Ishikawa, R.; Sato, -I.; Tang, T.; Nakamura, I.
Plastid subtype ID (PS-ID) sequences were determined from sequence data based on CA repeats between genes rpl16 and rpl14 in Japanese lowland and upland cultivars. The PS-ID sequences of Japanese rice cultivars showed that there are different maternal origins between lowland and upland cultivars. One subtype, 6C7A, of PS-ID sequences was predominant in all but one Japanese lowland cultivar and carried a combination of the indica-specific subtype 8C8A and japonica-specific nuclear markers for the isozyme genotype. It is probably a nuclear-cytoplasmic recombinant resulting from natural out-crossing and succeeding self-pollination. The origin of the plastid was re-confirmed by the existence of an indica-specific deletion in the plastid genome. In contrast, the Japanese upland cultivars showed two subtypes, 7C6A and 6C7A, of PS-ID sequences. An upland-specific isozyme allele as a nuclear marker was equally predominant in cultivars carrying each subtype. The existence of these particular upland-specific nuclear and cytoplasmic genotypes suggests that the origin of Japanese upland cultivars is different from that of Japanese lowland cultivars. Cultivars carrying the upland-specific nuclear genotype are common in Southeast Asia, but the combination of the upland-specific nuclear and cytoplasmic genotypes which is the same as the Japanese upland predominant type was found in cultivars only in Taiwan and Indonesia. Japanese upland cultivars are closely related to those cultivars. PMID:12582602
Luck, Lisa; And Others
This study investigated American and Japanese college students' attitudes towards maternal employment. A total of 248 American students at Ursinus College in Pennsylvania and 98 Japanese students at Tohokugakuin University in Japan participated in the study. Students answered a questionnaire about the consequences of maternal employment for…
Goto, Aya; Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Nguyen, Thi Tu Van; Pham, Nghiem Minh; Chung, Thi Mong Thuy; Trinh, Huu Phuc; Yabe, Junko; Sasaki, Hitomi; Yasumura, Seiji
We conducted this cross-sectional study among 392 Japanese and 294 Vietnamese mothers who attended routine child health visits in a Japanese city and at a tertiary hospital in Vietnam, in order to investigate the prevalence and associated sociodemographic, parenting, and psychological characteristics of low maternal confidence in child rearing…
Caudill, William; Frost, Lois
Previous studies have shown that American mothers, in contrast to Japanese, do more lively chatting to their babies, and that as a result, the American babies have a generally higher level of vocalization and, particularly, they respond with greater amounts of happy vocalization and gross motor activity than do Japanese babies. Thus, it appears…
Miyake, Yoshihiro; Ohya, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Sasaki, Satoshi; Fukushima, Wakaba; Ohfuji, Satoko; Saito, Kyoko; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hirota, Yoshio
Atopic eczema is most commonly diagnosed in children under the age of 5 yr. Environmental factors during pregnancy or in early life may confer risk for childhood atopic eczema. The present prospective study examined the relationship of the perinatal home environment and the risk of suspected atopic eczema among Japanese infants under the age of 1. Study subjects were 865 parent-child pairs. The term 'suspected atopic eczema' was used to define an outcome based on our questionnaire at 2-9 months postpartum. Adjustment was made for maternal age, gestation, family income, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, time of delivery before the second survey, baby's older siblings, baby's sex, and baby's birth weight. A high mite allergen level from maternal bedclothes and mold in the kitchen during pregnancy were significantly associated with an increased risk of suspected atopic eczema. Frequent vacuuming practices during pregnancy and giving the infant a bath or shower at least once a day were significantly inversely related to the risk of suspected atopic eczema. Maternal smoking, maternal use of a synthetic duvet and pillow, carpet use in the living room and maternal bedroom, indoor domestic pets, no ducted heating appliance, and gas use for cooking during pregnancy and household smoking in the same room as the infant, infant's synthetic duvet, carpet use in the infant's room, or vacuuming the infant's room were not related to the risk of suspected atopic eczema. High house dust mite allergen levels and mold in the kitchen during pregnancy may increase the risk of infantile atopic eczema, whereas frequent vacuuming practices during pregnancy and giving the infant a bath or shower at least once a day may protect against infantile atopic eczema. PMID:17617810
Okuliarova, Monika; Kankova, Zuzana; Bertin, Aline; Leterrier, Christine; Mostl, Erich; Zeman, Michal
Avian eggs contain a variety of maternally-derived substances that can influence the development and performance of offspring. The levels of these egg compounds vary in relation to environmental and genetic factors, but little is known about whether there are correlative links between maternal substances in the egg underlying common and different pathways of maternal effects. In the present study, we investigated genetically determined variability and mutually adjusted deposition of sex hormones (testosterone-T, androstenedione-A4 and progesterone-P4), antibodies (IgY) and antimicrobial proteins (lysozyme) in eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We used different genetic lines that were independently selected for yolk T concentrations, duration of tonic immobility and social reinstatement behaviour, since both selections for behavioural traits (fearfulness and social motivation, respectively) produced considerable correlative responses in yolk androgen levels. A higher selection potential was found for increased rather than decreased yolk T concentrations, suggesting that there is a physiological minimum in egg T levels. Line differences in yolk IgY concentrations were manifested within each selection experiment, but no consistent inter-line pattern between yolk IgY and T was revealed. On the other hand, a consistent inverse inter-line pattern was recorded between yolk IgY and P4 in both selections for behavioural traits. In addition, selections for contrasting fearfulness and social motivation were associated with changes in albumen lysozyme concentrations and an inverse inter-line pattern between the deposition of yolk IgY and albumen lysozyme was found in lines selected for the level of social motivation. Thus, our results demonstrate genetically-driven changes in deposition of yolk T, P4, antibodies and albumen lysozyme in the egg. This genetic variability can partially explain mutually adjusted maternal deposition of sex hormones and immune
Hongo, Hiroko; Nanishi, Keiko; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine
While the World Health Organization's Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative has increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, a survey found that only 8.5 % of maternity hospitals in 31 developed countries could be designated baby-friendly. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support is sometimes criticized as mother unfriendly. This study examined whether baby-friendly breastfeeding support was associated with breastfeeding satisfaction, duration, and exclusivity among Japanese mothers. In this cross-sectional study, 601 breastfeeding Japanese mothers completed questionnaires at their infants' 4-month health checkups at two wards in Yokohama, Japan; 363 were included in the analysis. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support was measured based on the WHO's "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." We measured satisfaction using two subscales of the Japanese version of the Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale. The association of baby-friendly support with maternal satisfaction was assessed using multiple linear regression, while the prevalence ratios (PRs) for breastfeeding were estimated using Poisson regression. Mothers were stratified by prepartum exclusive breastfeeding intention (yes, n = 256; no, n = 107). Mothers who experienced early skin-to-skin contact with their infants were more likely to report breastfeeding satisfaction than those who did not. Among mothers without exclusive breastfeeding intention, those who were encouraged to feed on demand were more likely to be breastfeeding without formula at 1 month (PR 2.66 [95 % CI 1.32, 5.36]) and to perceive breastfeeding as beneficial for their baby (regression coefficient = 3.14 [95 % CI 0.11, 6.17]) than those who were not so encouraged. Breastfeeding satisfaction was a useful measure of breastfeeding outcome. Early skin-to-skin contact and encouragement to feed on demand in the hospital facilitate breastfeeding satisfaction. PMID:25366103
Placozoans are the simplest extant free-living animals consisting of only five cell types and lacking neurons and muscle cells. Their phylogenetic position implies they are important for uncovering the origins of metazoans. Although recent studies show multiple groups within the phylum, most placozoan research has been performed on laboratory-cultured clones deriving from a single specimen. Reports of placozoan discovery are concentrated in the tropic and subtropic seas, especially in the Mediterranean and the Caribbean. Here, I report the unexpected abundance of placozoans from the Japanese coast. They were found from all six studied sites, even during winter for two sites, suggesting that they are more tolerant to low temperatures than previously regarded. These results suggest an unknown abundance of placozoans in the Northern Pacific Ocean and further studies on these populations may be essential in solving important biological problems of the phylum. PMID:24942227
Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio
The relation of maternal caffeine intake with birth outcomes is still inconclusive and has not been examined in Japan, where the sources of caffeine intake are different from those in Western countries. We hypothesized that maternal consumption of total caffeine and culture-specific major sources of caffeine would be associated with birth outcomes among Japanese pregnant. The study subjects were 858 Japanese women who delivered singleton infants. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Birth outcomes considered were low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks of gestation), and small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile). The main caffeine sources were Japanese and Chinese tea (73.5%), coffee (14.3%), black tea (6.6%), and soft drinks (3.5%). After controlling for confounders, maternal total caffeine intake during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 100 mg/d caffeine increase, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.58; P for trend = .03). However, no evident relationships were observed between total caffeine intake and risk of LBW or SGA. As for caffeine sources, higher Japanese and Chinese tea consumption was associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 1 cup/d increase, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.30; P for trend = .04), but not LBW or SGA. There were no associations between consumption of the other beverages examined and birth outcomes. In conclusion, this prospective birth cohort in Japan suggests that higher maternal total caffeine intake, mainly in the form of Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of PTB. PMID:25773355
Tsuji, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Imai, K.
The tsunami of the Chilean Earthquake (Mw8.8) of February 27, 2010 was detected also on the coasts of the Japanese Islands about 23 hours after the occurrence of the main shock. It caused no human damage. There was slight house damage manly in Miyagi prefecture, south part of Sanriku coast; six and fifty one houses were flooded above and below the floor, respectively. It caused remarkable fishery loss of 75 Million US$ mainly due to breaking of cultivation rafts. The tsunami of the 1960 Chilean Earthquake(Mw9.5) also hit the Japanese coasts more severely. It caused more immense damage than the 2010 tsunami; 142 people were killed, 1,581 houses were entirely destroyed, and 1,256 houses were swept away. Most of damage occurred in the districts of Sanriku coast, where inundation heights exceeded six meters at several points. We made field survey along the Japanese coast, visited offices of fishermen’s cooperatives at over 300 fishery ports, gathered eyewitnesses counts, and obtained information of the inundation limit, arrival time, and building and fishery damage. On the basis of the information of inundation, we measured tsunami heights. We obtained data of tsunami height at more than two hundred points (Tsuji et al., 2010). The distributions of the two tsunamis of the 1960 and the 2010 Chilean earthquakes on the coasts along the Japanese Islands are shown as Fig. 1. The maximum height of 2.2 meters was recorded at Kesennuma City, Miyagi Prefecture. The heights of the 2010 tsunami were generally one third of those of the 1960 tsunami. An eminent peak appears at Sanriku coast commonly for both tsunamis. In addition smaller peaks also appear commonly at the coasts of the east part of Hokkaido, near the top of Boso peninsula, near the top of Izu Peninsula, the east coast of Kii Peninsula, Tokushima prefecture, eastern part of Shikoku, and near the Cape Ashizuri in western part of Shikoku. Fig. 1 Trace height distributions of the tsunamis of the 1960(red) and the 2010
Verbal/vocal interactions of three Japanese mother-child dyads were examined when the children were 1;0, 1;2 to 1;3, 1;6 to 1;7, and 1;8 to 1;9 to determine whether mothers provide information which may facilitate the elaboration of child lexical forms during the transition from the prelinguistic to the linguistic period. Mothers were likely to reproduce only the child's word-like utterances, both well- and ill-formed. This provided an opportunity for the child's ill-formed word-like utterance to be contrasted with an immediate maternal response. This finding, along with results showing within-child variability of lexical forms, suggested that maternal contrastive replies 1) signal errors to the child (cf. Saxton, 1997), and 2) may promote the child's selection and stabilization of production alternatives which are more accurate. Maternal reproductive responding presumably originated in their tendency to seek content-oriented communication, as was reflected in mother's growing inclination to continue verbal interactions following the child's non-word-like vocalizations. PMID:11258014
Yamaguchi, Manabu; Ikeda, Kentaro; Takenouchi, Naoki; Higashiyama, Masakazu; Watanabe, Akira
The growth performance of embryo-transferred Japanese Black calves that were born from, and suckled by, Japanese Shorthorn cows in a cow-calf grazing system (BS-group, n = 5) was compared to that of Japanese Black calves from Japanese Black cows in a cowshed (BB-group, n = 5). The daily weight gain from birth to 1 month was higher in the BS-group than in the BB-group (p<0.01), and the same trend (p<0.05) was observed at 2 and 3 months of age. This resulted in body weight that was significantly higher for the BS-group between 1 and 3 months of age than what was observed for the BB-group (p<0.05). Heart girth was significantly greater in the BS-group than in the BB-group throughout the experimental period (p<0.01), and chest depth and withers height in the BS-group were significantly greater from 2 to 4 months of age (p<0.05) and at 4 months of age only (p<0.05). No difference in body length (p>0.05) was observed between the groups. These results suggest that the maternal effect of Japanese Shorthorn cows was positive for embryo-transferred Japanese Black calf growth during the early suckling stage. As Japanese Black calves are traded at a high price on the Japanese market, we conclude that this proposed production system is likely to improve the profitability of herd management in upland Japan. PMID:25049870
Yamaguchi, Manabu; Ikeda, Kentaro; Takenouchi, Naoki; Higashiyama, Masakazu; Watanabe, Akira
The growth performance of embryo-transferred Japanese Black calves that were born from, and suckled by, Japanese Shorthorn cows in a cow-calf grazing system (BS-group, n = 5) was compared to that of Japanese Black calves from Japanese Black cows in a cowshed (BB-group, n = 5). The daily weight gain from birth to 1 month was higher in the BS-group than in the BB-group (p<0.01), and the same trend (p<0.05) was observed at 2 and 3 months of age. This resulted in body weight that was significantly higher for the BS-group between 1 and 3 months of age than what was observed for the BB-group (p<0.05). Heart girth was significantly greater in the BS-group than in the BB-group throughout the experimental period (p<0.01), and chest depth and withers height in the BS-group were significantly greater from 2 to 4 months of age (p<0.05) and at 4 months of age only (p<0.05). No difference in body length (p>0.05) was observed between the groups. These results suggest that the maternal effect of Japanese Shorthorn cows was positive for embryo-transferred Japanese Black calf growth during the early suckling stage. As Japanese Black calves are traded at a high price on the Japanese market, we conclude that this proposed production system is likely to improve the profitability of herd management in upland Japan. PMID:25049870
Takeuchi, Ichiro; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki
The concentrations of butyltins along the Japanese coastline were investigated from 1997 to 1999, 7 to 9 years after implementation of legislation limiting the use of tributyltin (TBT) in Japan. Seawater was sampled at 0.5 m depth, and Caprella spp. were collected from Sargassum spp. and aquaculture facilities from 18 areas within four broad areas along the coastline of Japan, i.e., the Pacific coast of northern Japan, the coast along the Sea of Japan, Tokyo Bay and adjacent areas, and western Japan. Butyltins (MBT, DBT and TBT) were detected in 32 of the 63 seawater samples with average concentrations of 4.6 ng MBT/l, 4.5 ng DBT/l and 6.8 ng TBT/l, respectively. Butyltin concentrations in seawater from western Japan indicate "hot spots" even in unpopulated areas. Butyltins (MBT, DBT and TBT) were detected in all samples of Caprella spp., varying from 2.3 ng BTs /g wet wt in C. penantis R-type from Tobishima Island in the Sea of Japan to 464 ng BTs /g wet wt in C. decipiens Mayer from Amakusa, western Kyushu. The BT concentrations in Caprella spp. form western Japan were significantly higher than those from other areas, including Tokyo Bay and adjacent areas, where large scale industry and international ports are located. These results indicate that butyltin contamination still remains even in unpopulated areas after the regulation on TBT usage, and that the regulation governing TBT usage since 1990 has not been effective enough to concede recovery of shallow water ecosystems around Japan. PMID:14967521
In this paper, I use the Japanese keywords "Sumanai" and "Sumu-Akirameru" to discuss the guilt feelings towards mother and maternal separation. "Sumanai" is an everyday Japanese expression signifying both a regretful apology and an obsessive compulsive feeling. The Japanese frequently say "Sumanai" to express their guilt feeling towards a dependent object. Clinical observation has shown me that "Sumanai" implies not only pathological guilt but also a more healthy contrite feeling, two sides of "Sumanai" which correspond to the persecutory guilt and depressive guilt described by L. Grinberg. In therapy, patients passing through the depressive position experience a kind of protective harmonious space. This experience of space associated with object loss is similar to potential space (D.W. Winnicott) or philobatism (M. Balint), and can be expressed by the Japanese term "Sumu-Akirameru". "Sumu" means clean, pure and "to take root". "Akirameru" means both "to abandon" and "to see calmly". "Sumanai" is the negative of "Sumu" and its pathological guilt feeling implies a sense of impurity. I have discovered close resemblances between "Sumu-Akirameru" and philobatism (M. Balint): 1) both are observed in the therapeutic depressive position; 2) both have an affinity for friendly expanses while simultaneously tending to avoid the external object; 3) both have a visual attribute and insight; 4) both have the special qualities of "submerging in" and "taking root", allowing patients to awaken their sense of self in this protective harmonious space; 5) both imply that the time is ripe for psychological change; 6) both involve a kind of complexity constituted of a regressive element and adaptability contrary to reality. As described above, "Sumu-Akirameru" as a psychotherapeutic phenomenon has many universal characteristics. On the other hand, there are several differences between "Sumu-Akirameru" and philobatism, differences deeply rooted in Japanese culture: 1) "Sumu
Shi, Su-Fen; Li, Min; Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Chao-Ping; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Brown, Christopher L; Yang, Ting-Bao
Recent studies indicate that the northwestern Pacific Ocean is an ideal system in which to study and understand the roles of the Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations and ocean currents in shaping phylogeographic patterns of species, but most of these investigations have been concerned with vertebrates, and only a few have focused on invertebrates. In the present study, we examined the genetic population structure and historic demography of a platyhelminth species, Gotocotyla sawara (Monogenea, Gotocotylidae), a gill parasite of Japanese Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus niphonius , along the coast of China. A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene for 169 individuals and the internal transcribed spacers for 24 individuals were sequenced from specimens representing 8 populations of this parasite along the coast of China. High levels of COI haplotype diversity (0.9994) and nucleotide diversity (0.015805) were detected for G. sawara. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no phylogeographical pattern for G. sawara in the sample area. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed no significant differences at all hierarchical levels, and pairwise FST analysis demonstrated a high rate of gene flow of this parasite among different populations in coastal Chinese waters. Moreover, the exact test of differentiation supported the null hypothesis that G. sawara along the coast of China constitutes a panmictic population. Both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution revealed that G. sawara underwent population expansion in the late Pleistocene era. Recent range expansion after the last glacial maximum and insufficient time to attain migration-drift equilibrium may account in part for the lack of genetic structure in the geographic areas considered in this study. Dispersal of parasite eggs and larvae along ocean currents, coupled with the long-distance migrations of host fishes, could also be responsible for genetic homogeneity of this parasite. It is also
Duval, Camille; Cassey, Phillip; Lovell, Paul G.; Mikšík, Ivan; Reynolds, S. James; Spencer, Karen A.
Reproduction is a critical period for birds as they have to cope with many stressful events. One consequence of an acute exposure to stress is the release of corticosterone, the avian stress hormone. Prolonged stress can have negative impacts on the immune system, resulting in, for example, increased oxidative stress. Through maternal effects, females are known to modulate their investment in eggs content according to their own physiological condition. Less is known about maternal investment in eggshells, especially in pigments. The two main eggshell pigments may possess opposite antioxidant properties: protoporphyrin (brown) is a pro-oxidant, whereas biliverdin (blue-green) is an antioxidant. In Japanese quail, we know that the deposition of both pigments is related to female body condition. Thus, a chronic stress response may be reflected in eggshell coloration. Using female Japanese quails that lay brown-spotted eggs, we explored whether physiological exposure to corticosterone induces a change in female basal stress and antioxidant factors, and eggshell pigment concentration, spectrophotometric reflectance, and maculation coverage. We supplemented adult females over a 2 week period with either peanut oil (control) or corticosterone (treatment). We collected pre- and post-supplementation eggs and analysed the effect of corticosterone treatment on female physiology and eggshell appearance parameters. Except for corticosterone-fed birds which laid eggs with brighter spots, supplementation had no significant effect on female physiology or eggshell pigment concentration, reflectance and maculation. The change in eggshell spot brightness was not detected by a photoreceptor noise-limited color opponent model of avian visual perception. Our data confirms that eggshell reflectance in spotted eggs varies over the laying sequence, and spot reflectance may be a key factor that is affected by females CORT exposure, even if the changes are not detected by an avian visual
Verbal/vocal interactions of three Japanese mother-child dyads were examined in toddlers to determine whether mothers provide information that may facilitate the elaboration of child lexical forms during the transition from the prelinguistic to the linguistic period. Mothers were found to reproduce only the child's word like utterances, both well-…
Tohno, S.; Hoeller, R.; Ito, K.; Onishi, Y.; Ma, C. J.; Kasahara, M.; Cahill, T. A.; Cliff, S.
During springtime the Japanese archipelago is periodically influenced by haze events originating from the Asian continent. The sources of these materials include both anthropogenic and natural aerosol, including the well-known yellow sand (Kosa) events, which can be recognized at places as far as Hawaii and the west coast of the United States. But there is also strong evidenced, which we want to support in this study, that these Kosa events are accompanied by strongly absorbing material as well as sulfates and organics. The springtime of 2001 was characterized by several strong dust events, which happened to be during the international ACE-Asia campaign. We participated in the ACE observation network by setting up a monitoring station during the period March 19 to April 6, 2001 for the measurement of aerosol optical, physical and chemical properties as well as observations of sky radiation. The measurement site is located on the coast of the Japanese Sea (Tango Peninsula, Kyoto Prefecture). Tango was chosen as an observation site, since it is relatively unpolluted and can therefore serve as a background site for studies of the direct impact of the mainland Asian outflow on the western Pacific area. The purpose of this work is to perform local and column closure experiments on aerosol properties, and to distinguish the anthropogenic part of the aerosol from the natural one. For this purpose, backward air-mass trajectories are calculated to identify potential sources of the observed aerosol. For measurements of aerosol mass-size distributions we used 12-stage low-pressure impactors, which were subsequently analyzed for elemental and ionic concentrations by PIXE, and Ion-chromatography, respectively. In addition, to get both the necessary time- and size-resolution, a DRUM sampler was operated with continuous collection and analysis for mass and optical transmission from 320 nm to 850 nm. Analysis is scheduled by synchrotron-XRF to < 0.1 ng/m3 for trace elemental
Sankoda, Kenshi; Murata, Kotaro; Tanihata, Mai; Suzuki, Kengo; Nomiyama, Kei; Shinohara, Ryota
This study aimed to investigate the behavior of organic ultraviolet (UV) filters released by recreational activities along the Japanese coastline. Seasonal variations of organic UV filters in seawater were investigated at four different recreational beaches (Mogushi, Wakamiya, Tsurugahama, and Otachimisaki beaches) in both summer (July through August) and winter (December). Moreover, short time scale diurnal changes were monitored at Otachimisaki beach in summer. Of the four sunscreen agents tested in this study, two agents-2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS)-were detected in all samples, whereas octyl-dimethyl-p-aminobenzonic acid and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor were lower than detection limits. In particular, EHMC, one of the most popular organic UV filters, was dominant. The highest concentration of EHMC was observed at 1,080 ng L(-1), a level that exceeds those of previous studies. Both EHMC and EHS concentrations showed significant (p < 0.05) seasonal variations with advancing summer suggesting direct input from recreational activities. The subsequent examination showed short time scale diurnal changes of organic UV filters on the beach. The results showed that diurnal changes in EHMC concentrations were correlated to the number of bathers. EHMC concentrations increased during the afternoon and decreased during the night, although complete attenuation during the night did not occur. EHMC persists along the coast due to low mobility and may persist the next day. This is the first study to show the natural attenuation behavior of organic UV filters along recreational beaches. PMID:25480128
Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji
We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.
Development of hypoxia in Japan has been confirmed in the inner part of almost every major bay of Japan on the Pacific Coast from Tokyo southward. This paper presents multiple aspects (present condition, hydraulic mechanism, effect upon fisheries, historical progress and nutrient budget between sediment and water) using Mikawa Bay, where Japan's most serious hypoxia occurs, as an example. Although hypoxia basically results from the increase of nutrient load input from domestic and livestock sources, the intense reclamation of shallows (including tidal flats) and the large reduction in river flow due to farmland irrigation drastically accelerated dissolved oxygen deficiency. Oxygen-deficient waters in Mikawa Bay are large enough to strip the water purification capacity of the remaining shallows. Unfortunately, the shallows have turned from a purifier to a source of nutrient load. These conditions are more or less common in all bays where the dissolved oxygen-deficient waters have been reported. To break this cycle, dissolved oxygen deficiency must be contained to the extent that the purification capacity of the shallows can be restored to an efficient level. For this purpose, the first thing to do is to restore tidal flats over an extensive area and to recover sufficient water flow, which may be a more urgent imperative than reducing the nutrient load input. PMID:11285889
Caffrey, J A; Higley, K A; Farsoni, A T; Smith, S; Menn, S
A custom radiation monitoring system was developed by Oregon State University at the request of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute to measure radioactive cesium contaminants in the ocean waters near Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The system was to be used on board the R/V Ka'imikai-O-Kanaloa during a 15 d research cruise to provide real-time approximations of radionuclide concentration and alert researchers to the possible occurrence of highly elevated radionuclide concentrations. A NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was coupled to a custom-built compact digital spectroscopy system and suspended within a sealed tank of continuously flowing seawater. A series of counts were acquired within an energy region corresponding to the main photopeak of (137)Cs. The system was calibrated using known quantities of radioactive (134)Cs and (137)Cs in a ratio equating to that present at the reactors' ocean outlet. The response between net count rate and concentration of (137)Cs was then used to generate temporal and geographic plots of (137)Cs concentration throughout the research cruise in Japanese coastal waters. The concentration of (137)Cs was low but detectable, reaching a peak of 3.8 ± 0.2 Bq/L. PMID:22218134
Matsumura, Hajime; Harunari, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Hiroto
On June 27, 2015, a flammable starch-based powder exploded at Formosa Fun Coast in Taipei, Taiwan, injuring 499 people, and more than 200 people were in critical condition with severe burns. Although a cultured epidermal autograft (CEA) was not approved or used in clinical practice, the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration requested a Japanese CEA manufacturer to donate CEA for the burn victims as part of international medical assistance. The authors cooperated in this project and participated in the patient selection, wound bed management for CEA, and technical assistance for CEA use. Here, we provide an overview of the project. Nine patients were enrolled, and two patients were excluded from the skin biopsy; seven skin biopsies were collected approximately 1 month after the disaster. The average TBSA% burned was 81.0%, and the mean age was 20.1 years. CEA was grafted in five patients; wound closure had been obtained in one patient, and one patient was severely ill at the time of grafting. The CEA was combined with a wide split auto mesh graft or patch graft. The mean re-epithelization rate at 4 weeks after the grafting was 84.2% by patient, and all of the patients survived. Although this project had many obstacles to overcome, CEA grafting was successful and contributed to wound closure and survival. PMID:26818956
Shigenobu, Yuya; Yoneda, Michio; Kurita, Yutaka; Ambe, Daisuke; Saitoh, Kenji
This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2) and subunit-5 (ND5) genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40-41°N) and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37-38°N) waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (φ(ST) = -0.00335, p > 0.05), corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher's exact-test, p < 0.01). Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters. PMID:23296272
Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Murakami, Nobuyuki; Gito, Masao; Kido, Yasuhiro; Nagai, Toshiro
This study aims to compare maternal uniparental disomy 15 (mUPD) and a paternal deletion of 15q11-13 (DEL) of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) in regard to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty-five Japanese individuals with PWS were recruited from a single recruitment center. The participants consisted of 22 children (aged from 6 to 12) and 23 adolescents (aged from 13 to 19). Six children and seven adolescents were confirmed as having mUPD. Sixteen children and 16 adolescents were confirmed as having DEL. Under blindness to the participants' genotypes, a single psychologist carried out behavioral and psychological assessments, including the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), and ADHD-Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV). Two comparisons were made: one between mUPD and DEL children and another between mUPD and DEL adolescents. In children, no significant differences were found between mUPD and DEL participants in terms of autistic (PARS childhood, P = 0.657) and impulsive behaviors (ADHD-RS-IV hyperactive/impulsive, P = 0.275). In adolescents, mUPD patients showed significantly more autistic symptomatology (PARS adolescent, P = 0.027) and significantly more impulsive behavior (ADHD-RS-IV hyperactive/impulsive, P = 0.01) than DEL patients. Our findings about Japanese PWS patients were consistent with previous researches from western countries not focused on Asian patients, indicating that mUPD cases would be more prone to ASD than DEL cases, regardless of ethnoregional differences. In addition, our data suggested that the behavioral difference between mUPD and DEL cases in terms of autistic and impulsive symptoms tend to be unrecognizable in their childhood. PMID:24850752
Endo, Tetsuya; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Haraguchi, Koichi; Baker, C Scott
Total mercury (T-Hg), methyl mercury (M-Hg), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in the organs of melon-headed whales from a mass stranding on the Japanese coast were analyzed. The mean concentration of T-Hg in the liver (126+/-97 microg/wet g, n=13) was markedly higher than those in kidney (6.34+/-2.36 microg/wet g, n=12) and muscle (4.90+/-2.33 microg/wet g, n=15). In contrast, the mean concentration of M-Hg in the liver (9.08+/-2.24 microg/wet g) was similar to those in the kidney (3.47+/-0.91 microg/wet g) and muscle (3.78+/-1.53 microg/wet g). The mean percentage of M-Hg in the T-Hg found in the liver (13.1+/-10.3) was significantly lower than those in the kidney (58.3+/-15.0) and muscle (78.9+/-8.4). The molar ratio of T-Hg to Se in the liver was effectively 1.0, but those in the kidney and muscle were markedly lower. Conversely, the mean concentration of Cd was markedly higher in the kidney (24.4+/-7.4 microg/wet g) than in the liver (7.24+/-2.08 microg/wet g) and muscle (less than 0.05 microg/wet g). These results suggest that the formation of Hg-Se compounds mainly occurs in the liver after the demethylation of M-Hg, and Cd preferentially accumulates in the kidney of melon-headed whales. PMID:18499232
Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.
This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…
Early sugar-sweetened beverage consumption frequency is associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.
Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio
Evidence from Western countries shows that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with lower quality of young children's diets, but little is known about these relations in non-Western countries with relatively low consumption levels of SSBs. We hypothesized that SSB consumption in infancy would be associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children. The study subjects were 493 Japanese mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort study. Dietary data on children were collected from the mothers using self-administered questionnaires when the children were aged 16-24 months and 41-49 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between SSB consumption frequency in infancy and later intake of foods and nutrients. At 16-24 months of age, more than half of the children (56.4%) consumed SSBs less than once a week, whereas 11.6% consumed SSBs at least once daily. More frequent consumption of SSBs in infancy was associated with higher intake of confectionaries and SSBs and lower intake of fruits and vegetables at 41-49 months of age. These associations were still evident after adjustment for maternal SSB consumption and socioeconomic status. At the nutrient level, SSB consumption frequency was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with intake of many nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, and most of the micronutrients examined. In conclusion, higher consumption frequency of SSBs at an early age is associated with poor quality of overall dietary intake among young Japanese children 1.5-2.5 years later. PMID:27188905
Various isomers and metabolites of DDT disrupt endocrine systems and gonadal development in fish andxwildlife and o,p'-DDT has been shown to be a relatively potent estrogen agonist. In this study, we exposed Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to o,p'-DDT using two exposure protoco...
Murakami, Kentaro; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Hirota, Yoshio
While several observational studies in European countries have shown that higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier diets, information on the relationship of cost to diet quality in other countries is sparse, including Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the association between monetary diet cost and dietary intake in a group of pregnant Japanese women. Subjects were 596 pregnant Japanese housewives. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Monetary diet cost was calculated using retail food prices. Values of monetary diet cost and nutrient and food intake were energy-adjusted using the density method. Monetary diet cost was associated positively with the intake of protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamins A, D, E, C, and folate, and inversely with that of carbohydrate. For foods, cost was associated positively with the intake of potatoes, pulses and nuts, fish and shellfish, meat, dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and inversely with that of rice and bread. No association was seen for noodles, confectioneries and sugars, fats and oils, or eggs. Cost was also associated inversely with dietary energy density. In conclusion, monetary diet cost was associated with not only favorable aspects of diet, including a higher intake of dietary fiber, key vitamins and minerals, fruits, and vegetables and lower dietary energy density, but also unfavorable aspects, including a higher intake of fat and sodium and lower intake of carbohydrate and rice, in a group of pregnant Japanese women. PMID:20508755
Shigeta, Jessie M.
Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Japanese culture. Some of the items and activities described include Japanese musical instruments and records, toys and crafts, traditional clothing and accessories, and food utensils. Several recipes for Japanese dishes are provided. Lists of pertinent…
Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.
Ye, Jody; Vives-Pi, Marta; Gillespie, Kathleen M
Increased levels of non-inherited maternal HLA alleles have been detected in the periphery of children with type 1 diabetes and an increased frequency of maternal cells have been identified in type 1 diabetes pancreas. It is now clear that the phenotype of these cells is pancreatic,1 supporting the hypothesis that maternal cells in human pancreas are derived from multipotent maternal progenitors. Here we hypothesize how increased levels of maternal cells could play a role in islet autoimmunity. PMID:25093746
This study compares explanatory factors related to the educational expectations of Japanese American and White college students. The research was conducted at a major West Coast state university located in an urban metropolitan area. Data were gathered through a questionnaire mailed to a sample of 200 Japanese Americans and 200 White full-time…
... of the cloud bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; ... Mar 14, 2000 Images: California Coast location: United States region: ...
This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.
Buck, James H.
From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…
The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.
GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.
Hatasa, Kazumi; And Others
The Macintosh HyperCard environment has become a popular platform for Japanese language courseware because of its flexibility and ease of programing. This project created Japanese bitmap font files for the JIS Levels 1 and 2, and writing XFCNs for font manipulation, Japanese kana input, and answer correction. (12 references) (Author/LB)
Morita, K; Nabeshima, T; Buerano, C C
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an inflammation of the central nervous system in humans and animals, specifically horses and cattle. The disease, which can sometimes be fatal, is caused by the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), of which there are five genotypes (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The transmission cycle of the virus involves pigs and wild birds as virus amplifiers and mosquitoes as vectors for transferring the virus between amplifying hosts and to dead- end hosts, i.e. humans, horses and cattle. In horses and cattle the disease is usually asymptomatic, but when clinical signs do occur they include fever, decreased appetite, frothing at the mouth, rigidity of the legs and recumbency, and neurological signs, such as convulsive fits, circling, marked depression and disordered consciousness. In pigs, it can cause abortion and stillbirths. At present, the virus is detected in a wide area covering eastern and southern Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. JEV RNA has also been detected in Italy, first in dead birds in 1997 and 2000 and then in mosquitoes in 2010. Genotype shift, i.e. a change of genotype from genotype 3 to genotype 1, has occurred in some countries, namely Japan, South Korea, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam. Laboratory methods are available for confirming the causative agent of the disease. There are control measures to prevent or minimise infection and, among them, vaccination is one of the most important and one which should be adopted in endemic and epidemic areas. PMID:26601447
Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909
This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.
Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; And Others
Examined 30 Japanese and 30 American preschoolers' responses to hypothetical interpersonal dilemmas as a function of culture, gender, and maternal child rearing values. Found that American children showed more anger, more aggressive behavior and language, and underregulation of emotion than Japanese children. Children from both cultures appeared…
Chu, Helen Y.; Englund, Janet A.
Maternal immunization has the potential to protect the pregnant woman, fetus, and infant from vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G is actively transported across the placenta, providing passive immunity to the neonate and infant prior to the infant's ability to respond to vaccines. Currently inactivated influenza, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines are recommended during pregnancy. Several other vaccines have been studied in pregnancy and found to be safe and immunogenic and to provide antibody to infants. These include pneumococcus, group B Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcus vaccines. Other vaccines in development for potential maternal immunization include respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus vaccines. PMID:24799324
Moniz, Michelle H; Beigi, Richard H
Maternal immunization holds tremendous promise to improve maternal and neonatal health for a number of infectious conditions. The unique susceptibilities of pregnant women to infectious conditions, as well as the ability of maternally-derived antibody to offer vital neonatal protection (via placental transfer), together have produced the recent increased attention on maternal immunization. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) currently recommends 2 immunizations for all pregnant women lacking contraindication, inactivated Influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap). Given ongoing research the number of vaccines recommended during pregnancy is likely to increase. Thus, achieving high vaccination coverage of pregnant women for all recommended immunizations is a key public health enterprise. This review will focus on the present state of vaccine acceptance in pregnancy, with attention to currently identified barriers and determinants of vaccine acceptance. Additionally, opportunities for improvement will be considered. PMID:25483490
Compared impact of maternal influences and impact of peer influences on eating problems among Japanese adolescent girls. Found greater impact of peer interactions in grades 10 and 11, while maternal influence was stronger in grades 8 and 9. Measured participants' sensitivity to social evaluation and found no effects of grade in this area. (SD)
Provides a brief overview of the history of modern Japanese education, its early modernization, and the policy of intertwining the Japanese ideology with Western technology. Proposes the establishment of a new Buddhist-inspired philosophy of education. (GLR)
Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.
This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…
Oikawa, Shinji; Watabe, Teruhisa; Takata, Hyoe
A radioactivity measurement survey was carried out from 24 April 2008 to 3 June 2011 to determine the levels of plutonium isotopes and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the marine environments off the sites of commercial nuclear power stations around the Japanese islands; the sampling period extended to two months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. In our previous study (Oikawa et al., 2015), data on Pu isotopes and (241)Am in sediments have already been reported. In this study, we report those on Pu isotopes in seawater as well as sediments, and the characteristics of sediments in addition (e.g., ignition loss and biogenic opals). Concentrations of (239+240)Pu in seawater and bottom sediments remained nearly constant at all sampling locations during the survey period. In addition, no regional differences were observed in the (239+240)Pu concentrations in surface waters. Higher (239+240)Pu concentrations were found in bottom waters at deeper sampling locations, but the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were nearly constant regardless of the water depth. Higher (239+240)Pu concentrations were also found in bottom sediments at deeper sampling locations, but vice versa for (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios as reported in the previous report. The sediments samples from deeper locations showed the higher percentage of ignition loss as well as the higher content of biogenic opal. There was likely to be some driving force participating in the transfer of Pu isotopes associated with biogenic substances to the deeper seabed. The present survey showed that the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station did not contribute much to the inventory of Pu isotopes in the adjacent sea area. PMID:25659922
This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…
Noting that although many Western educators praise the Japanese educational system because of its students' academic achievements, schools in Japan have developed severe and prevalent problems with student bullying. This paper examines the problem of bullying in Japanese schools. Part 1 of the paper reviews bullying incidents in Japanese schools…
Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E
Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women's birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan's highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South Korean (n = 29) and from variety of English speaking nations (n = 19) and 568 Japanese women. The questionnaire was prepared in six languages: Japanese (kana syllables), Chinese, English, Korean, Portuguese, and Tagalog (Filipino). Associations among quality of maternity care, Japanese literacy level, loneliness and care satisfaction were explored using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The valid and reliable instruments used were Quality of Care for Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Questionnaire, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Japanese version, the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale-Japanese version and Care satisfaction. Care was evaluated across prenatal, labor and delivery and post-partum periods. Immigrant women scored higher than Japanese women for both positive and negative aspects. When loneliness was strongly felt, care satisfaction was lower. Some competence of Japanese literacy was more likely to obstruct positive communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness. Immigrant women rated overall care as satisfactory. Japanese literacy decreased communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness presumably because some literacy unreasonably increased health care providers' expectations of a higher level of communication. PMID:23609237
Otaki, Midori; And Others
Maternal and infant behaviors of 30 American and 52 Japanese mother/infant dyads from middle-class homes were compared. The major differences in caretaker behavior were (1) the Japanese mothers spent more time with or in the presence of their babies than did the American mothers, and (2) the American mothers were more active in positioning the…
The overwhelming evidence from years of research is that maternal employment, by itself, has little influence on the behaviors of children. More relevant issues are: mother's reasons for working, family's acceptance of mother's employment, quality of substitute child care, family's social and emotional health, and economic conditions. (Author/AJ)
Specker Sullivan, Laura
This paper argues that the concept of paternalism is currently overextended to include a variety of actions that, while resembling paternalistic actions, are importantly different. I use the example of Japanese physicians' non-disclosures of cancer diagnoses directly to patients, arguing that the concept of maternalism better captures these actions. To act paternalistically is to substitute one's own judgement for that of another person and decide in place of that person for his/her best interest. By contrast, to act maternalistically is to decide for another person based on a reasonable understanding of that person's own preferences. The concept of maternalism allows for a more thorough assessment of the moral justification of these types of actions. I conclude that it is possible, at least in principle, to justify Japanese physicians' non-disclosures, and that this justification must be based on an understanding of these actions as maternalistic. PMID:26893148
Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Day, Richard R.
This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading (ER) program into a second semester Japanese course at the University of Hawai'i using Japanese children's literature. After summarizing the ten principles of ER, we describe how we addressed six critical issues faced while introducing ER into the course. We also discuss the outcomes…
There are three sets of Japanese containerless experiments. The first is Drop dynamics research. It consists of acoustic levitation and large amplitude drop oscillation. The second is Optical materials processing in an acoustic levitation furnace. And the third is Electrostatic levitator development by two different Japanese companies.
This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…
Tanaka, Sachiko Oda
Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)
In recent years, United States scholars with an interest in international business and organizational communication have begun to notice the success of Japanese "quality control circles." These are small groups, usually composed of seven to ten workers, who are organized at the production levels within most large Japanese factories. A typical…
Stevenson, Harold W.
Discusses the development of Japanese elementary education in the context of three periods of its history. Considers salient characteristics of Japanese elementary schools and teaching procedures; these include curriculum; social and moral education; classroom environment; teachers; afterschool classes; college entrance examinations; the kyoiku…
Parks, Kimberley Roberts
Starting with a U.S. presidential proclamation regarding Japanese enemy aliens on December 7, 1941, through legislative and educational information in 2002, the federal government of the United States has published, in varied media, numerous documents concerning its 1942-1945 internment of persons of Japanese ancestry living on the West Coast.…
Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen
President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)
Chambers, D W
The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry. PMID:9929991
Pittet, Florent; Houdelier, Cécilia; Le Bot, Océane; Leterrier, Christine; Lumineau, Sophie
Our study investigated relationships between a precocial bird’s fearfulness and maternal care, and the implication of maternal care as a vector for non-genomic transmission of fearfulness to chicks. We compared care given to chicks between two sets of female Japanese quail selected to present either high (LTI) or low fearfulness (STI). Chicks, from a broiler line, were adopted by these females following a sensitization procedure. Chicks’ fearfulness after separation from their mother was assessed by well-established procedures. LTIs took longer to present maternal responses, pecked chicks more during the first days post-hatch, presented impaired maternal vocal behaviour and were globally less active than STI females. Chicks mothered by LTIs presented more fearful reactions than did chicks mothered by STIs, supporting the hypothesis of a non-genetic maternal transmission of fearfulness. We suggest that the longer latencies required by LTIs to become maternal are a consequence of their greater fear of chicks, and that their lower general and vocal activity could be components of a heightened antipredatory strategy. We discuss the transmission of maternal fearfulness to fostered chicks, taking into account the possible implication of several well-known mechanisms underlying maternal effects. PMID:25033292
Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of estrogens and androgens in
Tucker, Frank H.
Japanese literature, television, movies, and school texts from 1935 to 1955 are analyzed for their influence and contribution to Japanese youths' pioneering spirit and frontiermindedness. "Asian Affairs" is published by the American-Asian Educational Exchange, New York. (DE)
... of Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For ... What are the side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccination? Pain and tenderness are the most commonly reported ...
Cultural competence in business Japanese requires more than superficial knowledge of business etiquette. One must truly understand why Japanese people think and act differently from their American counterparts. For example, instruction in the use of Japanese taxis must be accompanied by instruction in the concept and implications of seating order…
article title: Wetlands of the Gulf Coast View Larger ... highlights coastal areas of four states along the Gulf of Mexico: Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and part of the Florida panhandle. The ... date: Oct 15, 2001 Images: Gulf Coast location: United States Gulf of ...
Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire
Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…
Akiyama, Nobuo; Flamm, Carol S.
The "Nucleus Course in Japanese," based on the Institute of Modern Languages'"Situational Reinforcement" approach, is designed for 80 to 100 hours of instruction. Each lesson has several sections--Response drills, Appropriate Response Sequence, and Reading. Most of the lessons also include optional sections with Sentences for Repetition or a…
The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Japanese through the following three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that are confounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based on their semantic difference, and (c) classification of predicates that occur with…
A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…
Rubin, Michael; Funato, Makiko
This set of materials for Japanese second language instruction was designed for students who can be taught most effectively through a functional, conversational approach. It is intended as a supplement to the regular course of study so that all students, regardless of ability level, can be provided with an effective instructional program. It…
For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.
Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.
Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.
Seabrook Farms was most prosperous during World War II when Japanese Americans were recruited from concentration camps to alleviate its labor shortage. As the camps closed, former detainees became full-time workers in spite of some exploitation. It was a place for these families to live and work before returning to the West Coast. (VM)
A development history is presented for Japanese astronomy from the 6th century to the present day, together with a status report and account of future plans. About 500 professionals currently belong to the Astronomical Society of Japan. Tokyo's Mitaka Observatory employs a staff of about 70 astronomers; most modern astronomical instruments, however, have been installed at sites outside the Tokyo area. The limitations of present instruments are notably severe for astronomers working in the visible and IR wavelengths.
The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan. PMID:7233479
Shrotri, A; Pratinidhi, A; Shah, U
The research aim was 1) to determine the incidence of maternal mortality in a rural health center area in Sirur, Maharashtra state, India; 2) to determine the relative risk; and 3) to make suggestions about reducing maternal mortality. The data on deliveries was obtained between 1981 and 1984. Medical care at the Rural Training Center was supervised by the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, the B.J. Medical College in Pune. Deliveries numbered 5994 singleton births over the four years; 5919 births were live births. 15 mothers died: 14 after delivery and 1 predelivery. The maternal mortality rate was 2.5/1000 live births. The maternal causes of death included 9 direct obstetric causes, 3 from postpartum hemorrhage of anemic women, and 3 from puerperal sepsis of anemic women with prolonged labor. 2 deaths were due to eclampsia, and 1 death was unexplained. There were 5 (33.3%) maternal deaths due to indirect causes (3 from hepatitis and 2 from thrombosis). One woman died of undetermined causes. Maternal jaundice during pregnancy was associated with the highest relative risk of maternal death: 106.4. Other relative risk factors were edema, anemia, and prolonged labor. Attributable risk was highest for anemia, followed by jaundice, edema, and maternal age of over 30 years. Maternal mortality at 30 years and older was 3.9/1000 live births. Teenage maternal mortality was 3.3/1000. Maternal mortality among women 20-29 years old was lowest at 2.1/1000. Maternal mortality for women with a parity of 5 or higher was 3.6/1000. Prima gravida women had a maternal mortality rate of 2.9/1000. Parities between 1 and 4 had a maternal mortality rate of 2.3/1000. The lowest maternal mortality was at parity of 3. Only 1 woman who died had received more than 3 prenatal visits. 11 out of 13 women medically examined prenatally were identified with the following risk factors: jaundice, edema, anemia, young or old maternal age, parity, or poor obstetric history. The local
Bornstein, Marc H.; And Others
Characteristics of maternal responsiveness in interactions between mothers and infants in New York City, Paris, and Tokyo are compared. A total of 72 primiparous mothers and their 5-month-olds were observed at home. Of the dyads, 24 were Caucasian American, 24 Caucasian French, and 24 Oriental Japanese. Observations were conducted in an identical…
Genovesi, Benjamin; Berrebi, Patrick; Nagai, Satoshi; Reynaud, Nathalie; Wang, Jinhui; Masseret, Estelle
The intra-specific diversity and genetic structure within the Alexandrium pacificum Litaker (A. catenella - Group IV) populations along the Temperate Asian coasts, were studied among individuals isolated from Japan to China. The UPGMA dendrogram and FCA revealed the existence of 3 clusters. Assignment analysis suggested the occurrence of gene flows between the Japanese Pacific coast (cluster-1) and the Chinese Zhejiang coast (cluster-2). Human transportations are suspected to explain the lack of genetic difference between several pairs of distant Japanese samples, hardly explained by a natural dispersal mechanism. The genetic isolation of the population established in the Sea of Japan (cluster-3) suggested the existence of a strong ecological and geographical barrier. Along the Pacific coasts, the South-North current allows limited exchanges between Chinese and Japanese populations. The relationships between Temperate Asian and Mediterranean individuals suggested different scenario of large-scale dispersal mechanisms. PMID:26188429
Bracey, Gerald W.
A Japanese editorial in an English-language daily harshly criticized Japanese education's failure to enhance students' spirit of independence; develop critical and artistic thinking skills; and promote social awareness and an international viewpoint. The United States finished fourth out of 60 in the (unpublicized) International Math Olympiad.…
In most areas of the world, too many people live or play along the coast. Municipal and industrial wastes pollute coastal waters. Rivers spew erosion sediment and pollutants into these waters. Economic development is often the only management strategy for coastal zones, and economic development has little concern for resource degradation and watershed management. 53 countries have coastal management plans, but few have adequately implemented them. Almost 66% of the world's population lives within 150 km of the coast; by 2025, 75% will live as close to the coast. In the US, the coastal population has grown faster than that of the entire US, so that the population density is now almost 400 persons/sq m compared to 275 persons/sq m in 1960. Urbanization continues in the US coastal zones, where 7 of the 10 US largest cities exist. 94% of China's population lives in the eastern 3rd of the country. The population density along China's coast is more than 600/sq km. In Shanghai, it is more than 2000/sq km. Many people are moving from poorer provinces in the central and western regions to the economic free zones and special economic zones along the coast. At any moment, 30-60 million Chinese are moving. Most everyone in southeastern Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America live in coastal areas. By 2025, the coastal zone between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo will be all urbanized This is also occurring on Chile's coast between Valparaiso and Concepcion. The Mediterranean has the most overcrowded coastline in the developed world. Unchecked development could lead to continuous urban sprawl between Spain and Greece. Development pressures have caused a sizable decline in or a collapse of coastal fisheries. In Asia, all waters within 15 km of the coastline have been overfished. Coral reefs and mangrove forests are being destroyed with inadequate resources targeted for their protection. PMID:12287493
Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.
These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…
Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…
Backhouse, A. E.
This guide provides an overview of the salient features of the Japanese language from the perspective of the beginning-level English-speaking learner. Chapters address these topics: the Japanese language and its historic and cultural setting; phonology (sounds and syllables, word accentuation; loanwords; connected speech); writing (scripts,…
Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko
The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with men on…
BAILEY, DON C.
THIS GLOSSARY COMPRISES A LIST OF USEFUL NEW WORDS AND PHRASES IN CURRENT USE NOT FOUND IN JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARIES, SPECIFICALLY KENKYUSHA'S NEW JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 1954 EDITION, WHICH HAS SERVED AS THE MODEL IN MOST RESPECTS FOR THE FORMAT AND STYLE. ROMANIZATION OF THE ORTHOGRAPHY FOLLOWS A MODIFIED HEPBURN SYSTEM AND THE JAPANESE…
NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.
Mota, Manuel M; Takemoto, Shuhei; Takeuchi, Yuko; Hara, Naoki; Futai, Kazuyoshi
Comparative studies between Portuguese (T and HF) and Japanese (S10, T4, C14-5 and OKD-1) isolates of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus have been made in order to provide information to better understand the possible origin of the Portuguese isolates, recently introduced in the European Union. The main comparative aspects investigated were pathogenicity (seedling mortality ratio), sexual compatibility, and DNA sequences of the rDNA region. Four-year-old Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) seedlings were used as host plants for pathogenicity tests. The Portuguese isolates, and in particular isolate "T," propagated in higher numbers than the Japanese isolates within pine seedlings. All combinations of crossings produced viable progeny, with higher numbers obtained when crossings were made between Japanese and Portuguese isolates, a possible situation of heterosis and/or inbreeding depression. Reciprocal crossings yielded different values, which may reflect a sex effect (maternal inheritance, mtDNA). Regarding DNA sequencing, both Portuguese isolates displayed nearly identical ITS 1, ITS2, and 5.8S rDNA base sequences as the Japanese isolates. Although biologically very similar, and possibly reflecting a common origin, the Portuguese isolates may present a serious threat to Japanese black pine, due to their higher virulence. PMID:19259459
Mota, Manuel M.; Takemoto, Shuhei; Takeuchi, Yuko; Hara, Naoki; Futai, Kazuyoshi
Comparative studies between Portuguese (T and HF) and Japanese (S10, T4, C14-5 and OKD-1) isolates of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus have been made in order to provide information to better understand the possible origin of the Portuguese isolates, recently introduced in the European Union. The main comparative aspects investigated were pathogenicity (seedling mortality ratio), sexual compatibility, and DNA sequences of the rDNA region. Four-year-old Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) seedlings were used as host plants for pathogenicity tests. The Portuguese isolates, and in particular isolate “T,” propagated in higher numbers than the Japanese isolates within pine seedlings. All combinations of crossings produced viable progeny, with higher numbers obtained when crossings were made between Japanese and Portuguese isolates, a possible situation of heterosis and/or inbreeding depression. Reciprocal crossings yielded different values, which may reflect a sex effect (maternal inheritance, mtDNA). Regarding DNA sequencing, both Portuguese isolates displayed nearly identical ITS 1, ITS2, and 5.8S rDNA base sequences as the Japanese isolates. Although biologically very similar, and possibly reflecting a common origin, the Portuguese isolates may present a serious threat to Japanese black pine, due to their higher virulence. PMID:19259459
The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.
Tiroumourougane, S; Raghava, P; Srinivasan, S
One of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy in children in the tropics is Japanese encephalitis (JE). Transmitted by the culex mosquito, this neurotropic virus predominately affects the thalamus, anterior horns of the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. It mainly affects children <15 years and is mostly asymptomatic. The occasional symptomatic child typically presents with a neurological syndrome characterised by altered sensorium, seizures, and features of intracranial hypertension. Aetiological diagnosis is based on virus isolation or demonstration of virus specific antigen or antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid/blood. Though no antiviral drug is available against JE, effective supportive management can improve the outcome. Control of JE involves efficient vector control and appropriate use of vaccines. PMID:11930023
The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.
The intent of this paper is to give a basic overview presentation on Canada's east coast play - most likely the number one offshore play in the free world - and possibly the world. The play stretches 2,500 miles north and south, as it follows the Labrador Coast, past the Strait of Belle Isle and onto the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and as it makes a 90 degree turn, 1,000 miles east to west along the coast of Nova Scotia to the Georges Bank. 3,500 miles in all - which if placed in western Canada, would stretch from northern Alberta to southern Mexico. It's geologic potential is immense - 15-20 billion barrels of oil and 80-90 Tcf of natural gas. And so far only approximately 2 billion barrels of oil and 5 Tcf of natural gas have been found. There is more out there. And less than 200 wells have been drilled - still very virgin territory. Two world size discoveries have been made in the area. Hibernia, on the Grand Banks, is estimated to contain 1.8 billion barrels. Venture, on the Scotian Shelf, has a natural gas reserve of 2.5 Tcf - big by Canadian standards and significant in that Mobil Oil has also made some other interesting discoveries on the same Sable Island block which have not been delineated.
Molino, A B; Garcia, E A; Santos, G C; Vieira Filho, J A; Baldo, G A A; Almeida Paz, I C L
To adapt commercial poultry production to a new scenario of energy savings and to develop specific practices for quail production aimed at reducing costs while maintaining or improving productivity, four experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, birds were allocated to four treatments (photoperiod duration): T1: 14 L:10 D; T2: 15 L:9 D; T3: 16 L:8 D; and T4: 17 L:7 D. In the second experiment, birds were subjected to four levels of brightness: T1: 5 lux; T2: 10 lux; T3:15 lux; and T4: 22 lux (control). In the third experiment, four types of lamps were evaluated: T1: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 6,500 K); T2: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 2,700 K); T3: incandescent lamp; and T4: yellow LED. In the last experiment, four lighting programs were compared: T1: continuous program (control), in which there was a single photoperiod of 15 h; the other treatments consisted of intermittent lighting programs, as follows: T2: 1 h of light provided 1 h after dusk; T3: 1 h of light provided 2 h before dawn; T4: half an hour of light provided 1 h after dusk and half an hour of light provided 1.5 h before dawn. In each experiment, 1,296 Japanese quail were evaluated for four 28-d cycles, totaling 112 experimental days. A completely randomized experimental design of 4 treatments with 12 replicates of 27 birds each was applied in all trials. Performance and egg quality were evaluated in each experiment. Higher egg production and adequate egg quality, as well as energy savings, can be obtained with Japanese quail using compact fluorescent lamps or LEDs and a photoperiod of 15 h/d supplied using an intermittent lighting program, with 1 h of artificial light 2 h before dawn at a brightness of 5 lux. PMID:25589080
McArthur, Monica A.; Holbrook, Michael R.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a significant human health concern in Asia, Indonesia and parts of Australia with more than 3 billion people potentially at risk of infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the causative agent of JE. Given the risk to human health and the theoretical potential for JEV use as a bioweapon, the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent JEV infection is vital for preserving human health. The development of vaccines for JE began in the 1940s with formalin-inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines. These vaccines have been shown to induce a protective immune response and to be very effective. Mouse brain-derived vaccines were still in use until May 2011 when the last lots of the BIKEN® JE-VAX® expired. Development of modern JE vaccines utilizes cell culture-derived viruses and improvements in manufacturing processes as well as removal of potential allergens or toxins have significantly improved vaccine safety. China has developed a live-attenuated vaccine that has proven to induce protective immunity following a single inoculation. In addition, a chimeric vaccine virus incorporating the prM and E structural proteins derived from the live-attenuated JE vaccine into the live-attenuated yellow fever 17D vaccine virus backbone is currently in clinical trials. In this article, we provide a summary of JE vaccine development and on-going clinical trials. We also discuss the potential risk of JEV as a bioweapon with a focus on virus sustainability if used as a weapon. PMID:23125946
The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose. PMID:15156734
Hashimoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Sagiya, T.
The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake forced the policy of counter-measurements to earthquake disasters, including earthquake hazard evaluations, to be changed in Japan. Before the March 11, Japanese earthquake hazard evaluation was based on the history of earthquakes that repeatedly occurs and the characteristic earthquake model. The source region of an earthquake was identified and its occurrence history was revealed. Then the conditional probability was estimated using the renewal model. However, the Japanese authorities changed the policy after the megathrust earthquake in 2011 such that the largest earthquake in a specific seismic zone should be assumed on the basis of available scientific knowledge. According to this policy, three important reports were issued during these two years. First, the Central Disaster Management Council issued a new estimate of damages by a hypothetical Mw9 earthquake along the Nankai trough during 2011 and 2012. The model predicts a 34 m high tsunami on the southern Shikoku coast and intensity 6 or higher on the JMA scale in most area of Southwest Japan as the maximum. Next, the Earthquake Research Council revised the long-term earthquake hazard evaluation of earthquakes along the Nankai trough in May 2013, which discarded the characteristic earthquake model and put much emphasis on the diversity of earthquakes. The so-called 'Tokai' earthquake was negated in this evaluation. Finally, another report by the CDMC concluded that, with the current knowledge, it is hard to predict the occurrence of large earthquakes along the Nankai trough using the present techniques, based on the diversity of earthquake phenomena. These reports created sensations throughout the country and local governments are struggling to prepare counter-measurements. These reports commented on large uncertainty in their evaluation near their ends, but are these messages transmitted properly to the public? Earthquake scientists, including authors, are involved in
Fujimoto, H.; Kanazawa, T.; Oshida, A.
Inland earthquakes have recently caused damages in the Japanese Islands. Although more than 2,000 active faults have been recognized in and around Japan, the earthquakes had their sources in unexpected faults in the upper crust. Detecting such hidden active faults has become an important subject in the field of earth sciences. Precise gravimetry, a basic geodetic measurement, is now recognized as one of important means for detecting active faults hidden under the ground. Precise and dense gravimetry has covered the Japanese Islands, but not in the offshore area. The most critical point is that there are no gravity data in the offshore area near the coast; the area has not been included in land nor marine gravity mapping. An ocean bottom gravimeter (OBG) was developed in Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, for gravimetry on the deep seafloor (Fujimoto et al., 1998). Free gimbal suspensions with an oil damper keep a sensor package of Scintrex CG-3M/SB gravimeter roughly vertical, typically in a few tens arc-seconds, and the effect of the remaining tilt is numerically corrected by the gravimeter. The gimbals and the sensor are in a pressure-tight spherical housing made of titanium alloy, and the logging unit in a glass sphere. Two trial measurements on the shallow seafloor in Suruga Bay showed that precision of seafloor gravimtery with the OBG is much the same that with field gravimeters on land (Fujimoto et al., 1998). The importance of gravity mapping over the shallow ocean bottom near the coast was recognized and there were requests to use our OBG for such observations. Then we modify the OBG system into a single housing for easy maintenance and measurement. Ocean bottom gravity measurements with the OBG have been carried out around Awaji Island near Kobe, off the northern end of Tohoku, off Niigata, and in the Seto Inland Sea. The OBG was lowered from a boat to each gravity point on the bottom with a rope. Judging from the observed data, precision
Sun, Yuan-Dong; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Shao-Jun; Tao, Min; Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yun
Diploid gynogenesis was induced in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) eggs using UV-irradiated genetically inactive spermatozoa from mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) or blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), with or without cold shock. The optimal radiation dosage was 4,200 mJ/cm2 and 3,600 mJ/cm2 for mirror carp and blunt snout bream sperm, respectively. At this dosage and without cold shock, the yields were (32.4 +/- 3.3)% vs. (33.8 +/- 1.4)% gynogenetic haploids and (0.7 +/- 0.3)% vs. (0.5 +/- 0.3)% hybrid diploids, respectively. At the optimal UV dosage but with cold shock (2 min after fertilization, 0-4 degrees C for 40 min), the hatching rates were (27.8 +/- 2.1)% and (29.4 +/- 3.3)%, respectively. From hatching to feeding, (15.7 +/- 3.4)% and (23.6 +/- 4.1)% normal gynogenetic diploids were recorded, respectively. Survival of normal gynogenetic diploids was 56% out of the hatched fry when using irradiated spermatozoa of mirror carp, which was lower than that (up to 80%) when using irradiated spermatozoa of blunt snout bream. This indicated that the sperm of blunt snout bream, with distant genetic relation to the maternal Japanese crucian carp, was more effective than that of mirror carp to induce diploid gynogenesis. The nature of the gynogenetic progeny was identified with external appearance, chromosome number and gonad structure. The presence of only females in gynogenetic progeny probably suggested XX genotype in the female Japanese crucian carp. The gynogenetic diploids have potential values such as faster growth and stronger disease resistance than the normal Japanese crucian carp. All gynogenetic progeny possessed 100 chromosomes whereas all J x B crosses were triploid with 124 chromosomes. The formation of the new triploid hybrids in J x B crosses may be useful in aquaculture. PMID:16722335
The Japanese scientific ballooning program has been organized by ISAS since the institute was founded in mid 1960s. Since then, the balloon group of ISAS has been engaged in the development of the balloon technologies and scientific observations in collaboration with scientists and engineers in other universities and organizations. Here, I describe several subjects of recent activities, the details of some items will also be reported in the separate papers in this meeting.Preparation of a new mobile receiving station.
Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.
Storm, Heidi A.; Ridley-Johnson, Robyn
Maternal separation anxiety influences maternal behavior, attitudes about employment, and employment decisions made by mothers. This study examined the relationship between maternal separation anxiety and the number of hours a child was in substitute care. The sample consisted of 44 mothers and their children who ranged in age from 12 to 41 months…
Huntington, Gail S.
Eighty-six mother-infant pairs were studied to determine the extent to which maternal and child variables predicted maternal involvement. The infants, ranging in age from 3-36 months, were examined on temperament and developmental status. Maternal characteristics studied were temperament, locus of control, and socioeconomic status. Criterion…
Thwaites, C Louise; Beeching, Nicholas J; Newton, Charles R
Maternal and neonatal tetanus is still a substantial but preventable cause of mortality in many developing countries. Case fatality from these diseases remains high and treatment is limited by scarcity of resources and effective drug treatments. The Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative, launched by WHO and its partners, has made substantial progress in eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus. Sustained emphasis on improvement of vaccination coverage, birth hygiene, and surveillance, with specific approaches in high-risk areas, has meant that the incidence of the disease continues to fall. Despite this progress, an estimated 58,000 neonates and an unknown number of mothers die every year from tetanus. As of June, 2014, 24 countries are still to eliminate the disease. Maintenance of elimination needs ongoing vaccination programmes and improved public health infrastructure. PMID:25149223
Ichihara, Yasuyo G.
In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.
A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City. PMID:12288124
Chang, Yu-Lin; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie
The oceanic migration of silver Japanese eels starts from their continental growth habitats in East Asia and ends at the spawning area near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain. However, the actual migration routes remain unknown. In this study, we examined the possible oceanic migration routes and strategies of silver Japanese eels using a particle tracking method in which virtual eels (v-eels) were programmed to move vertically and horizontally in an ocean circulation model (Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2, JCOPE2). Four horizontal swimming strategies were tested: random heading, true navigation (readjusted heading), orientation toward the spawning area (fixed heading), and swimming against the Kuroshio. We found that all strategies, except random swimming, allowed v-eels swimming at 0.65 m s-1 to reach the spawning area within eight months after their departure from the south coast of Japan (end of the spawning season). The estimated minimum swimming speed required to reach the area spawning within eight months was 0.1 m s-1 for true navigation, 0.12 m s-1 for constant compass heading, and 0.35 m s-1 for swimming against the Kuroshio. The lowest swimming speed estimated from tracked Japanese eels at sea was 0.03 m.s-1, which would not allow them to reach the spawning area within eight months, through any of the tested orientation strategies. Our numerical experiments also showed that ocean circulation significantly affected the migration of Japanese v-eels. A strong Kuroshio could advect v-eels further eastward. In addition, western Pacific ocean currents accelerated the migration of navigating v-eels. The migration duration was shortened in years with a stronger southward flow, contributed by a stronger recirculation south of Japan, an enhanced subtropical gyre, or a higher southward Kuroshio velocity. PMID:26982484
Chang, Yu-Lin; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie
The oceanic migration of silver Japanese eels starts from their continental growth habitats in East Asia and ends at the spawning area near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain. However, the actual migration routes remain unknown. In this study, we examined the possible oceanic migration routes and strategies of silver Japanese eels using a particle tracking method in which virtual eels (v-eels) were programmed to move vertically and horizontally in an ocean circulation model (Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2, JCOPE2). Four horizontal swimming strategies were tested: random heading, true navigation (readjusted heading), orientation toward the spawning area (fixed heading), and swimming against the Kuroshio. We found that all strategies, except random swimming, allowed v-eels swimming at 0.65 m s−1 to reach the spawning area within eight months after their departure from the south coast of Japan (end of the spawning season). The estimated minimum swimming speed required to reach the area spawning within eight months was 0.1 m s−1 for true navigation, 0.12 m s−1 for constant compass heading, and 0.35 m s−1 for swimming against the Kuroshio. The lowest swimming speed estimated from tracked Japanese eels at sea was 0.03 m.s−1, which would not allow them to reach the spawning area within eight months, through any of the tested orientation strategies. Our numerical experiments also showed that ocean circulation significantly affected the migration of Japanese v-eels. A strong Kuroshio could advect v-eels further eastward. In addition, western Pacific ocean currents accelerated the migration of navigating v-eels. The migration duration was shortened in years with a stronger southward flow, contributed by a stronger recirculation south of Japan, an enhanced subtropical gyre, or a higher southward Kuroshio velocity. PMID:26982484
Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin
Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…
In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…
Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui
Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…
Harnischfeger, Annegret; Wiley, David E.
This paper discusses ways in which maternal attitudes may serve as mediating variables linking social class characteristics of the family to the socialization of children. Reference is made to the Family Problem Scale (Ernhart and Loevinger) which provides a psychological characterization of social class levels on five dimensions or subscales:…
Anthropometry measurements, such as height and weight, have recently been used to predict poorer birth outcomes. However, the relationship between maternal height and birth outcomes remains unclear. We examined the effect of shorter maternal height on low birth weight (LBW) among 17,150 pairs of Japanese mothers and newborns. Data for this analysis were collected from newborns who were delivered at a large hospital in Japan. Maternal height was the exposure variable, and LBW and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit were the outcome variables. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations. The shortest maternal height quartile (131.0–151.9 cm) was related to LBW (OR 1.91 [95% CI 1.64, 2.22]). The groups with the second (152.0–157.9 cm) and the third shortest maternal height quartiles (158.0–160.9 cm) were also related to LBW. A P trend with one quartile change also showed a significant relationship. The relationship between maternal height and NICU admission disappeared when the statistical model was adjusted for LBW. A newborn’s small size was one factor in the relationship between shorter maternal height and NICU admission. In developed countries, shorter mothers provide a useful prenatal target to anticipate and plan for LBW newborns and NICU admission. PMID:26955234
Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa
To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840
Takeda, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki
JABEE in Japanese engineering education is discussed by focusing on the status and treatment of engineers in Japanese society and their achievements. The entrance fee and tuition of the engineering departments of higher education facilities are higher than those of the law, economy and literature departments. On the other hand, an engineer's lifelong wage is smaller than that of those who have graduated from the latter fields. Although engineering students must study for a longer period of time, the scholarship system to support these students in Japan falls far behind that in the U.S.A. The achievements of Japanese engineering were summarized from the viewpoint of economic indications such as 1) production of steel, 2) energy consumption per person as a function of GDP, 3) income 4) real estate abroad and miscellaneous factors such as the life spans and criminal rates of many countries. These analyses made it clear that Japanese engineers have the highest ability even compared to advanced countries and this is because of the higher engineering education in Japan ; but their status is unreasonably low in Japanese society. The four points by which the present status of Japanese engineers can be improved were discussed in relation to the introduction and the achievement of the JABEE system. The true aim of education reform by JABEE is that the engineering education in Japan should shift “from government to non-government”, “from organization to individual” and “from control to interdependency.” The expected points of improvement are discussed.
Describes a method of teaching Japanese literature to Japanese native speakers by comparing English translations to the original texts. Discusses criteria for choosing a text and lists some of the texts used and the method in which they were used. This method gave students a deeper understanding of the original Japanese text. (SED)
Japanese nursery school and kindergarten activities are designed to facilitate the socialization of Japanese children. The culture of the home and the culture of the school (and by extension the rest of Japanese society) are so different from each other that it is believed the open and unselfconscious help of the education system is necessary to…
Yoshiwara, Florence M.
An historical review of the immigration and resettlement patterns, and a demographic profile of Japanese Americans reveals a myth of the "successful minority." Since the founding of the Japanese American Citizens League in 1928, Japanese Americans have defeated alien land laws, discriminatory immigration quotas, anti-miscengenation laws, and…
Backus, Robert L.
This paper seeks to formulate a principle that explains the working of the Japanese number system with respect to Japanese nouns and that defines the kinds of nouns and contexts that condition the forms of number expressions. It is the author's theory that in applying numbers to nouns, the Japanese make a formal distinction between things they…
Silva, David J., Ed.
A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…
Both the beauty and the utility of the Japanese sword as a weapon depend on the characteristic metallic component structure of the sword blade steel. After briefly describing the characteristics of the sword blade and the history of the Japanese sword, this paper describes the forging process for making the composite structure of the sword blade steel, according to the author's experiences. Finally, andent ironmaking and steelmaking processes are briefly explained. The author concludes that the high purity of the iron and steel obtained to the beauty and artistry of the finished sword blade.
Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular support. Subsequent…
The Japanese National Survey on Family Planning has been conducted since 1950 by the Mainichi Newspapers. The 21st survey, which included approximately 3400 persons, was conducted in 1992 in conjunction with various family planning organizations. The results reported include the ideal number of children, care for the elderly, tolerance for induced abortion, beliefs about the side effects of oral contraceptives, attitudes of husbands toward their wives working outside the home, sexual harassment, and elderly husband's concern about contracting AIDS. 45% of respondents supported Japan's involvement in FP efforts in developing countries, and 20.9% disapproved of involvement. Fertility declined from 1.54 in 1990 to 1.53 in 1991. There was an 5% increase to 75.3% in the number of women concerned about declining fertility for such reasons as the loss of social vitality and the increased burden of support in old age. However, 60.9% of wives and 56.8% of husbands felt that the government should not take action to prevent further fertility decline. Public policies for reducing the cost of education were supported by 39.6% of wives and 43.6% of husbands. A similar number supported increases in child allowance, and a smaller percentage of husbands and wives wanted the government to subsidize housing expenses. The ideal number of children was 3 for 45.7% of those surveyed, which was more than those desiring 2 children. The ideal of 3 children was held by survey participants who were more than 35 years old and by those with a high education. Part-time workers and office clerks were more likely to report that 2 children were ideal. An increasing number of respondents (60.4%) do not intend to rely on their children in old age. There has been a shift in family planning methods from induced abortions to increased contraceptive use. The highest rate of contraceptive use is among wives 35-39 years old. 75.3% use condoms. 67.7% reported concern about side effects from oral
Azria, E; Stewart, Z; Gonthier, C; Estellat, C; Deneux-Tharaux, C
Although medical literature on social inequalities in perinatal health is qualitatively heterogeneous, it is quantitatively important and reveals the existence of a social gradient in terms of perinatal risk. However, published data regarding maternal health, if also qualitatively heterogeneous, are relatively less numerous. Nevertheless, it appears that social inequalities also exist concerning severe maternal morbidity as well as maternal mortality. Analyses are still insufficient to understand the mechanisms involved and explain how the various dimensions of the women social condition interact with maternal health indicators. Inadequate prenatal care and suboptimal obstetric care may be intermediary factors, as they are related to both social status and maternal outcomes, in terms of maternal morbidity, its worsening or progression, and maternal mortality. PMID:26433316
Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Conder, James; Ruffing, Ami; White, Victor
A magnitude 9.0 earthquake rupturing the Earth's crust nearly 130 km off the east coast of Japan on March 11, 2011, triggered a tsunami that reached the Japanese coast approximately 30 minutes later. The combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami (known as the Tohoku event) devastated the area of northeast Japan, resulting in widespread infrastructure destruction, loss of life, and environmental contamination. Perhaps the longest-lasting impact of the Tohoku event will result from the damage to the nuclear power plants along the coast and the subsequent release of radioactive elements into the environment. This article describes the environmental impacts of the disaster and highlights the interconnectedness among the core areas of environmental health including air quality, water quality, weather/climate change, food safety, healthy housing, waste/sanitation, infectious disease/vector control, radiation, injury prevention, emergency preparedness, and toxicology. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the spectrum of the natural disaster and its environmental health impact to the human population. Future scientific analysis may confirm or challenge the information presented here. PMID:22329208
Haiqi, Zhang; Yamazaki, Shigeaki
Evaluates Japanese journals--128 indexed in the 1994 "Journal Citation Reports"--in bibliometric parameters such as impact factors (IFs), mean IFs from citing and cited journals, and self-citing and self-cited rates. Results: only 15 journals, with a wide variation of self-citing and self-cited rates, have obtained a current impact higher than…
Taylor, Satomi Izumi; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Wilson, Jeanne
Interviews were conducted with 28 kindergartners, their teachers, and their director to examine Japanese children's moral development. Qualitative analysis of interviews revealed three themes related to moral development: social system morality, emotions, and responsibility. Children made moral decisions based on social system morality…
Mayfield, M. Kent
This study is both an interpretation and a translation of three modern Japanese plays, providing an artistic perspective on the radical reordering of experience and thought with which modern man must grapple in cross-cultural encounters. An introductory essay prefaces each play, providing a historical, critical, or appreciative perspective from…
Discussion of whether the Japanese copula can adequately be described as a dummy, i.e., as an element which although existing in the surface structure can be dispensed with in the deep structure of a sentence; based on a paper read at the 1970 meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia. (RS)
McAbee, Michael K.
In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)
Research is reviewed on systematic differences in expository styles due to cultural or linguistic diversity. The critique concentrates on the method of data gathering, the usage of the categorization "Oriental," and the description of English paragraph development. An investigation is reported that consisted of an analysis of the Japanese and…
Miksch, Karen L.; Ghere, David
Few events in American history are so universally deplored as the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The United States government has acknowledged the error and the injustice that resulted with an official Presidential apology and a Congressional disbursement of reparations to the victims of the incarceration policy. The…
The nature of scrambling in Japanese is examined in light of the work of Webelhuth and Mahajan, and it is argued that their apparently inconsistent hypotheses are both necessary for the analysis of scrambling. A modified version is suggested. (59 references) (Author/LB)
Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.
This volume has been prepared as a reference book on particles, verbs, and "true" adjectives, as presented in the Defense Language Institute's Basic Course in Japanese. Forty-six particles are listed, with varying numbers of different usages explained and illustrated by examples. (AMM)
Wanko, Jeffrey J.
An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…
Describes the Japanese program at Mimosa Elementary School in Roswell, Georgia. The success of the program has been aided by collaborative team teaching, a spiraled curriculum, creative teaching methods, Teacher -made materials, and communication among teachers, parents, and administrators. he challenges are also discussed. (Author/VWL)
Develops an argument for a pied-piping approach to the apparent absence of island effects in Japanese, along the lines of Nishigauchi (1986, 1990). Investigates the nature of pied-piping, developing a theory that accounts for the fact that wh-islands cannot be pied-piped. (Author/VWL)
The continent of Antarctica is almost completely covered by a thick blanket of ice, punctuated only by steep mountain peaks and a handful of dry valleys. Antarctica is also ringed by a permanent ice shelf, and that is surrounded by seasonal sea ice. The image above, acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on September 26, 2001, shows many of the types of ice found in Antarctica. At the bottom of the image is the ice of the continental glacier, which is up to 4,000 meters thick in the interior. These thick glaciers are held in place by coastal mountain ranges. Some ice does flow through the mountains, spilling onto the relatively flat land of the Princess Astrid Coast. Cold air also spills over the mountains, creating very strong and persistent 'katabatic' winds. These scour the snow off the tops of the glaciers, leaving pale blue patches of bare ice. Above the coastline is the ice shelf, which is much smoother. There, glacial ice actually floats on the sea surface. Beyond that is the chaotic surface of the sea ice, which has been solidifying all winter long. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC
Johnson, S R; Kolberg, B H; Varner, M W; Railsback, L D
We examined the risk of maternal obesity in 588 pregnant women weighing at least 113.6 kilograms (250 pounds) during pregnancy. Compared with a control group matched for age and parity, we found a significantly increased risk in the obese patient for gestational diabetes, hypertension, therapeutic induction, prolonged second stage of labor, oxytocin stimulation of labor, shoulder dystocia, infants weighing more than 4,000 grams and delivery after 42 weeks gestation. Certain operative complications were also more common in obese women undergoing cesarean section including estimated blood loss of more than 1,000 milliliters, operating time of more than two hours and wound infection postoperatively. These differences remained significant after controlling for appropriate confounding variables. We conclude that maternal obesity should be considered a high risk factor. PMID:3576419
Mahon, B E; Levy, H L
We describe childbearing in two unrelated women with Hartnup disorder, an inborn error of neutral amino acid transport. Two living, unaffected offspring born after untreated and uneventful pregnancies, one from each woman, have had normal growth and development. The older one had an IQ of 92 at 4 years while the younger one at 4 months had a Development Quotient of 107 on the Mental Scale and 102 on the Motor Scale. A third offspring had a neural tube defect complicated by hydrocephalus and died at 3 months. This mother had a family history of major congenital anomalies. We think that this experience supports the view that Hartnup disorder in the mother, unlike phenylketonuria, does not have an adverse effect on the fetus. The presence of normal ratios of the amino acid concentrations between maternal and umbilical veins in one mother also suggests that placental transport of free amino acids, unlike renal transport, may not be reduced in maternal Hartnup disorder. PMID:3728570
Baxter, C; Moodley, D
Each year thousands of adolescent girls and young women in South Africa (SA) become pregnant and many die from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. Although women of all ages are susceptible, girls<15 years of age are five times as likely, and those aged 15-19 years twice as likely, to die from complications related to childbirth than women in their 20s. In SA, non-pregnancy-related infections (e.g. HIV), obstetric haemorrhage and hypertension contributed to almost 70% of avoidable maternal deaths. In addition to the implementation of standardized preventive interventions to reduce obstetric haemorrhage and hypertension, better reproductive health services for adolescents, access to HIV care and treatment for women infected with HIV, and improved access to and uptake of long-acting reversible contraception are important ingredients for reducing maternal mortality among adolescents. PMID:26937508
The maternal filicide theoretical framework (MFTF) was developed to enrich the understanding of how traumatic experiences during formative years can affect a woman's relationship with her own child. Exposure to a known set of vulnerabilities can foster triggers that predispose a woman to respond impulsively and violently toward her child. Comprehensive assessment of vulnerable families is essential for the prevention of fatal and nonfatal abuse. The MFTF may be applied to both crimes. PMID:18522605
Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G
Advances in prenatal care have brought about a greater understanding as to the special status of the fetus to the point that it is considered a patient in its own regard. Pregnant women generally follow the medical recommendations of their physicians that are intended for the benefit of their baby. Any situation where maternal well-being or wishes contradict fetal benefit constitutes a maternal-fetal conflict. Such situations include a broad range of possible interventions, non-interventions, and coercive influences. In such cases, the attending physician is expected to attain an attitude that involves either the respect of the woman's autonomy and right to privacy, which precludes any approach other than to accept her decision, or to modify this absolute for the beneficence of the fetus. Current ethical viewpoints range from absolute respect for maternal autonomy with no persuasion allowed, to gentle persuasion and to others which permit intervention and overriding of the woman's autonomy. Court-ordered decisions enforcing the pregnant woman to undergo a procedure in order to improve fetal outcome have been criticized as an invasion of a woman's privacy, limitation of her autonomy, and taking away of her right to informed consent. PMID:10733034
In English and Chinese, questions with a "wh"-object and a universally quantified subject (e.g. "What did everyone buy?") allow an individual answer ("Everyone bought apples.") and a pair-list answer ("Sam bought apples, Jo bought bananas, Sally bought..."). By contrast, the pair-list answer is reportedly unavailable in Japanese and Korean. This…
Wada, Keiko; Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Iwasa, Shinichi; Shiraki, Makoto; Shimizu, Hiroyuki
The association between light exposure at night and sex hormone levels in utero has scarcely reported. We assessed the associations between sleep duration or being awake in the late evening hours, which can be as indicator of light exposure at night, and the maternal and umbilical blood hormone levels during pregnancy and at delivery among Japanese women. The data for 236 women and their newborns who visited a maternal clinic in Gifu, Japan, between May 2000 and October 2001 were analyzed. Maternal blood samples were obtained at approximately the 10th weeks, 29th weeks of gestation, and at delivery. Umbilical cord artery blood was immediately drawn after birth. Information for sleep during pregnancy was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The levels of estradiol and testosterone were measured using radioimmunoassay. Maternal serum testosterone level in the 10th week was higher among those who were awake at or after 1:00 a.m. than among those who were asleep at that time (P = 0.032). Maternal estradiol level in the 29th week was inversely associated with sleep duration on weekends (P = 0.043). Umbilical testosterone level at delivery inversely correlated with sleep duration on weekdays (P = 0.030). These associations were somewhat stronger among mothers with female offspring than those with male offspring. These results suggested that exposure to light at night might increase sex hormone levels during pregnancy. PMID:22333297
Krishna Menon, M K
A brief analysis of data from the records of the Government Hospital for Women and Children in Madras for a 36-year period (1929-1964) is presented. India with a population of over 550 million has only 1 doctor for each 6000 population. For the 80% of the population which is rural, the doctor ratio is only 88/1 million. There is also a shortage of paramedical personnel. During the earlier years of this study period, abortions, puerperal infections; hemorrhage, and toxemia accounted for nearly 75% of all meternal deaths, while in later years deaths from these causes were 40%. Among associated factors in maternal mortality, anemia was the most frequent, it still accounts for 20% and is a contributory factor in another 20%. The mortality from postpartum hemorrhage was 9.3% but has now decreased to 2.8%. Eclampsia is a preventable disease and a marked reduction in maternal and perinatal mortality from this cause has been achieved. Maternal deaths from puerperal infections have dropped from 25% of all maternal deaths to 7%. Uterine rupture has been reduced from 75% to 9.3% due to modern facilities. Operative deliveries still have an incidence of 2.1% and a mortality rate of 1.4% of all deliveries. These rates would be further reduced by more efficient antenatal and intranatal care. Reported perinatal mortality of infants has been reduced from 182/1000 births to an average of 78/1000 in all areas, but is 60.6/1000 in the city of Madras. Socioeconomic standards play an important role in perinatal mortality, 70% of such deaths occurring in the lowest economic groups. Improvement has been noted in the past 25 years but in rural areas little progress has been made. Prematurity and low birth weights are still larger factors in India than in other countries, with acute infectious diseases, anemia, and general malnutrition among mothers the frequent causes. Problems requiring further efforts to reduce maternal and infant mortality are correct vital statistics, improved
Liu, Laura X; Arany, Zolt
Pregnancy causes dramatic physiological changes in the expectant mother. The placenta, mostly foetal in origin, invades maternal uterine tissue early in pregnancy and unleashes a barrage of hormones and other factors. This foetal 'invasion' profoundly reprogrammes maternal physiology, affecting nearly every organ, including the heart and its metabolism. We briefly review here maternal systemic metabolic changes during pregnancy and cardiac metabolism in general. We then discuss changes in cardiac haemodynamic during pregnancy and review what is known about maternal cardiac metabolism during pregnancy. Lastly, we discuss cardiac diseases during pregnancy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, and the potential contribution of aberrant cardiac metabolism to disease aetiology. PMID:24448314
McGann, M.; Sloan, D.; Cohen, A.N.
The earliest record in western North America of Trochammina hadai Uchio, a benthic foraminifer common in Japanese estuaries, is from sediment collected in Puget Sound in 1971. It was first found in San Francisco Bay in sediment samples taken in 1983, and since 1986 has been collected at 91% of the sampled sites in the Bay, constituting up to 93% of the foraminiferal assemblage at individual sites. The species is also present in recent sediment samples from 12 other sites along the west coast of North America. The evidence indicates that T. hadai is a recent introduction to San Francisco Bay, and is probably also not native to the other North American sites. Trochammina hadai was probably transported from Japan in ships' ballast tanks, in mud associated with anchors, or in sediments associated with oysters imported for mariculture. Its remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay suggests the potential for massive, rapid invasions by other marine microorganisms.
Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J
The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress
Gielen, Dolf; Yagita, Hiroshi
The NEAT model (Nonenergy-use Emission Accounting Tables) has been developed in order to estimate CO2 emissions caused by so-called nonenergy use of fossil fuels. The model is based on material flow accounting. The model has been applied to a number of countries in order to validate and improve its use. This paper discusses the case study for Japan. The NEAT analysis suggests that emissions in 1996 were 23 Mt higher than previously estimated based on the guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This quantity equals 1.9% of the total Japanese greenhouse gas emission. It is recommended to adjust the Japanese emission accounting practice and to apply more detailed emission estimation methods in future years. Given similar results for other countries it is also recommended to improve the IPCC guidelines. PMID:11928351
Jagt-Yazykova, E. A.; Zonova, T. D.
This work presents the results of a study of the biogeographical distribution of Late Albian-Maastrichtian ammonites, found in sequences of the Pacific coast of Russia. The taxa typical of the Pacific Realm were identified, and their distribution traced beyond the borders of this region. In addition, species-migrants, distributed within the studied area were established. As a results of our works, a high level of endemism of ammonite fauna of the East of Russia was noted (75-88% of endemic species, on average). The bipolarity, previously established in the distribution of ammonoids within the Pacific Paleobiogeographical Realm, as well as their high regional provincialism, was confirmed. The following division of the studied area into faunal ammonite provinces in the Late Cretaceous was proposed: Arctic Province; Boreal-Pacific Province, including northeastern Russia (Chukotka Peninsula, the Koryak Upland, Penzhyna Gulf) and the boreal coast of North America (Alaska Peninsula, Arctic Canada and British Columbia); Northwest Pacific Province, including the Primorye Territory, Sakhalin and Shikotan Islands, the Japanese Islands; Northeast Province of the Pacific (the western coast of the United States and Mexico); Southwest Pacific (Australia, New Zealand, Oceania) and Southeast (the western coast of South America and Antarctica, Seymour and James Ross Islands) Provinces. This division is confirmed by data on inoceramid species. In addition, levels of global transgressions and general sea level rise, associated with the appearances of most of widespread marine taxa in the Pacific shelf seas, are established. These include Late Albian, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, Late Coniacian, Late Campanian, Early-Late Maastrichtian boundary. Moreover, migration of ammonites occurred due to the Tethys Ocean extension and followed the northern sea straits in the Arctic Ocean and within the Pacific Realm, depending on warm currents. Both the counter and one-way migrations were
Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat.
Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.
Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…
Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.
Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…
Hashimoto, Manabu; Jackson, David D.
We analyze over a century of geodetic data to study crustal deformation and plate motion around the Japanese Islands, using the block-fault model for crustal deformation developed by Matsu'ura et al. (1986). We model the area including the Japanese Islands with 19 crustal blocks and 104 faults based on the distribution of active faults and seismicity. Geodetic data are used to obtain block motions and average slip rates of faults. This geodetic model predicts that the Pacific plate moves N deg 69 +/- 2 deg W at about 80 +/- 3 mm/yr relative to the Eurasian plate which is much lower than that predicted in geologic models. Substantial aseismic slip occurs on the subduction boundaries. The block containing the Izu Peninsula may be separated from the rigid part of the Philippine Sea plate. The faults on the coast of Japan Sea and the western part of the Median Tectonic Line have slip rates exceeding 4 mm/yr, while the Fossa Magna does not play an important role in the tectonics of the central Japan. The geodetic model requires the division of northeastern Japan, contrary to the hypothesis that northeastern Japan is a part of the North American plate. Owing to rapid convergence, the seismic risk in the Nankai trough may be larger than that of the Tokai gap.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...
The burden of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries is high. Each year, 600,000 women die from pregnancy-related causes and 62 million women suffer from morbidity and complications of pregnancy. The extent to which maternal nutrition can improve maternal health and survival is not well understood. Excluding deaths due to induced abortions, the other four main causes of maternal mortality (preeclampsia, hemorrhage, obstructed labor, and infection) may be amenable to nutrition interventions. The role of calcium in reducing the incidence of preeclampsia and hypertension is promising, but more research in deficient populations is urgently needed. Antenatal iron supplementation, although frequently recommended to prevent anemia during pregnancy, has had little program success. Severe anemia may be an important cause of maternal mortality, but convincing evidence is lacking on the health consequences of mild-to-moderate maternal anemia. Knowledge of the etiology of anemia is important in identifying effective strategies for combating it. Other vitamins such as folate, B12, and vitamin A may enhance the effect of iron supplementation in populations where multiple nutrition deficiencies exist. Maternal night blindness is widespread in South Asian women. In Nepal, this condition is associated with markedly increased risks of vitamin A deficiency, anemia, morbidity, and maternal and infant mortality. These findings need to be replicated elsewhere in South Asia. One study has shown vitamin A and beta carotene supplementation to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. These findings need testing in different settings with emphasis on investigating the mechanisms of the effect. The area of prepregnancy nutrition and its influence on prolonged and obstructed labor is wide open for investigation. The scope for research in the area of maternal nutrition and health is large and the onus is on nutritionists to bring to the forefront the role of nutrition in
Yoneda, Masayasu; Yamane, Kiminori; Jitsuiki, Kuniaki; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Kamei, Nozomu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kohno, Nobuoki
Metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by the accumulation of multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis. Japanese-Americans in the U.S. have a more rapid and intense progression of atherosclerosis than native Japanese in Japan due to a westernization of their lifestyle. We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between 416 native Japanese (194 men and 222 women) in Hiroshima and 574 Japanese-Americans (217 men and 357 women) in Los Angeles, aged 30-89 years. According to the criteria proposed by the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine, the prevalence was 13.9 and 2.7% for native Japanese men and women, and 32.7 and 3.4% for Japanese-American men and women, respectively. According to the IDF or AHA/NHLBI criteria, the prevalence was 20.1 and 6.3%, and 38.7 and 4.5%, or 13.4 and 14.4%, and 30.9 and 27.7%, respectively. Thus, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by all the three criteria. However, the prevalence in women was similar between native Japanese and Japanese-American by the Japanese and IDF criteria, whereas it was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by the AHA/NHLBI criteria. This report demonstrates that a westernization of lifestyle can increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese-Americans as compared to native Japanese. PMID:18006105
Philpotts, J. A.; Martin, W.; Schnetzler, C. C.
K, Rb, Sr, Ba and rare-earth concentrations in some Japanese lavas have been determined by mass-spectrometric stable-isotope dilution. The samples fall into three rare-earth groups corresponding to tholeiitic, high alumina and alkali basalts. Japanese tholeiites have trace element characteristics similar to those of oceanic ridge tholeiites except for distinctly higher relative concentrations of Ba. Japanese lavas may result from various degrees of partial fusion of amphibole eclogite.
Ikeda, Maiko; Inaba, Jennifer Saeko; Ikeda, Ayako Christina; Kihara, Miki
On Friday, March 11, 2011, one of the worst disasters in the world hit the country of Japan. A magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off the coast of Japan, forever changing the lives of the people and the state of the country. Not only were lives lost and homes destroyed, the tsunami that followed caused numerous nuclear accidents around the Fukushima…
Moorad, Jacob A; Nussey, Daniel H
Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton's evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton's age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species. PMID:26715745
This study examined maternal gatekeeping, its background and psychological antecedents, and its consequences for paternal and maternal involvement in child care. In sum, 209 couples with 6- to 36-month-old children completed extensive questionnaires. Analyses revealed that various dimensions of gate-keeping were differentially associated with the…
Moorad, Jacob A.; Nussey, Daniel H.
Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton’s evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton’s age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species. PMID:26715745
Taylor, Harvey M.
Each culture has its own nonverbal as well as its verbal language. Movements, gestures and sounds have distinct and often conflicting interpretations in different countries. For Americans communicating with Japanese, misunderstandings are of two types: Japanese behavior which is completely new to the American, and Japanese behavior which is…
Tierney, L M
The Japanese health care system has been highly praised for its universal access, freedom of patient choice, maintenance of a private system, and creative funding. Japanese citizens enjoy general good health, low infant mortality, and long life expectancy. Nevertheless, aspects of Japanese medical education, both graduate and undergraduate, and the structure of academic departments differ from those seen in the United States. A sabbatical spent teaching general internal medicine in Japan provided the experience for this review of the Japanese system. I describe the structure and function of departments of medicine and observations made at daily clinical teaching exercises in hospitals throughout the country. PMID:8160464
Goto, T.; Satake, K.; Sugai, T.; Ishibe, T.; Harada, T.; Murotani, S.
. According to Japanese historical documents, candidates of tsunamis are from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the 1933 and 1896 Sanriku earthquakes, the 1793 Miyagi-oki earthquake, the 1763 Aomori-oki earthquake, the 1677 Boso-oki earthquake, and the 1611 Sanriku earthquake. Some trans-Pacific tsunamis such as the 1700 Cascadia and 1960 Chilean tsunamis also caused severe damage along the Sanriku coast and these tsunami deposits may be also preserved.
Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan
Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272
Lum, J K; Rickards, O; Ching, C; Cann, R L
The 4000-year-old human population expansion into Remote Oceania has been studied from a variety of genetic perspectives. Here, we report the discovery that Polynesians, traditionally considered to be a single cohesive linguistic and cultural unit, exhibit at least three distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) groups that probably shared a common maternal ancestor more than 85,000 years ago. The major lineage groups were first identified by PCR amplification of the mitochondrial region V deletion marker, known to be present at high frequency in Polynesian populations. Sequence analysis of mtDNA hypervariable control regions reveals a surprising number of lineages in Polynesia. We also note high sequence divergence between lineage groups deleted and not deleted in region V. Major group I lineages are common in Remote Oceania and include about 95% of the Native Hawaiian, 90% of the Samoan, and 100% of the Tongan donors in our sample. They contain the region V deletion and generally share three control region transition substitutions. This group also contains non-Polynesian individuals, such as Indonesians, Native Americans, Micronesians, Malaysians, Japanese, and Chinese. The group I Polynesians differ by 4.4% in sequence identity from major lineage group II Polynesians, who do not have the region V deletion and who share among themselves four distinct single-base substitutions. Group II individuals are seen at low frequency (< 10%) in Hawaii, Samoa, and the Cook Islands and may represent the predominant maternal lineage group of Papuan Melanesia. Major lineage group III, not found in Hawaii, tentatively links Samoa to Indonesia. Our observation of deep maternal genetic branches in Polynesia today confirms the notion that during the colonization of the Pacific, mainland Asian immigrants mixed with Melanesian peoples already inhabiting Near Oceania and carried a complex assortment of maternal genotypes derived from two distinct geographic sources to isolated island
Leddy, Meaghan A; Power, Michael L; Schulkin, Jay
The increasing rate of maternal obesity provides a major challenge to obstetric practice. Maternal obesity can result in negative outcomes for both women and fetuses. The maternal risks during pregnancy include gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The fetus is at risk for stillbirth and congenital anomalies. Obesity in pregnancy can also affect health later in life for both mother and child. For women, these risks include heart disease and hypertension. Children have a risk of future obesity and heart disease. Women and their offspring are at increased risk for diabetes. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well positioned to prevent and treat this epidemic. PMID:19173021
Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.
Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanese American adolescents. Significant associations for substance use and impairment included culturally intensified events and Japanese cultural identity- behavior subset. Models had good overall fits and suggested that conflict surrounding cultural identity may contribute to substance use. PMID:23480213
Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R N; Hishinuma, Earl S; Goebert, Deborah A; Chang, Janice Y; Andrade, Naleen N; Nishimura, Stephanie T
A confirmatory model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, and depression was developed (N = 140). The model incorporated the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Major Life Events Scale, and Japanese Cultural Scale. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Cultural Scale and reported fewer depressive symptoms on the CES-D total and on 2 of the 3 CES-D factors than part-Japanese American adolescents. Predictors for depression were being Japanese American vs. part-Japanese American, female gender, and culturally intensified events. A significant interaction of behavior by self-identification was noted. The model had good overall fit and suggested that the formation of cultural identity may contribute to depressive symptoms experienced by adolescents, particularly adolescents of mixed heritage. PMID:15727494
This image of Antarctica shows the Bryan Coast (lower left), the English Coast (lower central), Alexander Island (middle right), the Fallieres Coast (top right), and the Bellingshausen Sea. The entire continent has been dedicated to peaceful scientific investigation since 1961, with the signing of the Antarctic Treaty.The waters surrounding Antarctica are intensely cold. Salt water freezes at -2C, allowing sea ice to form. The middle left portion of the image shows quite a lot of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea. During the Antarctic winter, when data for this image was acquired, Antarctica doubles in size to about 28.5 million square km (or about 11 million square miles), and temperatures in the -60C range are common.This true-color image was compiled from MODIS data gathered March 29, 2002. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC
Schoonheyt, W.E.; Hanley, W.B.; Clarke, J.T.R.; Austin, V.; Howe, D.A.
Untreated maternal phenylketonuria (MPKU) is a major cause of microcephaly, congenital heart disease, intrauterine growth retardation and mental retardation in the offspring of mothers who have the disease. There is evidence, however, that dietary restriction of phenylalanine in the mother before conception and throughout the pregnancy will reduce the risk of these congenital anomalies in the fetus. It is important to be alert to this preventable cause of developmental retardation and congenital abnormalities in all pregnancies until the stage is reached where every woman of child-bearing age has been through the neonatal PKU-screening program. Family physicians are advised to consider prenatal or premarital screening for PKU of all female patients of child-bearing age for the next generation. PMID:21267327
Bridges, Robert S.
The expression of maternal behavior in mammals is regulated by the developmental and experiential events over a female’s lifetime. In this review the relationships between the endocrine and neural systems that play key roles in these developmental and experiential that affect both the establishment and maintenance of maternal care are presented. The involvement of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and lactogens are discussed in the context of ligand, receptor, and gene activity in rodents and to a lesser extent in higher mammals. The roles of neuroendocrine factors, including oxytocin, vasopressin, classical neurotransmitters, and other neural gene products that regulate aspects of maternal care are set forth, and the interactions of hormones with central nervous system mediators of maternal behavior are discussed. The impact of prior developmental factors, including epigenetic events, and maternal experience on subsequent maternal care are assessed over the course of the female’s lifespan. It is proposed that common neuroendocrine mechanisms underlie the regulation of maternal care in mammals. PMID:25500107
Nishimukai, H; Kitamura, H; Sano, Y; Tamaki, Y
By high-voltage agarose gel electrophoresis, seven phenotypes of C3 were found in Japanese. The allele frequencies for C3*S, C3*S025, C3*S02, C3*F, C3*F06, C3*F065, and C3*F08 were 0.9943, 0.0003, 0.0003, 0.0006, 0.0003, 0.0021, and 0.0021, respectively. CH50, C3/C3c protein concentrations, and C3 hemolytic activities in fresh sera with variant C3 phenotypes were within the normal ranges. PMID:3988301
Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Hirota, Yoshio; Kanzaki, Hideharu; Kitada, Mitsuyoshi; Horikoshi, Yorihiko; Ishiko, Osamu; Nakai, Yuichiro; Nishio, Junko; Yamamasu, Seiichi; Yasuda, Jinsuke; Kawai, Seigo; Yanagihara, Kazumi; Wakuda, Koji; Kawashima, Tokio; Narimoto, Katsuhiko; Iwasa, Yoshihiko; Orino, Katsuhiko; Tsunetoh, Itsuo; Yoshida, Junichi; Iito, Junichi; Kaneko, Takuzi; Kamiya, Takao; Kuribayashi, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Takeshi; Takemura, Hideo; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Oda, Hajime; Ohya, Yukihiro
Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy is an important determinant of fetal growth. Although the effects of several nutrients and foods have been well examined, little is known about the relationship of overall maternal diet in pregnancy to fetal growth, particularly in non-Western populations. We prospectively examined the relationship of maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy to neonatal anthropometric measurements at birth and risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth among 803 Japanese women with live-born, singleton, term deliveries. Maternal diet in pregnancy was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns from thirty-three predefined food groups (g/4184 kJ) were extracted by cluster analysis. The following three dietary patterns were identified: the 'meat and eggs' (n 326), 'wheat products', with a relatively high intake of bread, confectioneries and soft drinks (n 303), and 'rice, fish and vegetables' (n 174) patterns. After adjustment for potential confounders, women in the 'wheat products' pattern had infants with the significantly lowest birth weight (P = 0·045) and head circumference (P = 0·036) among those in the three dietary patterns. Compared with women in the 'rice, fish and vegetables' pattern, women in the 'wheat products' pattern had higher odds of having a SGA infant for weight (multivariate OR 5·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 24·4), but this was not the case for birth length or head circumference. These results suggest that a diet high in bread, confectioneries, and soft drinks and low in fish and vegetables during pregnancy might be associated with a small birth weight and an increased risk of having a SGA infant. PMID:21929833
The roles played by English borrowings in modern Japanese literary works are examined. After a brief summary of previous studies, this paper describes the style repertoire and the kinds of stylistic effects produced in Japanese literature by English borrowings, such as attention attractors and in-group-identity markers. (23 references) (Author/LB)
This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…
YAMAGIWA, JOSEPH K.
INCLUDED AMONG THE 18 SELECTIONS IN THIS READER FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS OF JAPANESE ARE SUCH ARTICLES AND EXCERPTS FROM BOOKS AS "THE TAIKA REFORMS" BY SAKAMOTO TAROO (1935) AND "THE SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT OF INCOME BY KOKU AND FEUDALISM" BY NAKAMURA KICIJI (1960). THESE TEXTS ARE REPRODUCED EXACTLY AS THEY APPEARED IN JAPANESE-LANGUAGE PUBLICATIONS…
Shwalb, David W., Ed.; Shwalb, Barbara J., Ed.
The context of Japanese childrearing has changed during the postwar era. Noting that "new" observations concerning childrearing and socialization may not actually be new, this volume establishes continuity with past researchers by integrating the past half-century of cross-cultural research on Japanese childrearing and socialization, placing…
Through an examination of the discourse markers "ano" and "sono" in Japanese (commonly characterized as demonstrative adjectives but which cannot be used interchangeably in a context), this paper explores how these linguistic devices function in conversation found in Japanese writings. The focus of this analysis is the mental and social functions…
This paper reviews the results of a survey of institutions of higher education which offer coursework focusing on Japanese Americans and emphasizes the program in Japanese American Studies at San Francisco State University. The results showed a distribution of twenty-eight courses offered at fifteen institutions in California, Washington and…
NIWA, TAMAKO; MATSUDA, MAYAKO
THE 24 LESSONS IN THIS TEXT ARE DESIGNED FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS BEGINNING JAPANESE LANGUAGE STUDY. THE SELECTION OF VOCABULARY AND THE PRESENTATION OF GRAMMAR ARE DIRECTED TO THE GOAL OF ACQUIRING FACILITY IN SPEAKING RATHER THAN WRITING. FOR A READING TEXT RECOMMENDED FOR USE WITH THIS SPOKEN LANGUAGE TEXT, SEE HIBBETT AND ITSAKA "MODERN JAPANESE,…
Japanese cornmint (Mentha canadensis L.) is a subtropical essential oil crop grown in Asia and South America. The essential oil of Japanese cornmint is the source for production of crystal (-)-menthol, which is a major aromatic agent used as a flavor, fragrance, and cooling sensation vector in the ...
Wetzel, Patricia J.
Describes the results of a subjective reaction test of over 700 Japanese college students' and office workers' attitudes toward honorifics (keigo) in Japanese. It found that subjects from higher socioeconomic classes were more outspoken and ready to judge incompetent or insufficient keigo more negatively than individuals from lower socioeconomic…
Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko
A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…
A hidden participant/observer working in a Japanese auto plant in the United States discovered worker resistance to Japanese management practices in the form of sabotage, protest, agitation, and confrontation. Results questioned assumptions that participatory techniques increase worker control and decentralized authority increases worker autonomy.…
Kuwayama, Masaru; Ito, Mikako; Takao, Shinichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Fukuda, Shinji; Miyazaki, Kazuo; Kurane, Ichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko
Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 57 patients diagnosed with meningitis were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and amplified. Two products had highest homology with Nakayama strain and 2 with Ishikawa strain. Results suggest that Japanese encephalitis virus causes some aseptic meningitis in Japan. PMID:15757569
For generations, moral development has been both a conscious aim and a formal process in Japanese education. This book investigates the history and development of Japanese moral education and analyzes and compares current moral education with the concepts of the Imperial Rescript on Education (1890) and the "shushin" moral education of prewar…
Marriott, Helen E.
The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…
This article explores Japanese EFL learners' classroom silence in a Japanese EFL context. The existence of silence in second language learning contexts can be a source of conflict between students and teachers and even among students themselves. It can also be an obstacle to acquiring the target language. In order to tackle this problem and to…
Tokuda, Yasuharu; Inoguchi, Takashi
Our main objective in this paper is to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness among Japanese people. Based on cross-sectional data for the Japanese general population from the Asia Barometer Survey (2003-2006), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness using a logistic…
Wetzel, Patricia J.
Examines strikingly parallel claims concerning Japanese communication strategies, and female communication strategies in the West. Miscommunication between Japan and the West resembles miscommunication between the sexes in the West, suggesting not that Japanese linguistic behavior is not feminine but that it is indicative of the problems inherent…
Maynard, Senko K.
This handbook offers a detailed description of the structure and rhetorical effects observed in various genres of Japanese discourse. Drawing on Japanese "bunshooron" and incorporating results of Western discourse studies, the book covers principles of overall rhetorical organization, including"ki-shoo-ten-ketsu," topic structure, "danraku," and…
This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…
The increasing pace and scope of global structural change has left Japanese flagship universities at a crossroads. Reflecting upon historical trends, current policy changes and respective institutional strategies for global marketing among Japanese top research universities, the author discusses possible future directions for these institutions…
This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology," 2000, Vol. 76, pp.…
Sugie, Shuji; Shwalb, David W.; Shwalb, Barbara J.
The meaning of respect changed historically in postwar Japan, and respect as a concept is important yet unnoticed in postmodern Japanese society. Contrary to the perception of Japanese socialization as instilling conformist respect and obedience in children and adolescents, this chapter shows why one commentator predicts that Japan may be changing…
Yuanita, Nita; Pratama, Roka; Husrin, Semeidi
Modeling of Shoreline Changes of Tulamben Coast, Bali Indonesia Tulamben coast is located in Lombok Strait on the northeastern coast of Bali island, Indonesia, as part of Karang Asem district. Severe erosion along the coastline has long been occurred in Karang Asem area and threatening houses, religious buildings (Hindu temples), and a national heritage site. As one of most popular diving site in Bali Island, Tulamben attracted many local and international tourist since 1980. The main attraction of Tulamben diving site is the USAT Liberty ship that was shipwrecked in Tulamben beach in 1942, after attacked by Japanese torpedo in Lombok Strait. Currently about 150 diver visit Tulamben per day. Due to physical changes of coastal environmental such as coastal erosion, sliding, and scouring, the shipwreck is vulnerable. It had been slipped off the beach several times and is predicted would be moved to deeper offshore floor if it is not protected. Coastal erosion in Karang Asem district is occurred probably due to interaction between cross-shore and long-shore wave-generated current and river sand supply decreasing after sand mining activities. In this study, the effect of cross-shore and longshore transport to coastal erosion in Tulamben is analyzed by doing numerical model. Numerical simulation of shoreline changes is performed by using Beach Processes Module of CEDAS (Coastal Engineering Design and Analysis System) consists of SBEACH and GENESIS. The model domain is covered Karang Asem coastline about 60 km length and wave data is calculated from hourly wind data (10 years). Simulated shoreline is calibrated using shoreline data from 1972 to 2013. Using calibrated model, then the simulation is performed from 2003 - 2013. From the simulation it is determined that longshore current and longshore sediment contribute to coastal erosion in Tulamben. Based on model results, several alternatives of general layout and configuration of coastal protection structures is proposed
Giorgio, Marco; Renzi, Chiara; Oliveri, Serena; Pravettoni, Gabriella
Maternal care is an essential early environment in mammals that ensures emotional regulation and adaptive fitness of progeny. Longevity and healthy aging are associated with favorable environmental factors including fitting social and behavioral features. In the present review, we discuss the findings that link rearing conditions and early maternal care with life span and aging from an evolutionary, psychological, and molecular perspective. The quality of maternal care may influence internal adaptation through a variety of parallel mechanisms including emotional regulation, stress sensitivity, coping and other behavioral strategies in response to events requiring adaptation. From a biological perspective, it regulates physiological pathways that may persist in adulthood through epigenetic mechanisms, influencing disease susceptibility and, potentially, longevity. Abnormal maternal care induces maladaptation that persists over the life span, may accelerate the onset of aging associated diseases, and shorten life span. This may have important implications in the development of preventive approaches and early interventions. PMID:27548096
Beck, Audrey N.; Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,975) to examine the association between mothers’ partnership changes and parenting behavior during the first five years of their children’s lives. We compare coresidential with dating transitions, and recent with more distal transitions. We also examine interactions between transitions and race/ethnicity, maternal education and family structure at birth. Findings indicate that both coresidential and dating transitions were associated with higher levels of maternal stress and harsh parenting; recent transitions had stronger associations than distal transitions. Maternal education significantly moderates these associations, with less educated mothers responding more negatively to instability in terms of maternal stress, and more educated mothers responding more negatively in terms of literacy activities. PMID:21423848
Kim, Sohye; Strathearn, Lane
Although dramatic postnatal changes in maternal behavior have long been noted, we are only now beginning to understand the neurobiological mechanisms that support this transition. The present paper synthesizes growing insights from both animal and human research to provide an overview of the plasticity of the mother's brain, with a particular emphasis on the oxytocin system. We examine plasticity observed within the oxytocin system and discuss how these changes mediate an array of other adaptations observed within the maternal brain. We outline factors that affect the oxytocin-mediated plasticity of the maternal brain and review evidence linking disruptions in oxytocin functions to challenges in maternal adaptation. We conclude by suggesting a strategy for intervention with mothers who may be at risk for maladjustment during this transition to motherhood, while highlighting areas where further research is needed. PMID:27589498
Heath, Douglas H.
Presents a study of maternal competence, expectations and involvement in child rearing decisions in relation to paternal personality and marital characteristics. Subjects were 45 thirty-year-old mothers. (BD)
Gammie, S C; D'Anna, K L; Gerstein, H; Stevenson, S A
Neurotensin (NT) is a versatile neuropeptide involved in analgesia, hypothermia, and schizophrenia. Although NT is released from and acts upon brain regions involved in social behaviors, it has not been linked to a social behavior. We previously selected mice for high maternal aggression (maternal defense), an important social behavior that protects offspring, and found significantly lower NT expression in the CNS of highly protective females. Our current study directly tested NT's role in maternal defense. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of NT significantly impaired defense in terms of time aggressive and number of attacks at all doses tested (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 microg). Other maternal behaviors, including pup retrieval, were unaltered following NT injections (0.05 microg) relative to vehicle, suggesting specificity of NT action on defense. Further, i.c.v. injections of the NT receptor 1 (NT1) antagonist, SR 48692 (30 microg), significantly elevated maternal aggression in terms of time aggressive and attack number. To understand where NT may regulate aggression, we examined Fos following injection of either 0.1 microg NT or vehicle. Thirteen of 26 brain regions examined exhibited significant Fos increases with NT, including regions expressing NT1 and previously implicated in maternal aggression, such as lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and central amygdala. Together, our results indicate that NT inversely regulates maternal aggression and provide the first direct evidence that lowering of NT signaling can be a mechanism for maternal aggression. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly link NT to a social behavior. PMID:19118604
Japanese has a rich set of focus particles, several exclusive and additive particles, and, in addition, contrastive particles. This thesis provides a formal description of the meanings of Japanese focus particles and addresses two general questions: "What kinds concepts do Japanese focus particles express?" and "Why does Japanese have a larger…
This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...
Blanck, E. L.
Approximately, 1996, Unocal historian Darwin Sainz mentioned the newly built Union Oil “Oilport” refinery in what is now Shell Beach (between Pismo & Avila Beaches and at 50 to 100 feet elevation) was destroyed by a tsunami in the early 1900’s. July 2009, George Plafker reported, “a bigger earthquake and a more destructive tsunami than the 1964 event are possible in the future”. The 1812 Santa Barbara Channel earthquake produced 5 tsunami waves approximately 50 feet in height to the front of the Santa Barbara Presidio based on a Franciscan Father’s journal. A book on “Shipwrecks, Smugglers, and Maritime Mysteries” by Wheeler & Kallman reports the largest wave was 48-50 feet estimated by the USGS west of Santa Barbara near Goleta. The “History of San Luis Obispo County, California” by Thompson & West (1883) reports 12 feet tsunamis occurred on August 13, 1868 (Peruvian earthquake) and April 16, 1877. On November 22, 1878, turbulent water in the absence of wind produced tsunamis that broke over the Morro Bay sand spit (current quad sheet high elevations 66 to 97 feet N to S), destroyed Avila & Pt. Sal piers, damaging Cayucos pier. A Japanese earthquake resulted in a tsunami at 12:40 PM December 9, 1907, near high tide and in already heavy seas, that stood out from the rest of the storm due to its’ enormous height. It wrecked the Ventura pier (12-13-1907, SLO Tribune) and the Oilport pier (12-13-1907, SLO Tribune & 12-6-1976 also 12-14-1907, Santa Maria Times & 12-10-1907 SLO Telegram) at Shell beach and destroyed the Oilport refinery (Darwin Sainz, personal communication). Before 7 AM on November 26, 1913, tsunamis wrecked the Monterey area including waves 10 to15 feet above the Del Monte wharf. At Seaside, “Immense domes of water and foam shot up above the general height” … “appearing from here to be higher than the highest sandhills along the shore.”(12-2-1913, SLO Tribune) Current quad sheet high elevations are 120 feet. These
Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui
Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed. PMID:21603074
Kano, Yuki; Sato, Toru; Kita, Jun; Hirabayashi, Shinichiro; Tabeta, Shigeru
A numerical simulation was conducted to predict the change of pCO(2) in the ocean caused by CO(2) leaked from an underground aquifer, in which CO(2) is purposefully stored. The target space of the present model was the ocean above the seafloor. The behavior of CO(2) bubbles, their dissolution, and the advection-diffusion of dissolved CO(2) were numerically simulated. Here, two cases for the leakage rate were studied: an extreme case, 94,600 t/y, which assumed that a large fault accidentally connects the CO(2) reservoir and the seafloor; and a reasonable case, 3800 t/y, based on the seepage rate of an existing EOR site. In the extreme case, the calculated increase in DeltapCO(2) experienced by floating organisms was less than 300 ppm, while that for immobile organisms directly over the fault surface periodically exceeded 1000 ppm, if momentarily. In the reasonable case, the calculated DeltapCO(2) and pH were within the range of natural fluctuation. PMID:19853873
Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. During the period 1 May to 30 June 1973 material was processed and interpreted for use in analyzing the three ocean seasons along the California coast. ERTS imagery from the first season of the year, called the Davidson Current period, was mosaiced and analyzed. The second season of the year, the Upwelling period, was mosaiced and interpretation was initiated. Imagery for the third ocean season, the Oceanic period, is being collected for future study.
Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) program has made significant progress. The JEM preliminary design review was completed in July 1992; construction of JEM operation facilities has begun; and the micro-G airplane, drop shaft, and micro-G experiment rocket are all operational. The national policy for JEM utilization was also established. The Space Experiment Laboratory (SEL) opened in June '92 and will function as a user support center. Eight JEM multiuser facilities are in phase B, and scientific requirements are being defined for 17 candidate multiuser facilities. The National Joint Research Program is about to start. Precursor missions and early Space Station utilization activities are being defined. This paper summarizes the program in outline and graphic form.
Japanese industry will have many opportunities to perform microgravity tests in the 1990s. The world's longest dropshaft was completed in Hokkaido last year. SJAC has many programs, including GAS, MASER, CASIMIR, COSIMA, and MIR. In fact, 12 electronic and 4 biomaterial experiments using GAS canisters which have been waiting since 1986 will be finished by early 1993. STC will carry out 4 experiments on D-2 in 1993. USEF has two high-quality experiment programs on SFU and EXPRESS. SFU is an unmanned platform for multiple uses and the first flight is expected in 1994 or 95. Ground tests of 8 material experiments are now in progress. EXPRESS is a reusable reentry capsule. Multireactors in an autoclave which are designed for zeolite and catalyst crystal growth on EXPRESS have been developed.
The Japanese Family Planning (FP)/Maternal and Child Health (MCH) programs can be devided into 2 major categories: 1) health services or preventive and health promotion programs, and 2) medical care services or curative programs. Health examinations of pregnant women are performed throughout pregnancy. After birth, each child is screened for inbornn metabolism defects. Vaccination programs covers both women and children. Additionally, health promotion services such as health guidance, including guidance for various groups as well as counselling for individuals, are carried out. The FP/MCH programs are conducted under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. This division supervises the FP/MCH programs in 47 prefectures and 54 specially-selected cities and wards, makes policy, provides financial aid and oversees administration. The prefectures and wards independently plan and execute family planning and health administration. There are 856 health centers and 3271 local governments directly in charge of executing the programs. Population per prefecture ranges from 600,000 to 12 million for Tokyo. Population per health center varies from 10,000 to 750,000 with an average of about 140,000. Center staff includes doctors, public health nurses, veterinarians, pharmacists, x-ray specialists, nutritionists, hygiene inspectors and specialists in inspecting environmental contamination. Local governments coordinate programs with the centers to prevent program overlap. The Maternal and Child Health Promoter System, established in 1971, links public health nurses with families and is staffed by housewife volunteers appointed by local government heads. They play an especially important role in spreading family planning. PMID:12279991
Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison
The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PMID:22004338
Chubarov, L. B.; Shchemel, A. L.; Simonov, K. V.
This work presents method of nonlinear multiparametric regression analysis of tsunami data, description of the algorithm and program complex along with a pilot variant of expert system for automatic making decision of tsunami danger for Pri- morie. It is well known that the shelf and the east submarine side of Japanese coast are the areas of high seismicity. Therefore strong underwater earthquakes and devastat- ing tsunamis appears there. Moreover, Primorie's coast has well-developed industry. Damages provoked with tsunami makes this problem actual one for the region. The variant of expert system integrated with "Excel" is also described. Preparation of the developed complex is provided below. Base informational tables of the system are presented on Excel sheets. They show features of expert system to estimate tsunami danger basing on seismological information. Features that allow estimating tsunami danger basing on the hydrophysical data are also presented. E.g. to estimate coefficient of amplification of a tsunami wave in a point of Primorie's coast it is necessary to fill corresponding cells with coordinate of an observation point, tsunami hearth and earthquake's magnitude. System forecasts the tsunami's danger for the instant observation point and a diagram of coefficients distribution along the coast and estimation of the tsunami danger for observation points along the coast of Primorie. Then, the estimation of the tsunami danger produced on the next sheet of the Excel book considering provided hydrophysical data of the tsunami waves from Japanese and Primorie coast. New real-time features for an operator within the period of monitoring and forecasting are propounded. Using the developed complex within the period of tsunami warning, when the main parameters of a tsunamigenic earthquake (magnitude and coordinates of the hypocenter) are being found, is suggested. Developed program complex can be easily adopted for a standard personal computer of operator of
This review addresses the relationship between maternal nutrition and the survival of the foetus and infant. This survey was undertaken because wide-scale programmes on maternal feeding are in process, based, not on a critical synthesis of currently-available empirical research, but on a series of nested and, at times, weakly supported, assumptions. It is concluded that: (i) maternal weight and weight gain are remarkably resistant to either dietary advice or supplementation; (ii) nutritionally-induced increased birth-weight does not universally increase the chance of survival of the offspring, since pre-pregnancy weight, at least in affluent, industrialized societies-while associated with increased birth-weight-is also associated with higher perinatal mortality; (iii) while dietary supplements during pregnancy do have a modest effect on birth-weight, in contrast to a large effect in famine or near-famine conditions, this is not mediated by maternal energy deposition; and (iv) declining peripheral fat stores in late pregnancy are associated with accelerated foetal growth, and improved nutrition can lead to lower fat stores. Rather, the component of maternal weight gain associated with accelerated foetal growth is water, and, presumably, plasma volume. In the few studies, large and thorough enough to adequately address the issues, maternal feeding--both in famine and non-famine conditions--has led to lower perinatal, primarily foetal, mortality; the mechanisms are not likely to have been due only to the acceleration of foetal growth. It is concluded that there is currently an inadequate base of secure knowledge to foster improvement in the health and nutrition of poor mothers and children. The public and policy-makers alike must be informed that greater knowledge relating maternal nutrition to perinatal outcome is urgently needed to create sound health advice and to mount effective programmes. PMID:11761778
Carpenter, Edward K.; Cliff, Ursula
This article compares two approaches to regional planning. In San Francisco, a citizen-initiated supra-agency was organized to prevent overdevelop ment of the coastline. The New York coastline, developed by one man, Robert Moses, is now victim of an inadequate and inefficient system of development that ecologically threatens the area. (MA)
Abou Khadiga, G; Mahmoud, B Y F; El-Full, E A
The objective of the current study was to evaluate a multi-trait selection program based on aggregated breeding values using an animal model Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) in Japanese quail. The estimated genetic gain was compared by both mixed model and least squares methods. Data of 1,682 female Japanese quails were collected through four consecutive generations to estimate genetic gain, depending on aggregated breeding values, for age at first egg (AFE), body weight at sexual maturity (BWSM), and days needed to produce the first ten eggs (DN10). Estimates of cumulative selection response were favorable for all the studied traits and significant for AFE (-3.03) and BWSM(10.38), but not significant for DN10(-0.15). Estimates of direct heritability were moderate for AFE (0.21) and BWSM(0.25) but low for DN10(0.08), while estimates of maternal heritability were moderate for AFE (0.19) but low for BWSM(0.04) and DN10(0.01). High (0.45 to 0.56) genetic and low (-0.01 to -0.18) phenotypic correlations were observed among the studied traits. Negative (-0.23 to -0.95) correlations between additive genetic and maternal genetic effects were observed for all traits. Genetic trends were -0.76 (P=0.031), 2.54 (P=0.037), and -0.06 (P=0.052) with calculated product-moment correlations between breeding values, estimated by BLUP and phenotypic selection methods, of 0.78 (P=0.002), 0.77 (P=0.004), and 0.61 (P=0.007) for AFE, BWSM, and DN10, respectively. Aggregated breeding value estimation based on animal model BLUP could be an effective method of constructing a selection program to achieve a favorable selection response in egg production traits in Japanese quail. PMID:26769265
Few studies have ever dealt with Japanese male gay and bisexual identity. This exploratory study investigated gay and bisexual identity through interviews of 34 Japanese gay and bisexual men. Though Japan has unique cultural aspects that are different from Western countries, it can be shown that Western concepts or models of homosexual identity are applicable to a considerable extent to Japanese gay and bisexual men. The results of this study suggest that there are two distinct types of Japanese men sexually interested in men, which the author will call "bisexual" and "gay." These two types are compared in terms of three aspects: self-identity, sexual preference, and social identity and role. A significant number of respondents have careers or vocations in the arts. This study touches on the correlation between art and male-male sexual orientation in Japan. PMID:12013576
Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi
In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.
Reduction of maternal mortality in developing countries by community-based action is complex but possible. Deaths related to pregnancy are primarily due to bleeding, infection, toxemia and illegal abortion. The excess maternal deaths in developing countries are also related to high numbers of high-risk pregnancies, total lack of prenatal and obstetric care in some areas, poor nutrition and overwork. The basic interventions available to communities include prenatal care, improved alarm and transport systems, referral centers and improved community-based care. Prenatal care can include nutritional supplements and exams and referrals by traditional birth attendants, targeting women suffering from toxemia, bleeding and infections. Local ambulances with life-support equipment, and maternity waiting houses are examples of ways of dealing with transport problems. Referral centers should be capable of providing sterile conditions and blood transfusions. Nurses can be trained to do caesarean sections. Birth attendants can use checklists to administer antibiotics and oxytocic drugs, for example. PMID:12281272
Clark, Steven L
The maternal death rate in the United States has shown no improvement in several decades and may be increasing. On the other hand, hospital systems that have instituted comprehensive programs directed at the prevention of maternal mortality have demonstrated rates that are half of the national average. These programs have emphasized the reduction of variability in the provision of care through the use of standard protocols, reliance on checklists instead of memory for critical processes, and an approach to peer review that emphasizes systems change. In addition, elimination of a small number of repetitive errors in the management of hypertension, postpartum hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, and cardiac disease will contribute significantly to a reduction in maternal mortality. Attention to these general principles and specific error reduction strategies will be of benefit to every practitioner and more importantly to the patients we serve. PMID:22280865
Ruhm, Christopher J.
This study investigates how maternal employment is related to the cognitive development and body weight of 10 and 11 year olds, controlling for a wide variety of child, mother and family characteristics. The results suggest that limited market work benefits youths who are relatively “disadvantaged” and even long hours, which occur infrequently, are unlikely to leave them much worse off. By contrast, maternal labor supply is estimated to have more uniformly harmful consequences for “advantaged” adolescents. The negative cognitive effects for these youths probably partly occur because maternal labor supply reduces the time spent in enriching home environments. Some of the growth in obesity may be related to determinants of excess weight common to the child and mother. PMID:19830269
Leifer, Myra; Kilbane, Teresa; Skolnick, Linda I.
Study assessed the relationships between maternal adult attachment style, children's perceptions of maternal support following disclosure of sexual abuse, and maternal perceptions of children's behavioral and emotional responses to sexual abuse. Findings indicate that fostering parent-child attachment is important in order to decrease the risk for…
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nomachi, Shinobu; Suganuma, Nobuhiko
This study compared the nutritional status before pregnancy, as well as dietary profiles and biomarkers during first trimester, between never-smokers and antenatal quitters among Japanese women. One hundred fifty pregnant women (79 never-smokers and 71 antenatal quitters) from two obstetrics and gynecology clinics were recruited in Japan. Subjects' prepregnancy nutritional status was indicated by their body mass index (BMI). In the first trimester, their dietary profiles were assessed by the Brief Diet-History Questionnaire (BDHQ) and pregnancy outcomes were screened by biomarker tests. Generalized linear regression was used to examine the differences of energy-adjusted dietary intakes and biomarker results between the two smoking groups, with adjustment of maternal age, BMI, gestation week, and parity. The results showed that antenatal quitters were more likely to have a prepregnancy underweight status than never-smokers. During the first trimester, antenatal quitters had significantly higher intakes of unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants (vegetable lipids and isoflavone), and lower intakes of total cholesterol than never-smokers. Moreover, antenatal quitters had a significantly higher level of serum homocysteine (6.36 nmol/mL vs 4.88 nmol/mL) than never-smokers. In conclusion, antenatal quitters are more likely to have a poor nutritional status before pregnancy than never-smokers. Quitting smoking before pregnancy and having a good nutritional profile during the trimester may not sufficiently reverse the adverse effects of former smoking behaviors on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27028702
Lemasson, Alban; Jubin, Ronan; Masataka, Nobuo; Arlet, Malgorzata
It has been historically claimed that call production in nonhuman primates has been shaped by genetic factors, although, recently socially-guided plasticity and cortical control during vocal exchanges have been observed. In humans, context-dependent vocal convergence with relatives, friends or leaders’ voices can be found. Comparative studies with monkeys and apes presenting tolerant social organizations have demonstrated that affiliative bonding is the determining factor of convergence. We tested whether vocal copying could also exist in a primate species with a despotic social organization. We compared the degree of inter-individual similarity of contact calls in two groups of Japanese macaques as a function of age, dominance rank, maternal kin and affiliative bonds. We found a positive relationship between dyadic acoustic similarity and female rank differences. Since most call exchanges were initiated by dominant females and since this species is known for the ability of responders to acoustically match initiators’ calls, we conclude that high social status may motivate vocal convergence in this despotic society. Accordingly, intra-individual comparisons showed that isolated calls were more stereotyped than exchanged calls, and that dominants had more stereotyped voices than subordinates. This opens new lines of research with regard to social motivation guiding acoustic plasticity in primates. PMID:26880673
... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...
... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...
... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...