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  1. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  2. Japan.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship. PMID:12178004

  3. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  4. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  5. Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  6. Distinct S wave reflector in the midcrust beneath Nikko-Shirane volcano in the northeastern Japan arc

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Akira

    1996-02-10

    This paper investigates the geometry and the features of the midcrustal s wave reflector beneath Nikko-Shirane valcano in detail based on data acquired through seismic observations with a dense station network. The geometry and internal structure of the reflector is discribed.

  7. Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Tokyo, (35.5N, 140.0E) the capital city of Japan, Tokyo Bay and the neighboring cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Chiba are seen in this view of Japan. This great international seaport facility covers almost all of the bayfront and is home to over thirty million people.

  8. Japan Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     ... 2011, and its subsequent tsunami, several oil refineries and industrial complexes caught fire, including facilities in the Port of Sendai ...

  9. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  10. Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Cities mingle with rugged hills and a dormant volcano in this image of Hokkaido, Japan. This three-dimensional image comes from observations made by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on July 23, 2006. The view is toward the north and slightly east. Green indicates vegetation; beige and gray indicate bare ground, paved surfaces, or buildings; and dark blue indicates water. The water body at the top of the image is the Pacific Ocean. Now dormant, Mount Yotei is a stratovolcano--a symmetrical cone composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks ejected in previous eruptions. It reaches a height of 1,898 meters (6,227 feet), and its summit sports a 700-meter- (2,297-foot-) wide crater. Snow often caps this volcano, but in this summertime shot, the volcano's summit is snow-free. The volcano is also known as Ezo-Fuji for its resemblance to Mount Fuji. As angular patches of gray and beige indicate, urban areas surround the volcano, most notably the city of Kutchan to the northwest. Even when volcanoes remain active, people often settle close to them, drawn by benefits of good soil and mild climates that appear to outweigh the risks. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  11. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  12. Journey to Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Lorraine

    1978-01-01

    Create a variety of activities related to the country you are studying--Japan, for example--and arrange them by such subjects as art, games, creative writing, maps, dress and greetings. These activities can be tied in with classroom learning centers or stations. Here students make passports, learn about traditional styles of dress in Japan, learn…

  13. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  14. TWELVE DOORS TO JAPAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEARDSLEY, RICHARD K.; HALL, JOHN WHITNEY

    THE TWELVE DOORS OF THIS COLLEGE-LEVEL TEXT ARE TWELVE CHAPTERS ON ASPECTS OF JAPAN AND JAPANESE CULTURE AS TREATED BY VARIOUS ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES. THE AUTHORS' PURPOSE IN CHOOSING THIS FORMAT WAS TO PRESENT INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION ABOUT JAPAN AND TO ACQUAINT STUDENTS WITH THE AIMS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS OF DISCIPLINES OTHER THAN THE ONE THEY…

  15. Teaching English in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji, Ed.; And Others

    English language instruction, which is considered very important in Japan, is offered in 90 percent of all secondary schools and is studied by almost all students, even though it is an elective subject. English is considered a cultural and commercial link with the western world and has been taught in Japan since the mid-nineteenth century. Most…

  16. Rehabilitation in Japan, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japanese Society for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, Tokyo.

    The scope of Japan's rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities is reviewed and discussed from the perspective of social and demographic change in that country. An introductory chapter on the current situation in Japan looks at characteristics of the land, the people, the government, industry and the economy, and the culture. The second…

  17. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  18. GPM Arrives in Japan

    NASA Video Gallery

    An international satellite that will set a new standard for global precipitation measurements from space has completed a 7,300-mile journey from the United States to Japan, where it now will underg...

  19. Space communications in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.

    This paper outlines some of the planned satellite comunication projects in Japan over the next 5-7 years. In addition, Japanese space development policies are set out along with a historic review of the development of artificial satellites.

  20. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; McCain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-03-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  1. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  2. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  3. Occupational asthma in Japan.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio

    2012-07-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to advances in anti-asthma medication, control by medical treatment tends to be emphasized and the search for causative antigens seems to be neglected. Furthermore, we do not have a Japanese guideline for diagnosis and management of OA. This article discusses the current state of OA in Japan. PMID:22872819

  4. "Hands on" Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borries, Richard

    Cultural learning kits designed by Evansville, Indiana teachers, supervisors, and community advisory groups were compiled to provide information about Japan to community organizations and students. This document provides a key to the contents of the kits. The kits contain teaching materials and information about food, school materials, language…

  5. Advanced composites in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diefendorf, R. Judd; Hillig, William G.; Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Pipes, R. Byron; Perepezko, John H.; Sheehan, James E.

    1994-01-01

    The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high-performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic, and carbon matrices. Because of a strong carbon and fiber industry, Japan is the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation-resistant carbon/carbon composite program. With its outstanding technical base in carbon technology, Japan should be able to match present technology in the U.S. and introduce lower-cost manufacturing methods. However, the panel did not see any innovative approaches to oxidation protection. Ceramic and especially intermetallic matrix composites were not yet receiving much attention at the time of the panel's visit. There was a high level of monolithic ceramic research and development activity. High temperature monolithic intermetallic research was just starting, but notable products in titanium aluminides had already appeared. Matrixless ceramic composites was one novel approach noted. Technologies for high temperature composites fabrication existed, but large numbers of panels or parts had not been produced. The Japanese have selected aerospace as an important future industry. Because materials are an enabling technology for a strong aerospace industry, Japan initiated an ambitious long-term program to develop high temperature composites. Although just starting, its progress should be closely monitored in the U.S.

  6. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  7. Dutch surgery in Japan.

    PubMed

    van Gulik, Thomas M; Nimura, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of Nagasaki, called Decima. Western culture and science reached the Japanese exclusively through the Dutch on Decima. Health care on Decima was provided by Dutch barber-surgeons, who introduced Western surgical practice in Japan. Official interpreters were the only Japanese allowed on Decima. It was from among these interpreters that the first Japanese surgeons arose who, having mastered the Dutch language, translated several Dutch anatomic and surgical texts. Genpaku Sugita translated a Dutch anatomy textbook into Japanese, which was completed in 1774. This book, entitled Kaitai Shinsho [New Book on Anatomy], was the first Western scientific monograph to be translated entirely into Japanese. Several Dutch surgical schools were founded through which Dutch surgery, known in Japan as "surgery of the red-haired" was propagated. According to the custom of the surgical guilds in Holland, certificates were granted to Japanese apprentices who had completed their training in Dutch surgery. About 60 Dutch surgeons had served on Decima up to 1850, providing the basis for surgery to develop in Japan. Among them, Philipp Franz von Siebold was an exceptional scholar who also had a great impact in making Japanese culture known to the Western world. PMID:15599736

  8. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  9. [Films: China and Japan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumport, Roberta H.

    The history of filmmaking in China and Japan and film usage in teaching are considered in this document. Pointing out how films describe historical context and culture, the document also describes various techniques of film making. Films in China were heavily influenced by western models and have tended to be tools of the power structure, as…

  10. Photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  11. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  12. Country Profiles. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Minoru

    This occasional paper on Japan is one of a series setting forth the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in specified countries. Here, an overview is given of population characteristics and growth patterns, the relationship of population growth to socioeconomic development, and the history of population concerns and…

  13. Japan: Tsunami Flooding

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... of 41 kilometers (25 miles) by 89 kilometers (55 miles). Flooding extending about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) inland is visible just north ... March 18, 2005 and March 19, 2011 - Before and after tsunami flooding along Japan's eastern coast. project:  MISR ...

  14. Language Testing in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm- Referenced Tests for Program-Level…

  15. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  16. Lifelong Learning Facilities in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Akishige

    1997-01-01

    Examines Japan's educational system and the role of national policy and local government in fostering lifelong learning. Reasons why Japan is building a lifelong learning society are examined, as are the opportunities available in Japan for learning beyond traditional education, the national and local government's role, access to facilities,…

  17. Globalization and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified.…

  18. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 μm thickness.

  19. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling. PMID:26394523

  20. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  1. Psychology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. PMID:26892102

  2. Ijime in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Masayoshi; Okada, Kaori; Hamada, Shoko; Asaga, Reiko; Honjo, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the problem of ijime in Japan from a variety of perspectives, primarily through studies conducted in this country. The term ijime is not uniform in concept, open to different interpretations given the disparity in definitions among different circles, making precise assessment of the actual conditions difficult. Such being the case, what is needed is further study on the mechanisms and actual state of ijime accounting for the flow of the times, and compilation of research to enable the creation of ever more effective modes of prevention and intervention. PMID:22909914

  3. Astrogeodetic geoid of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganeko, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Three kinds of astrogeodetic geoid maps for Japan are presented: one referred to the global (18, 18) geoid of the 1973 Smithsonian Standard Earth (III) (SE III), referred to the best-fitting ellipsoid of SE III, and one referred to the reference ellipsoid of the Tokyo datum. Interpolations of the deflection of the vertical are carried out by a least squares estimation method. The geoid height differences obtained are compared with solutions of satellite-derived station positions. Good agreement is found in a comparison with Doppler tracking stations.

  4. Legalized Abortion in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Thomas M.

    1967-01-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  5. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  6. Teaching Elementary Students about Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper presents a study unit on Japan for elementary students which can be adapted for any level. Lessons include: (1) "Video Traveling Activities To Accompany Students on Their Journey to Japan"; (2) "Travel Brochure"; (3) "Discovering Culture by Using a Realia Kit"; (4) "Comparative Geography Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography";…

  7. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  8. China and Japan (Theme Issue).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.; Pyne, John, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue is devoted to the theme "China and Japan" and contains six articles that focus on educational, political, and cultural issues in the two Asian countries. In the first article, "China and Japan: A New Era in Relations with the United States," Henry Kiernan and John Pyne provide a brief overview of the history of United States'…

  9. Japan to increase coal imports

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, S.

    1982-04-01

    Imports of coal into Japan are expected to increase next year. One major company is buying into a Canadian mine to obtain a long-term supply contract, and other companies are expected to follow. A feasibility study on production of methanol-coal slurry and its transportation by pipeline in Alberta, Canada (conducted by Japan and Canada) has been completed.

  10. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  11. [Buddhist mummies in Japan].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, I

    1993-08-01

    The mummy of priest Kochi (preserved at Saishoji Temple, Teradomari, Niigata Pref.) has become famous, since it appeared in the book "Snow Country Tales" written by Bokushi Suzuki in 1841 (Fig. 1). In a country of high humidity, such as Japan, the belief that mummification could not, and did not, exist would not be altogether unfounded, but rather more a matter of common sense. There are two dozen Buddhist mummies in this country. It was not known until 1961 that a reliable source of artificial mummification has existed in Japan. The Japanese Buddhist mummies, apart from those of the Fujiwara family, a powerful clan of northeast Japan in the 12th century, dated mostly from the 17th to the 19th century as given in Table 1. Three principal types of mummification described by Vreeland, Jr. and Cockburn (1980) could be identified in the Japanese Buddhist mummies: type I, natural mummification; type II, intentional natural; and type III, artificial. Matsumoto (1990) classified the mummies into four groups, based on their ideological backgrounds: group A, mummies of the priests having faith in the Amitabha (the Supreme Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the West); group B, sokushin-butsu mummies of the priests belonging to the Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism founded by Kukai (Kobo-daishi); group C, nyujo mummies of the priests having faith in the Maitreya (the Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the North, or the Buddha of the future); and group D, other mummies. These mummies of groups A, B, C and D are respectively listed in Table 2. Previous papers have shown that the mummies of the groups A, C and D belonged to the mummification of type I (natural mummification) or type II (intentional natural), whereas those of only the group B were of type III (artificial). The mummies of groups A to D were given as follows. a) Mummies of group A. The four mummies of the Fujiwara family in the Amitabha faith (preserved at Chusonji Temple, Hiraizumi, Iwate Pref.), which

  12. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and....1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan tallow or sumac wax, is a..., India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water...

  13. The Social Sciences in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanuki, Joji

    1975-01-01

    This article relates a brief historical background of social sciences in Japan, the institutional framework of social science education and research, and major issues and perspectives for the development of the social scinces. (ND)

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  15. Japan launches mission to Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The Japanese space agency JAXA has launched its first mission to Venus. The Akatsuki craft, which means "dawn" in Japanese, took off last month from the Tanegashima Space Center on the island of Kagoshima, south-west of mainland Japan.

  16. Japan's launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Y.; Hara, N.

    The development of Japan's Mu series scientific research launch vehicles, and N and H series practical applications vehicles, is described. The three-stage M-3C features a second-stage radio inertial guidance system. The evolution to the M-3S includes a first-stage TVC and Solid Motor Roll Control device, and eight 310-m strap-on boosters (SOB's). The M-3SII developed to launch an interplanetary satellite for the 1986 Halley's Comet apparition, employs two 735-mm SOB's and a microprocessor digitalized flight control system, and can put a 770 kg satellite into low earth orbit. The N-1 is a three-stage radio-guided vehicle using first and second stage liquid engines, a solid motor third stage, three SOB's, and having the capability to launch a 145 kg geostationary satellite. N-II improvements include a 350 kg geostationary payload capacity, nine SOB's, and an inertial guidance system. The H-1 planned for 1987 has a 550 kg geostationary payload capacity and a domestically developed cryogenic engine. The H-II planned for 1992 will be capable of launching a two-ton geostationary satellite, or LOX/LH2 plural satellites simultaneously. It will be powered by a single 95-ton thrust LE-7 main engine.

  17. Whistleblowing in Japan.

    PubMed

    Davis, Anne J; Konishi, Emiko

    2007-03-01

    This article, written from research data, focuses on the possible meaning of the data rather than on detailed statistical reporting. It defines whistleblowing as an act of the international nursing ethical ideal of advocacy, and places it in the larger context of professional responsibility. The experiences, actions, and ethical positions of 24 Japanese nurses regarding whistleblowing or reporting a colleague for wrongdoing provide the data. Of these respondents, similar in age, educational level and clinical experience, 10 had previously reported another nurse and 12 had reported a physician for a wrongful act. These data raise questions about overt actions to expose a colleague in a culture that values group loyalty and saving face. Additional research is needed for an in-depth understanding of whistleblowing, patient advocacy and professional responsibility across cultures, especially those that value group loyalty, saving face and similar concepts to the Japanese Ishin Denshin, where the value is on implicit understanding requiring indirect communication. Usually, being direct and openly discussing sensitive topics is not valued in Japan because such behavior disrupts the most fundamental value, harmony (wa). PMID:17425148

  18. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  19. High definition systems in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

    1991-02-01

    The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

  20. High definition systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

    1991-01-01

    The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

  1. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  2. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

    Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Quo Vadis, Japan. [Status of Japan's Nuclear Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A pile of plutonium - 1.4 tonnes in all - was on board Japanese nuclear transport ship Akatsuki Maru when it left France on November 8, 1992 for Japan. Alongside it were Greenpeace's hostile and ever-vigilant boats and the great swells of public protest from around the world. Transports like this are likely to follow. But more to the tune of 30 to 40 tonnes of plutonium cargo is expected from the Japanese spent fuel that is separated at European reprocessing plants. Both Japanese utilities and governmental agencies have agreed that plutonium is to be fabricated into mixed oxide fuel (MOX) before being returned to Japan. But in the meantime, critics are accusing Japan of being one of the greatest threats to international safety. After the Akatsuki Maru spectacle, the Japanese civil nuclear program is awash in criticism and can not escape the watchful eye of the international community. Now, with Japan's parliamentary elections over and a review of its nuclear program just around the corner, the question is: Quo vadis, Japan

  4. Psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inada, Toshiya; Inagaki, Ataru

    2015-08-01

    Psychotropic dose equivalence is an important concept when estimating the approximate psychotropic doses patients receive, and deciding on the approximate titration dose when switching from one psychotropic agent to another. It is also useful from a research viewpoint when defining and extracting specific subgroups of subjects. Unification of various agents into a single standard agent facilitates easier analytical comparisons. On the basis of differences in psychopharmacological prescription features, those of available psychotropic agents and their approved doses, and racial differences between Japan and other countries, psychotropic dose equivalency tables designed specifically for Japanese patients have been widely used in Japan since 1998. Here we introduce dose equivalency tables for: (i) antipsychotics; (ii) antiparkinsonian agents; (iii) antidepressants; and (iv) anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics available in Japan. Equivalent doses for the therapeutic effects of individual psychotropic compounds were determined principally on the basis of randomized controlled trials conducted in Japan and consensus among dose equivalency tables reported previously by psychopharmacological experts. As these tables are intended to merely suggest approximate standard values, physicians should use them with discretion. Updated information of psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan is available at http://www.jsprs.org/en/equivalence.tables/. [Correction added on 8 July 2015, after first online publication: A link to the updated information has been added.]. PMID:25601291

  5. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, April 10, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-10

    ;Partial Contents: Biotechnology (Japan: Japan`s RITE Introduces Biotech Projects, Japan: Pharmacia Biotech Develops Detection Method for Point Mutation); Energy (Japan: New Catalyst for Synthesis Gas Reduces Energy Needs, Japan: Major Company Activities for Promotion of Wind Power Generation, Japan: Waste Power Generation System in Saitama Draws Much Attention); Environment (Japan: AIST`s NIMC To Develop Efficient Decomposition Method for Waste Using Super-Critial Water, Japan: Kyoei Co. Develops High Temperature Fusion Furnace for Industrial Waste Treatment, Japan: Air Dry Cleaning for Recycling Chemically Contaminated Plastic Sheets); Microelectronics (Japan: Toshiba Corp. DEC To jointly Develop LSI for ATM); Science and Technology Policy (Japan`s MITI To Begin Electronic Commerce Experiment Project); Technology Transfer (Japan: Nissho Iwai Delivers Cleaner Plant to Russia`s Energiya, Japan: Energy Agency Transfers Coal Fired Power Generation Technology to Indonesia); Telecommunications (Japan`s MPT Releases Study Report on Advanced Information Technologies).

  6. Unzen Volcano, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is a space radar image of the area around the Unzen volcano, on the west coast of Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan. Unzen, which appears in this image as a large triangular peak with a white flank near the center of the peninsula, has been continuously active since a series of powerful eruptions began in 1991. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 93rd orbit on April 15, 1994. The image shows an area 41.5 kilometers by 32.8 kilometers (25.7 miles by 20.3 miles) that is centered at 32.75 degrees north latitude and 130.15 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received); green represents the average of L-band and C-band (vertically transmitted and received); blue represents the C-band (vertically transmitted and received). Unzen is one of 15 'Decade' volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations. The city of Shimabara sits along the coast at the foot of Unzen on its east and northeast sides. At the summit of Unzen a dome of thick lava has been growing continuously since 1991. Collapses of the sides of this dome have generated deadly avalanches of hot gas and rock known as pyroclastic flows. Volcanologists can use radar image data to monitor the growth of lava domes, to better understand and predict potentially hazardous collapses.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The

  7. The educational system in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  8. Geothermal Field Developments in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hirakawa, Seiichi

    1983-12-15

    The present situation of the geothermal field developments in Japan is such that eight geothermal power stations are being operated, while there are sill many geothermal areas to be explored. Up to this day, the target of geothermal exploration has mainly been the areas by surface geological survey and the existing geothermal reservoirs are located not deeper than 1,500m depth. Recent geothermal energy development shows a trend from the study on vapor dominated of liquid dominated hydrothermal resources in shallow zones to that on hydrothermal resources in deeper zones. Exploration wells of 3,000m depth class have been drilled in Japan.

  9. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan tallow or sumac wax, is a pale yellow vegetable tallow, containing glycerides of the C19-C23...

  10. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan tallow or sumac wax, is a pale yellow vegetable tallow, containing glycerides of the C19-C23...

  11. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan tallow or sumac wax, is a pale yellow vegetable tallow, containing glycerides of the C19-C23...

  12. School Broadcast Utilization in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Takashiro

    A school broadcast utilization survey was conducted between September and November 1975 from a total of 73,048 kindergartens, nurseries, primary schools, junior high schools, senior high schools, and special schools in Japan. Survey questions focused on the usage rates of TV, radio, and VTR as well as utilization of NHK's TV and radio school…

  13. How Japan Supports Novice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    When U.S. educators first hear that Japanese teacher preparation programs require only four weeks of formal student teaching at the end of the credential program, they're appalled: How can this be? More surprising still, few new teachers in Japan (1.35 percent) leave the profession during their first year. So where are these beginning…

  14. Japan Studies Association Journal, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among three thematic…

  15. Innovative shotcreting system in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takashi

    1995-12-31

    Robotization of shotcreting has advanced remarkably in Japan in a short span of time for the purpose of avoiding exposure of human workers to adverse conditions. This paper provides an overview of various devices used in shotcreting and discusses the development of improved systems which ensure higher safety and larger productivity.

  16. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  17. Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Jiro

    The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control…

  18. Teaching and Learning in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P., Ed.; LeTendre, Gerald K., Ed.

    The essays gathered in this volume are united by the common goal of understanding teaching and learning in Japan as it actually occurs. The essays seek to answer questions about the actual conduct of learning in different settings and at different points in the life cycle. This volume explores the expectations and associations found in specific…

  19. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  20. Japan: Images of a People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigielski, Alan; Casey, Douglas, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue of "Art to Zoo" focuses on Japanese art and is adapted from materials developed by the education department of the Smithsonian Institution's Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery. After learning how to look at paintings, students make paper screens that resemble Japanese screens. Background essays about Japan place the…

  1. The Japan of Today, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo (Japan).

    Following an introduction which discusses the history and geography of Japan, this book focuses on topics related to this country's government, economy, social conditions, and cultural life. Topics related to government include: constitution and emperor; legislature; executive power; judiciary system; foreign relations; and defense. Topics related…

  2. Modernization of Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The document traces the development of education in Japan from the 17th century to the present. It is presented in four chapters. Chapter one discusses the Tokugawa Period (1603-1867). Principal forms of schooling were hanko for the Samurai class and terakoya for the commoners. The hanko were established for the benefit of the fiefs; objectives of…

  3. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... from Japan (38 FR 33593). Following five-year reviews by the Department of Commerce (``Commerce'') and... imports of polychloroprene rubber from Japan (64 FR 47765, September 1, 1999). Following second five-year... antidumping duty finding on imports of polychloroprene rubber from Japan (70 FR 44893). The Commission is...

  4. Teaching about Japan: Lessons and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.; Wojtan, Linda S., Ed.

    This document is a revised and updated version of two publications: "Modern Japan: An Idea Book for K-12 Teachers" and "Resources for Teaching About Japan." These lesson plans were developed by teachers who participated in a summer institute on Japan, sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of International Studies,…

  5. Historical Characteristics of Adult Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyasaka, Kosaku

    In its modern sense, adult education in Japan began after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Until 1945, adult education functioned as an agent to indoctrinate the nationalistic and military ideology. Since World War II, Japan has adopted the democratic social system and has become a capitalist society like the West. In Japan, social education is the…

  6. The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumano, Ruriko

    2007-01-01

    During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…

  7. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, March 3, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-03

    Partial Contents: JAPAN: Sumitomo Electric Industries Develops Exhaust Purification Equipment for Buses; JAPAN: Matsushita Battery to Market Next Generation Thin Film Solar Batteries by 2000; JAPAN: Hitachi, Toshiba Use Computer Networks to Build Nuclear Power Plants; JAPAN: Monju Incident Scars Not Yet Healed; JAPAN: Encryption Key Management Debate; and JAPAN: Military Infrared R&D Reviewed.

  8. Japan`s nuclear weapons options and U.S. security interests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharman, C.H.

    1998-06-01

    Japan is a virtual nuclear weapons power. It has the scientific and technical ability to produce hundreds or even thousands of nuclear weapons, but has chosen not to do so for political reasons. This thesis examines the historical development of Japan`s nuclear energy and aerospace programs since the mid-1950s and considers the possibility that at various points in its history, Japan used these programs as a cover to insure that its nuclear weapons options remained open. This thesis analyzes internal and external factors that may have influenced Japan`s nuclear policies. External factors include regional threats, international pressures to join the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and distrust of US commitments to provide for Japan`s defense. Internal factors include Japan`s historical tradition of a strong military state and Japan`s unique nuclear allergy. While both external and internal factors have influenced the path of Japans nuclear energy and aerospace programs, internal factors will drive Japan to maintain its plutonium-based energy program and will allow Japan to remain a virtual nuclear power well into the twenty-first century.

  9. Japan's research on gaseous flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niioka, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    Although research studies on gaseous flames in microgravity in Japan have not been one-sided, they have been limited, for the most part, to comparatively fundamental studies. At present it is only possible to achieve a microgravity field by the use of drop towers, as far as gaseous flames are concerned. Compared with experiments on droplets, including droplet arrays, which have been vigorously performed in Japan, studies on gaseous flames have just begun. Experiments on ignition of gaseous fuel, flammability limits, flame stability, effect of magnetic field on flames, and carbon formation from gaseous flames are currently being carried out in microgravity. Seven subjects related to these topics are introduced and discussed herein.

  10. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, N; Monta, M; Fujiura, T

    1996-01-01

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato, petty-tomato, cucumber and grape in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots. PMID:11538961

  11. Polymer composites technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Karbhari, V.M.; Kukich, D.S. . Center for Composite Materials)

    1993-08-01

    In 1992, the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Army Research Office, and Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a panel to assess advanced manufacturing technology for polymer composite structures in Japan. The panel was charged with comparing the levels of the technology and the industry in both the United States and Japan. The Panel on Advanced Polymer Composites Manufacturing Technology of the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center visited approximately twenty Japanese organizations over a ten-day period in December 1992. Their findings cover seven areas: aerospace, sporting goods, automotive, civil engineering, materials, manufacturing science, and product and process development methods. This report reflects the views of the authors, not necessarily those of the entire panel. The panel observed five emerging techno-paradigm shifts in Japan, previously identified by Kodama: Manufacturing companies; Business dynamics; R and D activities; Technology development; and Technology diffusion. Thus, what the panel observed in the specific area of advanced materials really reflects the overall Japanese approach to technology development. Their primary focus is on finding innovative new applications for existing materials, processes, and technologies, and on using these market opportunities to drive new development.

  12. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 10, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-10

    Contents (partial): Japan: Fabrication of Diamond Single Crystal Thin Film by Ion Beam Deposition; Japan: Hitachi Metal Develops New Semi Solid Metal Processing Technology; Japan: NTT Develops Fuel Cell System That Uses Both City Gas, LPG; Japan: Daihatsu Motor Completes Prototype EV; Japan: NIRIM Announces Success With Synthetic Bone Development; Japan: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Plans Clinical Trials of Gene Therapy to Cerebral Tumor in Japan; Japan: MITI To Provide Aid for Residential Solar Power Generation Systems; Japan: MELCO To Provide Satellite Solar Cell Panel for SSL, USA; Japan: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Leads Nuclear Research; Japan: Kobe Steel`s Superconducting Magnet Ready to Go Fast; Japan: MPT To Begin Validation Test for Electric Money Implementation; and Japan: Defense Agency to Send ASDF`s Pilots to Russia for Training.

  13. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 3, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-03

    Contents (selected articles): Japan: Nissan To Use Nickel-Hydrogen Battery in EV; Japan: Takii To Commercialize Cauliflower-Broccoli Hybrid; Japan: Kawasaki Steel Improves Recovery of Metals from Furnace Residue; Japan: Japan`s NEC Corp. To Develop Cost-Effective Photodection Chip; Japan: Japanese Companies Establish Research Association to Develop 16-gigabit DRAMS; Japan: Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Actual Achievements; Japan: Future for Nuclear Fuel Recycle as a Result of Monju Accident; Japan: Superconducting Magnet System Using No Liquid Helium; Japan: Hitachi`s MULTI Network Security Technologies; Japan: Defense Bureau Chief Tokita Interviewed; Japan: DRC Executive on GSDF, High Technology; and Japan: Retired Admiral on Post-Cold War MSDF Strategy.

  14. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, May 7, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-07

    ;Partial Contents: Japan: FH1 Aerospace Division Executive on UAV R&D; JapaN: MHI Delivers First F-2 Flight Test Model; Nuclear Technologies; Japan: Nuclear Material Research in Cross-Over Research Project; Japan: MITI To Subsidize Development of Cryptography; Defense Industries; Japan: JADI Announces FY96 Major Events Schedule; Japan: Rollout Ceremony Held for First OH-X Flight Test Model; and Japan: KHI Weapons Designer OH-X Development.

  15. Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Beddingfield, David H; Menlove, Howard O; Hori, Masato; Kawakubo, Yoko; Mcclelland - Kerr, J

    2009-01-01

    There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

  16. Children in Japan and multimedia.

    PubMed

    Shimauchi, Y

    1999-01-01

    Many parents in Japan today are very concerned and have daily problems with their children over the following kind of issues concerning video games, multimedia, and similar devices. 1) Is children's enthusiasm for video games actually harming their growth (physically or mentally)? 2) Is there any way that video games can help children in the future? For example, will playing these games help children learn to use computers or develop their power of thought? 3) Will excessive enthusiasm for TV games undermine our basic lifestyle? Is the time they spend studying at home or playing outside actually decreasing? 4) Will the methods of communication brought about by computers, pagers, and cellular phones weaken human relations among children? 5) Will being immersed in a virtual world created by computers result in a diminished sense of reality? The causes of this uneasiness may be traced to parents' own anxieties and concerns about the exceedingly rapid growth of the "information society" of today, together with the fact that their children are directly caught up in the deluge of this information and multimedia society. The development of media has coincided with the growth of today's adults, but children are immersed in a media-filled environment from the day they are born. In Japan, there are now children who can play video games before even learning to write. No one can predict what kind of adults these children will grow to be in the future, and it is fair to say that the most parents and children in Japan are being tossed about on the waves of this information explosion. At this international symposium, we hope to hear the many views that are held around the world concerning children and multimedia. PMID:10770069

  17. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  18. Solid waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, S.

    1995-09-01

    On Friday 17 June 1994, as the invited speaker of the International Congress of IWM/ISWA at Torbay, UK the author presented a paper of {open_quotes}A framework for success: the role of legislation{close_quotes}. THis was to introduce the amendment of Waste Disposal Cleansing Law and the Basic Environment Law in 1991, but the combination of the two amended laws has enforced promoting and assisting the fulfillment of the responsibilities of corporations and citizens. In addition to such presentation, the author pointed out a new manner of solid waste management (SWM) in Japan.

  19. Teachers' Unions and the Politics of Education in Japan. SUNY Series on Japan in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspinall, Robert W.

    In 1989, the Japan Teachers' Union, Nikkyoso, split into two unions after 2 years of factional infighting. Japan has two political camps, the governing conservative Liberal Democratic Party and the left-wing Japan Socialist Party. The teachers' union is a powerful member in the camp of the latter. This book incorporates studies of the links…

  20. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  1. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  2. On earthquake prediction in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uyeda, Seiya

    2013-01-01

    Japan's National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author's view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology - on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors. PMID:24213204

  3. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  4. Linguistic Minorities and Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, John

    1997-01-01

    The ideology of a monolingual and monoracial Japan is being challenged by increasing language diversity in communities where Ainu, Ryukyuan, Chinese, English, Japanese Sign Language, Korean, and other languages are spoken. Government policies and school textbooks still resist the notion of a multilingual Japan. (SK)

  5. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... interested parties did not participate in this sunset review * * *.'' (75 FR 51981). Accordingly, pursuant to... COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... whether revocation of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely...

  6. People of Japan: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Japan by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Japan is given, covering the following: history, government, the economy, education,…

  7. Learning by the Aged in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekiguchi, Reiko W.

    This paper discusses demographic changes in Japan, the sources of pleasure of the retired Japanese senior citizen, and lifelong learning. It also describes a study that examined learning preferences of Japanese senior citizens. Data for 1983 show that life expectancy has increased in Japan to 74.20 years for males and 79.78 for females. The level…

  8. Japan's Winning Margins. Management, Training, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorriman, John; Kenjo, Takashi

    This book explains the fundamental reasons for Japan's astonishing commercial success in relation to its Western competitors. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 discusses implications of Japanese history for education, training, and management. Chapter 3 looks at the first winning margin--education. It covers the following: Japan's long…

  9. The Role of German in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  10. John Ogbu and Minority Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okubo, Yuko

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses John Ogbu and his work in the context of Japan. First, his interest in Japan, his interactions with Japanese educators and researchers, and their responses to his work are discussed. Then Ogbu's cultural model from the author's fieldwork experiences is examined and a relational and dialectic perspective is proposed to study…

  11. Japan: Language Policy and Planning in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Nanette

    2008-01-01

    This monograph discusses the language situation in Japan, with an emphasis on language planning and policy. Japan has long considered itself to be a monoethnic and therefore monolingual society, despite the existence of substantial old-comer ethnic minorities, and this--with the instrumental exception of English--has been reflected in its language…

  12. Crisis of Public Broadcasting Japan's Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabira, Chosei

    The public broadcasting service in Japan, the NHK, is a nongovernmental, noncommercial, and nonprofit making organization that is financed solely by fees collected from viewing households. At present, 80% of the total number of households in Japan have a contract with NHK and 96.5% of these households have actually paid the receiving fee to NHK.…

  13. Type 1 diabetes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, E; Matsuura, N; Eguchi, K

    2006-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a multifactorial disease which results from a T-cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals. The risk for individuals of developing type 1 diabetes varies remarkably according to country of residence and race. Japan has one of the lowest incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in the world, and recognises at least three subtypes of the condition: acute-onset ('classical'), slow-onset, and fulminant type 1 diabetes. The incidence rate of type 1 diabetes in children aged 0-14 years in Japan increased over the period from 1973-1992, but remained constant over the last decade, averaging 2.37 cases per 100,000 persons per year; the incidence does not appear to have increased in older age groups. Although there are few reports regarding the incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes in adult-onset patients, it appears that the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in adults is more than twice that in childhood-onset patients and that two-thirds of them have a slow-onset form of type 1 diabetes. Differences and similarities in the association of MHC and non-MHC genes with type 1 diabetes are observed in Japan and in countries with Caucasoid populations. Highly susceptible class II HLA haplotypes identified in patients of Caucasoid origin are rarely seen in Japanese patients, whereas protective haplotypes are universal. Non-MHC genes associated with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in both Japanese and Caucasoid patients include polymorphisms in the insulin gene, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) gene, the interleukin-18 (IL18) gene and the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) gene. Fulminant type 1 diabetes is a unique subtype of type 1 diabetes that accounts for about 20% of acute-onset type 1 diabetes, and is seen mainly in adults. The challenge for the future is to investigate the underlying pathogenesis of beta cell destruction, including the genetic or

  14. Penicillin and the reconstruction of Japan.

    PubMed

    Cozzoli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores postwar American strategies regarding penicillin in Japan. Perceived as both an American gift and a symbol of reconstruction, penicillin played a singular role in Washington's postwar policies towards Europe and Japan. Washington encouraged US pharmaceutical companies to penetrate Europe but sought to protect intra-European trade. In Japan, however, importing penicillin from the US or establishing private American factories was forbidden. Jackson W. Foster implemented a smaller-scale, military-directed version of the US's wartime penicillin project. In this paper, it is argued that the MacArthur administration aimed to boost Japanese penicillin production and transfer American industrial culture to Japan. This was initially a major success. However, the Japanese pharmaceutical industry failed to break down barriers to market entry established by first movers and, consequently, was uncompetitive throughout the twentieth century. This paper regards the American penicillin project in Japan as a factor in the weakness of the postwar Japanese pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26054211

  15. Cultural characteristics of nursing practice in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Mayuko; Ishigaki, Kazuko; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Fujita, Junko; Katakura, Naoko; Ogata, Yasuko; Mochizuki, Yuki; Okamoto, Yuko; Shinohara, Yuko

    2016-04-01

    The population of Japan has become multi-cultural, and there is more demand for culturally competent nursing care. The purpose of this study was to explore cultural characteristics of nursing practice in Japan focusing on behaviour. We interviewed 25 professionals with experience in or knowledge of nursing practice both in Japan and either the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Thailand or South Korea. Qualitative content analysis has yielded three themes for cultural characteristics of nursing practice in Japan: practice expectations, communication and relationships with patients. Practice expectations for nurses in Japan involved various aspects; nurses conducted a wide range of basic nursing tasks, including bed baths and toileting. They often relied on non-verbal communication to deliver thoughtfulness and perceptiveness. They typically show deference to doctors and colleagues, emphasizing building and maintaining harmony with them. This emphasis on a multifaceted, non-verbal, and harmonious approach seemed characteristic of practice among Japanese nurses. PMID:27184703

  16. Electric propulsion works in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Kuriki, Kyoichi

    The R & D works on MPD thruster system and ion engine system in Japan are reviewed. A 1 kW class MPD thruster system, for which the flight test will be made onboard a small space platform in early 1990's, has experienced preliminary endurance tests of 1 million shots twice. From these tests, thermal control system, automated operation system and electrode mass loss assessment were established. A 20 mN class xenon ion engine system was determined to be developed and be tested onboard the ETS-VI to be launched by a H-II rocket in 1992. 500 hour operation tests of the thruster were conducted and showed the reduction of erosion rates of accelerator grid, etc. whose surfaces were coated with low sputter materials. A system interface tests were also made to see the compatibilities between subsystems. Performance improvement studies of xenon ion thruster and its test facility are going on.

  17. Industrial waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hirota, Y.

    1986-12-01

    Systematic management for industrial waste in Japan has been carried out based on the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law which was enacted in 1970. The law and its ordinances designate 19 kinds of waste materials discharged from business activities as industrial waste and prescribe the generator's responsibility, requirements for treatment contractors, standards for consignment, specific personnel, etc. from the view of proper management. And they also prescribe disposal standards, structure, and maintenance standards for treatment facilities, including final disposal sites, from the view of proper treatment and disposal. The Standard for Verification provides criteria to categorize as hazardous or nonhazardous industrial waste which is subjected to treatment and disposal in conformity with each standard. The fundamental policies to cope with industrial waste focus on reduction of generation, promotion of recycling, establishment of a comprehensive information management system and participation of the public which can contribute well to prevent environmental pollution caused by inappropriate management of industrial waste.

  18. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan. PMID:20670961

  19. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  20. Explaining unusual winter lightning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Takatoshi; Ishii, Masaru; Williams, Earle

    2011-11-01

    Third International Symposium on Winter Lightning; Sapporo, Japan, 15-16 June 2011 Japan's meteorological setting in winter is unusual: It is an island in a relatively warm sea frequently overswept by colder air from Siberia. This sets up appreciable atmospheric instability in the fringe of the land adjacent to the Sea of Japan. Heavy snowstorms overlap the edge of the island and produce extraordinarily energetic lightning flashes that initiate from points on the ground (known as ground-to-cloud (GC) strokes) and wreak havoc on power lines and, more recently, wind turbines. These troublesome and costly conditions set the stage for the third in a series of conferences on winter lightning.

  1. Teaching Primary School Children about Japan through Art. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Patricia Berg

    There are a variety reasons for teaching about Japan. Many students in the United States are of Japanese heritage; Japan is the second largest trading partner of the United States; and some healing still needs to occur between the United States and Japan because of the damage and pain of World War II. Further, the Unites States and Japan share the…

  2. Economics Teachers' Attitudes about and Treatment of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien; Muntean, James

    1991-01-01

    Discusses research into high school economics teachers' attitudes about U.S.-Japan trade policy and teaching about Japan. Compares teachers' and general public's responses to Harris poll on U.S.-Japan trade relations. Reports that, although 91 percent of teachers believe they should teach about Japan, only 53 percent spend 2-5 class periods on…

  3. Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook. Third Edition Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Roberta, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to supplement and enliven standard textbook presentations of Japan, this workbook, through student exercises, seeks to answer some of the most common questions U.S. students have about Japan and its people. Classes exploring only one aspect of Japan as well as those seeking an integrated picture of Japan's traditional culture and…

  4. History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

  5. Star Week - a Successful Campaign in Japan -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichi; Ono, Tomoko; Star Week Committee

    There are several hundreds of astronomical facilities for general public in Japan including planetariums museums and public observatories. In order to connect these facilities and to make good collaborations for education purpose

  6. Eponyms in dermatology literature linked to Japan

    PubMed Central

    Al Aboud, Ahmad; Al Aboud, Khalid

    2012-01-01

    There are many different eponyms in common use in dermatology today, originating from a variety of countries worldwide. This review discusses a selection of dermatological eponyms that are linked to Japan. PMID:22291476

  7. Suicide among foreign residents of Japan.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Saito, Yukio; Ben Park, B C

    2011-02-01

    The suicide rate of Koreans living in Japan is twice as high as that of Koreans in South Korea. Reasons for this high suicide rate are discussed, including effects of economic crises and discrimination. PMID:21526599

  8. Making "World-Class Universities": Japan's Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the qualities of "world-class" universities and the measures that governments and academia implemented to create them. The article suggests way in which Japan can elevate its universities to "world-class" status. (SWM)

  9. US--Japan energy policy consultations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    These papers, from the US--Japan Energy Policy Consultations Meeting in Hawaii, deal with topics relating to: energy outlook; electric utilities; nuclear energy; coal and petroleum based energies; and new energy source development. (JF)

  10. [Legislations on radiation in Japan].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryuji

    2013-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Basic Act was the first law for the prevention of radiation damage in Japan, and was enforced in 1955. The law focused on the research, development and promotion of the use of atomic energy. With an increase in the importing of radioactive isotopes from foreign countries, the Act on Prevention of Radiation Disease Due to Radioisotopes was established under the jurisdiction of the Science and Technology Agency in 1957 and enforced in 1958. The Nuclear Regulation Authority began as an extra-ministerial committee of the Ministry of the Environment in 2012 and has jurisdiction in the area of ionizing radiations regulations.Substantial regulation has been provided by the Labor Standards Act, and the Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards was established as the eleventh ordinance of the Ministry of Labor in 1959. There have been many revisions to the Ordinance, including revisions following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. This paper explains the Act on Prevention of Radiation Disease Due to Radioisotopes, the Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards, and workmen's accident authorization. PMID:24107339

  11. Cord blood transplantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Cord blood transplantation (CBT) has increasingly been used in Japan and the annual number of CBT now exceeds 1,200. The cumulative number of CBT reached 12,853 in 2015, accounting for almost 1/3 of total CBT performed worldwide. It is true that smaller body size and lower costs, as compared to western countries, have been advantages for Japanese people in using CB as graft alternative. In addition, several novel findings regarding serious issues following CBT have been obtained, which further enhanced the use of CB. First, several mechanisms of engraftment failure following CBT other than cell dose have been reported, such as the presence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies or the development of hemophagocytic syndrome. Second, unique profiles of infectious complications following CBT have been reported, such as higher incidences of early bacterial infections and HHV-6 encephalitis, as compared to those following bone marrow (BM)/peripheral blood (PB) transplants. Third, the incidence of disease relapse was comparable to those following BM/PB transplants. Novel pre-transplant conditioning regimens using intravenous busulfan have been investigated with promising results being obtained to date. A recent analysis of Japanese transplant registry data revealed similar survival following CBT to HLA-matched unrelated BM/PB transplants. PMID:27263776

  12. On Earthquake Prediction in Japan

    PubMed Central

    UYEDA, Seiya

    2013-01-01

    Japan’s National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author’s view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology — on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors. PMID:24213204

  13. [Metallurgic drugs in ancient Japan].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, S

    2001-01-01

    Advancements in metallurgic and pharmaceutical chemistry in ancient Japan were made by people like Mangan-Shonin, who combined elements from Shinto, Buddhism, and Taoism to take advantage of technologies brought by Chinese and Korean immigrants. The Shonin himself, though it may be considered a wild speculation, could well be such an immigrant. Along with the immigrants, the Shonin established government-subsidized temples (Jingu-ji, Jogaku-ji) throughout the country under sponsorship by the Imperial Court for the purpose of raising funds through private donations. Research and educational activities conducted in these temples ultimately resulted in a well-established body of chemical engineers who could excavate chemical substances as well as alter their natures. According to a list of regional products (Sasaki,19) 1972) up to the 14th century, these chemical substances and their derivative products included iron from the Hitachi region, cast metal from Shimotsuke, swords from Sagami, face powder (lead carbonate) from Ise, mercury, and gold. PMID:11776993

  14. Research and improving web accessibility in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Hitoshi; Ando, Masaya; Ohta, Kenji; Shimizu, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Yoshio; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Yamazaki, Ryoji

    2001-12-01

    Internet use by the people with disabilities and the elderly in Japan is still low, but growing. However, the majority of web contents written in Japanese, even government sites, have very low accessibility. This paper introduces the active measures being taken in Japan to improve such conditions; consideration of a web contents accessibility guideline tailored to the unique characteristics of the Japanese language, development of a system to evaluate accessibility and implementation of actual trials.

  15. Update on Japan's Contribution to the ISW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Obara, T.; Watari, S.; Stpp Sub-Committee Of Japan

    2011-12-01

    We are conducting three initiatives in Japan, in order to accomplish the ISWI objectives. The first is an instrument array program to deploy new and existing observation networks. The second is data coordination to develop predictive models using ISWI data. And the third is training, education (that is capacity building), and public outreach programs, such as the ISWI Newsletter. An update on Japan's Contribution to the ISWI in 2010 will be summarized in the present paper.

  16. Distant Mt. Fuji, Island of Honshu Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This distant view of Mt. Fuji, on the main home island of Honshu, Japan (34.0N, 139.0E) was taken from about 450 miles to the south. Evan at that great distance, the majestic and inspiring Mt. Fuji is still plainly visible and easily recognized as a world renowned symbol of Japan. The snow capped extinct volcano lies just a few miles south of Tokyo.

  17. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections. PMID:26944711

  18. Tertiary geothermal events around the Japan Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yasuto

    1991-11-01

    The thermal history through the late Tertiary around the Japan Arc is described by analyzing a number of geological data obtained from boreholes. Based on an empirical model of time-temperature-coalification, the burial history and coal ranks in a deep offshore borehole (MITI Tottori-Oki) reveal that the western part of the Sea of Japan was subjected to remarkable thermal events around middle Miocene and Quaternary times, during which voluminous igneous rocks erupted within Southwest Japan. Considering the tectonic context around the Japan Arc, it is most probable that the thermal event in the middle Miocene was brought about by the extensive continental rifting and formation of the Sea of Japan. The area of higher Quaternary temperatures in the upper mantle, which has been delineated through heat-flow measurements, coincides with the distribution of the contemporaneous alkaline volcanics, suggesting that the characteristic intra-plate volcanism and the latest thermal event can be related to the regional influx of hot asthenosphere beneath Southwest Japan.

  19. Current state of cardiac rehabilitation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, metabolic risk factors have been increasing due to the westernization and urbanization of lifestyle. This justifiably raises a concern that the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Japan will increase over time, and indeed, recent epidemiological studies in Japan suggest the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is increasing. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in Japan has been traditionally performed in the inpatient setting. To obtain reimbursement, a CR facility must fulfill certain criteria including being a medical institution with a cardiology/cardiac surgery section which has at least a cardiologist/cardiac surgeon and an experienced CR physician as full-time employees. These criteria create challenges to the availability of outpatient CR after hospital discharge. A recent analysis found outpatient CR participation rate was estimated to be between 3.8 and 7.6% in Japan. This review describes recent trends in the incidence of AMI and the current status of the use of CR in Japan. PMID:24607022

  20. Ocean Science Communication in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

  1. Japan and Georgia: Economic Partners. For Students in Grade Eight. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Jane; Morgan, Nancy

    This manual provides suggestions and materials for teaching about Japan. Designed as a supplement to typical textbook treatments, the lessons provide a range of readings, visuals, and activities to enrich and deepen student learning about Japan. Organized around topics dealing with history, geography, government, economics, and culture, the…

  2. [Tuberculosis prevalence survey in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimao, Tadao

    2009-11-01

    Chest X-ray examination had been used rather soon after the discovery of X-ray by Rontgen K in 1895 as it was possible to detect chest abnormality by simple radiography. After the discovery of radiophotography independently by Abreu M and Koga Y in 1936, it was applied as a method of mass screening for TB in Japan, and Imamura A made a special lecture on "The mass screening for TB" using radiophotography in 1940 in the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for TB. From experiences of mass screening, it was found that there were many cases of TB who do not aware of their own disease, and to know the prevalence of TB, the screening of survey subjects by X-ray examination is indispensable. Noticing the importance of mass health examination by chest X-ray, Dr. Tanaka S, then director of information division, JATAHQ, edited a book entitled "How to carry out mass health examination for TB" in 1951, then he moved to the Ministry of Health and Welfare and engaged in the preparation of the first TB prevalence survey. Random sampling technique was already developed, and health center network covering the whole country was already completed in early 1950s. Using these background, the first TB prevalence survey was conducted in 1953. TB Prevalence Survey Committee was organized asking cooperation of experts in TB, epidemiology and statistics, and the survey in sampled area was carried out by a survey team headed by the director of health center in charge of the sampled area. The survey teams engaged in the survey with enthusiasm, and the rate of response to the survey was 99.3%. The result of this survey was published in the WHO Bulletin, 1955. After the survey in 1953, the following prevalence surveys were carried out in 1958, 1963, 1968 and 1973. Outline of these surveys was shown in Table 1, and the rate of examination was high in all, except the survey in 1973. In this year, TB prevalence survey was carried out in conjunction with the national nutritional survey and the

  3. A prospective earthquake forecast experiment for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Sayoko; Nanjo, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Hirata, Naoshi

    2013-04-01

    One major focus of the current Japanese earthquake prediction research program (2009-2013) is to move toward creating testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose we started an experiment of forecasting earthquake activity in Japan under the framework of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) through an international collaboration. We established the CSEP Testing Centre, an infrastructure to encourage researchers to develop testable models for Japan, and to conduct verifiable prospective tests of their model performance. On 1 November in 2009, we started the 1st earthquake forecast testing experiment for the Japan area. We use the unified JMA catalogue compiled by the Japan Meteorological Agency as authorized catalogue. The experiment consists of 12 categories, with 4 testing classes with different time spans (1 day, 3 months, 1 year, and 3 years) and 3 testing regions called All Japan, Mainland, and Kanto. A total of 91 models were submitted to CSEP-Japan, and are evaluated with the CSEP official suite of tests about forecast performance. In this presentation, we show the results of the experiment of the 3-month testing class for 5 rounds. HIST-ETAS7pa, MARFS and RI10K models corresponding to the All Japan, Mainland and Kanto regions showed the best score based on the total log-likelihood. It is also clarified that time dependency of model parameters is no effective factor to pass the CSEP consistency tests for the 3-month testing class in all regions. Especially, spatial distribution in the All Japan region was too difficult to pass consistency test due to multiple events at a bin. Number of target events for a round in the Mainland region tended to be smaller than model's expectation during all rounds, which resulted in rejections of consistency test because of overestimation. In the Kanto region, pass ratios of consistency tests in each model showed more than 80%, which was associated with good balanced forecasting of event

  4. Early psychosis in Asia: Insights from Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masafumi; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tsujino, Naohisa; Funatogawa, Tomoyuki; Takeshi, Kiyoaki

    2012-03-01

    The largest task for psychiatry in Japan today is the deinstitutionalization of patients with psychiatric disorders. In Japan, all citizens are covered by a national health plan, and about 70% of the total cost is covered by the national health insurance scheme. At present, however, there is still no category for early intervention in the national health reimbursement schedule. Recent research has shown that the mean duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) at seven university hospitals in Japan was 17.6 months. We present data using case vignettes suggesting that pharmacotherapy might be overused in prodromal cases. The concept of an At-Risk Mental State (ARMS)/prodromal state might not yet be widely recognized among Japanese psychiatrists. We outline early intervention initiatives in Japan; The Japanese Society for Prevention and Early Intervention in Psychiatry (JSEIP), and a representative early intervention facility for young people is the "Il Bosco" in Tokyo. There are several leading centers for early intervention research and practice in Japan. Most of them are driven by university departments of psychiatry with respect to both research and clinical activities. The development of services for early intervention is expected to reduce stigmatization, prevent suicide among young persons, and promote general knowledge about mental health. There are several common or similar issues among Asian countries, including service systems, community attitudes to psychiatric illness including stigma, and dependence on pharmacotherapy. PMID:26878953

  5. Cenozoic rift tectonics of the Japan Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.

    1988-08-01

    The Japan Sea is one of the back-arc basins in trench-arc systems bordering the western Pacific. Recent paleomagnetic works suggest the Japan Sea opened during early to middle Miocene. Radiometric and microfossil ages of the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands elucidate the rift tectonics of the Japan Sea. The rifting history is summarized as follows: nonmarine volcanic formations of prerift stage before 50 Ma, rift-onset unconformity at 40 Ma, nonmarine volcanic formations of synrift stage 20-33 Ma, breakup unconformity 19 Ma showing the opening of the Japan Sea, marine volcanic and sedimentary formations of synrift stage 14.5-18 Ma, beginning of regional subsidence 14.5 Ma corresponding to the end of the Japan Sea opening, marine sedimentary formations of postdrift stage after 14.5 Ma. Rifting is not limited to the synrift stage but is continued to the syndrift stage. Rifting led to a horst-and-graben structure. Thus, the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands are suited for a study of rift tectonics because the sequences were subaerially exposed by the late Miocene-Holocene island-arc tectonics. Rift tectonics cannot be studied as easily in most Atlantic-type passive margins.

  6. Population support a priority for Japan.

    PubMed

    1991-05-01

    The Japanese government has approved an increase in both financial and technical assistance for family planning in developing countries for FY1991. Japan's contribution to the United National Population FUnd (UNFPA) will total US$56.8 million, a 1.83% increase from the previous year, and it will be the largest donation by any country. Japanese support of UNFPA has skyrocketed from an initial contribution of US$1.5 million to today's level. Besides its multilateral assistance through UNFPA, the country will also provide bilateral technical assistance through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Increasing by 7.8% from 1990, technical assistance will total US$8.54 million, and it will go to the following countries: Colombia, Egypt, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Peru, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Turkey. Japan will provide the equipment and supplies needed for transferring technical expertise from Japanese experts to personnel from the recipient countries. Japan will also host an international family planning seminar for developing countries. Japan's pledge of assistance reflects the country's desire to improve the social conditions and quality of life for people living in developing countries, and it indicated the growing awareness of the Japanese public concerning population and family planning issues. PMID:12283975

  7. The economics of pollution control in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, T.K.

    1980-02-01

    The Japanese approach to pollution control expenditures is based on the polluter-pays principle, an economic concept introduced by OECD in 1972. Under the PPP, costs are borne by the polluter rather than by the government. Costs are then passed on to the consumer in increased prices. Japan has extended the original PPP to include payment for restoration of polluted environments, administration of monitoring and surveillance programs, and compensation for victims of pollution. The total investment for pollution control by industry in Japan during 1965-75 is reported. Available data indicate that the high costs of pollution control have not caused a major shock to Japan's economic growth. (1 drawing, 3 graphs, 5 references, 1 table)

  8. Patients' rights in Japan: progress and resistance.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, I

    1994-12-01

    The discussion of patients' rights in Japan began in 1968 when a surgeon was accused of violating a potential organ donor's right to life by arbitrarily employing brain-based criteria in the determination of his death. A proliferation of documents that articulate and endorse patients' rights occurred in the 1980s and early 1990s. The doctrine of informed consent, which has been a central aspect of the movement toward patients' rights, is increasingly recognized in Japan, although importance rarely has been attached to the element of the patient's "appreciation" of the information disclosed by the physician, much less to the "voluntariness" of the patient's decision. Nevertheless, recent court decisions indicate progress both in the acceptance and the understanding of the doctrine in Japan. PMID:10138752

  9. Genetic background of hyperphenylalaninemia in Nagasaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Dateki, Sumito; Watanabe, Satoshi; Nakatomi, Akiko; Kinoshita, Eiichi; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) and related hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) are caused by a deficiency in hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). The incidence of PKU in Nagasaki prefecture is higher than that in all parts of Japan (1/15 894 vs 1/120 000). To investigate the genetic background of patients with HPA in Nagasaki prefecture, mutation analysis was done in 14 patients with PKU or mild HPA. Homozygous or compound heterozygous PAH mutations were identified in all the patients. The spectrum of PAH mutations in the cohort was broad and similar to those in all parts of Japan and East Asian countries. R53H is the most common mutation in patients with mild HPA. The present results provide further support for genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with HPA. The high incidence of PKU in Nagasaki, the westernmost part of Japan, might be due to migration of people with PAH mutations from China and Korea, and geographic factors. PMID:27173423

  10. Insights into software development in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Lorraine M.

    1992-01-01

    The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

  11. Toward freedom from cancer pain in Japan.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Kuniko; Yasuhara, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Life expectancy in Japan is highest in the world. Cancer is the leading cause of mortality in Japan, accounting for about 30 percent of all deaths. Many Japanese cancer patients experience severe pain although they and their families hope to be pain free at the end of their lives. Toward that end, the consumption of morphine in Japan has increased markedly since 1989. The amount of morphine hydrochloride and morphine sulfate consumed in 2001 was 6.1 times that used in Japan in 1989. However, the amount of morphine consumed in Japan is still less than in other developed nations, and was only one-sixth of the amount used in Australia in 2001. As a result, many Japanese cancer patients experience potentially manageable cancer pain, largely because the amount of the drug used by doctors is insufficient for pain control. An increasing number of Japanese doctors now understand that their patients' quality of life is most important in end-of-life care and how to use the three step analgesic ladder of the World Health Organization (WHO). However, other doctors do not understand these issues sufficiently causing some patients to die without good pain control. Both the general population and some medical professionals misunderstand and have prejudice against the use of morphine. Patients often do not participate in decision making about medical treatment because of remaining paternalism in the relationship between Japanese doctors and patients. Thus, cancer pain management in Japan is not as effective as it can be and not all Japanese cancer patients receive appropriate management for their cancer pain. To improve outcomes for Japanese patients, it is necessary for health professional and social work students and practicing professionals to receive contemporary education including an introduction to palliative care and ethics. PMID:18032354

  12. The emperor of Japan and the aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S. I.

    On October 3, 1985, I gave a special lecture on the aurora for the Emperor of Japan in his palace in Tokyo. It seems the Emperor, a marine biologist, has an unusual interest in the aurora. After my slide presentation, he asked how we confirm ancient sighting reports of the aurora in Japan. He was not satisfied with my response that anomalous events in the sky were well documented in an ancient publication entitled Japanese Meteorological Data and asked further how one could confirm such sightings as auroral events. He was visibly pleased to learn that the dates of these sightings coincided with those recorded elsewhere in the world.

  13. Tobacco control: recent movements in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asukai, Yumiko; Torii, Yoichi; Chikamoto, Yosuke

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco control in Japan has not kept pace with the rest of the global community in the past several decades. Although recent movements in Japan suggest that some changes will occur, most of the initiatives are still circumspect at best. The motivations driving most of these changes come from concern for morals about obeying the law and propriety of consideration for nonsmokers in public places, rather than for health. Moreover, the complicated relationship between the government and the tobacco industry, as well as between the two ministries that oversee the industry, may act as obstacles to any real comprehensive tobacco control. PMID:15675541

  14. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  15. Recycling scheme for scrapped automobiles in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Masao; Nakajima, Akira; Taya, Sadao

    1995-12-31

    Over 5 million cars are scrapped yearly in Japan. After dismantling scrapped automobiles, they are put into a shredder for differential recovery of ferrous and nonferrous metals. The residue, which is called shredder dust, runs over 1.2 million tons per year. This paper reports a entire sequence of scrapping cars in Japan with the following sections: (1) production and scrapped car management, (2) material composition, (3) dismantling, (4) shredder plant, (5) differential recovery of metals including specific gravity and newly developed color separation.

  16. JPRS report: Science and technology, Japan, [June 19, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    1987-06-19

    This report contains information concerning Japan`s science and technology. Specific topics include: (1) advanced materials, (2) aerospace and civil aviation, (3) energy, (4) nuclear developments, and (5) transportation.

  17. JPRS report: Science and technology, Japan, [June 4, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    1987-06-04

    This report contains information concerning Japan`s science and technology. Specific topics include: (1) advanced materials, (2) aerospace, civil aviation, (3) defense industries, (4) energy, (5) lasers, sensors, optics, (6) nuclear developments, and (7) transportation.

  18. JPRS report: Science and technology, Japan, [October 20, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-10-20

    This report contains information concerning Japan`s science and technology. The following topics are addressed: (1) aerospace, civil aviation, (2) biotechnology, (3) energy, (4) microelectronics, (5) nuclear engineering, and (6) superconductivity.

  19. 77 FR 64487 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan AGENCY: International... Commerce's International Trade Administration (ITA) is coordinating a Renewable Energy Policy Business... regulatory landscape for renewable energy developing in Japan at this time. Following the Roundtable,...

  20. Star Week- A Successful Campaign in Japan -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, J.

    2006-08-01

    In 1995, we started a campaign of the star week as between August 1 and 7 when it is usually expected that most part of Japan should be good weather after the rainy season during the summer holiday. Several hundreds of astronomical facilities for general public in Japan, including planetariums, museums, and public observatories participated in our campaign, together with make good collaborations for education purpose. More than 200 astronomical events such as star parties were coordinated for general public every year. Japan is one of the worst countries for light pollution. Especially most of children have no experience of seeing Milky Way. Let them see the real stars. Let them feel the universe by inviting them to the related astronomical facilities located all over Japan. For realizing this purpose, it is better to set the special week, similar to the "Bird Week" by arranging various astronomical events in these facilities in order to invite all the general public. This is the motivation of the beginning of the star week. Such outreach program should give opportunity for general public to understand the excitement of the astronomy. In this paper, we will introduce present situation of our campaign, along with some statistics.

  1. Trends in Research on Japan's Educational Broadcasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Takashiro

    This overview of Japanese research on educational television and media education from the mid-1970s through 1985 begins by presenting a brief history of educational broadcasting and recent trends in broadcasting and related research in Japan. The following areas are reviewed: (1) research using program analysis; (2) research using test production…

  2. Teacher Cognition in Corrective Feedback in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    Based on qualitative data, the current study explored how the knowledge and beliefs of two EFL professionals shaped their corrective feedback practices. The two teachers teaching in Japan had in common two main agendas that they kept in mind as they provided or opted not to provide corrective feedback. They aimed to teach the language and to…

  3. ICT Implementation and Online Learning in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujitani, Satoru; Bhattacharya, Madhumita; Akahori, Kanji

    2003-01-01

    Addresses issues related to the implementation of information and communications technology (ICT) in education and online learning with particular reference to Japan. Presents an integrated model for the introduction of ICT at all levels of education that suggests ways of bridging the gap between research and development and actual educational…

  4. Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

  5. Core Discussion Networks in Japan and America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boase, Jeffrey; Ikeda, Ken'ichi

    2012-01-01

    Arguments regarding the high prevalence of interpersonal collectivism in Japan typically hinge on the assumption that Japanese communication networks are more enduring, frequently contacted, and dominated by kin and work ties than networks in Western countries. However, this assumption has not been examined using nationally representative data.…

  6. Free Resources for Teaching About Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This publication describes free print and audiovisual materials for teaching about Japan in elementary and secondary schools. The booklet was written to enable teachers to take advantage of the many free materials that are currently available. The first section cites sources of free materials in the United States. Names and addresses of groups…

  7. Cohabitation and Family Formation in Japan

    PubMed Central

    RAYMO, JAMES M.; IWASAWA, MIHO; BUMPASS, LARRY

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the prevalence, duration, and marital outcomes of cohabiting unions in Japan. It then examines the correlates of cohabitation experiences and also describes differences in the family-formation trajectories of women who have and have not cohabited. Cohabitation has increased rapidly among recent cohorts of women, and cohabiting unions in Japan tend to be relatively short in duration and are almost as likely to dissolve as to result in marriage. Life table analyses demonstrate that the cumulative probabilities of marriage and parenthood within marriage are roughly similar for women who did and those who did not cohabit. The most notable difference is in the pathways to family formation, with women who cohabited more likely both to marry subsequent to pregnancy and to delay childbearing within marriage. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that cohabiting unions in Japan are best viewed as an emerging prelude to marriage rather than as an alternative to marriage or singlehood. We conclude with speculation about the likelihood of further increases in cohabitation in Japan and the potential implications for marriage and fertility. PMID:20084829

  8. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  9. The chemical disaster response system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Ninomiya, Norifumi; Ohta, Muneo

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, Japan has experienced the largest burden of chemical terrorism-related events in the world, including the: (1) 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack; (2) 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack; (3) 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident; (4) 1998 Niigata sodium-azide incident; and (5) 1998 Nagano cyanide incident. Two other intentional cyanide releases in Tokyo subway and railway station restrooms were thwarted in 1995. These events spurred Japan to improve the following components of its chemical disaster-response system: (1) scene demarcation; (2) emergency medical care; (3) mass decontamination; (4) personal protective equipment; (5) chemical detection; (6) information-sharing and coordination; and (7) education and training. Further advances occurred as result of potential chemical terrorist threats to the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, which Japan hosted. Today, Japan has an integrated system of chemical disaster response that involves local fire and police services, local emergency medical services (EMS), local hospitals, Japanese Self-Defense Forces, and the Japanese Poison Information Center. PMID:15141857

  10. Child Development and Childcare in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…

  11. Ideas for Teaching about Japan in Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokon, Elizabeth

    This curriculum unit consists of a series of lesson plans focused on Japan for preschool students ages 3 to 5 years. The unit has five themes: (1) geography; (2) language; (3) people and clothing; (4) customs; and (5) food. Each theme has from four to eight activity lessons which address different developmental domains, including language, social…

  12. Kiyo Journals and Scholarly Communication in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamada, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Kiyo are journals published by Japanese academic institutions. As a scholarly communication medium, they have inherent problems such as limited accessibility and lack of quality control. Despite these problems, they have evolved to comprise the majority of academic journals published in the humanities and social sciences in Japan because they fit…

  13. Living in Japan. Intercultural Exchange Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Annie

    The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of Japan, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money; banks; food; restaurants; hotels; tipping; postal and telecommunications services; transportation; shopping; health and…

  14. Basic Skills in Asian Studies: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains 20 learning activities for developing basic skills while teaching about Japan at the secondary level. The activities are self-contained and each consists of a short description, followed by a five-item true or false test and five open-ended questions for student practice. The learning activities are followed by a…

  15. Japanese encephalitis virus in meningitis patients, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Masaru; Ito, Mikako; Takao, Shinichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Fukuda, Shinji; Miyazaki, Kazuo; Kurane, Ichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2005-03-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 57 patients diagnosed with meningitis were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and amplified. Two products had highest homology with Nakayama strain and 2 with Ishikawa strain. Results suggest that Japanese encephalitis virus causes some aseptic meningitis in Japan. PMID:15757569

  16. Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi

    2009-01-01

    To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a…

  17. Behavioural Strategies of Teachers in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paisey, Alan; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Li, Jian

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the behavioural strategies adopted by a sample of teachers in Japan. The data for the study came from a total of 298 Japanese students who were invited to evaluate teacher behaviour by using the Student's Teacher Evaluation Questionnaire. The sixteen-item questionnaire was adopted from Paisey (1975), who had conducted similar…

  18. Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

  19. Student Teaching in Japan: The Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Blake E.

    2005-01-01

    The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) reports that the mathematics teaching in Japan is distinctly different from that found in the United States. They attribute part of that difference to the professional development practice of Lesson Study. However, is the pre-service preparation of Japanese mathematics teachers also…

  20. Overview of Hepatocellular Adenoma in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Motoko; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is generally a benign hepatocellular tumor arising in a nonfibrotic/cirrhotic liver, and recently four major subgroups were identified based on genotype and phenotype classification from Europe. HCA is rare in Asian countries including Japan, and there have been few studies regarding the subgroups of HCA in Japan. We surveyed subgroups of HCA in 13 patients (7 women) in Japan, based on the phenotypic classification. As results, we identified 2 hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1α-inactivated HCAs (15%), two β-catenin-activated HCAs (15%), 5 inflammatory HCAs (39%), and 4 unclassified HCAs (29%). The use of oral contraceptives was found only in 2 unclassified HCAs (29%). Rather low percentage of female patients and use of oral contraceptives appear to be common clinicopathological features in Japan and also East Asian countries. Furthermore, a group of possible inflammatory HCAs characterized by strong immunoreactivity for serum amyloid A (SAA) was found in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. The inflammatory HCA/SAA-positive hepatocellular neoplasm in alcoholic cirrhosis may be a new entity of HCA, which may have potential of malignant transformation. Further studies are needed to clarify genetic changes, monoclonality, and pathogenesis of this new type of hepatocellular neoplasm. PMID:22973519

  1. Current topics in tardive dyskinesia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inada, T; Yagi, G

    1995-12-01

    This article reviews current topics in tardive dyskinesia (TD), a movement disorder associated with the prolonged use of neuroleptic agents, especially therapeutic and preventive strategies which have been or are now being studied in Japan. Tardive dyskinesia has become a major problem in the clinical psychiatric field since the early 1970s in Japan, lagging behind Western countries by more than 10 years. The average prevalence rate of TD has been estimated as 7.7% in Japan, while it has been reported in the English literature at around 15 to 20%. Clinical trials of treatments for TD have been or are now being performed in Japan with a number of novel compounds, such as ceruletide, meclofenoxate, and rolipram; however, no effective treatment has yet been established and measures to prevent TD have therefore been emphasized. These include (i) the development of new antipsychotic drugs which are free from TD, (ii) the identification of risk factors from prospective longitudinal studies, and (iii) the investigation of genetic variations that could act as a marker to identify especially vulnerable patients within the whole population of patients who need neuroleptic therapy. PMID:8726107

  2. Globalization and Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been taken for granted that the…

  3. Japan Sets the Pace in Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiene, Drew

    1983-01-01

    The Ministry of Education and the Japanese Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) public television network are responsible for the instructional broadcasting that has penetrated Japan's classrooms at all levels. Implications for American television include stronger federal support for public television and the possible development of a national…

  4. Japan's Poetry Boxers Get Ready to Grumble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that in Japan, a scholar of communications, in the hope of getting people to talk with one another, holds "boxing" competitions in which the blows are thrown verbally, in verse. In a crowded Yokohama hall, boxers file into a ring watched by cheering students and a panel of university professors. Nobody is predicting a winner,…

  5. Teaching about Japan through Modern Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Loewenfeldt, Charles; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways in which a firsthand knowledge about Japan can be brought into American secondary school classrooms through the study of various forms of modern literature. Each example of Japanese literature (short stories, novels, poetry, comics, etc.) is followed by questions for student discussion. (DB)

  6. Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…

  7. Teaching about Japan. ERIC Digest No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This is an age of ascendency of the Pacific Rim area, especially the Asian sector. Recent decades have seen unprecedented economic growth throughout this area. By examining Japan, the region's pre-eminent nation and harbinger of future developments, the larger topic of the Pacific Rim can be explored. It is particularly important to teach about…

  8. Multicultural and Multiethnic Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomoto, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, the Ainu people have been living mainly in Hokkaido and many Koreans continue to live since the end of the World War Two. Since 1990's, the number of migrant workers has increased rapidly. In this sense, Japanese society has been multicultural and multiethnic. However, those minority groups have been strictly discriminated against in…

  9. Cohabitation and family formation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Raymo, James M; Iwasawa, Miho; Bumpass, Larry

    2009-11-01

    This article documents the prevalence, duration, and marital outcomes of cohabiting unions in Japan. It then examines the correlates of cohabitation experiences and also describes differences in the family-formation trajectories of women who have and have not cohabited. Cohabitation has increased rapidly among recent cohorts of women, and cohabiting unions in Japan tend to be relatively short in duration and are almost as likely to dissolve as to result in marriage. Life table analyses demonstrate that the cumulative probabilities of marriage and parenthood within marriage are roughly similar for women who did and those who did not cohabit. The most notable difference is in the pathways to family formation, with women who cohabited more likely both to marry subsequent to pregnancy and to delay childbearing within marriage. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that cohabiting unions in Japan are best viewed as an emerging prelude to marriage rather than as an alternative to marriage or singlehood. We conclude with speculation about the likelihood of further increases in cohabitation in Japan and the potential implications for marriage and fertility. PMID:20084829

  10. With a Little Help from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, John

    2009-01-01

    Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing…

  11. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan (53 FR 32267). On August 30, 1988, Commerce issued an... from Italy and Japan (65 FR 6147, February 8, 2000). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and... orders on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan (70 FR 76026)....

  12. A Hybrid Tsunami Risk Model for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseemkunju, A. V.; Smith, D. F.; Khater, M.; Khemici, O.; Betov, B.; Scott, J.

    2014-12-01

    Around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, denser oceanic plates slipping under continental plates cause subduction earthquakes generating large tsunami waves. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates create damaging interplate earthquakes followed by huge tsunami waves. It was a rupture of the Japan Trench subduction zone (JTSZ) and the resultant M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that caused the unprecedented tsunami along the Pacific coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. EQECAT's Japan Earthquake model is a fully probabilistic model which includes a seismo-tectonic model describing the geometries, magnitudes, and frequencies of all potential earthquake events; a ground motion model; and a tsunami model. Within the much larger set of all modeled earthquake events, fault rupture parameters for about 24000 stochastic and 25 historical tsunamigenic earthquake events are defined to simulate tsunami footprints using the numerical tsunami model COMCOT. A hybrid approach using COMCOT simulated tsunami waves is used to generate inundation footprints, including the impact of tides and flood defenses. Modeled tsunami waves of major historical events are validated against observed data. Modeled tsunami flood depths on 30 m grids together with tsunami vulnerability and financial models are then used to estimate insured loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami. The primary direct report of damage from the 2011 tsunami is in terms of the number of buildings damaged by municipality in the tsunami affected area. Modeled loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami is proportional to the number of buildings damaged. A 1000-year return period map of tsunami waves shows high hazard along the west coast of southern Honshu, on the Pacific coast of Shikoku, and on the east coast of Kyushu, primarily associated with major earthquake events on the Nankai Trough subduction zone (NTSZ). The highest tsunami hazard of more than 20m is seen on the Sanriku coast in northern Honshu, associated with the JTSZ.

  13. What is nuclear power in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    The aggressive use of such non-fossil energy as the atomic energy with high power density and energy production efficiency is an indispensable choice aiming at the low-carbon society. There is a trial calculation that the carbon dioxide emission of 40000 ton can be suppressed by nuclear power generation by one ton of uranium. The basis of nuclear research after the Second World War in Japan was established by the researchers learnt in Argonne National Laboratory. In 2010, NPPs under operation are 54 units and the total electric generating power is 48.85GW. The amount of nuclear power generation per person of the people is 0.38kW in Japan, and it is near 0.34kW of the United States. However, the TMI accident and the Chernobyl disaster should have greatly stagnated the nuclear industry of Japan although it is not more serious than the United States. A lot of Japanese unconsciously associate a nuclear accident with the atomic bomb. According to the investigation which Science and Technology Agency carried out to the specialist in 1999, ``What will be the field where talent should be emphatically sent in the future?'' the rank of nuclear technology was the lowest in 32 fields. The influence of the nuclear industry stagnation was remarkable in the education. The subject related to the atomic energy of a university existed 19 in 1985 that was the previous year of the Chernobyl disaster decreased to 7 in 2003. In such a situation, we have to rely on the atomic energy because Japan depends for 96% of energy resources on import. The development of the fuel reprocessing and the fast breeder reactor has been continued in spite of a heavy failure. That is the only means left behind for Japan to be released from both fossil fuel and carbon dioxide.

  14. Recycling of used aluminum beverage cans in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Itou, Tatsuo

    1995-12-31

    Both sales volume of aluminum cans and the recycling rate are remarkably increasing in Japan. In 1993, recycled can volume was 11.78 billion cans (116,258 metric tons) and its recycling rate 57.8 percent. Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, the leading manufacturer of aluminum cans in Japan, and their affiliated companies are very deeply involved in recycling used beverage cans (U.B.C) and recycling them back to can stock. In this paper, the author presents the following: (1) recent trends of beverage can consumption in Japan; (2) trend of aluminum cans and recycling rate in Japan; and (3) future of the aluminum can business in Japan.

  15. Determining Ionospheric Irregularity Spectral Density Function from Japan GEONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, E. H.; Light, M. E.; Parker, P. A.; Carrano, C. S.; Haaser, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Japan's GEONET GPS network is the densest GPS monitoring network in the world, with 1200+ receivers over the area of Japan. Measuring and calibrating the integrated total electron content (TEC) from each station has been done in many cases to provide detailed maps of ionospheric disturbances over Japan. We use TEC measurements from Japan's GEONET array to determine an empirically derived description of the 2-dimensional scale sizes of spatial irregularities above Japan. The contributions from various scale sizes will be included in a statistical description for the irregularity spectral density (ISD) function. We will compare the statistics of the spatial irregularities between calm and moderately scintillated conditions.

  16. Psychohistorical Hypotheses on Japan's History of Hostility Towards China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Rudmin, Floyd

    2016-01-01

    The accelerating tensions and military posturing between Japan and China have created a serious crisis with a danger of a catastrophic war. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the events of the current crisis, and to put it in the context of Japan's long history of hostility to China and repeated attempts at conquest. The historical record shows that Japan has attacked China at least seven times, even though China has never attacked Japan. The irrationality of Japan's behavior is demonstrated by the repetition of this hostile behavior despite the enormous human and economic costs that Japan has suffered because of it. The irrationality of Japan's militarism suggests that psychological explanations may be required to understand this phenomenon. Several hypotheses are proposed, including 1) projected paranoid aggression, 2) collective Zeigarnik compulsion, 3) perceived weakness exciting aggression, 4) national inferiority feelings, 5) cultural narcissism, and 6) Oedipal-like hatred of a parent culture. PMID:27480012

  17. A precise geodetic survey in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokugo, S.

    1983-09-01

    Japan is located in the Circum-Pacific seismic belt and has frequently suffered from severe earthquakes in her history. To reduce earthquake disasters, the realization of earthquake prediction is now a national development project, in which the role of geodetic survey is extremely important. The Geographical Survey Institute has planned to carry out a precise geodetic survey of all Japan to study crustal movements and to utilize these data for long-range prediction of earthquakes. It started the survey in 1974. This survey consists of repetition of a first and second order geodetic survey by trilaterations and first order levelling with gravity measurement. At present, the survey of the first period has been executed. The method and results obtained so far are discussed in this report.

  18. History of public health crises in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Tomoaki; Ide, Hiroo; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2007-07-01

    In Japan, a number of serious public health crises involving environmental pollution, food-borne diseases, and health hazards due to pharmaceuticals (i.e., "Yakugai") have occurred in the past 50 years. Based on the literature, we summarize the initial investigations and the subsequent measures. Some common points emerge: (1) prolonged cause identification, (2) lack of countermeasures after the cause was identified, and (3) discrimination against victims and they contributed to spreading the damage. We identify lack of corporate ethics and ill-timed disclosure of information as the principal problems in Japan's crisis-management systems. Defects in information gathering were common to all of the cases, thus we suggest necessary corrective measures, such as the establishment of a new reporting system for health hazard-related information. PMID:17585323

  19. Viewpoint of Science Council of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Syunsuke

    The Science Council of Japan (SCJ) is an academic body that represents Japanese 700,000 scientists. The activity of SCJ is changing rapidly, in which the science associated with society is increasingly important. In this context, the engineering education for ethics is treated at SCJ. The importance of engineering ethics was first recognized at the 5th division of 17th term (1999-2001) of SCJ, in which education for engineering ethics based on the analysis of ethical problems occurred in Japan is recommended and it asked the engineering societies to establish the code of ethics. Following this proposal, SCJ founded a committee to treat the problem at 18th and 19th terms. The committee proposed a procedure to prevent misconduct associated with scientific activities and the importance of education of science and engineering ethics especially for young students at tertiary education.

  20. Study and application of molluscicides in Japan*

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Yoshitaka

    1961-01-01

    For several years after the First World War calcium oxide was the main compound used in the control of Oncomelania nosophora in Japan. This was generally replaced in 1944 by calcium cyanamide; since 1952 the prefectural authorities in areas of endemic bilharziasis have increasingly turned to the use of sodium pentachlorophenate as the molluscicide of choice. Applied at a rate of 5 g per m2, this compound has been found to kill 70%-80% of snails per application. Laboratory and field experiments with calcium-arsenic compounds have been conducted in Japan and have indicated that these products have a relatively high molluscicidal effect; they have, however, not been used on a wide scale for snail control. PMID:14458130

  1. Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Mikkel B.; Sessions, October; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Despite Japan's temperate climate, a dengue outbreak occurred in Tokyo for the first time in over 70 years in 2014. We dissected this dengue outbreak based on phylogenetic analysis, travel interconnectivity, and environmental drivers for dengue epidemics. Comparing the available dengue virus 1 (DENV1) E gene sequence from this outbreak with 3,282 unique DENV1 sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information suggested that the DENV might have been imported from China, Indonesia, Singapore, or Vietnam. With travelers arriving into Japan, Guangzhou (China) may have been the source of DENV introduction, given that Guangzhou also reported a large-scale dengue outbreak in 2014. Coinciding with the 2014 outbreak, Tokyo's climate conditions permitted the amplification of Aedes vectors and the annual peak of vectorial capacity. Given suitable vectors and climate conditions in addition to increasing interconnectivity with endemic areas of Asia, Tokyo's 2014 outbreak did not come as a surprise and may foretell more to come. PMID:26711518

  2. Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furue, Masutaka; Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

    2011-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians. PMID:22053299

  3. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  4. Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014.

    PubMed

    Quam, Mikkel B; Sessions, October; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-02-01

    Despite Japan's temperate climate, a dengue outbreak occurred in Tokyo for the first time in over 70 years in 2014. We dissected this dengue outbreak based on phylogenetic analysis, travel interconnectivity, and environmental drivers for dengue epidemics. Comparing the available dengue virus 1 (DENV1) E gene sequence from this outbreak with 3,282 unique DENV1 sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information suggested that the DENV might have been imported from China, Indonesia, Singapore, or Vietnam. With travelers arriving into Japan, Guangzhou (China) may have been the source of DENV introduction, given that Guangzhou also reported a large-scale dengue outbreak in 2014. Coinciding with the 2014 outbreak, Tokyo's climate conditions permitted the amplification of Aedes vectors and the annual peak of vectorial capacity. Given suitable vectors and climate conditions in addition to increasing interconnectivity with endemic areas of Asia, Tokyo's 2014 outbreak did not come as a surprise and may foretell more to come. PMID:26711518

  5. Japan increases assistance to UNFPA / IPPF.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    The Government of Japan has announced it will provide US$71 million in aid to UNFPA and IPPF in fiscal year 1995--an increase of $3.9 million from the previous year. Also increased in 1995 will be assistance to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) active at the grass-roots level. Yet another focus for Japanese aid has been the Global Issues Initiative on Population and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), which will make $3 billion available from 1994-2000. In this project, the Japanese Government is working closely with NGOs on issues such as reproductive health and women's empowerment. These budget allocations occurred at a time when Japan's spending power has been undermined by economic recession and a need for earthquake relief and reconstruction. PMID:12319262

  6. Steatitis in egrets and herons from Japan.

    PubMed

    Neagari, Yasuko; Arii, Suzue; Udagawa, Mai; Onuma, Manabu; Odaya, Yoshiya; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tenpaku, Makio; Hayama, Hisayo; Harada, Ken-ichi; Mizukami, Masaya; Murata, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    More than 70 egrets and herons were found sick or dead at an agricultural water reservoir in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan between September and October 2008. The birds showed weakness, lethargy, and inability to fly before death. Postmortem findings included large amounts of firm subcutaneous and cavitary fat comprised of necrotic adipose tissues with infiltrates of heterophils and macrophages. The birds were diagnosed with steatitis on the basis of the gross lesions and histopathology. Egrets with steatitis had low blood levels of vitamin E. High counts of cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) were found in the reservoir concurrent with the outbreak of steatitis. No microcystin was detected in the reservoir water or the livers from the egrets. This is the first report of steatitis in wild birds in Japan. PMID:21269996

  7. Prospect of satellite broadcasting in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, R.

    1982-09-01

    In 1984 The National Space Development Agency of Japan, in conjunction with the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, will launch the country's first broadcasting satellite, the BS-2. The satellite will incorporate the advances made as a result of the experimental satellite launched in 1978. BS-2 will be able to transmit two channels of color television signals; it is designed to operate for 5 yrs. The modulation of thy picture signal is FM; that of the audio signal is still under investigation. The way in which the receiving antenna can be designed and coated so as to minimize the buildup of snow is discussed. Attention is also given to ways of placing the antenna to guard against deleterious wind effects. The broadcasting services envisioned for the satellites that will succeed BS-2 are discussed.

  8. Lead poisoning in wild waterfowl in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, K; Kimura, T; Uematsu, K; Umemura, T; Itakura, C

    1999-10-01

    We collected 430 harvested ducks (Anas sp. and Aythya sp.) from nine prefectures in Japan between 1994 and 1997. Fifteen (4%) of 363 birds harvested during and after hunting seasons had one lead pellet each in the proventriculus and gizzard. In addition, 32 (34%) of 93 swans (Cygnus sp.) and two of 14 geese (Anser sp.) found dead from various wetlands had lesions consistent with lead poisoning. One to nine swans suspected of having toxicosis from ingestion of lead shot were found dead each year. Twenty-seven (84%) of the 32 lead-exposured swans were found in Hokkaido Prefecture. We concluded that lead poisoning is still a serious threat to waterfowl in Japan and that there is considerable need for environmental improvement concerning this problem. PMID:10574537

  9. Fluvial geomorphology and paleohydrology in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Takashi; Saito, Kyoji; Kadomura, Hiroshi; Grossman, Michael

    2001-07-01

    An introduction to fluvial geomorphology and paleohydrology in Japan is provided for researchers who are unfamiliar with these topics. Studies by Japanese geomorphologists are reviewed including those published only in Japanese-language journals. Emphasis is placed upon the following aspects: (1) abundant sediment yields from steep watersheds subjected to frequent heavy rains despite heavily vegetated conditions, (2) extensive sedimentation in mountain piedmonts and coastal fluvial plains especially during the Holocene, (3) catastrophic hydro-geomorphological events associated with earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and (4) the impacts of the increased heavy rainfall during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition on the post glacial development of hillslopes and alluvial fans. These geomorphological characteristics differ from those in continental regions, such as Europe and North America, indicating that research on Japanese fluvial systems can contribute a great deal to the understanding of the global variety of fluvial geomorphology. Recent work on paleohydrological reconstruction in Japan is also reviewed.

  10. Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians. PMID:22053299

  11. Contagious equine metritis eradicated from Japan.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Toru; Kamada, Masanobu; Niwa, Hidekazu; Eguchi, Masashi; Nishi, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a contagious venereal disease of horses, invaded Japan in 1980 and spread in the Thoroughbred population of the Hidaka-Iburi district of Hokkaido. To eradicate CEM, we ran a program aimed at detecting Taylorella equigenitalis, the causal agent, in carrier horses by using the PCR test, followed by culling or treatment. In 2001, the first year of the program, 12,356 Thoroughbred racing stallions and mares were tested and 11 carriers were found. Four, two, one, and one carrier mares were detected in 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, by application of the program at the same scale as in 2001. No PCR-positive horses were found from 2006 to 2010. These results strongly suggest that CEM was eradicated from Japan by 2010. PMID:22123306

  12. Shear wall experiments and design in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.

    1994-12-01

    This paper summarizes the results of recent survey studies on the available experimental data bases and design codes/standards for reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures in Japan. Information related to the seismic design of RC reactor buildings and containment structures was emphasized in the survey. The seismic requirements for concrete structures, particularly those related to shear strength design, are outlined. Detailed descriptions are presented on the development of Japanese shear wall equations, design requirements for containment structures, and ductility requirements.

  13. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  14. Sarcocystis sp. from cattle slaughtered in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Kubo, M; Itagaki, H

    2000-11-01

    Sarcocystis sp. was detected from cattle slaughtered in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The cysts were 3,400-4,400 x 198-238 microm in size and had the thick cyst wall which was 7 to 10 microm thick and provided with finger-like villar protrusions. The protrusions were 8-9.5 x 2-2.5 microm in size and had microtubules in the core. PMID:11129868

  15. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-29

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  16. Energy R and D in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Dooley

    1999-08-09

    In 1997, the public and private sectors in Japan invested $90.3 billion in R and D. Japan is the second largest supporter of R and D after the United States. A very large percentage (79.4%) of all R and D in Japan is supported by the private sector. The prolonged economic recession that has plagued the Japanese economy for most of the 1990s has significantly reduced the scale of the Japanese R and D effort compared to what it would have been had the economy been more robust. The Japanese government has recently attempted to bring the economy out of this recession through the use of economic stimulus packages. These stimulus packages have contained significant new funding for R and D, although it is apparent that much of the funding is going to R and D programs and R and D construction projects with very near tern payoff and not to the support of longer term R and D. In 1998, the Japanese government devoted 13.7% of all public R and D funds to the support of energy R and D. The priority accorded to energy R and D in Japan is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. The Japanese energy R and D program, which was funded at $2.5 billion in 1997, is overwhelmingly focused on nuclear energy R and D. Nuclear energy R and D (fission and fusion) accounts for 75% of the total national energy R and D budget. The fission energy R and D effort has decreased nearly 24% since 1996 as the government attempts to refocus this program in the face of growing public opposition to the Japanese government's efforts to expand the nuclear power program. Energy efficiency R and D (8% of the total national energy R and D budget) and renewable energy R and D receive relatively modest support from the Japanese government.

  17. Survey of ceramic machining in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P.; Blau, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report is a compilation of four subcontract reports provided by B. P. Bandyopadhyay who, while a visiting professor at Toyohashi University in Japan, conducted a survey of ceramic machining technology in that country from January 1 through December 31, 1992. Various aspects of machining technology were surveyed: types of parts being produced, types of ceramic materials being used, the nature of current ceramic machining research and development, and types of machine tools. The four separate reports compiled here were originally provided in a narrative, chronological form, and some of the information has been reorganized into topical areas for this compilation. This report is organized into three sections: The first describes ten ceramic machining research and development organizations and provides a reference list of their current technical publications; the second, two major trade shows; and the third, several other products and commercial developments noted during the course of Bandyopadhyay`s stay in Japan. An Appendix lists key individuals who are currently conducting ceramic machining research in Japan.

  18. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  19. Surrogacy: donor conception regulation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Semba, Yukari; Chang, Chiungfang; Hong, Hyunsoo; Kamisato, Ayako; Kokado, Minori; Muto, Kaori

    2010-09-01

    As of 2008, surrogacy is legal and openly practised in various places; Japan, however, has no regulations or laws regarding surrogacy. This paper reports the situation of surrogacy in Japan and in five other regions (the USA, the UK, Taiwan, Korea and France) to clarify the pros and cons of prohibiting surrogacy, along with the problems and issues relating to surrogacy compensation. Not only in a country such as France that completely prohibits surrogacy within the country, but also in a country such as the UK that allows non-commercial surrogacy, infertile couples travel overseas for the purpose of surrogacy. In addition, some couples might seek underground surrogacy if the government prohibits surrogacy. If an intended parent couple and a surrogate make an agreement among themselves and then a problem occurs, they cannot ask for support from professionals or bring a case to court, as can be observed in South Korea and Taiwan. We also conclude that there is little difference between commercial surrogacy and non-commercial surrogacy in the absence of a clear definition of 'reasonable expenses.' In the UK, the law does not allow surrogates to receive compensation. However, in reality, there may be little difference between the amounts paid to surrogates for profit in the US and those paid to surrogates for reasonable expenses in the UK. We conclude that the issue of surrogacy demands further discussion in Japan. PMID:20002072

  20. Current affairs in earthquake prediction in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, Seiya

    2015-12-01

    As of mid-2014, the main organizations of the earthquake (EQ hereafter) prediction program, including the Seismological Society of Japan (SSJ), the MEXT Headquarters for EQ Research Promotion, hold the official position that they neither can nor want to make any short-term prediction. It is an extraordinary stance of responsible authorities when the nation, after the devastating 2011 M9 Tohoku EQ, most urgently needs whatever information that may exist on forthcoming EQs. Japan's national project for EQ prediction started in 1965, but it has made no success. The main reason for no success is the failure to capture precursors. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this stance has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. This paper tries to explain how this situation came about and suggest that it may in fact be a legitimate one which should have come a long time ago. Actually, substantial positive changes are taking place now. Some promising signs are arising even from cooperation of researchers with private sectors and there is a move to establish an "EQ Prediction Society of Japan". From now on, maintaining the high scientific standards in EQ prediction will be of crucial importance.

  1. Admixtures and fibers for shotcrete in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tazawa, Yujiro

    1995-12-31

    In recent years in Japan the following additives are increasingly being used for Shotcreting in tunnels: Accelerator for shotcreting based on calcium aluminate; dust control agent; and fiber. While dry mix shotcrete was predominantly used in Japan, accelerator of shotcrete based on inorganic salts contributed a great deal to the performance of shotcrete. However this type of accelerator is not so effective to wet mix which has been taking the place of dry mix in recent years. For wet mix shotcrete, accelerator for shotcrete based on Amorphous calcium aluminate is found to be quite effective in gaining sufficient early strength without aggravating long term strength. Practical performance in various cases is reported. A dust control agent for shotcreting is often used to improve working conditions in tunnels. This agent is reported to reduce a great deal of the dust generated in shotcreting operations. A variety of dust control agents are now available, of which constituents are cellulose epoxy , acrylic epoxy, polyvinyl alcohol etc. Use of fibers in shotcrete is also becoming popular in Japan to increase strength and toughness of the concrete. Not only steel fibers but also glass fibers are widely used. Recently more variety of materials such as PVA fiber acrylic and aramid fibers have been tested and some of them are being put into practical use, giving similar properties to shotcrete with steel fibers.

  2. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  3. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology. PMID:19108488

  4. [Neurology in Japan before World War II].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Modern Western medicine was introduced into Japan by a Dutch doctor Pompe van Meerdervoort in 1855. A German physician EOE von Balz devoted himself to educating medicine at Tokyo Medical School, the predecessor of the present University of Tokyo for 25 years. Hiroshi Kawahara and Kinnosuke Miura, pioneers of Japan Neurology, received their education by him. Kawahara first described X-linked bulvo-spinal muscular atrophy, and published the first Japanese textbook of clinical neurology in 1897. In 1902, Miura and others founded the Japanese Society of Neuro-Psychiatry, the forerunner of the present " Japanese Society of Neurology ". Both Seizo Katsunuma, Professor of Nagoya University, and Junnjiro Kato, Professor of Tohoku University, succeeded Miura's neurology. Miura investigated into the cause of beriberi, but ended in failure. Hasegawa's proposal at the Diet in 1894 that the Japan Government should found an independent department of neurology in the University of Tokyo was unfortunately rejected. There was no foundation of independent institute, department and clinic of neurology before World War II. Consequently Japanese neurology was on the ebb at that time. PMID:24291835

  5. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2010-04-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  6. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the UK. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  7. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan's high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in 'Neo Muscat', 'Kyoho', and 'Muscat Bailey A'. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many 'Kyoho'-related cultivars, including 'Pione', many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed 'Shine Muscat' in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  8. Towards the Realization of Geo-Referencing Infrastructure for Dynamic Japan (GRID-Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hiromichi; Komaki, Kazuo

    2005-03-01

    The recent change of the geodetic reference system of Japan from the Tokyo Datum to the Japanese geodetic Datum 2000 (JGD2000) is an ongoing process to keep the system precise and up-to-date for the various demands of modern society. In the rapidly changing archipelago over tectonic plate converging zones and with the advent of an information society, future directions of the national geodetic reference system require special thought. A combination of GPS and information technology is now leading to the emergence of a Location Base Service (LBS) where positional information plays a key role to relate real space to cyberspace, opening up a geo-information society. Although the basic role of the geodetic reference system to control precise coodinates for surveying never change, a new role to support precise, real-time positioning should be developed. In addition, incessant crustal deformation in Japan should be properly handled by a semi-dynamic correction system for precise surveys with GPS. This paper presents a future design of the national geodetic reference system, introducing the concept of Geo-Referencing Infrastructure for Dynamic Japan (GRID-Japan). Through the partnership of local governments and the private sector, GSI will start the process of realizing the concept of GRID-Japan in the next ten years.

  9. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system. PMID:24274130

  10. Urologic cancer in Japan: role of Japan at the frontier of issues in Asia.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of urological cancer in Japan can be summarized in the following points. (i) As the onset of this type of cancer is typically seen in elderly patients, it is becoming a major social issue in Japan that has already become an aging society. (ii) Many diverse treatment methods are available and a response is required that prioritizes quality of life. (iii) Although vigorous research and development efforts into new drugs are being carried out on a global level, resulting in beneficial medical agents becoming more readily available, unless concepts relating to cost vs. effectiveness are further developed and there is a real risk that medical systems and structures in their current form will become unsustainable. (iv) Although at the current point there are no original large-scale clinical trials being conducted in Asia, Japan has a wealth of experience of participating in many international joint clinical trials and it is therefore an urgent and pressing challenge to organize joint clinical trials in Asia and amass a body of knowledge that is unique to Asia. In view of this current situation and given Japan's position at the frontier of issues, it is important for Japan to take the initiative in Asia in cooperating with other Asian nations in efforts to resolve and overcome various challenges. PMID:26268998

  11. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  12. Altitude-dependent distribution of ambient gamma dose rates in a mountainous area of Japan caused by the fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hososhima, Mutsuo; Kaneyasu, Naoki

    2015-03-17

    Large amounts of airborne radionuclides were deposited over a wide area in eastern Japan, including mountainous regions, during the devastating Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Altitudinal distributions of ambient gamma dose rate in air were measured in a mountainous area at the northern rim of the Kanto Plain, Japan, using a portable instrument carried along the mountain trails. In the Nikko Mountain area, located 120 km north of Tokyo, the altitudinal distribution exhibited a maxima at ∼900-2000 m above sea level (ASL). This area was not affected by precipitation until 2300 Japan Standard Time (JST) on March 15, 2011. By that time, a substantial amount of radionuclides had been transported from the damaged reactor, according to the numerical simulations using transport models. Meteorological sounding data indicated that the corresponding altitudes were within the cloud layer. A visual-range monitor deployed in an unmanned weather station at 1292 m ASL also recorded low visibility on the afternoon of March 15. From these findings, it was deduced that the altitude-dependent radioactive contamination was caused by the cloud/fog deposition process of the radionuclides contained in aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei. PMID:25705987

  13. A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.

    2002-02-25

    This paper is entitled ''A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN''. Since the first statement on the strategy for radioactive waste management in Japan was made by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1976, a quarter century has passed, in which much experience has been accumulated both in technical and social domains. This paper looks back in this 25-year history of radioactive waste management in Japan by highlighting activities related to high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal.

  14. Nationwide tsunami hazard assessment project in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Nakamura, H.; Osada, M.; Ohsumi, T.; Morikawa, N.; Kawai, S.; Aoi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Matsuyama, H.; Toyama, N.; Kito, T.; Murashima, Y.; Murata, Y.; Inoue, T.; Saito, R.; Akiyama, S.; Korenaga, M.; Abe, Y.; Hashimoto, N.

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, we began a project of nationwide Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) in Japan to support various measures (Fujiwara et al., 2013, JpGU; Hirata et al., 2014, AOGS). The most important strategy in the nationwide PTHA is predominance of aleatory uncertainty in the assessment but use of epistemic uncertainty is limited to the minimum, because the number of all possible combinations among epistemic uncertainties diverges quickly when the number of epistemic uncertainties in the assessment increases ; we consider only a type of earthquake occurrence probability distribution as epistemic uncertainty. We briefly show outlines of the nationwide PTHA as follows; (i) we consider all possible earthquakes in the future, including those that the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japanese Government, already assessed. (ii) We construct a set of simplified earthquake fault models, called "Characterized Earthquake Fault Models (CEFMs)", for all of the earthquakes by following prescribed rules (Toyama et al., 2014, JpGU; Korenaga et al., 2014, JpGU). (iii) For all of initial water surface distributions caused by a number of the CEFMs, we calculate tsunamis by solving a nonlinear long wave equation, using FDM, including runup calculation, over a nesting grid system with a minimum grid size of 50 meters. (iv) Finally, we integrate information about the tsunamis calculated from the numerous CEFMs to get nationwide tsunami hazard assessments. One of the most popular representations of the integrated information is a tsunami hazard curve for coastal tsunami heights, incorporating uncertainties inherent in tsunami simulation and earthquake fault slip heterogeneity (Abe et al., 2014, JpGU). We will show a PTHA along the eastern coast of Honshu, Japan, based on approximately 1,800 tsunami sources located within the subduction zone along the Japan Trench, as a prototype of the nationwide PTHA. This study is supported by part of the research

  15. Robotics Technology In Japan And Its Impact On Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiko

    1984-08-01

    Japan's capabilities in robotics technology has developed with amazing speed. The nation has gone from an importer of robotics technology to the leading exporter in a little more than fifteen years. How did Japan manage to achieve such a feat? Are workers happy with this new technology? In order to answer these and other questions, the author spent several weeks in Japan in the summer of 1983 visiting many organizations and interviewing individuals. This paper summarizes the author's findings on the current status of Japan's robotization and its implications to workers.

  16. Tenma - Japan's X-ray satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, C.

    1984-06-01

    Japan's second X-ray satellite, designated 'Tenma', has temporal and spectral sensitivity superior to that of its predecessor, Hakucho. It is a spin-stabilized satellite whose attitude maneuvers are performed through the activation of a magnetic torquing coil, by means of which a typical, 20-deg transfer occupies several orbits. Tenma carries as its instrument set scintillation proportional counters for spectral and temporal studies, an X-ray focusing collector for the study of very soft X-ray sources, a transient source monitor for wide-field sky monitoring, and a radiation belt monitor/gamma-ray burst detector for monitoring the non-X-ray background.

  17. Skin cancer screening in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagano, T; Ueda, M; Suzuki, T; Naruse, K; Nakamura, T; Taguchi, M; Araki, K; Nakagawa, K; Nagai, H; Hayashi, K; Watanabe, S; Ichihashi, M

    1999-04-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale. Ozone depletion increases the amount of biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) that reaches the surface of the Earth, leading to an increased incidence of skin cancer. We previously reported the prevalence and incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) in Kasai City, which is located almost at the center of Japan. To evaluate the effects of different ambient annual UV doses on the prevalence and incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and AK in Japan, we screened for skin cancer on Ie Island in Okinawa at the southern end of Japan, where the annual cumulative dose of UV is assumed to be the highest in Japan. The island had a population of 5562 in 1993. A prospective 4-year population-based study on the prevalence and incidence of cutaneous neoplasms was conducted by examining the sun-exposed skin of people over 40 years of age living on Ie Island. In 1993 1996, 86 cases of AK, nine of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and two of squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The annual prevalence of AK on Ie Island was 1159.4 in 1993, 572.8 in 1994, 1014.3 in 1995 and 988.9 per 100000 Japanese in 1996. These values were significantly higher than those in Kasai City. The annual age-adjusted odds ratios for AK of Ie Island to Kasai City were 2.79, 1.38, 2.45 and 2.39, respectively. The incidences of AK on Ie Island per 100,000 were 637.0 in 1995 and 625.5 in 1996, which were also significantly higher than those in Kasai City (223.6 in 1993 and 171.2 in 1994). The prevalence of BCC was 123.6 and the incidence was 26.1. Together with our previous reports, the present results show a possible inverse relationship between the prevalence and incidence of AK and latitude among Japanese people. PMID:10215187

  18. [Japan kampo medicine authority, yakazu doumei].

    PubMed

    Mayanagi, Makoto

    2003-04-01

    Our benefactor Yakazu Doumei who devoted his life to Kampo medicine, has passed away his 96 years life on the 21th of October 2002. He went on to medical college for the revival of Kampo, and improved scientific research on Kampo. His achievements are; 1713 papers in scientific journal; 395 times lecture at academic meeting; 20 kinds of books of his authorship; 8 kinds of books under joint authorship. After World War II, he attended many meetings held in Taiwan and Korea. After normalization of diplomatic relations between Japan and China, he visited China 8 times and opened wide road for interchange of both traditional medicine. PMID:12921585

  19. The 1998 World Solar Rallye: Akita, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacklock, Andy; Duke, Mike; Burgess, Nigel

    In early August 1998, 81 solar/electric vehicles participated in a three day endurance race in Japan. The objective was to complete as many laps of the 31 km circuit as possible. Some of the cars used state-of-the-art motors, batteries, chassis, solar cells and tyres to produce vehicles which could travel at speeds of 70-80 km/h on about 1 kW of input power. With only 20 kg of battery, some solar cars were travelling around 450 km a day. This paper tells the story of the race and the technological developments behind the successful vehicles.

  20. Knowledge-based systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Edward; Engelmore, Robert S.; Friedland, Peter E.; Johnson, Bruce B.; Nii, H. Penny; Schorr, Herbert; Shrobe, Howard

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a study of the state-of-the-art in knowledge-based systems technology in Japan, organized by the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center (JTEC) under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The panel visited 19 Japanese sites in March 1992. Based on these site visits plus other interactions with Japanese organizations, both before and after the site visits, the panel prepared a draft final report. JTEC sent the draft to the host organizations for their review. The final report was published in May 1993.

  1. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.

  2. Countermeasures against chemical terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Seto, Yasuo; Fuse, Akira

    2013-04-10

    Japan has experienced numerous incidents of chemical disasters and terrorist attacks. Here we review the history of changes in countermeasures against such incidents. Since 2004, the Civil Protection Law, more formally known as the "Law Concerning the Measures for Protection of the People in Armed Attack Situations etc" was enacted to fully prepare the nation for chemical terrorism. According to this law, the Japanese government must carry out Civil Protection Exercises on an annual basis to gauge response. Problem areas that remain are chosen and addressed one by one until they are judged to be resolved in subsequent exercises. PMID:23434376

  3. Seismology in Japan in 1939-1947

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kawasumi, Hirosi

    1950-01-01

    In the latter half of this period the seismology in Japan was so much affected by the war that retrogressions in the instrumental seismology became very remarkable. Much regretted three leading seismologists, professors Ishimoto, Sezawa, and Inamura died in this period. But the seismic activities in this well-known land of earthquakes were not less active than usual as will be seen in the annexed table of destructive earthquakes. Seismologists in this country are now endeavoring to restore its former prosperity in this bitter circumstance.

  4. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported "private events", for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and "private events" on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship. PMID:24572682

  5. Lesson Plans for a Secondary Level Unit on Japan To Accompany "Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsunoda, Elizabeth P.; And Others

    These 30 lesson plans were designed to accompany "Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook", a collection of class activities, primary source selections, student readings, and role-play exercises. The lesson plans are based primarily on materials in the workbook, although materials from other sources also are recommended. Some of the lesson titles…

  6. Non-Commercial Audiovisual Instructional Materials in Japan. AVE in Japan No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takakuwa, Yasuo

    This report outlines the history of non-commercial and local production of audiovisual instructional materials in Japan since World War II, discusses current trends in instructional materials usage, and presents four case studies of materials production at the prefectural level. Topics addressed include: (1) materials production prior to the…

  7. Barriers to mental health care in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kanehara, Akiko; Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito

    2014-01-01

    Aim The reasons for accessing and maintaining access to mental health services in Japan may be unique in those of other countries. Using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Japan survey data, this study investigated the prevalence of sociodemographic correlates of barriers for the use of, reasons for delayed access to, and reasons for dropping out from mental health care in a Japanese community-based sample. Methods An interview survey was conducted with a random sample of residents living in 11 communities across Japan during the years 2002–2006. Data from 4,130 participants were analyzed. Results The most frequently reported reason for not seeking mental health care was a low perceived need (63.9%). The most common reason for delaying access to help was the wish to handle the problem on one's own (68.8%), while the most common reason for dropping out of care was also a low perceived need (54.2%). Being a woman and of younger age were key sociodemographic barriers to the use of mental health services. Conclusion Low perceived need was a major reason for not seeking, delay in using, and dropout from mental health services in Japan. In addition, low perceived need and structural barriers were more frequently reported than attitudinal barriers, with the exception of a desire to handle the problem on one's own. These findings suggest that to improve therapist-patient communication and quality of mental health care, as well as mental health literacy education in the community, might improve access to care in Japan. PMID:25523280

  8. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort is highlighted by the focus on experimental hybrid EV displayed at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Tokyo Motor Show in Japan. In Europe the 56th IAA in Frankfurt included twelve or more EV designed for personnel transportation, and among them, two featured hybrid-electric (HEV) systems: the Peugeot turboelectric HEV, and the Opel Ermscher Selectra HEV. In Japan, at the 31st Tokyo Motor Show, among the twenty or more EV on display, seven were hybrid HEV by: Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Toyota: and, the Suburu, Suzuki, and the Kia KEV4 parallel type HEV. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.

  9. [Evaluation of voriconazole oral dosage in Japan].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yukihiro; Kawasumi, Noriyo; Hirai, Jun; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2014-10-01

    Voriconazole (VRCZ), a broad-spectrum triazole, is served in two dosage forms-injection and oral. VRCZ is difference dosage of oral and intravenous administration writing a medical package insert in Japan. 6 mg/kg intravenous injection (IV) twice daily for first day as initial loading dose, followed by 3-4 mg/kg IV twice daily between meals is recommended. 300 mg orally twice daily for first day as initial loading dose, followed by 150-200 mg orally twice daily between meals is recommended. Patients weighing over 40 kg, 200 mg orally twice daily between meals is recommended. Patients weighing under 40 kg, 100 mg orally twice daily between meals is recommended, increase to 150 mg twice daily if inadequate response. This study evaluated VRCZ trough concentration and oral dosage in the 23 cases which administered VRCZ to analysis for TDM in Aichi University Hospital. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated to examine relationships among variables. The level of statistical significance was set at p=0.05. All data were analyzed and processed on JMP 8 (SAS Institute Japan). There was a significant positive correlation between VRCZ trough concentration and dose/weight (r=0.47 p<0.05). In this result, VRCZ oral dosage is appropriate to administer dose/weight (mg/kg) twice a day as same as IV. PMID:25566590

  10. Database and Related Activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Kato, Masatoshi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Takako; Ding, Xiaobin; Morita, Shigeru; Kitajima, Masashi; Koike, Fumihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Akira; Skobelev, Igor; Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Ulantsev, Artemiy; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Norimasa

    2011-05-01

    We have constructed and made available atomic and molecular (AM) numerical databases on collision processes such as electron-impact excitation and ionization, recombination and charge transfer of atoms and molecules relevant for plasma physics, fusion research, astrophysics, applied-science plasma, and other related areas. The retrievable data is freely accessible via the internet. We also work on atomic data evaluation and constructing collisional-radiative models for spectroscopic plasma diagnostics. Recently we have worked on Fe ions and W ions theoretically and experimentally. The atomic data and collisional-radiative models for these ions are examined and applied to laboratory plasmas. A visible M1 transition of W26+ ion is identified at 389.41 nm by EBIT experiments and theoretical calculations. We have small non-retrievable databases in addition to our main database. Recently we evaluated photo-absorption cross sections for 9 atoms and 23 molecules and we present them as a new database. We established a new association "Forum of Atomic and Molecular Data and Their Applications" to exchange information among AM data producers, data providers and data users in Japan and we hope this will help to encourage AM data activities in Japan.

  11. Macroeconomic fluctuations and mortality in postwar Japan.

    PubMed

    Granados, José A Tapia

    2008-05-01

    Recent research has shown that after long-term declining trends are excluded, mortality rates in industrial countries tend to rise in economic expansions and fall in economic recessions. In the present work, co-movements between economic fluctuations and mortality changes in postwar Japan are investigated by analyzing time series of mortality rates and eight economic indicators. To eliminate spurious associations attributable to trends, series are detrended either via Hodrick-Prescott filtering or through differencing. As previously found in other industrial economies, general mortality and age-specific death rates in Japan tend to increase in expansions and drop in recessions, for both males and females. The effect, which is slightly stronger for males, is particularly noticeable in those aged 45-64. Deaths attributed to heart disease, pneumonia, accidents, liver disease, and senility--making up about 41% of total mortality--tend to fluctuate procyclically, increasing in expansions. Suicides, as well as deaths attributable to diabetes and hypertensive disease, make up about 4% of total mortality and fluctuate countercyclically, increasing in recessions. Deaths attributed to other causes, making up about half of total deaths, don't show a clearly defined relationship with the fluctuations of the economy. PMID:18613484

  12. Cost of Depression Among Adults in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Teruhiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the annual national cost of major depressive disorder among adults 20 years and older in Japan in 2008. Method: The analysis used was a top-down costing approach based on national health statistics. From the societal perspective, the costs examined were direct medical costs, depression-related suicide costs, and workplace costs for all members of society. Direct medical costs included both inpatient and outpatient medical costs, while workplace costs included both absenteeism and presenteeism costs. The authors performed 1-way sensitivity analyses to examine the extent to which results were affected by the choice of parameters used in the cost calculation. All costs were expressed in 2008 US dollar terms. Results: The economic burden of depression in Japan was approximately $11 billion, with $1,570 million relating to direct medical costs, $2,542 million to depression-related suicide costs, and $6,912 million to workplace costs. Compared to previously published studies, this study adopted conservative key assumptions; this may have resulted in a conservative estimate of the annual national cost of depression. Conclusions: Depression imposes a substantial economic burden on Japanese society, which highlights the urgent need for policymakers to allocate resources toward implementing strategies that prevent and manage depression in the Japanese population. PMID:21977377

  13. High Energy Astrophysical Missions in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    There are five X-ray astronomy satellites launched from Japan. The latest satellite, Suzaku, was launched in 2005. MAXI is an all sky survey mission in X-ray that was attached to the ISS in 2009. These two are functioning at present. ASTRO-H is the only approved mission in X-ray that will be launched in 2014. There are four X-ray detectors on board ASTRO-H, SXS, SXI, HXI and SGD as well as X-ray telescopes made of thin foil mirrors. Most of the future missions heavily depend on them both in technology and in science. From this point of view, we have to concentrate on ASTRO-H so that we can expand our activities in future. In Japan, the small scientific satellite project is now on-going. Two missions are already allocated while no X-ray mission is approved. DIOS, PolariS, CAST and FFAST are proposed. Here we explain FFAST in detail that will study the evolution of the universe.

  14. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan’s high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in ‘Neo Muscat’, ‘Kyoho’, and ‘Muscat Bailey A’. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many ‘Kyoho’-related cultivars, including ‘Pione’, many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed ‘Shine Muscat’ in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  15. Trend of motorcycle engine valves in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kiriyama, M.; Sasakura, T.

    1997-12-31

    Production of motorcycles in Japan has greatly decreased after peaking in 1981. However, as a result of an increase in local production, mainly in Asian nations, the production of sets, often called Knock Down (KD) sets, has been increasing. These sets are a shipment of parts that are ready for assembly in the importing country. In this area, motorcycle manufacturers are trying to improve performance and decrease noise and pollution. This report will outline the trends in motorcycle engine valves and the changes that have occurred with respect to valve materials, valve design specifications, and valve manufacturing processes, as experienced by Nittan Valve Co., Ltd. over the past 15 years. Motorcycles are used in various ways. They are used for transportation, sport, leisure, and hobby. Therefore, the forms and specifications of their bodies and engines are quite varied. The production of motorcycles in Japan has sharply decreased from an era of peak production in 1981 and in recent years, has remained low at around 3 million motorcycles per year. As a result, each motorcycle manufacturer has been promoting the local production in each country, and the production of KD sets is rapidly increasing today. The motorcycle and parts manufacturers are working on employing new technologies for anti-pollution measures, improving performance, decreasing noise, and better safety measures. With this in mind, the technological trends of Japanese engine valves being manufactured by Nittan Valve Co., Ltd. will be reported.

  16. Canine mdr1 gene mutation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Akiko; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

    2005-11-01

    Frequency of the 4-bp deletion mutant in canine mdr1 gene was examined in 193 dogs of eight breeds in Japan. The mutant allele was found in Collies, Australian Shepherds, and Shetland Sheepdogs, where its respective frequencies were 58.3%, 33.3%, and 1.2%. The MDR1 protein was detected on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a MDR1/MDR1 dog, but not on PBMC from a mdr1-1Delta/mdr1-1Delta Collie. Rhodamine 123 was extruded from MDR1/MDR1 lymphocytes. That excretion was inhibited by a MDR1 inhibitor, verapamil. On the other hand, Rh123 excretion was not observed from lymphocytes derived from a mdr1-1Delta/mdr1-1Delta Collie. These results indicated that the mutant mdr1 allele also existed in Collie-breed dogs in Japan at high rates and that mdr1-1Delta /mdr1-1Delta dogs have no functional MDR1. PMID:16327220

  17. Rail safety and rail privatisation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew W

    2010-07-01

    Over the period from 1980 to the present, the economic status of the main line railway systems in many developed countries has changed, by privatisation or economic deregulation or both. The principal aims of such changes have been to improve the economic performance of the railways, and not to change the safety performance. Nevertheless, it is recognised that changing the organisational structure of railways might affect safety. The empirical evidence of the effect of restructuring on safety is limited, both in railways and in other industries. This paper adds to the empirical evidence by analysing train accidents in Japan before and after the privatisation of the Japanese National Railways (JNR) in 1987. The paper finds that the JNR achieved downward trends in the mean number of train accidents per train-kilometre in the 16 years 1971-1986, and the paper takes the extrapolation of these favourable trends as the yardstick by which to judge the safety performance of the privatised railways. The paper finds that the privatised railway had fewer train accidents in total than this yardstick in 1987-2006. This finding applies whether or not the high-speed Shinkansen train operations are included. Thus there is no evidence that rail privatisation in Japan had an adverse effect on train accidents. The methods adopted and the results are similar to those previously found by the author for rail privatisation in Great Britain. PMID:20441845

  18. Asthma Controller Medications for Children in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Shota; Tokumasu, Hironobu; Sato, Akira; Iwasaku, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment and management strategies for asthma in children are generally consistent internationally, but prescription of antiasthma drugs differs among countries. The objective of this study was to examine the prescribing patterns of antiasthma drugs, particularly controller medications, in children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was performed in children with asthma using an administrative claims database in Japan. Results. A total of 1149 preschool-age and 3226 school-age children were identified. Leukotriene receptor antagonists were prescribed for about 80% of the children. Long-acting β-agonists were prescribed for 87.6% and 59.6% of preschool-age and school-age children, respectively, whereas prescriptions of inhaled corticosteroids had lower rates of 8.2% and 16.5%, respectively. In an examination of prescriptions at 1-month intervals, a relatively high number of children were prescribed bronchodilators without anti-inflammatory agents. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that asthma care for children in Japan can be improved through changes in drug prescriptions. PMID:27335952

  19. Alcohol, smoking, and obesity epidemiology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-03-01

    The health impact of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking and obesity differs between Asian and Western countries. The epidemiology of cancer and death related to these lifestyles are described in this article. In Japan, heavy alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking are rather high in men. While there is a worldwide anti-smoking policy, Japan is still on the way to aiming at this goal, and this delay in health promotion has maintained the high impact of smoking, whether active or passive, on people's health in that country. Public health policy should focus more strongly on the control of smoking and heavy drinking, especially among men. Maintaining the consumption of alcohol at a level below 46 g a day in men and 23 g a day in women appears to minimize the risks of mortality and cancer in the Japanese population. On the other hand, the obesity rate is low and being underweight is common both in men and women. Proportions of cancer attributable to a body mass index of 25 or more are only 0.5% in men and 1.1% in women. Given that many previous studies in Japanese and Asian populations have associated a low body mass index with an increased risk of cancer, the impact of being underweight--not only obese--may warrant further investigation. PMID:22320929

  20. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed. PMID:25763120

  1. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  2. Macroeconomic Fluctuations and Mortality in Postwar Japan

    PubMed Central

    TAPIA GRANADOS, JOSÉ A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has shown that after long-term declining trends are excluded, mortality rates in industrial countries tend to rise in economic expansions and fall in economic recessions. In the present work, co-movements between economic fluctuations and mortality changes in postwar Japan are investigated by analyzing time series of mortality rates and eight economic indicators. To eliminate spurious associations attributable to trends, series are detrended either via Hodrick-Prescott filtering or through differencing. As previously found in other industrial economies, general mortality and age-specific death rates in Japan tend to increase in expansions and drop in recessions, for both males and females. The effect, which is slightly stronger for males, is particularly noticeable in those aged 45–64. Deaths attributed to heart disease, pneumonia, accidents, liver disease, and senility—making up about 41% of total mortality—tend to fluctuate procyclically, increasing in expansions. Suicides, as well as deaths attributable to diabetes and hypertensive disease, make up about 4% of total mortality and fluctuate countercyclically, increasing in recessions. Deaths attributed to other causes, making up about half of total deaths, don’t show a clearly defined relationship with the fluctuations of the economy. PMID:18613484

  3. Electron temperature probe onboard Japan's Mars orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, K.; Abe, T.; Schlegel, K.; Nagy, A.; Kim, J.; Marubashi, K.

    1999-12-01

    Japan' s first Mars spacecraft PLANET-B was successfully launched on 4th of July, 1998 and was named "NOZOMI" after the launch. One of the scientific instruments is a unique electron temperature probe which was developed in Japan and has been used for more than 20 years on sounding rockets as well as on scientific satellites (Oyama, 1991). The electron temperature probe dubbed PET (Probe for Electron Temperature measurements) consists of two planar electrodes, 150 mm in diameter, placed at the edges of the two solar cell panels of the "NOZOMI" spacecraft. Electron temperatures can be measured in plasmas with densities exceeding 1000 cm-1 with sufficient accuracy. The maximum sampling rate of 8 data points per satellite spin for each probe allows high resolution measurements (i.e., an angular resolution around the spin axis of 23 degrees). Additionally, the probe can measure the anisotropy of the electron temperature, if it exists. It is also possible to infer the existence of nonthermal electrons.

  4. Japan's baby bust: an economic issue?

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high. PMID:12348885

  5. Genetic characterization of coronaviruses from domestic ferrets, Japan.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yutaka; Minami, Shohei; Noguchi, Keita; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Une, Yumi; Maeda, Ken

    2014-02-01

    We detected ferret coronaviruses in 44 (55.7%) of 79 pet ferrets tested in Japan and classified the viruses into 2 genotypes on the basis of genotype-specific PCR. Our results show that 2 ferret coronaviruses that cause feline infectious peritonitis-like disease and epizootic catarrhal enteritis are enzootic among ferrets in Japan. PMID:24447852

  6. Continuity and Change in Disaster Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe post-war continuity and change in disaster education in Japan. Preparedness for natural disasters has been a continuous agenda in Japan for geographical and meteorological reasons, and disaster education has been practised in both formal and informal settings. Post-war disaster management and education have taken a…

  7. Ethics Education for Professionals in Japan: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Yasushi; Ueno, Tetsu

    2010-01-01

    Ethics education for professionals has become popular in Japan over the last two decades. Many professional schools now require students to take an applied ethics or professional ethics course. In contrast, very few courses of professional ethics for teaching exist or have been taught in Japan. In order to obtain suggestions for teacher education,…

  8. English, Language Shift and Values Shift in Japan and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This is a comparative study of English language education in Japan and Singapore and the role English plays in both countries. English language education in Japan has not been very effective. Although the communicative approach to teaching English was introduced in the 1980s, schools still use the grammar-translation method and most Japanese do…

  9. 76 FR 8773 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... applicable deadline.'' (75 FR 80457). Accordingly, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U... COMMISSION Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On December 22,...

  10. 78 FR 66767 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of September 10, 2013 (78 FR 55293). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Japan of chlorinated isocyanurates, provided for...

  11. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... December 22, 2010, because ``the domestic parties did not participate in this review.'' (76 FR 3614... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury....

  12. The Issue of Diversity and Multiculturalism in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to problematize that which has been taken for granted about the notion of multiculturalism in Japan. Multiculturalism is a "hot" issue in Japan. As the Japanese government started to promote "internationalization" since 1980s, slogans such as "international exchange," "cultural exchange," "understanding of other…

  13. Japan Trail '83: American Art Education Odyssey to the Orient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1983-01-01

    Five American middle school students went to Japan for two weeks in 1983 as ambassadors for American art education. Art education in Japan is much more centralized than in America. In addition to school study, children are exposed to traditional arts like the tea ceremony, calligraphy, and ikebana. (CS)

  14. Our Common Home: Earth. Japan (A Culture Study Unit).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    Designed to provide students and teachers with opportunities to investigate the social, cultural, and historical traits of Japan, this study unit can be adapted to the needs of any group within the social studies curriculum (grades 4-12). An overview and outline on Japan covers the areas of geography, population, history, unique features (e.g.,…

  15. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; And Others

    This activity book is designed to present information and insights on Japanese culture and society. Because few teachers can devote entire units to the study of Japan, the activities focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Some of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts,…

  16. Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a…

  17. Income Inequality and Economic Development, A Case Study: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Tsunehiko

    The changes in income inequality during the post-war period in Japan are investigated quantitatively and extensively in order to shed some light on the relationship between income inequality and the rapid economic development experienced in Japan. Following a presentation of some summary pictures on income inequality in the Japanese society the…

  18. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  19. A review of liquid rocket propulsion programs in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of Japan's current capabilities in the areas of space and transatmospheric propulsion is presented. The primary focus is upon Japan's programs in liquid rocket propulsion and in space plane and related transatmospheric areas. Brief reference is also made to their solid rocket programs, as well as to their supersonic air breathing propulsion efforts that are just getting underway.

  20. Few Women Reach the Top in Japan's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    Japan's higher-education system is the second largest in the world, after the United States, but it fares much worse than the United States when it comes to gender equity. Just 7 percent of Japan's 750-odd colleges and universities are run by women, compared with 23 percent of those in the United States. While four out of the eight members of the…

  1. Ideas for Integrating Japan into the Curriculum. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This ERIC Digest discusses how, by studying Japan, the larger context of the Asia-Pacific region can be explored and students can be introduced to current realities. The top 5 competitive countries for 1994 were the United States, Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong, and Germany. Because of the increasing interdependence between the United States and…

  2. Tora no Maki III. Lessons for Teaching about Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

    The elements of Japan, including history, geography, economics, civics, and cultural studies, are in this collection of original lesson plans. The lessons are meant to provide original content about Japan to augment and supplement an existing unit of study and evoke a spirit of inquiry and introspection. The 24 lessons are as follows: (1) "Family…

  3. The Problem of Japan: Qualitative Studies and International Educational Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeTendre, Gerald K.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews qualitative (historical and ethnographic) studies of education in Japan that advance a general understanding of educational theory and practice. Japan, which is neither an educational paradise nor an examination hell, is the source of much data of value to educational research in the United States. (SLD)

  4. Caught in the Middle East: Japan's diplomacy in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitsu, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Japan's increasing dependence on Persian Gulf oil has caused its U.S.-centered foreign policy to shift. Drawing on personal interviews with senior Japanese officials, the author discusses Japan's changing diplomacy in regard to such problems as the Iran-Iraq war, Soviet aggression, and the Palestinian struggle for autonomy.

  5. Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

  6. The Politics of Religion: Modernity, Nationhood and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2008-01-01

    While religion in Japan is traditionally linked to nationhood and nation-building, the post-war period has seen Shinto consciously invoked to restore a sense of national identity through a focus on Japan's victimhood. In this context, there is a focus on the Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to the war dead and an icon of contemporary Japanese cultural…

  7. 63 FR 30254 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-06-03

    .../89 54 FR 16010 A-484-801 04/17/89 54 FR 15243 Japan 731-TA-408 4/10/89 54 FR 16010 A-588-806 04/17/89 54 FR 15244 SUMMARY: The Commission invites comments from the public on whether changed circumstances... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  8. 64 FR 23675 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-05-03

    ... orders on imports of electrolytic manganese dioxide from Greece and Japan (54 FR 15243). The Commission..., including the text of subpart F of part 207, are published at 63 FR 30599, June 5, 1998, and may be... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  9. Perceptions of Aging and Disability among College Students in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Nicholas J.; Kamimura, Akiko; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Stephens, Emily; Omi, Keita; Kanaoka, Ana; Ishikawa, Ai; Yamanaka, Katsuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan launched the Long-term Care Insurance program in 2000, and ratified the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2014. Japan has been taking significant steps to support their elderly population and individuals with disabilities. However, information is lacking on the understanding and opinions of either of…

  10. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  11. Seismic heterogeneity and anisotropy of the Honshu arc from the Japan Trench to the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhouchuan; Zhao, Dapeng; Wang, Liangshu

    2011-03-01

    We determined P- and S-wave tomography and P-wave anisotropic structure under the Honshu arc from the Japan Trench to the backarc area under the Japan Sea using 310 749 P- and 150 563 S-wave arrivals from 4655 local earthquakes recorded by 982 seismograph stations. Arrival times from 1451 suboceanic earthquakes relocated with sP depth phases enable us to determine the structures under the Pacific Ocean and Japan Sea, which expand the study region from the land area to the whole arc from the Japan Trench to the Japan Sea with a width of more than 500 km. The results show strong heterogeneities above the subducting Pacific slab under the Pacific Ocean and most large thrust-type earthquakes occurred in the high-velocity areas where the Pacific slab and the overriding continental plate may be strongly coupled. Low-velocity (low-V) zones are imaged in the mantle wedge with significant along-arc variations under the volcanic front. The mantle-wedge low-V zone extends westwards under the Japan Sea and it is connected with the subducting Pacific slab at depths of 150-200 km under the backarc. The results indicate that the H2O and fluids brought downwards by the subducting Pacific slab are released into the mantle wedge by dehydration and are subsequently transported to the surface by the upwelling flow in the mantle wedge. Significant P-wave anisotropic anomalies are revealed under the Honshu arc. The predominant fast velocity direction (FVD) is E-W in the mantle wedge while it is N-S in the subducting Pacific slab. The anisotropy in the mantle wedge is the result of deformation caused by the subduction of the Pacific plate and the induced mantle-wedge convection, while the FVD pattern in the middle of the mantle wedge argues for the 3-D mantle flow or the specific alignment of the olivine in the partial-melting mantle. The N-S (trench-parallel) FVD in the subducting Pacific slab represents either the original fossil anisotropy when the Pacific plate formed or the trench

  12. NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental agencies and institutes which are under supervision of different ministries. Thirdly, although the government budget is moderate and sales revenue of space industries is not so large, many large companies in aerospace or electronics industries see the importance of this business and compete each other mainly in the domestic market. NASDA, founded in 1969, is the largest governmental space organization and has played an important role in realizing practical applications of space activities. It has rapidly caught up the technology gap behind leading countries and has achieved remarkable successes with its own launch vehicles and satellites. Space industries, under the guidance of NASDA, have learned much from the U.S. companies and improved their technology levels and enjoyed steady growth during the early stage of Japanese space development. But before they became competitive enough in the world space business, the trade conflict between Japan and the U.S. made the procurement of Japanese non-R&D satellites open to the foreign satellite companies. Furthermore, interruptions of space activities due to recent successive failures of launch vehicles as well as Japanese economic slump have made space industries face hard situations. Under these circumstances, M&A of launch vehicle companies as well as satellite makers took place for the first time in Japanese aero-space history. Also at the government level, reorganization of space agencies is now under process. It is expected as a natural consequence of the merge of the Ministry of Education and the Science an Technology Agency, three space

  13. Overview of DRAGON-Japan in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.; Mukai, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Hatakeyama, S.; Schafer, J. S.; Eck, T. F.; Nishizawa, T.; Takemura, T.; Takamura, T.; Teruyuki, N.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Takami, A.; Kaneyasu, N.; Goto, M.; Hiraki, T.; Iguchi, N.; Kenny, P.; Kouzai, K.; Kuji, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Nakata, M.; Okada, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Sorokin, M.; Tohno, S.; Toyazaki, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) is an on-going project since early 1990s. The 400 sun/sky radiometers are sparsely deployed and provide us with the information of aerosol properties over the world. In summer of 2011, the first DRAGON field campaign was made in Washington, D.C./Baltimore metropolitan area, where about 40 AERONET Cimel instruments were set according to small square grid boxes. Thus it has been shown that the detail scale observations are useful to investigate the local influence of aerosols and validation of high resolution satellite product such as newly developed 3 km x 3 km aerosol product from MODIS. The second DRAGON project is done in East Asia because this region emits huge amount of anthropogenic gases and aerosols. The emission influences not only local atmosphere near the origin but also out of Asian continent by long range transportation. The aim of DRAGON-Japan is as follows: 1: retrieval of optical properties of trans-boundary aerosols, 2: detection of aerosols over megacity, 3: investigation of the influence to local aerosols by inbound aerosols from continent. During the DRAGON-Asia (March-May, 2012), AERONET instruments were set sparsely from Fukue Island (in the East China Sea) to Osaka (in the middle of Japan) as well as 2ch-LIDAR system. As for megacity region, dense sun/sky radiometer network was made by using nine instruments at Mt. Rokko (840 m/asl.), Mt. Ikoma (640 m/asl.), Kobe, North-Osaka, South-Osaka, Central-Osaka, East-Osaka (simply named by Osaka in AERONET web), Nara, and Kyoto. The following results on AOT (Aerosol optical thickness at a wavelength of 500 nm: AERONET Level 1.5) have been driven from the measurements : 1: Fukue Island provides the highest value as 0.56, 2: in respect of urban cities; 0.42 at Fukuoka, 0.42~0.47 over Osaka area, and 0.39 at Kyoto or Nara, 3: in the remote place; 0.33~0.35 at Nishiharima, Noto or Shirahama, 4: the difference between AOT values at mountain (ex. Mt. Rokko, Mt. Ikoma

  14. The burden of insomnia in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Kazuo; DiBonaventura, Marco daCosta; Gross, Hillary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Several studies have suggested that patients who experience insomnia report a number of significant impairments. However, despite this literature, fewer studies have focused on the burden of insomnia among patients in Japan. The objective of the current study is to extend this work in Japan to further understand the effect of insomnia on health-related quality of life (hrQOL). Further, another objective is to understand general predictors of hrQOL among patients with insomnia. Methods Data from the 2012 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey, an annual, cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 years or older, were used (N=30,000). All National Health and Wellness Survey respondents were categorized based on the incidence of self-reported insomnia diagnosis and prescription medication usage (clinical insomniacs under treatment versus [vs] good sleepers without insomnia or insomnia symptoms). Comparisons among different groups were made using multiple regression models controlling for demographics and health history. Results Clinical insomniacs (n=1,018; 3.4%) reported significantly worse hrQOL compared with good sleepers (n=20,542) (mental component summary: 34.2 vs 48.0; physical component summary: 48.0 vs 52.8; health utilities: 0.61 vs 0.76; all P<0.05). Health behaviors (smoking, exercise, alcohol use) and comorbidities were the strongest predictors of health utilities for clinical insomniacs. For all three clinical insomniac subgroups of interest, those with a physical comorbidity but not a psychiatric one, those with a psychiatric comorbidity but not a physical one, and those without either a physical or psychiatric comorbidity, large decrements in health utilities were observed for respondents who did not engage in any positive health behaviors (0.61, 0.57, 0.64, respectively) relative to good sleepers (0.78). However, the gap in health utility scores between these subgroups and good sleepers diminishes with an increasing number of positive

  15. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19, 2014 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Event Description The...

  16. Government and Politics in Japan. For Students in Grades Nine through Twelve. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ray W.; Reeves, William; Settles, Lois; Sheehan, Valerie Henderson; Spellman, Steve

    This manual provides suggestions and materials for teaching about Japan. Designed as a supplement to typical textbook treatments, the lessons provide a range of readings, visuals, and activities to enrich and deepen student learning about Japan. Organized around topics dealing with history, geography, government, economics, and culture, the…

  17. Japan: The Land and Its People. For Students in Grades Six and Seven. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Edwards, Barbara; Hutchenson, Gwen; Moffitt, Louisa; Ratliff, Penny

    This manual provides suggestions and materials for teaching about Japan. Designed as a supplement to typical textbook treatments, the lessons provide a range of readings, visuals, and activities to enrich and deepen student learning about Japan. Organized around topics dealing with history, geography, government, economics, and culture, the…

  18. Thallium contamination in wild ducks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Mori, Makoto; Akinaga, Mayumi; Yugami, Kyoko; Oya, Chika; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

    2005-07-01

    Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little information on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Significant correlations between Tl contents in kidney and liver were observed for all dabbling ducks except mallard (Anas platyrhynchos); similar correlations were not observed in diving ducks. Variation in Tl content was observed between sampling locations with the highest mean Tl content in the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) collected in Ibaraki Prefecture. PMID:16244083

  19. A perspective on space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohkami, Yoshiaki; Nakatani, Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Yasufumi; Iwata, Tsutomu

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the research and development status and perspective on space robotics in Japan. The R & D status emphasizes the current on-going projects at NASDA including the JEM Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS) to be used on Space Station Freedom and the robotics experiments on Engineering Satellite 7 (ETS-7). As a future perspective, not only NASDA, but also ISAS and other government institutes have been promoting their own research in space robotics in order to support wide spread space activities in the future. Included in this future research is an autonomous satellite retrieval experiment, a dexterous robot experiment, an on-orbit servicing platform, an IVA robot, and several moon/planetary rovers proposed by NASDA or ISAS and other organizations.

  20. Native fruit tree genetic resources in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of climate, from subarctic to subtropical, and the complex geological history of Japan have produced a rich biodiversity. The flora includes several hundred species of native woody plants with edible fleshy fruits or nuts. People have eaten them from prehistoric times until about a half century ago. In Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyū Islands nut species had an important role in the diet, but fleshy fruits were also eaten until recently. Only Castanea crenata and a few minor species became domesticated as edible fruit trees in pre-modern times. Recently, Vitis coignetiae, Lonicera caerulea, Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata, Stauntonia hexaphylla, and Actinidia arguta have entered small-scale cultivation. The conservation of the germplasm of many of these native species, both in situ and ex situ, is precarious. PMID:27069393

  1. The "white kidney bean incident" in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruko; Date, Kimie

    2014-01-01

    Lectin poisoning occurred in Japan in 2006 after a TV broadcast that introduced a new diet of eating staple foods with powdered toasted white kidney beans, seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Although the method is based on the action of a heat-stable α-amylase inhibitor in the beans, phaseolamin, more than 1,000 viewers who tried the method suffered from acute intestinal symptoms and 100 people were hospitalized. Lectins in the white kidney beans were suspected to be the cause of the trouble. We were asked to investigate the lectin activity remaining in the beans after the heat treatment recommended on the TV program. The test suggested that the heat treatment was insufficient to inactivate the lectin activity, which, combined with our ignorance of carbohydrate signaling in the intestine, was the cause of the problem. PMID:25117222

  2. Endoscopic management of esophagogastric varices in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Taura, Naota; Miuma, Satoshi; Isomoto, Hajime; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Esophagogastric varices are the most common complication in patients with portal hypertension, and endoscopy plays an important role in their diagnosis and in the prevention of acute bleeding from these structures. Recently, new modalities such as endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and narrow-band imaging have been introduced for the diagnosis of esophagogastric varices. In Japan, endoscopic therapy has become the first choice for the treatment of acutely bleeding esophageal or gastric varices. The two principal methods used to treat esophageal varices are endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) and endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). Recently, combinations of EIS plus EVL and EVL plus argon plasma coagulation were reported to be more effective than EVL or EIS alone. Additionally, endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection is superior to EIS and EVL for the treatment of acutely bleeding gastric varices. PMID:25333017

  3. [The native domestic animal breeds of Japan].

    PubMed

    Sambraus, H H

    1989-01-01

    During the last decades some domestic animal breeds have spread to all parts of the world. In general, consideration is given to these breeds only; on the other hand, autochthonous breeds of various countries are hardly known. These, however, can be valuable gene-reserves, and moreover, they represent a significant cultural value. In Japan there are several domestic animal breeds which are almost unknown in Central Europe. They are presented verbally and by means of illustration, and their breeding history is dealt with as well. The purpose of this study is to point out the importance of these breeds within the country and to make clear the extent of the danger of their extinction. PMID:2683212

  4. Obscenity and homosexual depiction in Japan.

    PubMed

    Helms, U

    2000-01-01

    This essay serves as an historical introduction to the problem of film censorship in Japan, a country which, despite an often liberal sexual history, continues to impose baffling and even irrational censorship standards on both its domestic and imported cinema. However, whereas sexual censorship in the West is often the result of religious dogmatism, Japanese film censorship may in fact revolve around political struggles whose import is not the censoring of offensiveness per se, but is rather authoritarianism's basic yet desperate desire to assert itself in an increasingly liberal political climate. Furthermore, Japanese censorship has had the unique side effect of creating safe spaces of sexual fantasy (for children, for example) that most countries, in what is in fact a greater form of censorship, refuse to create at all. PMID:11133129

  5. Storage-Ring Mass Spectrometry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Fumi; Yamaguchi, Takayuki

    Atomic masses are a fundamental ground-state property of nuclei, reflecting a wide variety of structures and dynamics among nucleons. High-precision mass values of short-lived, in particular neutron-rich, nuclei are a key issue toward full understanding of astrophysical nucleosynthesis, as well as nuclear shell evolution far from stability. Beyond the precision mass measurements performed at worldwide ion-trap facilities, a new method of storage-ring mass spectrometry is now being developed at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory in Japan. Combined with the highest intensities of intermediate-energy radioactive ion beams currently available through in-flight separation of uranium fission products, the present method will enable us to measure the masses of extremely neutron-rich, rare species located on the r-process pathway, with a tiny yield (as low as ~1 counts/day).

  6. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Minamitani, Kanshi; Inomata, Hiroaki

    2012-10-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism may cause irreversible intellectual disability or failure to thrive if left untreated. Because this disorder can be prevented by early identification and early treatment, newborn mass screening started in 1979 in Japan. A guideline for mass screening for this disease was prepared in 1998. Currently, approximately 100% of newborns undergo this mass screening. The screening results show significant improvement of the intellectual outcome of patients with this disease, with almost no patients having irreversible intellectual disturbance or failure to thrive. However, there are issues of a delayed increase in thyroid stimulating hormone, management of latent hypothyroidism, and detection of central hypothyroidism. In recent years, as studies on this disease have advanced at the molecular level, many causative genes have been reported, clarification of the etiology, pathology, and clinical features has progressed, and new findings have been obtained. PMID:23330249

  7. Native fruit tree genetic resources in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of climate, from subarctic to subtropical, and the complex geological history of Japan have produced a rich biodiversity. The flora includes several hundred species of native woody plants with edible fleshy fruits or nuts. People have eaten them from prehistoric times until about a half century ago. In Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyū Islands nut species had an important role in the diet, but fleshy fruits were also eaten until recently. Only Castanea crenata and a few minor species became domesticated as edible fruit trees in pre-modern times. Recently, Vitis coignetiae, Lonicera caerulea, Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata, Stauntonia hexaphylla, and Actinidia arguta have entered small-scale cultivation. The conservation of the germplasm of many of these native species, both in situ and ex situ, is precarious. PMID:27069393

  8. Online database of archaeomagnetism in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, T.

    2013-12-01

    We are now reconstructing the archaeomagnetic database and the geomagnetic secular variation model for the past 2000 years in Japan. Here we introduce a new online database of archaeomagnetism. There are several thousands of archaeomagnetic data mainly obtained from buried kilns and baked earths. Our goal is collecting and compiling these data and publishing to the geoscientists, the archaeologist, the people involved in education, students and citizens interested in geomagnetism and archaeology. Now we support a search engine of the archaeomagnetic data of direction and intensity, links to the references and sites outside, the site locations on a map and the educational documents (only in Japanese). We have a future plan to provide database improved and secular variation model reduced to given location in the Far East region.

  9. Recent advances in optical computing in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Satoshi

    The results of recent Japanese research in optical and hybrid computer systems and components are summarized and illustrated with drawings and diagrams, and the organizational structure of the research efforts is outlined. Topics addressed include optical logic devices, spatial light modulators, two-dimensional lasers, optical bistable devices, device theory, optically controlled array processing, an optical bus for a multiprocessor system, real-time multiple-matrix-product processing, optical numerical processing, optical parallel-array logic systems, optical associative memory, and neural-network computation. Consideration is given to the roles of the Optical Computer Group of the Japan Society of Applied Physics, industry, and government (through the universities and Ministry of Education and through the Ministry of International Trade and Industry).

  10. Steam generator tube inspection in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Shigetaka

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator tube inspection was first carried out in 1971 at Mihama Unit-1 that is first PWR plant in Japan, when the plant was brought into the first annual inspection. At that time, inspection was made on sampling basis, and only bobbin coil probe was used. After experiencing various kinds of tube degradations, inspection method was changed from sampling to all number of tubes, and various kinds of probes were used to get higher detectability of flaw. At present, it is required that all the tubes shall be inspected in their full length at each annual inspection using standard bobbin coil probe, and some special probes for certain plants that have susceptibility of occurrence of flaw. Sleeve repaired portion is included in this inspection. As a result of analyses of eddy current testing data, all indications that have been evaluated to be 20% wall thickness or deeper shall be repaired by either plugging or sleeving, where flaw morphology is to be a wastage or wear. Other types of flaw such as IGA/SCC are not allowed to be left inservice when those indications are detected. These inspections are performed according to inspection procedures that are approved by regulatory authority. Actual inspections are witnessed by the Japan Power engineering and inspection corporation (JAPEIC)`s inspectors during data acquisition and analysis, and they issue inspection report to authority for review and approval. It is achieved high safety performance of steam generator through this method of inspections, however. some tube leakage problems were experienced in the past. To prevent recurrence of such events, government is conducting development and verification test program for new eddy current testing technology.

  11. Advances in cancer epidemiology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideo

    2014-02-15

    Epidemiologists in Japan have been performing calculations to estimate nationwide cancer incidence rates as well as 5-year survival rates using population-based cancer registry data. There have been remarkable changes in cancer incidence and/or mortality in cancers of the lung, liver and stomach, which were thought to be attributed to the changing impact of exposure to cigarette smoking, chronic hepatitis C virus infection and Helicobacter pylori infection, respectively. In systematic reviews providing evidence in risk/protective factors for cancer sites using case-control and cohort studies of the Japanese population, there were associations between cancer sites (esophagus, stomach, colo-rectum, liver, pancreas, lung and breast) and various lifestyle factors. In the past 10 years, a hospital-based case-control study at Aichi Cancer Center provided valuable evidence of gene-environment interaction on the development of cancer [i.e., the effects of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) polymorphism and heavy alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer, ALDH2 polymorphism and smoking on lung cancer, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and heavy alcohol drinking on pancreatic cancer]. The database with stored DNA was also used and identified seven loci containing significant but low-penetrance polymorphisms associated with the development of breast cancer. These findings together with established risk factors are likely to be useful to predict personalized breast cancer risk in East Asian women. In 2005, the Japan Multi-Institution Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched to elucidate gene-environment interactions as well as to confirm preclinical diagnostic biomarkers of cancer. J-MICC, which has recruited 92,000 healthy individuals by the end of 2012, will follow the individuals until 2025. PMID:24105756

  12. Paleoseismology off northern Japan: Sediments in the Japan Trench record earthquake activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, H. G.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Nagahashi, Y.; Koelling, M.; Strasser, M.; Wefer, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Japan Trench subduction zone has repeatedly been affected by large earthquakes as most recently in 2011 by the giant magnitude 9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Several studies indicate that the 2011 earthquake has induced large seafloor displacements and triggered submarine landslides and gravity flows. The depression of the Japan Trench floor acts as sediment trap, where earthquake triggered mass flows originating from the landward slope are deposited. Thus, the deep Trench floor (>7500 m water depth) is a suitable area to trace the paleoseismicity in the region. During the R/V SONNE cruise (SO219A) in 2012, sediment cores have been collected east of the 2011 earthquake epicenter in a 60 km north-south transect along the Japan Trench floor axis, as well as from a small basin on the upper mid slope. The sediment cores contain several turbidite sequences (few cm to m thick), mainly revealing a coarse sand layer on an erosive base and a gradually fining upward to hemipelagic diatomaceous mud. Tephrochronological analyses on intercalated ash layers within the records provide an age control and show that the cores cover the past ~15 ka. Detailed analyses of these records, by using their sedimentological and lithological characteristics, their physical properties (Multi Sensor Core Logging, MSCL) as well as their elemental composition (X-ray Fluorescence, XRF) allow to characterize and to identify specific turbidite units. We observe particular turbidite units with the same characteristics in different cores along the trench axis and on the mid slope. Besides the top-unit turbidite, being related to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we detect a widespread unique calcareous nanno fossil bearing turbidite mud as well as some sand turbidite units of similar elemental composition within the records. Their large spatial extent suggests earthquake related trigger mechanisms. Thus, these event deposits sampled from the deep Japan Trench provide important information on the paleoseismic

  13. Activities of the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, A.; Miyazaki, H.

    2012-07-01

    This reports a history and future prospects of the activities by the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan. For growths of academic fields, active communications among students and young scientists are indispensable. Several academic communities in geoinformation fields are established by youths and play important roles of building networks over schools and institutes. The networks are expected to be innovative cooperation after the youths achieve their professions. Although academic communities are getting fixed growth particularly in Japan, youths had gotten little opportunities to make contacts with youths themselves. To promote gotten youth activities among geoinformation fields, in 1998, we started a series of programs that named the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan involving students and young scientists within the annual conferences, Geoinformation Forum Japan. The programs have provided opportunities to do presentation their studies by posters, some events, and motivations to create networks among students and young scientists. From 2009, some members of our activities set additional conference in west area of Japan. Thus our activities are spread within Japan. As a result of these achievements, the number of youth dedicating to the programs keeps growing. From 2009, it's getting international gradually, however, almost all the participants are still Japanese. To keep and expand the network, we are planning to make some nodes with some Asian youth organizations in the field of geoinformation. This paper is concluded with proposals and future prospects on the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan.

  14. Impact Materials of Takamatsu Crater in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Fukuchi, T.

    1995-09-01

    Shocked quartz materials have been found in Japanese K.T boundary (Hokkaido) and mountains of middle main-islands of Japan, though there are few direct evidence of "natural circular structure" on the surface in Japan. However circular structure has been recently found as a buried crater(up to 150m deep) [1] which is ca. 4km in diameter with -10 mgal of Bouguer gravity anomaly from surrounding Rhyoke granitic region of the southern part of Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture, northeast Shikoku, Japan [1,2,3]. Two boring cores of 300m deep near small mountains inside the crater could not reach the bottom of the crater so far. From model calculation of the negative gravity anomaly, the Takamatsu crater shows deep basin structure up to 1.4km. If the Takamatsu crater is considered to be only impact crater, it is difficult to discuss only surface materials on the crater. But anomalous minerals are found only around small volcanic intrusions inside the crater, which the mixed minerals are clearly different with those of other volcanic intrusions of the Yashima and Goshikidai outside the crater [1,2,3]. The small volcanic intrusions are not origin of large Takamatsu crater, because the small volcanic intrusions are found on whole areas of Kagawa Prefecture. Major different activity of the small intrusions inside the crater is to bring the brecciated materials of the interior (esp. crater sediments). The xenolith materials around only volcanic intrusion of andesite are divided into the following four major mineral materials:(a) round pebble fragments from the Rhyoke granitic basement (Sampling No.15), (b) rock fragments from intruded biotite andesites (Nos. 2,15), (c) impact-induced fragments of shocked Quartz grains (Nos. 2,3,6,15), diaplectic feldspars (Nos. 2,3,6,15), silica glasses (Nos. 2,15) and small Fe-Ni metallic grains (No.15), and (d) small sedimentary fragments of halite and mordenite, as listed in Table 1. Table I, showing the characterization of surface samples

  15. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  16. The bumpy road to socialise nature: sex education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huiyan

    2011-09-01

    This study was prompted by an empirical puzzle: why is sex education in schools so underdeveloped in Japan compared to many other industrialised societies? On the one hand, formal pedagogy under state policy is conservative, emphasising reproductive and prophylactic purposes rather than a comprehensive understanding of sexuality. On the other hand, however, Japan has a highly visible sexual environment where a variety of commercial sex activities are tolerated and even encouraged. The aim of the paper is to provide an integrated picture of these apparently contradictory trends by examining the nexus of political, economic and sociocultural factors that affect sex education in contemporary Japan. PMID:21787254

  17. JTEC panel report on advanced composites in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diefendorf, R. J.; Grisaffe, S. J.; Hillig, W. B.; Perepezko, J. H.; Pipes, R. B.; Sheehan, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites visited Japan and surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic and carbon matrices. The panel's interests included not only what composite systems were chosen, but also how these systems were developed. A strong carbon and fiber industry makes Japan the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation resistant carbon/carbon composite program. The goals for this program are ambitious, and it is just starting, but its progress should be closely monitored in the United States.

  18. A brief history of the Japan Society for Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Y; Okigaki, T

    2001-02-01

    The Japan Society for Cell Biology (JSCB) was first founded in 1950 as the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry under the vigorous leadership of Seizo Katsunuma, in collaboration with Shigeyasu Amano and Satimaru Seno. The Society was provisionally named as above simply because cell biology had not yet been coined at that time in Japan, although in prospect and reality the Society was in fact for the purpose of pursuing cell biology. Later in 1964, the Society was properly renamed as the Japan Society for Cell Biology. After this renaming, the JSCB made great efforts to adapt itself to the rapid progress being made in cell biology. For this purpose the Society's constitution was created in 1966 and revised in 1969. According to the revised constitution, the President, Executive Committee and Councils were to be determined by ballot vote. The style of the annual meetings was gradually modified to incorporate general oral and poster presentations in addition to Symposia (1969-1974). The publication of annual periodicals in Japanese called Symposia of the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry (1951-1967) and later Symposia of the Japan Society for Cell Biology (1968-1974) was replaced by a new international journal called Cell Structure and Function initiated in 1975. This reformation made it possible for the Society to participate in the Science Council of Japan in 1975 and finally in 1993 to acquire its own study section of Cell Biology with grants-in-aid from the Ministry of Education and Science, Japan. The JSCB hosted the 3rd International Congress on Cell Biology (ICCB) in 1984 and the 3rd Asian-Pacific Organization for Cell Biology (APOCB) Congress in 1998, thus contributing to the international advancement of cell biology. Now the membership of JSCB stands at approximately 1,800 and the number of presentations per meeting is 300 to 400 annually. Although a good number of interesting and important findings in cell biology have been reported from Japan, the

  19. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, January 21, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-21

    ;Selected titles include: Fine Ceramics Center Observes Formation Process for Carbon Nanotubes; Hitachi Ltd. Develops Atomic Manipulation Technology; Structural Thermal Model Tests on Exposed Facility of Japanese Experiment Module for International Space Station; Status of Japan`s Intelligent Transport System; Status of AIST Fuel Cell Projects; Kawasaki Heavy to Conduct Demonstration Test for Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed Refuse Incinerator; Osaka Gas Develops New Battery Electrode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery; Toshiba Corp. Develops World`s Smallest DRAM Memory Cell; Ten Card Companies To Work on Secure Electronic Commerce; and Japan: Column Views DA Internal Bureau Recasting.

  20. [Tuberculosis control of urban areas in Japan].

    PubMed

    2000-10-01

    The rates of tuberculosis remain high in urban areas. The declining speed of tuberculosis incidence rate in urban areas has been slower than other areas. Efforts and resources to tuberculosis control must be concentrated on urban locations to eradicate tuberculosis in Japan. 1. Tuberculosis control in a public health center of urban area: Teru OGURA and Chiyo INOGUCHI (Toshima City, Ikebukuro Public Health Center, Tokyo Metropolitan) A wide range of TB control measures is implemented by public health centers, such as a patient registration, home-visit guidance, contact examination in urban areas. Directors of every health center have the direct responsibility for tuberculosis control measures in their jurisdiction. Ikebukuro is urban areas where there are many offices, shopping and amusement facilities. Urban people is often on the move looking for job, so public health centers are often not easy to carry out contact examinations as planned. In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem. Their incidence of tuberculosis is high. Special TB control program must be carried out in urban areas. 2. Tuberculosis Control in Tokyo Metropolitan: Kazumasa MATSUKI (Department of Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, Bureau of Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan) There has been a steady decline in the TB wards. The beds for TB patients are running short and even smear positive TB cases cannot be put in a hospital without waiting several days. Staffs of an urban emergency department must protect tuberculosis infection by environmental controls of emergency room. Tokyo Metropolitan government supports the engineering improvements of emergency room to hospitals. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients at a district has been implemented to complete their therapy. On DOT, a trained health worker observes the patient take anti-TB medication. 3. Usefulness of Molecular Epidemiologic approach on Tuberculosis Control: Atsushi HASE (Osaka

  1. Interdecadal variation of TC frequency in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yu-Mi; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed the climate regime shift using statistical change-point analysis on the time-series tropical cyclone (TC) frequency that affected Japan in July to September. The result showed that there was a significant change in 1995, and since then, it showed a trend of rapidly decreasing frequency. To determine the reason for this, differences between 1995 to 2012 (9512) period and 1978 to 1994 (7894) period were analyzed. First, regarding TC genesis, TCs during the 9512 period showed a characteristic of genesis from the southeast quadrant of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific and TCs during the 7894 period showed their genesis from the northwest quadrant. Regarding a TC track, TCs in the 7894 period had a strong trend of moving from the far east sea of the Philippines via the East China Sea to the mid-latitude region in East Asia while TCs in the 9512 period showed a trend of moving from the Philippines toward the southern part of China westward. Thus, TC intensity in the 7894 period, which can absorb sufficient energy from the sea as they moved a long distance over the sea, was stronger than that of 9512. Large-scale environments were analyzed to determine the cause of such difference in TC activity occurred between two periods. During the 9512 period, anomalous cold and dry anticyclones were developed strongly in the East Asia continent. As a result, Korea and Japan were affected by the anomalous northerlies thereby preventing TCs in this period from moving toward the mid-latitude region in East Asia. Instead, anomalous easterlies (anomalous trade wind) were developed in the tropical western Pacific so that a high passage frequency from the Philippines to the south China region along the anomalous steering flows was revealed. The characteristics of the anomalous cold and dry anticyclone developed in the East Asia continent were also confirmed by the analysis of air temperature, relative humidity, and sensible heat net flux showing that

  2. [Counterfeit medicines--Japan and the world].

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisaku

    2014-01-01

    Circulating counterfeit medicines in the market is a public health threat. Counterfeit medicines become common problem, not only in developing countries, but also in industrialised countries, as internet has made them more accessible. In Japan, the recent survey on the medicines purchased through on-line pharmacy (targeting Japanese consumers) showed that the majority of erectile dysfunction (ED) medicines imported by individuals in Japan were counterfeit version. The survey of Japanese consumers, who privately imported medicines through on-line pharmacy, indicated that 16% of these consumers experienced adverse events associated with these products. Not only that it is just fake brand, but fake medicines may even cause health hazard. The counterfeit version of Avastin recently detected in the United States became a serious threat for those who desperately need these medicines for life-threatening disease. The Japanese regulatory authorities have provided risk information of counterfeit medicines to general public, as well as monitored on-line pharmacies and conducted enforcement action where necessary. However, more resources of compliance activity should be allocated to respond to the situation of growing threats of counterfeit medicines. Purchasing medicines from abroad through unauthorised channel is the major source of counterfeit medicines. It is essential to prevent circulation of counterfeit medicines through international collaboration of various regulatory authorities. To address these problems, the World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a new Member States Mechanism (MSM) to build network of the authorities. Also, INTERPOL (ICPO) initiated globally concerted enforcement actions (Operation Pangea) against pharmaceutical crime as well as built partnership with pharmaceutical industry to create Pharmaceutical Crime Programme. It is also necessary to prevent consumers encountering counterfeit medicines and to prevent health hazard. The Ministry of

  3. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

  4. "Lifetime Earnings" in Japan for the Class of 1955.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Japan's employment model has been that of "lifetime employment," especially for male college-educated workers. Under such a system, an individual becomes employed by a firm upon graduation and remains in its employ until retirement. (Author/SSH)

  5. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  6. Development of the electronic health record in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, H

    1998-03-01

    In Japan, the order entry system has been employed in almost all university hospitals and popularisation of this system has also started in medium-sized hospitals. However, there has been a tendency in general hospitals in Japan to consider the electronic chart system where there has been no order entry system. Moreover, in small-scale clinics, there is no benefit in using the order entry system. Young doctors in Japan are beginning to employ the electronic chart system directly for the first time, without experience with the order entry system. In this paper, the development of the hospital information system in Japan and that of the electronic health record system are described. PMID:9723801

  7. Development and utilization of geothermal energy in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.

    1981-10-01

    Japan has about 10% of all active volcanoes in the world. In 1966, Azuma Kako Co., Ltd. (present Japan Metals and Chemicals Co., Ltd.) constructed Japan's first geothermal power plant of 20 MW. Since 1966, several geothermal power plants have been constructed in Kyushu and Northeast Japan. At present there exist six power plants amounting to 162 MW in total. One more power plant is now under construction in Hokkaido, expected to begin operation in fall 1982. All six geothermal power plants are located in national parks. Two of them are expected to be doubled in near future. Now the developers, amounting to about ten, are implementing their surveys mainly outside the parks, and it is forecast that in 1985 400 MW and in 1990 1400 MW power will be obtained by geothermal energy.

  8. Lung Transplantation for Lymphangioleiomyomatosis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Okada, Yoshinori; Akiba, Miki; Kondo, Takashi; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Okumura, Meinoshin; Chen, Fengshi; Date, Hiroshi; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Akinori; Yamasaki, Naoya; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Chida, Masayuki; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Hirai, Toyohiro; Seyama, Kuniaki; Mishima, Michiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung transplantation has been established as the definitive treatment option for patients with advanced lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). However, the prognosis after registration and the circumstances of lung transplantation with sirolimus therapy have never been reported. Methods In this national survey, we analyzed data from 98 LAM patients registered for lung transplantation in the Japan Organ Transplantation Network. Results Transplantation was performed in 57 patients as of March 2014. Survival rate was 86.7% at 1 year, 82.5% at 3 years, 73.7% at 5 years, and 73.7% at 10 years. Of the 98 patients, 21 had an inactive status and received sirolimus more frequently than those with an active history (67% vs. 5%, p<0.001). Nine of twelve patients who remained inactive as of March 2014 initiated sirolimus before or while on a waiting list, and remained on sirolimus thereafter. Although the statistical analysis showed no statistically significant difference, the survival rate after registration tended to be better for lung transplant recipients than for those who awaited transplantation (p = 0.053). Conclusions Lung transplantation is a satisfactory therapeutic option for advanced LAM, but the circumstances for pre-transplantation LAM patients are likely to alter with the use of sirolimus. PMID:26771878

  9. Borna disease in a dog in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, M; Kagawa, Y; Kamitani, W; Hagiwara, K; Kirisawa, R; Iwai, H; Ikuta, K; Taniyama, H

    2002-05-01

    Borna disease (BD) was diagnosed in a 3-year-old male Welsh corgi suffering from a severe and acute progressive disorder of the central nervous system. Histopathologically, neuronal lesions were characterized by a non-suppurative encephalomyelitis dominated by large perivascular cuffs consisting of lymphocytes, macrophages and plasma cells; also present were inflammatory cell infiltrates in the neural parenchyma, neuronophagia and focal gliosis. Strong immunolabelling with BD virus (BDV) p40 antibody was diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm of small and large neurons in areas of the brain with and without inflammatory changes, and also in the spinal cord. Positive hybridization signals with BDV p40 sense and antisense riboprobes were seen in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the neurons throughout the whole brain and spinal cord. BDV p24 RNA in formalin-fixed brain tissue was detected by reverse transcriptase (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). BDV p24 RNA-positive signals were detected in the temporal lobe. This is the first report of spontaneous canine BD in Japan. PMID:12056780

  10. Q fever pneumonia in children in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    To, H; Kako, N; Zhang, G Q; Otsuka, H; Ogawa, M; Ochiai, O; Nguyen, S V; Yamaguchi, T; Fukushi, H; Nagaoka, N; Akiyama, M; Amano, K; Hirai, K

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of Q fever pneumonia among children with atypical pneumonia from whom only an acute-phase serum sample was available was traced by using an indirect immunofluorescence (IF) test, nested PCR, and isolation. Twenty (34.5%) of 58 sera were found to have both polyvalent and immunoglobulin M antibodies to the phase II antigen of Coxiella burnetii by the IF test. Q fever pneumonia was present in 23 (39.7%) of 58 patients as determined by both the nested PCR and isolation and in 20 patients as determined by the IF test. The sensitivities for nested PCR and isolation were 100%, and that for the IF test was 87%. Our results indicate that nested PCR was faster and more sensitive than isolation and the IF test in the diagnosis of acute Q fever when a single acute-phase serum was available. These findings suggest that C. burnetii is an important cause of atypical pneumonia in children in Japan. PMID:8904431

  11. Current viewpoints on DSM-5 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Toshihide; Ishitobi, Makoto; Kamio, Yoko; Sugihara, Genichi; Murai, Toshiya; Motomura, Keisuke; Ogasawara, Kazuyoshi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Aleksic, Branko; Ozaki, Norio; Nakao, Tomohiro; Yamada, Kazuo; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Kiriike, Nobuo; Ishikawa, Toshio; Kubo, Chiharu; Matsunaga, Chiaki; Miyata, Hisatsugu; Asada, Takashi; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-09-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in 2013, and its official Japanese version was published in 2014. The Japanese Government uses classifications from the 10th revision of the I nternational C lassification of D iseases (ICD-10) to categorize disorders and determine treatment fees. However, since the publication of the DSM-III, the use of the DSM system has become prevalent in research and educational settings in Japan. In addition to traditional psychiatry, both the ICD and the DSM are taught by many Japanese medical schools, and virtually all clinical research and trials refer to the DSM to define targeted disorders. Amid the current backdrop in which the reputation of the DSM-5 is being established, the editorial board of P sychiatry and C linical N eurosciences has asked Japanese experts across 12 specialties to examine the structure of the DSM-5, including the following categories: Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, Major Depression, Bipolar Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, Somatic Symptom Disorder, Eating Disorders, Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders, Gender Dysphoria, and Neurocognitive Disorders. Although opinions were only obtained from these selected experts, we believe that we have succeeded, to a certain extent, in presenting views that are representative of each specialty. PMID:27414748

  12. The Regulation of Medical Malpractice in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    How Japanese legal and social institutions handle medical errors is little known outside Japan. For almost all of the 20th century, a paternalistic paradigm prevailed. Characteristics of the legal environment affecting Japanese medicine included few attorneys handling medical cases, low litigation rates, long delays, predictable damage awards, and low-cost malpractice insurance. However, transparency principles have gained traction and public concern over medical errors has intensified. Recent legal developments include courts’ adoption of a less deferential standard of informed consent; increases in the numbers of malpractice claims and of practicing attorneys; more efficient claims handling by specialist judges and speedier trials; and highly publicized criminal prosecutions of medical personnel. The health ministry is undertaking a noteworthy “model project” to enlist impartial specialists in investigation and analysis of possible iatrogenic hospital deaths to regain public trust in medicine’s capacity to assess its mistakes honestly and to improve patient safety and has proposed a nationwide peer review system based on the project’s methods. PMID:19002542

  13. Cognitive function among hemodialysis patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over 290,000 patients are undergoing hemodialysis (HD) in Japan. With old age, the odds of undergoing HD treatment sharply increase, as does the prevalence of cognitive impairment. The aim of the present work was to assess cognitive impairment in HD patients and its relation to clinical characteristics. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, we administered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to 154 HD outpatients and 852 participants from the Iwaki Health Promotion Project 2010, representing the general population. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment based on the MMSE was 18.8% in HD patients. HD patients showed a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment in older groups (50 years and older). In a logistic regression model with age, gender and amount of education as covariates, undergoing HD was a significant independent factor (OR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.33 to 3.94) associated with a lower MMSE score. Among HD patients, we found that level of education was associated with MMSE score. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of cognitive impairment among HD patients that has adverse implications for hospitalization and shortens their life expectancy. HD treatment was an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment. Clinicians should carefully monitor and treat cognitive impairment in HD patients. Further studies are required to determine the reasons for cognitive impairment in HD patients. PMID:21867512

  14. Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Kiga

    2008-01-15

    Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

  15. Gender Differences in Spousal Caregiving in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Mikiko; Kutsumi, Masami; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Background Gender differences in spousal caregivers and their relationship to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were examined. Methods A stratified random sample of 2,020 users of public long-term care insurance in a city of Osaka prefecture, Japan, participated in this study. Responses from 308 spouses (56.2% wives, 43.8% husbands) were analyzed. Variables relating to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were compared by conducting simultaneous analyses of multiple populations. Results Wives caring for husbands had higher depression scores than husbands caring for wives. Wives tended to adopt “emotional support seeking” and “willing commitment” as coping strategies for their caregiving experience. Husband caregivers used more home-care services; however, increased service use had no effect on husbands’ depression. The availability of secondary caregivers reduced depression for caregivers, regardless of gender. Conclusions The effects on depression differed related to the caregiver's gender. Husbands relied more on family or home-care services when caring for their wives, whereas wives provided higher levels of care, positively accepted their role, and did not seek to share caregiving, but sought emotional support. PMID:19176486

  16. Difficulties facing physician mothers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Kozono, Yuki; Mori, Ryo; Marui, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent increases in the number of female physicians graduating in Japan, their premature resignations after childbirth are contributing to the acute shortage of physicians. Previous Japanese studies have explored supportive measures in the workplace, but have rarely focused on the specific problems or concerns of physician-mothers. Therefore, this study explored the challenges facing Japanese physician-mothers in efforts to identify solutions for their retention. Open-ended questionnaires were mailed to 646 alumnae of Juntendo University School of Medicine. We asked subjects to describe their opinions about 'The challenges related to female physicians' resignations'. Comments gathered from alumnae who graduated between 6 and 30 years ago and have children were analyzed qualitatively. Overall, 249 physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 38.5%), and 73 alumnae with children who graduated in the stated time period provided comments. The challenges facing physician-mothers mainly consisted of factors associated with Japanese society, family responsibilities, and work environment. Japanese society epitomized by traditional gender roles heightened stress related to family responsibilities and promoted gender discrimination at work environment. Additionally, changing Japanese society positively influenced working atmosphere and husband's support. Moreover, the introduction of educational curriculums that alleviated traditional gender role was proposed for pre- and post- medical students. Traditional gender roles encourage discrimination by male physicians or work-family conflicts. The problems facing female physicians involve more than just family responsibilities: diminishing the notion of gender role is key to helping retain them in the workforce. PMID:22027270

  17. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Plains of Tokachi, where the scale of agricultural field was comparatively large in Japan, LANDSAT data with its accuracy have proved to be useful enough to observe the actual condition of agricultural land use and changes more accurately than present methods. Species and ages of grasses in pasture were identified and soils were classified into several types. The actual land cover and ecological environment were remarkably changeable at the rapidly industrialized area by the urbanization in the flat plane and also by the forest works and road construction in the mountainous area. The practical use of the recognition results was proved as the base map of the field survey or the retouching work of the vegetation and land use. There was a 10% cut in cost, labor, and time. Vegetation cover in Tokyo districts was estimated by both the multiregression model and the parametric model. Multicorrelation coefficient between observed value and estimated value was 0.87 and standard deviation was + or - 15%. Vegetation cover in Tokyo was mapped into five levels with equal intervals of 20%.

  18. Recent results for concentrator photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Takamoto, Tatsuya; Araki, Kenji; Kojima, Nobuaki

    2016-04-01

    We summarize the Europe-Japan Collaborative Research Project on Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV); NGCPV Project (a New Generation of Concentrator PhotoVoltaic cells, modules and systems). The aim of this project was to accelerate the move to very high efficiency and lower cost CPV technologies and to enhance the widespread deployment of CPV systems. Seven European partners and nine Japanese partners have contributed to this international collaboration. The following objectives have been reached: 1) a CPV cell with InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs three-junction world-record efficiency of 44.4% has been developed by Sharp, 2) 50 kW and 15 kW CPV plant operations with an average DC efficiency of 27.8% have been demonstrated in Spain (since mid-2012), 3) a new “Intrepid” CPV module with 31.3% efficiency has been developed by Daido Steel, 4) standard measurement of CPV cells has been established by FhG-ISE and AIST, and 46.0% efficiency has been confirmed for the direct-bonded GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs four-junction solar cell under this project, 5) the fundamental research on novel materials and structures for CPV has also been conducted.

  19. Management for School Environmental Health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    Some acts such as the Basic Environment Act are aimed at managing environmental health for a productive living environment in Japan. School is not only a place where lessons for a better future are taught but also an environment in which children spend many hours of their day. Therefore, activities involving regular checks are important to maintain and improve the school environment. Article 5 of the School Health and Safety Act states that schools must make plans and carry out regular checks on school environmental health. Article 6 prescribes that the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology establish a "school environmental health standard". This standard involves metrics on the classroom environment (quality of air, illumination, and noise levels), quality of drinking/pool water and so on, and their standard values and evaluation methods. Article 23 prescribes that each school except colleges/universities have a school pharmacist. The school pharmacist plays an important role in maintaining and improving the school's environmental health. However, the current actions taken are not adequate. Therefore, prospects for future activities will be discussed based on the current situations and problems. PMID:27252052

  20. Shotgun weddings (dekichatta kekkon) in contemporary Japan.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vázquez, Genaro

    2015-01-01

    The accelerated greying of its population along with birth rates plummeting below replacement levels synergise into one of the most acute social issues in contemporary Japan. Although singleness, childlessness, delayed marriage and late-in-life-childbirth have become endemic, official records nevertheless reveal an increase in childbirth among women aged 15-19 in 2013. Furthermore, official statistics for 2010 show that 50% of Japanese women aged 25 or younger who married were expecting a baby. This paper focuses on 17 Japanese mothers who had a 'shotgun wedding' (dekichatta kekkon)--a ceremony organised due to an unplanned pregnancy. Aged between 29 and 35 years, the mothers came from Tokyo and Kanagawa and were interviewed for the purposes of exploring their experiences with and viewpoints on unplanned childbirth, contraception and marriage. Grounded in a symbolic interactionist perspective, the analysis of interviews suggested that shotgun weddings largely stem from contraception issues, the will to get pregnant in order to keep a partner and homosocial pressure to prevent the termination of the unexpected pregnancy. PMID:25706712

  1. Together with the farmers: social and rural medicine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Abrams, H K

    1978-01-01

    Japan emerged from feudalism a century ago. Farmers comprise 20 percent of the population of 110 million. The agricultural cooperative movement sponsors 118 hospitals in rural areas. Of these, the Saku Central Hospital is the largest, and provides leadership to a vigorous rural health movement. Its unique outreach program and its contributions to rural health are described, together with remarks about Japan's health situation generally. There may be lessons here for America. PMID:710075

  2. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, April 2, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-02

    ;Contents(Partial): Japan To Enter Commercial Launch Market; Significance of Lunar Mission Discussed; Hitachi Maxell, Sanyo Develop 14 GB Magneto-Optical Disc Technology; Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant Ready for Testing; MITI develops Next-Generation Freon Substitute; Stable Power Supply Through Nuclear Power; JR Tokai Targets 550km for Maglev Test Run on Yamanaashi Line; and Japan to Establish Nationwide High-Speed Telecommunications Network Using CATV Networks.

  3. Environmental and food contamination with PCB's in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K

    1975-09-01

    In Japan "yusho", i.e., poisoning caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with PCB's, broke out in October 1968, and produced more than 1200 officially certified cases. Nevertheless, it was only regarded as a kind of food poisoning and its connection with environmental and biological contamination was only imperfectly taken into consideration. Finally, in the autumn of 1970, two study groups, from the Ehime University and the Kyoto City Hygienic Institute, reported on the PCB contamination of salt water and fresh water fishes in Japan. Subsequently many reports about PCB's as an environmental contaminant have been published by several study groups throughout Japan, and nowadays the PCB polluted state of Japan has become rather clearly recognized. This report will present information on environmental, food and human contamination with PCB's in Japan especially also in some typically contaminated local areas, in addition to summarizing some overall aspects of the PCB problem in Japan (e.g., the production, shipment and use of PCB's). PMID:808853

  4. Investigation of Environmental Change Pattern in Japan: Multidisciplinary Application of LANDSAT-2 Data to Marine Environment in Central Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator); Ochiai, H.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The multidisciplinary application of multispectral scanner data acquired over central Japan revealed several coastal features including pollution, river effluent, shorelines, red tide, etc. Supporting data were obtained by airborne remote sensing.

  5. The 1991 Japan Solar Energy Society. Japan Wind Energy Association Joint Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    Thie paper summarizes the lectures presented at the research presentation conference held by the Japan Solar Energy Society and the Japan Wind Energy Association. The contents include a lecture relating to photovoltaic cells intended for efficiency improvement; a lecture relating to a light power generation system including the field test reports, improvements on peripheral devices and output characteristics; a lecture relating to optical chemistry; a lecture relating to heat pumps utilizing solar heat and well water; a lecture relating air conditioning utilizing photovoltaic cells; a lecture relating to heat systems utilizing solar heat directly; a lecture relating to heat collection; a lecture relating to cold heat for cooling using earth tubes; a lecture relating to direct utilization of ground water heat and solar heat; a lecture relating to underground heat storage; a lecture relating to accumulation of cold heat and hot heat; a lecture relating to insolation on the amount of insolation and spectroscopy; a lecture relating to light collection intended of energy saving; a lecture relating to improving materials including light collecting plates and thin films; a lecture relating to development and characteristics of solar cars; and a lecture relating to wind energy.

  6. [Disease mongering and bipolar disorder in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ihara, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Frequently used in a pejorative sense, "disease mongering" connotes a widening of the diagnostic boundaries of illness. Pharmaceutical companies conduct disease awareness campaigns on the pretext of educating the public about the prevention of illness or the promotion of health. Encouraged by disease awareness advertisements, people gradually become filled with concern that they are ill and need medical treatment. As a result, pharmacotherapy is increasingly being applied to ever-milder conditions, leading to potentially unnecessary medication, wasted resources, and even adverse side effects. Among all fields of clinical medicine, psychiatry is undoubtedly the most vulnerable to the danger of disease mongering. In Japan, depression provides the most drastic example of the impact of disease awareness campaigns on the number of patients seeking treatment. Until the late 1990s, Japanese psychiatrists focused almost exclusively on psychosis and endogenous depression, the latter being severe enough to require conventional forms of antidepressants, known as tricyclic antidepressants, and even hospitalization. At this time, people's attitude toward depression was generally unfavorable. Indeed, the Japanese word for clinical depression, utubyo, has a negative connotation, implying severe mental illness. This situation, however, changed immediately after fluvoxiamine (Luvox-Fujisawa, Depromel-Meiji Seika), the first selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) to receive approval in Japan, was introduced in 1999. In order to aid the drug's acceptance by the Japanese public, pharmaceutical companies began using the catchphrase kokoro no kaze, which literally means "a cold of the soul". Thus armed with this phrase, the pharmaceutical industry embarked on a campaign to lessen the stigma surrounding depression. According to national data from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the number of patients with a diagnosis of mood disorder increased from 327,000 in 1999 to 591

  7. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Smoot, N. C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-02-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin.

  8. Bushido and Medical Professionalism in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Rebecca; Busari, Jamiu; Dornan, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Medical professionalism has become a core topic in medical education. As it has been considered mostly from a Western perspective, there is a need to examine how the same or similar concepts are reflected in a wider range of cultural contexts. To gain insights into medical professionalism concepts in Japanese culture, the authors compare the tenets of a frequently referenced Western guide to professionalism (the physician charter proposed by the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, American College of Physicians Foundation, and the European Federation of Internal Medicine) with the concepts of Bushido, a Japanese code of personal conduct originating from the ancient samurai warriors. The authors also present survey evidence about how a group of present-day Japanese doctors view the values of Bushido. Cultural scholars have demonstrated Bushido’s continuing influence on Japanese people today. The authors explain the seven main virtues of Bushido (e.g., rectitude), describe the similarities and differences between Bushido and the physician charter, and speculate on factors that may account for the differences, including the influence of religion, how much the group versus the individual is emphasized in a culture, and what emphasis is given to virtue-based versus duty-based ethics. The authors suggest that for those who are teaching and practicing in Japan today, Bushido’s virtues are applicable when considering medical professionalism and merit further study. They urge that there be a richer discussion, from the viewpoints of different cultures, on the meaning of professionalism in today’s health care practice. PMID:24556758

  9. Coevolution of volcanic catchments in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takeo; Troch, Peter A.

    2016-03-01

    Present-day landscapes have evolved over time through interactions between the prevailing climates and geological settings. Understanding the linkage between spatial patterns of landforms, soils, and vegetation in landscapes and their hydrological response is critical to make quantitative predictions in ungaged basins. Catchment coevolution is a theoretical framework that seeks to formulate hypotheses about the mechanisms and conditions that determine the historical development of catchments and how such evolution affects their hydrological response. In this study, we selected 14 volcanic catchments of different ages (from 0.225 to 82.2 Ma) in Japan. We derived indices of landscape properties (drainage density and slope-area relationship) as well as hydrological response (annual water balance, baseflow index, and flow-duration curves) and examined their relation with catchment age and climate (through the aridity index). We found a significant correlation between drainage density and baseflow index with age, but not with climate. The intra-annual flow variability was also significantly related to catchments age. Younger catchments tended to have lower peak flows and higher low flows, while older catchments exhibited more flashy runoff. The decrease in baseflow with catchment age is consistent with the existing hypothesis that in volcanic landscapes the major flow pathways change over time from deep groundwater flow to shallow subsurface flow. The drainage density of our catchments decreased with age, contrary to previous findings in a set of similar, but younger volcanic catchments in the Oregon Cascades, in which drainage density increased with age. In that case, older catchments were thought to show more landscape incision due to increasing near-surface lateral flow paths. Our results suggests two competing hypotheses on the evolution of drainage density in mature catchments. One is that as catchments continue to age, the hydrologically active channels retreat

  10. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-01-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  11. Immigrants' experiences of maternity care in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E

    2013-08-01

    Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women's birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan's highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South Korean (n = 29) and from variety of English speaking nations (n = 19) and 568 Japanese women. The questionnaire was prepared in six languages: Japanese (kana syllables), Chinese, English, Korean, Portuguese, and Tagalog (Filipino). Associations among quality of maternity care, Japanese literacy level, loneliness and care satisfaction were explored using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The valid and reliable instruments used were Quality of Care for Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Questionnaire, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Japanese version, the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale-Japanese version and Care satisfaction. Care was evaluated across prenatal, labor and delivery and post-partum periods. Immigrant women scored higher than Japanese women for both positive and negative aspects. When loneliness was strongly felt, care satisfaction was lower. Some competence of Japanese literacy was more likely to obstruct positive communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness. Immigrant women rated overall care as satisfactory. Japanese literacy decreased communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness presumably because some literacy unreasonably increased health care providers' expectations of a higher level of communication. PMID:23609237

  12. History of network detection completeness in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schorlemmer, Danijel; Hirata, Naoshi; Ishigaki, Yuzo; Nanjo, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Beutin, Thomas; Euchner, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    An important characteristic of any seismic network is its detection completeness, which should be considered a function of space and time. Many researchers rely on robust estimates of detection completeness, especially when investigating statistical parameters of earthquake occurrence like earthquake rates. Contrary to traditional approaches, we do not estimate completeness using methods in which the completeness magnitude is defined as the deviation of the frequency-magnitude distribution from the linear Gutenberg-Richter relation. Here, we present a method based on empirical data only: phase data, station information, and the network-specific attenuation relation. For each station of the network we estimate a time-dependent distribution function describing the detection capability depending on magnitude and distance to the earthquake. For each point in time, maps of detection probabilities for certain magnitudes or overall completeness levels are compiled based on these distributions. Therefore, this method allows for inspection of station performances and their evolution as well as investigations on local detection probabilities even in regions without seismic activity. We present a full history (1923-2014) of network detection completeness for Japan and discuss details of this evolution, e.g. the effects of the Tohoku-oki earthquake sequence. These results are compared with estimated completeness levels of other methods. We present scenario computations showing the impact of different possible network failures. All presented results are published on the CompletenessWeb (www.completenessweb.org) from which the user can download completeness data from all investigated regions, software codes for reproducing the results, and publication-ready and customizable figures.

  13. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including ‘Kosui’, ‘Hosui’, and ‘Akizuki’, which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, ‘Gold Nijisseiki’ has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, ‘Nansui’ from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  14. Impact Materials of Takamatsu Crater in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Fukuchi, T.

    1995-09-01

    Shocked quartz materials have been found in Japanese K.T boundary (Hokkaido) and mountains of middle main-islands of Japan, though there are few direct evidence of "natural circular structure" on the surface in Japan. However circular structure has been recently found as a buried crater(up to 150m deep) [1] which is ca. 4km in diameter with -10 mgal of Bouguer gravity anomaly from surrounding Rhyoke granitic region of the southern part of Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture, northeast Shikoku, Japan [1,2,3]. Two boring cores of 300m deep near small mountains inside the crater could not reach the bottom of the crater so far. From model calculation of the negative gravity anomaly, the Takamatsu crater shows deep basin structure up to 1.4km. If the Takamatsu crater is considered to be only impact crater, it is difficult to discuss only surface materials on the crater. But anomalous minerals are found only around small volcanic intrusions inside the crater, which the mixed minerals are clearly different with those of other volcanic intrusions of the Yashima and Goshikidai outside the crater [1,2,3]. The small volcanic intrusions are not origin of large Takamatsu crater, because the small volcanic intrusions are found on whole areas of Kagawa Prefecture. Major different activity of the small intrusions inside the crater is to bring the brecciated materials of the interior (esp. crater sediments). The xenolith materials around only volcanic intrusion of andesite are divided into the following four major mineral materials:(a) round pebble fragments from the Rhyoke granitic basement (Sampling No.15), (b) rock fragments from intruded biotite andesites (Nos. 2,15), (c) impact-induced fragments of shocked Quartz grains (Nos. 2,3,6,15), diaplectic feldspars (Nos. 2,3,6,15), silica glasses (Nos. 2,15) and small Fe-Ni metallic grains (No.15), and (d) small sedimentary fragments of halite and mordenite, as listed in Table 1. Table I, showing the characterization of surface samples

  15. Nature of the Moho in Japan and Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Levin, Vadim; Nikulin, Alex; Iidaka, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    The Kamchatka peninsula and the islands of Japan are located along the eastern margin of the Asian continent. The natures of the Moho in these areas have been studied for decades, with a variety of geophysical methods, including active and passive seismic methods, gravity and other techniques. The Moho and the upper mantle structures in the NE Japan and SE Japan Arcs have been investigated well both from active and passive seismic source studies. The Moho depth in the NE Japan is ranging from 30 to 40 km. Almost parallel to the present volcanic front, there exists a belt of deep Moho (34-36 km) with a lower Pn velocity (7.5-7.7 km/s). Amplitude analysis of the PmP phase indicates that the Moho beneath the NE Japan Arc is not a simple velocity contrast, but rather a gradual transition. Toward the backarc side, remarkable crustal thinning is recognized. Actually, the Moho depth decreases from 35 km beneath the central part of NE Japan to 18 km beneath the Sea of Japan. This thinning is evident in the upper crust, while the lower crust remains constant in thickness. This may be explained by the continuous magmatic underplating beneath the rifted crust or deformation under a simple shear mode, allowing the lower crustal thickness to remain unchanged. The Moho in the SW Japan Arc is also at a depth of 30-40 km. The Pn velocity is 7.7-7.8 km/s, slightly higher than that in the NE Japan, although this value was mostly sampled in the eastern half of the SW Japan Arc where the recent volcanic activity has been less effective. Fluids expelled from the subducted oceanic lithosphere (the PHS plate) play an important role in controlling the structure of the mantle wedge. As these fluids leak into the mantle wedge they induce serpentinization there, transforming original mantle materials to those of lower velocity and higher Vp/Vs. The crustal thinning of the SW Japan Arc is characterized by notable decrease in upper crustal thickness, which is similar to the case of the NE

  16. Trade, Foreign Investment, and Competitiveness. The Japan Business Study Program. Based on a Seminar Series entitled "Japan Business Study Program 1989" (Austin, Texas, October 12-27, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuo, Hirofumi, Ed.

    Seven articles are presented addressing topics related to United States-Japan trade, foreign investment, and U.S. competitiveness in the global market. The first article, "Super 301 and the Changing Japan-American Relationship" by Glenn Davis describes recent U.S.-Japan trade frictions, epitomized by Super 301, and explains the influence of the…

  17. Teleseismic shear wave tomography of the Japan subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asamori, Koichi; Zhao, Dapeng

    2015-12-01

    We present a high-resolution shear wave tomography of the Japan subduction zone down to a depth of 700 km, which is determined by inverting a large number of high-quality S-wave arrival-time data from local earthquakes and teleseismic events. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea (PHS) slabs are revealed clearly as high-velocity (high-V) zones, whereas low-velocity (low-V) anomalies are revealed in the mantle wedge above the two slabs. The PHS slab has subducted aseismically down to a depth of 480 km under the Japan Sea and to a depth of 540 km under the Tsushima Strait. A window is revealed within the aseismic PHS slab, being consistent with P-wave tomography. Prominent low-V and high-Poisson's ratio (σ) anomalies exist below the PHS slab and above the Pacific slab, which reflect hot and wet mantle upwelling caused by the joint effect of deep dehydration of the Pacific slab and convective circulation process in the mantle wedge above the Pacific slab. The hot and wet mantle upwelling has caused the complex geometry and structure of the PHS slab in SW Japan, and contributed to the Quaternary volcanism along the Japan Sea coast. In eastern Japan, low-V zones are revealed at depths of 200-700 km below the Pacific slab, which may reflect hot upwelling from the lower mantle or even the core-mantle boundary.

  18. Estimating the burden of foodborne diseases in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Yuko; Gilmour, Stuart; Ota, Erika; Momose, Yoshika; Onishi, Toshiro; Bilano, Ver Luanni Feliciano; Kasuga, Fumiko; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the burden posed by foodborne diseases in Japan using methods developed by the World Health Organization’s Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Methods Expert consultation and statistics on food poisoning during 2011 were used to identify three common causes of foodborne disease in Japan: Campylobacter and Salmonella species and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). We conducted systematic reviews of English and Japanese literature on the complications caused by these pathogens, by searching Embase, the Japan medical society abstract database and Medline. We estimated the annual incidence of acute gastroenteritis from reported surveillance data, based on estimated probabilities that an affected person would visit a physician and have gastroenteritis confirmed. We then calculated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in 2011, using the incidence estimates along with disability weights derived from published studies. Findings In 2011, foodborne disease caused by Campylobacter species, Salmonella species and EHEC led to an estimated loss of 6099, 3145 and 463 DALYs in Japan, respectively. These estimated burdens are based on the pyramid reconstruction method; are largely due to morbidity rather than mortality; and are much higher than those indicated by routine surveillance data. Conclusion Routine surveillance data may indicate foodborne disease burdens that are much lower than the true values. Most of the burden posed by foodborne disease in Japan comes from secondary complications. The tools developed by FERG appear useful in estimating disease burdens and setting priorities in the field of food safety. PMID:26478611

  19. The pill in Japan: will approval ever come?

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K

    1999-01-01

    The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare voted in March 1998 to indefinitely delay the licensing of oral contraceptives in Japan. Over years of attempts to gain approval of the pill for contraception, health officials have cited a range of reasons for their position against the pill, including concern over side effects, fears about the potential spread of sexually transmitted diseases if pill use replaces condom use, and worries about the environmental effects of hormonal contraceptive use. Japan is unique in banning all hormonal methods of contraception. The author describes the history of hormonal agents in Japan, from their initial approval in the country for noncontraceptive therapeutic uses in the late 1950s through the defeat in March 1998. Given the higher failure rates associated with condom use and fertility awareness, it is no wonder that abortion is rather common in Japan. Making hormonal methods of contraception available would help to prevent unwanted pregnancies. The uphill battle to legalize the low-dose pill in Japan continues. PMID:10029933

  20. Clinical pharmacologists and drug regulation--future perspective in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, K

    1996-07-01

    1. The Japanese pharmaceutical administration system, and recommendations for the improvement of clinical trial methodology following the implementation of GCP guidelines in Japan are described with special reference to three recent developments in Japanese drug regulation. 2. The implementation of GCP guidelines has not been fully satisfactory and clinical trials in Japan still run into problems. The Ministry of Health and Welfare has recently established a Committee on Safety of Medicines after serious trouble with a new drug was experienced. The Committee released an interim report on the reform of clinical trials supervision and the system for examination of New Drug Applications. 3. ICH-GCP guidelines will be implemented in Japan in the next few years. The principal differences between Japanese GCP and ICH-GCP guidelines, and their effects on clinical trials in Japan with reference to the acceptability of ICH-GCP, are discussed. 4. The final proposals on the National Health Insurance drug pricing method and the appropriate use of drugs by the Central Social Insurance Medical Council are anticipated to have a significant impact on the drug market. The changes in pricing system, especially premiums for innovative drugs, and the implications for the drug market are considered. 5. In these changed circumstances, the importance of the role of clinical pharmacologists in the framework of the new drug regulations in Japan is reviewed. PMID:8807146

  1. JTEC panel report on machine translation in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbonell, Jaime; Rich, Elaine; Johnson, David; Tomita, Masaru; Vasconcellos, Muriel; Wilks, Yorick

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the art of machine translation (MT) in Japan and to provide a comparison between Japanese and Western technology in this area. The term 'machine translation' as used here, includes both the science and technology required for automating the translation of text from one human language to another. Machine translation is viewed in Japan as an important strategic technology that is expected to play a key role in Japan's increasing participation in the world economy. MT is seen in Japan as important both for assimilating information into Japanese as well as for disseminating Japanese information throughout the world. Most of the MT systems now available in Japan are transfer-based systems. The majority of them exploit a case-frame representation of the source text as the basis of the transfer process. There is a gradual movement toward the use of deeper semantic representations, and some groups are beginning to look at interlingua-based systems.

  2. Protection against pertussis by acellular pertussis vaccines (Takeda, Japan): household contact studies in Kawasaki City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Goshima, T; Nakajima, N; Kaku, H; Arimoto, Y; Hayashi, F

    1989-12-01

    To evaluate the vaccine efficacy of an acellular pertussis vaccine which has been in clinical use in Japan since 1981, a retrospective study was performed by a questionnaire survey of secondary pertussis attacks through family contact in 146 children with pertussis diagnosed in the period from January 1981 through May 1988. In this study, acellular vaccine made by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, which contains a high level of FHA (filamentous hemagglutinin), a low level of PT (pertussis toxin) and a small amount of agglutinogen, was evaluated. Secondary pertussis attacks through family contact were found in 17 of 29 siblings (58.6%) not immunized with pertussis vaccine. On the other hand, 27 siblings immunized with Takeda's acellular vaccine were exposed to pertussis through family contact and a secondary attack was seen in only one of them (3.7%). The present study revealed an efficacy rate of 93.7% for Takeda's acellular pertussis vaccine. PMID:2516396

  3. PNC/DOE Remote Monitoring Project at Japan`s Joyo Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.; Hashimoto, Yu; Senzaki, Masao; Shigeto, Toshinori; Sonnier, C.; Dupree, S.; Ystesund, K.; Hale, W.

    1996-07-25

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a remote monitoring system for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This cooperation is part of a broader safeguards agreement between PNC and DOE. A remote monitoring system is being installed in a spent fuel storage area at PNC`s experimental reactor facility Joyo in Oarai. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and is closely related to those used in other SNL remote monitoring projects. The Joyo project will particularly study the unique aspects of remote monitoring in contribution to nuclear nonproliferation. The project will also test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the remote monitoring system in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper will present a short history of the cooperation, the details of the monitoring system and a general schedule of activities.

  4. [Pharmacological therapies for alcohol use disorder in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yumoto, Yosuke; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    We reviewed the available pharmacological therapies for alcohol use disorder in Japan. For treatment of withdrawal delirium, therapists prefer to use antipsychotic drugs rather than benzodiazepines, which is different from other countries. Japan does not have any substantial treatment guidelines for withdrawal delirium. Therefore, so treatment strategies matching the environment of each facility need to be formulated. Moreover, current choices for prescribing anti-alcoholic drugs to cope with alcohol craving are limited to drugs such as cyanamide and disulfiram. However, the use of acamprosate has recently begun and a clinical trial for nalmefene is starting soon. We anticipate that these newer pharmacological therapies will contribute to better treatment of alcohol use disorder also in Japan. PMID:26394517

  5. Characteristics of syncope in Japan and the Pacific rim.

    PubMed

    Abe, Haruhiko; Kohno, Ritsuko; Oginosawa, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    As is true in the Western world, syncope of cardiac and non-cardiac origin is one of the common clinical presentations in daily medical practice in Japan and Asia. However, the underlying disorders and social backgrounds associated with syncope may differ, from those encountered in Western countries, particularly in Japan. While non-cardiac causes, neurally-mediated reflex faints in particular, are highly prevalent, out-of-hospital deaths by drowning due to syncope occurring during bathing at home are not rare in Japan, particularly in the elderly. Other underlying cardiac or non-cardiac disorders are also noteworthy, particularly Brugada syndrome and coronary vasospasm, which may present as isolated syncope. In addition, the characteristic clinical presentation of micturition and defecation syncope is not uncommon. This review is focused on these specific underlying diseases in the light of the guidelines issued by the Japanese Circulation Society regarding the diagnosis and treatment of syncope. PMID:23472772

  6. Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds winter here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

  7. Development of an interprofessional competency framework in Japan.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Junji; Sakai, Ikuko; Otsuka, Mariko; Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Yoshida, Kazue; Goto, Michiko; Shimoi, Toshinori

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a project that aimed to identify a set of competencies (domains and statements) to prepare Japanese students and healthcare practitioners for collaborative practice. The Japan Association for Interprofessional Education (JAIPE) has started a government-funded project to formulate its interprofessional competency framework, in cooperation with professional organisations (e.g. Japan Society for Medical Education) in healthcare and social sciences. This three-year project is underway as part of the Initiative to Build up the Core Healthcare Personnel programme of Mie University. This project consists of five stages: literature review, data collection, prototype development, consensus formation, and finalisation. Our efforts will culminate in Japan's first interprofessional competency framework, with consensus from relevant academic societies and other stakeholders. We hope that the involvement of stakeholder participation will improve the usability of the final interprofessional competency framework. PMID:27351518

  8. An overview of TPV research activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugami, Hiroo; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2004-11-01

    The thermophotovoltaic (TPV) research activity in Japan has prospered from the second half of the 90s. In this paper, we will present an overview of TPV research activities in Japan. TPV technologies have been surveyed by research committees in NEDO as a part of the research activity of the New Sunshine Project. The TPV is considered as a new application of non-conventional solar cells, and the situation of TPV technologies, especially TPV cells, in USA and EU is surveyed. Systematic investigative research on TPV systems was performed by ENAA on FY1997 and 1998. In this investigative research on potential market for a TPV power source in Japan has been focused on how TPV can contribute to energy conservation and environmental protection and harmony, compared with conventional engine or turbine generators and underdeveloped power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, etc. In addition to the investigative research, the technical research activities are introduced in this paper.

  9. The birth of cosmic ray work in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Systematic studies of cosmic rays in Japan were started when the Nishina Laboratory was established in Riken in 1931, after Nishina came back from the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen. He was already known as an author of Klein-Nishina formula. He spent a great deal of effort to spread modern physics in Japan, inviting Dirac and Heisenberg to give series of lectures at the university of Tokyo, which later established the strong group of theoretical physicists including Yukawa, Tomonaga, Sakata and others. He also spent a great deal of effort in comprehensive studies of cosmic-rays including the precise measurements of the mass of mesons, of the intensity at the deepest underground of 3000 m.w.e., and of other research to be discussed. It is to be noted that the encouragement by the theoretical group of Yukawa, Tomonaga and others stimulated the recovery of the research after World War II in Japan.

  10. Guidelines for developmental toxicity testing of chemicals in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimura, T.

    1985-11-01

    With the definition of teratogenicity expanded in terms of the developmental stages when an agent acts and the types of developmental anomalies induced, the concept of developmental toxicity has been established. The examination of functional developmental disorders including behavior has become one of the most important items for the evaluation of developmental toxicity of chemicals, especially pharmaceutical drugs. The guidelines for developmental toxicity testing of drugs in Japan stress the need for examination of growth and development including behavior and fertility on the postweaning offspring. The outline of the Japanese guidelines is presented and it is emphasized that studies should be done as research and include self evaluation of the scientific truth of the experiment and extrapolation to humans. In addition, the activities of the Behavioral Teratology Meeting, a satellite meeting to the Japanese Teratology Society, are introduced and enquete surveys of the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and collaborative studies for the standardization of learning tests in Japan are briefly presented.

  11. Acupuncture Anesthesia and Analgesia for Clinical Acute Pain in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Acupuncture anesthesia has been practiced in China since about 1960. In Japan, Hyodo reported 30 cases of acupuncture anesthesia in 1972. However, from around 1980, the direction of acupuncture investigations turned from anesthesia to analgesia. Acupuncture analgesia is presently considered a way to activate the body's endogenous analgesic system. Recently, with the rise of acupuncture as one of the most well known CAM therapies, acupuncture or moxibustion treatment has been reported for both acute and chronic pain. Even so, few clinical reports and original articles have been reported in Japan. This review illustrates how acupuncture is being used in Japan for acute pain such as surgical operations, post- operative pain (POP), neuropathic pain, pain associated with teeth extractions and after the extraction of impacted wisdom teeth. PMID:18604250

  12. DNA data bank of Japan (DDBJ) progress report

    PubMed Central

    Mashima, Jun; Kodama, Yuichi; Kosuge, Takehide; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Katayama, Toshiaki; Nagasaki, Hideki; Okuda, Yoshihiro; Kaminuma, Eli; Ogasawara, Osamu; Okubo, Kousaku; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The DNA Data Bank of Japan Center (DDBJ Center; http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) maintains and provides public archival, retrieval and analytical services for biological information. The contents of the DDBJ databases are shared with the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) within the framework of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC). Since 2013, the DDBJ Center has been operating the Japanese Genotype-phenotype Archive (JGA) in collaboration with the National Bioscience Database Center (NBDC) in Japan. In addition, the DDBJ Center develops semantic web technologies for data integration and sharing in collaboration with the Database Center for Life Science (DBCLS) in Japan. This paper briefly reports on the activities of the DDBJ Center over the past year including submissions to databases and improvements in our services for data retrieval, analysis, and integration. PMID:26578571

  13. DNA data bank of Japan (DDBJ) progress report.

    PubMed

    Mashima, Jun; Kodama, Yuichi; Kosuge, Takehide; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Katayama, Toshiaki; Nagasaki, Hideki; Okuda, Yoshihiro; Kaminuma, Eli; Ogasawara, Osamu; Okubo, Kousaku; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The DNA Data Bank of Japan Center (DDBJ Center; http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) maintains and provides public archival, retrieval and analytical services for biological information. The contents of the DDBJ databases are shared with the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) within the framework of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC). Since 2013, the DDBJ Center has been operating the Japanese Genotype-phenotype Archive (JGA) in collaboration with the National Bioscience Database Center (NBDC) in Japan. In addition, the DDBJ Center develops semantic web technologies for data integration and sharing in collaboration with the Database Center for Life Science (DBCLS) in Japan. This paper briefly reports on the activities of the DDBJ Center over the past year including submissions to databases and improvements in our services for data retrieval, analysis, and integration. PMID:26578571

  14. Draft of new maintenance standards for LWR in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Kunihiro

    1996-12-01

    Activities of development of new maintenance standards for operating nuclear power plant in Japan are described. The work of drafting the standards has been done by the Committee of Nuclear Plant Operation and Maintenance Standards (POMS), that was organized in the Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation under the entrustment from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The articles of ASME Section XI related to inspection, flaw evaluation and repair have been examined and modified, if necessary, so as to introduce latest Japanese database and technological knowledge. In the area of repairs, many repair techniques verified in recent years in Japan were incorporated i n addition to those specified in ASME Section XI. Finally major differences between ASME Section XI and the draft of the standards are listed.

  15. Recent concert halls and opera house in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Takayuki

    2001-05-01

    Since we invited Dr. Beranek to Japan for the first time in 1989, we had been working together with him for a period of 13 years, until 2001, on seven hall projects as acoustic design consultants. All of these halls are of premium importance to Japan. Dr. Beranek always came up with innovative concepts and helped create halls endowed with high acoustic originality. These halls are now loved by music-related people and music fanciers and regarded as the pride of Japan. The reviews and studies achieved through these projects were published as seven J. Acoust Soc. Am papers to disclose the outcome in an objective way to the public. A brief outline of the history of our collaboration and its background are presented.

  16. JTEC Panel report on electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John; Meieran, Gene; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John; Tummala, Rao; Dehaemer, Michael J.; Holdridge, Geoff (Editor); Gamota, George

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies.

  17. Practical aspects of designing and conducting pharmacoeconomic studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Jim; Sato, Keiko

    2003-01-01

    The advent of simultaneous global clinical trials and drug registration strategies has increased the demand for global pharmacoeconomic strategies. Outcomes researchers in pharmaceutical companies are faced with the challenge of assessing at a strategic level what pharmacoeconomic data are most useful in Japan and when, and then deciding at a tactical level what type of study designs are feasible. This paper is written mainly for the benefit of researchers working outside of Japan in the pharmaceutical/medical device industry or academia who are interested in conducting research in Japan. We reviewed the existing pharmacoeconomic literature in Japan, and found that the number of studies per year has been steadily increasing. The majority of studies have been cost-effectiveness and cost-consequence analyses. Typical data sources available in Japan are somewhat limited compared with other Western countries. However, charge data can be easily accessed through the national uniform reimbursement fee system and these data are particularly relevant for pharmaceutical pricing negotiations with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW). The present use of pharmacoeconomic data by pharmaceutical companies is mainly for pricing negotiations but recent reforms make certain types of data useful for marketing strategies too. The demand for pharmacoeconomic data may increase because of upcoming MHLW pharmaceutical pricing and/or recent health insurance system reforms. Economic evaluation of medical technologies in Japan, though lagging behind North America, Australia and Europe, has the potential to rapidly gather momentum as increasing cost-escalation worries contribute to a growing interest in pharmacoeconomic data. PMID:12959624

  18. Seafloor Geodesy for Approaching Great Earthquakes Around Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, M.; Sato, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Watanabe, S. I.; Yokota, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor geodesy has been developed as an application of space geodetic technique for the purpose of investigating geodynamic phenomena having their major information in offshore regions. One of such targets is the occurrence of disastrous earthquakes in plate subduction areas. Japan, among others, has repeatedly experienced offshore megathrust earthquakes because of its tectonic location, where multiple plates interact with each other. Most recently, an earthquake of M9.0 occurred off the Pacific coast of east Japan in 2011 with a subsequent huge tsunami, which totally devastated coastal areas and claimed nearly 20,000 lives including those still missing. We, the group of Japan Coast Guard (JCG), have developed a seafloor geodetic technique combining the GPS positioning and underwater acoustic ranging, which is able to measure the position of the seafloor reference point consisting of multiple acoustic transponders with a precision of a few centimeters. We have deployed our seafloor reference points over two regions on the Pacific side of Japan; one is the region along the Japan trench off the eastern coast where the huge 2011 event occurred and another is the region along the Nankai Trough off the southern coast where earthquakes of around M8 have repeated every 100-150 years. With these measurements, we have so far successfully obtained important results providing exclusive information for elucidating the plate boundary behavior causing huge earthquakes. In particular, in the region off east Japan, we have revealed different phases of seafloor movements during the period between several years before and after the 2011 event. They include linear intraplate movements with several centimeters per year before the event, which were the first significant offshore geodetic signals detected around Japan, as well as the coseismic displacements of unprecedentedly huge amount over 20 m close to the epicenter and subsequent postseismic movements with various characteristics

  19. JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Papenbrock, Thomas

    2014-05-16

    The grant “JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei ” (DOE DE‐FG02‐06ER41407) ran from 02/01/2006 thru 12/31/2013. JUSTIPEN is a venue for international collaboration between U.S.‐based and Japanese scientists who share an interest in theory of rare isotopes. Since its inception JUSTIPEN has supported many visitors, fostered collaborations between physicists in the U.S. and Japan, and enabled them to deepen our understanding of exotic nuclei and their role in cosmos.

  20. Music therapy in Japan: an 11-year update.

    PubMed

    Gibson, C

    1987-01-01

    In the past 10 years, music therapy in Japan has begun to make an impact in the mental health field. An increase in research and publication can be attributed in part to the efforts of the Japan Society for the Study of Music Therapy and the Japanese Association of Music Psychology and Therapy. The Japanese still face the same difficulties now, however, as they did a decade ago. These difficulties include the lack of music therapy college degree programs and an absence of certification requirements for practitioners. PMID:10281805

  1. ETS-5, ETS-6, and COMETS projects in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Takashi; Wakana, Hiromitsu; Obara, Noriaki

    1992-08-01

    Three satellite communication projects now in progress in Japan are described. The first is a project to establish a telecommunication network for tele-education, TV conference, and tele-medicine in the Asia-Pacific region by using the Japan's Engineering Test Satellite-5 (ETS-5). The second is a project of the ETS-6 satellite, to be launched in 1993, for inter-satellite communication, mobile and fixed communication, and millimeter wave personal communication experiments. The third is a project of the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS), to be launched in 1997, for advanced mobile satellite communication, inter-satellite link, and advanced broadcasting experiments at higher frequencies.

  2. ETS-5, ETS-6, and COMETS projects in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iida, Takashi; Wakana, Hiromitsu; Obara, Noriaki

    1992-01-01

    Three satellite communication projects now in progress in Japan are described. The first is a project to establish a telecommunication network for tele-education, TV conference, and tele-medicine in the Asia-Pacific region by using the Japan's Engineering Test Satellite-5 (ETS-5). The second is a project of the ETS-6 satellite, to be launched in 1993, for inter-satellite communication, mobile and fixed communication, and millimeter wave personal communication experiments. The third is a project of the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS), to be launched in 1997, for advanced mobile satellite communication, inter-satellite link, and advanced broadcasting experiments at higher frequencies.

  3. Hydraulic fracturing and geothermal energy development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, H.; Suyama, J.; Takahashi, H.

    1982-09-01

    This paper is a review of research and development on geothermal energy extraction in Japan especially on hydraulic fracturing. First recent geothermal developments in Japan are outlined in Part I. An increase in the production rate of geothermal wells may be highly dependent on the geothermal well stimulation technology based on hydraulic fracturing. The hydraulic fracturing technique must be developed also for geothermal energy to be extracted from hot, dry rock masses. In Part II, the research on hydraulic fracturing and field application are reviewed.

  4. [First brain dead donor heart transplantation under new legislation in Japan and future aspects of heart transplantation in Japan].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Fukushima, N

    1999-12-01

    After the brain death and organ transplantation law was settled in 1997, the first case of heart transplantation (HTx) was carried out successfully. The patient was 47 year-old male with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy of dilated phase and on Novacor Implantable LVAS for 4 months. The distance from the donor hospital was about 200 km taking 2 hours for transport, and total ischemic time was 3 hours and 24 minutes. The post-transplant course was smooth. The patient was discharged on 75 postoperative day. We described current status of HTx in Japan and worldwide and discussed current problems and future aspects of HTx in Japan. PMID:10638227

  5. 69 FR 11040 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa AGENCY... terminating its antidumping investigations on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland... dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa (investigations Nos. 731-TA-1048 and...

  6. 65 FR 12575 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To..., a portion of the Commission's hearing in Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Greece and Japan,...

  7. The Group in Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, S. Kathleen

    One of the most important differences between American and Japanese cultures is the difference in group interaction. The Japanese have been described as group-oriented and Americans as individualistic. In Japan, groups are hierarchical and usually make decisions by consensus. Japanese groups play an important role in the lives of their members,…

  8. JAPAN/MARC; Its Present Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamura, Kiyoko

    The creation of Japan/MARC--a system employing Kanji script (Chinese characters as adopted by the Japanese)--as the online database for Japanese bibliographic records marks a significant development in the availability of the Japanese national bibliography and should give stimulus to other countries using Chinese as a predominant language.…

  9. Japan Association of Language Teachers Journal (JALT). 1982-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Association of Language Teaching Journal, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This compilation of four issues of the Japan Association of Language Teachers Journal (JALT) covers the years 1982-1984. The four issues contain a total of 21 articles, as follows: "Communicative Needs in Foreign Language Learning" (Jack C. Richards); "Language Proficiency Interview Testing" (David J. Keitges); "Speculations into the Distributive…

  10. Analysis of Compositions Written by a Chinese Child in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Lucy; Tao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This discourse analysis focuses on the Chinese and Japanese writing of a young student living in Japan who is ethnically Chinese and multilingual. A method for analyzing linguistically diverse student writing was used to explore the literary elements and heteroglossic voices in this student's writing. Such analysis has been shown to be beneficial…

  11. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jacquelyn; Parisi, Lynn S.

    The activities in this book focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Several of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts. The book's 18 classroom activities are organized into three sections. Section 1, "Society and Culture," contains four activities in which students…

  12. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  13. SO2 ABATEMENT FOR COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compilation of information on the current status of SO2 abatement technologies for coal-fired boilers in Japan, where strict ambient air quality standards for SO2 and NOx mandate the use of various air pollution control technologies. It focuses on flue gas desulfu...

  14. Diversity and Multiculturalism in Japan: What Is Called into Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the different ways in which the notion of multiculturalism in Japan has been influenced by various social and historical trajectories. Since the Japanese government started to promote "internationalization" in the 1980's, slogans such as "international exchange," "cultural exchange," and "understanding of other cultures" have…

  15. Challenges for Higher Education and Research: A Perspective from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify key challenges facing Japan's higher education since the early 1990s and their impacts on major research themes. In this paper key challenges include those resulting from the decline in the 18-year population, the cultivation of high-quality university graduates, the incorporation of national universities,…

  16. Education, Employment and Household Dynamics: Brazilian Migrants in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Paul

    2013-01-01

    By treating the household as a primary unit of analysis and social production, this article considers the mutually influential ways in which migrant families shape the educational pathways and experiences of Brazilian children living in Japan. Through an ethnographic exploration of relations between parents, children and their working siblings I…

  17. 78 FR 7451 - Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 5052) and determined on May 7, 2012 that it would conduct a full review (77 FR 37439, June..., 2012 (77 FR 38825). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on December 6, 2012, and all persons who... COMMISSION Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the...

  18. Better off Jobless? Scarring Effects of Contingent Employment in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research fails to address whether contingent employment benefits individuals' careers more than the alternative they often face: being without a job. Using work history data from Japan, this study shows that accepting a contingent job delays individuals' transition to standard employment more than remaining jobless. Moreover, having a…

  19. Persons with Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suemitsu, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    The author outlines the history, current situation, and the future of the care and support system for people with intellectual and multiple disabilities in Japan. He describes how the service system has been shaped from within by Japanese legislation dating back to the Child Welfare Act of 1947, and how international events such as the…

  20. 75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... superalloy degassed chromium from Japan (70 FR 76030). The Commission is conducting a review to determine..., subparts A, D, E, and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1... rule 201.15(b)(19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in...

  1. Enrollment Expansion in Postwar Japan. International Publication Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    After World War II, enrollment in the Japanese educational system underwent an unprecedented expansion, largely on account of postwar economic growth. Although such expansion was common throughout the world, Japan's experience was unique because of the magnitude of changes in the enrollment rates and the degree to which these changes directly…

  2. Tora no Maki II. Lessons for Teaching about Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

    "Tora no Maki" or "Scroll of the Tiger" is a teacher's guide designed to aid in teaching appropriate standards for social studies content and skills, using a contemporary focus on Japan's culture and economy. Topics of the 22 lessons include: group culture, school population, economics, geography, the Internet, family values, Japanese gardens,…

  3. A Study of Japan for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Susan

    Arranged in outline form, this unit on Japan contains over 40 activities for intermediate grade students. Subjects covered are human and physical geography, social history, life style, communication and travel, occupations, recreation, art, education, government, and relations with the United States. Four to 10 activities are described under each…

  4. Current Trends in Health Insurance Systems: OECD Countries vs. Japan

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Toshiyuki; IZAWA, Masahiro; OKADA, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the longest extension in life expectancy in the world has been observed in Japan. However, the sophistication of medical care and the expansion of the aging society, leads to continuous increase in health-care costs. Medical expenses as a part of gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan are exceeding the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, challenging the universally, equally provided low cost health care existing in the past. A universal health insurance system is becoming a common system currently in developed countries, currently a similar system is being introduced in the United States. Medical care in Japan is under a social insurance system, but the injection of public funds for medical costs becomes very expensive for the Japanese society. In spite of some urgently decided measures to cover the high cost of advanced medical treatment, declining birthrate and aging population and the tendency to reduce hospital and outpatients’ visits numbers and shorten hospital stays, medical expenses of Japan continue to be increasing. PMID:25797778

  5. Educational Modernization in Tokugawa Japan: The Case of Kagahan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Song Nai

    1970-01-01

    Changes in the educational system in one important area of Japan in order to meet new political, social, and military conditions are described. The early changes were made within the context of an old, feudal order and were effected for the purpose of strengthening that order. However, eventually, the spirit of modernization destroyed the forces…

  6. Castle Towns: An Introduction to Tokugawa Japan. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit introduces students to the historical tradition of a non-Western nation seen within the comparative concept of feudalism. This is done partly through a look at Tokugawa Japan and partly through a comparative examination of the concept of feudalism. Although the unit deals mainly with a specific time span in Japanese history, it also…

  7. Implications of climate change for crop production in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Seino, Hiroshi

    1995-12-31

    This study uses climate change scenarios derived from three global climate models (GCMs) to assess the possible impacts of climate change on rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica), maize (Zea mays L.), and wheat (Triticum spp.) production in Japan. Crop models were used to simulate the possible changes in crop yields under different climate change scenarios. Increased temperatures resulted in decreases in simulated crop yield in many regions under the present management systems. While the direct beneficial effects of CO{sub 2} may compensate for the yield decreases in central and northern Japan, the effects did not compensate for the larger yield decreases in southwestern japan, especially in Kyushu. Early planting and irrigation are possible adaptation strategies of the management systems to climate change. In most cases, simulated yields increased under climate change conditions if an earlier planting date was adopted; however, in Kyushu because of high temperature stress, an earlier planting did not improve simulated yields, and the introduction of new cultivars better adapted to the climate change conditions would be required. In Hokkaido, the major upland production area of Japan, climate change increased simulated crop yields under some conditions, depending on the scenario precipitation and irrigation systems.

  8. What Should Japan Be Doing about S. invicta?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter was written by a research entomologist from the USDA-ARS, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology in Gainesville, FL and a Japanese myrmecologist from Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan. The purpose of this chapter is to outline what the Japanese should do to ...

  9. Education for Sustainable Development at Universities in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitamura, Yuto; Hoshii, Naoko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Education for sustainable development (ESD) aims at changing the approach to education that integrates principles, values and practices of sustainable development, and needs to be incorporated into all forms of learning and education. The purpose of this paper is to review the way in which ESD has been developed at universities in Japan.…

  10. The Present State of Economic Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaoka, Michio; Asano, Tadayoshi; Abe, Shintaro

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the present state of economic education in Japan. There is a larger number of undergraduate students who major in economics, but their purpose of studying economics and their economic literacy differ. Precollege economic education is regulated by the course of study and limited by the poor ability of teachers to teach the…

  11. Commentaries on Being Gay in Japan and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This article presents commentaries on being gay in Japan and China by distinguished educators with various backgrounds and from different countries. Given space limitations, these are more evocative than particulate, but collectively they provide multiple platforms for reflection. As noted by some commentators in this article and others (e.g.,…

  12. Libraries and Librarianship in Japan. Guides to Asian Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Theodore F.

    More than ever before, Japan is aware of its potential for shaping the global library and information scene and the Japanese are responding to the current flood of information with new media technologies and improved database services with a synergistic approach that involves library professionals, information specialists, governmental leaders,…

  13. SO2 ABATEMENT FOR STATIONARY SOURCES IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of Japanese government efforts to regulate SOx emissions: the efforts were prompted by serious air pollution problems in Japan during the 1960s. Several technologies are being developed including production of low sulfur gas from coal, fuel des...

  14. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

  15. Multiplex PCR serogrouping of Listeria monocytogenes isolated in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimojima, Yukako; Ida, Miki; Nishino, Yukari; Ishitsuka, Rie; Kuroda, Sumiyo; Hirai, Akihiko; Sadamasu, Kenji; Nakama, Akiko; Kai, Akemi

    2016-04-01

    PCR serogrouping methods were used to examine strains of L. monocytogenes isolated in Japan. Among 187 strains, 99.5% were classified into 4 PCR serogroups corresponding to conventional serotypes. Only one isolate had a new PCR profile, which may be a variant of serogroup IVb. PMID:26537550

  16. The Japan disaster and U.S. hay exports

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quarantine control of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), by agricultural systems used to produce export quality hay for the Japan market was studied in the laboratory and field. Survival of Hessian fly puparia was evaluated under simulated seasonal weather conditions in incubators, regional o...

  17. Case Studies in Special Education: Cuba, Japan, Kenya, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japanese National Commission for UNESCO, Tokyo.

    Collected is information provided by Cuba, Japan, Kenya, and Sweden on the historical background, the present situation, and the future outlook of their systems of special education. Introductory comments compare the national systems in terms of historical developments, arrangements for identifying the handicapped, special educational provisions,…

  18. Seismo-turbidites in the Japan Trench inner slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usami, K.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; McHugh, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Japan Trench is a part of the Pacific-North America plate boundary, and is a seismically active region where the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake occurred. We collected 24 piston cores from small basins of the Japan Trench inner slope (37.5-40 N, 143.5-144.16 E, 4000-6000 m in water depth) during the cruise NT13-19 with R/V Natsushima, to investigate recurrence intervals of earthquakes in this area, based on the analysis of the turbidite record. Many fine-grained turbidites are observed in the cores. High sedimentation rates in this area preserve the turbidites well. Turbidites are more frequently intercalated in the cores recovered from the southern part of the area. On the other hand, several turbidite layers can be correlated widely in the northern part of the area, assisted by tephrostratigraphy and matching of paleomagnetic secular variations. Moreover, some of these turbidites are considered to be correlative to the reported onshore tsunami deposits along the Sanriku-Sendai coast. We will report the occurrence, characteristics and correlation of seismo-turbidites in the Japan Trench inner slope. The evidence suggests that the Japan Trench area is an ideal site for application of turbidite paleoseismology.

  19. Aeromagnetic surveys in the seas around Japan in 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utashiro, S.; Oshima, S.; Kaneko, T.

    1984-07-01

    Aeromagnetic surveys in the seas around Japan were carried out in 1979 to 1980 by a YS-11 aircraft of the Maritime Safety Agency of Japan using a new type of airborne magnetometer system. The new type of airborne magnetometer system consists of a ring-core type three-component fluxgate magnetometer, an inertial sensing system, a fish-eye camera to measure the true north, an 8-bit microcomputer and a proton magnetometer. The VLF/OMEGA system is used to fix the position of the aircraft. Tracks extended to about 600 nautical miles off the coast of the Japanese islands in the Sea of Japan and the North-West Pacific Ocean. Average spacing between tracks was about 80 miles. The flights were carried out at an altitude of 9500 feet. From the survey results, magnetic charts of the seven geomagnetic elements for 1980 over the sea around Japan were compiled by the method of least squares using a polynomial. Also, the contour charts of secular variation in 1980 were compiled.

  20. Environmental Education from a Kindergarten to a University student, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2013-12-01

    Importance of the environmental and disaster prevention education on the basis of science is increasing since the disaster by the Tohoku-Earthquake and Tsunami at the 11th March 2011, in Japan. Effective enforcement of the environmental education from a kindergarten to a University student is very important educational tool for protecting future earth's environment. This research reports the present situation and the practice example of environmental education of Japan. Particularly, I report practice of the environmental education in a class of Shimane University. In addition, I explain the actual situation of the environmental education for student from kindergarten to junior high school in Shimane Prefecture. I point out that 'Consciousness (In)', 'knowledge (About)', and 'action (For)' are important three factors based on my practice of the environmental education (e.g. UNESCO-Finland, 1974). That is 'consciousness (In)' means education in (or through) the environment. 'knowledge (About)' means education about environment. 'Action (FOR)' means education for environment. According to the present condition of the environmental education of a Japan, I arranged and redefined such three factors. That is three factors consist of two axis that are 'me' and 'others'. And National exists between them. condition of the environmental education of a Japan, I arranged and redefined such three factors. That is three factors consist of two axis that are 'me' and 'others'. And National exists between them.

  1. Higher Education for Sustainable Development in Japan: Policy and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomura, Ko; Abe, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review key developments and the role of governmental support in the field of education for sustainable development (ESD) in higher education in Japan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an analytical review paper on policy and practice, using an evaluative perspective to consider developments, challenges…

  2. Modern Japan: An Idea Book for K-12 Teachers. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond; Goolian, Betsy

    This collection of supplementary lessons about Japan is organized into four sections: writing skills; visual arts; games, music, and other arts; and social studies. Each lesson lists appropriate grade level, objective, materials needed, time required, and procedure. The following titles from each section are representative of the lessons: Writing…

  3. The Corporeality of Learning: Confucian Education in Early Modern Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsujimoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The intellectual foundation of early modern Japan was provided by Confucianism--a system of knowledge set forth in Chinese classical writings. In order to gain access to this knowledge, the Japanese applied reading markers to modify the original Chinese to fit the peculiarities of Japanese grammar and pronunciation. Confucian education started by…

  4. Sexual Minority Issues and Human Rights Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuji, Keiko

    2007-01-01

    The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to…

  5. Leptospirosis in Squirrels Imported from United States to Japan

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Une, Yumi; Takeuchi, Takahiro; Tsukagoshi, Keiko; Koizumi, Nobuo; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ohta, Shuji; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    We diagnosed leptospirosis in 2 patients exposed to southern flying squirrels imported from the United States to Japan. Patients worked with exotic animals in their company. Leptospira isolates from 1 patient and 5 of 10 squirrels at the company were genetically and serologically identical and were identified as Leptospira kirschneri. PMID:16836840

  6. Clinical work with minorities in Japan: social and cultural context.

    PubMed

    Murphy-Shigematsu, S

    1999-10-01

    Psychotherapeutic work in Japan with minority populations requires an understanding of their specific social and cultural context. Clinical case studies of individuals of burakumin, Korean, and mixed ancestry illustrate the complex issues of prejudice, discrimination, legal contraints, state ideology, and popular mythology of homogeneity that each brings to counseling. Clinical approaches, guided by a multicultural counseling and therapy framework, are discussed. PMID:10553459

  7. 77 FR 60380 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan AGENCY: International... International Trade Administration will lead a delegation of U.S. companies to participate in a Renewable Energy... reconstruction following the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami, and the role of renewable energy in those...

  8. Game Development Toolkit for Business People in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirai, Hiroaki; Tanabu, Motonari; Terano, Takao; Kuno, Yasushi; Suzuki, Hisatoshi; Tsuda, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the authors' experience of developing a business gaming course for business people in Japan. The course that was developed consists of (a) simple gaming experiments among multiple students using ALEXANDER ISLANDS, a tiny business game on the World Wide Web; (b) lectures to make the students understand the core concepts of…

  9. Leptospirosis in squirrels imported from United States to Japan.

    PubMed

    Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Une, Yumi; Takeuchi, Takahiro; Tsukagoshi, Keiko; Koizumi, Nobuo; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ohta, Shuji; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2006-07-01

    We diagnosed leptospirosis in 2 patients exposed to southern flying squirrels imported from the United States to Japan. Patients worked with exotic animals in their company. Leptospira isolates from 1 patient and 5 of 10 squirrels at the company were genetically and serologically identical and were identified as Leptospira kirschneri. PMID:16836840

  10. Adult Education for a Multiethnic Community: Japan's Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasagawa, Koichi

    Modern education in Japan from 1868 to 1945 stressed "national education" in order to promote a sense of belonging to the Japanese state. The Japanese culture was thought to be superior to that of its "less advanced" East Asian neighbors, and Japanese people were encouraged to adopt a "Yamato" identity (the seat of an ancient Japanese kingdom).…

  11. The Way of Japan: A Series of Workshop Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. East Asia Center.

    The seven essays in this booklet are summaries of presentations made at the Way of Japan Workshop Series. Topics range from traditional Japanese history and culture to modern Japanese society and U.S.-Japanese relations. A welcome from Yoshi Okawara, Japanese ambassador to the United States, delineates how American and Japanese may think in…

  12. Questioning Linguistic Instrumentalism: English, Neoliberalism, and Language Tests in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Ryuko

    2011-01-01

    Linguistic instrumentalism, which underscores the importance of English skills for work and for achieving individual economic success, has influenced language education policies and proliferated the language teaching and testing industry in Japan. Linguistic instrumentalism is linked to the notion of human capital (i.e., skills deemed necessary…

  13. Culture and Unrealistic Expectations Challenge American Campuses in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Examines difficulties faced by American university branches in Japan. Notes that 30 institutions developed programs offering American-style college education during the 1980s and 1990s but that only five have survived, due primarily to culture clashes. Focuses on experiences of the Temple University branch in Tokyo, which survives, and Minnesota…

  14. Development Education and Japan. Development Education Paper No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muro, Osamu

    Unique economic, social, and cultural conditions explain why Japan, as one of the leading industrialized nations, has no organization which specializes in or is concerned with development education. Contributing factors are: (1) economic success is so recent (late 1960's) that people are involved internally enjoying hard won affluence; (2)…

  15. A qualitative study of infectious diseases fellowships in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Asako

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this research is to elucidate the actual status of Infectious Diseases (ID) Fellowship programs in Japan to improve them further. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with infectious diseases fellows and his/her faculty consultants from 10 institutions providing ID Fellowships in Japan. We qualitatively analysed the data to delineate the actual status of each program and the fellowship program policies overall, and to identify measures for further improvement. Results The interviews revealed that there are largely two kinds of ID fellowships; ID programs entirely devoting full time to infectious diseases, and programs that are subordinate concepts of other subspecialties, where only a portion of hours were devoted to ID. Some institutions did not even have an ID department. Time spent by the faculty consultants on fellows also varied among programs. The desire for improvement also varied among interviewees; some being happy with the current system while others demanded radical reform. Conclusions Even though there are many ID fellowship programs in Japan, the content, quality, and concepts apparently vary among programs. The perceptions by interviewees on the educational system differed, depending on the standpoints they have on ID physicians. There probably needs to be a coherency in the provision of ID fellowship programs so that fellows acquire competency in the subspecialty with sufficient expertise to act as independent ID specialists. Further studies are necessary for the improvement of ID subspecialty training in Japan.  PMID:26896873

  16. Constraints on the Moho in Japan and Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Levin, Vadim; Nikulin, Alex; Iidaka, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    This review collects and systematizes in one place a variety of results which offer constraints on the depth and the nature of the Moho beneath the Kamchatka peninsula and the islands of Japan. We also include studies of the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc. All results have already been published separately in a variety of venues, and the primary goal of the present review is to describe them in the same language and in comparable terms. For both regions we include studies using artificial and natural seismic sources, such as refraction and reflection profiling, detection and interpretation of converted-mode body waves (receiver functions), surface wave dispersion studies (in Kamchatka) and tomographic imaging (in Japan). The amount of work done in Japan is significantly larger than in Kamchatka, and resulting constraints on the properties of the crust and the uppermost mantle are more detailed. Japan and Kamchatka display a number of similarities in their crustal structure, most notably the average crustal thickness in excess of 30 km (typical of continental regions), and the generally gradational nature of the crust-mantle transition where volcanic arcs are presently active.

  17. Japan - USSR joint emulsion chamber experiment at Pamir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The results are presented for the systematic measurement of cosmic ray showers in the first carbon chamber of Japan-USSR joint experiment at Pamir Plateau. The intensity and the energy distribution of electromagnetic particles, of hadrons and of families are in good agreement with the results of other mountain experiment if the relative error in energy estimation is taken into consideration.

  18. Sexuality Education in Junior High Schools in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, N.; Shinohara, H.; Tashiro, M.; Suzuki, S.; Hirose, H.; Ikeya, H.; Ushitora, K.; Komiya, A.; Watanabe, M.; Motegi, T.; Morioka, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to determine via responses to three questionnaire surveys how sexuality education programs are conducted at junior high schools in Japan. Study 1 examined the practice of sexuality education in schools, Study 2 investigated junior high school students' (age 12-13 and 14-15 years) knowledge of sexuality, and Study 3 examined…

  19. Team Teaching Styles Utilized in Japan: Do They Really Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carley, Harry F., III

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues the debate over TT (team-teaching) benefits and detriments. TT has been utilized extensively in Japan in English Language instructional courses at the elementary and junior high school levels over the past 20 years. Although at times satirical, the author in all seriousness discusses TT and; its advantages and disadvantages in…

  20. The Role of Television in Early Childhood Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinco, Priscilla N.

    Educational television is used in Japan at the early childhood, elementary, and secondary education levels. Educational broadcasting is provided by the public broadcasting company, NHK (Nippon Hoso Kyokai) and various commercial broadcasting companies. Instructional aids are produced by either NHK or one of the commercial companies, and there is…

  1. Research on School Television in Japan, 1953-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Takashiro

    Published on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the school television broadcasting industry in Japan, this document reviews and summarizes the results of past research on the Japanese school television system and considers its future direction. After a brief introduction, the document is divided into six sections: (1) a prehistory of school…

  2. SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION AND NOX CONTROL IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the travels of a four-member study team in Japan during March 1980 to assess NOx flue gas treatment (FGT) technology and related areas. Overall goals of the study were to obtain new information on current issues concerning application of FGT technology and to...

  3. Surveillance, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome of Liver Cancer in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common type of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. HCC is most common in Asia, but its prevalence is rapidly increasing in Western countries; consequently, HCC is a global medical issue that urgently needs to be addressed. Japan is the only developed country that has experienced both hepatitis B-related and hepatitis C-related HCC and has a long history of innovation when it comes to new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, such as computed tomography angiography, anatomical resection, ablation, and transarterial chemoembolization. Among these innovations, a nationwide surveillance program was well established by the 1980s, and such a long-term national program does not exist anywhere else in the world. Summary More than 60% of the initially detected HCCs in Japan are Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0 or A, which can undergo curative therapies such as resection, ablation, or transplantation. The recent 5-year survival rate of HCC patients in Japan was 43% and the median survival time was 50 months. In addition, both incidence and mortality rates are drastically declining as a result of the successful surveillance program, careful diagnostic flow, and extensive repeated treatments. Key Message Japan's successful model in the surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment of HCC should be adopted as widely as possible to improve the survival of HCC patients worldwide. PMID:26020028

  4. The Rise of Modern Japan. Teacher's Manual [and] Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menton, Linda K.; Lush, Noren W.; Tamura, Eileen H.; Gusukuma, Chance I.

    This textbook highlights key aspects of Japan's history and culture from the Tokugawa era (1600-1868) to the present. The textbook includes role plays, primary documents, first-person accounts, diary entries, excerpts from literary works, songs, poems, maps and timelines, charts and graphs, and political cartoons. It also includes a glossary that…

  5. Primary School English Reform in Japan: Policies, Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In April 2011, the Ministry of Education in Japan formally introduced Primary School English (PSE) language teaching in Japanese elementary schools. The PSE policy made it mandatory for fourth- and fifth-graders to attend English lessons once a week. Using the theoretical framework on why educational language plans fail [Kaplan, R. B., Baldauf, R.…

  6. Suggestions, Resources and Activities for Teaching about Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    This teacher resource packet contains a total of 28 modules for teaching about Japan at the elementary and secondary level. Activities on the Japanese family appropriate for grade 1 focus on similarities and differences, family size, family needs, and family roles. Grade 2 lessons look at the school, neighborhood, roles of children in the…

  7. A case of Manila type Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Usami, Osamu; Nakajima, Chie; Endo, Shiro; Inomata, Shinya; Kanamori, Hajime; Hirakata, Yoichi; Uchiyama, Bine; Kaku, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Hattori, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A 76-year-old Japanese woman contracted a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB, Manila type) infection in Japan, despite never having traveled. However, her son was treated for TB in the Philippines 3 years before he stayed at her house. Spoligotyping allows us to identify the TB genotype and identify the route of infection. PMID:26273455

  8. English Loanwords in the 1990's in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Akira

    A sociolinguistic analysis of English loan words in use in the 1990s in the discourse of young Japanese people is presented. The study drew data from a 1993 survey of undergraduate students at two Osaka (Japan) higher education institutions, one for men and one for women, which asked what loanwords students used and heard often. The report first…

  9. Linkages between High Schools and Work: Lessons from Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, James E.

    A study examined the way Japanese schools help their students find jobs and considered whether those aspects that seem to account for their success would be desirable and applicable in the United States. Hiring occurs in a three-step process in Japan. First, Japanese employers assign a certain number of jobs to a high school, depending on their…

  10. Soaring Voices: Recent Ceramics by Women from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2011-01-01

    Japanese ceramics enjoy a long and distinguished history, and the Japanese aesthetic of elegant simplicity, along with their approach to materials, has influenced ceramic artists around the world for centuries. Women in Japan have been involved in the production of ceramics for thousands of years, but with few exceptions, their names have remained…

  11. Edo: Art in Japan 1615-1868. Teaching Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Christine; Henderson, Anne; Hinish, Heidi; Moore, Barbara

    The Edo period in Japan (1615-1868) saw the flowering of many forms of cultural expression, colorful and boisterous, muted and restrained, that today is thought of as typically Japanese. These include kabuki and no drama, the tea ceremony, martial arts, woodblock prints, and porcelain. This culturally diverse and vibrant period gets its name from…

  12. Multiplex PCR serogrouping of Listeria monocytogenes isolated in Japan

    PubMed Central

    SHIMOJIMA, Yukako; IDA, Miki; NISHINO, Yukari; ISHITSUKA, Rie; KURODA, Sumiyo; HIRAI, Akihiko; SADAMASU, Kenji; NAKAMA, Akiko; KAI, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    PCR serogrouping methods were used to examine strains of L. monocytogenes isolated in Japan. Among 187 strains, 99.5% were classified into 4 PCR serogroups corresponding to conventional serotypes. Only one isolate had a new PCR profile, which may be a variant of serogroup IVb. PMID:26537550

  13. [A Booklet of Teaching Activities about Japan.] Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadd, Pauline, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist elementary teachers in developing global understanding among their students, this publication contains a collection of activities for teaching about Japan. Material is divided into sections on the Japanese people and way of life, arts, natural features, economy, and transportation and communication. The 25 lessons include…

  14. Universities and Government in Post-War Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Japan's higher education system, in which private universities and colleges play an important part, has embarked on far-reaching reform in the 1990s. Its main objective was to free the national (public) universities from tight control by the central government and to give them more autonomy. In light of dramatic demographic changes, especially a…

  15. Education Reforms and English Teaching for the Deaf in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    Deaf education is in a period of great transition in Japan as a result of the "Educational Reform Plan for the 21st Century" proposed by the Japanese education ministry. Unfortunately, the communication needs of deaf students have not been taken into account in the Plan's recommendations. One area where deaf students must attain the same…

  16. Copyright and Multimedia Classroom Material: A Study from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Neil; Wang, Shudong

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the knowledge and attitudes that 57 language teachers in Japan have regarding copyright laws in relation to using external materials in the classroom. A 13-item online survey was distributed, and semi-structured interviews were conducted, to ascertain what teachers know about Japanese copyright laws, and the teachers' resultant…

  17. Parallel Passages: Contrasting Views from U.S. and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, James; Wojtan, Linda

    Using selected passages from Japanese and U.S. social studies textbooks, this booklet presents contrasting views and interpretations of historical events or circumstances. The textbooks, review, and supplementary materials collected or developed in conjunction with the Japan/U.S. Textbook Study Project provides much of the basic material for the…

  18. Education for Global Understanding: Learning from Dewey's Visit to Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Naoko

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the implications of John Dewey's democratic philosophy for contemporary education for global understanding. Its special focus is on his idea of mutual learning through difference--a democratic principle that was put to the test in his own cross-cultural encounter with Japan in 1919. Using Dewey's difficult experience in Japan…

  19. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  20. Taxonomic studies of nectrioid fungi in Japan: The genus Cosmospora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven species of the genus Cosmospora collected in Japan are reported in this article. Among them, Cosmospora japonica is described as a new species. Cosmospora henanensis, C. rubrisetosa and C. triqua, all of which are known only from their type localities, are added to the Japanese mycoflora. Othe...

  1. Eckhart Simon, a German physiologist's connections with physiology in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Gerstberger, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Eckhart Simon's research in the fields of Thermal and Regulatory Physiology is distinguished by exemplary relations with Thermal Physiology in Japan. The essay outlines the fields in which he has cooperated with Japanese physiologists. A list of joint publications documents their contributions to Eckhart Simon's and his department's scientific achievements. PMID:27227034

  2. Bridal Pregnancy and Spouse Pairing Patterns in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymo, James M.; Iwasawa, Miho

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we examine two aspects of recent increases in marriage preceded by pregnancy (bridal pregnancy) in Japan. Using information on 28,973 respondents to the Japanese National Fertility Surveys, we first demonstrate that increases in bridal pregnancy between 1970 and 2002 were concentrated among women without postsecondary education. We…

  3. Internationalizing the U.S. Classroom: Japan as a Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S., Ed.; Spence, Donald, Ed.

    This collection of essays presents a rationale for incorporating teaching about Japan in the K-12 curriculum. The volume provides practical examples and guidelines about how to achieve this goal. The essays are organized into three main categories--professional development, curriculum design and enhancement, and exchange. The essays include:…

  4. 64 FR 54353 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-10-06

    ... published at 63 FR 30599, June 5, 1998, and may be downloaded from the Commission's World Wide Web site at... reviews pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act should proceed (64 FR 46407, August 25, 1999). A record... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  5. 64 FR 46407 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Greece and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-08-25

    ..., including the text of subpart F of part 207, are published at 63 FR 30599, June 5, 1998, and may be... interested party group response to its notice of institution (64 FR 23675, Mar. 3, 1999) was adequate with... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Greece and Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  6. Use of Text Messaging by Deaf Adolescents in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okuyama, Yoshiko; Iwai, Mariko

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a survey study that drew on seventy-five high school students at a residential deaf school in Japan. The aim of the survey was to examine the various ways in which deaf adolescents use text messaging and to determine whether they use the technology differently from the hearing high school students surveyed in our previously…

  7. Idealized English Teachers: The Implicit Influence of Race in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Damian J.; Ross, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    English as a Foreign Language (EFL) education within the context of Japan is firmly underpinned by sociohistorical constructions of racial difference and racial hierarchies that have considerable influence on contemporary student and institutional attitudes. Embracing these sociohistorical foundations, this article adopts experimental procedures…

  8. Hadal disturbance and radionuclide profiles at the deepest Japan Trench, northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Kazumasa; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Sakaguchi, Arito; Toyofuku, Takashi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Murayama, Masafumi; Glud, Ronnie; Fujikura, Katsunori; Kitazato, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Four months after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we carried out a video survey and collected sediment core collection from the hadal region (~7,600 m water depth) of the Japan Trench using an autonomous instrument. Fine material remained suspended at ~50 m above the seabed presumably induced by turbidities released during the central earthquake and the following aftershocks. Elevated levels of Cs-137 (T1/2=30 y) and excess Pb-210 (T1/2=22.3 y) concentrations suggested that 30 cm thick sediment layer had accumulated at the trench base (7,553 m) after the mainshock. However, no Cs-134 (T1/2=2 y) fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster was detected. In contract, inspection of a nearby sediment site (7,261 m) 4.9 km away from the central trench site revealed fewer disturbances as reflected by a recent deposition of only 4 cm sediment, but here we encountered recent Cs-134 fallouts from the top 0-1 cm depth. We propose that the apparent lack of Cs-134 in the central trench is coursed by settlement of turbidites containing Cs-137 from past atmospheric fallout and higher excess Pb-210. The fast transport of the Cs-134 to the hadal slope sediment is presumably induced by enhanced scavenging and the vertical transport associated to an intensified diatom blooming occurring just at the time of the Fukushima disaster.

  9. Attitudes toward Education Expenditures in Japan: Comparisons with Social Security and Welfare Services Expenditures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakazawa, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines people's attitudes toward public spending on education in Japan. It is well known that Japan has the smallest public education expenditure relative to GDP among the OECD countries, and this may yield unequal opportunities in education. The tax burden in Japan is small compared to those in OECD countries, and there may be no…

  10. Passing on the History of "Comfort Women": The Experiences of a Women's Museum in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Mina

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the activities and experiences of a women's peace museum in Japan which especially tries to pass on the history of Japan's military sexual slavery, or the "comfort women" issue. The system of Japan's military sexual slavery had not been written as a part of history until courageous survivors testified and…

  11. 76 FR 78240 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Japan, 56 FR 21658 (May 10, 1991), and Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Antidumping Order: Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan, 60 FR 39150 (August 1, 1995). As a result of... Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan, 76 FR 76760 (December 8, 2011), and USITC Publication...

  12. 75 FR 53714 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... imports of stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan (53 FR 9787). On February 23, 1993, Commerce... on imports of stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan (65 FR 11766... Japan, Korea, and Taiwan (70 FR 61119). The Commission is now conducting third reviews to...

  13. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Lessons from PISA for Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    For decades Japan has remained at or near the top of international assessments of student learning; and in the past decade, students in Japan have become more engaged in learning. However, the government aspires to improve learning outcomes even further. "Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Lessons from PISA for Japan" focuses…

  14. Connecting Higher Education Research in Japan with the International Academic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the historical, current, and future challenges of higher education research in Japan within a global context. Japanese higher education research has been strongly influenced by the international academic community. At the same time, higher education researchers in Japan have participated in international projects, and Japan has…

  15. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, and Japan. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL... authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide the...

  16. 75 FR 51981 - Polychloroprene Rubber from Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of Finding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... polychloroprene rubber from Japan. See Polychloroprene Rubber from Japan, 38 FR 33593 (December 6, 1973). On... Antidumping Duty Order; Polychloroprene Rubber from Japan, 70 FR 44893 (August 4, 2005). On July 9, 2010, the Department initiated a sunset review of this finding. See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 75...

  17. 76 FR 3614 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... resin (``PTFE resin'') from Japan. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 67082... Antidumping Duty Order; Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan, 53 FR 32267 (August 24, 1988). On... of Antidumping Duty Orders on Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy and Japan, 70...

  18. Japan's New Lifelong Learning Policy: Exploring Lessons from the European Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    The concept of "lifelong learning" or "shogai gakushu" has rapidly become one of the topmost priorities in Japan's education policy agenda. This was considerably evident in December 2006 when the term 'lifelong learning' was added to Japan's educational charter, the Fundamental Law of Education. This paper explores, as a means to develop Japan's…

  19. Japan's Global Role: Proceedings from the Symposium (2nd, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 25-26, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. East-West Center.

    This document consists of eight presentations with responses given at the second in a series of symposia sponsored by the Japan-America Society of in a series of symposia sponsored by the Japan-America Society of Hawaii. Having emerged as an economic superpower, Japan's role on the global stage is still finding its full range and is a topic of…

  20. Science Fair Competition Generates Excitement and Promotes Creative Thinking in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.; Kanematsu, Hideyuki

    2006-01-01

    Educators in the U.S. and Japan have developed an international program to promote creative thinking in science. Their program includes a science fair component. This paper (which has been presented in both the U.S. and Japan) discusses creativity and describes a science fair activity, that the authors recently carried out in Japan. The special…

  1. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, and Japan. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL... authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members... authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense...

  2. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO...) Major project authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the...

  3. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO...) Major project authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the...

  4. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO...) Major project authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the...

  5. Closing the drug lag for new drug submission and review in Japan: An industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Poirier, A F

    2015-11-01

    Previous publications have focused on drug lag in Japan and the government's initiatives to address the situation.(1) Japan is the third largest pharmaceutical market, and yet has experienced significant drug lag for many years. This article reviews the progress resulting from industry adaptation of new regulatory paradigms that include Japan in global drug development programs. PMID:26239646

  6. Neo-Liberalism and Change in Higher Education Policy: England and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokoyama, Keiko

    2008-01-01

    The study scrutinizes the rationale behind higher education policy change in England and Japan, giving attention to stakeholders' perspective and legitimacy, policy network, and policy sphere. It argues that change in higher education policy in England and Japan towards being more market-oriented in the 1980s (England) and the 1990s (Japan) can…

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of... and Vegetables § 319.56-27 Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States from Japan and the Republic of Korea only in...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  12. SPINK1 gene mutations and pancreatitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimosegawa, Tooru; Kume, Kiyoshi; Masamune, Atsushi

    2006-10-01

    SPINK1 can inhibit up to 20% of trypsin activity, and may constitute one major mechanism to protect the pancreas from autodigestion. In 2000, Witt et al. first recognized the association between mutations in the SPINK1 gene and chronic pancreatitis (CP), but the significance of SPINK1 gene mutation in pancreatitis and its relation to alcohol consumption remains unclear in Japan. The aim of the present paper was to clarify the incidence of SPINK1 mutations in CP patients with various etiologies in Japan and, in addition, to examine the relationship between alcohol metabolism and the polymorphisms in the key enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2). A total of 156 patients with CP, and 165 healthy volunteers, all Japanese, were examined for the SPINK1 mutations by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing. In Japan, the prevalence of [N34S; IVS1-37T > C] and [-215G > A; IVS3 + 2T > C] was significantly higher in patients with idiopathic CP (10.6% and 12.8%, respectively) than normal subjects (0.6% and 0%). The frequency of the [-215G > A; IVS3 + 2T > C] mutation in Japan was significantly higher than that reported in other populations. Concerning alcoholic CP, the [-215G > A; IVS3 + 2T > C] mutation was found in only a small number of patients (3.9%). On analysis of ADH2 and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms an association was found between ADH2*2 allele and alcoholic CP, and the ADH2*2/2*2 genotype had a tendency to increase the risk of developing pancreatic pseudocyst. In conclusion, in Japan the [-215G > A; IVS3 + 2T > C] mutation in the SPINK1 gene may form a unique genetic background for pancreatitis. PMID:16958672

  13. Recent Progress of Seismic Observation Networks in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Y.

    2013-04-01

    Before the occurrence of disastrous Kobe earthquake in 1995, the number of high sensitivity seismograph stations operated in Japan was nearly 550 and was concentrated in the Kanto and Tokai districts, central Japan. In the wake of the Kobe earthquake, Japanese government has newly established the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion and started the reconstruction of seismic networks to evenly cover the whole Japan. The basic network is composed of three seismographs, i.e. high sensitivity seismograph (Hi-net), broadband seismograph (F-net), and strong motion seismograph (K-NET). A large majority of Hi-net stations are also equipped with a pair of strong motion sensors at the bottom of borehole and the ground surface (KiK-net). A plenty of high quality data obtained from these networks are circulated at once and is producing several new seismological findings as well as providing the basis for the Earthquake Early Warning system. In March 11, 2011, "Off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake" was generated with magnitude 9.0, which records the largest in the history of seismic observation in Japan. The greatest disaster on record was brought by huge tsunami with nearly 20 thousand killed or missing people. We are again noticed that seismic observation system is quite poor in the oceanic region compared to the richness of it in the inland region. In 2012, NIED has started the construction of ocean bottom seismic and tsunami observation network along the Japan Trench. It is planned to layout 154 stations with an average spacing of 30km, each of which is equipped with an accelerometer for seismic observation and a water pressure gauge for tsunami observation. We are expecting that more rapid and accurate warning of earthquake and tsunami becomes possible by this observing network.

  14. Artemisinin-based combination therapies and their introduction in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kano, Shigeyuki

    2014-05-01

    Artemisinin was discovered in 1971 from a herb, Artemisia annua, which had been used for more than 2,000 years in China against intermittent fever. Now, the artemisinin and its derivatives have become essential components of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). The ACTs are the recommended first-line treatments of malaria because they are effective against all four human malarias, produce rapid parasite/fever clearance, and show fewer adverse effects. Some ACTs are particularly important in cases of severe and complicated falciparum malaria, including cerebral malaria. However, neither the artemisinin and its derivatives nor any ACTs are registered in Japan. Indeed, the only licensed drugs for the treatment of malaria in Japan are quinine, mefloquine, and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. Although indigenous malaria has been eradicated in Japan since 1959, 60-100 imported malaria cases have been reported annually for the past decade. Some of the patients were, in fact, dying of the severe complications. Thus, the introduction of the ACTs and their application to imported malaria patients in Japan are urgently needed. A few clinical studies using the ACTs have been reported in Japan. The first application of an ACT, intramuscular artemether plus mefloquine, was reported in 1988 to be very effective against cerebral malaria with coma. Five cases with intravenous artesunate plus mefloquine were reported through 2001-2007, for severe or drug-resistant falciparum cases, resulting in successful treatment with some side effects such as hemolytic anemia or postmalaria neurological syndrome. Currently, a fixed-dose ACT, artemether-lumefantrine, is prescribed successfully for uncomplicated falciparum cases, with a limited number of recrudescences. PMID:24979951

  15. Porphyrias in Japan: compilation of all cases reported through 2002.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masao; Yano, Yuzo; Shirataka, Masuo; Urata, Gumpei; Sassa, Shigeru

    2004-06-01

    The first case of porphyria on record in Japan was a patient with congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) reported by Sato and Takahashi in 1920. Since then until the end of December 2002, 827 cases of porphyrias have been diagnosed from characteristic clinical and/or laboratory findings (463 males, 358 females, and 6 of unknown sex). Essentially all inherited porphyrias have been found in Japan, with the incidences and clinical symptoms generally being similar to those reported for other countries. The male-female ratio was approximately 1:1 for CEP, whereas it was higher for erythropoietic protoporphyria. In contrast, preponderances of female patients exist with acute hepatic porphyrias, such as acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), variegate porphyria (VP), and hereditary coproporphyria (HCP), and with undefined acute porphyria. Although porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is believed to be increasing recently in women in other countries because of smoking and the use of contraceptives, it is still by far more prominent in males in Japan than in females. The recent increasing contribution of hepatitis C virus infection to PCT in Japan has also been recognized. but there have been no PCT cases in Japan with HFE gene mutations. Familial occurrence and consanguinity were high for CEP, as expected; however, significant consanguinity was also noted in families where CEP, AIP, HCP, VP, or PCT occurred as a single isolated case without a family history of disease. This survey also revealed that as many as 71% of acute hepatic porphyria cases were initially diagnosed as nonporphyria and later revised or corrected to porphyria, indicating the difficulty of diagnosing porphyria in the absence of specific laboratory testing for porphyrins and their precursors in urine, stool, plasma, and erythrocyte samples. PMID:15239394

  16. The Top-Awarded Reports: The First Contest of Internet Application to Educational Activities in Japan. AVE in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Audiovisual Information Center for International Service, Tokyo.

    This booklet presents two activities that received awards in the First Contest of Internet Application to Educational Activities in Japan. The first paper describes CHaTNet (Children Homes and Teachers Network) at the Tamagawa Gakuen school, winner of the Prime Minister's Award. CHaTNet is a network of 4,500 participants, including parents,…

  17. Current status of pregnancy-related maternal mortality in Japan: a report from the Maternal Death Exploratory Committee in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Katsuragi, Shinji; Osato, Kazuhiro; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Nakata, Masahiko; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Sadahiro, Tomohito; Kanayama, Naohiro; Ishiwata, Isamu; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective To clarify the problems related to maternal deaths in Japan, including the diseases themselves, causes, treatments and the hospital or regional systems. Design Descriptive study. Setting Maternal death registration system established by the Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (JAOG). Participants Women who died during pregnancy or within a year after delivery, from 2010 to 2014, throughout Japan (N=213). Main outcome measures The preventability and problems in each maternal death. Results Maternal deaths were frequently caused by obstetric haemorrhage (23%), brain disease (16%), amniotic fluid embolism (12%), cardiovascular disease (8%) and pulmonary disease (8%). The Committee considered that it was impossible to prevent death in 51% of the cases, whereas they considered prevention in 26%, 15% and 7% of the cases to be slightly, moderately and highly possible, respectively. It was difficult to prevent maternal deaths due to amniotic fluid embolism and brain disease. In contrast, half of the deaths due to obstetric haemorrhage were considered preventable, because the peak duration between the initial symptoms and initial cardiopulmonary arrest was 1–3 h. Conclusions A range of measures, including individual education and the construction of good relationships among regional hospitals, should be established in the near future, to improve primary care for patients with maternal haemorrhage and to save the lives of mothers in Japan. PMID:27000786

  18. Recent activities of the physical society of Japan and the Japan society of applied physics gender equality promotion committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaki, K.; Okiharu, F.; Tajima, S.; Takayama, H.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2013-03-01

    The results of a 2007 large-scale survey of gender equality in scientific and technological professions in Japan are reported. The activities of two Japanese physics societies in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics was held in 2008 are reported.

  19. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  20. Earthquake generation cycles and tsunami simulations providing possible scenarios for Turkey (Marmara sea) and Japan (Nankai trough and Japan trench)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Takane; Yalciner, Ahmet; Ozel, Nurcan; Kilic, Irfan; Miyazaki, Shin'ichi; Hyodo, Mamoru

    2015-04-01

    In order to obtain comprehensive earthquake and tsunami scenarios for disaster assessment, numerical simulations of earthquake generation cycles and resultant tsunami generations have been performed in Japan. The occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake has realized us the necessity to consider all the possible scenarios without preconceptions. We have performed large-scale numerical simulations using Earth Simulator and K-computer for earthquake generation cycles along the Nankai trough, southwest Japan, where megathrust earthquakes with some segments have sequentially occurred. We have succeeded to reproduce various rupture pattern seen in historical data and geological evidences (such as tsunami deposit) being consistent with GEONET data during interseismic period. Using the results of such earthquake generation cycle simulations, we performed tsunami generation, propagation and inundation simulation. In Turkey, tsunami simulation methods and tsunami scenario database have been developed. In the research project of SATREPS -Earthquake and tsunami disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey, we are applying such earthquake generation cycle and tsunami simulations to the North Anatolian fault system to obtain possible earthquake scenarios and to improve tsunami scenario data base for Sea of Marmara. For the modeling of the fault system, we will use observation results by the earthquake source modeling group in this project to improve the existing models. The earthquake scenarios will be used also for strong motion predictions by the group of seismic characterization and damage prediction. We will visualize the simulation results for disaster education. Furthermore, we will contribute to improve semi-realtime earthquake analyses and tsunami forecasting. In the presentation, we will show some recent simulation results of earthquake generation cycles and tsunamis for Turkey (Marmara sea) and Japan (Nankai trough and Japan trench