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Sample records for japan bacus spie the

  1. The first SPIE software Hack Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrew, S.; Deen, C.; Radziwill, N.; Crawford, S.; Gilbert, J.; Gully-Santiago, M.; Kubánek, P.

    2014-07-01

    We report here on the software Hack Day organised at the 2014 SPIE conference on Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation in Montréal. The first ever Hack Day to take place at an SPIE event, the aim of the day was to bring together developers to collaborate on innovative solutions to problems of their choice. Such events have proliferated in the technology community, providing opportunities to showcase, share and learn skills. In academic environments, these events are often also instrumental in building community beyond the limits of national borders, institutions and projects. We show examples of projects the participants worked on, and provide some lessons learned for future events.

  2. Bibliographic database of PACS-related articles from the SPIE literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shile, Peter E.; Freiermuth, Jennifer

    1996-05-01

    Publications of the International Society of Optical Engineering (SPIE) contain much of the relevant literature on Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) and related topics. In fact, many PACS-related articles indexed by the National Library of Medicine contain references to articles published by SPIE. Unfortunately, SPIE publications themselves are not indexed by the National Library of Medicine and thus can not be identified through Medline. The lack of a convenient mechanism for searching the SPIE literature is problematic for researchers in medical imaging. With the recent introduction on SPIE's Internet server of their Abstracts Online service and their In-CiteTM title and author searching software, the SPIE literature has become more accessible. However, the searching process is still a cumbersome and time consuming process, and it is not possible to perform key word searches of manuscript abstracts. In this paper we present results of our work on developing a mechanism to more thoroughly search SPIE publications for PACS-related articles.

  3. SPIE Smart Structures Product Implementation Award: a review of the first ten years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eric H.; Sater, Janet M.

    2007-04-01

    The research field of smart materials and structures has been a distinct entity for two decades. Over the past ten years, the SPIE Industrial and Commercial Applications Conference has presented a Smart Structures Product Implementation Award at its annual symposium. This paper revisits the nine winning entries to date (1998-2007) and updates their status. The paper begins with a brief description of the original and current intent of the award and follows with a short overview of the evolution of smart structures, from research to products. The winning teams and their respective products are then described. The current status of the products is discussed based on publicly available information and input from the respective companies. Note however that it is not the purpose of the paper to rank the product winners in terms of success or sales. The paper concludes with an assessment of the larger trends in productization of smart structures technologies. The application "form" for the award as well as the evaluation criteria and suggestions for improving award application packages can be found in the appendix.

  4. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    PubMed

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well. PMID:26560991

  5. Cryo-vacuum testing of the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module (SPIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Vila, M. Begona; Van Campen, Julie; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Comber, Brian J.; Fatig, Curtis C.; Glasse, Alistair C. H.; Glazer, Stuart D.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Mann, Steven D.; Martel, Andre R.; Novo-Gradac, Kevin J.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Penanen, Konstantin; Rohrbach, Scott O.; Sullivan, Joseph F.; Zak, Dean; Zhou, Julia

    2016-01-01

    In late 2015/early 2016, a major cryo-vacuum test was carried out for the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This test comprised the final cryo-certification and calibration test of the ISIM, after its ambient environmental test program (vibration, acoustics, EMI/EMC), and before its delivery for integration with the rest of the JWST observatory. Over the 108-day period of the round-the-clock test program, the full complement of ISIM flight instruments, structure, harness radiator, and electronics were put through a comprehensive program of thermal, optical, electrical, and operational tests. The test verified the health and excellent performance of the instruments and ISIM systems, proving the ISIM element's readiness for integration with the telescope. We report here on the context, goals, setup, execution, and key results for this critical JWST milestone.

  6. SPIE's School Outreach Activity Program (SOAP) by IIT Madras SPIE Student Chapter: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikivayi, Lavanya; Kalikivayi, V.; Udayakumar, K.; Ganesan, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    One of the important aspects of SPIE is "Community Support and Outreach Education", which should raise awareness and interest in optics and photonics among the targeted communities and school children. Hence as part of SPIE IIT Madras student chapter, we carried out SPIE SOAP, a `School Outreach Activity Program'. Two types of schools were identified, one a high socio-economic status school and the other a low socio-economic status school having a majority of poor children. Optics related scientific experiments were demonstrated in these schools followed by oral quiz session to the students to assess the level of their knowledge before and after the experiments. We also clubbed this activity with "Vision Screening" and distribution of free spectacles for those children who live below poverty line. Out of the 415 children screened, 60.84% eyes were having normal vision, while 39.16% were found to have refractive errors (Myopia 35.78% and Hyperopia 3.38%) where some of them could not even read the board. Treatable eye diseases were also found in 0.72% of the children. The entire activity is been discussed and documented in this paper.

  7. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  8. Japan.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship. PMID:12178004

  9. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  10. Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  11. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  12. Results obtained with the CHARPAN Engineering Tool and prospects of the ion Mask Exposure Tool (iMET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzgummer, Elmar; Loeschner, Hans; Gross, Gerhard

    2008-10-01

    Projection Mask-Less Patterning (PMLP) is based on many hundred thousands of ion beams working in parallel. A PMLP proof-of-concept tool has been realized as part of the European project CHARPAN (Charged Particle Nanotech) and has been presented at SPIE Photomask BACUS 2007. Using 10 keV protons, 16nm hp resolution has been demonstrated in non- CAR materials (HSQ) with 25μC/cm2 exposure dose. The system is upgraded to a CHARPAN Engineering Tool (CHET) with a laser-interferometer controlled vacuum stage and a CMOS based programmable Aperture Plate System (APS) providing ca. 40,000 beams with < 20nm spot size. The engineering of an ion Mask Exposure Tool (iMET) for the 22nm hp mask node has been started; main iMET features are discussed.

  13. Characteristic Images Emerging From Recent Spie Medical Imaging Symposia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this short tutorial is to highlight selected papers from recent SPIE conferences with emphasis on the areas of signal detection theory, statistical decision theory and pattern recognition, image evaluation, and image processing. The selection is biased toward the author's special areas of interest and, as is usual in reviews of this kind, a common set of threads are sought. The papers are referenced in terms of the SPIE volume number and paper number (000-00). The first common thread is that the volume numbers tend to be palindromes, namely, 454, 535, 626, and the present 767, and indicate the non-linear growth of the Society between annual Medical Imaging symposia.

  14. The Social Sciences in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanuki, Joji

    1975-01-01

    This article relates a brief historical background of social sciences in Japan, the institutional framework of social science education and research, and major issues and perspectives for the development of the social scinces. (ND)

  15. The educational system in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  16. The Japan of Today, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo (Japan).

    Following an introduction which discusses the history and geography of Japan, this book focuses on topics related to this country's government, economy, social conditions, and cultural life. Topics related to government include: constitution and emperor; legislature; executive power; judiciary system; foreign relations; and defense. Topics related…

  17. The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumano, Ruriko

    2007-01-01

    During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…

  18. Materials Data on Ba(CuSe)2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on Ba(CuSe)2 (SG:62) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. The LBTI Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems (HOSTS) Survey: a Key NASA Science Program on the Road to Exoplanet Imaging Missions (SPIE Proceedings 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.; Bailey, V.; Defrere, D.; Haniff, C.; Hinz, P.; Kennedy, G.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Rieke, G.; Roberge, Aki; Serabyn, E.; Skemer, A.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Weinberger, A.; Wyatt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) will survey nearby stars for faint exozodiacal dust (exozodi). This warm circumstellar dust, analogous to the interplanetary dust found in the vicinity of the Earth in our own system, is produced in comet breakups and asteroid collisions. Emission and or scattered light from the exozodi will be the major source of astrophysical noise for a future space telescope aimed at direct imaging and spectroscopy of terrestrial planets (exo- Earths) around nearby stars. About 20 of nearby field stars have cold dust coming from planetesimals at large distances from the stars (Eiroa et al. 2013, AA, 555, A11; Siercho et al. 2014, ApJ, 785, 33). Much less is known about exozodi; current detection limits for individual stars are at best 500 times our solar system's level (aka. 500 zodi). LBTI-HOSTS will be the first survey capable of measuring exozodi at the 10 zodi level (3). Detections of warm dust will also reveal new information about planetary system architectures and evolution. We will describe the motivation for the survey and progress on target selection, not only the actual stars likely to be observed by such a mission but also those whose observation will enable sensible extrapolations for stars that will not be observed with LBTI. We briefly describe the detection of the debris disk around Crv, which is the first scientific result from the LBTI coming from the commissioning of the instrument in December 2013, shortly after the first time the fringes were stabilized.

  1. The Role of German in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  2. Learning by the Aged in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekiguchi, Reiko W.

    This paper discusses demographic changes in Japan, the sources of pleasure of the retired Japanese senior citizen, and lifelong learning. It also describes a study that examined learning preferences of Japanese senior citizens. Data for 1983 show that life expectancy has increased in Japan to 74.20 years for males and 79.78 for females. The level…

  3. Penicillin and the reconstruction of Japan.

    PubMed

    Cozzoli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores postwar American strategies regarding penicillin in Japan. Perceived as both an American gift and a symbol of reconstruction, penicillin played a singular role in Washington's postwar policies towards Europe and Japan. Washington encouraged US pharmaceutical companies to penetrate Europe but sought to protect intra-European trade. In Japan, however, importing penicillin from the US or establishing private American factories was forbidden. Jackson W. Foster implemented a smaller-scale, military-directed version of the US's wartime penicillin project. In this paper, it is argued that the MacArthur administration aimed to boost Japanese penicillin production and transfer American industrial culture to Japan. This was initially a major success. However, the Japanese pharmaceutical industry failed to break down barriers to market entry established by first movers and, consequently, was uncompetitive throughout the twentieth century. This paper regards the American penicillin project in Japan as a factor in the weakness of the postwar Japanese pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26054211

  4. Instrumentation in astronomy VII; Proceedings of the SPIE Meeting, Vol. 1235, Pts. 1 2, Tucson, AZ, Feb. 13-17, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The topics discussed include IR detectors and instrumentation, detectors, other instrumentation, optical instrumentation, and space instrumentation. Papers are presented on the IR spectrometer/imager for the ESO VLT, the fiber-coupled high-resolution IR array spectrometer for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, the Balloon-Borne Infrared Telescope for FIR spectroscopy, and a simple transputer-based CCD camera controller. Attention is given to CCD guidance system for William Herschel Telescope, the New Technology Telescope control/acquisition system as a prototype for the VLT, a control system for spincasting 8-m borosilicate honeycomb mirrors, echelle spectrographs for 8-m class telescopes, and fiber spectroscopy at Palomar Observatory. Other papers are on the Kitt Peak National Observatory fiber actuator device, a two-star photoelectric photometer, an ultrahigh-resolution XUV spectroheliograph, an optical monitor for X-ray satellites, and large-format electrographic and array detectors for a space Schmidt imaging telescope.

  5. Teachers' Unions and the Politics of Education in Japan. SUNY Series on Japan in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspinall, Robert W.

    In 1989, the Japan Teachers' Union, Nikkyoso, split into two unions after 2 years of factional infighting. Japan has two political camps, the governing conservative Liberal Democratic Party and the left-wing Japan Socialist Party. The teachers' union is a powerful member in the camp of the latter. This book incorporates studies of the links…

  6. William L. Wolfe, 1989 President of SPIE, encourages scientists from Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, Joanna

    2012-10-01

    In 1990 Professor Wolfe after his SPIE presidency trekked the world, even making it as far as post-communist Poland, to see (in the visible and maybe in infrared - who knows) the work of optical scientists hidden behind the iron curtain. I am not sure if he was ready for how different that world was at this time, but for sure he was very inquisitive and eager to learn about the nuances of Poland right after the fall of communism. He met, visited with and encouraged young and old scientists from Poland, Russia, Hungary and Lithuania to add their expertise to the scientific conversations happening in the West. His mission in Poland was to invite us all, and he was ready to help us achieve our dreams. I was one of those he encouraged. This talk is my personal reflection of Professor Wolfe as an encouraging and sometimes brave SPIE pioneer - a stranger in a strange land - and as an energetic, caring SPIE president, Optical Sciences professor and human being. Disclaimer: Professor Bill Wolfe's contributions to the field of radiometry are well known and very well recognized. This conference is a tribute to him. However, my paper is not on radiometry; rather, I wish to illustrate the adventurous, caring and positive Bill Wolfe that helped me find my way to the American desert Southwest.

  7. Update on Japan's Contribution to the ISW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Obara, T.; Watari, S.; Stpp Sub-Committee Of Japan

    2011-12-01

    We are conducting three initiatives in Japan, in order to accomplish the ISWI objectives. The first is an instrument array program to deploy new and existing observation networks. The second is data coordination to develop predictive models using ISWI data. And the third is training, education (that is capacity building), and public outreach programs, such as the ISWI Newsletter. An update on Japan's Contribution to the ISWI in 2010 will be summarized in the present paper.

  8. Tertiary geothermal events around the Japan Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yasuto

    1991-11-01

    The thermal history through the late Tertiary around the Japan Arc is described by analyzing a number of geological data obtained from boreholes. Based on an empirical model of time-temperature-coalification, the burial history and coal ranks in a deep offshore borehole (MITI Tottori-Oki) reveal that the western part of the Sea of Japan was subjected to remarkable thermal events around middle Miocene and Quaternary times, during which voluminous igneous rocks erupted within Southwest Japan. Considering the tectonic context around the Japan Arc, it is most probable that the thermal event in the middle Miocene was brought about by the extensive continental rifting and formation of the Sea of Japan. The area of higher Quaternary temperatures in the upper mantle, which has been delineated through heat-flow measurements, coincides with the distribution of the contemporaneous alkaline volcanics, suggesting that the characteristic intra-plate volcanism and the latest thermal event can be related to the regional influx of hot asthenosphere beneath Southwest Japan.

  9. The emperor of Japan and the aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S. I.

    On October 3, 1985, I gave a special lecture on the aurora for the Emperor of Japan in his palace in Tokyo. It seems the Emperor, a marine biologist, has an unusual interest in the aurora. After my slide presentation, he asked how we confirm ancient sighting reports of the aurora in Japan. He was not satisfied with my response that anomalous events in the sky were well documented in an ancient publication entitled Japanese Meteorological Data and asked further how one could confirm such sightings as auroral events. He was visibly pleased to learn that the dates of these sightings coincided with those recorded elsewhere in the world.

  10. Cenozoic rift tectonics of the Japan Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.

    1988-08-01

    The Japan Sea is one of the back-arc basins in trench-arc systems bordering the western Pacific. Recent paleomagnetic works suggest the Japan Sea opened during early to middle Miocene. Radiometric and microfossil ages of the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands elucidate the rift tectonics of the Japan Sea. The rifting history is summarized as follows: nonmarine volcanic formations of prerift stage before 50 Ma, rift-onset unconformity at 40 Ma, nonmarine volcanic formations of synrift stage 20-33 Ma, breakup unconformity 19 Ma showing the opening of the Japan Sea, marine volcanic and sedimentary formations of synrift stage 14.5-18 Ma, beginning of regional subsidence 14.5 Ma corresponding to the end of the Japan Sea opening, marine sedimentary formations of postdrift stage after 14.5 Ma. Rifting is not limited to the synrift stage but is continued to the syndrift stage. Rifting led to a horst-and-graben structure. Thus, the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands are suited for a study of rift tectonics because the sequences were subaerially exposed by the late Miocene-Holocene island-arc tectonics. Rift tectonics cannot be studied as easily in most Atlantic-type passive margins.

  11. The economics of pollution control in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, T.K.

    1980-02-01

    The Japanese approach to pollution control expenditures is based on the polluter-pays principle, an economic concept introduced by OECD in 1972. Under the PPP, costs are borne by the polluter rather than by the government. Costs are then passed on to the consumer in increased prices. Japan has extended the original PPP to include payment for restoration of polluted environments, administration of monitoring and surveillance programs, and compensation for victims of pollution. The total investment for pollution control by industry in Japan during 1965-75 is reported. Available data indicate that the high costs of pollution control have not caused a major shock to Japan's economic growth. (1 drawing, 3 graphs, 5 references, 1 table)

  12. Student Teaching in Japan: The Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Blake E.

    2005-01-01

    The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) reports that the mathematics teaching in Japan is distinctly different from that found in the United States. They attribute part of that difference to the professional development practice of Lesson Study. However, is the pre-service preparation of Japanese mathematics teachers also…

  13. Japan Sets the Pace in Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiene, Drew

    1983-01-01

    The Ministry of Education and the Japanese Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) public television network are responsible for the instructional broadcasting that has penetrated Japan's classrooms at all levels. Implications for American television include stronger federal support for public television and the possible development of a national…

  14. The chemical disaster response system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Ninomiya, Norifumi; Ohta, Muneo

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, Japan has experienced the largest burden of chemical terrorism-related events in the world, including the: (1) 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack; (2) 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack; (3) 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident; (4) 1998 Niigata sodium-azide incident; and (5) 1998 Nagano cyanide incident. Two other intentional cyanide releases in Tokyo subway and railway station restrooms were thwarted in 1995. These events spurred Japan to improve the following components of its chemical disaster-response system: (1) scene demarcation; (2) emergency medical care; (3) mass decontamination; (4) personal protective equipment; (5) chemical detection; (6) information-sharing and coordination; and (7) education and training. Further advances occurred as result of potential chemical terrorist threats to the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, which Japan hosted. Today, Japan has an integrated system of chemical disaster response that involves local fire and police services, local emergency medical services (EMS), local hospitals, Japanese Self-Defense Forces, and the Japanese Poison Information Center. PMID:15141857

  15. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system. PMID:24274130

  16. Cost containment: the Pacific. Japan.

    PubMed

    Tajimi, K; Shimada, Y; Nishimura, S; Sirio, C A

    1994-08-01

    The Japanese healthcare system is structured to provide universal healthcare access to the entire Japanese population via a constitutional guarantee. Increasing costs within the Japanese healthcare system are largely attributable to the country's rapidly aging population. Intensive care services are provided primarily in large tertiary care hospitals by a relatively small cadre of dedicated critical care physicians. Triage pressure is high in many Japanese hospitals due to a relatively small proportion of ICU beds. As a result, few patients are admitted to the ICU at low risk of adverse outcome or monitoring. Costs associated with providing critical care are poorly understood because of current hospital cost accounting systems. Critical care costs have only recently become an area of concern. Nevertheless, critical care physicians are taking steps to more fully understand severity of illness, clinical outcome, and utilization of resources in order to effectively guide healthcare policy and resource allocation decisions impacting Japanese critical care. PMID:8087603

  17. The 1998 World Solar Rallye: Akita, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacklock, Andy; Duke, Mike; Burgess, Nigel

    In early August 1998, 81 solar/electric vehicles participated in a three day endurance race in Japan. The objective was to complete as many laps of the 31 km circuit as possible. Some of the cars used state-of-the-art motors, batteries, chassis, solar cells and tyres to produce vehicles which could travel at speeds of 70-80 km/h on about 1 kW of input power. With only 20 kg of battery, some solar cars were travelling around 450 km a day. This paper tells the story of the race and the technological developments behind the successful vehicles.

  18. Seismic heterogeneity and anisotropy of the Honshu arc from the Japan Trench to the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhouchuan; Zhao, Dapeng; Wang, Liangshu

    2011-03-01

    We determined P- and S-wave tomography and P-wave anisotropic structure under the Honshu arc from the Japan Trench to the backarc area under the Japan Sea using 310 749 P- and 150 563 S-wave arrivals from 4655 local earthquakes recorded by 982 seismograph stations. Arrival times from 1451 suboceanic earthquakes relocated with sP depth phases enable us to determine the structures under the Pacific Ocean and Japan Sea, which expand the study region from the land area to the whole arc from the Japan Trench to the Japan Sea with a width of more than 500 km. The results show strong heterogeneities above the subducting Pacific slab under the Pacific Ocean and most large thrust-type earthquakes occurred in the high-velocity areas where the Pacific slab and the overriding continental plate may be strongly coupled. Low-velocity (low-V) zones are imaged in the mantle wedge with significant along-arc variations under the volcanic front. The mantle-wedge low-V zone extends westwards under the Japan Sea and it is connected with the subducting Pacific slab at depths of 150-200 km under the backarc. The results indicate that the H2O and fluids brought downwards by the subducting Pacific slab are released into the mantle wedge by dehydration and are subsequently transported to the surface by the upwelling flow in the mantle wedge. Significant P-wave anisotropic anomalies are revealed under the Honshu arc. The predominant fast velocity direction (FVD) is E-W in the mantle wedge while it is N-S in the subducting Pacific slab. The anisotropy in the mantle wedge is the result of deformation caused by the subduction of the Pacific plate and the induced mantle-wedge convection, while the FVD pattern in the middle of the mantle wedge argues for the 3-D mantle flow or the specific alignment of the olivine in the partial-melting mantle. The N-S (trench-parallel) FVD in the subducting Pacific slab represents either the original fossil anisotropy when the Pacific plate formed or the trench

  19. Towards the Realization of Geo-Referencing Infrastructure for Dynamic Japan (GRID-Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hiromichi; Komaki, Kazuo

    2005-03-01

    The recent change of the geodetic reference system of Japan from the Tokyo Datum to the Japanese geodetic Datum 2000 (JGD2000) is an ongoing process to keep the system precise and up-to-date for the various demands of modern society. In the rapidly changing archipelago over tectonic plate converging zones and with the advent of an information society, future directions of the national geodetic reference system require special thought. A combination of GPS and information technology is now leading to the emergence of a Location Base Service (LBS) where positional information plays a key role to relate real space to cyberspace, opening up a geo-information society. Although the basic role of the geodetic reference system to control precise coodinates for surveying never change, a new role to support precise, real-time positioning should be developed. In addition, incessant crustal deformation in Japan should be properly handled by a semi-dynamic correction system for precise surveys with GPS. This paper presents a future design of the national geodetic reference system, introducing the concept of Geo-Referencing Infrastructure for Dynamic Japan (GRID-Japan). Through the partnership of local governments and the private sector, GSI will start the process of realizing the concept of GRID-Japan in the next ten years.

  20. Summer school in Kabardino-Balkaria by BMSTU SPIE Student Chapter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Gavdush, Arsenii A.; Fokina, Irina N.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2014-09-01

    This summer BMSTU SPIE Student Chapter have decided to visit Kabardino-Balkaria Republic of Caucasus (Russia) and spent there a week with children in a camp. It was called Summer school. We decided to organize it in order to engage talented and curious children in Optics and to show them how science could be funny. Education and entertainment program included such activities as lectures, optical demonstrations, laser games, hiking in the forest, and others. As a result children had a good time outdoors, learned interesting facts about optics and lasers, and of course found new friends who are keen to know more too. Four Chapter members and about 70 children of age 10-16 took part in this event.

  1. Urologic cancer in Japan: role of Japan at the frontier of issues in Asia.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of urological cancer in Japan can be summarized in the following points. (i) As the onset of this type of cancer is typically seen in elderly patients, it is becoming a major social issue in Japan that has already become an aging society. (ii) Many diverse treatment methods are available and a response is required that prioritizes quality of life. (iii) Although vigorous research and development efforts into new drugs are being carried out on a global level, resulting in beneficial medical agents becoming more readily available, unless concepts relating to cost vs. effectiveness are further developed and there is a real risk that medical systems and structures in their current form will become unsustainable. (iv) Although at the current point there are no original large-scale clinical trials being conducted in Asia, Japan has a wealth of experience of participating in many international joint clinical trials and it is therefore an urgent and pressing challenge to organize joint clinical trials in Asia and amass a body of knowledge that is unique to Asia. In view of this current situation and given Japan's position at the frontier of issues, it is important for Japan to take the initiative in Asia in cooperating with other Asian nations in efforts to resolve and overcome various challenges. PMID:26268998

  2. NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental agencies and institutes which are under supervision of different ministries. Thirdly, although the government budget is moderate and sales revenue of space industries is not so large, many large companies in aerospace or electronics industries see the importance of this business and compete each other mainly in the domestic market. NASDA, founded in 1969, is the largest governmental space organization and has played an important role in realizing practical applications of space activities. It has rapidly caught up the technology gap behind leading countries and has achieved remarkable successes with its own launch vehicles and satellites. Space industries, under the guidance of NASDA, have learned much from the U.S. companies and improved their technology levels and enjoyed steady growth during the early stage of Japanese space development. But before they became competitive enough in the world space business, the trade conflict between Japan and the U.S. made the procurement of Japanese non-R&D satellites open to the foreign satellite companies. Furthermore, interruptions of space activities due to recent successive failures of launch vehicles as well as Japanese economic slump have made space industries face hard situations. Under these circumstances, M&A of launch vehicle companies as well as satellite makers took place for the first time in Japanese aero-space history. Also at the government level, reorganization of space agencies is now under process. It is expected as a natural consequence of the merge of the Ministry of Education and the Science an Technology Agency, three space

  3. The "white kidney bean incident" in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruko; Date, Kimie

    2014-01-01

    Lectin poisoning occurred in Japan in 2006 after a TV broadcast that introduced a new diet of eating staple foods with powdered toasted white kidney beans, seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Although the method is based on the action of a heat-stable α-amylase inhibitor in the beans, phaseolamin, more than 1,000 viewers who tried the method suffered from acute intestinal symptoms and 100 people were hospitalized. Lectins in the white kidney beans were suspected to be the cause of the trouble. We were asked to investigate the lectin activity remaining in the beans after the heat treatment recommended on the TV program. The test suggested that the heat treatment was insufficient to inactivate the lectin activity, which, combined with our ignorance of carbohydrate signaling in the intestine, was the cause of the problem. PMID:25117222

  4. Activities of the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, A.; Miyazaki, H.

    2012-07-01

    This reports a history and future prospects of the activities by the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan. For growths of academic fields, active communications among students and young scientists are indispensable. Several academic communities in geoinformation fields are established by youths and play important roles of building networks over schools and institutes. The networks are expected to be innovative cooperation after the youths achieve their professions. Although academic communities are getting fixed growth particularly in Japan, youths had gotten little opportunities to make contacts with youths themselves. To promote gotten youth activities among geoinformation fields, in 1998, we started a series of programs that named the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan involving students and young scientists within the annual conferences, Geoinformation Forum Japan. The programs have provided opportunities to do presentation their studies by posters, some events, and motivations to create networks among students and young scientists. From 2009, some members of our activities set additional conference in west area of Japan. Thus our activities are spread within Japan. As a result of these achievements, the number of youth dedicating to the programs keeps growing. From 2009, it's getting international gradually, however, almost all the participants are still Japanese. To keep and expand the network, we are planning to make some nodes with some Asian youth organizations in the field of geoinformation. This paper is concluded with proposals and future prospects on the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan.

  5. The burden of insomnia in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Kazuo; DiBonaventura, Marco daCosta; Gross, Hillary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Several studies have suggested that patients who experience insomnia report a number of significant impairments. However, despite this literature, fewer studies have focused on the burden of insomnia among patients in Japan. The objective of the current study is to extend this work in Japan to further understand the effect of insomnia on health-related quality of life (hrQOL). Further, another objective is to understand general predictors of hrQOL among patients with insomnia. Methods Data from the 2012 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey, an annual, cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 years or older, were used (N=30,000). All National Health and Wellness Survey respondents were categorized based on the incidence of self-reported insomnia diagnosis and prescription medication usage (clinical insomniacs under treatment versus [vs] good sleepers without insomnia or insomnia symptoms). Comparisons among different groups were made using multiple regression models controlling for demographics and health history. Results Clinical insomniacs (n=1,018; 3.4%) reported significantly worse hrQOL compared with good sleepers (n=20,542) (mental component summary: 34.2 vs 48.0; physical component summary: 48.0 vs 52.8; health utilities: 0.61 vs 0.76; all P<0.05). Health behaviors (smoking, exercise, alcohol use) and comorbidities were the strongest predictors of health utilities for clinical insomniacs. For all three clinical insomniac subgroups of interest, those with a physical comorbidity but not a psychiatric one, those with a psychiatric comorbidity but not a physical one, and those without either a physical or psychiatric comorbidity, large decrements in health utilities were observed for respondents who did not engage in any positive health behaviors (0.61, 0.57, 0.64, respectively) relative to good sleepers (0.78). However, the gap in health utility scores between these subgroups and good sleepers diminishes with an increasing number of positive

  6. [The native domestic animal breeds of Japan].

    PubMed

    Sambraus, H H

    1989-01-01

    During the last decades some domestic animal breeds have spread to all parts of the world. In general, consideration is given to these breeds only; on the other hand, autochthonous breeds of various countries are hardly known. These, however, can be valuable gene-reserves, and moreover, they represent a significant cultural value. In Japan there are several domestic animal breeds which are almost unknown in Central Europe. They are presented verbally and by means of illustration, and their breeding history is dealt with as well. The purpose of this study is to point out the importance of these breeds within the country and to make clear the extent of the danger of their extinction. PMID:2683212

  7. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; And Others

    This activity book is designed to present information and insights on Japanese culture and society. Because few teachers can devote entire units to the study of Japan, the activities focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Some of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts,…

  8. Few Women Reach the Top in Japan's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    Japan's higher-education system is the second largest in the world, after the United States, but it fares much worse than the United States when it comes to gender equity. Just 7 percent of Japan's 750-odd colleges and universities are run by women, compared with 23 percent of those in the United States. While four out of the eight members of the…

  9. Ideas for Integrating Japan into the Curriculum. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This ERIC Digest discusses how, by studying Japan, the larger context of the Asia-Pacific region can be explored and students can be introduced to current realities. The top 5 competitive countries for 1994 were the United States, Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong, and Germany. Because of the increasing interdependence between the United States and…

  10. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported "private events", for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and "private events" on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship. PMID:24572682

  11. Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

  12. Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a…

  13. The Issue of Diversity and Multiculturalism in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to problematize that which has been taken for granted about the notion of multiculturalism in Japan. Multiculturalism is a "hot" issue in Japan. As the Japanese government started to promote "internationalization" since 1980s, slogans such as "international exchange," "cultural exchange," "understanding of other…

  14. Caught in the Middle East: Japan's diplomacy in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitsu, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Japan's increasing dependence on Persian Gulf oil has caused its U.S.-centered foreign policy to shift. Drawing on personal interviews with senior Japanese officials, the author discusses Japan's changing diplomacy in regard to such problems as the Iran-Iraq war, Soviet aggression, and the Palestinian struggle for autonomy.

  15. The Politics of Religion: Modernity, Nationhood and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2008-01-01

    While religion in Japan is traditionally linked to nationhood and nation-building, the post-war period has seen Shinto consciously invoked to restore a sense of national identity through a focus on Japan's victimhood. In this context, there is a focus on the Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to the war dead and an icon of contemporary Japanese cultural…

  16. Barriers to mental health care in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kanehara, Akiko; Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito

    2014-01-01

    Aim The reasons for accessing and maintaining access to mental health services in Japan may be unique in those of other countries. Using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Japan survey data, this study investigated the prevalence of sociodemographic correlates of barriers for the use of, reasons for delayed access to, and reasons for dropping out from mental health care in a Japanese community-based sample. Methods An interview survey was conducted with a random sample of residents living in 11 communities across Japan during the years 2002–2006. Data from 4,130 participants were analyzed. Results The most frequently reported reason for not seeking mental health care was a low perceived need (63.9%). The most common reason for delaying access to help was the wish to handle the problem on one's own (68.8%), while the most common reason for dropping out of care was also a low perceived need (54.2%). Being a woman and of younger age were key sociodemographic barriers to the use of mental health services. Conclusion Low perceived need was a major reason for not seeking, delay in using, and dropout from mental health services in Japan. In addition, low perceived need and structural barriers were more frequently reported than attitudinal barriers, with the exception of a desire to handle the problem on one's own. These findings suggest that to improve therapist-patient communication and quality of mental health care, as well as mental health literacy education in the community, might improve access to care in Japan. PMID:25523280

  17. The Problem of Japan: Qualitative Studies and International Educational Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeTendre, Gerald K.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews qualitative (historical and ethnographic) studies of education in Japan that advance a general understanding of educational theory and practice. Japan, which is neither an educational paradise nor an examination hell, is the source of much data of value to educational research in the United States. (SLD)

  18. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  19. Japan Trail '83: American Art Education Odyssey to the Orient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1983-01-01

    Five American middle school students went to Japan for two weeks in 1983 as ambassadors for American art education. Art education in Japan is much more centralized than in America. In addition to school study, children are exposed to traditional arts like the tea ceremony, calligraphy, and ikebana. (CS)

  20. [Counterfeit medicines--Japan and the world].

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisaku

    2014-01-01

    Circulating counterfeit medicines in the market is a public health threat. Counterfeit medicines become common problem, not only in developing countries, but also in industrialised countries, as internet has made them more accessible. In Japan, the recent survey on the medicines purchased through on-line pharmacy (targeting Japanese consumers) showed that the majority of erectile dysfunction (ED) medicines imported by individuals in Japan were counterfeit version. The survey of Japanese consumers, who privately imported medicines through on-line pharmacy, indicated that 16% of these consumers experienced adverse events associated with these products. Not only that it is just fake brand, but fake medicines may even cause health hazard. The counterfeit version of Avastin recently detected in the United States became a serious threat for those who desperately need these medicines for life-threatening disease. The Japanese regulatory authorities have provided risk information of counterfeit medicines to general public, as well as monitored on-line pharmacies and conducted enforcement action where necessary. However, more resources of compliance activity should be allocated to respond to the situation of growing threats of counterfeit medicines. Purchasing medicines from abroad through unauthorised channel is the major source of counterfeit medicines. It is essential to prevent circulation of counterfeit medicines through international collaboration of various regulatory authorities. To address these problems, the World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a new Member States Mechanism (MSM) to build network of the authorities. Also, INTERPOL (ICPO) initiated globally concerted enforcement actions (Operation Pangea) against pharmaceutical crime as well as built partnership with pharmaceutical industry to create Pharmaceutical Crime Programme. It is also necessary to prevent consumers encountering counterfeit medicines and to prevent health hazard. The Ministry of

  1. Paleoseismology off northern Japan: Sediments in the Japan Trench record earthquake activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, H. G.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Nagahashi, Y.; Koelling, M.; Strasser, M.; Wefer, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Japan Trench subduction zone has repeatedly been affected by large earthquakes as most recently in 2011 by the giant magnitude 9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Several studies indicate that the 2011 earthquake has induced large seafloor displacements and triggered submarine landslides and gravity flows. The depression of the Japan Trench floor acts as sediment trap, where earthquake triggered mass flows originating from the landward slope are deposited. Thus, the deep Trench floor (>7500 m water depth) is a suitable area to trace the paleoseismicity in the region. During the R/V SONNE cruise (SO219A) in 2012, sediment cores have been collected east of the 2011 earthquake epicenter in a 60 km north-south transect along the Japan Trench floor axis, as well as from a small basin on the upper mid slope. The sediment cores contain several turbidite sequences (few cm to m thick), mainly revealing a coarse sand layer on an erosive base and a gradually fining upward to hemipelagic diatomaceous mud. Tephrochronological analyses on intercalated ash layers within the records provide an age control and show that the cores cover the past ~15 ka. Detailed analyses of these records, by using their sedimentological and lithological characteristics, their physical properties (Multi Sensor Core Logging, MSCL) as well as their elemental composition (X-ray Fluorescence, XRF) allow to characterize and to identify specific turbidite units. We observe particular turbidite units with the same characteristics in different cores along the trench axis and on the mid slope. Besides the top-unit turbidite, being related to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we detect a widespread unique calcareous nanno fossil bearing turbidite mud as well as some sand turbidite units of similar elemental composition within the records. Their large spatial extent suggests earthquake related trigger mechanisms. Thus, these event deposits sampled from the deep Japan Trench provide important information on the paleoseismic

  2. A brief history of the Japan Society for Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Y; Okigaki, T

    2001-02-01

    The Japan Society for Cell Biology (JSCB) was first founded in 1950 as the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry under the vigorous leadership of Seizo Katsunuma, in collaboration with Shigeyasu Amano and Satimaru Seno. The Society was provisionally named as above simply because cell biology had not yet been coined at that time in Japan, although in prospect and reality the Society was in fact for the purpose of pursuing cell biology. Later in 1964, the Society was properly renamed as the Japan Society for Cell Biology. After this renaming, the JSCB made great efforts to adapt itself to the rapid progress being made in cell biology. For this purpose the Society's constitution was created in 1966 and revised in 1969. According to the revised constitution, the President, Executive Committee and Councils were to be determined by ballot vote. The style of the annual meetings was gradually modified to incorporate general oral and poster presentations in addition to Symposia (1969-1974). The publication of annual periodicals in Japanese called Symposia of the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry (1951-1967) and later Symposia of the Japan Society for Cell Biology (1968-1974) was replaced by a new international journal called Cell Structure and Function initiated in 1975. This reformation made it possible for the Society to participate in the Science Council of Japan in 1975 and finally in 1993 to acquire its own study section of Cell Biology with grants-in-aid from the Ministry of Education and Science, Japan. The JSCB hosted the 3rd International Congress on Cell Biology (ICCB) in 1984 and the 3rd Asian-Pacific Organization for Cell Biology (APOCB) Congress in 1998, thus contributing to the international advancement of cell biology. Now the membership of JSCB stands at approximately 1,800 and the number of presentations per meeting is 300 to 400 annually. Although a good number of interesting and important findings in cell biology have been reported from Japan, the

  3. The bumpy road to socialise nature: sex education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huiyan

    2011-09-01

    This study was prompted by an empirical puzzle: why is sex education in schools so underdeveloped in Japan compared to many other industrialised societies? On the one hand, formal pedagogy under state policy is conservative, emphasising reproductive and prophylactic purposes rather than a comprehensive understanding of sexuality. On the other hand, however, Japan has a highly visible sexual environment where a variety of commercial sex activities are tolerated and even encouraged. The aim of the paper is to provide an integrated picture of these apparently contradictory trends by examining the nexus of political, economic and sociocultural factors that affect sex education in contemporary Japan. PMID:21787254

  4. The Regulation of Medical Malpractice in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    How Japanese legal and social institutions handle medical errors is little known outside Japan. For almost all of the 20th century, a paternalistic paradigm prevailed. Characteristics of the legal environment affecting Japanese medicine included few attorneys handling medical cases, low litigation rates, long delays, predictable damage awards, and low-cost malpractice insurance. However, transparency principles have gained traction and public concern over medical errors has intensified. Recent legal developments include courts’ adoption of a less deferential standard of informed consent; increases in the numbers of malpractice claims and of practicing attorneys; more efficient claims handling by specialist judges and speedier trials; and highly publicized criminal prosecutions of medical personnel. The health ministry is undertaking a noteworthy “model project” to enlist impartial specialists in investigation and analysis of possible iatrogenic hospital deaths to regain public trust in medicine’s capacity to assess its mistakes honestly and to improve patient safety and has proposed a nationwide peer review system based on the project’s methods. PMID:19002542

  5. Japan: The Land and Its People. For Students in Grades Six and Seven. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Edwards, Barbara; Hutchenson, Gwen; Moffitt, Louisa; Ratliff, Penny

    This manual provides suggestions and materials for teaching about Japan. Designed as a supplement to typical textbook treatments, the lessons provide a range of readings, visuals, and activities to enrich and deepen student learning about Japan. Organized around topics dealing with history, geography, government, economics, and culture, the…

  6. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Smoot, N. C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-02-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin.

  7. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-01-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  8. Development of the electronic health record in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, H

    1998-03-01

    In Japan, the order entry system has been employed in almost all university hospitals and popularisation of this system has also started in medium-sized hospitals. However, there has been a tendency in general hospitals in Japan to consider the electronic chart system where there has been no order entry system. Moreover, in small-scale clinics, there is no benefit in using the order entry system. Young doctors in Japan are beginning to employ the electronic chart system directly for the first time, without experience with the order entry system. In this paper, the development of the hospital information system in Japan and that of the electronic health record system are described. PMID:9723801

  9. Together with the farmers: social and rural medicine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Abrams, H K

    1978-01-01

    Japan emerged from feudalism a century ago. Farmers comprise 20 percent of the population of 110 million. The agricultural cooperative movement sponsors 118 hospitals in rural areas. Of these, the Saku Central Hospital is the largest, and provides leadership to a vigorous rural health movement. Its unique outreach program and its contributions to rural health are described, together with remarks about Japan's health situation generally. There may be lessons here for America. PMID:710075

  10. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  11. Nature of the Moho in Japan and Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Levin, Vadim; Nikulin, Alex; Iidaka, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    The Kamchatka peninsula and the islands of Japan are located along the eastern margin of the Asian continent. The natures of the Moho in these areas have been studied for decades, with a variety of geophysical methods, including active and passive seismic methods, gravity and other techniques. The Moho and the upper mantle structures in the NE Japan and SE Japan Arcs have been investigated well both from active and passive seismic source studies. The Moho depth in the NE Japan is ranging from 30 to 40 km. Almost parallel to the present volcanic front, there exists a belt of deep Moho (34-36 km) with a lower Pn velocity (7.5-7.7 km/s). Amplitude analysis of the PmP phase indicates that the Moho beneath the NE Japan Arc is not a simple velocity contrast, but rather a gradual transition. Toward the backarc side, remarkable crustal thinning is recognized. Actually, the Moho depth decreases from 35 km beneath the central part of NE Japan to 18 km beneath the Sea of Japan. This thinning is evident in the upper crust, while the lower crust remains constant in thickness. This may be explained by the continuous magmatic underplating beneath the rifted crust or deformation under a simple shear mode, allowing the lower crustal thickness to remain unchanged. The Moho in the SW Japan Arc is also at a depth of 30-40 km. The Pn velocity is 7.7-7.8 km/s, slightly higher than that in the NE Japan, although this value was mostly sampled in the eastern half of the SW Japan Arc where the recent volcanic activity has been less effective. Fluids expelled from the subducted oceanic lithosphere (the PHS plate) play an important role in controlling the structure of the mantle wedge. As these fluids leak into the mantle wedge they induce serpentinization there, transforming original mantle materials to those of lower velocity and higher Vp/Vs. The crustal thinning of the SW Japan Arc is characterized by notable decrease in upper crustal thickness, which is similar to the case of the NE

  12. Teleseismic shear wave tomography of the Japan subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asamori, Koichi; Zhao, Dapeng

    2015-12-01

    We present a high-resolution shear wave tomography of the Japan subduction zone down to a depth of 700 km, which is determined by inverting a large number of high-quality S-wave arrival-time data from local earthquakes and teleseismic events. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea (PHS) slabs are revealed clearly as high-velocity (high-V) zones, whereas low-velocity (low-V) anomalies are revealed in the mantle wedge above the two slabs. The PHS slab has subducted aseismically down to a depth of 480 km under the Japan Sea and to a depth of 540 km under the Tsushima Strait. A window is revealed within the aseismic PHS slab, being consistent with P-wave tomography. Prominent low-V and high-Poisson's ratio (σ) anomalies exist below the PHS slab and above the Pacific slab, which reflect hot and wet mantle upwelling caused by the joint effect of deep dehydration of the Pacific slab and convective circulation process in the mantle wedge above the Pacific slab. The hot and wet mantle upwelling has caused the complex geometry and structure of the PHS slab in SW Japan, and contributed to the Quaternary volcanism along the Japan Sea coast. In eastern Japan, low-V zones are revealed at depths of 200-700 km below the Pacific slab, which may reflect hot upwelling from the lower mantle or even the core-mantle boundary.

  13. The Group in Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, S. Kathleen

    One of the most important differences between American and Japanese cultures is the difference in group interaction. The Japanese have been described as group-oriented and Americans as individualistic. In Japan, groups are hierarchical and usually make decisions by consensus. Japanese groups play an important role in the lives of their members,…

  14. The 1991 Japan Solar Energy Society. Japan Wind Energy Association Joint Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    Thie paper summarizes the lectures presented at the research presentation conference held by the Japan Solar Energy Society and the Japan Wind Energy Association. The contents include a lecture relating to photovoltaic cells intended for efficiency improvement; a lecture relating to a light power generation system including the field test reports, improvements on peripheral devices and output characteristics; a lecture relating to optical chemistry; a lecture relating to heat pumps utilizing solar heat and well water; a lecture relating air conditioning utilizing photovoltaic cells; a lecture relating to heat systems utilizing solar heat directly; a lecture relating to heat collection; a lecture relating to cold heat for cooling using earth tubes; a lecture relating to direct utilization of ground water heat and solar heat; a lecture relating to underground heat storage; a lecture relating to accumulation of cold heat and hot heat; a lecture relating to insolation on the amount of insolation and spectroscopy; a lecture relating to light collection intended of energy saving; a lecture relating to improving materials including light collecting plates and thin films; a lecture relating to development and characteristics of solar cars; and a lecture relating to wind energy.

  15. The pill in Japan: will approval ever come?

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K

    1999-01-01

    The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare voted in March 1998 to indefinitely delay the licensing of oral contraceptives in Japan. Over years of attempts to gain approval of the pill for contraception, health officials have cited a range of reasons for their position against the pill, including concern over side effects, fears about the potential spread of sexually transmitted diseases if pill use replaces condom use, and worries about the environmental effects of hormonal contraceptive use. Japan is unique in banning all hormonal methods of contraception. The author describes the history of hormonal agents in Japan, from their initial approval in the country for noncontraceptive therapeutic uses in the late 1950s through the defeat in March 1998. Given the higher failure rates associated with condom use and fertility awareness, it is no wonder that abortion is rather common in Japan. Making hormonal methods of contraception available would help to prevent unwanted pregnancies. The uphill battle to legalize the low-dose pill in Japan continues. PMID:10029933

  16. Estimating the burden of foodborne diseases in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Yuko; Gilmour, Stuart; Ota, Erika; Momose, Yoshika; Onishi, Toshiro; Bilano, Ver Luanni Feliciano; Kasuga, Fumiko; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the burden posed by foodborne diseases in Japan using methods developed by the World Health Organization’s Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Methods Expert consultation and statistics on food poisoning during 2011 were used to identify three common causes of foodborne disease in Japan: Campylobacter and Salmonella species and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). We conducted systematic reviews of English and Japanese literature on the complications caused by these pathogens, by searching Embase, the Japan medical society abstract database and Medline. We estimated the annual incidence of acute gastroenteritis from reported surveillance data, based on estimated probabilities that an affected person would visit a physician and have gastroenteritis confirmed. We then calculated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in 2011, using the incidence estimates along with disability weights derived from published studies. Findings In 2011, foodborne disease caused by Campylobacter species, Salmonella species and EHEC led to an estimated loss of 6099, 3145 and 463 DALYs in Japan, respectively. These estimated burdens are based on the pyramid reconstruction method; are largely due to morbidity rather than mortality; and are much higher than those indicated by routine surveillance data. Conclusion Routine surveillance data may indicate foodborne disease burdens that are much lower than the true values. Most of the burden posed by foodborne disease in Japan comes from secondary complications. The tools developed by FERG appear useful in estimating disease burdens and setting priorities in the field of food safety. PMID:26478611

  17. Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Tokyo, (35.5N, 140.0E) the capital city of Japan, Tokyo Bay and the neighboring cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Chiba are seen in this view of Japan. This great international seaport facility covers almost all of the bayfront and is home to over thirty million people.

  18. The birth of cosmic ray work in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Systematic studies of cosmic rays in Japan were started when the Nishina Laboratory was established in Riken in 1931, after Nishina came back from the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen. He was already known as an author of Klein-Nishina formula. He spent a great deal of effort to spread modern physics in Japan, inviting Dirac and Heisenberg to give series of lectures at the university of Tokyo, which later established the strong group of theoretical physicists including Yukawa, Tomonaga, Sakata and others. He also spent a great deal of effort in comprehensive studies of cosmic-rays including the precise measurements of the mass of mesons, of the intensity at the deepest underground of 3000 m.w.e., and of other research to be discussed. It is to be noted that the encouragement by the theoretical group of Yukawa, Tomonaga and others stimulated the recovery of the research after World War II in Japan.

  19. Characteristics of syncope in Japan and the Pacific rim.

    PubMed

    Abe, Haruhiko; Kohno, Ritsuko; Oginosawa, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    As is true in the Western world, syncope of cardiac and non-cardiac origin is one of the common clinical presentations in daily medical practice in Japan and Asia. However, the underlying disorders and social backgrounds associated with syncope may differ, from those encountered in Western countries, particularly in Japan. While non-cardiac causes, neurally-mediated reflex faints in particular, are highly prevalent, out-of-hospital deaths by drowning due to syncope occurring during bathing at home are not rare in Japan, particularly in the elderly. Other underlying cardiac or non-cardiac disorders are also noteworthy, particularly Brugada syndrome and coronary vasospasm, which may present as isolated syncope. In addition, the characteristic clinical presentation of micturition and defecation syncope is not uncommon. This review is focused on these specific underlying diseases in the light of the guidelines issued by the Japanese Circulation Society regarding the diagnosis and treatment of syncope. PMID:23472772

  20. SpiE interacts with Corynebacterium glutamicum WhcE and is involved in heat and oxidative stress responses.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Chul; Park, Joon-Song; Kim, Younhee; Kim, Pil; Kim, Eung Soo; Lee, Heung-Shick

    2016-05-01

    The gene whcE in Corynebacterium glutamicum positively responds to oxidative and heat stress. To search for proteins that interact with WhcE, we employed a two-hybrid system with WhcE as the bait. Sequencing analysis of the isolated clones revealed peptide sequences, one of which showed high sequence identity to a hydrophobe/amphiphile efflux-1 family transporter encoded by NCgl1497. The interaction of the NCgl1497-encoded protein with WhcE in vivo was verified using reporter gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The WhcE protein strongly interacted with the NCgl1497-encoded protein in the presence of oxidative and heat stress. Furthermore, purified WhcE and NCgl1497-encoded proteins interacted in vitro, especially in the presence of the oxidant diamide, and the protein-protein interaction was disrupted in the presence of the reductant dithiothreitol. In addition, the transcription of NCgl1497 was activated approximately twofold in diamide- or heat-treated cells. To elucidate the function of the NCgl497 gene, an NCgl1497-deleted mutant strain was constructed. The mutant showed decreased viability in the presence of diamide and heat stress. The mutant strain also exhibited reduced transcription of the thioredoxin reductase gene, which is known to be regulated by whcE. Based on the results, NCgl1497 was named spiE (stress protein interacting with WhcE). Collectively, our data suggest that spiE is involved in the whcE-mediated oxidative stress response pathway of C. glutamicum. PMID:26996627

  1. Trade, Foreign Investment, and Competitiveness. The Japan Business Study Program. Based on a Seminar Series entitled "Japan Business Study Program 1989" (Austin, Texas, October 12-27, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuo, Hirofumi, Ed.

    Seven articles are presented addressing topics related to United States-Japan trade, foreign investment, and U.S. competitiveness in the global market. The first article, "Super 301 and the Changing Japan-American Relationship" by Glenn Davis describes recent U.S.-Japan trade frictions, epitomized by Super 301, and explains the influence of the…

  2. A Novel Combination of Factors, Termed SPIE, which Promotes Dopaminergic Neuron Differentiation from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vazin, Tandis; Becker, Kevin G.; Chen, Jia; Spivak, Charles E.; Lupica, Carl R.; Zhang, Yongqing; Worden, Lila; Freed, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Stromal-Derived Inducing Activity (SDIA) is one of the most efficient methods of generating dopaminergic (DA) neurons from embryonic stem cells (ESC). DA neuron induction can be achieved by co-culturing ESC with the mouse stromal cell lines PA6 or MS5. The molecular nature of this effect, which has been termed “SDIA” is so far unknown. Recently, we found that factors secreted by PA6 cells provided lineage-specific instructions to induce DA differentiation of human ESC (hESC). Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we compared PA6 cells to various cell lines lacking the SDIA effect, and employed genome expression analysis to identify differentially-expressed signaling molecules. Among the factors highly expressed by PA6 cells, and known to be associated with CNS development, were stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12), pleiotrophin (PTN), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), and ephrin B1 (EFNB1). When these four factors, the combination of which was termed SPIE, were applied to hESC, they induced differentiation to TH-positive neurons in vitro. RT-PCR and western blot analysis confirmed the expression of midbrain specific markers, including engrailed 1, Nurr1, Pitx3, and dopamine transporter (DAT) in cultures influenced by these four molecules. Electrophysiological recordings showed that treatment of hESC with SPIE induced differentiation of neurons that were capable of generating action potentials and forming functional synaptic connections. Conclusions/Significance The combination of SDF-1, PTN, IGF2, and EFNB1 mimics the DA phenotype-inducing property of SDIA and was sufficient to promote differentiation of hESC to functional midbrain DA neurons. These findings provide a method for differentiating hESC to form DA neurons, without a requirement for the use of animal-derived cell lines or products. PMID:19672298

  3. Passing on the History of "Comfort Women": The Experiences of a Women's Museum in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Mina

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the activities and experiences of a women's peace museum in Japan which especially tries to pass on the history of Japan's military sexual slavery, or the "comfort women" issue. The system of Japan's military sexual slavery had not been written as a part of history until courageous survivors testified and…

  4. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  5. Education Reforms and English Teaching for the Deaf in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    Deaf education is in a period of great transition in Japan as a result of the "Educational Reform Plan for the 21st Century" proposed by the Japanese education ministry. Unfortunately, the communication needs of deaf students have not been taken into account in the Plan's recommendations. One area where deaf students must attain the same…

  6. Educational Modernization in Tokugawa Japan: The Case of Kagahan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Song Nai

    1970-01-01

    Changes in the educational system in one important area of Japan in order to meet new political, social, and military conditions are described. The early changes were made within the context of an old, feudal order and were effected for the purpose of strengthening that order. However, eventually, the spirit of modernization destroyed the forces…

  7. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jacquelyn; Parisi, Lynn S.

    The activities in this book focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Several of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts. The book's 18 classroom activities are organized into three sections. Section 1, "Society and Culture," contains four activities in which students…

  8. The health and social system for the aged in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2002-08-01

    Japan implemented a new social insurance scheme for the frail and elderly, Long-Term-Care Insurance (LTCI) on 1 April 2000. This was an époque-making event in the history of the Japanese public health policy, because it meant that in modifying its tradition of family care for the elderly, Japan had moved toward socialization of care. One of the main ideas behind the establishment of LTCI was to "de-medicalize" and rationalize the care of elderly persons with disabilities characteristic of the aging process. Because of the aging of the society, the Japanese social insurance system required a fundamental reform. The implementation of LTCI constitutes the first step in the future health reform in Japan. The LTCI scheme requires each citizen to take more responsibility for finance and decision-making in the social security system. The introduction of LTCI is also bringing in fundamental structural changes in the Japanese health system. With the development of the Integrated Delivery System (IDS), alternative care services such as assisted living are on-going. Another important social change is a community movement for the healthy longevity. For example, a variety of public health and social programs are organized in order to keep the elderly healthy and active as long as possible. In this article, the author explains on-going structural changes in the Japanese health system. Analyses are focused on the current debate for the reorganization of the health insurance scheme for the aged in Japan and community public health services for them. PMID:12462371

  9. Seismo-turbidites in the Japan Trench inner slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usami, K.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; McHugh, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Japan Trench is a part of the Pacific-North America plate boundary, and is a seismically active region where the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake occurred. We collected 24 piston cores from small basins of the Japan Trench inner slope (37.5-40 N, 143.5-144.16 E, 4000-6000 m in water depth) during the cruise NT13-19 with R/V Natsushima, to investigate recurrence intervals of earthquakes in this area, based on the analysis of the turbidite record. Many fine-grained turbidites are observed in the cores. High sedimentation rates in this area preserve the turbidites well. Turbidites are more frequently intercalated in the cores recovered from the southern part of the area. On the other hand, several turbidite layers can be correlated widely in the northern part of the area, assisted by tephrostratigraphy and matching of paleomagnetic secular variations. Moreover, some of these turbidites are considered to be correlative to the reported onshore tsunami deposits along the Sanriku-Sendai coast. We will report the occurrence, characteristics and correlation of seismo-turbidites in the Japan Trench inner slope. The evidence suggests that the Japan Trench area is an ideal site for application of turbidite paleoseismology.

  10. Aeromagnetic surveys in the seas around Japan in 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utashiro, S.; Oshima, S.; Kaneko, T.

    1984-07-01

    Aeromagnetic surveys in the seas around Japan were carried out in 1979 to 1980 by a YS-11 aircraft of the Maritime Safety Agency of Japan using a new type of airborne magnetometer system. The new type of airborne magnetometer system consists of a ring-core type three-component fluxgate magnetometer, an inertial sensing system, a fish-eye camera to measure the true north, an 8-bit microcomputer and a proton magnetometer. The VLF/OMEGA system is used to fix the position of the aircraft. Tracks extended to about 600 nautical miles off the coast of the Japanese islands in the Sea of Japan and the North-West Pacific Ocean. Average spacing between tracks was about 80 miles. The flights were carried out at an altitude of 9500 feet. From the survey results, magnetic charts of the seven geomagnetic elements for 1980 over the sea around Japan were compiled by the method of least squares using a polynomial. Also, the contour charts of secular variation in 1980 were compiled.

  11. The image of the atomic bomb in Japan before Hiroshima.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Maika

    2009-01-01

    This paper traces the roots of the image of the atomic bomb in Japan by investigating the various discourses on atomic energy and atomic weapons in Japanese literature prior to the bombing of Hiroshima in August 1945. Japan is a country that suffered an atomic attack and, at the same time, one of the countries that was engaged in atomic weapons research during the Second World War. During the war, the discourses on atomic weapons were not limited to the military or scientific communities, but included the general public, thus facilitating the creation of a shared image of the atomic bomb as an ultimate weapon. This paper examines how this image was created. This special issue deals with the comparison among different countries, but the purpose of my paper is to deepen this subject by illustrating the differences within a single country in different periods. This research aims to extend the historical perspective concerning the atomic bomb in Japan, and offers another way of looking at this both historical and contemporary issue. PMID:20518159

  12. The Present State of Economic Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaoka, Michio; Asano, Tadayoshi; Abe, Shintaro

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the present state of economic education in Japan. There is a larger number of undergraduate students who major in economics, but their purpose of studying economics and their economic literacy differ. Precollege economic education is regulated by the course of study and limited by the poor ability of teachers to teach the…

  13. The Corporeality of Learning: Confucian Education in Early Modern Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsujimoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The intellectual foundation of early modern Japan was provided by Confucianism--a system of knowledge set forth in Chinese classical writings. In order to gain access to this knowledge, the Japanese applied reading markers to modify the original Chinese to fit the peculiarities of Japanese grammar and pronunciation. Confucian education started by…

  14. English Loanwords in the 1990's in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Akira

    A sociolinguistic analysis of English loan words in use in the 1990s in the discourse of young Japanese people is presented. The study drew data from a 1993 survey of undergraduate students at two Osaka (Japan) higher education institutions, one for men and one for women, which asked what loanwords students used and heard often. The report first…

  15. Constraints on the Moho in Japan and Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Levin, Vadim; Nikulin, Alex; Iidaka, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    This review collects and systematizes in one place a variety of results which offer constraints on the depth and the nature of the Moho beneath the Kamchatka peninsula and the islands of Japan. We also include studies of the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc. All results have already been published separately in a variety of venues, and the primary goal of the present review is to describe them in the same language and in comparable terms. For both regions we include studies using artificial and natural seismic sources, such as refraction and reflection profiling, detection and interpretation of converted-mode body waves (receiver functions), surface wave dispersion studies (in Kamchatka) and tomographic imaging (in Japan). The amount of work done in Japan is significantly larger than in Kamchatka, and resulting constraints on the properties of the crust and the uppermost mantle are more detailed. Japan and Kamchatka display a number of similarities in their crustal structure, most notably the average crustal thickness in excess of 30 km (typical of continental regions), and the generally gradational nature of the crust-mantle transition where volcanic arcs are presently active.

  16. Internationalizing the U.S. Classroom: Japan as a Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S., Ed.; Spence, Donald, Ed.

    This collection of essays presents a rationale for incorporating teaching about Japan in the K-12 curriculum. The volume provides practical examples and guidelines about how to achieve this goal. The essays are organized into three main categories--professional development, curriculum design and enhancement, and exchange. The essays include:…

  17. Chemical Vapor Deposited Zinc Sulfide. SPIE Press Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Tustison, Randal W.

    2013-04-22

    Zinc sulfide has shown unequaled utility for infrared windows that require a combination of long-wavelength infrared transparency, mechanical durability, and elevated-temperature performance. This book reviews the physical properties of chemical vapor deposited ZnS and their relationship to the CVD process that produced them. An in-depth look at the material microstructure is included, along with a discussion of the material's optical properties. Finally, because the CVD process itself is central to the development of this material, a brief history is presented.

  18. The Role of Television in Early Childhood Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinco, Priscilla N.

    Educational television is used in Japan at the early childhood, elementary, and secondary education levels. Educational broadcasting is provided by the public broadcasting company, NHK (Nippon Hoso Kyokai) and various commercial broadcasting companies. Instructional aids are produced by either NHK or one of the commercial companies, and there is…

  19. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  20. The Rise of Modern Japan. Teacher's Manual [and] Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menton, Linda K.; Lush, Noren W.; Tamura, Eileen H.; Gusukuma, Chance I.

    This textbook highlights key aspects of Japan's history and culture from the Tokugawa era (1600-1868) to the present. The textbook includes role plays, primary documents, first-person accounts, diary entries, excerpts from literary works, songs, poems, maps and timelines, charts and graphs, and political cartoons. It also includes a glossary that…

  1. The Way of Japan: A Series of Workshop Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. East Asia Center.

    The seven essays in this booklet are summaries of presentations made at the Way of Japan Workshop Series. Topics range from traditional Japanese history and culture to modern Japanese society and U.S.-Japanese relations. A welcome from Yoshi Okawara, Japanese ambassador to the United States, delineates how American and Japanese may think in…

  2. The Japan disaster and U.S. hay exports

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quarantine control of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), by agricultural systems used to produce export quality hay for the Japan market was studied in the laboratory and field. Survival of Hessian fly puparia was evaluated under simulated seasonal weather conditions in incubators, regional o...

  3. Taxonomic studies of nectrioid fungi in Japan: The genus Cosmospora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven species of the genus Cosmospora collected in Japan are reported in this article. Among them, Cosmospora japonica is described as a new species. Cosmospora henanensis, C. rubrisetosa and C. triqua, all of which are known only from their type localities, are added to the Japanese mycoflora. Othe...

  4. Superconducting superlattices and multilayers. Proceedings SPIE Volume 2157

    SciTech Connect

    Bozovic, I.

    1994-12-31

    This book is divided into the following sections: layered superconductors 1; HTSC (high-temperature superconductors) multilayers; HTSC superlattices 1; layered superconductors 2; HTSC superlattices 2; and LTSC (low-temperature superconductor) superlattices and multilayers. Separate abstracts were prepared for 38 papers in this book.

  5. A Study of Japan for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Susan

    Arranged in outline form, this unit on Japan contains over 40 activities for intermediate grade students. Subjects covered are human and physical geography, social history, life style, communication and travel, occupations, recreation, art, education, government, and relations with the United States. Four to 10 activities are described under each…

  6. Idealized English Teachers: The Implicit Influence of Race in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Damian J.; Ross, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    English as a Foreign Language (EFL) education within the context of Japan is firmly underpinned by sociohistorical constructions of racial difference and racial hierarchies that have considerable influence on contemporary student and institutional attitudes. Embracing these sociohistorical foundations, this article adopts experimental procedures…

  7. Recent activities of the physical society of Japan and the Japan society of applied physics gender equality promotion committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaki, K.; Okiharu, F.; Tajima, S.; Takayama, H.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2013-03-01

    The results of a 2007 large-scale survey of gender equality in scientific and technological professions in Japan are reported. The activities of two Japanese physics societies in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics was held in 2008 are reported.

  8. The Top-Awarded Reports: The First Contest of Internet Application to Educational Activities in Japan. AVE in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Audiovisual Information Center for International Service, Tokyo.

    This booklet presents two activities that received awards in the First Contest of Internet Application to Educational Activities in Japan. The first paper describes CHaTNet (Children Homes and Teachers Network) at the Tamagawa Gakuen school, winner of the Prime Minister's Award. CHaTNet is a network of 4,500 participants, including parents,…

  9. Hadal disturbance and radionuclide profiles at the deepest Japan Trench, northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Kazumasa; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Sakaguchi, Arito; Toyofuku, Takashi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Murayama, Masafumi; Glud, Ronnie; Fujikura, Katsunori; Kitazato, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Four months after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we carried out a video survey and collected sediment core collection from the hadal region (~7,600 m water depth) of the Japan Trench using an autonomous instrument. Fine material remained suspended at ~50 m above the seabed presumably induced by turbidities released during the central earthquake and the following aftershocks. Elevated levels of Cs-137 (T1/2=30 y) and excess Pb-210 (T1/2=22.3 y) concentrations suggested that 30 cm thick sediment layer had accumulated at the trench base (7,553 m) after the mainshock. However, no Cs-134 (T1/2=2 y) fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster was detected. In contract, inspection of a nearby sediment site (7,261 m) 4.9 km away from the central trench site revealed fewer disturbances as reflected by a recent deposition of only 4 cm sediment, but here we encountered recent Cs-134 fallouts from the top 0-1 cm depth. We propose that the apparent lack of Cs-134 in the central trench is coursed by settlement of turbidites containing Cs-137 from past atmospheric fallout and higher excess Pb-210. The fast transport of the Cs-134 to the hadal slope sediment is presumably induced by enhanced scavenging and the vertical transport associated to an intensified diatom blooming occurring just at the time of the Fukushima disaster.

  10. Closing the drug lag for new drug submission and review in Japan: An industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Poirier, A F

    2015-11-01

    Previous publications have focused on drug lag in Japan and the government's initiatives to address the situation.(1) Japan is the third largest pharmaceutical market, and yet has experienced significant drug lag for many years. This article reviews the progress resulting from industry adaptation of new regulatory paradigms that include Japan in global drug development programs. PMID:26239646

  11. Japan's New Lifelong Learning Policy: Exploring Lessons from the European Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    The concept of "lifelong learning" or "shogai gakushu" has rapidly become one of the topmost priorities in Japan's education policy agenda. This was considerably evident in December 2006 when the term 'lifelong learning' was added to Japan's educational charter, the Fundamental Law of Education. This paper explores, as a means to develop Japan's…

  12. Japan's Global Role: Proceedings from the Symposium (2nd, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 25-26, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. East-West Center.

    This document consists of eight presentations with responses given at the second in a series of symposia sponsored by the Japan-America Society of in a series of symposia sponsored by the Japan-America Society of Hawaii. Having emerged as an economic superpower, Japan's role on the global stage is still finding its full range and is a topic of…

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of... and Vegetables § 319.56-27 Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States from Japan and the Republic of Korea only in...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  18. Japan Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     ... 2011, and its subsequent tsunami, several oil refineries and industrial complexes caught fire, including facilities in the Port of Sendai ...

  19. Connecting Higher Education Research in Japan with the International Academic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the historical, current, and future challenges of higher education research in Japan within a global context. Japanese higher education research has been strongly influenced by the international academic community. At the same time, higher education researchers in Japan have participated in international projects, and Japan has…

  20. [The Fukushima nuclear accident: consequences for Japan and for us].

    PubMed

    Grosche, B

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima accident was the consequence of a preceding 2-fold natural catastrophe: the earth quake of 11 March 2011 and the subsequent tsunami. Due to favourable winds and to evacuation measures the radiation exposure to the general population in Japan as a whole and with some exceptions in the region outside the evacuation zone, too, was low. In this article the attempt is made to give an estimate of health consequences to the public. This is based upon WHO's dose estimates, knowledge of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, of the atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in Kazakhstan and on the risk of childhood leukaemia after low dose radiation exposure. For Germany, there was no radiation threat due to the accident. Nonetheless, the events in Japan made clear that the rules and standards that were developed for the case of a reactor accident need to be revised. PMID:23576143

  1. The Japanese Museum of Anesthesiology in Kobe, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Hirosato; Kono, Yukinori; Desai, Sukumar P

    2015-04-01

    In 2009, the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists (JSA) founded the Archives of JSA, which changed into the Japanese Museum of Anesthesiology in 2011. The museum consists of three sections: (1) archives (the collection of historical documents of the JSA), (2) museum (the collection of anesthetic equipment and its related things), and (3) library (the collection of books, journals, leaflets, and related materials). By January 2013, the collections included 2537 Japanese and 1569 foreign language books. JMA collections include 25% of the Japanese anesthesia books published between 1796-2008, making it Japan's largest collection, with the exception of the National Diet Library of Japan. Most of the Japanese books published from 1796 to 2008 are listed and can be searched through the home page. PMID:26205571

  2. Post-seismic deformation of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriakopoulos, C.; Masterlark, T.; Chini, M.; Bignami, C.; Stramondo, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011 occurred near the northeast coast of Honshu, Japan. The earthquake resulted from a thrust faulting on the subduction zone boundary between the Pacific and North America plates. Surface displacements due to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake were observed by more than 1200 continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) sites, installed and operated by the Geodetic Survey of Japan (GSI). For the first time, in a megathrust event, the displacement above the hypocenter is detected from 5 GPS installed in the seafloor (Sato et., al 2011), giving new insights into the megathrust mechanism. The link, i.e. Green's Functions, between the surface displacement and the model parameters is obtained from a 3D Finite Element (FE) model for the 11 March earthquake. Several geophysical features of the Japan trench are implemented into the FE model. The Subducting slab geometry is implemented from USGS and Gavin Hayes Slab 1.0 project. Bathymetry and topography from the ETOPO Global Relief Project (NOAA) are implemented as well. Moreover, the model is designed to simulate coseismic and postseismic (poroelastic) deformation while simultaneously account for the known geologic structure and geophysical context (Zhao et al., 1992 ) of the Japanese subduction zone. The postseismic deformation is explored using the postseismic GPS vectors available in the literature. Furthermore, we applied DInSAR (Differential SAR interferometry) to infer the post-seismic deformation field by exploiting the available SAR images acquired by the ENVISAT satellite.

  3. Attachment and culture. Security in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Rothbaum, F; Weisz, J; Pott, M; Miyake, K; Morelli, G

    2000-10-01

    Attachment theorists maintain that cultural differences are relatively minor, and they focus on universals. Here the authors highlight evidence of cultural variations and note ways in which attachment theory is laden with Western values and meaning. Comparisons of the United States and Japan highlight the cultural relativity of 3 core hypotheses of attachment theory: that caregiver sensitivity leads to secure attachment, that secure attachment leads to later social competence, and that children who are securely attached use the primary caregiver as a secure base for exploring the external world. Attachment theorists use measures of sensitivity, competence, and secure base that are biased toward Western ways of thinking: The measures emphasize the child's autonomy, individuation, and exploration. In Japan, sensitivity, competence, and secure base are viewed very differently, calling into question the universality of fundamental tenets of attachment theory. The authors call for an indigenous approach to the psychology of attachment. PMID:11080829

  4. Progress in Aging Epidemiology in Japan: The JAGES Project

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a prominent topic in global health. The purpose of this report is to document progress in two of our research projects in Japan, which currently is the most aged society in the world. The Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) is one of the largest nation-wide research projects on aging, with more than 100 000 participants in 2010 and 2013. One of the notable findings is that community participation is a significant determinant of older people’s health. We have also made progress in the development of the JAGES Health Equity Assessment and Response Tools (HEART), which is a management tool for developing age-friendly cities. This progress suggests that community perspective and management of health promotion in the communities are valuable and require further research. PMID:27349200

  5. Progress in Aging Epidemiology in Japan: The JAGES Project.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-07-01

    Aging is a prominent topic in global health. The purpose of this report is to document progress in two of our research projects in Japan, which currently is the most aged society in the world. The Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) is one of the largest nation-wide research projects on aging, with more than 100 000 participants in 2010 and 2013. One of the notable findings is that community participation is a significant determinant of older people's health. We have also made progress in the development of the JAGES Health Equity Assessment and Response Tools (HEART), which is a management tool for developing age-friendly cities. This progress suggests that community perspective and management of health promotion in the communities are valuable and require further research. PMID:27349200

  6. Reinterpreting the history of women's judo in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miarka, Bianca; Marques, Juliana Bastos; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-01-01

    This paper reassesses the role of women in judo in Japan, from its secluded and restricted beginnings in the late nineteenth century to the gradual changes in gender and social paradigms triggered by the influence of Western feminist struggle from the 1960s onwards. Judo has been considered in theory an inclusive martial art because its creator, Jigoro Kano, stressed safety, etiquette and moral teachings irrespective of age, size or gender of its adherents. However, the social and cultural environment in Japan has traditionally discriminated against women both outside and inside the dojo (training place). We treat this issue historically, considering the broader context of the Japanese social, political and cultural developments. PMID:21910277

  7. The early evolutionary history of belemnites: new data from Japan.

    PubMed

    Iba, Yasuhiro; Sano, Shin-ichi; Mutterlose, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Belemnites (Order Belemnitida), a very successful group of Mesozoic coleoid cephalopods, dominated the world's oceans throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous. According to the current view, the phylogenetically earliest belemnites are known from the lowermost Jurassic (Hettangian, 201-199 Ma) of northern Europe. They are of low diversity and have small sized rostra without clear grooves. Their distribution is restricted to this area until the Pliensbachian (191-183 Ma). Here we describe two new belemnite taxa of the Suborder Belemnitina from the Sinemurian (199-191 Ma) of Japan: Nipponoteuthis katana gen et sp. nov., which represents the new family Nipponoteuthidae, and Eocylindroteuthis (?) yokoyamai sp. nov. This is the first reliable report of Sinemurian belemnites outside of Europe and the earliest record of typical forms of Belemnitina in the world. The Sinemurian belemnites from Japan have small to large rostra with one deep and long apical groove. Morphologically these forms are completely different from coeval European genera of Hettangian-Sinemurian age. These new findings suggest that three groups of Belemnitina existed in the Hettangian-Sinemurian: 1) European small forms, 2) Japanese very large forms, and 3) the typical forms with a distinctive apical groove, reported here. The Suborder Belemnitina therefore did not necessarily originate in the Hettangian of northern Europe. The new material from Japan documents that the suborder Belemnitina had a much higher diversity in the early Jurassic than previously thought, and it also shows strong endemisms from the Sinemurian onwards. PMID:24788872

  8. The Early Evolutionary History of Belemnites: New Data from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iba, Yasuhiro; Sano, Shin-ichi; Mutterlose, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Belemnites (Order Belemnitida), a very successful group of Mesozoic coleoid cephalopods, dominated the world's oceans throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous. According to the current view, the phylogenetically earliest belemnites are known from the lowermost Jurassic (Hettangian, 201–199 Ma) of northern Europe. They are of low diversity and have small sized rostra without clear grooves. Their distribution is restricted to this area until the Pliensbachian (191–183 Ma). Here we describe two new belemnite taxa of the Suborder Belemnitina from the Sinemurian (199–191 Ma) of Japan: Nipponoteuthis katana gen et sp. nov., which represents the new family Nipponoteuthidae, and Eocylindroteuthis (?) yokoyamai sp. nov. This is the first reliable report of Sinemurian belemnites outside of Europe and the earliest record of typical forms of Belemnitina in the world. The Sinemurian belemnites from Japan have small to large rostra with one deep and long apical groove. Morphologically these forms are completely different from coeval European genera of Hettangian–Sinemurian age. These new findings suggest that three groups of Belemnitina existed in the Hettangian–Sinemurian: 1) European small forms, 2) Japanese very large forms, and 3) the typical forms with a distinctive apical groove, reported here. The Suborder Belemnitina therefore did not necessarily originate in the Hettangian of northern Europe. The new material from Japan documents that the suborder Belemnitina had a much higher diversity in the early Jurassic than previously thought, and it also shows strong endemisms from the Sinemurian onwards. PMID:24788872

  9. [The basic plan to promote cancer control in Japan].

    PubMed

    Monden, Morito

    2013-05-01

    Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Japan since 1981. The Japanese government implemented the Comprehensive 10-year Strategy for Cancer Control in 1984, following which the Second- and Third-term Comprehensive 10-year Strategy for Cancer Control have been implemented every 10years to promote cancer research and disseminate high-quality cancer medical services. The Cancer Control Act was approved in June 2006, and the law has been implemented since April 2007. Based on this law, the Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control program was discussed by the Cancer Control Promotion Council and approved by the Cabinet of Japan in June 2007. This plan was launched in June 2007, and covered 5 fiscal years from 2007 to 2011. It also provides a model for developing the Prefectural Plan to Promote Cancer Control. The Basic Plan needs to be updated at least every 5 years under the Cancer Control Act; therefore, the Phase Two Basic Plan was approved by the Japanese Cabinet in June 2012. Although the first plan was limited to medicine or medical care, the second plan was broadened to include social undertakings such as patient support in terms of job acquisition or student education for an indepth understanding of cancer. This paper includes the history of cancer control promotion in Japan and viewpoints on the basic plan for cancer control. PMID:23863577

  10. Revision of the Rhinophoridae (Diptera: Calyptratae) of Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, Daichi; Tachi, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese species of the family Rhinophoridae are revised. Melanophora roralis (Linnaeus) is newly recorded from Japan and is hypothesized as having been introduced to the country; one species, Acompomintho itoshimensis sp. nov., is described as new. Images of the habitus, wing and male terminalia are provided for all four Japanese species, together with an identification key and a map showing their distribution. PMID:27615871

  11. The United States and Japan pursue a common agenda.

    PubMed

    Westley, S B

    1996-10-01

    In July 1993, the US and Japan formed the "Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspective," an economic alliance to promote health and human development, respond to challenges to global stability, protect the global environment, advance science and technology, and foster exchanges for mutual understanding. A Global Issues Initiative (GII) has been created within this framework to support family planning, HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevention and control efforts, maternal and child health, primary health care, and women's empowerment. Participation in the GII has led Japan to more than double the technical assistance it provides and to broaden its geographic focus from Asia to the entire developing world. The US continues to fund population and health programs in more than 50 countries. The Common Agenda grew out of a US-Japan development assistance policy consultation dialogue known as the "Honolulu process," which sought ways to promote mutual understanding among US and Japanese development assistance personnel (through international internships) and nongovernmental organizations and to identify specific areas for joint or parallel development projects. Cooperative activities are underway in the Philippines, Indonesia, Bangladesh, India, Ghana, Peru, Guatemala, Mexico, and Jamaica. Joint project evaluations have also taken place in Zambia and Ghana. The Common Agenda's Children's Health Initiative has supported such initiatives as achieving child immunization in the Newly Independent States and joint efforts to eradicate polio and micronutrient disorders. The Women in Development initiative enhances girls' education and assists women engaged in small-scale enterprises. After initial difficulties in agreeing on joint strategies, the Common Agenda has been an "overwhelmingly positive" experience with the potential to meet critical challenges, because Japan and the US account for 40% of all development assistance worldwide. PMID:12347597

  12. A history of the cancer registration system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Naoyuki

    2008-04-01

    In Japan, the first actual survey of morbidity from cancer was conducted by Dr. Mitsuo Segi in Miyagi Prefecture from 1951 to 1953. Population-based cancer registries were started in 1957 in Hiroshima and 1958 in Nagasaki for the follow-up of survivors of the atomic bombings. Public population-based cancer registries, under the cancer control programs of the prefectural governments, were started in Aichi and Osaka prefectures in 1962. After the Law on Health and Medical Services for the Aged was enacted in 1983, population-based cancer registries were initiated promptly in many prefectures. As of 2007, there were population-based cancer registries in 35 of Japan's 47 prefectures and in one city. The Research Group for Population-Based Cancer Registration in Japan was organized by Dr. Isaburo Fujimoto, the chairperson in 1975, with a grant-in-aid from the National Cancer Research Promotion Program. This research group has continued until now and has been making continuous efforts. To promote standardization of the registry process and to improve the quality of registry data, the Japanese Association of Cancer Registries (JACR) was organized in 1992. The Japanese government Third-Term 10-Year Comprehensive Strategy for Cancer Control was launched in 2004, with the slogan "Targeting a drastic reduction in cancer morbidity and mortality." This strategy includes not only promoting cancer research but also promoting cancer prevention, improving the quality of cancer care, promoting social support systems, and promoting effective systems for monitoring cancer incidence and survival. PMID:18463950

  13. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2007, Japan and Vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhea, Susan; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley

    2010-01-01

    This map shows details of Japan and vicinity not visible in an earlier publication, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3064. Japan and its island possessions lie across four major tectonic plates: Pacific plate, North America plate; Eurasia plate; and Philippine Sea plate. The Pacific plate is subducted into the mantle, beneath Hokkaido and northern Honshu, along the eastern margin of the Okhotsk microplate, a proposed subdivision of the North America plate (Bird, 2003). Farther south, the pacific plate is subducted beneath volcanic islands along the eastern margin of the Philippine Sea plate. This 2,200 km-long zone of subduction of the Pacific plate is responsible for the creation of the deep offshore Ogasawara and Japan trenches as well as parallel chains of islands and volcanoes, typical of the Circumpacific island arcs. Similarly, the Philippine Sea plate is itself subducting under the Eurasia plate along a zone, extending from Taiwan to southern Honshu, that comprises the Ryuku Islands and the Nansei-Shonto trench.

  14. Current status of pregnancy-related maternal mortality in Japan: a report from the Maternal Death Exploratory Committee in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Katsuragi, Shinji; Osato, Kazuhiro; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Nakata, Masahiko; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Sadahiro, Tomohito; Kanayama, Naohiro; Ishiwata, Isamu; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective To clarify the problems related to maternal deaths in Japan, including the diseases themselves, causes, treatments and the hospital or regional systems. Design Descriptive study. Setting Maternal death registration system established by the Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (JAOG). Participants Women who died during pregnancy or within a year after delivery, from 2010 to 2014, throughout Japan (N=213). Main outcome measures The preventability and problems in each maternal death. Results Maternal deaths were frequently caused by obstetric haemorrhage (23%), brain disease (16%), amniotic fluid embolism (12%), cardiovascular disease (8%) and pulmonary disease (8%). The Committee considered that it was impossible to prevent death in 51% of the cases, whereas they considered prevention in 26%, 15% and 7% of the cases to be slightly, moderately and highly possible, respectively. It was difficult to prevent maternal deaths due to amniotic fluid embolism and brain disease. In contrast, half of the deaths due to obstetric haemorrhage were considered preventable, because the peak duration between the initial symptoms and initial cardiopulmonary arrest was 1–3 h. Conclusions A range of measures, including individual education and the construction of good relationships among regional hospitals, should be established in the near future, to improve primary care for patients with maternal haemorrhage and to save the lives of mothers in Japan. PMID:27000786

  15. Landslides induced by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, H.; Higaki, D.; Ugai, K.

    2012-04-01

    After the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake offshore SendaiThe, Japan Landslide Society (JLS) has launched research project on earthquake-induced landslides since 2009 and this team has started collecting information of landslides, immediately after the quake. This preliminary report aims to introduce various types of landslides using reports by air survey company, governmental institute, indivisual society's members and newspaper media. (1) Distribution of landslides induced by the main shock and aftershocks and identified by the member of the Japan Landslide Society. The Japan Landslide Society created portal site for collecting information of induced landslides. (2) A rapid and long runout fluidized landslide took place at a natural slope Hanoki-daira, Shirakawa City, Fukushima Prefecture. This landslide destroyed local community and claimed 13 residents lives. (3) A large-scale artificial fill landslide at Asahi-dai Danchi of Fukushima City, which was developed for constructing a residential in a valley. Slumping near the head scarp and displaced affected houses. In Sendai city of Miyagi Prefecture, hundres of artificial valley fill in dozens of newly contructed residential towns moved and affected thousands of houses. These landslides are partly recovered by municipal governments, however, still most of the residents should suffer from further payment for reonstruction of their houses. (4) The Fujinuma reservoir dam breached and large scale flood took place. This flood ran at least 3 km. It gave damage to the downstream community. What we found that this earth dam had no clay core and it could be one of the reason why it failed. Similar small-scale earth dam for agriculture purpose may be distributed anywhere in Japan where another large-scale earthquake may hit in the near future. (5) Deep seated debris slides took place in Sakae village, Nagano Prefecture, triggered by the 12 March 2011 (next day of Tohoku EQ) large-scale earthquake. One slides mixed with snow

  16. The TENPLA Project: Communicating Astronomy with the Public in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanashi, Naohiro; Hiramatsu, Masaaki

    2011-06-01

    The TENPLA project (pronounced as ``ten-pla'', like a famous Japanese food ``Tempura'') is designed to communicate Astronomy with the public in Japan. We have been working to suggest various ways to enjoy astronomy. We have organised star gazing parties, science cafés, and lectures. We have made many goodies which make people interested in astronomy (e.g. ``Astronomical Toilet Paper''). We have also provided opportunities to communicate with each other for people who have interests in such activities. In this paper we present a broad overview of the TENPLA project.

  17. Overview of the Scientific Balloon Activity in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tetsuya

    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has conducted scientific ballooning in Japan for almost fifty years. Recent stratospheric balloon operations at Taiki Aerospace Research Field (TARF), Hokkaido, produce significant space science achievements. We have also developed new TT&&C system onboard which realize user-friendly interface between payloads and the balloon system. For the developments of next generation balloons, a tawara-shaped superpressure balloon (SPB) fabricating with polyethylene film was inflated in the TARF hangar in order to verify its pressure resistance. Since polyethylene balloons can float on the recovery, we will be able to carry out flight tests of tawara-shaped SPB repeatedly with no impact on the ocean pollution. The development of high altitude balloons with ultra-thin film was successful, and the flight performance will be presented in another presentation. In order to realize long duration balloon flights, which are quite difficult to be conducted in Japan, Japanese community eager to have complementary balloon campaigns in foreign countries. After two year discussion with Australian government and the University of New South Wales, ISAS will carry out two balloon launches at Alice Springs, Northern Territory, in 2014 Austral summer. Plans and schedule of this Australian campaign will also be discussed in this presentation.

  18. Dehydration of incoming sediments at the Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M.; Kameda, J.; Hamada, Y.; Kimura, G.

    2013-12-01

    In the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the seismic fault slip propagated close to the axis of the Japan Trench and caused an extremely large tsunami (Ide et al., 2011). It is generally considered that ductile deformation of unconsolidated sediments is commonly prominent in the aseismic shallow parts of the subduction zone. Therefore, it is unknown how the seismic rupture reached the nearby trench axis. The plate-boundary megathrust of the Japan Trench is characterized by a prominent seismic reflector, suggesting that the megathrust may host highly pressurized fluids (Kimura et al., 2012). Based on the result of Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 56 at site 436 (reference, 1977), it is expected that the subducting sediments at the Japan Trench mainly consist of vitric diatomaceous and radiolarian ooze with pelagic clay intervals. Opal-A in the pelagic sediments transforms into quartz, and smectite transforms into illite. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that these reactions will progress with active dehydration at 50-60 km horizontally away from the deformation front and with a temperature of 100-120°C. This region coincides with the plate-boundary marked by a prominent seismic reflector, and suggests that the main source of highly pressured fluids is the dehydration of pelagic sediments (Kimura et al., 2012). However, detailed dehydration processes are still unclear mainly due to lack of quantitative sediment composition data. Therefore, in this study, we examined whole rock composition including amorphous silica of the core samples recovered at site 436 as well as those from the Japan Trench by the IODP 343 Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). Analysis of amorphous silica at site 436 documents that dehydration of the sediments is able to contribute to excess pressure at the shallow part of the megathrust if they underthrust as the same composition. At the drilling site of JFAST, a plate-boundary shear zone was identified around 820 mbsf, which was supposed to

  19. Early High Tc Activity in Japan: The Franco Rasetti Lecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2007-03-01

    From 1960 to 1980, R&D of superconductivity in Japan was carried out mainly to improve A15 superconducting wires and magnets. Improvement of wires were made mainly in the National Institute for Metals, and improvements of superconducting magnets were made in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for future nuclear fusion reactors, the National Railway Laboratory for future maglev trains and also in the Electo-Technical Laboratory for MHD generators. I began the research of BPBO in 1975 and at that time the research of oxide superconductors was limited only to my laboratory in the University of Tokyo. During the study of this new superconductor, we learned quite a lot on how to make ceramic samples, how to measure electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility at low temperatures. In 1982, Prof. S. Nakajima organized a rather small group for investigating ``New Superconducting Phenomena,'' and I became a member of the group. In 1985, Nakajima expanded the research group to include more than 5 experimentalists and 5 theoreticians. The title of the research was ``New Superconducting Materials'' and the funds came from the Ministry of Education of Japan. In late October, 1986, we followed the first paper of Bednorz and Muller, and immediately found the material includes high temperature superconductor and reported it to the group meeting held in early November. In early December, we confirmed La2-xBaxCuO4 is the real high temperature superconductor, the critical temperature is 28K. I sent a copy of our paper to Prof. Beasley of California and asked to inform this fact to his colleagues. Asahi Shimbun, the biggest newspaper in Japan announced this in its science section, and then many people knew the high temperature superconductor had been discovered. Then many physicists and chemists rushed to this field very quickly and many kinds of materials were synthesized. In the Government, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry

  20. Graduate Student Blues: The Situation in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallos, Henrik; Yamada, Naoto; Okawa, Masako

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of emotional disturbance among Japanese graduate students and the underlying factors of their emotional disturbance. We conducted a cross sectional survey using the Japanese version of the 30-item General Health Questionnaire at 31 graduate schools from 12 university campuses in and around…

  1. The Foot-Reading Cult of Japan.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Bosmia, Arpan N; Tubbs, R S

    2013-06-01

    Ho-no-Hana-Sanpogyo was a Japanese new religious movement referred to as the "foot-reading cult" in the media. Its founder, Fukunaga Hogen, claimed to have divine authority and the ability to diagnose physical illness by studying the soles of an individual's feet. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the history of Ho-no-Hana-Sanpogyo and Fukunaga's practice of foot reading. PMID:23744366

  2. Moral Education in the Schools of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    1985-01-01

    Moral education, a primary component of Japanese education, has no precise equivalent in Canadian education. The focus of moral education is development of personal attitudes and social values. The content of this discipline is a kind of secular humanism which has engendered in the postwar Japanese the values, attitudes, behaviors, and virtues…

  3. Shinto: The Traditional Religion of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Carol S.; Miley, Lois M.

    A lesson plan, divided into five learning activities, explores certain fundamental beliefs and practices associated with Shintoism, the ancient religion of the Japanese. It is designed for integration into a course on world cultures or global studies. The unit is organized to allow high school students an opportunity to observe the variety of ways…

  4. The Dropping of Atomic Bombs on Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In an age when international terrorism poses a threat to peace and stability, the use of not only nuclear, but also biological and chemical weapons are important topics for classroom discussion. In this article, the author explores four approaches to teaching this topic. Examining a controversial topic involves the evaluation of values, the use of…

  5. Going to the Bathroom in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caesar, Terry

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the dilemma of discipline in the classroom of a Japanese women's university, from the point of view of an American professor whose assumptions about one particular behavior, leaving class in order to go to the bathroom, differ from those of his students.

  6. The Quality of Life in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoguchi, Takashi; Fujii, Seiji

    2009-01-01

    This study is part of a collaborative project examining the quality of life in Confucian societies in Asia. Our major findings suggest that, when our sixteen specific life domains are grouped into three life spheres, namely, material, post-material, and public, the Japanese people tend to be most satisfied with the post-material sphere of life and…

  7. Y chromosomal DNA variation and the peopling of Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, M F; Horai, S

    1995-01-01

    Four loci mapping to the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome were genotyped in Japanese populations from Okinawa, the southernmost island of Japan; Shizuoka and Aomori on the main island of Honshu; and a small sample of Taiwanese. The Y Alu polymorphic (YAP) element is present in 42% of the Japanese and absent in the Taiwanese, confirming the irregular distribution of this polymorphism in Asia. Data from the four loci were used to determine genetic distances among populations, construct Y chromosome haplotypes, and estimate the degree of genetic diversity in each population and on different Y chromosome haplotypes. Evolutionary analysis of Y haplotypes suggests that polymorphisms at the YAP (DYS287) and DXYS5Y loci originated a single time, whereas restriction patterns at the DYS1 locus and microsatellite alleles at the DYS19 locus arose more than once. Genetic distance analysis indicated that the Okinawans are differentiated from Japanese living on Honshu. The data support the hypotheses that modern Japanese populations have resulted from distinctive genetic contributions involving the ancient Jomon people and Yayoi immigrants from Korea or mainland China, with Okinawans experiencing the least amount of admixture with the Yayoi. It is suggested that YAP+ chromosomes migrated to Japan with the Jomon people > 10,000 years ago and that a large infusion of YAP- chromosomes entered Japan with the Yayoi migration starting 2,300 years ago. Different degrees of genetic diversity carried by these two ancient chromosomal lineages may be explained by the different life-styles (hunter-gatherer versus agriculturalist). of the migrant groups, the size of the founding populations, and the antiquities of the founding events. Images Figure 1 PMID:7717406

  8. Y chromosomal DNA variation and the peopling of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hammer, M F; Horai, S

    1995-04-01

    Four loci mapping to the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome were genotyped in Japanese populations from Okinawa, the southernmost island of Japan; Shizuoka and Aomori on the main island of Honshu; and a small sample of Taiwanese. The Y Alu polymorphic (YAP) element is present in 42% of the Japanese and absent in the Taiwanese, confirming the irregular distribution of this polymorphism in Asia. Data from the four loci were used to determine genetic distances among populations, construct Y chromosome haplotypes, and estimate the degree of genetic diversity in each population and on different Y chromosome haplotypes. Evolutionary analysis of Y haplotypes suggests that polymorphisms at the YAP (DYS287) and DXYS5Y loci originated a single time, whereas restriction patterns at the DYS1 locus and microsatellite alleles at the DYS19 locus arose more than once. Genetic distance analysis indicated that the Okinawans are differentiated from Japanese living on Honshu. The data support the hypotheses that modern Japanese populations have resulted from distinctive genetic contributions involving the ancient Jomon people and Yayoi immigrants from Korea or mainland China, with Okinawans experiencing the least amount of admixture with the Yayoi. It is suggested that YAP+ chromosomes migrated to Japan with the Jomon people > 10,000 years ago and that a large infusion of YAP- chromosomes entered Japan with the Yayoi migration starting 2,300 years ago. Different degrees of genetic diversity carried by these two ancient chromosomal lineages may be explained by the different life-styles (hunter-gatherer versus agriculturalist). of the migrant groups, the size of the founding populations, and the antiquities of the founding events. PMID:7717406

  9. Entering the lesbian world in Japan: debut stories.

    PubMed

    Kamano, Saori

    2005-01-01

    Conceiving of a "lesbian community" as the process and/or the end product of a lesbian's going outside herself or her intimate relationship to connect with other lesbians, this paper explores the experiences of lesbians in entering the community in Tokyo, Japan, which lesbians refer to as "community debut." Based on the personal accounts gathered through interviewing 24 women in 2002 in the Tokyo area, this paper examines the personal contexts in which the women entered a lesbian community, which included searching for and defining themselves, accepting themselves, and acting out the new identity to make changes in their lives. Some of the women interviewed were prompted by a need to understand themselves as lesbians. Others with a lesbian identity searched for further affirmation through connecting with "the world of lesbians" beyond their immediate contexts. For some other women interviewed, entering the community was a way to help them start their lives anew by getting out of their previous (married) lives. The paper also specifically touches on the significance of the Internet as a source of information for individual women and as a way of creating a lesbian community, identifying both positive and negative aspects. Although the research reported in this paper leaves for further exploration how boundaries of the communities are negotiated and drawn, the norms of the communities, and conflicts and negotiations among individuals and groups, it has provided one piece of the mosaic of lesbian communities in Japan. The communities, while still largely invisible in the mainstream society, are nonetheless an important part of life, albeit in different ways, of many lesbians. The research process leads the author to anticipate greater visibility of lesbians and lesbian communities in Japan in the not too distant future. PMID:19780261

  10. Facts about the Eastern Japan Great Earthquake of March 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 great earthquake was a magnitude 9.0 Mw undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred early morning UTC on Friday, 11 March 2011, with the epicenter approximately 70 kilometres east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tohoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 32 km. It was the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan, and one of the five most powerful earthquakes in the world overall since modern record keeping began in 1900. The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 38.9 metres that struck Tohoku Japan, in some cases traveling up to 10 km inland. In addition to loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, the tsunami caused a number of nuclear accidents, primarily the ongoing level 7 meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant complex, and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. The Japanese National Police Agency has confirmed 1,5457 deaths, 5,389 injured, and 7,676 people missing across eighteen prefectures, as well as over 125,000 buildings damaged or destroyed. JAXA carried out ALOS emergency observation just after the earthquake occured, and acquired more than 400 scenes over the disaster area. The coseismic interferogram by InSAR analysis cleary showing the epicenter of the earthquake and land surface deformation over Tohoku area. By comparison of before and after satellite images, the large scale damaged area by tunami are extracted. These images and data can access via JAXA website and also GEO Tohoku oki event supersite website.

  11. Psychological trauma after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazunori; Sakuma, Atsushi; Ueda, Ikki; Nagao, Ayami; Takahashi, Yoko

    2016-08-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) struck the northeastern part of Japan on 11 March 2011 and triggered a devastating tsunami, causing widespread destruction along the coast of northeastern Japan. The tsunami also led to an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Incidents occurring in such major disasters are known to lead to psychological trauma. This paper has summarized English-language documentation regarding GEJE-related psychological trauma or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research thus far has reported the possibility of higher probable PTSD prevalence among residents of the GEJE areas than in the average Japanese population during normal times. At the very least, many people have experienced trauma symptoms at self-recognition levels 1 year or longer after the disaster. It appears that the percentage of persons with high PTSD risk was higher in regions with radiation-related impacts than in regions where the main damage was caused by the earthquake and tsunami. Results have not been limited to showing relations between severe exposure to a traumatic event and PTSD symptoms but also show that a variety of factors, including social factors, has been shown to interact with PTSD symptoms. The fact that Japanese society as a whole united against the trauma of the GEJE may have worked to minimize the effects of trauma. To grasp a full picture of the effects of psychological trauma due to the GEJE, further surveys and research are necessary. It will be necessary to continue engagements related to these problems and issues into the future. PMID:27192947

  12. Discussion on the progress and future of satellite communication (Japan)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogata, M.; Mizusawa, H.; Irie, K.

    1985-01-01

    The current status of communications satellite development in Japan is presented. It is shown that beginning with research on satellite communucations in the late 1950's, progress was made in the areas of communications, remote sensing, and technology experimentation. The current status of communication satellites is presented, stressing development in the areas of CFRP construction elements, the use of LSI and MIC circuits, advanced multibeam antenna systems, Ku and Ka band transmission systems, and the shift to small-scale earth stations. Methods for reducing costs and increasing transmission efficiency are shown. The technical specifications of all satellite projects currently under development are given. Users of Japanese communications satellite are presented.

  13. Renewable Energy Opportunities at the Kanto Installations, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-09-24

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource development potential at the U.S. Army installations in the Kanto region in Japan, which includes Camp Zama, Yokohama North Dock, Sagamihara Family Housing Area (SFHA), Sagami General Depot, and Akasaka Press Center. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the Huntsville Army Corps of Engineers, and includes the development of a methodology for renewable resource assessment at Army installations located on foreign soil. The methodology is documented in Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations. The site visit to the Kanto installations took place on April 5 and 6, 2010. At the current time, there are some renewable technologies that show economic potential. Because of siting restrictions and the small size of these installations, development of most renewable energy technologies will likely be limited to Camp Zama. Project feasibility is based on installation-specific resource availability and energy costs and projections based on accepted life-cycle cost methods. Development of any renewable energy project will be challenging, as it will require investigation into existing contractual obligations, new contracts that could be developed, the legality of certain partnerships, and available financing avenues, which involves the U.S. Forces Japan (USFJ), the Government of Japan (GOJ), and a number of other parties on both sides. The Army will not be able to implement a project without involvement and approval from the other services and multiple levels of Japanese government. However, implementation of renewable energy projects could be an attractive method for GOJ to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower annual utility payments to USFJ. This report recommends projects to pursue and offers approaches to use. The most

  14. Full Waveform Seismic Inversion for the Japan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žukauskaitė, Saulė; Steptoe, Hamish; Fichtner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We present a seismic tomography model for the Japan archipelago obtained using full waveform inversion and adjoint methods. A high-resolution seismic velocity model is essential for Japan as means to comprehend and characterize the complexity of the tectonic setting, and to further our understanding of earthquake sources and rupture propagation. The study area covers the Japanese islands - an area between 20°-50°N and 130°-160°E - and extends to a maximum depth of 500 km. In virtue of complicated tectonics and resulting high seismicity, dense seismic networks are present in Japan and surrounding countries. We make use of broadband data from three networks - F-net in Japan, BATS in Taiwan, and notably, the National Earthquake Network in South Korea. Due to access difficulties, data from this network had not been used in the preceding tomographic study of the same area. We use >50 carefully selected earthquakes, located within the model area and occurring between 1999 and the present. Magnitudes of the events are restricted to 5≤Mw≤6.9 for a point source approximation to be valid. A spectral-element method is used for forward waveform calculation, which comes with the geometric flexibility of finite-elements method and the accuracy of spectral methods. To quantify differences between the observed and synthetic waveforms, we use time-frequency misfits, which exploit the evolution of the frequency content of the data in time. The sensitivities (Fréchet kernels) are then calculated using adjoint methods. The employed methodology allows us to explain the data of dominant period as low as 10 s. To prevent possible over-fitting of the data, we ensure that final misfits are not lower than those obtained if additional (not yet used) data are incorporated. The final results of this study will contribute to the 'Comprehensive Earth Model' being developed by the Computational Seismology group at ETH, with the aim to represent the snapshot of the current knowledge of

  15. The Role and Prospects of the Professional Engineers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakuma, Maki; Sakaki, Isao; Sagawa, Wataru

    The Professional Engineer in Japan is qualified by passing two step examinations. A person who has passed first-step PE Examination is called as Engineer in Training. IPEJ helps and provides the opportunity for Engineers in Training to acquire the necessary skill to become a PE. Every PE shall have sufficient knowledge of the professional ethics and shall continue professional development as one of obligations so as to improve the competence of the PE, and IPEJ provide the various opportunities. Two kinds of international mutual recognition schemes for engineers‧ qualification have been agreed and effective for enabling competent engineers to work freely across national borders. Young engineers are expected to train and improve the technical capability and challenge to become PE.

  16. Private Sector Initiative Between the U.S. and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    OAK-A258 Private Sector Initiative Between the U.S. and Japan. This report for calendar years 1993 through September 1998 describes efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract. The development of a pyrochemical process, called TRUMP-S, for partitioning actinides from PUREX waste, is described in this report. This effort is funded by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), KHI, the United States Department of Energy, and Boeing.

  17. The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Japan's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the global financial crisis on Japan's economy, especially on its higher education. The first section provides an overview of Japan's national economy with a focus on the impact of the global financial crisis on the national economy, then the author touches on the impact on the Japanese government's finances,…

  18. "I'm Not Going to Be in Japan Forever": How Filipina Immigrant Youth in Japan Construct the Meaning of Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokunaga, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    This article, based on an ethnographic study of five Filipino-born daughters of Filipina migrant workers in Japan, discusses how these young women construct understandings of home as they navigate the borderlands between the Philippines, Japan and the US. The study reveals the ways in which these young women negotiate the possibilities and…

  19. Ocean bottom seismic and tsunami network along the Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehira, K.; Kanazawa, T.; Noguchi, S.; Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Okada, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Shiomi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.

    2012-12-01

    Huge tsunami, which was generated by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake of M9 subduction zone earthquake, attacked the coastal areas in the north-eastern Japan and gave severe casualties (about 20,000 people) and property damages in the areas. The present tsunami warning system, based on land seismic observation data, did not work effectively in the case of the M9 earthquake. For example, real tsunami height was higher than that of forecast by this system. It is strongly acknowledged that marine observation data is necessary to make tsunami height estimation more accurately. Therefore, new ocean bottom observation project has started in 2011 that advances the countermeasures against earthquake and tsunami disaster related to subduction zone earthquake and outer rise earthquake around Japan Trench and Kuril Trench. A large scale ocean bottom cabled observation network is scheduled to be deployed around Japan Trench and Kuril Trench by 2015. The network is consisted of 154 ocean bottom observation stations. Ocean bottom fiber optic cables, about 5100 km in total length, connect the stations to land. Observation stations with tsunami meters and seismometers will be placed on the seafloor off Hokkaido, off Tohoku and off Kanto, in a spacing of about 30 km almost in the direction of East-West (perpendicular to the trench axis) and in a spacing of about 50 - 60 km almost in the direction of North-South (parallel to the trench axis). Two or more sets of tsunami meters and seismometers will be installed in one station for redundancy. Two sets of three component servo accelerometers, a set of three component quartz type accelerometers (frequency outputs), a set of three component velocity seismometers will be installed, and two sets of quartz type depth sensors (frequency outputs) will be installed as tsunami meters. Tsunami data and seismometer data will be digitized at sampling frequency of 10 Hz and 100 Hz, respectively, and will be added clock

  20. The Rise of Space Weather Research in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Atsuhiro

    2010-04-01

    In the 1950s, when short-wave (high-frequency) radio was the major means of long-distance communication, ionospheric disturbances were the bane of long-distance com-municators. To improve the usability of radio communications, Japanese scientists used basic physics to focus their efforts on developing forecasts of ionospheric disturbances. This early work resulted in highly positive interactions between basic research and applications in Japan, fostering a strong cross-disciplinary research community in space weather that encompassed solar physics and geophysics.

  1. MANAGEMENT OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS CONTAINING TOXIC SUBSTANCES. PROCEEDINGS OF THE U. S.-JAPAN EXPERTS' MEETING (4TH) HELD AT TOKYO, JAPAN ON OCTOBER, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States-Japan Ministerial Agreement of May 1974 provided for the exchange of environmental information in several areas of mutual concern. This report is the compilation of papers presented at the Fourth U.S.-Japan Experts' Meeting on the Management of Bottom Sediments ...

  2. A Chrysanthemum in the Garden: A Christian Kindergarten in the Empire of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishida, Yukiyo

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of the contribution of Christian missionaries to kindergarten education in the Empire of Japan. The study concerns an American Missionary woman, Annie L. Howe (1852-1943) and her kindergarten in Kobe, Japan. Annie L. Howe had a great impact on the history of early childhood education and is still remembered as the "Mother of…

  3. Octants and Sextants before the 1860s Preserved in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    2012-09-01

    The octant was invented in 1731 independently in the UK and US, and the sextant by John Campbell around 1757. Octants were brought to Japan in the 1770s by ships of the Dutch East India Company. A Dutch booklet manual on octants ``Beschryvinge van het Octant en deszelfs Gebruik" (Description of the octant and its usage) written in 1749 by Cornelis Douwes was translated into Japanese at Nagasaki in the 1780s--90s. This translation triggered serious attention of Japanese astronomers to octants. Because those instruments had no chance to be used in ocean navigation due to the strict seclusion policy forced by the then Shogunal government, the Japanese instead devised methods to use octants and sextants for land surveying. Sextants specially designed for the ground measurements were made, and even precursor instruments of the modern range finder were also produced. In this paper we report results of our recent survey investigation of octants and sextants preserved in Japan, which were imported or home-made before the 1860s. About ten objects were identified. We describe their characteristics in terms of originality and influence from overseas products. We also plan to report on accurate measurements of some of domestic products of the 19th century using a modern standard scale, in an attempt to infer how the Japanese artisans at that time could inscribe the graduation without such as a Ramsden's dividing machine.

  4. The Development of the Counseling Profession in Japan: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabosky, Tomoko Kudo; Ishii, Harue; Mase, Shizuno

    2012-01-01

    The authors provide a sociohistorical overview of the development of the counseling profession in Japan. They describe Japan's major social, cultural, and political changes; growing psychological problems in Japanese society; and an increased need for counseling services. Historical overviews and the current state of counseling are presented with…

  5. [Mental support for the victim of Japan earthquake].

    PubMed

    Asada, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    First the Japan earthquake, then tsunami, now a country with more than 20,000 known dead and missing must cope with the threat of nuclear contamination. Disaster may place survivors at risk for a range of negative outcomes. Disaster-related mental health problems may include acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression. The individuals with psychologically wounded by this disaster will leave their imprint for years, even decades, to come. We are now planning to open a new department named Psychiatric services for the survivors of natural disasters. Through the activities of this department, we aim to continue daily psychiatric services and to promote wellness of the survivors. Thus, we are making a system to recruit and dispatch psychiatrists for the psychiatric services at the damaged areas. On the other hand, in modern Japan society, namely aging society with low birth rate, the latent ability of university students is indispensable for the recovery after big disasters. We will take their academic ability into the activities of the new department. We also plan to promote their wellness through this kind of volunteer acidity. PMID:22568056

  6. Apples vs. Persimmons: The Legal Profession in Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    It is argued that profound differences in the legal professions and factors affecting them in the United States and Japan make comparisons misleading and unfair. Reasons for the apparent disparity in numbers of lawyers, Japan's widespread use of unlicensed legal experts, and differences in quantity of litigation are examined. (MSE)

  7. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis in the world and Japan].

    PubMed

    Kurasawa, Takuya

    2011-08-01

    We report the epidemiology on tuberculosis in the world and Japan. From the "Global Tuberculosis Control 2010" of WHO, the estimates of the global burden of disease caused by tuberculosis (TB) in 2009 are as follow: 9.4 million incident cases (equivalent to 137 cases per 100,000 population), 14 million prevalent cases, 1.3 million deaths among HIV-negative people and 0.38 million deaths among HIV-positive people. Most cases were in the South-East Asia, African, Western Pacific regions (35%, 30%, 20%, respectively). In Japan, new registered cases of TB in 2009 were 24,170 (equivalent to 19.0 cases per 100,000 population). The numbers of patients under 79 years old were decreased, but the numbers of patients over 80 y.o. increased, so the patients over 70 y.o. were over half of new registered cases. About 80% cases of TB patients were pulmonary tuberculosis, the numbers of culture-positive and smear-positive patients were 15,635 (equivalent to 12.3 cases per 100,000 population) and 9,675 (equivalent to 7.6 cases per 100,000 population), respectively. The rates of any drug-resistance and MDR-TB were 13.0% and 0.8%, respectively. PMID:21838028

  8. The association between osteoporosis and patient outcomes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Luis A; DiBonaventura, Marco; Kawaguchi, Isao

    2016-07-01

    Objective To quantify the burden of osteoporosis and examine the interplay between osteoporosis and various comorbidities as it relates to patient outcomes. Methods Data from the 2011 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS; n = 30 000), an internet health survey fielded to a nationally representative sample of the Japanese population were used. Only women between the ages of 50-90 years were included in the analyses (n = 6950). Results Compared with matched controls (n = 404), patients with osteoporosis (n = 404) had lower MCS scores (48.94 vs 51.63), PCS scores (45.57 vs 49.12) (all p < 0.05). The presence of osteoporosis was associated with worse patient outcomes among those with hypertension, high cholesterol, and insomnia, among other conditions. Conclusions The results suggest a significant quality-of-life and economic burden for patients with osteoporosis in Japan. Moreover, in a complex co-morbid environment, the presence of osteoporosis contributes more to patient outcomes than other chronic conditions. PMID:26929988

  9. NMR solution structure of the neurotrypsin Kringle domain.

    PubMed

    Ozhogina, Olga A; Grishaev, Alexander; Bominaar, Emile L; Patthy, László; Trexler, Maria; Llinás, Miguel

    2008-11-25

    Neurotrypsin is a multidomain protein that serves as a brain-specific serine protease. Here we report the NMR structure of its kringle domain, NT/K. The data analysis was performed with the BACUS (Bayesian analysis of coupled unassigned spins) algorithm. This study presents the first application of BACUS to the structure determination of a 13C unenriched protein for which no prior experimental 3D structure was available. NT/K adopts the kringle fold, consisting of an antiparallel beta-sheet bridged by an overlapping pair of disulfides. The structure reveals the presence of a surface-exposed left-handed polyproline II helix that is closely packed to the core beta-structure. This feature distinguishes NT/K from other members of the kringle fold and points toward a novel functional role for a kringle domain. Functional divergence among kringle domains is discussed on the basis of their surface and electrostatic characteristics. PMID:18956887

  10. The Relationship between H. pylori Infection and Osteoporosis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Hojo, Mariko; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Shimada, Yuji; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Osada, Taro; Watanabe, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. H. pylori infection causes a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa. However, this local inflammation may result in extra-digestive conditions. Our aim is to investigate the relationship between H. pylori infection and osteoporosis in Japan. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among outpatients at the Juntendo University Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Participants for patient profile, H. pylori infection status, comorbidity, internal medical therapies, lumbar dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone turnover marker were collected and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for reflux esophagitis, hiatal hernia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy (EGA) was performed. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was performed in accordance with the Japanese criteria. We investigated risk factors of osteoporosis. Results. Of the eligible 200 study subjects, 41 cases were of osteoporosis. Bivariate analysis showed that age, being female, BMI, alcohol, smoking, H. pylori, bone-specific ALP, PUD, and EGA were related to osteoporosis. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.13; 95%CI 1.07–1.20), being female (OR 4.77; 95%CI 1.78–12.77), BMI (OR 0.79; 95%CI 0.68–0.92), H. pylori (OR 5.33; 95%CI 1.73–16.42), and PUD (OR 4.98; 95%CI 1.51–16.45) were related to osteoporosis. Conclusions. H. pylori infection may be a risk factor of osteoporosis in Japan. PMID:25024699

  11. 2012/13 abnormal cold winter in Japan associated with Large-scale Atmospheric Circulation and Local Sea Surface Temperature over the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Y.; Ogi, M.; Tachibana, Y.

    2013-12-01

    On Japan, wintertime cold wave has social, economic, psychological and political impacts because of the lack of atomic power stations in the era of post Fukushima world. The colder winter is the more electricity is needed. Wintertime weather of Japan and its prediction has come under the world spotlight. The winter of 2012/13 in Japan was abnormally cold, and such a cold winter has persisted for 3 years. Wintertime climate of Japan is governed by some dominant modes of the large-scale atmospheric circulations. Yasunaka and Hanawa (2008) demonstrated that the two dominant modes - Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) pattern - account for about 65% of the interannual variation of the wintertime mean surface air temperature of Japan. A negative AO brings about cold winter in Japan. In addition, a negative WP also brings about cold winter in Japan. Looking back to the winter of 2012/13, both the negative AO and negative WP continued from October through December. If the previous studies were correct, it would have been extremely very cold from October through December. In fact, in December, in accordance with previous studies, it was colder than normal. Contrary to the expectation, in October and November, it was, however, warmer than normal. This discrepancy signifies that an additional hidden circumstance that heats Japan overwhelms these large-scale atmospheric circulations that cool Japan. In this study, we therefore seek an additional cause of wintertime climate of Japan particularly focusing 2012 as well as the AO and WP. We found that anomalously warm oceanic temperature surrounding Japan overwhelmed influences of the AO or WP. Unlike the inland climate, the island climate can be strongly influenced by surrounding ocean temperature, suggesting that large-scale atmospheric patterns alone do not determine the climate of islands. (a) Time series of a 5-day running mean AO index (blue) as defined by Ogi et al., (2004), who called it the SVNAM index. For

  12. Dehydration of incoming sediments at the Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M.; Kameda, J.; Hamada, Y.; Tanikawa, W.; Kimura, G.

    2014-12-01

    In the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the seismic fault slip propagated to the trench axis and caused an extremely large tsunami (Ide et al., 2011). Ductile deformation of unconsolidated sediments is commonly prominent in the aseismic shallow parts of the subduction zone. It is unknown how the seismic rupture reached the nearby trench axis. Based on the result of Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 56 at site 436 (reference, 1977), it is expected that the subducting sediments at the Japan Trench mainly consist of vitric diatomaceous and radiolarian ooze with pelagic clay intervals. Opal and smectite in the pelagic sediments transform respectively into quartz and illite. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that these reactions will progress with active dehydration at 50-60 km horizontally away from the trench axis and with a temperature of 100-120°C. This region coincides with the plate-boundary marked by a prominent seismic reflector. It suggests that the main source of highly pressured fluids is the dehydration of pelagic sediments (Kimura et al., 2012). However, detailed dehydration processes are still unclear mainly due to lack of quantitative sediment composition data. Therefore, in this study, we examined whole rock composition including amorphous silica of the core samples recovered at site 436 as well as those from the Japan Trench by the IODP 343 Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). Analysis of amorphous silica at the drilling site of J-FAST documents that dehydration of the sediments is able to contribute to excess pressure at the shallow part of the megathrust if they underthrust as the same composition. At the drilling site of JFAST, a plate-boundary shear zone was identified around 820 mbsf (Chester et al., 2012). Our analysis showed that the shear zone is characterized by extremely high concentration of smectite (~70 wt%).These results suggest that the abundant smectite may have possibly fostered localized rupture and slip during the earthquake

  13. The New Positioning Technology for Sea Recovery Operations in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Fuke, Hideyuki; Iijima, Issei; Izutsu, Naoki; Kato, Yoichi; Matsuzaka, Yukihiko; Namiki, Michiyoshi; Sato, Takatoshi; Tamura, Keisuke; Toriumi, Michihiko; Kakehashi, Yuya; Mizuta, Eiichi

    2012-07-01

    In Japan which has few flat plain and high population density, it is very difficult to drop a balloon safely on to the land. Hence balloons launched from Japan have always been dropped on the sea. In order to recover the balloons and the gondolas floating on the sea surely and rapidly, and to keep the gondolas and ships safe, much efforts and innovations have been made. Ones of the important innovations are positioning buoys. A buoy attached on a balloon gondola floats independently after the splash down, and informs its position to the recovery team. We had developed some types of such buoys; `radio beacon buoy' transmits a pattern of radio signal to navigate the recovery boats to the gondola. Another type of the buoys, `GPS ARGOS buoy,' finds its position with the GPS and sends the information to the balloon base via ARGOS satellite communication network. These technologies had contributed so much to the sea recovery operations however they also had some limitations. Recently, a new positioning buoy with better performance has developed; `Iridium buoy' detects the position with the GPS, and informs it to the balloon base via the Iridium satellite communication network and the internet. The Iridium buoy provides the accurate position surely and immediately with good time resolution. Furthermore the information can be received by very common devices which can receive e-mails. Thanks to the new buoy, the balloon operation team can always know where the gondola is on the sea more precisely, more simultaneously and more easily. That enables the operation team to inform the gondola's location to the authorities concerned as well as the recovery team, which contributes to the safety of both of the gondola and the sea traffics. In this presentation, the Iridium Buoy will be introduced mainly. Also the overview of the present sea recovery operation with the buoy and the past operations will be mentioned

  14. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  15. The trial edition of historical earthquake data base in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, A.; Satake, K.; Yata, T.; Urabe, A.; Maejima, Y.

    2012-04-01

    There are many historical documents in Japan and these are analyzed by historical researchers. The descriptions of the occurrence times and damage of historical earthquakes in and around Japan are included in these historical documents. However, the analyses of these historical documents require technical knowledge and therefore, it is not straightforward for unprofessional researchers to directly utilize these historical documents. A historical earthquake document data base was made by Ishibashi et al. for ancient and medieval ages (until around AD 1600). For early modern, or Edo, period, the amount of historical documents is significantly larger and quality of documents is variable, hence quality check is important. We are making historical earthquake data base, which is composed of the historical earthquake document data base and seismic intensity data base, for a few earthquakes in Edo period. The 1751 Echigo-Takada and 1828 Echigo-Sanjo earthquakes, which occurred in Echigo (the present Niigata Prefecture) and caused extensive damage, were selected for the trial edition of historical earthquake data base. We selected historical records with high reliability, formatted them as XML data, and created historical earthquake record data base. Incidentally, pictures which describe damage of these historical earthquakes are also contained in this data base, and the damage can be visually shown. From the reliable documents, we estimated a ratio of collapsed houses and seismic intensity, and created the trial edition of seismic intensity data base by using Google Earth as a platform. We selected historical records which describe both the total number of houses and the number of collapsed houses in each village or town at the occurrence time of these earthquakes because the number of houses varies in time. Then, we calculated the ratio of collapsed houses and estimated seismic intensities in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) scale based on Usami (1986)'s table as

  16. Newborn screening in Japan: restructuring for the new era.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2008-12-01

    Nationwide neonatal mass screening for inherited metabolic diseases has started in Japan since 1977. At least 8000 children have probably been spared from handicaps resulting from such diseases over the past 30 years. Recently remarkable changes have been made to the evolving neonatal screening system. Declining birth rate and economic problems in Japan have demanded a more effective neonatal screening system. Development of new innovative screening methods and treatment tools, e.g. tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) technology and enzyme replacement therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), have facilitated expansion of target diseases in neonatal screening. We have carried out pilot screening using MS/MS in 6 laboratories in Japan. The incidence of inherited metabolic diseases was found to be 1 in 9330 (65 cases out of 606,380 babies screened) during the period between 1997 and 2007. The incidence was lower than those of Europe or USA (about 1 in 4000 to 5000). The disease frequency between unscreened symptomatic cases and asymptomatic cases detected through MS/MS screening were also found to be different. In MS/MS screening, the most common organic acidemia was propionic acidemia, whereas in symptomatic cases, methylmalonic acidemia was the most common. Further study of ethnic diversity in severity of propionic academia is required. The outcomes of patients detected in the MS/MS screening were significantly favourable. The results showed the benefits of MS/ MS screening. The diagnostic support network for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/ MS) analysis and enzyme determination has also been developed. We have developed an automated system of GC/MS data processing and auto-diagnosis which allowed the GC/MS data processing to be extremely fast and simple. Enzyme evaluation for diagnostic support for screening, including a method using peripheral blood and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and another method of in-vitro probe assay using cultured

  17. Proceedings of the China-Japan-U.S. Seminar on Mathematical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dianzhou, Ed.; And Others

    This document contains the proceedings of the China-Japan-U.S. Seminar on Mathematical Education that was held in 1993 in China. The focus of the Seminar was problem solving in mathematics education. The main purposes of the seminar were: to examine the present states of problem solving in school mathematics in China, Japan, and the U.S.; to…

  18. The 1989 National Convention Record IEE Japan, part 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-04-01

    Articles are presented from the national convention, IEE Japan opened in April, 1989. The articles are records from the power cable and energy generation/conversion sections. The symposium emphasis was on: Current status of fuel cells for practical use. The power cable section includes 72 articles: Construction of the first 8,000A class 275kV compressed gas insulated (CGI) transmission line in the world; Antiseismic characteristics of CGI transmission terminating sets installed on transmission powers; Temperature rise characteristics of vertically laid CGI transmission lines and others. The energy generation/conversion section includes 77 articles: Estimation of solar radiation by meteorological satellite pictures; Errors of sunshine duration used for the application planning of solar thermal energy; Solar irradiance obtained through glass and vinyl and others. The symposium included 5 articles: Developmental conditions of phosphoric acid type fuel cells' and others.

  19. Peanut worms of the phylum Sipuncula from the Sea of Japan with a key to species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorova, Anastassya S.; Adrianov, Andrey V.

    2013-02-01

    Sipunculan worms from the Russian waters of the Sea of Japan are still poorly investigated while they are much better known from the Japanese coast. The aim of this paper is to describe sipunculans from the Russian coast and from the deepest part of the Sea of Japan near the Primorye Province collected by SoJaBio expedition, and to provide keys for identification of sipunculan species from the Sea of Japan. At the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan only 8 valid species of sipunculans were found and identified: Golfingia margaritacea, G. vulgaris, Nephasoma capilleforme, N. wodjanizkii, Phascolion strombus, Thysanocardia nigra, Themiste hexadactyla (=T. pyroides), Phascolosoma agassizii. Taking into account 4 other valid species noted for this area, Nephasoma eremite, Thysanocardia catharinae, Themiste blanda and Phascolosoma scolops, which were not found, the sipunculan fauna of the Russian waters of the Sea of Japan now comprises 12 valid species. Nephasoma capilleforme and Nephasoma wodjanizkii are the first records for the North-West Pacific and the Sea of Japan. Species accounts include the most important taxonomic characters and specific biotope data. Accordingly, a key up to species level is provided. Totally, the fauna of the Sea of Japan is now estimated as having 31 valid species of sipunculans.

  20. Pyroclastic conduits of the late Cenozoic collapse calderas from Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Iwahashi, A.; Takahashi, T.; Nagahashi, Y.

    2006-12-01

    There are many late Cenozoic calderas in Japan. Many of the late Cenozoic calderas are the large-scale collapse calderas of the piston-cylinder type, and consist of collapsed volcanic basin surrounded by arcuate ring faults or array of vents and the surrounding pyroclastic flow deposits. Yoshida (1984) reported intrusive breccia dikes between the subsided block and wall rocks of the Ishizuchi cauldron, SW Japan. The intrusive breccias consist of tuff and tuff breccias containing many kinds of rock fragments. Contacts with surrounding rocks are sharp. Some breccia dikes along the marginal ring fracture zone of the cauldron, which are composed of welded pyroclastic rocks, probably fill vents from which the surrounding pyroclastic flow deposits were discharged. The matrix of the intrusive breccia is welded ash and/or clastic powder. Fragments vary in size from millimeters to several meters. Local continuity of structures from one fragment to another indicates that the brecciation was not a consequence of explosive action; these are interpreted as intrusive breccias produced by fluidization processes, probably associated with pyroclastic explosions. These breccias were intruded upward to their present positions as part of a fluidization system. Intrusive breccia and tuff within the ring fault complex contain a eutaxitic foliation oriented nearly parallel to contacts. This feature is thought to result from inwardly directed pressures exerted by the dike walls during caldera collapse following eruption of the pyroclastic flows. The eutaxitic foliation indicates that the intrusive breccia and tuff were emplaced as a fluidized system of gas, solid particles, and probably liquid droplets. Mt. Taiheizan is located 20km northeast of Akita, NE Japan. There is the late Miocene to early Pliocene Nibetsu cauldron on Mt. Taiheizan. Recent study revealed the details of a contemporary arcute pyroclastic conduit consisting of felsic tuff. This Hirasawa felsic tuff dyke is about 5 km

  1. Threat of an earthquake right under the capital in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rikitake, T.

    1990-01-01

    Tokyo, Japan's capital, has been enjoying a seismically quiet period following the 1923 Kanto earthquake of magnitude 7.9 that killed more than 140,000 people. Such a quiet period seems likely to be a repetition of the 80-year quiescence after the great 1703 Genroku earthquake of magntidue 8.2 that occurred in an epicentral area adjacent to that of the 1923 Kanto earthquake. In 1784, seismic activity immediately under the capital area revived with occasional occurrence of magnitude 6 to 7 shocks. Earthquakes of this class tended to occur more frequently as time went on and they eventually culminated in the 1923 Kanto earthquake. As more than 60 years have passed since the Kanto earthquake, we may well expect another revival of activity immediately under the capital area. 

  2. History of research in Japan on electrocardiography in the racehorse

    PubMed Central

    HIRAGA, Atsushi; SUGANO, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since the first recording of electrocardiograms (ECGs) of a horse in Japan was carried out in 1944, studies on ECGs have been performed intensively. During the early stages of research from the 1950s to 1960s, leads to use for ECG recording were evaluated using several different approaches including unipolar leads, bipolar limb leads, and bipolar chest leads. Based on these studies, the AB lead, which is oriented along the long axis of the heart, became the standard reference method in Japan. Electrodes of the AB lead are placed on the upper 1/4th point along a straight line between the withers and the left shoulder blade (base: B), and 10 cm posterior to the left olecranon (apex: A). The incidence of equine arrhythmias among racehorses has been surveyed, and details of the electrocardiographic characteristics of several arrhythmias have been investigated. In particular, atrial fibrillation (AF) has been extensively studied, and papers have reported findings such as that paroxysmal AF occurs during racing and described electrocardiographic changes that occur at the onset of AF during exercise. Development of a radiotelemetry system for ECG recording enabled the first recording of equine ECGs during galloping in 1964, the detection of arrhythmias, and calculation of heart rate during exercise. Studies on comparative and developmental changes of ECGs have described characteristics of the equine ECGs. Future research on changes in cardiac function, including autonomic function, that occur with aging may lead to new developments in equine electrocardiography and contribute to improving the health and welfare of the horse. PMID:25829865

  3. The Debate on Patriotic Education in Post-World War II Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Kanako

    2009-01-01

    The debate over patriotic education in Japan is marked by power shifts between the two different political groups that have different views of the role of patriotic education. By analyzing the power shift from a historical perspective, this essay makes a point that one of the problems of the debate over patriotic education in Japan is that the…

  4. A Survey of Japanese Sources on the Use of English in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda; Tanaka, Harumi

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of the different types of books about the use of English published in Japan and discusses some of the controversies about the role of English in Japan. New directions in the use of English are described that are reflected in new courses in the school system and in publications aimed at English-speaking Japanese. (56…

  5. On the fourth Diadema species (Diadema-sp) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Chow, Seinen; Kajigaya, Yoshikazu; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Niwa, Kentaro; Shibuno, Takuro; Nanami, Atsushi; Kiyomoto, Setuo

    2014-01-01

    Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema-sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene in the "D. savignyi-like" samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu) to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands) to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE). Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century. PMID:25054386

  6. Status, Virtue and Duty: A Historical Perspective on the Occupational Culture of Teachers in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    This historical paper is an introduction to curriculum thinking in Japan. It discusses contested value frameworks that have exercised professional educators in the light of two "Western" interventions: (1) the modernization initiatives of the Meiji government of the nineteenth century; and (2) the policies that followed Japan's defeat in the…

  7. Occurrence of bovine dermatophilosis in the southernmost islands of Japan.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, E; Motonaga, H; Matayoshi, E; Kudo, S; Watanabe, K; Hara, M; Tabuchi, K; Momotani, E; Azuma, R

    1981-01-01

    Such cutaneous symptoms as characteristic incrustation and alopecia were noticed in 25 calves of the indigenous Japanese Black breed grazing on subtropical islands in Japan over a period of April, 1978 to February, 1980. These islands were Ishigaki, Kuro, Yonaguni and Tarama belonging to the Sakishima Islands. Microbiological and pathological examination on three of these calves revealed that the calves were affected with dermatophilosis caused by Dermatophilus congolensis. The disease in these calves seemed to be the same as that reported previously in other countries, since it attacked young calves in a humid district with an abundant rainfall. It broke out first on Ishigaki Island and subsequently on the other islands in 3 years. Discussion was made on factors inducing these outbreaks. PMID:7341992

  8. Survey of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Japan by the Japan 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Yasushi Hiraoka, Masahiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Narita, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Onishi, Hiroshi; Shirato, Hiroki

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To recognize the current status of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in Japan, using a nationwide survey conducted by the Japan 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group. Methods and Materials: The questionnaire was sent by mail to 117 institutions. Ninety-four institutions (80%) responded by the end of November 2005. Fifty-three institutions indicated that they have already started SBRT, and 38 institutions had been reimbursed by insurance. Results: A total of 1111 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer were treated. Among these patients, 637 had T1N0M0 and 272 had T2N0M0 lung cancer. Metastatic lung cancer was found in 702 and histologically unconfirmed lung tumor in 291 patients. Primary liver cancer was found in 207 and metastatic liver cancer in 76 patients. The most frequent schedule used for primary lung cancer was 48Gy in 4 fractions at 22 institutions (52%), followed by 50Gy in 5 fractions at 11 institutions (26%) and 60Gy in 8 fractions at 4 institutions (10%). The tendency was the same for metastatic lung cancer. The average number of personnel involved in SBRT was 1.8 radiation oncologists, including 1.1 certified radiation oncologists, 2.8 technologists, 0.7 nurses, and 0.6 certified quality assurance personnel and 0.3 physicists. The most frequent amount of time for treatment planning was 61-120min, for quality assurance was 50-60min, and for treatment was 30min. There were 14 (0.6% of all cases) reported Grade 5 complications: 11 cases of radiation pneumonitis, 2 cases of hemoptysis, and 1 case of radiation esophagitis. Conclusion: The current status of SBRT in Japan was surveyed.

  9. Accumulation of humic-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the Japan Sea

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kazuki; Kuma, Kenshi; Hamasaki, Koji; Yamashita, Youhei

    2014-01-01

    Major fraction of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is biologically recalcitrant, however, the accumulation mechanism of recalcitrant DOM has not been fully understood. Here, we examine the distributions of humic-like fluorescent DOM, factions of recalcitrant DOM, and the level of apparent oxygen utilization in the Japan Sea. We find linear relationships between these parameters for the deep water (>200 m) of the Japan Sea, suggesting that fluorescent DOM is produced in situ in the Japan Sea. Furthermore, we find that the amount of fluorescent DOM at a given apparent oxygen utilization is greater in the deep water of the Japan Sea than it is in the North Pacific, where the highest level of fluorescent DOM in the open ocean was previously observed. We conclude that the repeated renewal of the deep water contributes to the accumulation of fluorescent DOM in the interior of the Japan Sea. PMID:25028129

  10. Japan: Land of the Rising Sun. A Twelve Day Unit of Study for Fourth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craycraft, Kenneth; Winters, Norm

    This unit of study on Japan contains the following content areas: Unit Focus/Motivation; Islands of Japan; Living on an Island; Buildings; Economics; Transportation; and Culminating Activities. The objectives of the unit include knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Suggested activities for each of the content areas are offered and explained to assist…

  11. Structured Strategy for Implementation of the Teaching Portfolio Concept in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurita, Kayoko

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a strategy for successfully implementing the teaching portfolio in higher education institutions in Japan. The teaching portfolio has gained recognition in Japan in the last few years as an effective instrument for improving and showcasing teaching performance. It is well known that the implementation process is very important…

  12. Changing State-University Relations: The Experiences of Japan and Lessons for Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirat, Morshidi; Kaur, Sarjit

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the changing state-university relations in Japan and Malaysia. Its main objective is to identify and examine possible lessons for Malaysia, based on the Japanese experience. Notably, since the late 1970s, Malaysia has been looking towards Japan as a model for socio-economic development (the "look-east" Policy) and this…

  13. Ubiquitous Technology for Language Learning: The U-Japan Movement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the u-Japan movement and recent reforms in the higher educational system in Japan, examines the needs as well as readiness for ubiquitous learning in Japanese universities, and reports on a selection of mobile-assisted language learning projects (MALL). It analyzes the current status of ubiquitous technology applications in…

  14. Different Drummers: Education for Journalists in Japan and the U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeichi, Hideo; Cooper-Chen, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Compares journalism education in Japan and the United States along four dimensions of cultural variability: individualism, uncertainty avoidance, contextuality, and masculinity. Discusses academic and corporate culture in Japan and the United States. Discusses the future of journalism education in the two countries. (RS)

  15. Regulation of Generic Drugs in Japan: the Current Situation and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Ryosuke; Matsuhama, Maki; Mikami, Kenichi

    2015-09-01

    Generic drugs are interchangeable with original proprietary drugs, as they have the same active pharmaceutical ingredients, dosage forms, strength, quality, indications, effects, directions, and dosage. The cost of generic drugs is lower than original drugs, because the developmental cost is lower. The expansion of medical expenses is an important issue in many countries, including Japan, the USA, and Europe, and promotion of generic drugs has been demanded to solve this issue in Japan. Generic drug approval review in Japan is conducted by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), which reviews the equivalence of the original drugs from the viewpoint of quality, efficacy, and safety, based on documentation submitted by the generic drug applicants. However, the details of the generic drug review in Japan have not been reported. In this report, we introduce the application types, the number of applications and approvals, and the review timeline of generic drugs in Japan. In addition, we discuss recent consultations and future prospects. PMID:25943503

  16. The Constituent Elements of Comparative Education in Japan: A Comparison with North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Shoko

    2015-01-01

    This article, with the aim of identifying elements that constitute the characteristics of an academic space within comparative education, analyzes how comparative education has been discussed and practiced in Japan, based on a questionnaire completed by 264 members of the Japan Comparative Education Society and classification of articles published…

  17. Beginning of Movement for Re-Education of Parents in Japan in the 1920's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Keiko

    In the late 1920s, in conjunction with a new passion for freedom and concern for human rights, two associations were formed in Japan to promote parents' education and children's welfare. In 1928, following a 2-year study of education in America, Tetsuya Kamimura started the Japan Parents' Re-education Association. The association's members…

  18. A Shift Away from an Egalitarian System: Where Do the Current Reforms in Japan Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yano, Hirotoshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with an overall changing trend witnessed in public schooling in Japan, known as educational reforms. Through looking at recent reforms in Japan, with an international trend in view, the author first summarizes educational reforms as waves of liberalization that have changed the post-war fundamental principle of Japanese education.…

  19. 76 FR 798 - Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-394-A & 399-A (Second Review) (Fourth Remand)] Ball Bearings From Japan... antidumping duty order on ball bearings from Japan. For further information concerning the conduct of this... and remanded-in-part the Commission's determinations in Certain Bearings and Parts Thereof from...

  20. 75 FR 30856 - Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... FR 68036 (Nov. 8, 2002). In accordance with sections 201.16(c) and 207.3 of the Commission's rules... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-394-A & 399-A (Second Review) (Third Remand)] Ball Bearings From Japan... antidumping orders on ball bearings from Japan and the United Kingdom. For further information concerning...

  1. Emerging Trends in Japan in Education of the Gifted: A Focus on Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumida, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    Japan has no formal educational system for gifted children. However, in 2005, Japan's Cabinet approved and established the third Science and Technology Basic Plan (2006-10), which includes "nurturing the individuality and ability of gifted ("sainou" in Japanese) children." Enforcement of this plan is exemplified in…

  2. Governmental Reform and Education for the Gifted in Japan: A Current Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugaj, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Though targeted for governmental reform since 2002, services envisioned for gifted and talented students have not materialized in Japan. From the perspective of his personal experience as a Japan Fulbright Memorial Fund participant in 2005 and an extensive review of available literature and contacts with the Japanese Ministry of Education,…

  3. School Safety in Japan: Mombusho and the Public/Private Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrone, Michelle Henault; Matsuyama, Yumi

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, violent acts against children in Japan were considered private, isolated incidents largely outside the reach of government policy and legal action. Increasingly, however, public perception in Japan, mainly driven by the mass media, has shifted away from such complacency. A few well-publicized attacks on children have forced Mombusho…

  4. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  5. Space activities in the Soviet Union, Japan, and the People's Republic of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezell, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    The space programs of the Soviet Union, Japan, and China are discussed. The types of launch vehicles they used and the classes of spacecraft they launched are examined. The political motivations of these nations are analyzed.

  6. "Lifetime Earnings" in Japan for the Class of 1955.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Japan's employment model has been that of "lifetime employment," especially for male college-educated workers. Under such a system, an individual becomes employed by a firm upon graduation and remains in its employ until retirement. (Author/SSH)

  7. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in the societies of physics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, H.; Sasao, M.; Nemoto, K.; Tamechika, E.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Although the percentage of women members increases from 2% to 6% in the last 30 years, the ratio is still low in both the Physical Society of Japan and the Japan Society of Applied Physics. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in both societies, the development of the next generation of members, organizing international workshops and domestic symposiums, and so on, are introduced in this paper.

  8. Deep structure of the Beppu hydrothermal system, Kyushu, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yusa, Y.; Ohsawa, S.; Kitaoka, K.; Fukuda, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The central part of Kyushu Island, southwest Japan, is located at the junction of the Southwest Japan Arc and the Ryukyu Arc, where a graben (Beppu-Shimabara Graben) has been formed by the rifting tectonic movement. There are many Quaternary volcanoes and active geo- and hydro-thermal fields within the Graben. The Beppu hydrothermal system extends around the Tsurumi-Garandake volcanoes at the eastern end of the Graben. This report will deal with the hydrothermal system beneath the volcanoes specially focusing on Garandake. Modest or violent fumarolic activities are visible near the summit of Garandake (1045 m in height). The total water(steam) output is 1.4 kg/s and its heat output 3.8 MW, while the heat output from the ground surface of 5.5 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 2} is 19.5 MW estimated by a heat balance analysis based on infrared radiation measurements (Yuhara et al., 1987). Thus the main process of heat discharge from Garandake, totally 23.3 MW, is the radiation from the ground surface. The geothermal gradient observed in a well drilled near the summit indicates that the large heat output is caused by some special process different from conduction because the heat flow by conduction is estimated to be 0.03 MW, which is very small compared with the observed output. Allis and Yusa (1989) suggested that a two-phase flow system is developed in Garandake. The two-phase flow, steam rising and water failing, acts as a heat pipe, by which a large quantity of (latent) heat can be transported upwards. Applying the theory of two-phase flow (Yusa and Oishi, 1989) to the Garandake system, the upflow rate of steam is estimated to be 10.3 kg/s at 100{degrees}C; the temperature near the ground surface, A part of rising steam (1.4 kg/s) flows out through fumaroles, and the remnant condenses to flow downwards. If the system is vapor-dominated, the intrinsic permeability at the shallow part should be about 1 darcy.

  9. Detailed Distribution of the Helium Isotope Ratios in Northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiguchi, K.; Ueki, S.; Sano, Y.; Takahata, N.; Hasegawa, A.

    2007-12-01

    The geographical distribution of helium isotope ratios (3He/4He ratios) is characterized by high values of 4 to 8RA (where RA is the atmospheric 3He/4He ratio of 1.39×10-6) along the volcanic front and in the back-arc region at Tohoku district, northeastern Japan. In contrast forearc region shows low values less than 1RA. On the other hand, there is no clear contrast of the 3He/4He ratios except at the central region (e.g., Sano and Wakita, 1985). We perform the helium isotope ratio analysis in northeastern Japan, and around the source region of the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 (M6.8) where 3He/4He ratios data were reported. We have collected 41 samples of gases from hot springs, mineral springs, and deep wells, distributing mainly in the forearc region at Tohoku district. In addition, we also collected 19 samples of gases from hot springs, volcanoes and natural gas fields around the source region of the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007. We measured 3He/4He ratios by noble gas mass spectrometers (Helix and VG5400) of Ocean Research Institute (ORI), the University of Tokyo. The 4He/20Ne were measured by a quadruple mass spectrometer to evaluate air contamination in the samples. δ13C (CO2) values were measured by using a mass spectrometer (DELTA plus XP) of ORI. Main features of our results for Tohoku region are as follows: 1) The 3He/4He ratios in the forearc region are less than 1RA. 2) The 3He/4He ratios vary along the volcanic front. In Miyagi prefecture [38-39N], the ratios range from 2 to 5 RA. On the other hand, the ratios are less than 1RA in and around the southern boundary of Iwate and Akita prefectures [39-39.5N]. The distribution of 3He/4He ratios in Niigata plans to be discussed by comparing with the well-studied seismotectonics and the structure of the crust and upper mantle.

  10. Quality control in the health care in Japan--why CQI does not take root in Japan?

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T

    1997-07-01

    In the above, I have discussed the reasons why the Japanese hospitals failed to systematically improve health care quality from historical and cultural viewpoints with reference to the Japanese health care system. However, young physicians who are also the administrators of their own hospitals have become aware of the importance of the health care quality improvement and of the hospital management assessment by a third party, and they have been making positive efforts to solve the problems in their 30s who work at hospitals are also breaking the past image of conservative and stiff-necked doctor. Though there still remains much to be improved, the idea of informed consent is gradually taking root. The number of patients who insist on "the rights of patient" and "the right to make own decision" is on the increase. The system to have a third party assess the hospital administration is also under way. Under such circumstances, the leadership taken by physician, cooperation between various specialists as a team and the management capability of clerical staff are expected to play important role in the continuous quality improvement activities participated by the whole personnel of hospitals. Japanese industries are famous for their abundant experience and know-how of the management. If the health care industry will seriously tackle with quality improvement through good team work by participation of all the staff without any boundary between the jobs, the Japanese health care level is expected to improve and to satisfy the patients. In the past, boundary between the jobs also existed in Japanese corporations, but this obstacle was removed by taking the customer-oriented stance. It has now become obligatory in the factories to check the product whether it satisfies customers or not in final stage of manufacturing. There is no reason why hospitals cannot learn from these examples. It is now necessary for specialist organizations including hospital associations and Japan

  11. Back-arc basin opening and closure along the southern margin of the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Claringbould, Johan; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Naoko; Abe, Susumu; Kawasaki, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    Following the tsunami disaster produced by 2001 Off-Tohoku earthquake (M9) along the Pacific coast of Japan, the Japanese government started an intense evaluation of tsunami hazards. This evaluation spanned along the full Japanese coast, including the Sea of Japan coast on the western side of the Japan arc. In the Sea of Japan, tsunamis are produced by crustal faults. As the longer interval of faulting activity, the historical records of tsunamis in the Sea of Japan are not enough for the evaluation of tsunami height. Thus, the evaluation is carried out based on structural analyses of the margin of the Sea of Japan. To get better understanding of the present-day structural geometry and develop a source-fault model in this region, intense seismic reflection profiling has been carried out since 2013. We introduce the results of the seismic reflection profiles and discuss the structural evolution of the southern margin of the Sea of Japan. 2D seismic reflection profiles were acquired using 1950 cu. in. air-gun and 2100 m streamer cable. The seismic profiles provide the image image up to 3 seconds TWT. The southern margin of the Sea of Japan was produced by back-arc opening and post-rift deformation, and the structural evolution of this area is divided into several stages: rifting (25 - 14 Ma), post-rift compression (14 - 5 Ma), weak thrusting (5 - 1 Ma), and strike-slip deformation (1 Ma to present). During the rifting stage that is associated with the fan-shaped opening of the Sea of Japan, grabens and half-grabens were formed trending parallel to the extension of SW-Japan arc. These grabens were filled by syn-rift sediments, and the maximum thickness of basin fill is observed along the southern margin of the rifted crust. The opening of the Sea of Japan ceased as a result of the collision of Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system at the Izu collision zone on the central part of Honshu, Japan. Soon after the this event, the young Shikoku basin within the Philippine Sea plate

  12. [Transition of the blind acupuncture and massage industry and its impacts in Japan].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    After being introduced to Japan, the Chinese acupuncture and massage therapy has changed a lot, in which the influence aroused by the blind practitioners cannot be ignored. Through analyzing the development and the transition of the blind acupuncture and massage industry in Japan, it is found that the tube needle technique, changeable acupoints concept, technical deviation and the importance on acupoints rather than meridians are still existed commonly today, which are introduced by the blind acupuncture and massage practitioners, the special group in Japan. In the process of development, the interaction with the governmental strategy has played the essential role in the consolidation of the above features. PMID:26946749

  13. Extratropical transitioning in the RMS Japan typhoon wind field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loridan, Thomas; Scherer, Emilie; Khare, Shree

    2013-04-01

    Given its meridional extent and location within the Pacific basin, Japan is regularly impacted by strong winds from cyclones at different stages of their lifecycle. To quantify the associated risk of damage to properties, catastrophe models such as the ones developed by RMS aim to simulate wind fields from thousands of stochastic storms that extrapolate historical events. In a recent study using 25 years of reanalysis data, Kitabatake (2011) estimated that 40 % of all Pacific tropical cyclones completed their transition as an extra tropical system. From a cat modelling point of view it is the increase in wind field asymmetry observed during these transitioning episodes that is critical, with examples like typhoon Tokage in 2004 showing the potential for damaging gusts on both sides of the storm track. In this context a compromise has to be found between the need for complex numerical models able to simulate wind field variability around the cyclone during its entire evolution, and obvious running time constrains. The RMS wind field model is based on an optimized version of the Willoughby parametric profile (Willoughby et al., 2006) which requires calibration against targets representative of cyclone wind fields throughout their lifecycle. We here present the different sources of data involved in the development of this model. This includes (1) satellite products to characterize wind fields from fully tropical storms, (2) high resolution simulations of key transitioning events using the WRF mesoscale model to complement the database at other stages (i.e. for transitioning and fully extra tropical wind fields), and (3) reanalysis data which can be used with Hart (2003)'s cyclone phase space methodology to provide an estimate of the mean duration of transitioning episodes in the Pacific. Kitabatake, N., 2011: Climatology of extratropical transition of tropical cyclones in the Western North Pacific defined by using cyclone phase space. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 89, 309

  14. Oblique convergence and deformation along the Kuril and Japan trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demets, Charles

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that present-day deformation within the southern Kuril forearc is driven by oblique subduction of the Pacific plate is tested using 397 horizontal slip directions derived from shallow-thrust earthquakes from the Kuril and Japan trenches for the period 1963-1991. A simple two-plate model fits the 397 slip vectors significantly worse than a model that permits strike-slip motion of the southern Kuril forearc relative to the overlying plate. Weighted, mean slip directions along the southern Kuril trench are systematically rotated toward the direction orthogonal to the trench, which implies that the net convergence is partitioned into less oblique subduction and trench-parallel displacement of the southern Kuril forearc. The angular discrepancy between the observed slip direction and the direction predicted by the NUVEL-1 Pacific-North America Euler vector implies that the southern Kuril forearc translates 6-11 mm/yr to the southwest relative to the overlying North American plate. These results are consistent with geologically, geodetically, and seismologically observed convergence at the leading edge of the forearc sliver in southern Kokkaido and with previously inferred extension at the trailing edge of the sliver, which is located at the Bussol Strait at 46 deg N.

  15. [History of organ transplantation in the field of pediatric surgery in Japan].

    PubMed

    Inomata, Yukihiro

    2014-11-01

    In Japan, liver transplantation was first attempted 50 years ago, around the same time as the development of pediatric surgery. In 1989, clinical liver transplantation in Japan started with a living related-donor transplantation in a boy with biliary atresia. In the early years, the majority of recipients were children worldwide, which is why pediatric surgeons played a major role in the establishment of liver transplantation in Japan. From 1998, most of the indications for pediatric patients needing liver transplantation have been covered by governmental health insurance. Since that year, the annual number of pediatric liver transplantations, mainly living-donor transplantations, has remained stable at around 130. Biliary atresia is still the most common indication, but others like metabolic disease and hepatoblastoma have been increasing. Deceased-donor liver transplantation started in 1999 in Japan, but pediatric donors are very rare. Intestinal transplantation in Japan also started in a pediatric patient with short bowel syndrome in 1996. Deceased-donor intestinal transplantation is also performed, but the number of those on the waiting list for bowel transplantations in Japan has been very limited, probably due to financial constraints and relatively poor long-term results. With the change in the Organ Transplant Law in 2010, organ donations in Japan have increased slightly. Cadaveric split-liver transplantation has the potential to expand the benefit to pediatric recipients. A universal system for the long-term follow-up of pediatric recipients should be established to manage their transition to adulthood. PMID:25702514

  16. Modelling Psychological Responses to the Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Incident

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Robin; Takahashi, Masahito; Sun, Shaojing; Gaines, Stanley O.

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto) earthquake of March 2011was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11–13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants), Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants), and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants). Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan). The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events. PMID:22666380

  17. Seismic anisotropy of the upper crust around Mount Fuji, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araragi, Kohtaro R.; Savage, Martha K.; Ohminato, Takao; Aoki, Yosuke

    2015-04-01

    We measure shear wave splitting and estimate stresses of Mount Fuji, Japan, to interpret anisotropic structure and its implication for geologic processes using local crustal earthquake seismograms from 2009 to 2012. The measured fast polarizations have preferred orientations at each station with mean values of delay times <0.15 s. We infer that the anisotropic structure is located at shallow depths (<4 km) from a lack of focal depth dependence of delay times. The fast polarization directions for stations within approximately 15 km of the summit of Mount Fuji show a radial pattern pointing toward the summit, while stations far from the summit exhibit fast polarization directions approximately parallel to the NW-SE compressional regional stress field. We infer that the symmetrical seismic anisotropic structure around the summit and the fast directions parallel to the regional compression observed at distant stations from the summit reflect interactions of the gravitational stresses and regional tectonics. Assuming stress control only, the spatial pattern of anisotropy can be fit by the interaction of gravitational with regional stresses if the regional maximum horizontal stress is 1.02 times lithostatic pressure (51.9 MPa at a depth of 2.0 km). If structural anisotropy also contributes to the radial pattern, then the regional maximum horizontal stress magnitude is not constrained.

  18. The Impact of Japan's 2004 Postgraduate Training Program on Intra-Prefectural Distribution of Pediatricians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Rie; Wang, Wei; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Goto, Rei; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective Inequity in physician distribution poses a challenge to many health systems. In Japan, a new postgraduate training program for all new medical graduates was introduced in 2004, and researchers have argued that this program has increased inequalities in physician distribution. We examined the trends in the geographic distribution of pediatricians as well as all physicians from 1996 to 2010 to identify the impact of the launch of the new training program. Methods The Gini coefficient was calculated using municipalities as the study unit within each prefecture to assess whether there were significant changes in the intra-prefectural distribution of all physicians and pediatricians before and after the launch of the new training program. The effect of the new program was quantified by estimating the difference in the slope in the time trend of the Gini coefficients before and after 2004 using a linear change-point regression design. We categorized 47 prefectures in Japan into two groups: 1) predominantly urban and 2) others by the definition from OECD to conduct stratified analyses by urban-rural status. Results The trends in physician distribution worsened after 2004 for all physicians (p value<.0001) and pediatricians (p value = 0.0057). For all physicians, the trends worsened after 2004 both in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0012) and others (p value<0.0001), whereas, for pediatricians, the distribution worsened in others (p value = 0.0343), but not in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0584). Conclusion The intra-prefectural distribution of physicians worsened after the launch of the new training program, which may reflect the impact of the new postgraduate program. In pediatrics, changes in the Gini trend differed significantly before and after the launch of the new training program in others, but not in predominantly urban prefectures. Further observation is needed to explore how this difference in trends affects

  19. DOE Robotic and Remote Systems Assistance to the Government of Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Wadsworth; Victor Walker

    2013-02-01

    At the request of the Government of Japan, DOE did a complex wide survey of available remotely operated and robotic systems to assist in the initial assessment of the damage to the Fukushima Daiichi reactors following an earthquake and subsequent tsunami. As a result several radiation hardened cameras and a Talon robot were identified as systems that could immediately assist in the effort and were subsequently sent to Japan. These systems were transferred to the Government of Japan and used to map radiation levels surrounding the damaged facilities. This report describes the equipment, its use, data collected, and lessons learned from the experience.

  20. Volcanic subsidence triggered by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Youichiro; Fukushima, Yo

    2013-08-01

    The 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake caused an unprecedented level of crustal deformation in eastern parts of Japan. The event also induced seismic activity in the surrounding area, including some volcanic regions, but has not yet triggered any eruptions. Here we use data from satellite radar and the Global Positioning System to show that volcanic regions, located between 150 and 200km from the rupture area, experienced subsidence coincident with the Tohoku earthquake. The volcanic regions subsided by 5-15cm, forming elliptical depressions with horizontal dimensions of up to 15-20km. The depressions are elongated in a direction roughly perpendicular to the axis of maximum coseismic extension. A high concentration of Late Cenozoic calderas, high heat flow, hot thermal waters, and young and hot granite in the subsided regions imply the presence of magmatic and hot plutonic bodies beneath the volcanoes, that may have deformed and subsided in response to stress changes associated with the Tohoku earthquake along with the surrounding, thermally weakened host rocks. Similar subsidence observed in Chile following the 2010 Maule earthquake indicates that earthquake-triggered subsidence could be widespread in active volcanic chains along subduction zones.

  1. Critical Success Factors of Internet Shopping: The Case of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchariyachanvanich, Kanokwan; Okada, Hitoshi; Sonehara, Noboru

    This paper presents the results from a study conducted on the effect of differing factors on a customer's attitude towards using Internet shopping in Japan. The research model used was an extended version of the consumers' acceptance of virtual stores model with the addition of a new factor, need specificity, and a grouping of critical success factors based on their customer-centric and website-centric viewpoints sources. It examines how differences in the individual characteristics of customers affect the actual use of Internet shopping. According to an online questionnaire filled out by 1,215 online customers used to conduct a multiple regression analysis and a structural equation modeling analysis, the participant's gender, education level, innovativeness, net-orientation, and need specificity, which are the factors for the customer-centric viewpoints, have a positive impact on the actual use of Internet shopping. The implication also shows that Japanese online customers do not worry about the quality of service of Internet shopping, a factor in the website-centric viewpoint, as significantly as offline customers do.

  2. [The origination of surgery (Kinso treatment) in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    From the Nara period through to the end of the Heian and early Kamakura periods, the population of Japan grew by 50% thanks to increases in rice cultivation. Such expanded food production resulted in changes in the social structure providing opportunities to those in control of armed forces to become local feudal lords. Many wars fought in the process necessitated the development of treatment methods for Kinso (wounds caused by swords, spears, and similar weapons), to which Jinsoes (Buddhist monks/doctors that accompanied troops) attended, making extensive use of herbal medicine that had been developed by the people of the time. Many war commanders brought Jinsoes to battle fields, which became a custom during the Sengoku (warring) period. As many of the Jinsoes were well educated, they also served as entertainers to the commanders through their knowledge in Go or Renga (a game involving popular poetical verses). Their talents and training eventually resulted in many of the so called traditional arts including Noh, Kabuki, tea ceremony and earthenware production. PMID:19579831

  3. The present and future of telemedicine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T

    2001-05-01

    Telemedicine has always developed in close relation with communication technology. When only aural telephones were used, several experiments of telemedicine were carried out by utilizing telephone lines. When INS64 (ISDN with 64 kbits) and telecommunication satellites came onto the scene, experiments for telemedicine began to be conducted accordingly using the cutting-edge technology of the time. In this paper, one of the three categories of telemedicine, mainly tele-consultation that includes tele-pathology and tele-radiology, will be discussed with some examples conducted in Japan. As time goes on, the aim of telemedicine has also been changing. In 1996, the Japanese government gave the go ahead for telemedicine along its deregulation policies. Telemedicine including tele-home care in the 21st century will use the Internet and digital HDTV (high-definition TV) technology for information and data management interchangeably both at domestic and global levels in the medical environment. Also, our dream of a hyper-hospital or virtual hospital will be realized in cyberspace before long, but first we may have to overcome several tough problems such as the protection of privacy data, malpractice and vulnerability of technology relevant to the Internet and telecommunications satellite system as a whole. PMID:11311667

  4. [Problems in the management of clinical laboratories in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kayaba, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-01

    In Japan, laboratory automation has spread over the last two decades. Laboratory automation has saved time and labor for routine sample tests in clinical laboratories, and contributed to the downsizing of the division. This "contribution" resulted in re-arrangement of the work-force, namely, shrinkage of the blood chemistry division and expansion of the physiological tests and diagnostic imaging division. Some may call this re-arrangement as an adaptation for survival. However, I am concerned that extreme adaptation may cause irreversible shrinkage of clinical laboratories and laboratory medicine itself. In fact, outsourcing of sample tests including microbiological tests has become very popular over the last decade. Since the cost for microbiological tests is suppressed by the national health insurance policy, it is becoming difficult to keep microbiological laboratories in small-scale hospitals. The presence of a microbiological laboratory in a hospital is crucial for prompt and appropriate therapies for infectious diseases, and is essential for advanced infection control activities. The government is pushing forward fixed-term employment in national universities and hospitals, threatening long-term career planning for medical technologists. We have to keep in mind that nurturing medical personnel with special skills and extensive knowledge is mandatory to university hospitals, and laboratory medicine is crucial to the progress of modern medicine. PMID:23198536

  5. Radioactivity inspection of Taiwan for food products imported from Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Huang-Sheng; Huang, Ping-Ji; Wuu, Jyi-Lan; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-11-01

    The 3-11 Earthquake occurred in Japan last year had greatly damaged the lives and properties and also caused the core meltdown accident in the Fukushima nuclear power plant followed by the leakage of radioactive materials into biosphere. In order to protect against the detriment of radiation from foods which were imported from Japan, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan started to conduct radioactivity inspection of food products from Japan after the accident. A total of about 20,000 samples had been tested from March 24 2011 to March 31 2012. PMID:23583088

  6. Observations of the Rigollet Comet from Korea and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Ahn, Young Sook; Kim, Bong-Gyu

    2014-03-01

    Since Rigollet first discovered a comet in 1939, many follow-up observations have been made, particularly in Europe. It is now known that the Rigollet comet is identical with the one observed by Herschel in 1788, and thus it is now called 35P/1939 O1 or the Herschel-Rigollet comet. Yumi, a Japanese astronomer, also observed the Rigollet comet in Korea using a 6-inch refractor telescope, and published his data in two Japanese journals (Bulletin of the Observatory of the Government-General of Korea and Publication of the Lecture on Meteorology). In his paper, Yumi also referred to observations by Hirose and Kanda in Japan. However, their works have not been given attention by international society. In this study, we analyze the observation data of Yumi and present preliminary orbital elements using it with a modified Gauss method. We expect that this study will be used to refine the orbital elements of the Rigollet comet by orbital-calculation experts. For that reason, we have also transcribed all the observational data presented by Yumi.

  7. 76 FR 41761 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom: Revocation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Plain Bearings, and Parts Thereof From Japan, 54 FR 20904 (May 15, 1989), and Antidumping Duty Orders..., Germany, Italy, Japan, Singapore, and the United Kingdom, 70 FR 31531 (June 1, 2005); see also 19 CFR 351... Japan and Singapore; Five-year Sunset Reviews of Antidumping Duty Orders; Final Results, 71 FR...

  8. Educational Levels and Risk of Suicide in Japan: The Japan Public Health Center Study (JPHC) Cohort I

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Takashi; Honjo, Kaori; Ikehara, Satoyo; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Suicide rates have been related to educational level and other socioeconomic statuses. However, no prospective study has examined the association between educational level and the risk of suicide in Japan. Methods We examined the association of education level and suicide risk in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women aged 40–59 years in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study Cohort I. In the baseline survey initiated in 1990, a total of 46 156 subjects (21 829 men and 24 327 women) completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included a query of educational level, and were followed up until the end of December 2011. Educational levels were categorized into four groups (junior high school, high school, junior or career college, and university or higher education). During a median follow-up of 21.6 years, the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of suicide according to educational level were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusted for age; study area; previous history of stroke, ischemic heart disease, or cancer; self-reported stress; alcohol consumption; smoking; living with spouse; and employment status. A total of 299 deaths attributed to suicide occurred. Results The HR for university graduates or those with higher education versus junior high school graduates was 0.47 (95% CI, 0.24–0.94) in men, and that for high school graduates versus junior high school graduates was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.24–0.79) in women. Conclusions High educational levels were associated with a reduced risk of suicide for both Japanese men and women. PMID:27064129

  9. Labor Market Changes and Adjustments: How Do the U.S. and Japan Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarzik, Robert W.; Shiells, Clinton R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors analyze labor market flexibility and adjustment capabilities of Japan and the United States. They examine the job shift to services and trends in wages, productivity, and exchange rates to judge the international competitive position of each country. (CH)

  10. Proceedings of the 9th U.S.-Japan natural resources panel for earthquake research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2015-01-01

    The Panel strongly urges that the appropriate agencies in the U.S. and Japan that are represented on this panel work together with the academic sector to support and coordinate scientific work in these areas of cooperation. The Panel recognizes the importance of promoting the exchange of scientific personnel, exchange of data, and fundamental studies to advance progress in earthquake research. The U.S. and Japan should promote these exchanges throughout the world. The Panel endorses continuation of these activities.

  11. Development of Observatories for the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyo, N.; Namba, Y.; Saruhashi, T.; Sawada, I.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Kano, Y.; Yamano, M.; Muraki, H.; Fulton, P. M.; Brodsky, E. E.; Davis, E. E.; Sun, T.; Mori, J. J.; Chester, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake and accompanying tsunami produced the largest slip ever recorded in an earthquake and devastated much of northern Japan on March 11, 2011. The IODP proposal for JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling project) planned to drill into the Tohoku subduction zone using the research ship Chikyu, measure the fault zone physical properties, recover fault zone material, and install an observatory to directly record the temperature anomaly caused by frictional slip during the earthquake. Considering the significant technical and operational challenges related to the great water depth of ~7,000 meters, and timing constraints, the observatory needed to be both robust and simple. After frequent discussions among scientists, engineers and operators, we decided to prepare two different types of observatories. 1. Autonomous MTL (Miniature Temperature Logger) observatory. The important temperature monitoring is accomplished by 55 MTLs attached to a string (Vectran rope) which is suspended inside a 4.5" casing in the borehole. The string latches at the top of the casing to allow retrieval using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Kaiko operated by JAMSTEC. This observatory avoids risks associated with a thermistor cable and wellhead data logger, and increases reliability by applying proven technologies. Perhaps most importantly, this configuration allows flexibility in defining the final depth distribution of the temperature sensors. This is advantageous since information of the exact depth of the fault zone will be known only after drilling and logging. Also, the judicious placement of weak links along the string helps to minimize possible loss of the entire sensor string if it is clamped by post-seismic movements that deform the casing. 2. Telemetered PT (Pressure and Temperature) observatory. Based on the previous deployment experience of the NanTroSEIZE C0010 observatory, we prepared another system that enables long term monitoring and repeated ROV data

  12. Construction/Application of the Internet Observatories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, T.; Tsubota, Y.; Matsumoto, N.; Takahashi, N.

    2000-05-01

    We have successfully built two Internet Observatories in Japan: one at Noda campus of the Science University of Tokyo and another at Hiyoshi campus of the Keio Senior High School. Both observatories are equipped with a computerized Meade LX-200 telescope (8" tube at the SUT site and 12" at the Keio site) with a CCD video camera inside the sliding-roof type observatory. Each observatory is controlled by two personal computer: one controls almost everything, including the roof, the telescope, and the camera, while another is dedicated to encode the real-time picture from the CCD video camera into the RealVideo format for live broadcasting. A user can operate the observatory through the web-based interface and can enjoy the real-time picture of the objects via the RealPlayer software. The administrator can run a sequence of batch commands with which no human interaction is needed from the beginning to the end of an observation. Although our observatories are primarily for educational purposes, this system can easily be converted to a signal-triggered one which may be very useful to observe transient phenomena, such as afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. The most remarkable feature of our observatories is that it is very inexpensive (it costs only a few tens of grands). We'll report details of the observatories in the poster, and at the same time, will demonstrate operating the observatories using an internet-connected PC from the meeting site. This work has been supported through the funding from the Telecommunicaitons Advancement Foundation for FY 1998 and 1999.

  13. Deep Groundwater Property in the Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marui, A.

    2001-12-01

    The Kanto Plain is Japan's largest plain, and is also that country's largest groundwater basin. Tokyo City is located in the central part of the plain, and the area was famous for the land subsidence in 20-30 years ago. The plain was enclosed by mountains in the northern and western side, and the groundwater is thought to be infiltrated in the mountain and though the plain. The basin is constituted by marine layers (over than 3000m thick) that contain fossil water, as well as, in some parts, natural gas and fossil seawater. Past research has led one to estimate that the groundwater was recharged by meteoric water in the deep part of the layers. In this study, groundwater taken from hot spring wells was analyzed in order to clarify the chemical characteristics, origin, and flow system of deep groundwater, and chemical analysis of major dissolved ion and isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen was carried out. As a result, deep groundwater in the Kanto Plain was divided into two types: one with low EC and Na-HCO3 water quality, and one with high EC and Na-Cl water quality. The isotopic composition leads one to estimate that the former was groundwater originated from meteoric water, and that the latter has been formed by the mixing of meteoric water and fossil seawater. In deeper parts, more than 1,000m in coastal areas, the Cl- concentration of groundwater was lower than that of seawater. This result suggests the existence of a deep groundwater flow system. The groundwater shallower than 400m is controlled by government regulations in the Kanto plain, especially around Tokyo, because of prevent the previous damages like land subsidence. The recent development of hot springs and leisure land, which use deeper groundwater, contribute the study of deep groundwater flow system.

  14. Tsunami source uncertainty estimation: The 2011 Japan tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmer, Jan; Hawkins, Rhys; Cummins, Phil R.; Hossen, Jakir; Sambridge, Malcolm; Hino, Ryota; Inazu, Daisuke

    2016-06-01

    This paper studies the initial sea surface displacement and its uncertainty after an earthquake based on tsunami waveforms. The spatial distribution is inferred with a Bayesian approach that provides probabilities that are interpreted as uncertainties of the displaced sea surface. The parameterization is nonlinear and treats apparent rupture velocity as unknown but assumes rise time to be fixed at 30 s. Importantly, the spatial complexity of the source is constrained by observations using a transdimensional algorithm based on a wavelet decomposition of the displacement field. In this approach, the number of wavelet coefficients is an unknown random variable that is also estimated as part of the inversion. The resulting parameterization is parsimonious in that it can adapt to the spatially varying source complexity while being consistent with the information in the tsunami waveforms. In this way, the resolution of displacement varies across the source region with more parameters introduced for parts of the source that are resolved well by the data and/or have significant complexity. The noise level (standard deviation) at each gauge is initially treated as unknown to estimate data covariance matrices. These matrices are applied in subsequent inversion and include unknown scaling which eliminates the requirement to assume station weights and accounts for temporally correlated waveform noise. The method is applied to waveforms recorded during the 2011 Japan Tsunami and results show high resolution (low uncertainty) in most parts of the source region and a previously unreported level of source detail. In particular, the main peak of the source is elongated trench parallel and shows a well-resolved bimodal finger-like feature in the northern source region that closely follows the trench.

  15. Internationalizing Practical ChE Education: The M.I.T. Practice School in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Andrea J.; Kandas, Angelo W.; Natori, Yukikazu; Hatton, T. Alan

    1999-01-01

    Describes the establishment, benefits, and difficulties of an overseas branch of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) chemical engineering Practice School for student internship study at the Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation's Mizushima Plant in Kurashiki, Japan. (WRM)

  16. Japan wields industrial policy to try to become the world leader in environmental technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jubak, J.; D`Amico, M.

    1993-12-31

    From the Shinkansen, the famous Japanese bullet train, it is hard to see much besides the urban and industrial sprawl of twentieth-century Japan. As the rain speeds out of Tokyo, it passes miles of undistinguished houses on narrow, drab streets. Even the few remaining tilled gardens seem dispirited. Mt. Fuji rises out of this techno-industrial plain like a half-remembered woodcut of traditional Japan, the Japan of spring green rice fields, an bunraku puppets, and purple iris against century-old pines. At the right hour, even from the train, the sun seems to guild its peak. Of course, nobody who knows Japan would be surprised to learn that the government is seriously considered a proposal to build a four-story, 500-vehicle parking garage halfway up the slope.

  17. Coseismic slip distribution of the 1923 Kanto earthquake, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Nyst, M.; Nishimura, T.; Thatcher, W.

    2005-01-01

    The slip distribution associated with the 1923 M = 7.9 Kanto, Japan, earthquake is reexamined in light of new data and modeling. We utilize a combination of first-order triangulation, second-order triangulation, and leveling data in order to constrain the coseismic deformation. The second-order triangulation data, which have not been utilized in previous studies of 1923 coseismic deformation, are associated with only slightly smaller errors than the first-order triangulation data and expand the available triangulation data set by about a factor of 10. Interpretation of these data in terms of uniform-slip models in a companion study by Nyst et al. shows that a model involving uniform coseismic slip on two distinct rupture planes explains the data very well and matches or exceeds the fit obtained by previous studies, even one which involved distributed slip. Using the geometry of the Nyst et al. two-plane slip model, we perform inversions of the same geodetic data set for distributed slip. Our preferred model of distributed slip on the Philippine Sea plate interface has a moment magnitude of 7.86. We find slip maxima of ???8-9 m beneath Odawara and ???7-8 m beneath the Miura peninsula, with a roughly 2:1 ratio of strike-slip to dip-slip motion, in agreement with a previous study. However, the Miura slip maximum is imaged as a more broadly extended feature in our study, with the high-slip region continuing from the Miura peninsula to the southern Boso peninsula region. The second-order triangulation data provide good evidence for ???3 m right-lateral strike slip on a 35-km-long splay structure occupying the volume between the upper surface of the descending Philippine Sea plate and the southern Boso peninsula. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Public Outreach Program of the Planetary society of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyori, Tasuku

    2002-01-01

    The Planetary Society of Japan, TPS/J, was founded on October 6, 1999 as the first international wing of The Planetary Society. The Society's objectives are to support exploration of the solar system and search for extraterrestrial life at the grass-roots level in terms of enhancing Japanese people's concern and interest in them. With close-knit relationships with the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, ISAS, and The Planetary Society, TPS/J has been trying to fulfil its goal. Introduced below are major public outreach programs. Planetary Report in Japanese The key vehicle that reaches members. The publication is offered to members together with the English issue every two months. Reprint of Major Texts from The Planetary Report for Science Magazine Major texts from The Planetary Report are reprinted in Nature Science, the science magazine with monthly circulation of 20,000. The science monthly has been published with an aim to provide an easier access to science. Website: http://www.planetary.or.jp A mainstay of the vehicle to reach science-minded people. It covers planetary news on a weekly basis, basics of the solar system and space exploring missions. In order to obtain support of many more people, the weekly email magazine is also provided. It has been enjoying outstanding popularity among subscribers thanks to inspiring commentaries by Dr. Yasunori Matogawa, the professor of ISAS. Public Outreach Events TPS/J's first activity of this kind was its participation in the renowned open-house event at ISAS last August. The one-day event has attracted 20,000 visitors every summer. TPS/J joined the one-day event with the Red Rover, Red Rover project for children, exhibition of winning entries of the international space art contest and introduction of SETI@home. TPS/J also participated in a couple of other planetary events, sponsored by local authorities. TPS/J will continue to have an opportunity to get involved in these public events Tie-up with the

  19. The characteristics of patient safety culture in Japan, Taiwan and the United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quality and safety issues are receiving growing attention. Patient safety culture (PSC) plays an important role in patient safety. The characteristics of PSC in various countries, each with a different set of values, have not been determined sufficiently. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of PSC in Japan, Taiwan and the U.S. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Japan and Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on PSC (HSOPS) questionnaire developed by the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Data from Japan and Taiwan were also compared with the U.S. “2010 HSOPS Comparative Database” provided by AHRQ. Results Valid response rates in Japan, Taiwan and the U.S. were 66.5% (6,963/10,466), 85.7% (10,019/11,692) and 35.2% (291,341/827,424), respectively. The proportion of respondents with some experience of event reporting during the past 12 months was highest in Japan. In general, U.S. healthcare workers were likely to evaluate their PSC higher than that in Japan or Taiwan. The attitude of continuous improvement in Japan and event reporting of near misses in Taiwan were rated as low. In the U.S., staffing was rated as high. Conclusions The results suggest that PSC varies among different countries, and the cultural setting of each country should be given special consideration in the development of effective intervention plans to improve PSC. Additional investigations with improved methodology and a common protocol are required to accurately compare PSCs among countries. PMID:23316872

  20. Diamonds in the rough: key performance indicators for reticles and design sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackmann, Paul

    2008-10-01

    The discussion on reticle cost continues to raise questions by many in the semiconductor industry. The diamond industry developed a method to judge and grade diamonds. [1, 11] The diamond-marketing tool of "The 4Cs of Diamonds" and other slogans help explain the multiple, complex variables that determine the value of a particular stone. Understanding the critical factors of Carat, Clarity, Color, and Cut allows all customers to choose a gem that matches their unique desires. I apply the same principles of "The 4Cs of Diamonds" to develop an analogous method for rating and tracking reticle performance. I introduced the first 3Cs of reticle manufacturing during my BACUS presentation panel at SPIE in February 2008. [2] To these first 3Cs (Capital, Complexity, and Content), I now add a fourth, Cycle time. I will look at how our use of reticles changes by node and use "The 4Cs of Reticles" to develop the key performance indicators (KPI) that will help our industry set standards for evaluating reticle technology. Capital includes both cost and utilization. This includes tools, people, facilities, and support systems required for building the most critical reticles. Tools have highest value in the first two years of use, and each new technology node will likely increase the Capital cost of reticles. New technologies, specifications, and materials drive Complexity for reticles, including smaller feature size, increased optical proximity correction (OPC), and more levels at sub-wavelength. The large data files needed to create finer features require the use of the newest tools for writing, inspection, and repair. Content encompasses the customer's specifications and requirements, which the mask shop must meet. The specifications are critical because they drive wafer yield. A clear increase of the number of masking levels has occurred since the 90 nm node. Cycle time starts when the design is finished and lasts until the mask house ships the reticle to the fab. Depending on

  1. The development of use of oral morphine within the last 10 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeda, F

    2001-01-01

    Japan's national cancer relief programme was initiated with a field-test of the WHO guidelines for cancer pain management in 1982. It revealed in an excellent result that 87% of 156 cancer patients could be completely relieved of their persistent pain, but this result were ignored by most Japanese health professionals, because of their lack of interest in cancer pain relief. The WHO guidelines were published in 1986 and made quite an impact on those health professionals in Japan. In 1987, a special research team appointed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (MOHW) initiated discussion on the philosophy of palliative care in Japan. According to the recommendations made by this research team, the MOHW established a new policy on palliative care, edited manuals on palliative care for terminally ill cancer patients which included guidelines on cancer pain management, and revised narcotics control measures by 1992 in order to much improve the accessibility of opioid analgesics to cancer patients who need them for effective pain relief. The annual consumption of morphine for medical purposes was only 65 kg in 1986 in Japan, but it rose to 973 kg in 1999. Currently, morphine is mostly given by mouth and two-thirds of morphine preparations consumed are MS Contin Tablets. However, the current morphine consumption per capita in Japan is still less than one-sixth of the consumption in the United States. In order to achieve further improvement, educational effort should be much emphasized. In the 1990s, approximately 70% of medical and nursing schools in Japan have initiated their educational curriculum for cancer pain relief and palliative care. There have been government-sponsored, medical, nursing and pharmaceutical societies-sponsored seminar courses on appropriate morphine use in cancer pain management, palliative care and opioid availability, all of which have increasingly strengthened postgraduate education. PMID:11798223

  2. Reuse of secondhand TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi

    2010-06-15

    The trade of secondhand electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) from developed to developing countries has become a growing environmental issue owing to concerns about improper recycling of these goods in developing countries. We followed a 12-m cargo container of cathode-ray-tube color TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines in February 2008. We surveyed the number of TVs damaged in transport, as well as the number of malfunctioning TVs from this shipment. In addition, we present the results of interviews with 113 Filipino consumers who intended to buy secondhand EEE at nine secondhand shops in Metro Manila. Approximately 3% of the imported TVs were damaged upon arrival. The importer sold some of the units directly to local dealers, and kept the rest to repair, refurbish and resell. Approximately 40% of the imported TVs malfunctioned and needed repair in addition to basic reconditioning. Most interviewees indicated that they prefer to buy secondhand EEE because the prices are lower than those of brand-new products. Consumers indicated that they planned on using the product for an average of about 5 years, but the actual period of use may be lower. Most end-of-life EEE in the Philippines is dismantled and recycled by unregulated companies and untrained individuals in markets or near landfill sites, and it is clear that a proper collection system and treatment methods are needed for e-waste. In addition to the material flow of secondhand TVs, we also discuss several economic aspects and appropriate control measures of the international reuse of secondhand TVs.

  3. [Role of urologists in the era of new treatment modalities for CRPC in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ozono, Seiichiro

    2014-07-01

    New medical treatment modalities for castration resistant prostate cancer(CRPC), including hormonal therapy and chemotherapy, will be approved in Japan. Here, we discuss the management of these new treatment strategies by urologists. PMID:25131867

  4. Back-arc Mantle Evolution inferred from Peridotite Xenotlishs from the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, T.; Ichiyama, Y.; Tamura, A.; Arai, S.

    2014-12-01

    Peridotite xenoliths are recovered in basaltic to andesitic lavas from several localities in the Japan Sea, a Miocene back-arc basin of the Western Pacific region. These peridotites are classified into two groups: two-pyroxene peridotitess and dunite-wehrlite groups. Although slight chemical modifications are observed in these peridotite samples, two-pyroxene peridotite group has retained their original residual mantle geochemical signatures left after partial melting. The dunite-wehrlite group is, on the other hand, probably formed by extensive interaction of the two-pyroxene peridotite group. We examined trace element characteristics of clinopyroxene in these xenoliths. Light REE-depleted clinopyroxenes that are usually interpreted as a simple residual mantle after anhydrous partial melting are similar to those of abyssal peridotite recovered from mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins. Other samples show LREE-enriched patterns that are residues after influx melting caused by hydrous melt/supercritical fluids released from the subducted slab at high pressure conditions. The geotectonic and geochemical variations of the peridotite xenoliths from the Japan Sea (Shirabeshi Seamount, Seifu Seamount and Oshima-Oshima Island) suggest that the mantle beneath the Japan Sea are suffered from hydrous to anhydrous melting as the Japan Sea forms. This is consistent with the geochemical and isotopic results from Miocene basaltic rocks formed during opening of the Japan Sea (Sato et al., Jour. Petrol., 2013). The Japan Sea peridotite xenoliths also shed lights on the origin of ophiolites.

  5. Profile of tuberculosis among the foreign-born population in Japan, 2007–2014

    PubMed Central

    Uchimura, Kazuhiro; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Ohkado, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of foreign-born people among the newly notified tuberculosis (TB) patients has been increasing in recent years and potentially poses a new challenge to TB control in Japan. In this report, we analysed the data from the Japan TB surveillance system between 2007 and 2014 to gain an overview of the trends and characteristics of foreign-born TB patients in Japan. We found that the proportion of foreign-born TB patients was especially high among the younger age groups – 44.1% among the 20–29 years age group in 2014. The largest groups of foreign-born patients were from China and the Philippines; however, the number of those from Nepal and Viet Nam was on the rise. Students comprised the second largest professional category group for TB after regular workers, and its proportion increased over the study period. Compared to Japan-born TB patients, foreign-born patients were more likely to be diagnosed through routine medical check-ups. Treatment successes and patients still on treatment were significantly lower among foreign-born patients than their Japan-born counterparts; and transferred-out and unknown outcomes were higher. Our results indicated that distinctive subgroups within the foreign-born population in Japan, especially students and regular workers, might have a higher risk of developing TB. Measures to ensure early diagnosis and treatment adherence should be adapted to such populations. PMID:27508086

  6. Profile of tuberculosis among the foreign-born population in Japan, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Kawatsu, Lisa; Uchimura, Kazuhiro; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Ohkado, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of foreign-born people among the newly notified tuberculosis (TB) patients has been increasing in recent years and potentially poses a new challenge to TB control in Japan. In this report, we analysed the data from the Japan TB surveillance system between 2007 and 2014 to gain an overview of the trends and characteristics of foreign-born TB patients in Japan. We found that the proportion of foreign-born TB patients was especially high among the younger age groups - 44.1% among the 20-29 years age group in 2014. The largest groups of foreign-born patients were from China and the Philippines; however, the number of those from Nepal and Viet Nam was on the rise. Students comprised the second largest professional category group for TB after regular workers, and its proportion increased over the study period. Compared to Japan-born TB patients, foreign-born patients were more likely to be diagnosed through routine medical check-ups. Treatment successes and patients still on treatment were significantly lower among foreign-born patients than their Japan-born counterparts; and transferred-out and unknown outcomes were higher. Our results indicated that distinctive subgroups within the foreign-born population in Japan, especially students and regular workers, might have a higher risk of developing TB. Measures to ensure early diagnosis and treatment adherence should be adapted to such populations. PMID:27508086

  7. [Epidemiology of syringomyelia in Japan--the nationwide survey].

    PubMed

    Moriwaka, F; Tashiro, K; Tachibana, S; Yada, K

    1995-12-01

    The nationwide epidemiological survey of syringomyelia was carried out in Japan by sending inquiries to neurologists, child neurologists, neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons for the period of 1991 and 1992. A total of 1,243 cases of syringomyelia were ascertained. Among them, 622 were men and 619 women, and the average age of onset was 28 years old. The classification by Barnett et al was used, presenting syringomyelia with Chiari malformation in 684 cases (51.2%), dysraphism in 47 (3.7%), post traumatic syringomyelia in 139 (11%), post-spinal arachnoiditis in 76 (6%), spinal cord tumor in 132 (10.5%) and others in 204. Its predominant clinical course was slowly progressive, but 202 cases (17.9%) showed rather stable course including spontaneous resolution in 29 cases. The main initial symptoms were numbness in 522 cases (42%), motor disturbance in 504 (40.5%), and pain in 296 (23.8%). Neurologic signs noted in the abnormality of deep tendon reflexes in 836 cases (67.3%), motor disturbance in 763 (60.4%) and positive pathological reflexes in 383 (30.1%). Sensory disturbance was found in 942 cases (75.8%) and the dissociated type were 559 out of them (59.3%). It is noteworthy that 982 out of 1,243 were documented by MRI and surgical operations such as foramen magnum decompression, syringo-subarachnoid shunt and others were performed in 829 cases. Syringobulbia was confirmed on MRI in 101 cases of syringomyelia in which spinal cord tumors were most frequently associated. PMID:8752408

  8. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty. PMID:25296517

  9. Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies. PMID:24598274

  10. Investigations of The Structure of Mesoscale Convective Systems Over The Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezrin, M. Yu.; Starokoltsev, E. V.; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi

    Under the Joint Research Agreement between the Central Aerological Observatory of the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, Russia (CAO) and Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Japan (JST), investigations of the structure and formation/development mechanisms of mesoscale convective systems in the Sea of Japan area were carried out in January- February 2001 from board a Russian research aircraft IL-18. The aircraft was equipped with navigation and research instruments to investigate diverse atmospheric and cloud parameters, including instrumentation to study turbulent transport of moisture, heat, etc. The meteorological situation was characterized by a surge of cold, dry continental air to the rear of a cold front (i.e., from Siberia to the open surface of the Sea of Japan). Horizontal measurements were made during flights at altitudes of 100, 500, 1500, and 3000 m, between Vladivistok, Russia, and Sado Island of Japan. As a result of the investigations of turbulent moisture transport at a 100-m level, mesostructure features of the transport were observed having a horizontal scale of about 30 km and an amplitude of about 0.100 g/m2s. The shape and magnitude of such features repeated at a 500-m level, their position shifting windward with time. This phenomenon was evidently caused by cylindrical convection, whose spatial structure showed in the arrangement of cloud streets formed at a 1500-m level. Satellite pictures of the cloud streets were used.