean scores for trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), depressive symptoms, and general mental health problems, compared to controls. More FDCS than controls satisfied DSM-IV symptom criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (36.4% vs. 15.8%) and reported severe depressive symptoms (25.8% vs. 8.3%). The number of traumatic events was strongly related to PTS among FDCS (r = .48). Furthermore, more FDCS than controls (23.7% vs. 10.5%) identified themselves as a perpetrator of 1 or more traumatic events. Among FDCS, perpetrators reported more PTS than victims. It is concluded that being a (former) drug cartel soldier is associated with elevated trauma exposure and severe trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:25793319

  1. Gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches, Struthio camelus, in different regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ederli, Nicole Brand; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The ratite group is composed of ostriches, rheas, emus, cassowaries and kiwis. Little research has been done on parasitism in these birds. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of infections by gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches in the state of Rio de Janeiro. For this, fecal samples were collected from 192 on 13 farms. From each sample, four grams of feces were used to determine the eggs per gram of feces (EPG) count, by means of the McMaster technique. Part of the feces sample was used for fecal cultures, to identify 100 larvae per sample. The results were subjected to descriptive central trend and dispersion analysis, using confidence intervals at the 5% error probability level in accordance with the Student t distribution, and Tukey's test with a 95% confidence interval. The mean EPG in the state was 1,557, and the municipality of Três Rios had the lowest average (62). The city of Campos dos Goytacazes presented the highest mean EPG of all the municipalities analyzed. The northern region presented the highest mean EPG, followed by the southern, metropolitan, coastal lowland and central regions. Libyostrongylus species were observed on all the farms: L. douglassii predominated, followed by L. dentatus and Codiostomum struthionis. PMID:26154957

  2. Functional Capacity of Oldest Old Living in a Long-stay Institution in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fabiano Moura; Costa, Susana Ortiz; Pereira de Freitas, Jeter; Pinto, Adriana da Costa Rocha; Vigário, Patrícia dos Santos; Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] A significant increase in the number of oldest old has occurred worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize the functional capacity of the oldest old residents in a long-stay institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Subjects and Methods] All participants were evaluated according to the following metrics: anthropometry, body composition (bioelectrical impedance), handgrip strength, balance (Berg scale and stabilometry), ankle mobility (electrogoniometry), physical capacity (six-minute walk test), quality of life (WHOQOL-OLD), and dietary habits (questionnaire). [Results] Twenty elderly subjects with a mean age of 85.75 ± 5.22 years and a mean fat percentage of 39.02 ± 5.49% participated in the study. The group at risk of falls (n = 8) had a lower handgrip strength and walked a shorter distance over the course of six minutes compared with the group not at risk of falls. The obese group (n = 15) had higher values for stabilometric variables than the nonobese group. There was a positive and significant correlation between ankle joint mobility and physical capacity (r = 0.47). [Conclusion] High values for obesity and low values for handgrip strength and physical capacity were associated with worse body balance. Low values for ankle mobility were also associated with worse physical capacity in this population. PMID:25140105

  3. Biotic and abiotic effects on the intestinal helminth community of the brown rat Rattus norvegicus from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simões, R O; Luque, J L; Gentile, R; Rosa, M C S; Costa-Neto, S; Maldonado, A

    2016-01-01

    Rattus norvegicus has attracted much attention because of its role as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens. This work aimed to identify the intestinal helminth species in R. norvegicus and to analyse the effects of temperature, rainfall, host age and sex on the helminth community structure. Moreover, this study investigated the possible associations among helminth species in an urban population of R. norvegicus in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, sampled during the rainy and dry seasons over a span of 2 years. A total of 112 rats were infected by six species of helminths. The nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis was the most prevalent and abundant species, with high mean intensity in both seasons, followed by Strongyloides venezuelensis, Heterakis spumosa, Raillietina sp., Hymenolepis nana and Moniliformis moniliformis. Co-occurrence was found between N. brasiliensis and S. venezuelensis and between N. brasiliensis and H. spumosa. The occurrence of S. venezuelensis was related to rainfall. The understanding of the helminth community structure in this synanthropic rat provides basic information on parasites of public health importance, as two helminth species (H. nana and M. moniliformis) recovered from rats in the urban area studied can infect humans. PMID:25264030

  4. [Rabies in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: analysis of surveillance and control actions in the municipal field].

    PubMed

    Moutinho, Flavio Fernando Batista; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; Paixão, Rita Leal

    2015-02-01

    Rabies is an anthropozoonosis characterized by acute viral encephalitis with a lethality rate close to 100%, and it has undergone an epidemiologic transition in which the cycle involving chiroptera is increasing in importance. The scope of this research sought to analyze the rabies surveillance and control actions carried out in municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Questionnaires were distributed to a representative sample of zoonosis control service managers proportionately calculated in accordance with the Health Regions, according to the State Regionalization Guidance Plan. The data gathered was recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. Based on the results attained, the conclusion reached is that the rabies surveillance and control actions were being unsatisfactorily conducted, especially for items related to the monitoring of vampire bat colonies, viral circulation surveillance, notification and monitoring of suspect or aggressive animals, quantification of dog population and population control of stray dogs. The surveillance and control of rabies was being neglected, and was not a priority in the health services in the municipalities evaluated. PMID:25715151

  5. [Professional self-image from the perspective of police officers of the State of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the viewpoint of civil and military police officers of the State of Rio de Janeiro on the issue of professional and human self-image. It adopts five qualitative indicators as parameter of analysis, namely dignity, achievement, recognition, security and promising prospects, drawn from the sociological theory of social roles and proposals for human resource management. From the methodological standpoint, the study provides a contextual analysis of texts written by these agents at the end of a closed questionnaire on work, health and life conditions, conducted in a series of studies that began in 2003 and provided material for two books about these categories. The analysis considered the relevance given by the authors themselves when they describe their situation, using the five indicators mentioned as parameters. The results of this study show that the two categories have serious problems with professional self-image, especially with regard to wages, housing conditions, access to health services and to institutional and psychological support. PMID:23546188

  6. Retention in Early Care at an HIV Outpatient Clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniel S; De Boni, Raquel B; Lake, Jordan E; Cardoso, Sandra W; Ribeiro, Sayonara; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Clark, Jesse L; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Luz, Paula M

    2016-05-01

    Retention in early HIV care has been associated with virologic suppression and improved survival, but remains understudied in Brazil. We estimated retention in early HIV care for the period 2000-2013, and identified socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with good retention in an urban cohort from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Antiretroviral therapy-naïve, HIV-infected persons ≥18 years old linked to care between 2000 and 2011 were included. Retention in the first 2 years post-linkage (i.e. early care) was defined by the proportion of 6-month intervals with ≥1 HIV laboratory result. "Good" retention was defined as ≥1 HIV laboratory result recorded in at least three intervals. Overall, 80 % of participants met criteria for good retention and retention significantly improved over the study period. Older age, higher education level and early antiretroviral therapy initiation were associated with good retention. Efforts to improve retention in early care in this population should target younger and less-educated HIV-infected persons. PMID:26525222

  7. [Analysis of barriers to the use of thrombolytics in ischemic stroke in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Luiz Henrique de Oliveira; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia; Silva, Arthur Carvalho; Maciel, Renan Marchesi; Volschan, André; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    2013-12-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major cause of neurological sequelae and death. The correct use of thrombolytic therapy faces several barriers. The objective was to discuss barriers to thrombolytic therapy in a private hospital. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with symptoms of acute ischemic stroke entering the emergency department of a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. 257 patients were admitted with suspected ischemic stroke. Among the 156 patients with confirmed diagnosis of ischemic stroke, 18 (11.5%) received thrombolytic therapy. Of the 30 patients with ischemic stroke within the therapeutic window and meeting NIHSS criteria for thrombolysis, 20 were not thrombolysed. Nine of these were due to administrative barriers (45%). In the current study, the thrombolysis rate was higher than in the United States, but barriers prevented treating 47.6% of patients with indication for thrombolysis. Importantly, this study was conducted in a private hospital, and the situation may be even more unfavorable in the public health system. PMID:24356694

  8. Characteristics of whistles from rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis) in Rio de Janeiro coast, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Seabra de Lima, Isabela Maria; de Andrade, Luciana Guimarães; Ramos de Carvalho, Rafael; Lailson-Brito, José; de Freitas Azevedo, Alexandre

    2012-05-01

    There is no information about the whistles of rough-toothed dolphins in the South Atlantic Ocean. This study characterizes the whistle structure of free-ranging rough-toothed dolphins recorded on the Rio de Janeiro coast, southeastern Brazil, and compares it to that of the same species in other regions. A total of 340 whistles were analyzed. Constant (N = 115; 33.8%) and ascending (N = 99; 29.1%) whistles were the most common contours. The whistles recorded had their fundamental frequencies between 2.24 and 13.94 kHz. Whistles without inflection points were frequently emitted (N = 255; 75%). Some signals presented breaks or steps in their contour (N = 97; 28.5%). Whistle duration was short (347 ± 236 ms and 89.7% of the whistles lasted <600 ms). Seventy-eight whistle contour types were found in the total of whistles analyzed, and 27 (7.9%) of these occurred only once. Most of the whistle types were unique to a particular recording session (N = 43). The signals emitted by the rough-toothed dolphins in southeastern Brazil were characterized by low frequency modulation, short duration, low number of inflection points, and breaks. Differences in the mean values of the whistle parameters were found between this and other studies that recorded Steno bredanensis, but as in other localities, whistles above 14 kHz are rare. PMID:22559388

  9. Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae larvae parasitizing Selene setapinnis (Mitchill, 1815) in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fontenelle, Gabrielle; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Lopes, Leila Maria da Silva; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de São

    2015-01-01

    Between February and August, 2012, thirty specimens of Atlantic moonfish, Selene setapinnis, were purchased in local markets in Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the aim of analyzing the presence of anisakid nematodes, establishing their rates of parasitism and infection sites, due to importance in the sanitary inspection. A total of sixty nematode larvae, belonging to at least two species were found: nine larvae of Terranova sp., Anisakidae, with prevalence (P) of 13.3%, mean intensity (MI) of 2.25, mean abundance (MA) of 0.30 and range of infection intensity (RI) from 1 to 6; and 51 larvae of Hysterothylacium fortalezae, Raphidascarididae, with P = 26.7%, MI = 6.40, MA = 1.70, and RI = 1-17. The infection sites for Terranova sp. were the mesentery and liver serosa; and for H. fortalezae, the infection sites were the mesentery, abdominal cavity and liver serosa. New morphological data from scanning electron microscopy, on the external structures of H. fortalezae (mainly at the posterior end), are presented. This is the first report of H. fortalezae parasitizing S. setapinnis. PMID:25909256

  10. Postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder in a fetal high-risk maternity hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Tatiana; Moraes, Claudia Leite de; Reichenheim, Michael E; Azevedo, Gustavo Lobato de; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan Luiz de Vasconcellos

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a maternity hospital for fetal high-risk pregnancies and to identify vulnerable subgroups. This was a cross-sectional study at a fetal high-risk maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a sample of 456 women who had given birth at this hospital. The Trauma History Questionnaire and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist were used to screen for lifetime traumatic events and PTSD symptoms, respectively. Overall prevalence of PTSD was 9.4%. Higher PTSD prevalence was associated with three or more births, a newborn with a 1-minute Apgar score of seven or less, history of mental disorder prior to or during the index pregnancy, postpartum depression, physical or psychological intimate partner violence during the pregnancy, a history of unwanted sexual experience, and lifetime exposure to five or more traumas. Rapid diagnosis and treatment of PTSD are essential to improve the mother's quality of life and the infant's health. PMID:26872229

  11. New host records for Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae) from Grussaí restinga, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viana, Lúcio André; Winck, Gisele Regina; Almeida-Santos, Marlon; Telles, Felipe Bottona da Silva; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Amblyomma rotundatum Koch is a parthenogenetic tick usually associated with reptiles and amphibians. However, relatively few studies on occurrences of ticks in wild reptile populations in Brazil have been produced. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of ticks associated with reptile species in the Grussaí restinga, in the municipality of São João da Barra, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between December 2010 and January 2011, 131 individuals belonging to nine species of reptiles of the order Squamata were sampled: the lizards Tropidurus torquatus (n = 51), Hemidactylus mabouia (n = 25), Mabuya agilis (n = 30), Mabuya macrorhyncha (n = 6), Cnemidophorus littoralis (n = 5) and Ameiva ameiva (n = 10); and the snakes Philodryas olfersii (n = 2), Oxyrhopus rhombifer (n = 1) and Micrurus corallinus (n = 1). The only tick species found to be associated with any of the reptiles sampled was A. rotundatum. One adult female was detected on one individual of the lizard A. ameiva, one nymph on one individual of the lizard T. torquatus and four nymphs on one individual of the snake P. olfersii. This study is the first record of parasitism of A. rotundatum involving the reptiles T. torquatus and P. olfersii as hosts. Our results suggest that in the Grussaí restinga habitat, A. rotundatum may use different species of reptiles to complete its life cycle. PMID:23070450

  12. Characteristics of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Wild Birds Confiscated in Illegal Trade Markets, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matias, Carlos Alexandre Rey; Pereira, Ingrid Annes; de Araújo, Maiara dos Santos; Santos, André Felipe Mercês; Lopes, Rudi Pereira; Christakis, Sandra; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres; Siciliano, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was investigated in 109 wild birds poached in the illegal wildlife trade in Rio de Janeiro; most of them are passerines from Thraupidae family and three from Psittacidae. One strain of Salmonella ser. Typhimurium and two strains of Salmonella ser. Panama were isolated from passerine species and all of them showed resistance to multiple antimicrobial drugs, like ampicillin, ceftriaxone, ceftiofur, tetracycline, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin. PFGE showed 100% similarity among the Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strain isolated from a Temminck's seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris) and the strains isolated from a human outbreak, in southern Brazil. The two Salmonella ser. Panama strains isolated from two chestnut-capped blackbirds (Chrysomus ruficapillus) present in the same catch showed the same clonal origin and have never been associated with epizooties and human outbreaks. Potential for dissemination of resistant Salmonella through situations offered by captive management and the isolation of the same strain from wild birds and human sources may become a problem for the conservation of natural populations and to public health. PMID:26881216

  13. Characteristics of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Wild Birds Confiscated in Illegal Trade Markets, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Carlos Alexandre Rey; Pereira, Ingrid Annes; de Araújo, Maiara dos Santos; Santos, André Felipe Mercês; Lopes, Rudi Pereira; Christakis, Sandra; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres; Siciliano, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was investigated in 109 wild birds poached in the illegal wildlife trade in Rio de Janeiro; most of them are passerines from Thraupidae family and three from Psittacidae. One strain of Salmonella ser. Typhimurium and two strains of Salmonella ser. Panama were isolated from passerine species and all of them showed resistance to multiple antimicrobial drugs, like ampicillin, ceftriaxone, ceftiofur, tetracycline, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin. PFGE showed 100% similarity among the Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strain isolated from a Temminck's seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris) and the strains isolated from a human outbreak, in southern Brazil. The two Salmonella ser. Panama strains isolated from two chestnut-capped blackbirds (Chrysomus ruficapillus) present in the same catch showed the same clonal origin and have never been associated with epizooties and human outbreaks. Potential for dissemination of resistant Salmonella through situations offered by captive management and the isolation of the same strain from wild birds and human sources may become a problem for the conservation of natural populations and to public health. PMID:26881216

  14. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates, including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.

  15. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  16. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Errors using GDAPS (UM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Chang, K.; Byun, K.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    After the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began issuing official five-day tropical cyclone (TC) forecasts in 2003, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) started issuing official five-day forecasts of TCs in May 2012 after 2 year of beta test. Forming a selective consensus (SCON) by proper removal of a likely erroneous track forecast is hypothesized to be more accurate than the non-selective consensus (NCON) of all model tracks that are used for the five-day forecasts. Conceptual models describing large track error mechanisms, which are related to known tropical cyclone motion processes being misrepresented in the dynamical models, are applied to forecasts during the 2012 western North Pacific typhoon season by the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS (UM N512 L70)) which is KMA's main operational model. GDAPS (UM) is one of consensus members used in making KMA's five-day forecasts and thus analysis of its track error tendencies would be useful for forming a SCON forecast. All 72-h track errors greater than 320 km are examined on the basis of the approach developed by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b). Tropical-influenced error sources caused 37% (47 times / 126 erroneous forecasts) of the GDAPS (UM) large track forecast errors primarily because an incorrect beta effect-related process depicted by the model contributed to the erroneous forecasts. Midlatitude-influenced error sources accounted for 63% (79 times / 126 error cases) in the GDAPS (UM) erroneous forecasts mainly due to an incorrect forecast of the midlatitude system evolutions. It is proposed that KMA will be able to issue more reliable TC track information if a likely model track error is recognized by optimum use of conceptual models by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b) and a selective consensus track is then the basis for an improved warning.

  17. [Information, attitudes, perceptions, and symbolic representations of AIDS risk and prevention among poor adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Merchán-Hamann, E

    1995-01-01

    Four hundred and sixteen poor adolescents of both sexes in Rio de Janeiro were interviewed to study both their level of information and symbolic representations concerning AIDS risk and prevention. The most common source of information on HIV/AIDS was the mass media, particularly television broadcasts. There were doubts and lack of trust regarding official government information on HIV/AIDS. Nearly 70% of the adolescents interviewed believe in HIV transmission through mosquito bites and some 40% through casual contact with wounds or scars or sharing of bathroom utensils. Men seemed to show a greater awareness and autonomy vis- -vis taking initiatives in sex encounters. Attitudes of segregation and exclusion of people with AIDS persist. Lack of prevention was attributed to the impossibility of predicting sexual encounters. The study of symbolic aspects concerning causes of HIV/AIDS displayed broad variability: 80% of the interviewees associated AIDS with excesses in sexual behavior and 40% with homosexual practices. Causal images vary from the predominant view of AIDS as unfair punishment to the less frequent stance considering AIDS as fair punishment (due to sinful behavior). An ambiguous attitude towards transgression (taking as its sterotype the figure of Rio's "malandro", or "streetwise dude") may influence perception of risk and prevention. The paper calls attention to the need for implementing clearer and more direct educational programs. This could be useful for the implementation of culturally sensitive control measures through a reshaping of AIDS symbols. The author recommends a better understanding of the social and economic determinants of disease and reinforcement of the kinds of discourse which empower and raise the self-esteem of poor adolescents by endorsing their civil rights. PMID:12973626

  18. Environmental Surveillance of Polioviruses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in Support to the Activities of Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Pereira, Joseane Simone; da Silva, Lidiane Rodrigues; de Meireles Nunes, Amanda; de Souza Oliveira, Silas; da Costa, Eliane Veiga; da Silva, Edson Elias

    2016-03-01

    Wild polioviruses still remain endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) and re-emergency of wild polio has been reported in previously polio-free countries. Environmental surveillance has been used as a supplementary tool in monitoring the circulation of wild poliovirus (PVs) and/or vaccine-derived PVs even in the absence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. This study aimed to monitor the presence of polioviruses in wastewater samples collected at one wastewater treatment plant located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From December 2011 to June 2012 and from September to December 2012, 31 samples were collected and processed. RD and L20B cell cultures were able to isolate PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in 27/31 samples. Polioviruses were isolated in eight samples (type 1 Sabin = 1, type 2 Sabin = 5, and type 3 Sabin = 2). Vaccine-derived polioviruses were not detected nor evidence of recombination with other PVs or non-polio enterovirus serotypes were observed among the isolates. The Sabin-related serotypes 2 and 3 presented nucleotide substitutions in positions associated with the neurovirulent phenotype at the 5'-UTR. Changes in important Amino acid residues at VP1 were also observed in the serotypes 2 and 3. Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring the circulation of PVs and non-polio enteroviruses and it is of crucial importance in the final stages of the WHO global polio eradication initiative. Our results show the continuous circulation of Sabin-like PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in the analyzed area during the study period. PMID:26538420

  19. Evolution of Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality in the Counties of the State of Rio de Janeiro from 1979 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza e; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in Brazil. Objective To estimate total CVD, cerebrovascular disease (CBVD), and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality rates in adults in the counties of the state of Rio de Janeiro (SRJ), from 1979 to 2010. Methods The counties of the SRJ were analysed according to their denominations stablished by the geopolitical structure of 1950, Each new county that have since been created, splitting from their original county, was grouped according to their former origin. Population Data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), and data on deaths were obtained from DataSus/MS. Mean CVD, CBVD, and IHD mortality rates were estimated, compensated for deaths from ill-defined causes, and adjusted for age and sex using the direct method for three periods: 1979–1989, 1990–1999, and 2000–2010, Such results were spatially represented in maps. Tables were also constructed showing the mortality rates for each disease and year period. Results There was a significant reduction in mortality rates across the three disease groups over the the three defined periods in all the county clusters analysed, Despite an initial mortality rate variation among the counties, it was observed a homogenization of such rates at the final period (2000–2010). The drop in CBVD mortality was greater than that in IHD mortality. Conclusion Mortality due to CVD has steadily decreased in the SRJ in the last three decades. This reduction cannot be explained by greater access to high technology procedures or better control of cardiovascular risk factors as these facts have not occurred or happened in low proportion of cases with the exception of smoking which has decreased significantly. Therefore, it is necessary to seek explanations for this decrease, which may be related to improvements in the socioeconomic conditions of the population. PMID:25789882

  20. Microbial Mg-carbonate Precipitation and Early Diagenetic Dolomite Crust Formation at Hypersaline Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahniuk Rumbelsperger, A. M.; McKenzie, J. A.; Perri, E.; Vögeli, N.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary dolomite rocks are commonly considered to be primarily a replacement product of the calcium carbonate components comprising the original limestone, a process known as secondary replacement dolomitization. Although numerous dolomite formations in the geologic record are composed of fine-grained crystals of micritic dolomite, an alternative process, i.e., direct precipitation, is often excluded because of the absence of visible or geochemical indicators supporting primary precipitation. We present a study of a modern coastal hypersaline lagoon, Brejo do Espinho, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, which is located in a special climatic regime where a well-defined seasonal cycle of wet and dry conditions occur. The direct precipitation of modern high-Mg calcite and Ca-dolomite mud from the lagoonal waters under low-temperature hypersaline conditions is associated with the activity of microbial organisms living in this restricted environment. The mud undergoes an early diagenetic transformation into a 100% dolomite crust on the margins of the lagoon. The biomineralization process, characterized by the variations of the physico-chemical conditions in this environment during the annual hydrologic cycle, is integrated with isotopic analysis to define the early diagenetic processes responsible for the formation of both dolomitic mud and crust. The carbon isotope values indicate a contribution of respired organic carbon, which is greater for the crust (δ13C = -9.5‰ VPDB) than mud (δ13C = -1.2‰ VPDB). The oxygen isotope values reflect a moderate degree of evaporation during mud formation (δ18O = 1.1‰ VPDB), whereas it is greatly enhanced during early diagenetic crust formation (δ18O = 4.2‰ VPDB). The clumped isotope formation temperatures derived for the Brejo do Espinho mud is 34°C and 32°C for the crust. These temperatures are consistent with the upper range of measured values during the dry season when the lagoon experiences the most hypersaline

  1. An automated nowcasting model of significant instability events in the flight terminal area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges França, Gutemberg; Valdonel de Almeida, Manoel; Rosette, Alessana C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a novel model, based on neural network techniques, to produce short-term and local-specific forecasts of significant instability for flights in the terminal area of Galeão Airport, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Twelve years of data were used for neural network training/validation and test. Data are originally from four sources: (1) hourly meteorological observations from surface meteorological stations at five airports distributed around the study area; (2) atmospheric profiles collected twice a day at the meteorological station at Galeão Airport; (3) rain rate data collected from a network of 29 rain gauges in the study area; and (4) lightning data regularly collected by national detection networks. An investigation was undertaken regarding the capability of a neural network to produce early warning signs - or as a nowcasting tool - for significant instability events in the study area. The automated nowcasting model was tested using results from five categorical statistics, indicated in parentheses in forecasts of the first, second, and third hours, respectively, namely proportion correct (0.99, 0.97, and 0.94), BIAS (1.10, 1.42, and 2.31), the probability of detection (0.79, 0.78, and 0.67), false-alarm ratio (0.28, 0.45, and 0.73), and threat score (0.61, 0.47, and 0.25). Possible sources of error related to the test procedure are presented and discussed. The test showed that the proposed model (or neural network) can grab the physical content inside the data set, and its performance is quite encouraging for the first and second hours to nowcast significant instability events in the study area.

  2. β-lactam Resistance, Serotype Distribution, and Genotypes of Meningitis-causing Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, David E.; Godoy, Daniel; Castiñeiras, Terezinha M. P. P.; Tulenko, Mary M.; Rebelo, Maria C.; Harrison, Lee H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Here, we report a laboratory-based study of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from patients with meningitis in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Methods The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of β-lactam resistance, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, serotypes, and genetic diversity of S. pneumoniae, isolated from meningitis patients between 2000 and 2008. Results A total of 264 S. pneumoniae recovered from patients between 2000 and 2008 were included. Susceptibility testing (E-test) of S. pneumoniae showed resistance to penicillin, ceftriaxone, oxacillin, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, ofloxacin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and rifampicin. Penicillin resistance (PEN-R, minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥0.12 μg/mL) increased from 8% of isolates in 2000–2002, to 12% in 2003–2005, and to 20% in 2006–2008. Ceftriaxone resistance (MIC ≥1.0 μg/mL) was detected among some PEN-R isolates (13%) from 2004 onward. Within the PEN-R isolates, serotypes that are included in 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine predominated (90%), and resistance was detected mostly in isolates of serotypes 14 (61%), 23F (16%), 6B (10%), and 19F (3%). Multilocus sequence typing showed that 52% of the PEN-R isolates, and 89% of those with MICs ≥0.5 μg/mL, were sequence type (ST)-156 or single-locus variants of this ST (ST-557 or ST-4388); all of these isolates were serotype 14 and were assigned to the Spain9V-3 clone. Conclusions β-lactam resistance increased recently among cerebrospinal fluid isolates and was mainly due to the surge of the ST-4388, a previously undescribed gki single-locus variants of ST-156. Regional surveillance is shown to be essential to provide optimal antimicrobial therapy, monitor highly successful clones, and formulate adequate vaccination strategy. PMID:21860337

  3. Spectral Analysis of Different Vegetation Cover Using the Hyperion Sensor - a Case Study in the State of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, E. M. F. R.; Vicens, R. S.; Rosa, A. E. P.; Cruz, C. B. M.

    2012-07-01

    The knowledge about of land use and current status of vegetation represent important steps in understanding the spatial dynamics in areas with increased removal of vegetation and human disturbance. This feature is very common in its Brazil considering the biophysical diversity observed. In this sense, interest in patterns and processes that lead to environmental changes has been receiving great support from geoprocessing and remote sensing for monitoring, environmental and planning of natural resources. Following this trend, the study uses products from hyperspectral geotechnology to identify new methods of analysis of the landscape, in areas with vegetation remnants of Atlantic Forest in the State of the Rio de Janeiro.

  4. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect

    Loureiro, S.M.; Rovere, E.L.L.; Mahler, C.F.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ► Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ► We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ► The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ► The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  6. Dengue severity associated with age and a new lineage of dengue virus-type 2 during an outbreak in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Priscila Conrado Guerra; Sampaio, Simone Alves Faria; Rodrigues da Costa, Nieli; de Mendonça, Marcos Cesar Lima; Lima, Monique da Rocha Queiroz; Araujo, Saraiva Eliane M; Dos Santos, Flávia Barreto; Simões, Jaqueline Basto Santos; de Santis Gonçalves, Bianca; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus-type 2 (DENV-2) caused three outbreaks, in the years 1990, 1998, and 2008, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The 2008 outbreak was the most severe in reported cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. To investigate virological and epidemiological factors that may have contributed to the pathogenic profile of 2008 epidemic, 102 patients sera obtained during the epidemic and inter-epidemic periods of three outbreaks were analysed by qRT-PCR to estimate viremia levels and their correlation with the clinical, immunological, and demographic patient characteristics. DENV-2 isolates from the outbreaks were sequenced. Two DENV-2 lineages (I and II) of the American/Asian genotype were confirmed, each exclusive for 1990-2002 and 2007-2011, respectively. The mean viremia level in the 2008 samples was two orders of magnitude higher than that of the 1990-2002 samples. Severe dengue cases increased from 31% in 1990-2002 to 69% in 2007-2011; in patients aged ≤15 years, from 3% in 1990-2002 to 37% in 2007-2011. The DENV-2 lineage II and younger age significantly contributed to the pathogenic profile of 2008 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro. J. Med. Virol. 88:1130-1136, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061403

  7. [The risk of the military profession in the city of Rio de Janeiro in 'peace time': the perception of the troop].

    PubMed

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Mello, Márcia Gomide da Silva

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at determining the risk perception of Army Military concerning common activities at Military Units of troop in Rio de Janeiro. This mapping might allow taking preventive action when preparing these professionals, reducing their vulnerability. The present study is descriptive and used a qualitative methodological approach. The informers were selected into four military units and divided in three groups: eight officers, eight sergeants and eight corporal/soldiers, summing up 24 informers. It was possible to identify three risk categories noticed by the military in their common Military Units activities: (a) The risk of being a military in a city where urban violence reached the level there is in Rio de Janeiro city; (b) the risk of accidents and; (c) the risk of injuries or chronic pathology related to the exposure to activities that need proper protection, noticed by a number of informants. It can be concluded that the local violence has a great influence on the health of the military, due to the fact that modifies substantially the daily routines and their emotions during the work and that the perception the military have of the risks of their activities is focused on the present moment. PMID:19851582

  8. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) container productivity in a slum and a suburban district of Rio de Janeiro during dry and wet seasons.

    PubMed

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Marques, William A; Peres, Roberto C; Cunha, Sérgio P; de Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço

    2007-06-01

    Seasonal variation in container productivity and infestation levels by Aedes aegypti were evaluated in two areas with distinct levels of urbanization degrees in Rio de Janeiro, a slum and a suburban neighborhood. The four most productive containers can generate up to 90% of total pupae. Large and open-mouthed containers, such as water tanks and metal drums, located outdoors were the most productive in both areas, with up to 47.49% of total Ae. aegypti pupae collected in the shaded sites in the suburban area. Water-tanks were identified as key containers in both areas during both the dry and rainy seasons. Container productivity varied according to seasons and urbanization degree. However, the mean number of pupae per house was higher in the suburban area, but not varied between seasons within each area (P > 0.05). High infestation indexes were observed for both localities, with a house index of 20.5-21.14 in the suburban and of 9.56-11.22 in the urban area. This report gives potential support to a more focused and cost-effective Ae. aegypti control in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:17612770

  9. A segment of rbcL gene as a potential tool for forensic discrimination of Cannabis sativa seized at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mello, I C T; Ribeiro, A S D; Dias, V H G; Silva, R; Sabino, B D; Garrido, R G; Seldin, L; de Moura Neto, Rodrigo Soares

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis sativa, known by the common name marijuana, is the psychoactive drug most widely distributed in the world. Identification of Cannabis cultivars may be useful for association to illegal crops, which may reveal trafficking routes and related criminal groups. This study provides evidence for the performance of a segment of the rbcL gene, through genetic signature, as a tool for identification for C. sativa samples apprehended by the Rio de Janeiro Police, Brazil. The PCR amplified and further sequenced the fragment of approximately 561 bp of 24 samples of C. sativa rbcL gene and showed the same nucleotide sequences, suggesting a possible genetic similarity or identical varieties. Comparing with other Cannabaceae family sequences, we have found 99% of similarity between the Rio de Janeiro sequence and three other C. sativa rbcL genes. These findings suggest that the fragment utilized at this study is efficient in identifying C. sativa samples, therefore, useful in genetic discrimination of samples seized in forensic cases. PMID:26092428

  10. A large CO2 sink enhanced by eutrophication in a tropical coastal embayment (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotovicz, L. C., Jr.; Knoppers, B. A.; Brandini, N.; Costa Santos, S. J.; Abril, G.

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to its small surface area, the coastal zone plays a disproportionate role in the global carbon cycle. Carbon production, transformation, emission and burial rates at the land-ocean interface are still poorly known, especially in tropical regions. Surface water pCO2 and ancillary parameters were monitored during nine field campaigns between April 2013 and April 2014 in Guanabara Bay, a tropical eutrophic to hypertrophic semi-enclosed estuarine embayment surrounded by the city of Rio de Janeiro, SE-Brazil. Water pCO2 varied between 22 and 3715 ppmv in the Bay showing spatial, diurnal and seasonal trends that mirrored those of dissolved oxygen (DO) and Chlorophyll a (Chl a). Marked pCO2 undersaturation was prevalent in the shallow, confined and thermally stratified waters of the upper bay, whereas pCO2 oversaturation was restricted to sites close to the small river mouths and small sewage channels, which covered only 10% of the bay's area. Substantial daily variations in pCO2 (up to 395 ppmv between dawn and dusk) were also registered and could be integrated temporally and spatially for the establishment of net diurnal, seasonal and annual CO2 fluxes. In contrast to other estuaries worldwide, Guanabara Bay behaved as a net sink of atmospheric CO2, a property enhanced by the concomitant effects of strong radiation intensity, thermal stratification, and high availability of nutrients, which promotes phytoplankton development and net autotrophy. In the inner part of the bay, the calculated annual CO2 sink (-19.6 mol C m2 yr-1) matched the organic carbon burial in the sediments reported in the literature. The carbon sink and autotrophy of Guanabara Bay was driven by planktonic primary production promoted by eutrophication, and by its typology of marine embayment lacking the classical extended estuarine mixing zone, in contrast to river-dominated estuarine systems, which are generally net heterotrophic and CO2 emitters. Our results show that global CO2