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Sample records for japanese diabetic patients

  1. Hospitalization for Hypoglycemia in Japanese Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sako, Akahito; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Goto, Atsushi; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to elucidate the epidemiology, patient demographics, and clinical outcomes of hospitalization for hypoglycemia in diabetic patients using a Japanese large-scale database. We conducted a retrospective study using a national inpatient database of acute care hospitals in Japan. Diabetic patients ages ?15 years with hypoglycemia as a main diagnosis for hospitalization were eligible. We estimated the annual number of hospitalizations in Japan and compared the annual admission rate by age and treatment groups. We also analyzed the association between patient characteristics and in-hospital mortality. Among 22.7 million discharge records from July 2008 and March 2013, a total of 25,071 patients were eligible. The mean age was 73.4 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.3?kg/m2. The estimated annual hospitalization for hypoglycemia in Japan was ?20,000. Annual admission rates for hypoglycemia per 1000 diabetic patients and 1000 diabetic patients receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents were 2.1 and 4.1, respectively. Patients <40 years and >70 years old were at a higher risk of hospitalization. In-hospital mortality was 3.8%, and risk factors associated with poor survival were male sex, older age, lower bed capacity, community hospital, low BMI, coma at admission, and higher Charlson Comorbidity Index. To prevent severe hypoglycemia that leads to death and complications, individualized and careful glycemic control are important, especially in very old or young patients and in those with comorbid conditions or low BMI. PMID:26107672

  2. Vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with retinopathy in young Japanese type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Shimo, Naoki; Yasuda, Tetsuyuki; Kaneto, Hideaki; Katakami, Naoto; Kuroda, Akio; Sakamoto, Fumie; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Irie, Yoko; Horikawa, Keiko; Miyashita, Kazuyuki; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Yoshiuchi, Kazutomi; Kawamori, Dan; Sakamoto, Ken'ya; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Kosugi, Keisuke; Shimomura, Iichiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible association of vitamin D deficiency with diabetic retinopathy in 75 young Japanese type 1 diabetic patients. A multivariate regression analysis, duration of diabetes and vitamin D deficiency were independent determinants of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25287616

  3. Social Orientation and Diabetes-Related Distress in Japanese and American Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Kaori; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Morling, Beth; Ayano-Takahara, Shiho; Carroll, Andrew E.; Harashima, Shin-ichi; Uchida, Yukiko; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2014-01-01

    Objective Recent evidence in cultural and social psychology suggests Eastern cultures' emphasis on harmony and connection with others and Western cultures' emphasis on self-direction and autonomy. In Eastern society, relational harmony is closely linked to people's well-being. The impact of this cultural and social orientation on diabetes-related distress was investigated. Research Design and Methods Japanese and American patients with type 2 diabetes were surveyed by well-established questionnaire in Japan and in the United States, respectively. The association of personal values for interdependence, perceived emotional support, and the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID) were analyzed. Results A positive correlation between interdependence and PAID (r?=?0.18; P?=?0.025) and a negative correlation between perceived emotional support and PAID (r?=?? 0.24; P?=?0.004) were observed after adjustments for other factors in Japanese data (n?=?149), but not in American data (r?=?0.00; P?=?0.990, r?=?0.02; P?=?0.917, respectively, n?=?50). In Japanese data, the three-factor structure of PAID (negative feelings about total life with diabetes, about living conditions with diabetes, and about treatment of diabetes) was identified, and interdependence showed significant positive correlations with the first and second factors and perceived emotional support showed significant negative correlations with all three factors of PAID. Conclusions These results suggest that personal values for interdependence may be linked to the level of diabetes-related distress and that the distress may be relieved by perception of emotional support, especially in an interdependent cultural context. PMID:25333692

  4. Effects of liraglutide on postprandial insulin and glucagon responses in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Shinobu; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Kadono, Mayuko; Iwase, Hiroya; Kobayashi, Kanae; Okada, Hiroshi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the endocrine pancreatic responses to liraglutide (0.9 mg once a day) during normal living conditions in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. The study included 14 hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes. Meal tests were performed after improvement of glycemic control achieved by two weeks of multiple insulin injection therapy and after approximately two weeks of liraglutide treatment. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed to compare daily variation in glycemic control between multiple insulin injection therapy and liraglutide treatment. Liraglutide reduced plasma glucose levels after the test meals (60–180 min; p<0.05), as a result of significant increases in insulin secretion (0–180 min; p<0.05) and decreases in the incremental ratio of plasma glucagon (15–60 min; p<0.05). Continuous glucose monitoring showed that liraglutide treatment was also associated with a decrease in glucose variability. We also demonstrated that optimal glycemic control seen as a reduction in 24-h mean glucose levels and variability was obtained only with liraglutide monotherapy. In conclusion, liraglutide treatment increases insulin secretion and suppresses glucagon secretion in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes under normal living conditions. The main therapeutic advantages of liraglutide are its use as monotherapy and its ability to decrease glucose variability. PMID:23874074

  5. Glomerular structural changes and structural-functional relationships at early stage of diabetic nephropathy in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Moriya, T; Tanaka, K; Moriya, R

    2000-01-01

    Details of renal structural changes and structural-functional relationships at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetes are not well known. The present review focuses on these topics from previous studies using light and electron microscopic morphometric analysis. Glomerular hypertrophy, one of the histological changes in DN, is present in type 2 as well as in type 1 diabetic patients. However, mechanisms of increased glomerular size might be different from those in type 1 diabetes. Other typical glomerular changes, glomerular basement membrane thickening and mesangial expansion, are present in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients as a group. However, these parameters are similar between normo- and microalbuminuric patients. Renal structural-functional relationships cannot be seen in type 2 diabetic patients and therefore urinary albumin might not be a reliable indicator for glomerular structural changes in type 2 diabetic patients. Although previous reports showed reversibility of advanced diabetic glomerulosclerosis in type 1 diabetes by 10 years of strict glycemic control, there is no report regarding histological reversibility by therapeutic interventions in type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, it is unclear whether DN lesions are concordant or discordant with diabetic retinopathy grade in type 2 diabetes. From this information, renal structural changes or structural-functional relationships in type 2 diabetic patients might be heterogeneous and different from those in type 1 diabetic patients. Careful longitudinal study of renal structure and function including serial renal biopsy at the early stage of DN in type 2 diabetes is necessary. PMID:11810468

  6. Coffee consumption is inversely associated with depressive status in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Omagari, Katsuhisa; Sakaki, Mika; Tsujimoto, Yuki; Shiogama, Yukiko; Iwanaga, Akiko; Ishimoto, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Asami; Masuzumi, Miki; Kawase, Miku; Ichimura, Mayuko; Yoshitake, Takatoshi; Miyahara, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Depression has been reported to be more prevalent among diabetic patients than non-diabetic individuals. Although depression and diabetes are causally and bi-directionally related, the influence of food intake frequency on depressive symptoms in diabetic patients has not been fully evaluated. This cross-sectional study analyzed data obtained from 89 patients with type 2 diabetes who completed self-administered questionnaires regarding food intake frequency, diabetic variables, physical activity and depressive states. The prevalence of a “definite” depressive state was 16.9%. The duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels, diabetic microvascular complications and physical activity levels were similar between depressed and non-depressed patients. Daily intakes of total lipids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid energy ratios were significantly lower, and the carbohydrate energy ratio was significantly higher in depressed than in non-depressed patients. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but no significant association was found between tea or green tea consumption and depressive symptoms. The logistic regression analysis showed that coffee consumption was an independent predictor of non-depressed status in diabetic patients. This might be due to biologically active compounds containing in coffee other than caffeine. PMID:25320461

  7. Coffee consumption is inversely associated with depressive status in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Omagari, Katsuhisa; Sakaki, Mika; Tsujimoto, Yuki; Shiogama, Yukiko; Iwanaga, Akiko; Ishimoto, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Asami; Masuzumi, Miki; Kawase, Miku; Ichimura, Mayuko; Yoshitake, Takatoshi; Miyahara, Yoshiyuki

    2014-09-01

    Depression has been reported to be more prevalent among diabetic patients than non-diabetic individuals. Although depression and diabetes are causally and bi-directionally related, the influence of food intake frequency on depressive symptoms in diabetic patients has not been fully evaluated. This cross-sectional study analyzed data obtained from 89 patients with type 2 diabetes who completed self-administered questionnaires regarding food intake frequency, diabetic variables, physical activity and depressive states. The prevalence of a "definite" depressive state was 16.9%. The duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels, diabetic microvascular complications and physical activity levels were similar between depressed and non-depressed patients. Daily intakes of total lipids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid energy ratios were significantly lower, and the carbohydrate energy ratio was significantly higher in depressed than in non-depressed patients. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but no significant association was found between tea or green tea consumption and depressive symptoms. The logistic regression analysis showed that coffee consumption was an independent predictor of non-depressed status in diabetic patients. This might be due to biologically active compounds containing in coffee other than caffeine. PMID:25320461

  8. Comparison of Azelnidipine and Trichlormethiazide in Japanese Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Hypertension: The COAT Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Takihata, Masahiro; Nakamura, Akinobu; Kondo, Yoshinobu; Kawasaki, Satsuki; Kimura, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study compared the efficacy and safety of azelnidipine with that of trichlormethiazide in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension. Methods In a multicenter, open-label trial, 240 patients with adequately controlled diabetes (HbA1c ? 7.0%) under lifestyle modification and/or administration of hypoglycemic agents and inadequately controlled hypertension (systolic blood pressure [sBP] ? 130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure [dBP] ? 80 mmHg) who were being treated with olmesartan were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned to an azelnidipine group or a trichlormethiazide group and were followed up for 48 weeks. Main outcome measure was the difference in the change in HbA1c levels from the baseline values at 48 weeks between these two groups. Results Of the 240 subjects that were enrolled, 209 subjects (azelnidipine group: 103 patients, trichlormethiazide group: 106 patients) completed this trial. At 48 weeks, the following changes were observed in the azelnidipine and trichlormethiazide groups, respectively: HbA1c levels, 0.19 ± 0.52% and 0.19 ± 0.54%; sBP/dBP, -10.7 ± 9.6/-6.6 ± 6.6 mmHg and -7.1 ± 7.7/-3.3 ± 6.1 mmHg (P < 0.001 for both sBP and dBP). In both groups, dizziness (12 patients [11.7%] and 16 patients [15.1%]) and edema (16 patients [15.5%] and 7 patients [6.6%], P = 0.047) were observed during the 48-week follow-up period. Conclusions Azelnidipine was more effective for controlling blood pressure than trichlormethiazide in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients, whereas trichlormethiazide was more effective for reducing albuminuria than azelnidipine. Both of these agents, however, similarly exacerbated glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension. Trial Registration UMIN 000006081. PMID:25938807

  9. Impact of Leisure-Time Physical Activity on Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    PubMed Central

    Kaizu, Shinako; Kishimoto, Hiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors are not fully understood in Asian type 2 diabetic patients, who are typically non-obese. We studied associations between LTPA and glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients aged ?20 years were divided into eight groups according to their LTPA. We investigated associations between the amount and intensity levels of physical activity (PA) and glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular risk factors, and low-grade systemic inflammation in a cross-sectional study. Results LTPA was dose-dependently associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but not with blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol or adiponectin. The amount of PA required to lower HbA1c was greater than that required to improve cardiovascular risk factors. LTPA was inversely associated with HbA1c in non-obese participants but not in obese participants after multivariate adjustments for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, energy intake, cardiovascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and treatment of diabetes. Higher-intensity LTPA, not lower-intensity LTPA was associated with HbA1c after multivariate adjustments with further adjustment including BMI. Conclusions/interpretation LTPA was dose-dependently associated with better glycemic control and amelioration of some cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, increased higher-intensity LTPA may be appropriate for glycemic control. PMID:24897110

  10. Association of Genetically Determined Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Activity with Diabetic Complications in Relation to Alcohol Consumption in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    PubMed Central

    Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Shinako; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Hirano, Atsushi; Nakamura, Udai; Kubo, Michiaki; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies aldehyde produced during ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress. A genetic defect in this enzyme is common in East Asians and determines alcohol consumption behaviors. We investigated the impact of genetically determined ALDH2 activity on diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications in relation to drinking habits in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An ALDH2 single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs671) was genotyped in 4,400 patients. Additionally, the relationship of clinical characteristics with ALDH2 activity (ALDH2 *1/*1 active enzyme activity vs. *1/*2 or *2/*2 inactive enzyme activity) and drinking habits (lifetime abstainers vs. former or current drinkers) was investigated cross-sectionally (n = 691 in *1/*1 abstainers, n = 1,315 in abstainers with *2, n = 1,711 in *1/*1 drinkers, n = 683 in drinkers with *2). The multiple logistic regression analysis for diabetic complications was adjusted for age, sex, current smoking habits, leisure-time physical activity, depressive symptoms, diabetes duration, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, insulin use, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors use. Albuminuria prevalence was significantly lower in the drinkers with *2 than that of other groups (odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 0.94 [0.76–1.16] in abstainers with *2, 1.00 [0.80–1.26] in *1/*1 drinkers, 0.71 [0.54–0.93] in drinkers with *2). Retinal photocoagulation prevalence was also lower in drinkers with ALDH2 *2 than that of other groups. In contrast, myocardial infarction was significantly increased in ALDH2 *2 carriers compared with that in ALDH2 *1/*1 abstainers (odds ratio [95% CI]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 2.63 [1.28–6.13] in abstainers with *2, 1.89 [0.89–4.51] in *1/*1 drinkers, 2.35 [1.06–5.79] in drinkers with *2). In summary, patients with type 2 diabetes and ALDH2 *2 displayed a lower microvascular complication prevalence associated with alcohol consumption but a higher macrovascular complication prevalence irrespective of alcohol consumption. PMID:26599441

  11. Hospitalization for Hypoglycemia in Japanese Diabetic Patients: A Retrospective Study Using a National Inpatient Database, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Sako, Akahito; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Goto, Atsushi; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to elucidate the epidemiology, patient demographics, and clinical outcomes of hospitalization for hypoglycemia in diabetic patients using a Japanese large-scale database.We conducted a retrospective study using a national inpatient database of acute care hospitals in Japan. Diabetic patients ages ?15 years with hypoglycemia as a main diagnosis for hospitalization were eligible. We estimated the annual number of hospitalizations in Japan and compared the annual admission rate by age and treatment groups. We also analyzed the association between patient characteristics and in-hospital mortality.Among 22.7 million discharge records from July 2008 and March 2013, a total of 25,071 patients were eligible. The mean age was 73.4 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.3? kg/m(2). The estimated annual hospitalization for hypoglycemia in Japan was ?20,000. Annual admission rates for hypoglycemia per 1000 diabetic patients and 1000 diabetic patients receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents were 2.1 and 4.1, respectively. Patients <40 years and >70 years old were at a higher risk of hospitalization. In-hospital mortality was 3.8%, and risk factors associated with poor survival were male sex, older age, lower bed capacity, community hospital, low BMI, coma at admission, and higher Charlson Comorbidity Index.To prevent severe hypoglycemia that leads to death and complications, individualized and careful glycemic control are important, especially in very old or young patients and in those with comorbid conditions or low BMI. PMID:26107672

  12. Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation. PMID:23803740

  13. Efficacy and safety of luseogliflozin added to various oral antidiabetic drugs in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya; Haneda, Masakazu; Kaku, Kohei; Sasaki, Takashi; Fukatsu, Atsushi; Ubukata, Michito; Sakai, Soichi; Samukawa, Yoshishige

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Two studies were carried out to investigate the efficacy and safety of luseogliflozin added to existing oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients inadequately controlled with OAD monotherapy. Materials and Methods In the trial involving add-on to sulfonylureas (study 03-1), patients were randomly assigned to receive luseogliflozin 2.5 mg or a placebo for a 24-week double-blind period, followed by a 28-week open-label period. In the open-label trial involving add-on to other OADs; that is, biguanides, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, glinides and ?-glucosidase inhibitors (study 03-2), patients received luseogliflozin for 52 weeks. Results In study 03-1, luseogliflozin significantly decreased glycated hemoglobin at the end of the 24-week double-blind period compared with the placebo (–0.88%, P < 0.001), and glycated hemoglobin reduction from baseline at week 52 was –0.63%. In study 03-2, luseogliflozin added to other OADs significantly decreased glycated hemoglobin from baseline at week 52 (–0.52 to –0.68%, P < 0.001 for all OADs). Bodyweight reduction was observed in all add-on therapies, even with agents associated with weight gain, such as sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones. Most adverse events were mild in severity. When added to a sulfonylurea, incidences of hypoglycemia during the double-blind period were 8.7% and 4.2% for luseogliflozin and placebo, respectively, but no major hypoglycemic episodes occurred. The frequency and incidences of adverse events of special interest for sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and adverse events associated with combined OADs were acceptable. Conclusions Add-on therapies of luseogliflozin to existing OADs improved glycemic control, reduced bodyweight and were well tolerated in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. These trials were registered with the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center (add on to sulfonylurea: JapicCTI-111507; add on to other OADs: JapicCTI-111508). PMID:26221523

  14. Teneligliptin improves glycemic control with the reduction of postprandial insulin requirement in Japanese diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimochi, Wakaba; Ueno, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Eiichiro; Tsubouchi, Chikako; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Shuji; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Teneligliptin is a novel peptidomimetic-chemotype prolylthiazolidine-based inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of teneligliptin on 24 h blood glucose control and gastrointestinal hormone responses to a meal tolerance test, and to investigate the glucose-lowering mechanisms of teneligliptin. Ten patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were treated for 3 days with teneligliptin (20 mg/day). Postprandial profiles for glucose, insulin, glucagon, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), active glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin, and 24 h glycemic fluctuations were measured via continuous glucose monitoring for 4 days. Once daily teneligliptin administration for 3 days significantly lowered postprandial and fasting glucose levels. Significant elevations of fasting and postprandial active GLP-1 and postprandial active GIP levels were observed. Teneligliptin lowered postprandial glucose elevations, 24 h mean blood glucose levels, standard deviation of 24 h glucose levels and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) without hypoglycemia. Serum insulin levels in the fasting state and 30 min after a meal were similar before and after teneligliptin treatment; however significant reductions at 60 to 180 min after treatment were observed. A significant elevation in early-phase insulin secretion estimated by insulinogenic and oral disposition indices, and a significant reduction in postprandial glucagon AUC were observed. Both plasma ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin levels were unaltered following teneligliptin treatment. Teneligliptin improved 24 h blood glucose levels by increasing active incretin levels and early-phase insulin secretion, reducing the postprandial insulin requirement, and reducing glucagon secretion. Even short-term teneligliptin treatment may offer benefits for patients with T2DM. PMID:25252844

  15. Structure of the human glucokinase gene and identification of a missense mutation in a Japanese patient with early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Sakura, Hiroshi; Eto, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Hirohisa; Yazaki, Yoshio; Kadowaki, Takashi ); Kadowaki, Hiroko; Simokawa, Kotaro; Akanuma, Yasuo ); Koda, Naoya; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu )

    1992-12-01

    Glucokinase is thought to play a glucose-sensor role in the pancreas, and abnormalities in its structure, function, and regulation can induce diabetes. The authors isolated the human glucokinase gene, and determined its genomic structure including exon-intron boundaries. Structure of the glucokinase gene in human was very similar to that in rat. Then, by screening Japanese diabetic patients using polymerase chain reaction - single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and direct-sequencing strategies, they identified a missense mutation substituting ariginine (AGG) for glycine (GGG) at position 261 in exon 7 of the glucokinase gene in a patient with early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM). 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Insulin Degludec Requires Lower Bolus Insulin Doses Than Does Insulin Glargine in Japanese Diabetic Patients With Insulin-Dependent State

    PubMed Central

    Komuro, Manaho; Inoue, Gaku; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Yamada, Yoshifumi; Atsuda, Koichiro; Matsubara, Hajime; Irie, Junichiro; Uchida, Junichi; Nakajima, Chikako; Izumi, Hisa; Shimada, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study presents a comparison of the glucose-lowering effects, glycemic variability, and insulin doses during treatment with insulin degludec or insulin glargine. Methods: In this open-label, single-center, 2-way crossover study, 13 Japanese diabetic outpatients in the insulin-dependent state on basal-bolus therapy were assigned to receive either insulin glargine followed by insulin degludec, or insulin degludec followed by insulin glargine. Basal insulin doses were fixed in principle, and patients self-adjusted their bolus insulin doses. Seventy-two-hour continuous glucose monitoring was performed 2 weeks after switching the basal insulin. Results: Mean blood glucose (mg/dL) was not significantly different between insulin degludec and insulin glargine over 48 hours (141.8 ± 35.2 vs 151.8 ± 43.3), at nighttime (125.6 ± 40.0 vs 124.7 ± 50.4), or at daytime (149.3 ± 37.1 vs 163.3 ± 44.5). The standard deviation (mg/dL) was also similar (for 48 hours: 48.9 ± 19.4 vs 50.3 ± 17.3; nighttime: 18.7 ± 14.3 vs 13.7 ± 6.7; daytime: 49.3 ± 20.0 vs 44.3 ± 17.7). Other indices of glycemic control, glycemic variability, and hypoglycemia were similar for both insulin analogs. Total daily insulin dose (TDD) and total daily bolus insulin dose (TDBD) were significantly lower with insulin degludec than with insulin glargine (TDD: 0.42 ± 0.20 vs 0.46 ± 0.22 U/kg/day, P = .028; TDBD: 0.27 ± 0.13 vs 0.30 ± 0.14 U/kg/day, P = .036). Conclusions: Insulin degludec and insulin glargine provided effective and stable glycemic control. Insulin degludec required lower TDD and TDBD in this population of patients. PMID:25526758

  17. Add-On Treatment with Teneligliptin Ameliorates Glucose Fluctuations and Improves Glycemic Control Index in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes on Insulin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Seiichi; Aoki, Chie; Niitani, Mai; Kato, Kanako; Tomotsune, Takanori; Aso, Yoshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study investigated whether teneligliptin, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, ameliorated glucose fluctuations in hospitalized Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes receiving insulin therapy, with or without other antidiabetes drugs, and using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Patients and Methods: Twenty-six patients with type 2 diabetes were admitted for glycemic control. After admission, patients continued to be treated with optimal dietary therapy plus insulin therapy, with or without other antidiabetes drugs, until they achieved stable glycemic control. CGM measurements were made for 7 consecutive days. On Days 1–3, patients received insulin with or without other antidiabetes drugs, and on Days 4–7, teneligliptin 20?mg once daily at breakfast was added to ongoing therapy. Doses of insulin were fixed during the study. Levels of serum glycated albumin (GA), 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol (1,5-AG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured. Results: Add-on treatment with teneligliptin led to significant improvements in 24-h mean glucose levels, the proportion of time in normoglycemia, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions, and total area under the curve within 2?h after each meal. The proportion of time in hypoglycemia and hsCRP levels did not increase significantly compared with before teneligliptin. Values of 1,5-AG and GA were significantly improved by treatment with teneligliptin. Conclusions: Addition of teneligliptin to insulin therapy led to a significant improvement in diurnal glycemic control and significant reductions in glucose fluctuations in 24-h periods without increasing hypoglycemia in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy, with or without other antidiabetes agents. PMID:25144424

  18. Hydrogen gas production is associated with reduced interleukin-1? mRNA in peripheral blood after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Tamasawa, Atsuko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Hariya, Natsuyo; Saito, Miyoko; Ishida, Hidenori; Doguchi, Satako; Yanagiya, Syoko; Osonoi, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Acarbose, an ?-glucosidase inhibitor, leads to the production of hydrogen gas, which reduces oxidative stress. In this study, we examined the effects of a single dose of acarbose immediately before a test meal on postprandial hydrogen gas in breath and peripheral blood interleukin (IL)-1? mRNA expression in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Sixteen Japanese patients (14 men, 2 women) participated in this study. The mean±standard deviation age, hemoglobin A1c and body mass index were 52.1±15.4 years, 10.2±2.0%, and 27.7±8.0kg/m(2), respectively. The patients were admitted into our hospital for 2 days and underwent test meals at breakfast without (day 1) or with acarbose (day 2). We performed continuous glucose monitoring and measured hydrogen gas levels in breath, and peripheral blood IL-1? mRNA levels before (0min) and after the test meal (hydrogen gas: 60, 120, 180, and 300min; IL-1?: 180min). The induction of hydrogen gas production and the reduction in peripheral blood IL-1? mRNA after the test meal were not significant between days 1 (without acarbose) and 2 (with acarbose). However, the changes in total hydrogen gas production from day 1 to day 2 were closely and inversely associated with the changes in peripheral blood IL-1? mRNA levels. Our results suggest that an increase in hydrogen gas production is inversely associated with a reduction of the peripheral blood IL-1? mRNA level after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:25962664

  19. Evaluation of the Long-Term Durability and Glycemic Control of Fasting Plasma Glucose and Glycosylated Hemoglobin for Pioglitazone in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Frances; DeJongh, Joost; Koumura, Emiko; Danhof, Meindert; Kaku, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study applied a pharmacodynamic model-based approach to evaluate the long-term durability and glycemic control of pioglitazone in comparison with other oral glucose-lowering drugs in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Subjects and Methods: Japanese T2DM patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-end point study and received pioglitazone with or without other oral glucose-lowering drugs (excluding another thiazolidinedione [TZD]) (n=293) or oral glucose-lowering drugs excluding TZD (n=294). Treatment was adjusted to achieve glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <6.9%, and samples for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c were collected over 2.5–4 years. A simultaneous cascading indirect response model structure was applied to describe the time course of FPG and HbA1c. HbA1c levels were described using both an FPG-dependent and an FPG-independent function. To account for titration, drug effects for both treatment groups were implemented using a time-dependent Emax model. Results: Pioglitazone was superior in both time to maximum effect and the magnitude of reduction achieved in FPG and HbA1c. A greater reduction in median FPG (–21?mg/dL vs. ?9?mg/dL) was observed with pioglitazone (P<0.05). Maximum drug effect for FPG was predicted to occur earlier (11 months) for pioglitazone than for the control group (14 months). The simulated additional reduction in FPG and HbA1c achieved with pioglitazone was predicted to be maintained beyond the currently observed study duration. Conclusions: Pioglitazone was found to result in improved glycemic control and durability compared with control treatment. This model-based approach enabled the quantification of differences in FPG and HbA1c for both treatment groups and simulation to evaluate longer-term durability on FPG and HbA1c. PMID:25531677

  20. Genetic and environmental effects and characteristics of Japanese end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Satoshi; Yorioka, Noriaki; Gilbertson, David T; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Foley, Robert N; Collins, Allan J

    2009-10-01

    Few studies of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) investigate genetic and environmental effects simultaneously in one racial/ethnic group. United States Renal Data System data show racial differences in primary causes of ESRD, survival rates, and causes of death. Comparing these with Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy data, survival rates appear better for Japanese than for US patients. To explore genetic and environmental differences, we investigated incident and prevalent ESRD patient characteristics. The United States Renal Data System and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy databases were analyzed between 1983 and 2002 for the following patient subsets: Americans excluding Asian Americans (n=1,153,974); Asian Americans excluding Japanese Americans (n=35,983); Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian Japanese Americans by state, race, and Japanese surname (n=3932); native Japanese living in Japan (n=450,593). Japanese Americans tended to be older, male, have more diabetes and hypertension and less glomerulonephritis, and to die more often of heart failure than the other US groups. Adjusted mortality hazard ratios were 0.70 for non-Japanese Asian Americans and 0.75 for Japanese Americans vs. non-Asian Americans (1.00). Hawaiian Japanese patients tended to be older, with more diabetes and hypertension and less glomerulonephritis than the other Japanese groups; their survival rates improved after adjustment for rate of diabetes. Japanese American ESRD patients differ from Asian and non-Asian Americans, and from native Japanese, despite similar genetic make-ups. Both genetic and environmental factors may affect patient outcomes. PMID:19775423

  1. Efficacy and safety of pioglitazone added to alogliptin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kaku, K; Katou, M; Igeta, M; Ohira, T; Sano, H

    2015-12-01

    A phase IV, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative study was conducted in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had inadequate glycaemic control, despite treatment with alogliptin in addition to diet and/or exercise therapy. Subjects with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations of 6.9-10.5% were randomized to receive 16 weeks' double-blind treatment with pioglitazone 15 mg, 30 mg once daily or placebo added to alogliptin 25 mg once daily. The primary endpoint was the change in HbA1c from baseline at the end of treatment period (week 16). Both pioglitazone 15 and 30 mg combination therapy resulted in a significantly greater reduction in HbA1c than alogliptin monotherapy [-0.80 and -0.90% vs 0.00% (the least squares mean using analysis of covariance model); p < 0.0001, respectively]. The overall incidence rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were similar among the treatment groups. Pioglitazone/alogliptin combination therapy was effective and generally well tolerated in Japanese subjects with T2DM and is considered to be useful in clinical settings. PMID:26277887

  2. Switching from Twice-Daily Basal Insulin Injections to Once-Daily Insulin Degludec Injection for Basal-Bolus Insulin Regimen in Japanese Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tosaka, Yuka; Kanazawa, Akio; Ikeda, Fuki; Iida, Mayu; Sato, Junko; Matsumoto, Kazuhisa; Uchida, Toyoyoshi; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Ogihara, Takeshi; Mita, Tomoya; Shimizu, Tomoaki; Goto, Hiromasa; Ohmura, Chie; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of insulin degludec used for basal-bolus insulin regimen after switching from twice-daily basal insulin in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The subjects were 22 type 1 diabetes patients treated with basal-bolus insulin regimen with twice-daily basal insulin. Basal insulin was switched to once-daily injection of insulin degludec with 10% dose reduction. HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were measured before and 12 weeks after switching. The frequency of hypoglycemic episodes, standard deviation (SD) of blood glucose, and mean of daily difference (MODD) were evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) before and 4 weeks after switching. HbA1c and FPG before and 12 weeks after switching were comparable (HbA1c 8.5 ± 1.4 versus 8.7 ± 1.6%, P = 0.28; FPG 203.2 ± 81.2 versus 206.5 ± 122.4?mg/dL, P = 0.91). The frequency of hypoglycemia during nighttime was not significantly different at 4 weeks after switching (14.4 ± 17.0 versus 11.1 ± 15.0%, P = 0.45). In addition, SD and MODD before and 4 weeks after switching were also comparable. In conclusion, glycemic control under once-daily insulin degludec injection was almost comparable to that under twice-daily basal insulin injections in Japanese type 1 diabetes patients. This study was registered with ID: UMIN000010474. PMID:26435713

  3. Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Meningitis Patients, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Mikako; Takao, Shinichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Fukuda, Shinji; Miyazaki, Kazuo; Kurane, Ichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2005-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 57 patients diagnosed with meningitis were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and amplified. Two products had highest homology with Nakayama strain and 2 with Ishikawa strain. Results suggest that Japanese encephalitis virus causes some aseptic meningitis in Japan. PMID:15757569

  4. Efficacy and safety of fasiglifam (TAK-875), a G protein-coupled receptor 40 agonist, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by diet and exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaku, K; Enya, K; Nakaya, R; Ohira, T; Matsuno, R

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the efficacy and safety of fasiglifam 25 and 50?mg in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by diet and exercise. Methods This phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study included 192 patients randomized to once-daily treatment with fasiglifam 25?mg (n?=?63) or 50?mg (n?=?62) or placebo (n?=?67) for 24?weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at week 24. Results At week 24, both fasiglifam groups had significantly reduced HbA1c levels compared with the placebo group (p?patients who achieved an HbA1c target of <6.9% at week 24 was also significantly higher (p?patient receiving fasiglifam 50?mg. There were no clinically meaningful changes in body weight in any treatment group. Conclusions Fasiglifam significantly improved glycaemic control and was well tolerated, with a low risk of hypoglycaemia in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by diet and exercise; however, in a recent review of data from overall fasiglifam global clinical trials, concerns about liver safety arose and the clinical development of fasiglifam was terminated after this trial was completed. PMID:25787200

  5. Impact of increased visceral adiposity with normal weight on the progression of arterial stiffness in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bouchi, Ryotaro; Minami, Isao; Ohara, Norihiko; Nakano, Yujiro; Nishitani, Rie; Murakami, Masanori; Takeuchi, Takato; Akihisa, Momoko; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Fujita, Masamichi; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Normal-weight abdominal obesity has been reported to be associated with poor mortality. We aimed to investigate the impact of increased visceral adiposity with normal weight (OB(?)VA(+)) on the progression of arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 414 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 64±12?years; 40.3% female). Visceral fat area (VFA, cm2) was measured by a dual bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Arterial stiffness was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, cm/s). Patients were divided into four groups by VFA and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) as the following: BMI<25?kg/m2 and VFA<100?cm2 (obesity (OB)(?)visceral adiposity (VA)(?)), BMI?25?kg/m2 and VFA<100?cm2 (OB(+)VA(?)), BMI<25?kg/m2 and VFA?100?cm2 (OB(?)VA(+)), and BMI?25?kg/m2 and VFA?100?cm2 (OB(+)VA(+)). Multivariate linear regression analysis was done to determine the impact of OB(?)VA(+) on arterial stiffness. Results Among the patients, 7.2% were OB(?)VA(+) with higher baPWV levels (1956±444?cm/s) than those with OB(+)VA(?) (1671±416?cm/s, p=0.014), those with OB(+)VA(+) (1744±317?cm/s, p=0.048), and those with OB(?)VA(?) (1620±397?cm/s, p=0.024). In multivariate linear regression analysis, OB(?)VA(+) remained independently associated with baPWV (standardized ? 0.184, p=0.001). Conclusions This study provides evidence for the burden of arterial stiffness in OB(?)VA(+) patients with type 2 diabetes; therefore, evaluation of visceral adiposity is of clinical relevance for the better management of non-obese individuals as well as obese populations. PMID:25806115

  6. The Missed Patient With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuanping; Geiss, Linda S.; Cheng, Yiling J.; Beckles, Gloria L.; Gregg, Edward W.; Kahn, Henry S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study examined the association between access to health care and three classifications of diabetes status: diagnosed, undiagnosed, and no diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Using data from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we identified 110 “missed patients” (fasting plasma glucose >125 mg/dl but without diagnoses of diabetes), 704 patients with diagnosed diabetes, and 4,782 people without diabetes among adults aged 18–64 years. The population percentage undetected among adults with diabetes and the odds ratio of being undetected among adults who reported not having diabetes were compared between groups based on their access to health care. RESULTS—Among those with diabetes, the percentages having undetected diabetes were 42.2% (95% CI 36.7–47.7) among the uninsured, 25.9% (22.9–28.9) among the insured, 49.3% (43.0–55.6) for those uninsured >1 year, 38.7% (29.2–48.2) for those uninsured ?1 year, and 24.5% (21.7–27.3) for those continuously insured over the past year. Type of insurance, number of times receiving health care in the past year, and routine patterns of health care utilization were also associated with undetected diabetes. Multivariate adjustment indicated that having undetected diabetes was associated with being uninsured (odds ratio 1.7 [95% CI 1.0–2.9]) and with being uninsured >1 year (2.6 [1.4–5.0]). CONCLUSIONS—Limited access to health care, especially being uninsured and going without insurance for a long period, was significantly associated with being a “missed patient” with diabetes. Efforts to increase detection of diabetes may need to address issues of access to care. PMID:18753665

  7. The diabetic patient in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan; Aljabri, Khalid S

    2014-04-01

    During the month of Ramadan, all healthy, adult Muslims are required to fast from dawn to sunset. Fasting during Ramadan involves abstaining from food, water, beverages, smoking, oral drugs, and sexual intercourse. Although the Quran exempts chronically ill from fasting, many Muslims with diabetes still fast during Ramadan. Patients with diabetes who fast during the month of Ramadan can have acute complications. The risk of complications in fasting individuals with diabetes increases with longer periods of fasting. All patients with diabetes who wish to fast during Ramadan should be prepared by undergoing a medical assessment and engaging in a structured education program to undertake the fast as safely as possible. Although some guidelines do exist, there is an overwhelming need for better designed clinical trials which could provide us with evidence-based information and guidance in the management of patients with diabetes fasting Ramadan. PMID:24761380

  8. Obese Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes have higher basal metabolic rates than non-diabetic adults.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Rieko; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2011-01-01

    Several cross-sectional studies in Pima Indians and Caucasians have indicated that obese individuals with type 2 diabetes have a higher basal metabolic rate (BMR) than healthy, obese individuals. However, no study has investigated this comparison in Japanese subjects, who are known to be susceptible to type 2 diabetes due to genetic characteristics. Thirty obese Japanese adults with pre-type 2 diabetes (n=7) or type 2 diabetes (n=13) or without diabetes (n=10) participated in this study. BMR was measured using indirect calorimetry. The relationships between residual BMR (calculated as measured BMR minus BMR adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex) and biomarkers including fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R), triglycerides, and free fatty acids were examined using Pearson's correlation. BMR in diabetic subjects adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex was 7.1% higher than in non-diabetic subjects. BMR in diabetic subjects was also significantly (p<0.05) higher than in non-diabetic subjects. There was a significant correlation between residual BMR and fasting glucose (r=0.391, p=0.032). These results indicate that in the Japanese population, obese subjects with type 2 diabetes have higher BMR compared with obese non-diabetic subjects. The fasting glucose level may contribute to these differences. PMID:22293212

  9. [Treatment of elderly diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Rušavý, Zden?k; Žourek, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes has become a pandemic disease over the past 50 years. Its incidence increases the most rapidly in the senior population, i.e. among people older than 65. In a number of countries 1/4 of the people with diabetes are now older than 65 years. Geriatrics now examines numerous differences regarding the senior patients, which often lead to somewhat different therapeutic procedures as compared to the treatment of other adult patients. This paper aims to show some different aspects of the treatment of an elderly patient with diabetes. The intensity of diabetes treatment in the elderly is mainly defined by the incidence of symptoms caused by diabetic decompensation which negatively affect quality of life and are likely to increase mortality. The treatment goals expressed by HbA1c, fasting and post-prandial glycemia, should be set individually based on age, initial HbA1c, present comorbidities and the level of frailty of an elderly patient. An effort to reduce weight regarding people at an older age is probably inappropriate and maybe even harmful, while physical activity reduces mortality and slows muscle catabolism at every age. Ideal is normal walking for 20-30 minutes a day. Except for "very fit elders" without renal insufficiency, the sulfonylurea treatment is unsuitable and perhaps even harmful. It significantly increases the incidence of different types of hypoglycemia and very likely overall mortality as well. The basis of diabetes treatment for the elderly is the effort to perform any regular exercise. In regard to medication treatment it is recommended to choose metformin or gliptin following the rule "start low, go slow", i.e. start with low medication doses and increase them at a slow pace. The main goal of the treatment is to maintain the good quality of life as long as possible, without symptoms associated with hyperglycemia with minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia development. PMID:25894262

  10. Vitamin D receptor initiation codon polymorphism influences genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Japanese population

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Taniyama, Matsuo; Yanagawa, Tatsuo; Yamada, Satoru; Maruyama, Taro; Kasuga, Akira; Ban, Yoshio

    2001-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has been shown to exert manifold immunomodulatory effects. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is regarded to be immune-mediated and vitamin D prevents the development of diabetes in the NOD mouse. We studied the association between T1DM and the initiation codon polymorphism in exon 2 of the vitamin D receptor gene in a Japanese population. We also investigated associations between the vitamin D receptor polymorphism and GAD65-antibody (Ab) positivity. We carried out polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 110 Japanese T1DM patients and 250 control subjects. GAD65 antibodies were assessed in 78 patients with T1DM. Results We found a significantly higher prevalence of the F allele / the FF genotype in the patients compared to the controls (P = 0.0069 and P = 0.014, respectively). Genotype and allele frequencies differed significantly between GAD65-Ab-positive patients and controls (P = 0.017 and P = 0.012, respectively), but neither between GAD65-Ab-negative patients and controls (P = 0.68 and P = 0.66, respectively) nor between GAD65-Ab-positive and -negative patients (P = 0.19 and P = 0.16, respectively). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the vitamin D receptor initiation codon polymorphism influences genetic susceptibility to T1DM among the Japanese. This polymorphism is also associated with GAD65-Ab-positive T1DM, although the absence of a significant difference between GAD65-Ab-negative patients and controls might be simply due to the small sample size of patients tested for GAD65 antibodies. PMID:11445000

  11. Too Few Psychiatric Patients Screened for Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 155667.html Too Few Psychiatric Patients Screened for Diabetes: Study Commonly prescribed antipsychotic medications tied to greater ... WEDNESDAY, Nov. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Despite guidelines, diabetes screening rates are low among adults with severe ...

  12. Association of severe hypoglycemia with depressive symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Yohei; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Jodai, Tamaki; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although many studies have investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes with depression in Western populations, there is a lack of information regarding other ethnicities. We studied the association between clinical characteristics and depressive symptoms in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods A total of 4218 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes who were not taking antidepressants were divided into four groups according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score. The relationship between the severity of depressive symptoms and clinical parameters was examined cross-sectionally. Results After multivariate adjustments, the severity of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with body mass index, leisure-time physical activity, current smoking, sleep duration, sucrose intake, skipping breakfast, insulin use, severe hypoglycemia, dysesthesia of both feet, history of foot ulcer, photocoagulation, ischemic heart disease, and stroke. ORs for severe hypoglycemia increased significantly with the CES-D score in 2756 sulfonylurea and/or insulin-treated patients after multivariate adjustment including age, sex, duration of diabetes, glycated hemoglobin, insulin use, self-monitoring of blood glucose, leisure-time physical activity, skipping breakfast, dysesthesia of both feet, ischemic heart disease, and stroke (CES-D score ?9, referent; 10–15, OR 1.64; 16–23, OR 2.09; ?24, OR 3.66; p for trend <0.01). Conclusions Severe hypoglycemia was positively associated with the severity of depressive symptoms in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes independent of glycemic control, insulin therapy, lifestyle factors, and diabetic complications. As both severe hypoglycemia and depression are known risk factors for morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes, clinicians should be aware of this association. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002627. PMID:26019877

  13. At-Risk Drinking Among Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Susan E.; Engler, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a serious chronic disease, affecting an increasing number of individuals worldwide. Adherence to diabetes self-care behaviors is key to the successful management of the disease. At-risk drinking is common among diabetic patients and is associated with inferior diabetes treatment adherence and outcomes, resulting in increased mortality and morbidity. Furthermore, individuals with diabetes who engage in at-risk drinking are also in danger of incurring the negative consequences of at-risk drinking found in the general population. Research suggests that alcohol use screening and intervention do not commonly occur during the course of primary care treatment for diabetes. While methods for reducing alcohol use in this population have been largely unexplored to date, brief interventions to reduce at-risk drinking have been well-validated in other patient populations and offer the promise to reduce at-risk drinking among diabetic patients, resulting in improved diabetes treatment adherence and outcomes. PMID:24357927

  14. High-serum carotenoids associated with lower risk for developing type 2 diabetes among Japanese subjects: Mikkabi cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Minoru; Nakamura, Mieko; Ogawa, Kazunori; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Yano, Masamichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent epidemiological studies show the association of antioxidant carotenoids with type 2 diabetes, but thorough longitudinal cohort studies regarding this association have not been well conducted. The objective of this study was to investigate longitudinally whether serum carotenoids are associated with the risk for developing type 2 diabetes among Japanese subjects. Research design and methods We conducted a follow-up study on 1073 males and females aged 30–79?years at the baseline from the Mikkabi prospective cohort study. Those who participated in the baseline and completed follow-up surveys were examined longitudinally. Over the 10-year period, 910 subjects (295 males and 615 females) took part in the follow-up survey at least one time. A cohort of 264 males and 600 females free of diabetes at baseline was studied. Results Over a mean follow-up period of 7.8?years (SD=2.9), 22 males and 33 females developed new type 2 diabetes. After adjustments for confounders, the HRs for type 2 diabetes in the highest tertiles of serum ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin, and total provitamin A carotenoids against the lowest tertiles were 0.35 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.82), 0.43 (CI 0.20 to 0.92) and 0.41 (CI 0.19 to 0.90), respectively. For ?-carotene and zeaxanthin, borderline reduced risks were also observed, but these were not significant. Conclusions Our results further support the hypothesis that eating a diet rich in carotenoids, especially provitamin A carotenoids, might help prevent the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese patients. Trial registration number NIFT-2013001. PMID:26688736

  15. Japanese herbal medicine TJ-48 prevents autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Sugimoto, Koji; Takita, Morihito; Shimoda, Masayuki; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F; Shimada, Mitsuo; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is mainly caused by CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell infiltration into islets. Recently, the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the prevention of the onset of T1DM was reported. We reported that TJ-48, a common Japanese herbal medicine, decreased Treg population in cancer patients, thus we investigated whether TJ-48 had an influence on T1DM onset using NOD mice. In the TJ-48 group, TJ-48 (2.0g/kg/day) was administered in the drinking water for NOD mice from three weeks of age to 20 weeks of age. Their body weight and fast blood glucose (FBG) were measured every week. Histology (Hematoxylin-Eosin staining) was investigated every month. Lymphocyte profiles were investigated every month with FACS. The results were compared to the age-matched NOD mice control group. FBG of the control group mice showed diabetic status of 66.7% at 18 weeks of age. On the other hand, the TJ-48 group mice showed diabetic status of 16.7% at 18 weeks of age (p = 1.905E-06). There were no significant differences in general conditions or body weight between the two groups. Lymphocyte infiltrations into islets were dramatically suppressed in the TJ-48 group. The effect of TJ-48 on decreasing Tregs was less apparent in the NOD mice model. TJ-48 inhibited lymphocyte infiltrations into islets, which led to preventing the onset of T1DM in NOD mice. PMID:21721154

  16. Hospital readmission of patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    Hospital readmission is a high-priority health care quality measure and target for cost reduction. Despite broad interest in readmission, relatively little research has focused on patients with diabetes. The burden of diabetes among hospitalized patients, however, is substantial, growing, and costly, and readmissions contribute a significant portion of this burden. Reducing readmission rates of diabetic patients has the potential to greatly reduce health care costs while simultaneously improving care. Risk factors for readmission in this population include lower socioeconomic status, racial/ethnic minority, comorbidity burden, public insurance, emergent or urgent admission, and a history of recent prior hospitalization. Hospitalized patients with diabetes may be at higher risk of readmission than those without diabetes. Potential ways to reduce readmission risk are inpatient education, specialty care, better discharge instructions, coordination of care, and post-discharge support. More studies are needed to test the effect of these interventions on the readmission rates of patients with diabetes. PMID:25712258

  17. Strength training and risk of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese working population: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Nanri, Akiko; Kurotani, Kayo; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Muscle strength training has been suggested to improve glucose metabolism; however, epidemiological evidence regarding strength training's effects on diabetes risk is scarce. We prospectively examined the association between strength training and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men and women. Materials and Methods The sample included health checkups on 26,630 Japanese male and female workers aged 30–64 years without diabetes at baseline. Weekly time spent on strength training was elicited using a self-reported questionnaire. Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed based on hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, random plasma glucose and self-report in an annual health checkup. Hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident diabetes was estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results During a mean follow up of 5.2 years with 139,748 person-years, 1,770 individuals developed diabetes. Age- and sex-adjusted HR for diabetes was 0.58 (95% CI 0.42–0.79) in those who engaged in strength training compared with those who engaged in no strength training. After further adjusting for potential confounders, the corresponding HR was 0.66 (95% CI 0.48–0.90). Additional adjustment for body mass index did not materially change the result; the HR was 0.70 (95% CI 0.51–0.96). The association was more pronounced in individuals aged 50 years or older than those aged <50 years, although the difference in the association by age was not significant. Conclusions These results suggest that engagement in strength training could help to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese working population. PMID:26543539

  18. Use of the Japanese health insurance claims database to assess the risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with diabetes: comparison of DPP-4 inhibitors with other oral antidiabetic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Yabe, D; Kuwata, H; Kaneko, M; Ito, C; Nishikino, R; Murorani, K; Kurose, T; Seino, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study was initiated to evaluate the association of acute pancreatitis (AP) with the use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors among patients with diabetes in Japan. A retrospective cohort study of a large medical and pharmacy claims database was performed to compare the incidence of AP among those receiving DPP-4 inhibitors and those receiving other oral antidiabetic drugs. The incidence of all AP and hospitalizations for AP was similar between the two groups. Previous exposure to DPP-4 inhibitors did not affect occurrence of AP in patients on other oral antidiabetic drugs. The Kaplan–Meier curve for time to AP was similar between the two groups, and was not affected by previous exposure to DPP-4 inhibitors. The Cox proportional hazard models showed the incidence of AP was not significantly higher in those receiving DPP-4 inhibitors. Despite numerous, important limitations related to claims database-based analyses, our results indicate that there is no increased risk of AP with use of DPP-4 inhibitors among patients with diabetes in Japan. PMID:25146418

  19. Use of the Japanese health insurance claims database to assess the risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with diabetes: comparison of DPP-4 inhibitors with other oral antidiabetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Yabe, D; Kuwata, H; Kaneko, M; Ito, C; Nishikino, R; Murorani, K; Kurose, T; Seino, Y

    2015-04-01

    This study was initiated to evaluate the association of acute pancreatitis (AP) with the use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors among patients with diabetes in Japan. A retrospective cohort study of a large medical and pharmacy claims database was performed to compare the incidence of AP among those receiving DPP-4 inhibitors and those receiving other oral antidiabetic drugs. The incidence of all AP and hospitalizations for AP was similar between the two groups. Previous exposure to DPP-4 inhibitors did not affect occurrence of AP in patients on other oral antidiabetic drugs. The Kaplan-Meier curve for time to AP was similar between the two groups, and was not affected by previous exposure to DPP-4 inhibitors. The Cox proportional hazard models showed the incidence of AP was not significantly higher in those receiving DPP-4 inhibitors. Despite numerous, important limitations related to claims database-based analyses, our results indicate that there is no increased risk of AP with use of DPP-4 inhibitors among patients with diabetes in Japan. PMID:25146418

  20. Managing type 2 diabetes in Black patients.

    PubMed

    Akindana, Adeola; Ogunedo, Chioma

    2015-09-13

    Despite many novel treatments available for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus, Black patients continue to disproportionately suffer complications associated with poor glycemic control. This article describes a comprehensive approach to managing diabetes mellitus in these patients while addressing cultural nuances that may be barriers to positive outcomes. PMID:26259037

  1. A1C and Diabetes Diagnosis Among Filipino Americans, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians

    PubMed Central

    Araneta, Maria Rosario G.; Grandinetti, Andrew; Chang, Healani K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the sensitivity and specificity of A1C ?6.5% to diagnose diabetes among Filipino Americans, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional study among middle-aged adults without prior diagnosis of type 2 diabetes who completed a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and A1C measures. RESULTS The 933 participants had a mean age of 54.2 years, and 73% were women. A total of 425 (45.5%) subjects had impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, 145 (15.5%) had type 2 diabetes (by OGTT), and 83 (8.9%) had A1C ?6.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of A1C ?6.5% to define diabetes (by OGTT) was 40.0 and 96.8% and 68.9 and 95.3%, respectively (by fasting plasma glucose only). However, (64.8%) of Filipino and Japanese subjects with diabetes had isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia; AIC ?6.5% sensitivity and specificity was 19.1 and 92.1%, respectively, to define isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia in the total sample. CONCLUSIONS A1C ?6.5% had low sensitivity and may delay diagnosis of type 2 diabetes without OGTT. This limitation is exacerbated by isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia in Asian Americans. PMID:20833866

  2. Association between Diabetes Mellitus and Oral Health Status in Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Susumu; Oshiro, Akiko; Shinada, Kayoko; Ohara, Satoko; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Aim The objective of this study was to analyze the oral health among Japanese adults, with and without diabetes mellitus. Methodology The subjects were 518 community residents aged 20 to 91 years in Japan, who participated in the “Akita health and nutrition survey” and the “Akita dental disease survey”, conducted in 2006. The surveys comprised a self-administered questionnaire, along with medical and dental examinations. Results Using the community periodontal index (CPI), the mean numbers of sextants presenting codes 0, 1 and 2 were significantly lower in diabetics than non-diabetics among the 59 years or younger age group. Although the mean numbers of sextants with codes 0, 1 and 2 among the 60 to 69 years age group were lower, and sextants with a code X among the 59 years or younger age group were higher in diabetics than non-diabetics, no statistically significant differences were detected. The tendency of lower mean numbers of natural teeth and functional tooth units in diabetics than non-diabetics was observed, however no differences were statistically significant. Conclusion The outcome of periodontal disease seemed to be influenced by the diabetic state to some degree, but a clear association between diabetes and oral health status was not found. PMID:20737934

  3. Japanese doctor-patient discourse : an investigation into cultural and institutional influences on patient-centred communication. 

    E-print Network

    Holst, Mark Anthony

    2010-10-06

    This thesis investigates how Japanese doctors create and maintain patient-centred consultations through their verbal interaction with patients, and the extent to which features of Japanese interpersonal communication ...

  4. Association of birthweight with diabetes and insulin sensitivity or secretion in the Japanese general population

    PubMed Central

    Oya, Junko; Nakagami, Tomoko; Kurita, Moritoshi; Yamamoto, Yayoi; Hasegawa, Yukiko; Tanaka, Yuki; Endo, Yasuhiro; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Low birthweight (birthweight <2,500 g) has been considered to be a risk factor for diabetes in data from Western countries, and its percentage is increasing in Japan. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between birth weight and diabetes, as well as both insulin resistance and secretion. Materials and Methods The participants were 847 adults who underwent health check-ups. The participants were divided by birthweight into four groups (low birthweight and tertiles 1–3 above it). We assessed the effect of birthweight on diabetes using a logistic regression model. Multivariable liner regression analyses were carried out to examine whether birthweight is independently associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and ?-cell function. Results The prevalence of diabetes tended to increase with decreasing birthweight. The adjusted odds ratio for diabetes with low birthweight was 3.52 (1.04–11.96) as compared with the reference category, tertile 2. Univariable linear regression analyses showed that homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was negatively associated with birthweight, and this association remained after adjusting for age, sex, current body mass index and family history of diabetes. There was no significant association between homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function and birthweight. Conclusions Low birthweight was inversely associated with diabetes and insulin resistance in the Japanese general population. Longitudinal data analyses are required to examine the causal relationship between bodyweight and diabetes or insulin resistance in adulthood. PMID:26221521

  5. Optimal Hemoglobin A1c Levels for Screening of Diabetes and Prediabetes in the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Shimodaira, Masanori; Okaniwa, Shinji; Hanyu, Norinao; Nakayama, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to identify individuals with diabetes and prediabetes in the Japanese population. A total of 1372 individuals without known diabetes were selected for this study. A 75?g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. The ability of HbA1c to detect diabetes and prediabetes was investigated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The kappa (?) coefficient was used to test the agreement between HbA1c categorization and OGTT-based diagnosis. ROC analysis demonstrated that HbA1c was a good test to identify diabetes and prediabetes, with areas under the curve of 0.918 and 0.714, respectively. Optimal HbA1c cutoffs for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes were 6.0% (sensitivity 83.7%, specificity 87.6%) and 5.7% (sensitivity 60.6%, specificity 72.1%), respectively, although the cutoff for prediabetes showed low accuracy (67.6%) and a high false-negative rate (39.4%). Agreement between HbA1c categorization and OGTT-based diagnosis was low in diabetes (? = 0.399) and prediabetes (? = 0.324). In Japanese subjects, the HbA1c cutoff of 6.0% had appropriate sensitivity and specificity for diabetes screening, whereas the cutoff of 5.7% had modest sensitivity and specificity in identifying prediabetes. Thus, HbA1c may be inadequate as a screening tool for prediabetes. PMID:26114121

  6. Serum magnesium in hospital admitted diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Azad, K M; Sutradhar, S R; Khan, N A; Haque, M F; Sumon, S M; Barman, T K; Islam, M Z; Haque, M R; Pandit, H; Ahmed, S

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium depletion has a negative impact on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients. Low plasma magnesium concentration is a highly specific indicator of poor magnesium status. This case control study was conducted in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh, from May 2011 to April 2012. This study was done to assess the serum magnesium level in diabetic and non-diabetic patients and to find out the association between serum magnesium, blood glucose and duration of diabetes mellitus. Serum magnesium concentrations were determined in 50 diabetics and 50 age and sex matched non-diabetic patients or attendants for controls. Among the case and control group 32 were male and 18 were female. Mean age of control group was 54.42±2.33 and study group was 55.78±2.43 years. Duration of diabetes of case group in which 50% of patients have diabetes for up to 4 years, 18% of patients have diabetes for 5-9 years, 5% of patients have for 10-14 years and 2% of patients have diabetes for 15 years and above. Serum magnesium concentrations below the normal reference range for study group was 44% and control group was 6%. The mean serum magnesium level of study group was 0.70±0.01mmol/L and that of control group was 0.83±0.02mmol/L. So, the difference in serum magnesium level between two groups were statistically highly significant (p = 0.001). Correlation between FBS and SML of study group, which is negative (r = - 0.182). There is opposite relation among the characteristics as r is negative. And also correlation between 2HAFB and SML of study group, which is negative (r = - 0.06). There is opposite relation among the characteristics as r is negative. PMID:24584369

  7. Circulating adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, S; Matsushita, Y; Nakagawa, T; Hayashi, T; Noda, M; Mizoue, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. Prospective studies have consistently shown a lower risk of type 2 diabetes among those with higher circulating adiponectin levels. Objective: We examined prospectively the association between serum adiponectin levels and type 2 diabetes risk among Japanese workers, taking visceral fat mass into account. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 4591 Japanese employees who attended a comprehensive health screening in 2008; had biochemical data including serum adiponectin; were free of diabetes at baseline; and received health screening in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between adiponectin and incidence of diabetes among overall subjects, as well as subgroups. Stratified analyses were carried out according to variables including visceral fat area (VFA). Results: During 3 years of follow-up, 217 diabetic cases were newly identified. Of these, 87% had a prediabetes at baseline. Serum adiponectin level was significantly, inversely associated with incidence of diabetes, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) adjusted for age, sex, family history, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity and body mass index (BMI) for the lowest through highest quartile of adiponectin of 1 (reference), 0.79 (0.55–1.12), 0.60 (0.41–0.88) and 0.40 (0.25–0.64), respectively (P-value for trend <0.01). This association was materially unchanged with adjustment for VFA instead of BMI. After further adjustment for both homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hemoglobin A1c, however, the association became statistically nonsignificant (P-value for trend=0.18). Risk reduction associated with higher adiponectin levels was observed in both participants with and without obesity or insulin resistance at baseline. Conclusions: Results suggest that higher levels of circulating adiponectin are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, independently of overall and intra-abdominal fat deposition, and that adiponectin may confer a benefit in both persons with and without insulin resistance. PMID:25133442

  8. Dynapenic Obesity and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ryoko; Sawada, Susumu S.; Lee, I-Min; Matsushita, Munehiro; Gando, Yuko; Okamoto, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Koji; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The independent and combined associations of muscle strength and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men remain unclear. Methods Hand grip strength was cross-sectionally evaluated between 2011 and 2013 to assess muscle strength in 5039 male workers aged 40 to 64 years. Weight and height were measured, and overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ?25 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, defined as fasting plasma glucose ?126 mg/dL and/or hemoglobin A1c ?6.5% and/or self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, was evaluated. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence of type 2 diabetes were obtained using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 611 participants had type 2 diabetes, and 1763 participants were overweight/obese. After adjustment for covariates, we found an inverse association between muscle strength and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (P for trend <0.01). In addition, when the analyses were stratified by obesity status, the multivariable-adjusted OR per 2-standard-deviation increase in muscle strength was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.49–0.83) in the overweight/obese group, compared to a weaker relationship in the normal-weight group (OR 0.79 per 2-standard-deviation increase; 95% CI, 0.60–1.06). Conclusions Dynapenia, an age-related decrease in muscle strength, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this relationship is stronger in overweight/obese middle-aged Japanese men than in normal-weight men. PMID:26256772

  9. Benign neuromyelitis optica is rare in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Uzawa, Akiyuki; Mori, Masahiro; Muto, Mayumi; Uchida, Tomohiko; Masuda, Hiroki; Masuda, Saeko; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    Good-outcome neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is defined as an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of ?3.0 at 10 years after onset. The clinical courses of 80 consecutive patients with NMO were analyzed to identify the frequency and features of Japanese patients with good-outcome NMO. Of the 80 patients, 37 had a disease duration of >10 years; of these, eight (21.6%) presented a good outcome. These cases presented lower EDSS scores during the early phase of disease compared with those with conventional NMO. However, half of these patients developed severe disabilities later on, indicating that truly benign NMO is rare. PMID:25480860

  10. Replication Study in a Japanese Population to Evaluate the Association between 10 SNP Loci, Identified in European Genome-Wide Association Studies, and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Minako; Tanaka, Yasushi; Iwata, Minoru; Hirose, Hiroshi; Kaku, Kohei; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Watada, Hirotaka; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Maeda, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Aim We performed a replication study in a Japanese population to evaluate the association between type 2 diabetes and 7 susceptibility loci originally identified by European genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2012: ZMIZ1, KLHDC5, TLE1, ANKRD55, CILP2, MC4R, and BCAR1. We also examined the association of 3 additional loci: CCND2 and GIPR, identified in sex-differentiated analyses, and LAMA1, which was shown to be associated with non-obese European type 2 diabetes. Methods We genotyped 6,972 Japanese participants (4,280 type 2 diabetes patients and 2,692 controls) for each of the 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs12571751 in ZMIZ1, rs10842994 near KLHDC5, rs2796441 near TLE1, rs459193 near ANKRD55, rs10401969 in CILP2, rs12970134 near MC4R, rs7202877 near BCAR1, rs11063069 near CCND2, rs8108269 near GIPR, and rs8090011 in LAMA1 using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction invader assay. The association of each SNP locus with the disease was evaluated using a logistic regression analysis. Results All SNPs examined in this study had the same direction of effect (odds ratio > 1.0, p = 9.77 × 10-4, binomial test), as in the original reports. Among them, rs12571751 in ZMIZ1 was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes [p = 0.0041, odds ratio = 1.123, 95% confidence interval 1.037–1.215, adjusted for sex, age and body mass index (BMI)], but we did not observe significant association of the remaining 9 SNP loci with type 2 diabetes in the present Japanese population (p ? 0.005). A genetic risk score, constructed from the sum of risk alleles for the 7 SNP loci identified by un-stratified analyses in the European GWAS meta-analysis were associated with type 2 diabetes in the present Japanese population (p = 2.3 × 10-4, adjusted for sex, age and BMI). Conclusions ZMIZ1 locus has a significant effect on conferring susceptibility to type 2 diabetes also in the Japanese population. PMID:25951451

  11. Diabetes patient management by pharmacists during Ramadan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many Muslim diabetes patients choose to participate in Ramadan despite medical advice to the contrary. This study aims to describe Qatar pharmacists’ practice, knowledge, and attitudes towards guiding diabetes medication management during Ramadan. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed among a convenience sample of 580 Qatar pharmacists. A web-based questionnaire was systematically developed following comprehensive literature review and structured according to 4 main domains: subject demographics; diabetes patient care experiences; knowledge of appropriate patient care during Ramadan fasting; and attitudes towards potential pharmacist responsibilities in this regard. Results In the 3 months prior to Ramadan (July 2012), 178 (31%) pharmacists responded to the survey. Ambulatory (103, 58%) and inpatient practices (72, 41%) were similarly represented. One-third of pharmacists reported at least weekly interaction with diabetes patients during Ramadan. The most popular resources for management advice were the internet (94, 53%) and practice guidelines (80, 45%); however only 20% were aware of and had read the American Diabetes Association Ramadan consensus document. Pharmacist knowledge scores of appropriate care was overall fair (99, 57%). Pharmacists identified several barriers to participating in diabetes management including workload and lack of private counseling areas, but expressed attitudes consistent with a desire to assume greater roles in advising fasting diabetes patients. Conclusion Qatar pharmacists face several practical barriers to guiding diabetes patient self-management during Ramadan, but are motivated to assume a greater role in such care. Educational programs are necessary to improve pharmacist knowledge in the provision of accurate patient advice. PMID:24606885

  12. Treating the elderly diabetic patient: special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kezerle, Louise; Shalev, Leah; Barski, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rising in the >65 year-old group. The challenge of defining the goals of therapy arises from the heterogeneity of the aging process and the sparse clinical data in this patient population. In light of these challenges, the clinician should be aware of the pitfalls of caring for the older diabetic patient and prioritize an individualized treatment plan to ensure an optimal glycemic control, without placing the patient at unnecessary risk. We present a review of the current guidelines and literature that deal specifically with the treatment of the older diabetic patient in order to establish the principles of treatment in this age group and help the clinician make decisions regarding the care of these patients. PMID:25210468

  13. Managing coeliac disease in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Leonard, M M; Cureton, P A; Fasano, A

    2015-01-01

    The association between coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes has long been established. The combination of genetic susceptibility along with a potential role for gluten in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity makes defining gluten's role in type 1 diabetes extremely important. Evidence supporting the role of a gluten-free diet to improve complications associated with type 1 diabetes is not robust. However there is evidence to support improved growth, bone density and potentially the prevention of additional autoimmune diseases in patients with coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes. The gluten free diet is expensive and challenging to adhere to in people already on a modified diet. Early identification of those who have coeliac disease and would benefit from a gluten-free diet is of utmost importance to prevent complications associated with type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease. PMID:24814173

  14. [Evaluation of hearing in patients with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Krochmalska, E; Lazarczyk, B; Rogowski, M; Rzewnicki, I; Wasilewska, A; Jakubczyk, D

    1989-01-01

    Hearing in 60 diabetics aged 20-70 years were studied by means of tonal, verbal and B'ekèsy audiometry, SISI tests, Fowler tests, stapedius reflex and tone decay tests. The material was grouped according to the diabetes type, chronicity of disease, age, sex and presence of retino- and polyneuropathy. The results proved that diabetes may cause the progressive form of hearing loss which depend of chronicity of disease and age of patients. Sometimes the hypo-acuity may be found in the recent form of diabetes, rarely as sudden deafness. The hearing impairment is more frequent among the retino- and polyneuropathy patients. The localisation of lesions may be in all part of hearing pathways from the labyrinth to cortical areas. PMID:2812797

  15. [Coronary artery disease in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Henry, Patrick

    2008-09-30

    It is possible to decrease the rate of progression of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients by controlling all risk factors including hyperglycemia and by the prescription of statin and aspirin in high risk patients. After a coronary event, the management of the patient must be as optimal as possible in terms of pharmacological treatment and revascularization. "Ever more" is the key line in these patients. PMID:18839684

  16. Japanese neuropathy patients with peripheral myelin protein-22 gene aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect

    Lebo, R.V.; Li, L.Y.; Flandermeyer, R.R.

    1994-09-01

    Peripheral myelin protein (PMP-22) gene aneuploidy results in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 1A (CMT1A) and the Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy (HNPP) in Japanese patients as well as Caucasian Americans. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the most common genetic neuropathy, results when expression of one of at least seven genes is defective. CMT1A, about half of all CMT mutations, is usually associated with a duplication spanning the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene on distal chromosome band 17p11.2. Autosomal dominant HNPP (hereditary pressure and sensory neuropathy, HPSN) results from a deletion of the CMT1A gene region. Multicolor in situ hybridization with PMP-22 gene region probe characterized HNPP deletion reliably and detected all different size duplications reported previously. In summary, 72% of 28 Japanese CMT1 (HMSNI) patients tested had the CMT1A duplication, while none of the CMT2 (HMSNII) or CMT3 (HMSNIII) patients had a duplication. Three cases of HNPP were identified by deletion of the CMT1A gene region on chromosome 17p. HNPP and CMT1A have been reported to result simultaneously from the same unequal recombination event. The lower frequency of HNPP compared to CMT1A suggests that HNPP patients have a lower reproductive fitness than CMT1A patients. This result, along with a CMT1A duplication found in an Asian Indian family, demonstrates the broad geographic distribution and high frequency of PMP-22 gene aneuploidy.

  17. Impaired leucocyte functions in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Delamaire, M; Maugendre, D; Moreno, M; Le Goff, M C; Allannic, H; Genetet, B

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) cell performance in 61 diabetic patients free of infection (40 Type 1, 21 Type 2), using tests that explore all the functional steps of PMN: (1) adherence: expression of adhesion molecules, CD 11a, CD 11b, CD 11c; nylon fiber adherence test; (2) chemotaxis under agarose towards the bacterial oligopeptide FMLP and complement fractions, used as attracting agents; (3) phagocytosis of opsonized latex microbeads; (4) bactericidal activity: chemiluminescence assessment of the oxidative killing potential before and after stimulation by opsonized zymosan and PMA; nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test. Results were analysed according to potentially influential factors: metabolic control (HbA1C, glycaemia), age of patient, type of diabetes, disease duration, and existence of vascular complications. PMN chemotaxis was significantly lower in patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001) and associated with spontaneous adherence and increased expression of adhesion molecules (CD 11b, CD 11c). The increased response to chemiluminescence reflects spontaneous activation of PMN cells and increased free radical production; after stimulation, response was lower than in controls. The type of diabetes, the age of patients, HbA1C level and disease duration did not affect the responses. Chemotaxis and chemiluminescence were further reduced in patients with vascular complications and hyperglycaemia. We conclude that all steps of PMN functioning are altered in diabetic patients, which may increase the risk of vascular complications and infectious episodes. PMID:9017350

  18. Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Azzoug, Said; Mahgoun, Souad; Chentli, Farida

    2015-05-01

    Worldwide, the proportion of people above 60 years old represents 15% of the whole population. Diabetes mellitus is more frequent in this age group, and is associated with increased risk of morbidities and premature mortality. Aged Muslim people with diabetes insist on fasting during Ramadan, for many reasons. Elderly people, especially frail patients, who fast are at increased risk for many complications such as hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia and metabolic decompensation including hyperosmolar coma, diabetic ketoacidosis, dehydration and thrombosis. Therefore it is important to assess functional capacity, cognition, mental health and comorbidities in elderly people with diabetes in order to evaluate the risk of fasting, individualize the therapy, and adapt care to their needs. PMID:26013782

  19. The status of glycemic control by general practitioners and specialists for diabetes in Japan: a cross-sectional survey of 15,652 patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Arai, Keiko; Hirao, Koich; Matsuba, Ikuro; Takai, Masahiko; Matoba, Kiyokazu; Takeda, Hiroshi; Kanamori, Akira; Yamauchi, Mikio; Mori, Hisao; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2009-03-01

    To determine the status of diabetes care by general practitioners and diabetes specialists in Japan, we conducted a nation-wide cross-sectional survey. We asked 8112 clinics and hospitals randomly, from throughout Japan, to participate in this study and 721 facilities agreed. A total of 15,652 patients aged from 15 to 97 with type 1 and type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Of these, 14,560 (93.0%) and 1092 (7.0%) patients were cared for by general practitioners and diabetes specialists, respectively. HbA1c levels were measured by a latex agglutination method, and age, height, body weight, type of diabetes and treatment modality were obtained from each patient. Mean HbA1c level for all patients treated by general practitioners was significantly lower than for those treated by the diabetes specialists (6.8+/-1.2% vs. 7.0+/-1.2%, p=0.0002). Mean HbA1c level for patients without insulin therapy was lower than for those treated with insulin, irrespective of caring physician. The proportion of patients treated with insulin therapy by diabetes specialists was higher (17.7%) than that by general practitioners (6.5%). This study showed that average HbA1c levels in Japanese patients treated by either general practitioners or specialists was acceptable, regardless of study limitations or bias. PMID:19124170

  20. Managing Gestational Diabetes: A Patient's Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Publications Scientific Research Planning Scientific Resources Research Managing Gestational Diabetes: A Patient's Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy Skip ... the health of mothers, children, and families. Managing Gestational Diabetes: A Patient's Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy provides ...

  1. Glycaemic control in diabetic patients in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Musenge, Emmanuel Mwila; Manankov, Alexey; Mudenda, Boyd; Michelo, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The glycaemic control status of diabetic patients affects the management of their disorder. We examined the glycaemic control and clinical factors that may influence the achievement of the glycaemic control targets among diabetic out-patients. Methods This was a hospital based cross-sectional study carried out at the University Teaching Hospital diabetic clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. A simple random sample of 198 consenting participants was selected from diabetic out-patients between September and December 2013. A structured interview schedule was used to capture socio-demographic data as well as needed clinical data from clients’ medical records and laboratory results. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to examine factors that may be associated with the glycaemic control status of these diabetic patients. Results Overall (n = 198), mean (SD) age was 53.19±13.32 years. Majority (61.3%) of the patients had poor glycaemic control status (HbA1c?49 mmol/mol). Insulin treatment (OR 0.13, 95% CI: 0.01 - 1.41), systolic blood pressure (OR 1.04, CI: 1.00 - 1.08) and fasting plasma glucose (previous; OR 0.81, CI: 0.72 - 0.90 and current; OR 0.85, CI: 0.78 - 0.93) were statistically significantly associated with glycaemic control. The poor glycaemic control observed in this study is similar to that reported in other published studies. Conclusion We found evidence of poor glycaemic control in the study population suggesting need to explore the reasons for this. Association of Insulin, systolic blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose with glycaemic control further suggests the efficiency of traditional basic monitoring parameters which should be exploited in sharpening primary preventive strategies especially those that support lifestyle modification. Such efforts should also be integrated in all information, education and communication strategies that target but not limited to hospital based patients too. PMID:25932067

  2. Rhinocerebral zygomycosis in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Mirella Alves da; Nery, Andréia Ferreira; Lima, Francisco Pignataro; Diniz Junior, José; Maciel Neto, José; Calado, Nicácia Barbosa; Luz, Kleber Giovanni; Milan, Eveline Pipolo

    2011-01-01

    Rhinocerebral zygomycosis is the most frequent form of fungal infection caused by members of the Zygomycetes class. A fatal case of rhinocerebral zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus (oryzae) arrhizus with histopathological and mycological diagnosis is reported in a diabetic patient. PMID:21552748

  3. Psychosocial interventions for the diabetic patient

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, John N

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes usually requires substantial life-long self-management by the patient. Psychological factors and the patient’s health beliefs are important determinants of self-care behavior. Education has a modest influence on generating better self-care, but psychologically based interventions are clearly more effective. This review gives an overview of these interventions with some discussion of their basis in psychological theory. Some labels such as cognitive behavioral therapy and family therapy include a wide range of approaches. Randomized trials have generally produced improvement in measures of psychological well-being, but improved glycemic control has been more elusive. The influence on behavior can be very dependent on the individual therapist. Only a few trials have managed to sustain improvement in glycosylated hemoglobin beyond a year. Not all patients are prepared to engage and accept these forms of therapeutic intervention. We are still some way from moving psychological management from the trial situation into the diabetic clinic. PMID:25657590

  4. [Cardiac autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patient].

    PubMed

    Llamas Esperón, G; García Ramos, G; Gaos, C; Jiménéz, J L; Villavicencio, R; Cueto, L; Arriaga Gracia, J

    1985-01-01

    The importance of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) derives from its remarkable frequency and its clinical impact. The clinical features are postural hypotension and resting tachycardia, these abnormalities may be overlooked in a high number of patients asymptomatic. Although rarely life threatening, CAN causes considerable morbidity, which can be ameliorated by its identification and appropriate treatment. Circulatory reflexes were studied in 48 diabetic patients and 14 normal control subjects. Twenty-six of the diabetic patients had normal response. The remaining 22 had evidence of neuropathy and abnormal cardiac response during these tests. Only one patient had postural syncope but he had severe orthostatic hypotension. The others remained asymptomatic. All the control subjects had normal reflexes. Beat-to-beat variation with deep breathing (sinus arrhythmia), carotid body massage and mental stress, were important for the detection of CAN (86, 90 and 90% sensitivity respectively). The Valsalva maneuver and sinus arrhythmia showed 82 and 92% of specificity for the diagnosis of CAN. Our findings suggest that CAN in diabetic patients can be detected by these relatively simple test. We propose a rational approach to the diagnosis. Our method is applicable as a clinical routine examination for cardiac neuropathy. PMID:2932078

  5. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in ANK1 is associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in Japanese populations.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Minako; Maeda, Shiro; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Hara, Kazuo; Yasuda, Kazuki; Morizono, Takashi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Horikoshi, Momoko; Nakamura, Masahiro; Fujita, Hayato; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Watada, Hirotaka; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Okada-Iwabu, Miki; Iwabu, Masato; Shojima, Nobuhiro; Ohshige, Toshihiko; Omori, Shintaro; Iwata, Minoru; Hirose, Hiroshi; Kaku, Kohei; Ito, Chikako; Tanaka, Yasushi; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Kasuga, Masato; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    To identify a novel susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes, we performed an imputation-based, genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Japanese population using newly obtained imputed-genotype data for 2 229 890 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) estimated from previously reported, directly genotyped GWAS data in the same samples (stage 1: 4470 type 2 diabetes versus 3071 controls). We directly genotyped 43 new SNPs with P-values of <10(-4) in a part of stage-1 samples (2692 type 2 diabetes versus 3071 controls), and the associations of validated SNPs were evaluated in another 11 139 Japanese individuals (stage 2: 7605 type 2 diabetes versus 3534 controls). Combined meta-analysis using directly genotyped data for stages 1 and 2 revealed that rs515071 in ANK1 and rs7656416 near MGC21675 were associated with type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population at the genome-wide significant level (P < 5 × 10(-8)). The association of rs515071 was also observed in European GWAS data (combined P for all populations = 6.14 × 10(-10)). Rs7656416 was in linkage disequilibrium to rs6815464, which had recently been identified as a top signal in a meta-analysis of East Asian GWAS for type 2 diabetes (r(2) = 0.76 in stage 2). The association of rs7656416 with type 2 diabetes disappeared after conditioning on rs6815464. These results indicate that the ANK1 locus is a new, common susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes across different ethnic groups. The signal of association was weaker in the directly genotyped data, so the improvement in signal indicates the importance of imputation in this particular case. PMID:22456796

  6. Diabetic dermopathy (“shin spots”) and diabetic bullae (“bullosis diabeticorum”) at the same patient

    PubMed Central

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Chiriac, Anca E; Pinteala, Tudor; Foia, Liliana; Chiriac, Anca

    2015-01-01

    We present a diabetic patient with associated two diabetic dermatoses: diabetic dermopathy (“shin spots”) and diabetic bullae. A 34-year-old man, with long history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and moderate obesity presented to Dermatology Unit for diagnosis of his skin lesions. On clinical examination multiple, light brown, irregular patches, with atrophic scars and crusts over large bullae were observed on the anterior aspect of both legs.

  7. Association between insulin resistance and plasma amino acid profile in non-diabetic Japanese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Chizumi; Kondo, Masumi; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Shibata, Takeo; Nagai, Yoko; Imanishi, Tadashi; Oroguchi, Takashige; Ishii, Naoaki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Elevation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), valine, leucine and isoleucine; and the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine and phenylalanine, has been observed in obesity-related insulin resistance. However, there have been few studies on Asians, who are generally less obese and less insulin-resistant than Caucasian or African-Americans. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and plasma amino acid concentration in non-diabetic Japanese participants. Materials and Methods A total of 94 healthy men and women were enrolled, and plasma amino acid concentration was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after overnight fasting. The associations between HOMA-IR and 20 amino acid concentrations, and anthropometric and clinical parameters of lifestyle-related diseases were evaluated. Results The mean age and body mass index were 40.1 ± 9.6 years and 22.7 ± 3.9, respectively. Significantly positive correlations were observed between HOMA-IR and valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and total BCAA concentration. Compared with the HOMA-IR ? 1.6 group, the HOMA-IR > 1.6 group showed significantly exacerbated anthropometric and clinical parameters, and significantly elevated levels of valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and BCAA. Conclusions The present study shows that the insulin resistance-related change in amino acid profile is also observed in non-diabetic Japanese subjects. These amino acids include BCAAs (valine, isoleucine and leucine) and aromatic amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine), in agreement with previous studies carried out using different ethnic groups with different degrees of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:26221519

  8. Lack of predictive power of plasma lipids or lipoproteins for gestational diabetes mellitus in Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Iimura, Yuko; Matsuura, Masaaki; Yao, Zemin; Ito, Satoru; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Yoshitsugu, Michiyasu; Miyauchi, Akito; Hiyoshi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To determine the diagnostic potential of plasma lipids and apolipoproteins in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 1,161 Japanese women at 20–28 weeks of gestation who underwent a glucose challenge test (GCT). Materials and Methods A total of 1,161 Japanese women at 20–28 weeks of gestation underwent a GCT. Participants with a positive test (GCT[+]) underwent a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test. Clinical and biochemical parameters were determined and quantification of apolipoproteins (Apo), including ApoB, ApoB48, ApoA-I and ApoC-III, was carried out. Results The prevalence of GCT(+; with a 130 mg/dL glucose cut-off) and GDM was 20% and 4%, respectively. There was a trend for increased triglycerides and ApoC-III in GDM(+) participants. However, the difference in plasma triglycerides, ApoC-III or ApoB48 did not reach statistical significance between GDM(+) and GDM(?) women. Values of 1-h glucose (P < 0.001) and fasting glucose (P = 0.002) were significant risk factors for GDM. Conclusions Prediction of GDM using only the ApoC-III value is not easy, although triglycerides and ApoC-III were higher in the GDM(+) group. The present findings show no significant difference in plasma lipid levels between women diagnosed with GDM and those with normal glucose tolerance. PMID:26543537

  9. Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kisiel, Bart?omiej; Kruszewski, Robert; Juszkiewicz, Aleksandra; K?os, Krzysztof; T?ustochowicz, Ma?gorzata; T?ustochowicz, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To compare the prevalence of preclinical atherosclerosis in diabetic vs. non-diabetic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients; (2) to determine the influence of classical and RA-related factors on atherosclerosis; (3) to assess the usefulness of combined carotid and femoral ultrasonography in detecting atherosclerosis. Methods: The study comprised 42 non-diabetic RA patients, 42 diabetic RA patients and 42 controls. Intima media thickness (IMT) was measured in the common carotid and superficial femoral arteries. These vessels were screened for atherosclerotic plaque. Results: Plaque was more prevalent in diabetic RA patients than in non-diabetic RA patients or controls. Carotid IMT and femoral IMT were higher in diabetic RA patients compared to controls. So was femoral IMT in diabetic compared to non-diabetic RA patients. The prevalence of increased IMT and plaque was comparable in carotid ultrasonography and combined carotid and femoral ultrasonography in all groups. Conclusions: Subclinical atherosclerosis was found to be higher in diabetic RA patients than in non-diabetic RA patients. The combination of carotid and femoral artery ultrasonography did not improve the detection of atherosclerosis in RA.

  10. Mutational analysis of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) gene in Japanese ALD patients

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, R.; Onodera, O.; Tabe, H.

    1994-09-01

    Recently a putative ALD gene containing a striking homology with peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) has been identified. Besides childhood ALD, various clinical phenotypes have been identified with the onset in adolescence or adulthood (adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), adult cerebral ALD or cerebello-brainstem dominant type). The different clinical phenotypes occasionally coexist even in the same family. To investigate if there is a correlation between the clinical phenotypes and genotypes of the mutations in the ALD gene, we have analyzed 43 Japanese ALD patients. By Southern blot analysis, we identified non-overlapping deletions of 0.5 kb to 10.4 kb involving the ALD gene in 3 patients with adult onset cerebello-brainstem dominant type. By detailed direct sequence analysis, we found 4 patients who had point mutations in the coding region. An AMN patient had a point mutation leading to {sup 266}Gly{r_arrow}Arg change, and another patient with adult cerebral ALD had a 3 bp deletion resulting in the loss of glutamic acid at codon 291, which is a conserved amino acid both in ALD protein and PMP70. Two patients with childhood ALD had point mutations leading to {sup 507}Gly{r_arrow}Val, and {sup 518}Arg{r_arrow}Gln, respectively. Since amino acids from 507 to 520 are highly conserved as ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins, mutations in this region are expected to result in dramatic changes of the function of this protein. Although there is a tendancy for mutation in childhood ALD to be present within the ATP-binding site motif, we found two adult patients who had large deletions involving the region. Taken together, strong correlation between genotypes and clinical phenotypes is unlikely to exist, and some other modifying factors might well play an important role for the clinical manifestations of ALD.

  11. Diabetes Stories: Use of Patient Narratives of Diabetes to Teach Patient-Centered Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Arno K.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Paula T.

    2009-01-01

    A critical component to instituting compassionate, patient-centered diabetes care is the training of health care providers. Our institution developed the Family Centered Experience (FCE), a comprehensive 2-year preclinical program based on longitudinal conversations with patients about living with chronic illness. The goal of the FCE is to explore…

  12. Dipstick urinalysis for diabetes screening in TB patients

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Blanca I.; Pino, Paula A.; Zarate, Izelda; Mora-Guzman, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes knowledge among TB patients can contribute to improved TB treatment outcomes, but lack of diabetes diagnosis awareness is a limitation in developing countries. Given its low cost, the sensitivity of urine glucose dipsticks for diabetes screening in TB patients was assessed. Methods Glycosuria was assessed in 90 newly diagnosed TB patients (38 with diabetes) in south Texas, USA (n = 20) and northeast Mexico (n = 70) during January 2009–December 2010. Results Glycosuria was detected in 65% of the diabetic patients with chronic hyperglycemia (positive predictive value 91%, negative predictive value 84%). Conclusion We propose that TB clinics with limited budgets where portable glucometers may not be available conduct universal screening for diabetes with urine dipsticks. This could be followed by blood glucose or HbA1c testing in the subset of patients requiring confirmation or higher sensitivity assessment, to improve the comanagement of TB and diabetes. PMID:24030116

  13. Rapid onset of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion induced by duloxetine in an elderly type 2 diabetic patient with painful diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Shinji; Kaneto, Hideaki; Tanabe, Akihito; Irie, Shintaro; Hirata, Yurie; Shimoda, Masashi; Kohara, Kenji; Mune, Tomoatsu; Kaku, Kohei

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is the most common diabetic complication. Duloxetine, a serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), is widely used for the treatment of diabetic painful neuropathy (DPN) because of the efficacy and safety profile. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, which is strongly associated duloxetine, is a rare but occasionally life-threatening adverse effect. Here, we report a case of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion that rapidly developed after starting duloxetine in an elderly Japanese female type 2 diabetes mellitus patient. Furthermore, we discuss the possible relationship between the onset of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and the gene polymorphism of cytochrome P450 isoform 1A2 and 2D6, both of which are responsible for duloxetine metabolism. PMID:25969720

  14. Rapid onset of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion induced by duloxetine in an elderly type 2 diabetic patient with painful diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kamei, Shinji; Kaneto, Hideaki; Tanabe, Akihito; Irie, Shintaro; Hirata, Yurie; Shimoda, Masashi; Kohara, Kenji; Mune, Tomoatsu; Kaku, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is the most common diabetic complication. Duloxetine, a serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), is widely used for the treatment of diabetic painful neuropathy (DPN) because of the efficacy and safety profile. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, which is strongly associated duloxetine, is a rare but occasionally life-threatening adverse effect. Here, we report a case of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion that rapidly developed after starting duloxetine in an elderly Japanese female type 2 diabetes mellitus patient. Furthermore, we discuss the possible relationship between the onset of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and the gene polymorphism of cytochrome P450 isoform 1A2 and 2D6, both of which are responsible for duloxetine metabolism. PMID:25969720

  15. A novel missense mutation (Asn5-->Ile) in lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) gene in a Japanese patient with LCAT deficiency.

    PubMed

    Okubo, M; Aoyama, Y; Shio, H; Albers, J J; Murase, T

    1996-01-01

    We identified a novel missense mutation in the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase gene in a new case of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency. The patient was a 64-year-old diabetic Japanese male who showed an extremely low level of serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, corneal opacities, anemia, and proteinuria. Both the patient's LCAT activity and mass were markedly low. DNA sequence analysis of the LCAT gene showed an A-to-T transition at base 97 in exon 1, and predicted a change in asparagine to isoleucine at the 5th amino acid of the protein. Restriction analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA using Ase I showed that the patient was homozygous for this mutation. Our results suggested that asparagine 5 was an important amino acid and substitution with isoleucine caused marked reduction of LCAT activity and mass, resulting in LCAT deficiency. PMID:9007616

  16. Factors Associated with Untreated Diabetes: Analysis of Data from 20,496 Participants in the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Nayu; Noda, Hiroyuki; Shibuya, Kenji; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to examine factors associated with untreated diabetes in a nationally representative sample of the Japanese population. Research Design and Methods We pooled data from the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Survey from 2005 to 2009 (n = 20,496). Individuals aged 20 years and older were included in the analysis. We classified participants as having diabetes if they had HbA1c levels ?6.5% (?48 mmol/mol). People with diabetes who self-reported that they were not currently receiving diabetic treatment were considered to be untreated. We conducted a multinomial logistic regression analysis to determine factors associated with untreated diabetes relative to non-diabetic individuals. Results Of 20,496 participants who were included in the analysis, untreated diabetes was present in 748 (3.6%). Among participants with untreated diabetes, 48.3% were previously diagnosed with diabetes, and 46.5% had HbA1c levels ?7.0% (?53 mmol/mol). Participants with untreated diabetes were significantly more likely than non-diabetic participants to be male, older, and currently smoking, have lower HDL cholesterol levels and higher BMI, non-HDL cholesterol levels, and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions A substantial proportion of people in Japan with untreated diabetes have poor glycemic control. Targeting relevant factors for untreated diabetes in screening programs may be effective to enhance the treatment and control of diabetes. PMID:25756183

  17. Psychological Adjustment and Neuropsychological Performance in Diabetic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skenazy, Judy A.; Bigler, Erin D.

    1985-01-01

    Compared diabetic (N=39) with nondiabetic chronic illness patients (N=20) and healthy controls (N=24). The chronic illness and the diabetic groups had significant elevations on the Hypochondriasis, Depression, and Hysteria scales of the Feschingbauer Abbreviated MMPI. For diabetics, results demonstrated a negligible effect of poor adjustment on…

  18. Learning Difficulties of Diabetic Patients: A Survey of Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean-Francois

    1998-01-01

    Surveys 85 health care professionals on the learning difficulties of diabetic patients. Results show that educators find it easy to teach techniques: patients master procedures well and make few mistakes. In contrast, diabetic patients seem to have problems learning skills, such as insulin dose adjustment, that require complex problem-solving.…

  19. First clinical application of the DuraHeart centrifugal ventricular assist device for a Japanese patient.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Isamu; El-Banayosy, Aly; Yoda, Masataka; Hata, Mitsumasa; Sezai, Akira; Niino, Tetsuya; Wakui, Shinji; Koerfer, Reiner; Minami, Kazutomo

    2009-09-01

    The DuraHeart ventricular assist device (VAD) is a third-generation implantable centrifugal pump with a magnetically levitated impeller. Since February 2007, the device has been clinically applied with excellent results as a bridge to heart transplantation in Europe. As of this writing, however, the device has yet to be approved by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare for clinical use in Japan. We herein report the first clinical application of this device for a Japanese patient. A 31-year-old man with dilated cardiomyopathy was transferred to the Heart and Diabetes Center NRW (HDZ-NRW) in Bad Oeynhausen, Germany, where he was to await heart transplantation. The transfer was safely completed under management with low-dose dopamine. His condition gradually deteriorated at HDZ-NRW, and the DuraHeart left ventricular assist device was implanted for the left ventricle at 7 weeks after admission. Shortly thereafter, however, on POD 7, a Thoratec VAD had to be inserted on the right side due to refractory right heart failure. The right ventricular assist device could be explanted after a 3-month assist, and the patient is now waiting for heart transplantation at home in Germany. PMID:19775269

  20. Diabetes Remission after Nonsurgical Intensive Lifestyle Intervention in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mottalib, Adham; Sakr, Mahmoud; Shehabeldin, Mohamed; Hamdy, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Partial or complete remission from type 2 diabetes was recently observed after bariatric surgeries. Limited data is available about the possibility of inducing diabetes remission through intensive weight reduction. We retrospectively evaluated diabetes remissions after one year of the Weight Achievement and Intensive Treatment (Why WAIT) program, a 12-week intensive program for diabetes weight management in real-world clinical practice. Among 120 obese patients with type 2 diabetes who completed the program, 88 patients returned for follow-up at one year. Nineteen patients (21.6%) had major improvement in their glycemic control, defined as achieving an A1C <6.5% after one year. Four patients (4.5%) achieved either partial or complete diabetes remission defined as A1C <6.5% and <5.7%, respectively, on no antihyperglycemic medications for one year; 2 achieved partial remission (2.3%) and 2 achieved complete remission (2.3%). At the time of intervention, patients who achieved diabetes remission had shorter diabetes duration (<5 years) and lower A1C (<8%) and were treated with fewer than 2 oral medications. They achieved a weight reduction of >7% after 12 weeks. These results indicate that a subset of obese patients with type 2 diabetes is appropriate for intensive lifestyle intervention with the aim of inducing diabetes remission. PMID:26114120

  1. An interpretable rule-based diagnostic classification of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate. Various complications are associated with type 2 diabetes, with diabetic nephropathy being the leading cause of renal failure among diabetics. Often, when patients are diagnosed with diabetic nephropathy, their renal functions have already been significantly damaged. Therefore, a risk prediction tool may be beneficial for the implementation of early treatment and prevention. Results In the present study, we developed a decision tree-based model integrating genetic and clinical features in a gender-specific classification for the identification of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetic patients. Clinical and genotyping data were obtained from a previous genetic association study involving 345 type 2 diabetic patients (185 with diabetic nephropathy and 160 without diabetic nephropathy). Using a five-fold cross-validation approach, the performance of using clinical or genetic features alone in various classifiers (decision tree, random forest, Naïve Bayes, and support vector machine) was compared with that of utilizing a combination of attributes. The inclusion of genetic features and the implementation of an additional gender-based rule yielded better classification results. Conclusions The current model supports the notion that genes and gender are contributing factors of diabetic nephropathy. Further refinement of the proposed approach has the potential to facilitate the early identification of diabetic nephropathy and the development of more efficient treatment in a clinical setting. PMID:25707942

  2. Physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes among Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans and Caucasians: The Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Steinbrecher, Astrid; Erber, Eva; Grandinetti, Andrew; Nigg, Claudio; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for diabetes; however, little is known about this association across ethnic groups with different diabetes risk. Therefore, we evaluated the association between physical activity and diabetes and potential effect modification by ethnicity in the Hawaii component of the Multiethnic Cohort. Methods Participants, aged 45–75 years, were enrolled by completing a questionnaire on demographics, diet, and self-reported weekly hours of strenuous sports, vigorous work, and moderate activity. Among the 74,913 participants (39% Caucasian, 14% Native Hawaiian, 47% Japanese American), 8561 incident diabetes cases were identified by self-report, a medication questionnaire, and through health plan linkages. Cox regression was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) while adjusting for known confounders. Results Engaging in strenuous sports was inversely related to diabetes risk with HRs (4+ h/week vs. never) of 0.67 (95%CI: 0.57–0.79) in women and 0.80 (95%CI: 0.72–0.88) in men. In stratified analyses, the inverse association was consistent across ethnic groups. The inverse association of vigorous work with diabetes was limited to men, while beneficial effects of moderate activity were observed only in Caucasians. Conclusions These findings support a role of high-intensity physical activity and ethnic-specific guidelines in diabetes prevention. PMID:21946117

  3. Outcome of renal replacement treatment in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, M A; Briggs, J D; Junor, B J

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the outcome of renal replacement treatment in patients with diabetes mellitus and in non-diabetic patients with end stage renal failure. DESIGN--Retrospective comparison of cases and matched controls. SETTING--Renal unit, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, providing both dialysis and renal transplantation. PATIENTS--82 Diabetic patients starting renal replacement treatment between 1979 and 1988, compared with 82 matched non-diabetic controls with renal failure and 39 different matched controls undergoing renal transplantation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patient characteristics, history of smoking, prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischaemia at start of renal replacement treatment; survival of patients with renal replacement treatment and of patients and allografts with renal transplantation. RESULTS--The overall survival of the diabetic patients during the treatment was 83%, 59%, and 50% at one, three, and five years. Survival was significantly poorer in the diabetic patients than the controls (p less than 0.001). Particularly adverse features for outcome at the start of treatment were increasing age (p less than 0.01) and current cigarette smoking (relative risk (95% confidence interval) 2.28 (0.93 to 4.84), p less than 0.05). Deaths were mainly from cardiac and vascular causes. The incidence of peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis was the same in diabetic patients and controls (49% in each group remained free of peritonitis after one year), and the survival of renal allografts was not significantly worse in diabetic patients (p less than 0.5). CONCLUSIONS--Renal replacement treatment may give good results in diabetic patients, although the outlook remains less favourable than for non-diabetic patients because of coexistent, progressive vascular disease, which is more severe in older patients. PMID:2207427

  4. Platelet isoprostane overproduction in diabetic patients treated with aspirin.

    PubMed

    Cangemi, Roberto; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Carnevale, Roberto; Nigro, Carmen; Proietti, Marco; Angelico, Francesco; Lauro, Davide; Basili, Stefania; Violi, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Aspirin modestly influences cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the reason is unclear. The aim of the study was to determine whether in T2DM patients aspirin enhances platelet isoprostanes, which are eicosanoids with proaggregating properties derived from arachidonic acid oxidation by platelet NOX2, the catalytic subunit of reduced NAD phosphate oxidase. A cross-sectional study was performed comparing T2DM patients, treated (n = 50) or not treated (n = 50) with 100 mg/day aspirin, with 100 nondiabetic patients, matched for age, sex, atherosclerosis risk factors, and aspirin treatment. A short-term (7 days) treatment with 100 mg/day aspirin also was performed in 36 aspirin-free diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Higher platelet recruitment, platelet isoprostane, and NOX2 activation was found in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients and in aspirin-treated diabetic patients versus nontreated patients (P < 0.001). Platelet thromboxane (Tx) A(2) (P < 0.001) was inhibited in all aspirin-treated patients. In the interventional study, aspirin similarly inhibited platelet TxA(2) in diabetic and nondiabetic patients (P < 0.001). Platelet recruitment, isoprostane levels, and NOX2 activation showed a parallel increase in diabetic patients (P < 0.001) and no changes in nondiabetic patients. These findings suggest that in aspirin-treated diabetic patients, oxidative stress-mediated platelet isoprostane overproduction is associated with enhanced platelet recruitment, an effect that mitigates aspirin-mediated TxA(2) inhibition. PMID:22427378

  5. 302 DIABETES, VOL. 49, FEBRUARY 2000 Brief Genetics Report

    E-print Network

    Cox, Nancy J.

    302 DIABETES, VOL. 49, FEBRUARY 2000 Brief Genetics Report -Cell Transcription Factors and Diabetes No Evidence for Diabetes-Associated Mutations in the Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-3 Gene (HNF3B) in Japanese Patients With Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young Yoshinori Hinokio, Yukio Horikawa, Hiroto Furuta, Nancy

  6. Isolated non diabetic renal disease in diabetic patients: a Moroccan report.

    PubMed

    Haddiya, Intissar; Hamzaoui, Hakim; Al Hamany, Zitouna; Radoui, Aicha; Rhou, Hakima; Benamar, Loubna; Bayahia, Rabia; Ouzeddoun, Naima

    2010-05-01

    The occurrence of non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) in diabetic patients is well established, with different frequencies from all around the world. We report 13 cases of isolated NDRD in diabetic patients diagnosed in our unit and present our biopsy criteria in these patients. From January 2000 to December 2008, 13 diabetic patients with suspected NDRD underwent renal biopsy. The case records of these patients were retrospectively analysed. Nine were males and the mean age was 51 years (10-75). Two had a type I diabetes and 11 had a type II diabetes. The mean duration of diabetes was 36 and 30 months in type I and II respectively. Indications for renal biopsy included: absent retinopathy in 11 cases (84%), heavy proteinuria in four cases (30%), acute renal failure (ARF) in three cases (23%), rapidly progressive renal failure (RPRF) in one case (7%), hematuria in five cases (38%), extra-renal signs in four cases (30,7%), short duration of diabetes in all cases. In conclusion, NDRD was observed in our study in patients with a short duration of diabetes and atypical clinical or biological findings. PMID:20427893

  7. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Japanese Adults: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Shamima; Okazaki, Hiroko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Tomita, Kentaro; Nagahama, Satsue; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kochi, Takeshi; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Sasaki, Naoko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Hori, Ai; Sakamoto, Nobuaki; Nishiura, Chiro; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Kato, Noritada; Fukasawa, Kenji; Pham, Ngoc M.; Kurotani, Kayo; Nanri, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking cessation with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) using a large database. Methods The present study included 53,930 Japanese employees, aged 15 to 83 years, who received health check-up and did not have diabetes at baseline. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ?126 mg/dl, random plasma glucose ?200 mg/dl, HbA1c ?6.5% (?48 mmol/mol), or receiving medication for diabetes. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between smoking and the risk of diabetes. Results During 3.9 years of median follow-up, 2,441 (4.5%) individuals developed T2D. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for diabetes were 1 (reference), 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30) and 1.34 (1.22 to 1.48) for never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers, respectively. Diabetes risk increased with increasing numbers of cigarette consumption among current smokers (P for trend <0.001). Although the relative risk of diabetes was greater among subjects with lower BMIs (< 23 kg/m2), attributable risk was greater in subjects with higher BMIs (? 23 kg/m2). Compared with individuals who had never smoked, former smokers who quit less than 5 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 years or more exhibited hazards ratios for diabetes of 1.36 (1.14 to 1.62), 1.23 (1.01 to 1.51), and 1.02 (0.85 to 1.23), respectively. Conclusions Results suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of T2D, which may decrease to the level of a never smoker after 10 years of smoking cessation. PMID:26200457

  8. Markers of Antioxidant Defense in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gawlik, K.; Naskalski, J. W.; Fedak, D.; Pawlica-Gosiewska, D.; Grudzie?, U.; Dumnicka, P.; Ma?ecki, M. T.; Solnica, B.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Diabetes is considered a state of increased oxidative stress. This study evaluates blood concentrations of selected markers of antioxidant defense in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The study included 80 type 2 diabetes patients and 79 apparently healthy controls. Measured markers included ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and uric acid serum, and plasma and/or hemolysate levels. Results. FRAP, uric acid, CRP, and GGT levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes. Plasma and hemolysate GR was significantly higher whereas GPx activity was significantly lower in patients with diabetes. There were no significant differences in antioxidant defense markers between patients with and without chronic diabetes complications. Fasting serum glucose correlated with plasma GPx, plasma and hemolysate GR, FRAP, and serum GGT, and HbA1c correlated with serum GGT. Only FRAP and serum uric acid were significantly higher in obese (BMI > 30?kg/m2) patients with diabetes than in nonobese patients. Conclusions. Some components of antioxidant defense such as GR, uric acid, and GGT are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the whole system cannot compensate for an enhanced production of ROS as reflected by the trend toward decreased erythrocytes GSH. PMID:26640613

  9. Markers of Antioxidant Defense in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, K; Naskalski, J W; Fedak, D; Pawlica-Gosiewska, D; Grudzie?, U; Dumnicka, P; Ma?ecki, M T; Solnica, B

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Diabetes is considered a state of increased oxidative stress. This study evaluates blood concentrations of selected markers of antioxidant defense in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The study included 80 type 2 diabetes patients and 79 apparently healthy controls. Measured markers included ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and uric acid serum, and plasma and/or hemolysate levels. Results. FRAP, uric acid, CRP, and GGT levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes. Plasma and hemolysate GR was significantly higher whereas GPx activity was significantly lower in patients with diabetes. There were no significant differences in antioxidant defense markers between patients with and without chronic diabetes complications. Fasting serum glucose correlated with plasma GPx, plasma and hemolysate GR, FRAP, and serum GGT, and HbA1c correlated with serum GGT. Only FRAP and serum uric acid were significantly higher in obese (BMI > 30?kg/m(2)) patients with diabetes than in nonobese patients. Conclusions. Some components of antioxidant defense such as GR, uric acid, and GGT are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the whole system cannot compensate for an enhanced production of ROS as reflected by the trend toward decreased erythrocytes GSH. PMID:26640613

  10. Difficulties of Diabetic Patients in Learning about Their Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean Francois

    2001-01-01

    Examines the difficulties experienced by diabetic patients in learning about their illness. Diabetic people (N=138) were questioned by means of a closed answer questionnaire. Results reveal that patients easily acquired manual skills, yet numerous learning difficulties were associated with the skills required to solve problems and make decisions,…

  11. Case series of rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurring in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Rasoul; Meidani, Mohsen; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Iraj, Bijan; Hamedani, Pooria; Sayedain, Sayed Mohammad Amin; Mokhtari, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a fatal infection typically affecting diabetic or immunosuppressed patients. In most cases, infection is caused by inhalation of fungal spores. Mortality rate of patients is very high (40-85%). Case Presentation: In this study, three diabetic patients with rhinocerebral mucormycosis were presented. The etiologic agents of mucormycosis in two patients were isolated and identified by sequence analysis and data were registered in Gene bank database. Conclusion: In patients with mucoreosis, early detection, surgical excision and appropriate debridement, suitable antifungal therapy, and control of risk factors like diabetes mellitus are the main parameters of successful management of this lethal infection.

  12. Fatal Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a patient with diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Orrett, F. A.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a fatal case of Bacillus cereus septicemia in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes and re-emphasizes the potential seriousness of Bacillus infections in patients with compromised immune function. PMID:10976178

  13. Short Sleep Duration and Poor Sleep Quality Increase the Risk of Diabetes in Japanese Workers With No Family History of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Toshiko; Yoshioka, Eiji; Satoh, Hiroki; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kawaharada, Mariko; Okada, Eisaku; Kishi, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a difference in the risk for diabetes exists in Japanese workers with regard to sleep duration/quality and the presence or absence of a family history of diabetes (FHD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The researchers conducted a prospective, occupational-based study of local government employees in Sapporo, Japan. Between April 2003 and March 2004, 3,570 nondiabetic participants, aged 35–55 years, underwent annual health checkups and completed a self-administered questionnaire that included information on sleep duration/quality and FHD at baseline. Having diabetes was defined as taking medication for diabetes or a fasting plasma glucose level of ?126 mg/dL at follow-up (2007–2008). RESULTS A total of 121 (3.4%) new cases of diabetes were reported. In multivariate logistic regression models of workers without an FHD, and after adjustment for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio (95% CI) for developing diabetes was 5.37 (1.38–20.91) in those with a sleep duration of ?5 h compared with those with a sleep duration of >7 h. Other risk factors were awakening during the night (5.03 [1.43–17.64]), self-perceived insufficient sleep duration (6.76 [2.09–21.87]), and unsatisfactory overall quality of sleep (3.71 [1.37–10.07]). In subjects with an FHD, these associations were either absent or weaker. CONCLUSIONS The current study shows that poor sleep is associated with a higher risk of developing diabetes in workers without an FHD. Promoting healthy sleeping habits may be effective for preventing the development of diabetes in people without an FHD. PMID:22210572

  14. Effect of hope therapy on the hope of diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghazavi, Zahra; Khaledi-Sardashti, Firouz; Kajbaf, Mohamad Bagher; Esmaielzadeh, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hope is the most important factor in diabetic patients’ life. The level of hope may be changing among these individuals as a result of chronic nature of diabetes and its complications. When the level of hope increases among these patients, they can resist against physical and psychological complications of diabetes more, accept the treatment better, enjoy life more, and adapt with their situations more efficiently. This study aimed to define the efficacy of hope therapy on hope among diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted on 38 diabetic patients referring to Sedigheh Tahereh Research and Treatment Center affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Iran in 2012. The subjects were selected based on the goals and inclusion criteria of the study and then were randomly assigned to study and control groups. Herth Hope Index (HHI) was completed by both groups before, after, and 1 month after intervention. In the study group, 120-min sessions of hope therapy were held twice a week for 4 weeks. Descriptive and inferential statistical tests were adopted to analyze the data through SPSS version 12. Results: Comparison of the results showed that hope therapy significantly increased hope in diabetic patients after intervention in the study group compared to control (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results showed that hope therapy increased hope among diabetic patients. This method is suggested to be conducted for diabetic patients. PMID:25709694

  15. Changes in retinal microvascular diameter in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Andréa Vasconcellos Batista; Gouvea, Sonia Alves; da Silva, Aurélio Paulo Batista; Bortolon, Saulo; Rodrigues, Anabel Nunes; Abreu, Glaucia Rodrigues; Herkenhoff, Fernando Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Diabetic retinopathy is the main microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus and needs to be diagnosed early to prevent severe sight-threatening retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to quantify the retinal microvasculature pattern and analyze the influence of blood glucose level and the duration of diabetes mellitus on the retinal microvasculature. Methods Two groups were analyzed: patients with diabetes (N=26) and patients without diabetes, ie, controls (N=26). A quantitative semiautomated method analyzed retinal microvasculature. The diameters of arterioles and venules were measured. The total numbers of arterioles and venules were counted. The ratio of arteriole diameter to venule diameter was calculated. The retinal microvasculature pattern was related to clinical and biochemical parameters. Results Patients with diabetes exhibited larger venule diameters in the upper temporal quadrant of the retina compared to the lower temporal quadrant (124.85±38.03 µm vs 102.92±15.69 µm; P<0.01). Patients with diabetes for 5 or more years had larger venule diameters in the upper temporal quadrant than patients without diabetes (141.62±44.44 vs 112.58±32.11 µm; P<0.05). The degree of venodilation in the upper temporal quadrant was positively correlated with blood glucose level and the estimated duration of diabetes mellitus. Interpretation and conclusion The employed quantitative method demonstrated that patients with diabetes exhibited venule dilation in the upper temporal quadrant, and the duration of diabetes mellitus was positively correlated with blood glucose level. Therefore, the early assessment of retinal microvascular changes is possible prior to the onset of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26345217

  16. Cataract surgery and postoperative complications in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ivanci?, Dorotea; Mandi?, Zdravko; Bara?, Josip; Kopi?, Mirta

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus influences the function and morphology of the eye lens. The cataract is the second most common complication of diabetes mellitus on the eye. A hundred patients with cataract were examined in the prospective study. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 50 patients with cataract who had not suffered from a system or local disease. The second group consisted of 50 patients with cataract and diabetes mellitus that had lasted for at least five years. In both groups the patients underwent identical cataract extra capsular extraction with intraocular PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) lens implantation in camera posterior. The objective of this study was to compare the two groups of patients in order to find out the most common intraoperative or postoperative complications in diabetics. The most common postoperative complications in patients suffering from diabetes were inflammatory reactions and bleeding: postoperative keratopathy, uveitis anterior serous and uveitis anterior fibrinous with posterior sinechia and opacity of the posterior lens capsule as results. Postoperative visual acuity was worse in the patients in group II on the seventh day and six months after operation. It was diabetic retinopathy and its progression that caused deterioration of visual acuity. Diabetic retinopathy and its progression, as well as maculopathy were found only in patients who were not treated with photocoagulation before the operation. PMID:16193678

  17. Noise-Enhanced Balance Control in Patients with Diabetes and Patients with Stroke

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    ,8 and James J. Collins, PhD1 Objective: Somatosensory function declines with diabetic neuropathy and often-standing balance control in 15 patients with diabetic neuropathy and 15 patients with stroke. Sway data of 12 reduction in each of the eight sway parameters in the subjects with diabetic neuropathy, the subjects

  18. Noise-Enhanced Vibrotactile Sensitivity in Older Adults, Patients With Stroke, and Patients With Diabetic Neuropathy

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    12 elderly subjects, for 4 of the 5 patients with stroke, and all 8 patients with diabetic neuropathy function. Key Words: Cerebrovascular accident; Diabetic neuropa- thies; Elderly; Rehabilitation; Sensation With Diabetic Neuropathy Wen Liu, PhD, Lewis A. Lipsitz, MD, Manuel Montero-Odasso, MD, Jonathan Bean, MD, D

  19. Ocular disease, knowledge and technology applications in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Threatt, Jennifer; Williamson, Jennifer F; Huynh, Kyle; Davis, Richard M

    2013-04-01

    An estimated 25.8 million children and adults in the United States, approximately 8.3% of the population, have diabetes. Diabetes prevalence varies by race and ethnicity. African Americans have the highest prevalence (12.6%), followed closely by Hispanics (11.8%), Asian Americans (8.4%) and whites (7.1%). The purpose of this article was to discuss the ocular complications of diabetes, the cultural and racial differences in diabetes knowledge and the role of telemedicine as a means to reach the undeserved who are at risk of complications. Information on the pathophysiology of ocular disease in patients with diabetes and the role of telemedicine in diabetes care was derived from a literature review. National Institutes of Health online resources were queried to present data on the racial and cultural understandings of diabetes and diabetes-related complications. The microvascular ocular complications of diabetes are discussed for retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma and ocular surface disease. Racial and cultural differences in knowledge of recommended self-care practices are presented. These differences, in part, may explain health disparities and the increased risk of diabetes and its complications in rural minority communities. Finally, advances in telemedicine technology are discussed that show improvements in metabolic control and cardiovascular risk in adults with type 2 diabetes. Improving provider and patient understanding of diabetes complications may improve management and self-care practices that are important for diabetes control. Telemedicine may improve access to diabetes specialists and may improve self-management education and diabetes control particularly in rural and underserved communities. PMID:23531956

  20. Diabetes in the hospitalized patients with urological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Verde, I; Rusu, E; Suliman, E; Costache, A; Armean, P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes and urological diseases are widespread health problems, whose incidence increases with age. The aim of this observational, retrospective study was to analyze the particularities of urinary disorders, which appeared in patients with diabetes, admitted in a urology ward. Material and methods: A total of 6910 patients admitted in “Th. Burghele” Hospital from January 2013 to July 2014 were analyzed. Only admissions in urology wards and the first hospitalization of the patient were elements that were taken into account. Data was taken from the Hipocrate medical information system and Easy Medical Pro laboratory medical software. Study variables were age and sex of patients, the main discharge diagnosis, the number of days of hospitalization and the laboratory analyses collected on the day of admission. The data of the whole lot was analyzed and then an analysis on subgroups of patients was done. Results: There were 16.52% (n=1142) patients with diabetes in the total group of analyzed patients. Urinary stones were the most frequent cause of hospitalization, both in patients with diabetes and in patients without diabetes (28.5%, respectively 37.5%). The average age was 60.01 years and the mean duration of hospitalization was 6.52 days. Patients with diabetes hospitalized for urinary stones, renal cancer, and infectious pathology were significantly older than patients without diabetes. The presence of diabetes prolonged hospitalization in the case of patients with kidney stones, kidney cancer and in those with infectious pathology. The most common malignancy was bladder cancer in both groups of patients. Malignancies were more common in diabetics (19.08% vs. 15.98%) and diabetes was a risk factor for malignancy in our study. In particular, patients with diabetes had a significantly increased risk of bladder cancer. In the analyzed group, diabetes was positively associated with prostate adenoma, genital infections, and prostate infections. Conclusions: Diabetes increased the risk for certain urological diseases (bladder cancer, prostate adenoma, prostate and genital infections), it prolonged hospitalizations, and it was associated with certain features of laboratory analysis (leukocytosis, decreased glomerular filtration rate).

  1. Subclinical Onychomycosis in Patients With Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    El Tawdy, Amira; Zaki, Naglaa; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Rateb, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Fungal organisms could be present in the nail without any clinical manifestations. As onychomycosis in diabetics has more serious complications, early detection of such infection could be helpful to prevent them. We aim in this study to assess the possibility of detecting subclinical onychomycosis in type II diabetic patients and addressing possible associated neuropathy. A cross sectional, observational study included patients with type II diabetes with normal big toe nail. All were subjected to nail clipping of the big toe nail, followed by staining with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Periodic-Acid-Schiff (PAS) stains and examined microscopically. A total of 106 patients were included, fungal infection was identified in eight specimens, all were uncontrolled diabetes, and six had neuropathy. Using the nail clipping and microscopic examination with PAS stain to detect such subclinical infection could be an applicable screening test for diabetic patients, for early detection and management of onychomycosis.

  2. HOMA-IR Values are Associated With Glycemic Control in Japanese Subjects Without Diabetes or Obesity: The KOBE Study

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Takumi; Higashiyama, Aya; Kubota, Yoshimi; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kadota, Aya; Nishida, Yoko; Imano, Hironori; Nishikawa, Tomofumi; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported that insulin resistance was a major risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals without diabetes or obesity. We aimed to clarify the association between insulin resistance and glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. Methods We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study including 1083 healthy subjects (323 men and 760 women) in an urban area. We performed multivariate regression analyses to estimate the association between the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and markers of glycemic control, including glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, after adjustment for potential confounders. Results Compared with the lowest tertile of HOMA-IR values, the highest tertile was significantly associated with HbA1c and FPG levels after adjustment for potential confounders, both in men (HbA1c: ? = 1.83, P = 0.001; FPG: ? = 0.49, P < 0.001) and women (HbA1c: ? = 0.82, P = 0.008; FPG: ? = 0.39, P < 0.001). The highest tertile of HOMA-IR values was inversely associated with 1,5-AG levels compared with the lowest tertile (? = ?18.42, P = 0.009) only in men. Conclusions HOMA-IR values were associated with markers of glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. Insulin resistance may influence glycemic control even in a lean, non-diabetic Asian population. PMID:26005064

  3. Skin and nail mycoses in patients with diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Papini, M; Cicoletti, M; Fabrizi, V; Landucci, P

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects all socioeconomic and age groups and its incidence is rapidly increasing worldwide. The diabetic foot complication represents one of the most complex and serious complications in these patients. Fungal infections can also contribute to the severity of the diabetic foot. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of foot skin and toenail mycosis in a group of 75 patients with diabetic foot complication and in a matched control group. Diabetic patients showed onychomycosis in 53.3% and foot skin mycosis in 46.7% of the cases, with a prevalence of both fungal infections significantly higher than that observed in the control group. At least one type of these fungal infections was present in 69.3% of diabetic subjects with a highly significant difference compared to control group (P<0.001). Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale were the most common species responsible of both nail and skin infections. Candida spp, Fusarium spp, Aspergillus spp and other moulds. were found in about 1/3 onychomycosis. Previous toe amputation was significantly associated with both skin and nail mycosis. The present study confirms that both tinea pedis and onychomycosis have a high prevalence in subjects suffering from diabetic foot complication, and that the problem of fungal infections of the foot in diabetic subjects is still highly underestimated. Consequently, there is an important clinical rationale for careful mycological examination of diabetic foot and an adequate treatment tailored for each individual patient according to the fungal species involved. PMID:24442040

  4. Management of type 2 diabetes: evolving strategies for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nyenwe, Ebenezer A.; Jerkins, Terri W.; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to increase at an alarming rate around the world, with even more people being affected by prediabetes. Although the pathogenesis and long-term complications of type 2 diabetes are fairly well known, its treatment has remained challenging, with only half of the patients achieving the recommended hemoglobin A1c target. This narrative review explores the pathogenetic rationale for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, with the view of fostering better understanding of the evolving treatment modalities. The diagnostic criteria including the role of hemoglobin A1c in the diagnosis of diabetes are discussed. Due attention is given to the different therapeutic maneuvers and their utility in the management of the diabetic patient. The evidence supporting the role of exercise, medical nutrition therapy, glucose monitoring, and antiobesity measures including pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery is discussed. The controversial subject of optimum glycemic control in hospitalized and ambulatory patients is discussed in detail. An update of the available pharmacologic options for the management of type 2 diabetes is provided with particular emphasis on newer and emerging modalities. Special attention has been given to the initiation of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes, with explanation of the pathophysiologic basis for insulin therapy in the ambulatory diabetic patient. A review of the evidence supporting the efficacy of the different preventive measures is also provided. PMID:21134520

  5. Nrf2 and Redox Status in Prediabetic and Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Osorio, Angélica S.; Picazo, Alejandra; González-Reyes, Susana; Barrera-Oviedo, Diana; Rodríguez-Arellano, Martha E.; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2014-01-01

    The redox status associated with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) was evaluated in prediabetic and diabetic subjects. Total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma and erythrocytes, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity of antioxidant enzymes were measured as redox status markers in 259 controls, 111 prediabetics and 186 diabetic type 2 subjects. Nrf2 was measured in nuclear extract fractions from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Nrf2 levels were lower in prediabetic and diabetic patients. TAS, GSH and activity of glutamate cysteine ligase were lower in diabetic subjects. An increase of MDA and superoxide dismutase activity was found in diabetic subjects. These results suggest that low levels of Nrf2 are involved in the development of oxidative stress and redox status disbalance in diabetic patients. PMID:25383674

  6. Impaired insulin turnover in islets from type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ehehalt, Florian; Knoch, Klaus; Erdmann, Katja; Krautz, Christian; Jäger, Melanie; Steffen, Anja; Wegbrod, Carolin; Meisterfeld, Ronny; Kersting, Stephan; Bergert, Hendrik; Kuhlisch, E; Bornstein, Stefan; Bonifacio, Ezio; Saeger, Hans-Detlev; Solimena, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Failure of pancreatic ?-cells contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Besides evidence of reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and ?-cell mass, little information is available about the molecular deficits of human diabetic islets. Islets were isolated from macroscopically normal pancreatic tissue from 8 patients with type 2 diabetes and 17 matched non-diabetic patients who underwent pancreatic surgery. Insulin content and insulin secretion were measured before and after islet stimulation with 25 mM glucose for 2 hours. In parallel, we also investigated the subcellular localization of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1), whose nucleocytoplasmic translocation is involved in the rapid posttranscriptional up-regulation of insulin biosynthesis following islet stimulation with glucose and GLP-1. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion was decreased, albeit not significantly, in type 2 diabetic islets compared to non-diabetic islets. Stimulation increased the total amount of insulin (islet insulin content + secreted insulin) in islet preparation from non-diabetic patients, but not from type 2 diabetic subjects. Furthermore, the nuclear levels of PTBP1 were decreased in stimulated non-diabetic islets, but not in type 2 diabetic islets. These results suggest that impairment of rapid insulin increase in response to glucose is a specific trait of type 2 diabetic islets. Nuclear retention of PTBP1 is likely to play a role in this deficit, which in turn can contribute to impaired insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. Overall, these data highlight the importance of investigating mechanisms of insulin biosynthesis and degradation to gain insight into the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21099291

  7. Sequence variations of the pancreatic islet/liver glucose transporter (GLUT2) gene in Japanese subjects with noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, Atsushi; Tanizawa, Yukio; Matsutani, Akira

    1995-10-01

    To assess the genetic susceptibility to noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in Japanese subjects, we investigated the role of GLUT2 gene defects in patients with NIDDM. When the allelic frequency of a simple tandem repeat polymorphism in the GLUT2 gene was compared, the allele with 155 base pairs was more common in NIDDM patients (n = 99) than in controls (n = 89; 5.1% v. 0.6%; P = 0.0118, by Fisher`s exact test), whereas this was not significant after the correction for multiple comparisons. To directly identify mutations, we then analyzed each of 11 exons by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis in 60 NIDDM patients. We found 2 missense mutations in exon 3: CCC{r_arrow}CTC (Pro{sup 68}{r_arrow}Leu) in 1 patient and ACT{r_arrow}ATT (Thr{sup 110}{r_arrow}Ile) in 3 patients, all in the heterozygous state. These mutations were found in 60 control subjects. To evaluate the significance of the Pro{sup 68}{r_arrow}Leu mutation, the family members of the proband were studied. The mutation did not appear to be associated with the disease or other clinical parameters including change in immunoreactive insulin/change in plasma glucose or oral glucose load. The other mutation (Thr{sup 110}{r_arrow}Ile) is known to be functionally insignificant. We identified 4 additional nucleotide changes, all of which appeared to be silent. We concluded that the mutations in the GLUT2 gene were not major determinants of genetic susceptibility to NIDDM in Japanese. 34 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. A Phase 3 Study of Evolocumab (AMG 145) in Statin-Treated Japanese Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Kiyosue, Arihiro; Honarpour, Narimon; Kurtz, Christopher; Xue, Allen; Wasserman, Scott M; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Evolocumab (AMG 145), a fully human monoclonal antibody against PCSK9, significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in phase 2 and 3 studies. This phase 3 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of evolocumab plus atorvastatin in Japanese patients with hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia and high cardiovascular risk. Patients were randomized to atorvastatin 5 or 20 mg/day for 4 weeks. Subsequently, patients underwent second randomization to evolocumab 140 mg biweekly (Q2W) or 420 mg monthly (QM) or placebo Q2W or QM. Coprimary end points were % change from baseline in LDL-C at week 12 and mean of weeks 10 and 12. Secondary end points included change and % change in other lipids and proportion of patients reaching LDL-C <70 mg/dl. Adverse events and laboratory values were recorded. Four hundred four patients were randomized to study drug. At baseline, the mean (SD) age was 61 (10) years (placebo) and 62 (11) years (evolocumab); 39% and 40% were women; 14% and 12% had cerebrovascular or peripheral arterial disease; and 51% and 47% had diabetes. At entry, mean (SD) calculated LDL-C was 128 (23) mg/dL; after stabilization on atorvastatin 5 and 20 mg/day, baseline LDL-C levels were 118 (35) and 94 (24) mg/dL, respectively. Mean LDL-C reductions at week 12 for evolocumab versus placebo ranged from 67% to 76%. No imbalances were observed in adverse events between treatment groups. Efficacy and safety for Q2W or QM evolocumab dosing were similar. In conclusion, in high-risk Japanese patients receiving stable statin therapy, evolocumab markedly reduced LDL-C and was well tolerated. PMID:26547291

  9. Assessment of Diabetic Polyneuropathy and Plantar Pressure in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Prevention of Diabetic Foot

    PubMed Central

    Skopljak, Amira; Sukalo, Aziz; Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera; Muftic, Mirsad; Tiric-Campara, Merita; Zunic, Lejla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Risk assessment for development foot ulcer in diabetics is a key aspect in any plan and program for prevention of non-traumatic amputation of lower extremities. Material and methods: In the prospective research to assessed diabetic neuropathy in diabetic patients, to determined the dynamic function of the foot (plantar pressure), by using pedobarography (Group I), and after the use of orthopedic insoles with help of pedobarography, to determined the connection between the risk factors: deformity of the foot, limited joint movements, diabetic polyneuropathy, plantar pressure in effort preventing changes in the diabetic foot. Results: Out of 1806 patients, who are registered in one Team of family medicine examined 100 patients with diabetes mellitus Type 2. The average age of subjects was 59.4, SD11.38. The average HbA1c was 7.78% SD1.58. Combining monofilament and tuning fork tests, the diagnosis of polyneuropathy have 65% of patients. Comparing Test Symptom Score individual parameters between the first and second measurement, using pedobarography, in Group I, statistically significant difference was found for all of the assessed parameters: pain, burning sensation, paresthesia and insensitivity (p<0,05). The measurements of peak pressure, both first and the second measurement, for all of the subjects in Group I(45) show values above 200kPa. That’s a level of pressure that needs to be corrected. The study finds correlation between the foot deformation, diabetic polyneuropathy and plantar pressure (p>0,05). Conclusion: A detail clinical exam of diabetic food in a family doctor office equipped with pedobarography (plantar pressure measurements), use of orthopedic insoles, significantly reduces clinical symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy in patients with diabetes. PMID:25650237

  10. Predictors of Glycated Hemoglobin among Jordanian Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    HAMMAD, Sawsan; DARAWAD, Muhammad; HOURANI, Eman; DEMEH, Waddah

    2015-01-01

    Background: We explored the level of Jordanian patients' knowledge, diabetes related distress, self-management activities and these effects on the A1C level. Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional correlational design (conducted in 2013) was utilized to recruit 289 diabetic patients from outpatient diabetes clinics, using self-reported questionnaires (Diabetes Knowledge Test, Diabetes Distress Scale, and Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire) in addition to chart review for selected variables. Results: Participants' had mean glycated hemoglobin of 7.88%. Good glycemic control was significantly associated with higher self-management activities (r= ?.147), high income (r= ?.171), older age (r= ?.252), shorter duration of illness (r= .153), and low levels of distress. Despite these relationships only age, duration of illness and income significantly predicted A1C (F (5, 284) = 11.57, P<.001, R2 = .17). Further, diabetes knowledge, diabetes-related distress, and self-management could not predict A1C level. Conclusion: Only diabetes-related distress and self-management correlated with patients' A1C, with no predictive power. Thus, further research is required to shed the light on the large unexplained components of the A1C variance.

  11. Treatment of hyperphosphatemia with bixalomer in Japanese patients on long-term hemodialysis with gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kae; Takeshima, Akiko; Shishido, Kanji; Wakasa, Mikio; Kumata, Chiaki; Matsuzaka, Kantaro; Nakajima, Yutaka; Ogata, Hiroaki

    2014-06-01

    Bixalomer (Bix) is an amine-functional polymer, non-calcium-containing phosphate (P) binder, and has been clinically available in Japan recently. Bix is expected to cause fewer gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects as compared with sevelamer hydrochloride (SH), because of less expansion of Bix in the GI tract. In this prospective observational study, we evaluated changes in GI symptoms by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) score in long-term hemodialysis (HD) outpatients with SH-associated GI symptoms who switched to Bix from SH. A total of 114 patients (age 63.7±10.8 year (mean±SD), female 65.5%, HD vintage 11.2±8.6 years, diabetes mellitus 27.4%) were enrolled. The GSRS score was checked at 0 and 12 weeks after the start of Bix. Bix was started at the initial dose of 750?mg/day, and then was titrated. Serum albumin, P and corrected calcium levels did not significantly change during Bix treatment. However, serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and bicarbonate levels significantly increased during Bix treatment (P<0.001). In GSRS scores, total and domain-specific scores, including constipation, diarrhea, reflux and abdominal pain were significantly reduced at 0, 4, 12 and 24 weeks as compared with those at 0 weeks (P<0.05). This study shows that Bix was well tolerated and managed hyperphosphatemia effectively after switching from SH in Japanese patients on long-term HD. In addition, Bix might be less often associated with GI symptoms as compared with SH. PMID:24975891

  12. Predictors of direct cost of diabetes care in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines factors that predict elevated direct costs of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods: A cohort of 784 children with type 1 diabetes at least 6 months postdiagnosis and managed by pediatric endocrinologists at Texas Children's Hospital were included in this study. Actual...

  13. Clinical Characteristics of Diabetic Patients Transferred to Korean Referral Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Min Young; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, In Kyu; Baek, Hong Sun; Lee, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Min Young

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the disease profile and clinical management, including the status of both glycemic control and complications, in patients with diabetes who were transferred to referral hospitals in Korea. Methods Patients referred to 20 referral hospitals in Gyeongsangnam/Gyeongsangbuk-do and Jeollanam/Jeollabuk-do with at least a 1-year history of diabetes between January and June 2011 were retrospectively reviewed using medical records, laboratory tests, and questionnaires. Results A total of 654 patients were enrolled in the study. In total, 437 patients (67%) were transferred from clinics and 197 (30%) patients were transferred from hospitals. A total of 279 patients (43%) visited higher medical institutions without a written medical request. The main reason for the referral was glycemic control in 433 patients (66%). Seventy-three patients (11%) had received more than one session of diabetic education. Only 177 patients (27%) had been routinely self-monitoring blood glucose, and 146 patients (22%) were monitoring hemoglobin A1c. In addition, proper evaluations for diabetic complications were performed for 74 patients (11%). The most common complication was neuropathy (32%) followed by nephropathy (31%). In total, 538 patients (82%) had been taking oral hypoglycemic agents. A relatively large number of patients (44%) had been taking antihypertensive medications. Conclusion We investigated the clinical characteristics of diabetic patients and identified specific problems in diabetic management prior to the transfer. We also found several problems in the medical system, which were divided into three medical institutions having different roles in Korea. Our findings suggested that the relationships among medical institutions have to be improved, particularly for diabetes. PMID:25349826

  14. [Diabetes management issues for patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Oulahiane, Asmaa; Anaddam, Sara; Ouleghzal, Hassan; Elhaddad, Nadia; Moussaoui, Souad; Yaagoubi, Noussaima; Boufares, Fatima; Belmejdoub, Ghizlaine

    2012-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease is in continuous increase and can be found in up to 23% of patients with diabetes. Glycemic control is difficult to assess and medication therapy for diabetes may require dose adjustments part of the alteration of drug's pharmacokinetics and the insulin resistance which is predicting cardiovascular events. The recommended hemoglobin A1c goal is also lower than 7.0% without hypoglycemia. In this article, we review the therapeutic management of diabetic patients in chronic renal failure stage which is difficult and the ways to control blood glucose. Multidisciplinary approach, which is including management of comorbid diseases, is necessary to provide the optimal care of these patients. PMID:22015216

  15. Sustained Decrease of Early-Phase Insulin Secretion in Japanese Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Who Developed Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Impaired Fasting Glucose Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hiroko; Tachibana, Daisuke; Hamuro, Akihiro; Misugi, Takuya; Motoyama, Koka; Morioka, Tomoaki; Fukumoto, Shinya; Emoto, Masanori; Inaba, Masaaki; Koyama, Masayasu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to compare glucose intolerance in the antenatal and the postpartum periods using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) using a retrospective design. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were obtained from 85 Japanese women with GDM who delivered from April 2011 through April 2015 and who underwent an OGTT 6–14 weeks postpartum. The women were divided into two groups based on the results of the postpartum OGTT: one group with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and the other with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG). We analyzed the associations between postpartum IGT–IFG and various factors. RESULTS Antenatally, a significant difference was observed between the groups only in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of the 75-g OGTT. Postpartum results of plasma glucose level were significantly higher at 0.5, 1, and 2 hours in the IGT–IFG group than those in the NGT group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the levels of 0.5-hour immunoreactive insulin and insulinogenic index was observed in the IGT–IFG group compared to those in the NGT group. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and homeostasis model assessment ?-cell function of both groups were found to significantly decrease in the postpartum period; however, there was no significant change in the insulinogenic index of either group. CONCLUSIONS Our study clearly showed that the postpartum IGT and IFG levels of Japanese women with GDM are affected by impaired early-phase insulin secretion; however, insulin resistance promptly improves. PMID:26688669

  16. Administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors is associated with slow progression of mild aortic stenosis in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Kana; Tsujino, Takeshi; Naito, Yoshiro; Ezumi, Akira; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Nakao, Shinji; Goda, Akiko; Sakata, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Daimon, Takashi; Masuyama, Tohru

    2011-05-01

    It is almost unknown which demographic factors or medications affect the progression of aortic stenosis (AS) in Japanese patients with mild AS. We identified a total of 194 patients with native tricuspid valvular AS, defined as a continuous-wave Doppler determined peak aortic valve jet velocity of ? 2.0 m/s, in whom echo Doppler studies were repeated at an interim of at least 6 months. Annualized change in peak jet velocity was calculated, and effects of age, sex, diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, and use of statins and antihypertensive agents on the progression of AS were retrospectively evaluated. Peak aortic valve jet velocity was 2.36 ± 0.79 m/s (mean ± SD) and annualized increase in peak aortic valve jet velocity was 0.17 ± 0.32 m/s/year for all the studied patients. The increase in peak aortic valve jet velocity was lower in patients taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) than in those not taking ACE-Is (0.04 ± 0.22 vs. 0.20 ± 0.32 m/s/year, P < 0.05). Such protective associations were not observed for other first-line antihypertensive agents and statins. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that ACE-I treatment, decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction, and higher peak aortic valve jet velocity at the first echocardiogram were associated with slower progression of AS. Administration of ACE-Is was associated with the slow progression of mild AS in Japanese patients. Prospective study to assess this hypothesis is needed. PMID:21063877

  17. Association Between Diabetic Macular Edema and Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Leveziel, Nicolas; Ragot, Stéphanie; Gand, Elise; Lichtwitz, Olivier; Halimi, Jean Michel; Gozlan, Julien; Gourdy, Pierre; Robert, Marie-Françoise; Dardari, Dured; Boissonnot, Michèle; Roussel, Ronan; Piguel, Xavier; Dupuy, Olivier; Torremocha, Florence; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Maréchaud, Richard; Hadjadj, Samy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the main cause of visual loss associated with diabetes but any association between DME and cardiovascular events is unclear. This study aims to describe the possible association between DME and cardiovascular events in a multicenter cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes. Two thousand eight hundred seven patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from diabetes and nephrology clinical institutional centers participating in the DIAB 2 NEPHROGENE study focusing on diabetic complications. DME (presence/absence) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) classification were based on ophthalmological report and/or on 30° color retinal photographs. DR was defined as absent, nonproliferative (background, moderate, or severe) or proliferative. Cardiovascular events were stroke, myocardial infarction, and lower limb amputation. Details regarding associations between DME and cardiovascular events were evaluated. The study included 2807 patients with type 2 diabetes, of whom 355 (12.6%) had DME. DME was significantly and independently associated with patient age, known duration of diabetes, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, and DR stage. Only the prior history of lower limb amputation was strongly associated with DME in univariate and multivariate analyses, whereas no association was found with regard to myocardial infarction or stroke. Moreover, both major (n?=?32) and minor lower limb (n?=?96) amputations were similarly associated with DME, with respective odds ratio of 3.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–7.74; P?=?0.0012) and of 4.29 (95% CI, 2.79–6.61; P?diabetic patients. PMID:26287408

  18. A cross-cultural study on impaired self-awareness in Japanese patients with brain dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Prigatano, G P; Ogano, M; Amakusa, B

    1997-04-01

    Japanese patients with brain dysfunction (21 with severe traumatic brain injury [TBI], 21 with right, and 21 with left cerebral vascular accidents [CVA]) were asked to make behavioral ratings regarding their competencies in several areas. Relatives of patients and physical therapists who treated them also rated each patient's behavioral competency. Japanese patients with TBI overestimated their behavioral competencies compared with therapists ratings, but not relatives' ratings. Japanese patients with TBI overstimated self-care skills but not their ability to interact in socioemotional situations. Patients who had right and left CVA did not differ in their mean ratings of behavioral competency. Among all patient groups, there was no correlation between self-reported competencies and performance on a neuropsychological test. Family ratings of patients' behavioral competencies correlated with the patients' neuropsychological test performance. Post hoc analyses of patients with TBI suggest that speed of finger tapping related to an impaired self-awareness. Whereas cultural factors may influence self-reports of behavioral competency, patients across cultures with brain dysfunction seem to have reduced insight into their actual level of neuropsychological functioning. PMID:9150515

  19. Diabetic foot risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot is a serious condition in patients with a long lasting diabetes mellitus. Diabetic foot treated improperly may lead not only to delayed ulceration healing, generalized inflammation, unnecessary surgical intervention, but also to the lower limb amputation. The aim of this study was to compare diabetic foot risk factors in population with type 2 diabetes and risk factors for diabetes in healthy subjects. Methods The study included 900 subjects: 145 with diabetic foot, 293 with type 2 diabetes without diabetic foot and 462 healthy controls matched in terms of mean age, gender structure and cardiovascular diseases absence. Study was conducted in Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland. In statistical analysis a logistic regression model, U Mann-Whitney’s and t-Student test were used. Results The binomial logit models analysis showed that the risk of diabetic foot in patients with type 2 diabetes was decreased by patient’s age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-0.96; p = 0.00001) and hyperlipidaemia (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.36-0.81; p = 0.01). In contrast, male gender (OR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.86-4.28; p = 0.00001) diabetes duration (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06; p = 0.0003), weight (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06; p = 0.00001), height (OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05-1.11; p = 0.00001) and waist circumference (OR = 1.028; 95% CI: 1.007-1.050; p = 0.006) increase the risk of diabetic foot. The onset of type 2 diabetes in healthy subjects was increased by weight (OR = 1.035; 95% CI: 1.024-1.046; p = 0.00001), WC (OR = 1.075; 95% CI: 1.055-1.096; p = 00001), hip circumference (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05; p = 0.005), overweight defined with body mass index (BMI) above 24,9 kg/m2 (OR = 2.49; 95% CI: 1.77-3.51; p = 0.00001) and hyperlipidaemia (OR = 3.53; 95% CI: 2.57-4.84; p = 0.00001). Conclusions Risk factors for Type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot are only partially common. Study proved that patients who are prone to developing diabetic foot experience different risk factors than patients who are at risk of diabetes. Identification of relationship between diabetic foot and diabetes risk factors in appropriate groups may help clinicians to focus on certain factors in diabetic foot prevention. PMID:25114882

  20. Factors influencing the survival period in Japanese patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yasushi; Akagi, Akio; Mimuro, Maya; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari

    2015-10-15

    Although Japanese cases of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) generally involve longer survival periods compared to those from other countries, details regarding the factors influencing survival are unclear. To determine the influence of certain factors on survival, we retrospectively assessed 51 Japanese MM1-type sCJD patients with respect to background, clinical course, and disease management. No significant differences were found between men and women, tracheotomy and nontracheotomy patients, or patients treated in public and other types of hospitals. Although the survival period of tube-fed patients was significantly longer than that of patients who were not tube fed, survival of patients fed via a nasal tube did not differ significantly from that of gastrostomy-fed patients. The proportion of tube-fed patients was 68.6% (35/51). Disease duration was not significantly associated with age or year of onset. However, it was associated with time from onset to first recognition of myoclonus, first recognition of periodic sharp-wave complexes on electroencephalogram, and progression to the akinetic mutism state. Mechanical ventilation was not performed for any patient. Because the total disease duration increased in cases with a slowly progressive clinical course as a natural outcome, we concluded that the most crucial factor contributing to the prolonged survival of Japanese sCJD patients was tube feeding once the akinetic mutism state had been reached. PMID:26143527

  1. Diabetes self-care behaviours and clinical outcomes among Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Chung-Mei; Dwyer, Johanna T; Jacques, Paul F; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Haas, Catherine F; Weinger, Katie

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influences of patients' background characteristics on the frequency of performing five diabetes self-care behaviours that 185 Taiwanese outpatients reported. All patients had type 2 diabetes diagnosed for more than a year and attended an outpatient clinic at a large university hospital where they had received at least one dietitian-led individual nutrition education session and one nurse-led diabetes education session during the course of their care. Seventy nine percent of the patients regularly (defined as responses often or always on the questionnaire) took their medications and over half followed recommended meal plans and exercised, but fewer performed foot care (38%) or checked their blood glucose levels (20%) regularly. The associations between patients' demographics and disease-related characteristics and their performance of self-care behaviours were assessed with logistic regression. Although checking blood glucose levels and performing diabetes foot care were unrelated to any clinical outcome examined, patients who took their diabetes medications had lower hemoglobin A1c levels and fewer chronic complications than those who did not. Furthermore, patients who followed a diabetes meal plan also had lower hemoglobin A1c levels, and those who exercised regularly had healthier body mass indices (BMI) than those who did not. PMID:26420184

  2. Urinary biomarkers for early diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Fiseha, Temesgen

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of diabetes associated with increased risk of mortality, and cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Diagnostic markers to detect DN at early stage are important as early intervention can slow loss of kidney function and improve patient outcomes. Urinary biomarkers may be elevated in diabetic patients even before the appearance of microalbuminuria, and can be used as useful marker for detecting nephropathy in patients with normoalbuminuria (early DN). We reviewed some new and important urinary biomarkers, such as: Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG), Cystatin C, alpha 1-microglobulin, immunoglobulin G or M, type IV collagen, nephrin, angiotensinogen and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) associated with early DN in type 2 diabetic patients. Our search identified a total of 42 studies that have been published to date. Urinary levels of these biomarkers were elevated in type 2 diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic controls, including in patients who had no signs indicating nephropathy (without microalbuminuria), and showed positive correlation with albuminuria. Despite the promise of these new urinary biomarkers, further large, multicenter prospective studies are still needed to confirm their clinical utility as a screening tool for early type 2 DN in every day practice. PMID:26146561

  3. Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis Among Diabetic Patients: An Emerging Trend.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sujatha S; Rakesh, N; Chauhan, Pallavi; Sharma, Shivani

    2015-12-01

    Mucormycosis is an acute necrotic fungal infection with a fulminant course. Earlier considered a rare entity, mucormycosis is being reported with increasing frequency in recent years, possibly due to the increase in immunocompromised population especially diabetic patients. We report three cases of rhinocerebral mucormycosis among poorly controlled diabetic patients. This article emphasizes the need for further awareness of this disease, early diagnosis, and treatment to counter this opportunistic infection. PMID:26349570

  4. Antithrombotic therapy in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Lemesle, G; Bauters, A; Bauters, C

    2015-06-01

    In case of coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetic patients are at higher risk than their non-diabetic counterparts. Antithrombotics are therefore of key importance to decrease the risk of ischemic complications. A careful assessment of the benefit-risk balance is however needed to limit the risk of bleeding. Diabetic CAD patients are characterized by a pro-thrombotic milieu and by an impaired response to both aspirin and P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, especially to clopidogrel. When combined with aspirin, the new P2Y12 receptor inhibitors prasugrel and ticagrelor provide superior efficacy for the diabetic patients with acute coronary syndromes. In stable CAD, antiplatelet monotherapy (aspirin) remains for the time being the reference treatment for diabetic as well as for non-diabetic patients; further studies are however ongoing to test whether the antithrombotic strategy should be reinforced, particularly in case of diabetes mellitus. Finally, although chronic oral anticoagulation is rarely indicated for CAD management in itself, it is often prescribed for the concomitant treatment of atrial fibrillation. The combination of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy is associated with a high risk of bleeding and should only be prescribed for limited periods of time when the estimated benefits exceed the risks. PMID:25585230

  5. Pharmacologic management of hypertension in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Karen L; Stewart, Robert D

    2008-12-01

    Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with diabetes, and adequate control of blood pressure significantly reduces the risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Patients with diabetes should achieve a target blood pressure of less than 130/80 mm Hg. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may slow progression to kidney failure and cardiovascular mortality; these agents are the preferred therapy for managing coexisting diabetes and hypertension. Angiotensin receptor blockers can prevent progression of diabetic kidney disease and are a first-line alternative for patients intolerant of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Thiazide diuretics provide additional antihypertensive effects when combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. With lower doses of these drugs, the risk of clinically significant metabolic alterations is minimal. Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers also have beneficial effects in managing hypertension in patients with diabetes. Beta blockers reduce cardiovascular events and are useful in a multidrug regimen. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers should be reserved for patients intolerant of preferred agents or those who need additional therapy to achieve target blood pressure. Many patients with diabetes require combination therapy with multiple antihypertensive agents. PMID:19069021

  6. Updates on the management of diabetes in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Connie M; Leung, Angela M; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Lynch, Katherine E; Brent, Gregory A; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the U.S. and many countries globally. The role of improved glycemic control in ameliorating the exceedingly high mortality risk of diabetic dialysis patients is unclear. The treatment of diabetes in ESRD patients is challenging, given changes in glucose homeostasis, the unclear accuracy of glycemic control metrics, and the altered pharmacokinetics of glucose-lowering drugs by kidney dysfunction, the uremic milieu, and dialysis therapy. Up to one-third of diabetic dialysis patients may experience spontaneous resolution of hyperglycemia with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels <6%, a phenomenon known as "Burnt-Out Diabetes," which remains with unclear biologic plausibility and undetermined clinical implications. Conventional methods of glycemic control assessment are confounded by the laboratory abnormalities and comorbidities associated with ESRD. Similar to more recent approaches in the general population, there is concern that glucose normalization may be harmful in ESRD patients. There is uncertainty surrounding the optimal glycemic target in this population, although recent epidemiologic data suggest that HbA1c ranges of 6% to 8%, as well as 7% to 9%, are associated with increased survival rates among diabetic dialysis patients. Lastly, many glucose-lowering drugs and their active metabolites are renally metabolized and excreted, and hence, require dose adjustment or avoidance in dialysis patients. PMID:24588802

  7. Disorders of colonic motility in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Battle, W. M.; Cohen, J. D.; Snape, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Motility disturbances of the colon can give significant symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus. Constipation is a common complaint in these patients. Diarrhea associated with a generalized autonomic neuropathy can be very troublesome. There is a disturbance in the gastrocolonic response to eating in patients with diabetes mellitus who have constipation. These patients have no postprandial increase in colonic motility. However, their colonic smooth muscle contracts normally to the exogenous administration of neostigmine or metoclopramide. Stool softeners used in combination with the smooth muscle stimulants (neostigmine or metoclopramide) are helpful in treating constipation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diarrhea can be treated with loperamide or diphenoxylate. Biofeedback may be useful in treating incontinence associated with diarrhea in these patients. PMID:6670291

  8. Prevalence of oral mucosal alterations in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending a diabetic center

    PubMed Central

    Mohsin, Syed Fareed; Ahmed, Syed Azhar; Fawwad, Asher; Basit, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore an association between oral mucosal alterations and type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Methods: This study was conducted at Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology and Baqai Medical University from September 2010 to September 2012. A total of 800 individuals’ 395 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 405 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. An oral clinical examination was carried out for all participants using a mouth mirror, visible light source and cotton gauze. Results: The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was high significantly < 0.0001; odd ratio 2.601, CI 1.929-3.509 in type 2 diabetic as compared to non-diabetic. With respect to specific oral mucosal lesions, highly significant association p<0.0001; Odd ratio 4.275, CI 2.798-6.534 was found between coated tongue with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study did not find any association (p>0.05) between type 2 diabetes mellitus and potentially malignant disorders. Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was higher in type 2 diabetic than non-diabetics. This study provides evidence that diabetes has a negative influence on oral health. PMID:25097503

  9. Incidence of dizziness and vertigo in Japanese primary care clinic patients with lifestyle-related diseases: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Masaoki; Takeshima, Taro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Oki, Hiroshi; Kajii, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dizziness and vertigo are highly prevalent symptoms among patients presenting at primary care clinics, and peripheral vestibular disorder (PVD) is their most frequent cause. However, the incidence of PVD has not been well documented. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of dizziness, vertigo, and PVD among patients presenting at a primary care clinic. Design This was an observational study. Setting and participants Between November 2011 and March 2013, we observed 393 patients, all at least 20 years old, who had been treated for chronic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus for at least 6 months at a primary clinic (Oki Clinic) in Japan. Outcome The main outcome of interest was new incidence of dizziness, vertigo, and PVD events. During the 1-year follow-up period, the otorhinolaryngologist diagnosed and reported new PVD events. Results The mean age of the 393 participants at entry was 65.5 years. Of the study participants, 12.7%, 82.4%, and 92.6% had diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, respectively. We followed up all the participants (100%). During the 662.5 person-years of follow-up, 121 cases of dizziness or vertigo (dizziness/vertigo) and 76 cases of PVD were observed. The incidence of dizziness/vertigo and PVD was 194.7 (95% confidence interval: 161.6–232.6) per 1,000 person-years and 115.7 (95% confidence interval: 92.2–142.6) per 1,000 person-years, respectively. There were 61 cases of acute peripheral vestibulopathy, 12 of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and three of Meniere’s disease among the 76 PVD patients. Conclusion We reported the incidence of dizziness/vertigo among Japanese primary care clinic patients, which was higher than that usually observed in the general population. Furthermore, we described the incidence of PVD and found that it was a major cause of dizziness/vertigo. PMID:25931828

  10. Diabetes therapies in hemodialysis patients: Dipeptidase-4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yuya; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Tsuji, Mayumi; Udaka, Yuko; Mihara, Masatomo; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Inoue, Michiyasu; Goto, Yoshikazu; Gotoh, Hiromichi; Inagaki, Masahiro; Oguchi, Katsuji

    2015-01-01

    Although several previous studies have been published on the effects of dipeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients, the findings have yet to be reviewed comprehensively. Eyesight failure caused by diabetic retinopathy and aging-related dementia make multiple daily insulin injections difficult for HD patients. Therefore, we reviewed the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors with a focus on oral antidiabetic drugs as a new treatment strategy in HD patients with diabetes. The following 7 DPP-4 inhibitors are available worldwide: sitagliptin, vildagliptin, alogliptin, linagliptin, teneligliptin, anagliptin, and saxagliptin. All of these are administered once daily with dose adjustments in HD patients. Four types of oral antidiabetic drugs can be administered for combination oral therapy with DPP-4 inhibitors, including sulfonylureas, meglitinide, thiazolidinediones, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. Nine studies examined the antidiabetic effects in HD patients. Treatments decreased hemoglobin A1c and glycated albumin levels by 0.3% to 1.3% and 1.7% to 4.9%, respectively. The efficacy of DPP-4 inhibitor treatment is high among HD patients, and no patients exhibited significant severe adverse effects such as hypoglycemia and liver dysfunction. DPP-4 inhibitors are key drugs in new treatment strategies for HD patients with diabetes and with limited choices for diabetes treatment. PMID:26131325

  11. A comparison between Moroccan and Belgian type-2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Riffi, A; Devroey, D; Van De Vijver, E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare diabetes parameters and complications among Moroccan and Belgian type 2 diabetic patients living in Belgium. In two general practices 62 Belgian and 95 Moroccan diabetic patients aged between 40 and 70 were included. The mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was 31% higher in the Moroccan group (186 mg/dL) than in the Belgian group (142 mg/dL) (p < 0.001). Compared with 7.6% in the Belgian group, mean HbA1c was also significantly higher in the Moroccan group (8.7%) (p < 0.001). In the Moroccan group 43% showed at least one of the four major diabetic complications compared to 33% in the Belgian group (p = 0.21). Among Moroccan patients retinopathy occurred in 15%, nephropathy in 32%, neuropathy in 21% and foot problems in 18%. PMID:23019798

  12. Comparison of salivary and serum glucose levels in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shruti; Sandhu, Simarpreet Virk; Bansal, Himanta; Sharma, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a noncommunicable disease with a rising prevalence worldwide and in developing countries. The most commonly used diagnostic biofluid for detection of glucose levels is blood, but sample collection is an invasive and painful procedure. Thus, there arises a need for a noninvasive and painless technique to detect glucose levels. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the glucose levels of saliva, to assess if any significant correlation existed between the serum and salivary glucose levels, and to correlate salivary glucose levels with regard to duration of diabetes, age, and gender. In the present study, serum and salivary glucose levels of 200 subjects (100 diabetic subjects and 100 nondiabetic subjects) were estimated by glucose oxidase method. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were also measured in randomly selected 40 diabetic subjects. The findings of present study revealed a significant correlation between salivary and serum glucose levels in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. No significant relationship was observed between salivary glucose levels and gender or age in both diabetics and nondiabetics and between salivary glucose levels and duration of diabetes in diabetics. On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that salivary glucose levels could serve as a potentially noninvasive adjunct to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients. PMID:25294888

  13. Increased Circulating Betatrophin Concentrations in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Betatrophin has recently been described as a key hormone to stimulate beta-cell mass expansion in response to insulin resistance and obesity in mice. The finding has generated an interest in the development of antidiabetic drugs with betatrophin as the active component. However, the circulating levels of betatrophin in patients with type 2 diabetes are not well known. Betatrophin concentrations in plasma of 27 type 2 diabetes patients and 18 gender-, age-, and BMI-matched controls were measured. Study participants were characterized with regard to BMI, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure, and fasting plasma blood lipids, creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, and C-peptide. HOMA2 indices were calculated. Betatrophin was 40% higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (893 ± 80 versus 639 ± 66?pg/mL). Betatrophin positively correlated with age in the controls and with HbA1c in the type 2 diabetes patients. All study participants were insulin resistant with mean HOMA2B IR in both groups exceeding 2 and HOMA2%S < 50%. Control individuals had impaired fasting glucose concentrations. In this report on betatrophin concentrations in type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance, elevated betatrophin levels were measured in the patients with type 2 diabetes. Future studies are clearly needed to delineate the exact role, if any, of betatrophin in regulating human beta-cell mass. PMID:24963292

  14. The association of patient trust and self-care among patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bonds, Denise E; Camacho, Fabian; Bell, Ronny A; Duren-Winfield, Vanessa T; Anderson, Roger T; Goff, David C

    2004-01-01

    Background Diabetes requires significant alterations to lifestyle and completion of self management tasks to obtain good control of disease. The objective of this study was to determine if patient trust is associated with reduced difficulty and hassles in altering lifestyle and completing self care tasks. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey and medical record review was performed to measure patient trust and difficulty in completing diabetes tasks among 320 medically underserved patients attending diabetes programs in rural North Carolina, USA. Diabetes tasks were measured three ways: perceived hassles of diabetic care activities, difficulty in completing diabetes-related care activities, and a global assessment of overall ability to complete diabetes care activities. The association of patient trust with self-management was examined after controlling for patient demographics, physical functioning, mental health and co-morbidities. Results Level of patient trust was high (median 22, possible max 25). Higher trust levels were associated with lower levels of hassles (p = 0.006) and lower difficulty in completing care activities (p = 0.001). Patients with higher trust had better global assessments of overall ability to complete diabetes care activities (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Higher patient trust in physicians is associated with reduced difficulty in completing disease specific tasks by patients. Further studies are needed to determine the causal relationship of this association, the effect of trust on other outcomes, and the potential modifiability of trust PMID:15546482

  15. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P < 0.0001). When stratified by age, the prevalence was highest among young patients, and tended to decrease in patients aged 50 years or older. The anti-East-Asian CagA-specific antibody was negative in 99.4% of H. pylori-positive Mongolian patients. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia scores were significantly lower in Mongolian compared to Japanese H. pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001), with the exception of the intestinal metaplasia score of specimen from the greater curvature of the upper body. The type of gastritis changed from antrum-predominant gastritis to corpus-predominant gastritis with age in both populations. CONCLUSION: Gastric cancer was located in the upper part of the stomach in half of the Mongolian patients; Mongolian patients were infected with non-East-Asian-type H. pylori. PMID:26217093

  16. Causative anti-diabetic drugs and the underlying clinical factors for hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Adachi, Hiroki; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Moriyama, Sumie; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Sako, Akahito

    2015-01-01

    Recent clinical trials indicated that the intensive glycemic control do not reduce cardiovascular disease mortality among diabetic patients, challenging a significance of the strict glycemic control in diabetes management. Furthermore, retrospective analysis of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes study demonstrated a significant association between hypoglycemia and mortality. Here, we systematically reviewed the drug-induced hypoglycemia, and also the underlying clinical factors for hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes. The sulfonylurea use is significantly associated with severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. The use of biguanide (approximately 45%-76%) and thiazolidinediones (approximately 15%-34%) are also highly associated with the development of severe hypoglycemia. In patients treated with insulin, the intensified insulin therapy is more frequently associated with severe hypoglycemia than the conventional insulin therapy and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Among the underlying clinical factors for development of severe hypoglycemia, low socioeconomic status, aging, longer duration of diabetes, high HbA1c and low body mass index, comorbidities are precipitating factors for severe hypoglycemia. Poor cognitive and mental functions are also associated with severe hypoglycemia. PMID:25685276

  17. Red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Nada, Aml Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the indices of some elements of the complete blood count, in type 2 diabetic patients, in comparison with nondiabetic healthy controls; and to find out the effects of glycemic control and different medications on these indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in our environment and will serve as a foundation for other researchers in this field. Methods This retrospective study included 260 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and 44 healthy control subjects. Sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and lipid profile data, were available for all of the study population. For diabetic patients, data on duration of diabetes and all medications were also available. Results Red cell distribution width (RDW) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P=0.008). It was also higher in patients with uncontrolled glycemia (HbA1c >7%) than those with good control (HbA1c ?7%; P=0.035). Mean platelet volume (MPV) was comparable in both diabetic patients and healthy controls (P=0.238). RDW and MPV did not significantly correlate with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or duration of diabetes. Both aspirin and clopidogrel did not show a significant effect on MPV. Both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents did not show a significant effect on RDW, mean corpuscular volume, MPV, platelet count, or white blood cell count. Diabetic patients treated with indapamide or the combined thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers showed no significant difference in RDW when compared with the control subjects. Conclusion RDW, which is recently considered as an inflammatory marker with a significant predictive value of mortality in diseased and healthy populations, is significantly higher in diabetic patients than healthy subjects and is particularly higher in uncontrolled glycemia. None of the studied hypoglycemic agents showed a significant effect on RDW. Diabetic hypertensive patients receiving antihypertensive therapy in the form of indapamide or the combined therapy of thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers have RDW values comparable to those of the healthy population. PMID:26586957

  18. [Mortality of diabetic patients in Warsaw--22 year prospective observation (1973/74-1995). I. Mortality of diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent-diabetes)].

    PubMed

    Janeczko, D; Kopczy?ski, J; Czyzyk, A; Janeczko-Sosnowska, E A; Tuszy?ska, A; Lewandowski, Z

    1998-08-01

    In the period 1973/74-1995 a prospective observation was carried out on 4420 diabetic patients (1990 males and 2430 females) aged 30-68 years, with type 2 (non-insulin dependent diabetes) of 1-10 years duration. During the 22-years period nearly 80% of initial cohort died. The risk of death were 2-times higher in diabetes than in the samples of general population observed at the same time. The death risk from cardiovascular disease were over 3-times higher than in general population. The relevant risk ratio has been found over 5-times higher for coronary heart disease, which were unlike to results from the differences in death ascertainment between diabetics and the city dwellers. The all-causes ratio of death and cardiovascular diseases were the same for women and men but it was selectively higher for females then males group for coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases. Among diabetic cohort the risk of death was also higher for neoplasms, especially in women. PMID:10101931

  19. Use of social media to support patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca; Whitley, Heather P

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing, especially in the elderly population. Unfortunately, many seniors have limited access to ongoing health care, which may hinder improvements in these chronic disease states. Use of social media continues to increase among all populations. Thus, use of this venue to reach patients, including those with diabetes, is a reasonable undertaking. Countryside Diabetes is a Facebook page created and administered by Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy faculty and students to reach this growing and often underserved demographic. The aim is to provide ongoing education and support for people affected by diabetes. Information posted on the Web site began addressing usual diabetes-related topics such as nutrition, exercise, and selfcare. Each week the site focused on an individual topic, and specialists collaborated on these efforts, fortifying the site content through a multidisciplinary approach. Membership in the senior population continues to grow and garner participation. PMID:24413015

  20. [Relation between oral health conditions and diabetes mellitus in a japanese population from Bauru-SP-Brazil].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Nilce Emy; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro; Franco, Laércio Joel; Iunes, Magid; Freitas, José Alberto de Souza; Lopes, Eymar Sampaio

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the oral health condition in a Japanese population aged 40 to 79, in Bauru, Brazil as well as its association with the occurrence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance. It involved 530 subjects, from both sexes. All persons of first generation (Issei) and a random sample of one third of second generation (Nisei) were submitted to a home interview. A clinical examination, oral glucose tolerance test, and examination of oral health conditions took place at the Hospital of Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomaly - USP. The data were processed by Epi-Info program and 22.9% of the individuals presented diabetes mellitus (group I), 15.1% impaired glucose tolerance (group II), and 61.9% were considered normoglycemics (group III). The percentage of edentulous subjects was 45.9% for the total sample, and values of 58.4%, 46.7%, and 41.2% were observed for groups I, II, and III, respectively. Among the edentulous subjects, no one showed necessity of making a total prothesis. These data indicate that tooth loss showed significant association with the occurrence of diabetes mellitus, but there was no significant association with glucose intolerance. PMID:21409334

  1. Adipsia in a Diabetes Insipidus Patient

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Maria Conceição; Vieira, Margarida M.; Pereira, Joana Simões; Salgado, Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is a very common disorder after brain surgery or/trauma or even in the presence of brain inflammatory diseases. Polyuria and polydipsia are the clinical markers, but sometimes clinical situations are presenting with no thirst. These are not frequent but are life-treating conditions. Diagnosis is not easy, and for this reason some cases are treated late. We describe here a very infrequent oncological case of dangerous adipsic diabetes insipidus in a young girl who survived. PMID:26500540

  2. Distinct profiles of myositis-specific autoantibodies in Chinese and Japanese patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Yan; Guo, Ziwei; Sun, Lingyun; Kuwana, Masataka

    2015-09-01

    The study aims to comprehensively assess the profiles of myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) in Chinese patients with polymyositis (PM)/dermatomyositis (DM) and compare them with a Japanese cohort. One hundred forty-five Chinese patients (68 classic DM, 25 clinically amyopathic DM [CADM], and 52 PM) and 165 Japanese patients (56 classic DM, 52 CADM, and 57 PM) were recruited. MSAs were measured with immunoprecipitation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or immunoprecipitation-immunoblotting. MSA frequencies were compared. The overall frequency of anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibodies was significantly higher in the Chinese patients than in the Japanese cohort (36.6 % [53/145] versus 15.8 % [26/165], respectively, P?patients were observed in the classic DM subset (14.7 % [10/68] versus 46.4 % [26/56], respectively, P?patients with PM/DM was established. The differences in MSA frequencies in the Chinese cohort and Japanese cohort suggest underlying genetic and/or environmental differences between these two populations. Key Messages • A significantly higher frequency of anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibodies was observed in Chinese patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) than in Japanese patients. • Our findings suggest that distinct genetic and/or local environmental factors affect Chinese and Japanese patients with PM/DM, who have been considered a "homogeneous" population in previous studies. PMID:25903820

  3. Diabetes and glucose disturbances in patients with psychosis in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Eric; Westman, Jeanette; Sudic Hukic, Dzana; Eriksson, Sven V; Edman, Gunnar; Bodén, Robert; Jedenius, Erik; Reutfors, Johan; Berntsson, Anders; Hilding, Agneta; Schalling, Martin; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Ösby, Urban

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes, and antidiabetic medication in patients with psychosis compared with control subjects and (2) determine what factors in patients with psychosis were associated with antidiabetic medication. Method We studied 977 patients with psychosis recruited from outpatient clinics in Stockholm County, Sweden, and they were compared with 3908 non-psychotic control subjects for fasting plasma glucose levels; prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes, antidiabetic treatment, and tobacco use; and blood pressure, weight, height, and waist circumference. Group differences were evaluated with analysis of variance and ?2 test, and factors associated with antidiabetic treatment were evaluated with logistic regression. Results Diabetes was observed in 94 (10%) patients with psychosis, 2.7 times the prevalence observed in control subjects. Among patients with psychosis, 87 (10%) had prediabetes (fasting glucose, 6.1–6.9?mmol/L) compared with 149 (3.8%) control subjects. Most patients with psychosis (77%) who had prediabetes fulfilled criteria for metabolic syndrome. In patients with psychosis, both lipid-lowering medication and fasting glucose were significantly associated with antidiabetic treatment. There was no significant relation between antidiabetic treatment and lifestyle factors such as smoking or degree of psychiatric illness. Conclusions The high prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and metabolic syndrome in patients with psychosis warrants further clinical research in preventing or delaying the onset of diabetes in these patients by pharmacotherapy and/or lifestyle intervention. PMID:26468398

  4. Novel and emerging diabetes mellitus drug therapies for the type 2 diabetes patient

    PubMed Central

    Rochester, Charmaine D; Akiyode, Oluwaranti

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of deranged fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hyperglycemia as a result of insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion. Although a wide variety of diabetes therapies is available, yet limited efficacy, adverse effects, cost, contraindications, renal dosage adjustments, inflexible dosing schedules and weight gain significantly limit their use. In addition, many patients in the United States fail to meet the therapeutic HbA1c goal of < 7% set by the American Diabetes Association. As such new and emerging diabetes therapies with different mechanisms of action hope to address some of these drawbacks to improve the patient with type 2 diabetes. This article reviews new and emerging classes, including the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, 11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors, glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors; protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors, G Protein-Coupled receptor agonists and glucokinase activators. These emerging diabetes agents hold the promise of providing benefit of glucose lowering, weight reduction, low hypoglycemia risk, improve insulin sensitivity, pancreatic ? cell preservation, and oral formulation availability. However, further studies are needed to evaluate their safety profile, cardiovascular effects, and efficacy durability in order to determine their role in type 2 diabetes management. PMID:24936252

  5. Quantitative estimation of antioxidant therapy efficiency in diabetes mellitus patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Youri I.; Ishunina, Angela M.; Ovsyannickov, Konstantin V.; Strokov, Igor A.

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this work was to find out to which degree Tanakan affects the microcirculation parameters and the malonic dialdehyde level as a parameter of intense lipid peroxidation in insulin-independent diabetes patients with different disease durations. We used computerized capillaroscope GY-0.04 designed by the Centre for Analysis of Substances, Russia for the non-invasive measurement of capillary blood velocity as well as the size of the perivascular zone and density of blood aggregates and lipid inclusions. The microcirculation parameters were studied in two groups of insulin-independent diabetes patients. The basic group included 58 patients (61+/-9,0 years, disease duration 14,7+/-7,8 years). The patients had late diabetic complications as retinopathy and nephrophathy, neuropathy, confirmed by clinical and tool investigation. In this group we also studied the level of serum malonic dialdehyde, as a parameter of intense lipid peroxidation. The reference group included 31 patients (57+/-1,3 years, disease duration 3,6+/-0,6 years) with minimum diabetic complication. We show that Tanakan in daily dosage 120 mg for 2 months reduces the malonic dialdehyde level in the blood serum and the erythrocyte membranes of type II diabetes patients and improves the microcirculation parameters. There are correspondences between the density of lipid inclusions as determined with computerized capillaroscopy and the lipid exchange parameters as determined using a routing blood test. Thus, noninvasive blood lipid quantification is feasible and reliable.

  6. [COMBINED HONDROPROTECTION IN REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS WITH DIABETIC ARTHROPATHY].

    PubMed

    Orlenko, V L

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of combined chondroprotectors Teraflex® in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, complicated by arthropathy were investigated. It was established, that Tera- flex® therapy positively influences on the development of diabetic arthropathy (reducing intensity of pain, increasing the range of movements and reduced volume of the affected joints, increasing the functionality of the patient). In addition, an analysis of the impact of chondroprotectors on the level of sugar among patients.It was found, that it is necessary to control blood sugar while taking chondroprotectors and if needed, increasing the dose of hypoglycohaemic drugs during this period. PMID:26118037

  7. Hypopyon uveitis following panretinal photocoagulation in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Manish Kumar; Narayanan, Raja; Chhablani, Jay Kumar

    2014-05-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old man with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus who presented to us with diminution of vision in both eyes for the past two years. On examination, both eyes showed features of high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and the patient was advised of panretinal photocoagulation (PRP). He underwent the first sitting of PRP in both eyes. On the following day, he developed hypopyon uveitis in the right eye. He was treated with topical steroid and cycloplegic, and complete resolution of hypopyon was achieved over the next three days. This case highlights the importance of adequately controlled diabetes mellitus before PRP. Hypopyon uveitis could be a complication of PRP in patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus who respond to frequent topical steroid and cycloplegic. PMID:23947383

  8. Improvements in Care and Reduced Self-Management Barriers Among Rural Patients With Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettori, Nancy; Flook, Benjamin N.; Pessl, Erich; Quesenberry, Kim; Loh, Johnson; Harris, Colleen; McDowall, Janet M.; Butcher, Marcene K.; Helgerson, Steven D.; Gohdes, Dorothy; Harwell, Todd S.

    2005-01-01

    Improved preventive care and clinical outcomes among patients with diabetes can reduce complications and costs; however, diabetes care continues to be suboptimal. Few studies have described effective strategies for improving care among rural populations with diabetes. In 2000, the Park County Diabetes Project and the Montana Diabetes Control…

  9. Nocturnal convulsions and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, B. M.; Frier, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    Convulsions may occur as a consequence of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. We report three patients with insulin-dependent diabetes, who presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures associated with nocturnal hypoglycaemia. None of the patients had experienced hypoglycaemia during waking hours and the convulsions were mistakenly diagnosed as idiopathic epilepsy. Recognition of the possible hypoglycaemia aetiology of these convulsions permitted appropriate alteration of the insulin regimens with no recurrence of convulsions. In one case, the seizure was associated with bilateral fractures of the neck of the humerus. Unrecognized hypoglycaemia should be considered as a possible cause of convulsions in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Images Figure 1 PMID:3422871

  10. Spousal undermining of older diabetic patients' disease management.

    PubMed

    Henry, Shayna L; Rook, Karen S; Stephens, Mary A P; Franks, Melissa M

    2013-12-01

    Marriage can enhance health for individuals with a chronic disease, yet spouses may also undermine disease management. The current study investigated spousal undermining of dietary regimen in 129 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 40 patients reported that their spouses tempted them with forbidden foods, and 15 reported that their spouses conveyed disregard for their diabetic diet. Spousal tempting was associated with worse dietary adherence, and spousal disregard with worse nondietary adherence. Spousal undermining is relatively rare but is associated with patients' disease management and warrants further investigation to better understand how spouses influence partners' day-to-day management of chronic diseases. PMID:23325381

  11. Properties of erythrocyte light refraction in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Mazarevica, Gunta; Freivalds, Talivaldis; Jurka, Antra

    2002-04-01

    Since hyperglycaemia changes the erythrocyte cell membrane fluidity and impairs cell deformity, our goal was to characterize hemoglobin and red blood cell (RBC) light refractive property changes in diabetic patients. Microscopic investigation was carried out on intact and fixed RBCs. To determine the refractive index (RI): smears of peripheral blood were air dried and fixed for 3 min in methanol. Mixtures of polyvinylpyrolidine and buffer of different pH (1:1) were used as embedding media. Intact RBCs were mixed with a buffered embedding medium, placed on a slide and overlaid with a coverslip. Interference microscopy was used for RI measurements at 18 different pH (pH=2-13). The results showed that curves of the RI of diabetic patients and of a control group were of similar configuration, with one branch in the acidic portion of the pH scale, a maximum and two minima in the neutral (middle) portion, and one branch in the alkaline portion. The curves of the individuals from the control group overlapped each other. To the contrary, the curves of the diabetic patients were not uniform in the neutral portion and the alkaline portion. The curves of the diabetic patients in the neutral zone were shifted towards the alkaline end of the pH scale, and the RBC RI curves were lower in comparison to the control curves. The center maximum of the curves of diabetic patients corresponded to pH=6.6 whereas the central maximum of the control group curves was at pH=6.2-6.8. Contrary to in the diabetic group, intact RBC RI curves in the control group revealed only one significantly different minimum at pH of 7.2 in the neutral zone. Using this method it is possible to show phenotypic differences between uniform type intact and fixed cells, erythrocytes of diabetic patients and of healthy donors. PMID:11966310

  12. Glycemic control and diabetes management in hospitalized patients in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of tight blood glucose control among outpatients with diabetes mellitus is well established, however, the management of diabetes in the hospital setting is generally considered secondary in importance. This study sought to assess glycemic control and diabetes management in adult patients admitted to hospitals in Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional and nationwide survey was conducted from July 2010 to January 2012. Eligible cases were 18 years of age or older, had a diagnosis of diabetes and a hospitalization length of stay ?72 hours. Socio-demographic information, hospitalization details, and data on diabetes diagnosis, management and treatment were collected for all patients by chart review. Information on all blood glucose (BG) readings for a maximum of 20 consecutive days of hospitalization was recorded for each patient. Results Overall, 2,399 patients were surveyed in 24 hospitals located in 13 cities from all five Brazilian regions. The prevalence of patients presenting hyperglycemic (BG >180 mg/dL) or hypoglycemic (BG <70 mg/dL) events was 89.4% and 30.9% in patients in general wards, and 88.2% and 27.7% in those in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), respectively. In addition, a BG measure >180 mg/dL was recorded in two-thirds of the patient-days. A high proportion of patients were treated with sliding-scale insulin regimen alone in the general wards (52.0%) and in the ICUs (69.2%), and only 35.7% and 3.9% received appropriate insulin therapy in general wards (basal + bolus insulin) and in ICUs (continuous IV insulin), respectively. Conclusions Inpatient glycemic control and diabetes management needs improvement. Opportunities to improve care in Brazilian hospitals include expanded use of intravenous insulin and subcutaneous basal-bolus insulin protocols, avoiding use of sliding-scale insulin alone, increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring, and institution wide quality improvement efforts targeting both physician and nursing behavior. PMID:24499564

  13. Psychological and Cognitive Profile of Hypertensive and Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Robson Bonoto; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; de Sá-Junior, Antônio Reis; de Carvalho, Cristiane Junqueira; Lade, Carlos Gabriel; Rizvanov, Albert A; Kiyasov, Andrey P; Mukhamedyarov, Marat A; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-10-01

    Chronic disorders such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus are often associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as cognitive decline. Once developed, psychological support is essential for improving the quality of life. This study is aimed at identifying impaired mental health in connection with these systemic metabolic disorders. A total of 34 patients were included in this cross-sectional study: 17 hypertensive individuals with a mean age of 59 ± 10 years, and 17 diabetic patients aged 54 ± 10 years. The following psychometric tests were used: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20). A large number of patients with high blood pressure or diabetes was associated with mental health problems (82% or 65%, respectively; p = 0.246). Affective disorder, especially moderate to severe depression, was seen mainly in diabetic patients (76%), whereas hypertensive individuals had higher prevalence of anxiety (64%). There was no cognitive impairment in this middle-aged population. This study shows a high proportion of depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with hypertension or diabetes mellitus, reinforcing the importance of psychiatric support for appropriate control of these metabolic disorders. PMID:26348587

  14. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Progression to Diabetes in Patients at Risk for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pittas, Anastassios G.; Nelson, Jason; Mitri, Joanna; Hillmann, William; Garganta, Cheryl; Nathan, David M.; Hu, Frank B.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between vitamin D status, assessed by plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and risk of incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prospective observational study with a mean follow-up of 2.7 years in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a multicenter trial comparing different strategies for prevention of diabetes in patients with prediabetes. We assessed the association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, measured repeatedly during follow-up, and incident diabetes in the combined placebo (n = 1,022) and intensive lifestyle (n = 1,017) randomized arms of the DPP. Variables measured at multiple study time points (25-hydroxyvitamin D, BMI, and physical activity) entered the analyses as time-varying “lagged” covariates, as the mean of the previous and current visits at which diabetes status was assessed. RESULTS After multivariate adjustment, including for the DPP intervention, participants in the highest tertile of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (median concentration, 30.1 ng/mL) had a hazard ratio of 0.72 (95% CI 0.56–0.90) for developing diabetes compared with participants in the lowest tertile (median concentration, 12.8 ng/mL). The association was in the same direction in placebo (0.70; 0.52–0.94) versus lifestyle arm (0.80; 0.54–1.17). CONCLUSIONS Higher plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, assessed repeatedly, was associated with lower risk of incident diabetes in high-risk patients, after adjusting for lifestyle interventions (dietary changes, increased physical activity, and weight loss) known to decrease diabetes risk. Because of the observational nature of the study, the potential association between vitamin D and diabetes needs to be confirmed in intervention studies. PMID:22323410

  15. Body Mass Index and Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kaštelan, Snježana; Salopek Rabati?, Jasminka; Tomi?, Martina; Gverovi? Antunica, Antonela; Ljubi?, Spomenka; Kaštelan, Helena; Oreškovi?, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To investigate whether body mass index (BMI) independently or in correlation with other risk factors is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) progression. Methods. The study included 176 patients with type 1 diabetes divided into three groups according to DR status: group 1 (no retinopathy; n = 86), group 2 (mild/moderate nonproliferative DR; n = 33), and group 3 (severe/very severe NPDR or proliferative DR; n = 57). Results. A significant deterioration of HbA1c, an increase in total cholesterol, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and diabetic nephropathy with the progression of retinopathy were found. DR progression was correlated with diabetes duration, HbA1c, hypertension, total cholesterol, and the presence of nephropathy. In patients without nephropathy, statistical analyses showed that progression of retinopathy increased significantly with higher BMI (gr. 1: 24.03?±?3.52, gr. 2: 25.36?±?3.44, gr. 3: 26.93?±?3.24; P < 0.01). A positive correlation between BMI and a significant deterioration of HbA1c, an increase in cholesterol, triglycerides, and hypertension was observed. Conclusion. BMI in correlation with HbA1c, cholesterol, and hypertension appears to be associated with the progression of DR in type 1 diabetic patients without nephropathy. However, additional studies are required to investigate the pathogenic role of obesity and weight loss in retinal diabetic complications particularly relating to nephropathy. PMID:24696683

  16. Patient Selection in Vitamin E Treatment in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Goldenstein, Hagit; Levy, Nina S.; Lipener, Yisrael T.; Levy, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    In diabetes there is an increase in oxidative stress due to elevated glucose levels in the plasma. High glucose promotes glycosylation of both plasma and cellular proteins which particularly affects the endothelial cell lining of the blood vessel wall and interferes with its normal function. Thus diabetes mellitus patients suffer from a higher incidence of cardiovascular complications such as atherosclerosis as compared to the non-diabetic population. Haptoglobin (Hp) is a plasma protein which binds free hemoglobin and prevents heme-iron mediated oxidation. There are three different types of Hp which differ in their antioxidant ability. Several clinical studies have shown that the Hp 2-2 genotype is associated with higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases among diabetics. Vitamin E, a low cost, easy to use antioxidant, was found to decrease the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in Hp 2-2 diabetic patients. This review summarizes several studies which show the importance of vitamin E supplementation in a specific sub-group of patients consisting of diabetic individuals carrying the Hp 2-2 genotype. PMID:23469912

  17. The use of medicinal herbs by diabetic Jordanian patients.

    PubMed

    Otoom, S A; Al-Safi, S A; Kerem, Z K; Alkofahi, A

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. To date, there have been no reports on the frequency of use of herb medicines in the managements of diabetes mellitus in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 310 diabetic patients visiting two medical centers in Jordan: Jordan University of Science & Technology Medical Center and Sarih Medical Center between December 2003 and August 2004. It is found that 31% of interviewed patients have used herbal products (96 patients). The results revealed that the most commonly used herbs by diabetic patients in Jordan were Trigonella foenumgraecum (22.9%), Lupinus albus (14.6%), Allium sativum (11.5%), Allium cepa (5.2%), Nigella sativa (7.3%), Zea mays L. (6.3%), Urtica dioica L. (8.3%), Eucalyptus globules LA (9.4%), Olea europea L. (3.1%), Cumminum cyminum (9.4%), Coriandrum sativum (10.4%), Salvia officinalis L. (3.1%), and Tilia cordata (1%). Furthermore, it is found that 47.9% of the patients used herbs according to advice from their friends on a daily basis. The side effects were reported by 36.5% of the patients and include headache, nausea, dizziness, itching, palpitation, and sweating. Among the patients, 72.9% used the herbs as adjunctive therapy along with their anti-diabetic drugs and 80.2% of the patients informed their physicians about their use. A 79.2% of the sample confirmed their intention to re-use these herbs as 86.5% of them were satisfied with their diabetes control. There was a significant relationship between the use of herbs, the patient's place of residence and his/her level of education. The main conclusion of this survey is that the use of medicinal herbs among diabetic patient in Jordan is common. Therefore, it is essential to increase the level of awareness among diabetic patients and health care providers regarding the efficacy and toxicity of these medicinal herbs. PMID:17182483

  18. Angina and exertional myocardial ischemia in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: assessment by exercise thallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nesto, R.W.; Phillips, R.T.; Kett, K.G.; Hill, T.; Perper, E.; Young, E.; Leland, O.S. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease are thought to have painless myocardial ischemia more often than patients without diabetes. We studied 50 consecutive patients with diabetes and 50 consecutive patients without diabetes, all with ischemia, on exercise thallium scintigraphy to show the reliability of angina as a marker for exertional ischemia. The two groups had similar clinical characteristics, treadmill test results, and extent of infarction and ischemia, but only 7 patients with diabetes compared with 17 patients without diabetes had angina during exertional ischemia. In diabetic patients the extent of retinopathy, nephropathy, or peripheral neuropathy was similar in patients with and without angina. Angina is an unreliable index of myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. Given the increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in such patients, periodic objective assessments of the extent of ischemia are warranted.

  19. Structural equation modeling of factors contributing to quality of life in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To improve quality of life (QOL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is important to decrease disability and prevent relapse. The aim of this study was to examine the causal and mutual relationships contributing to QOL in Japanese patients with MS, develop path diagrams, and explore interventions with the potential to improve patient QOL. Methods Data of 163 Japanese MS patients were obtained using the Functional Assessment of MS (FAMS) and Nottingham Adjustment Scale-Japanese version (NAS-J) tests, as well as four additional factors that affect QOL (employment status, change of income, availability of disease information, and communication with medical staff). Data were then used in structural equation modeling to develop path diagrams for factors contributing to QOL. Results The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score had a significant effect on the total FAMS score. Although EDSS negatively affected the FAMS symptom score, NAS-J subscale scores of anxiety/depression and acceptance were positively related to the FAMS symptom score. Changes in employment status after MS onset negatively affected all NAS-J scores. Knowledge of disease information improved the total NAS-J score, which in turn improved many FAMS subscale scores. Communication with doctors and nurses directly and positively affected some FAMS subscale scores. Conclusions Disability and change in employment status decrease patient QOL. However, the present findings suggest that other factors, such as acquiring information on MS and communicating with medical staff, can compensate for the worsening of QOL. PMID:23339479

  20. Identifying patients at risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Savill, Peter

    2012-01-01

    At present there are nearly 3 million people with diabetes in the UK. It is predicted that this number will almost double by 2025. Nine out of ten of these individuals will have type 2 diabetes. It is estimated that one in seven adults have impaired glucose regulation and up to 12% of these will develop type 2 diabetes each year. The impact of obesity on the development of type 2 diabetes cannot be overemphasised, with a 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI raising the risk of impaired fasting glycaemia by 9.5% and of developing new-onset type 2 diabetes by 8.4%. A 1 cm increase in waist circumference increases the risks by 3.2% and 3.5% respectively. NICE advises using a validated risk assessment tool to identify patients at risk of diabetes. Risk factors used by such tools include: age; ethnicity; weight; first-degree relative with type 2 diabetes; low birthweight and sedentary lifestyle. Certain comorbidities increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, these include: cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease; polycystic ovary syndrome; a history of gestational diabetes; and mental health problems. The initial screening blood test could be a fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or an oral glucose tolerance test, according to WHO criteria. NICE recommends that high-risk patients should be offered a programme encouraging them to undertake a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity a week, gradually lose weight to reach and maintain a BMI within the healthy range, increase consumption of whole grains, vegetables, and other foods that are high in dietary fibre, reduce the total amount of fat in their diet and eat less saturated fat. PMID:22988703

  1. Clinical characteristics of silent myocardial ischemia diagnosed with adenosine stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy in Japanese patients with acute cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tetsuya; Kusaba, Tetsuro; Kodama, Naotoshi; Terada, Kensuke; Urakabe, Yota; Nishikawa, Susumu; Keira, Natsuya; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) often complicates patients with cerebral infarction and that stroke patients often die of ischemic heart disease. Therefore, it is considered important to treat myocardial ischemia in stroke patients. This study investigated SMI complicating Japanese patients with fresh stroke, using (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy with pharmacologic stress testing to elucidate their clinical manifestations. This study included 41 patients (26 men, mean age 76.0 ± 10.7 years) with acute cerebral infarction and no history of coronary artery disease. All patients underwent (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy with intravenous administration of adenosine to diagnose SMI. Of the 41 patients, myocardial ischemia was confirmed in 17 patients (41.5%). Atherosclerotic etiology was the major cause of stroke in the ischemia(+) group and embolic origin was the major cause in the ischemia(-) group. Patients with myocardial ischemia had a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus (52.9 vs 20.8%; P = 0.0323) and more than two conventional cardiovascular risk factors (64.7 vs 25.0%; P = 0.0110) compared with the nonischemic patients. Infarction subtype of atherosclerotic origin was an independent positive predictor of asymptomatic myocardial ischemia in patients with stroke. These findings indicate that the prevalence of asymptomatic myocardial ischemia is relatively high, especially in patients with stroke of atherosclerotic origin. Therefore, it is beneficial for us to narrow the target population who are at the highest risk when screening for SMI in Japanese patients with acute cerebral infarction. PMID:22124530

  2. Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy in type 2 diabetic patients who have no signs of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Dietrich; Deutsch, Lydia; Klemm, Matthias; Jentsch, Susanne; Hammer, Martin; Peters, Sven; Haueisen, Jens; Müller, Ulrich A.; Dawczynski, Jens

    2015-06-01

    The time-resolved autofluorescence of the eye is used for the detection of metabolic alteration in diabetic patients who have no signs of diabetic retinopathy. One eye from 37 phakic and 11 pseudophakic patients with type 2 diabetes, and one eye from 25 phakic and 23 pseudophakic healthy subjects were included in the study. After a three-exponential fit of the decay of autofluorescence, histograms of lifetimes ?i, amplitudes ?i, and relative contributions Qi were statistically compared between corresponding groups in two spectral channels (490diabetic patients and age-matched controls (p<0.000004). The lack of pixels with a ?2 of ˜360 ps, the increased number of pixels with ?2>450 ps, and the shift of ?3 from ˜3000 to 3700 ps in ch1 of diabetic patients when compared with healthy subjects indicate an increased production of free flavin adenine dinucleotide, accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), and, probably, a change from free to protein-bound reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at the fundus. AGE also accumulated in the crystalline lens.

  3. Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Diabetes What is Diabetes? Too Much Glucose in the Blood Diabetes means ... high, causing pre-diabetes or diabetes. Types of Diabetes There are three main kinds of diabetes: type ...

  4. Predictors of major lower limb amputation among type II diabetic patients admitted for diabetic foot problems

    PubMed Central

    Yusof, Nazri Mohd; Rahman, Jamalludin Ab; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Che-Ahmad, Aminudin; Khalid, Kamarul Ariffin; Sulong, Ahmad Fadzli; Vijayasingham, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common cause of amputations in Malaysia. This study aimed to identify the predictive factors for major lower limb amputation among patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) who were admitted to a hospital, in order to reduce its likelihood. METHODS This cross-sectional study involved 218 patients with T2DM who were admitted to Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Malaysia, for diabetic foot problems from June 2011 to July 2012. A form was developed to document the patients’ profiles, comorbidities, complications, investigations, treatment and clinical outcomes. The predictors for major lower limb amputations were determined using univariate and stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 31 patients underwent major lower limb amputations (25 transtibial, 6 transfemoral). The following factors were found to be associated with the incidence of major lower limb amputations: T2DM duration ? 10 years, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy, presentation with gangrene, diabetic foot conditions of Wagner grade 4 or 5, and necrotising fasciitis. Patients who underwent major amputations had significantly lower haemoglobin and albumin levels, and higher total white blood cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, and C-reactive protein, urea and creatinine levels. However, only T2DM duration ? 10 years, positive bacterial culture and albumin levels were significant on stepwise logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION T2DM duration ? 10 years, positive bacterial culture and low albumin levels were found to be significant predictive factors for major lower limb amputation among patients with T2DM admitted for diabetic foot problems. PMID:26668408

  5. Guidelines for Perioperative Management of the Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Surani, Salim R.

    2015-01-01

    Management of glycemic levels in the perioperative setting is critical, especially in diabetic patients. The effects of surgical stress and anesthesia have unique effects on blood glucose levels, which should be taken into consideration to maintain optimum glycemic control. Each stage of surgery presents unique challenges in keeping glucose levels within target range. Additionally, there are special operative conditions that require distinctive glucose management protocols. Interestingly, the literature still does not report a consensus perioperative glucose management strategy for diabetic patients. We hope to outline the most important factors required in formulating a perioperative diabetic regimen, while still allowing for specific adjustments using prudent clinical judgment. Overall, through careful glycemic management in perioperative patients, we may reduce morbidity and mortality and improve surgical outcomes. PMID:26078998

  6. Metabolic fingerprints in testicular biopsies from type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Alves, Marco G; Martins, Ana D; Moreira, Paula I; Carvalho, Rui A; Sousa, Mário; Barros, Alberto; Silva, Joaquina; Pinto, Soraia; Simões, Teresinha; Oliveira, Pedro Fontes

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that has grown to pandemic proportions. Recent reports have highlighted the effect of DM on male reproductive function. Here, we hypothesize that testicular metabolism is altered in type 1 diabetic (T1D) men seeking fertility treatment. We propose to determine some metabolic fingerprints in testicular biopsies of diabetic patients. For that, testicular tissue from five normal and five type 1 diabetic men was analyzed by high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HR-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. mRNA and protein expression of glucose transporters and glycolysis-related enzymes were also evaluated. Our results show that testes from diabetic men presented decreased levels of lactate, alanine, citrate and creatine. The mRNA levels of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1) were decreased in testes from diabetic men but only GLUT3 presented decreased mRNA and protein levels. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) protein levels were also found to be decreased in testes from diabetic men. Overall, our results show that T1D alters glycolysis-related transporters and enzymes, compromising lactate content in the testes. Moreover, testicular creatine content was severely depressed in T1D men. Since lactate and creatine are essential for germ cells development and support, the data discussed here open new insights into the molecular mechanism by which DM promotes subfertility/infertility in human males. PMID:26051285

  7. Resistant hypertension in type 2 diabetes: prevalence and patients characteristics

    PubMed Central

    CIOBANU, DANA MIHAELA; KILFIGER, HÉLÈNE; APAN, BOGDAN; ROMAN, GABRIELA; VERESIU, IOAN ANDREI

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Resistant hypertension is defined as failure to achieve blood pressure lower than 140/90 mmHg when using three antihypertensive agents or controlled blood pressure with four or more drugs. We aimed at assessing the prevalence of resistant hypertension and to describe a type 2 diabetes population with resistant hypertension. Methods The retrospective observational study included (n=73) type 2 diabetes subjects with resistant hypertension selected from (n=728) subjects admitted to the Centre of Diabetes, Cluj, Romania. Results The subjects (70% women) had a mean age of 65.0±8.9 yrs. and diabetes duration 11(6–19) yrs. Prevalence of resistant hypertension was 10%. Chronic diabetes complications and cardiovascular disease were present in 77% and 56% of subjects respectively. On admission, antihypertensive drugs used were: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptors blockers 93%, ?-blockers 88%, diuretics 78%, calcium channels blockers 59%, adrenergic ?-antagonists 11%. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were lower in the last compared to first admission day. Diuretics and calcium channels blockers were the most frequently newly added antihypertensive agents. Conclusion Although the prevalence of resistant hypertension in type 2 diabetes did not differ from the general population, we observed that these patients had increased frequency of chronic diabetic complications. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptors and ?-blockers were the most used antihypertensive drugs, while the most frequently newly prescribed drugs were diuretics and calcium channel blockers.

  8. Reticulated platelets and antiplatelet therapy response in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Mijovic, Romana; Kovacevic, Nada; Zarkov, Marija; Stosic, Zoran; Cabarkapa, Velibor; Mitic, Gorana

    2015-08-01

    Increased platelet turnover and high level of reticulated platelets are associated with low response to antiplatelet therapy in diabetes mellitus type 2. This study evaluated association between percentage of reticulated platelets (%RP) and the response to antiplatelet therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This prospective, pilot, case-control, clinical trial included 79 subjects stratified in three groups: group I included 30 patients with T2DM, group II included 34 non-diabetic patients and 15 healthy age and sex matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in control group. Platelet response to clopidogrel and aspirin was assessed by Multiplate(®) aggregometry analyzer. Individual response to dual antiplatelet therapy was estimated by the percentage of decrease in overall platelet aggregability (%DPA) obtained after antiplatelet therapy, calculated by presented formulas: %DPAadp = 100 × (1 - ADP/TRAP) and %DPAaspi = 100 × (1 - ASPI/TRAP). %RP was significantly higher in diabetics, than in non-diabetics, (3.17 ± 1.26 vs. 2.39 ± 1.56; p < 0.05). Significantly lower response to clopidogrel (31.55 ± 13.02 vs. 50.24 ± 11.38; p < 0.001) and aspirin (52.33 ± 22.67 vs. 64.31 ± 16.47; p < 0.05) therapy was observed in diabetics. %RP negatively correlated with response to clopidogrel therapy, but positively with metabolic profile indicators in diabetics (p < 0.05, all). Correlation of %RP with metabolic profile indicators and poor response to antiplatelet therapy suggest that altered metabolic profile can affect platelet turnover in T2DM leading to low responsiveness to antiplatelet therapy in these patients. PMID:25575607

  9. Mechanisms of hypoglycemia unawareness and implications in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Timón, Iciar; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemia unawareness (HU) is defined at the onset of neuroglycopenia before the appearance of autonomic warning symptoms. It is a major limitation to achieving tight diabetes and reduced quality of life. HU occurs in approximately 40% of people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and with less frequency in T2DM. Though the aetiology of HU is multifactorial, possible mechanisms include chronic exposure to low blood glucose, antecedent hypoglycaemia, recurrent severe hypoglycaemia and the failure of counter-regulatory hormones. Clinically it manifests as the inability to recognise impeding hypoglycaemia by symptoms, but the mechanisms and mediators remain largely unknown. Prevention and management of HU is complex, and can only be achieved by a multifactorial intervention of clinical care and structured patient education by the diabetes team. Less know regarding the impact of medications on the development or recognition of this condition in patients with diabetes. Several medications are thought to worsen or promote HU, whereas others may have an attenuating effect on the problem. This article reviews recent advances in how the brain senses and responds to hypoglycaemia, novel mechanisms by which people with insulin-treated diabetes develop HU and impaired counter-regulatory responses. The consequences that HU has on the person with diabetes and their family are also described. Finally, it examines the evidence for prevention and treatment of HU, and summarizes the effects of medications that may influence it. PMID:26185599

  10. Foot ulcers in the diabetic patient, prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Stephanie C; Driver, Vickie R; Wrobel, James S; Armstrong, David G

    2007-01-01

    Lower extremity complications in persons with diabetes have become an increasingly significant public health concern in both the developed and developing world. These complications, beginning with neuropathy and subsequent diabetic foot wounds frequently lead to infection and lower extremity amputation even in the absence of critical limb ischemia. In order to diminish the detrimental consequences associated with diabetic foot ulcers, a com-mon-sense-based treatment approach must be implemented. Many of the etiological factors contributing to the formation of diabetic foot ulceration may be identified using simple, inexpensive equipment in a clinical setting. Prevention of diabetic foot ulcers can be accomplished in a primary care setting with a brief history and screening for loss of protective sensation via the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. Specialist clinics may quantify neuropathy, plantar foot pressure, and assess vascular status with Doppler ultrasound and ankle-brachial blood pressure indices. These measurements, in conjunction with other findings from the history and physical examination, may enable clinicians to stratify patients based on risk and help determine the type of intervention. Other effective clinical interventions may include patient education, optimizing glycemic control, smoking cessation, and diligent foot care. Recent technological advanced combined with better understanding of the wound healing process have resulted in a myriad of advanced wound healing modalities in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. However, it is imperative to remember the fundamental basics in the healing of diabetic foot ulcers: adequate perfusion, debridement, infection control, and pressure mitigation. Early recognition of the etiological factors along with prompt management of diabetic foot ulcers is essential for successful outcome. PMID:17583176

  11. Genotype-phenotype relationship in Japanese patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shimokaze, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Ayako; Meguro, Toru; Hasegawa, Hisaya; Hiraku, Yuka; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kishikawa, Yumiko; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Examine the genotype-phenotype relationship in Japanese congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) patients and estimate the incidence of CCHS in Japan. Subjects were 92 Japanese patients with PHOX2B mutations; 19 cases carried 25 polyalanine repeat expansion mutations (PARMs); 67 cases carried 26 or more PARMs; and 6 had non-PARMs (NPARMs). We collected clinical data in all patients and estimated the development or intelligent quotients only in the patients carrying 25 PARM. The estimated incidence of CCHS was greater than one case per 148?000 births. Polyhydramnios was observed in three cases. Twelve infants exhibited depressed respiration at birth. In 19 cases carrying 25 PARM, the male-to-female ratio was ~3, no cases had Hirschsprung disease; 7 cases (37%) developed hypoventilation after the neonatal period, and 8 cases (42%) had mental retardation. In other 73 cases carrying 26 or more PARMs or NPARMs, male-to-female ratio was equal; patients frequently complicated with Hirschsprung disease and constipation, and all patients presented with hypoventilation in the neonatal period. Clinical symptoms were severe in most patients carrying long PARMs and NPARMs. In 25 PARM, additional genetic and/or epigenetic factors were required for CCHS development and male sex is likely a predisposing factor. The patients carrying 25 PARM frequently had mental retardation likely because they were not able to receive appropriate ventilation support following a definitive diagnosis owing to subtle and or irregular hypoventilation. Molecular diagnosis provides a definitive diagnosis and enables to receive appropriate ventilator support. PMID:26063465

  12. Deep venous thrombosis was not detected after total knee arthroplasty in Japanese patients with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Takedani, H; Ohnuma, K; Hirose, J

    2015-09-01

    Combined thrombo-prophylaxis with mechanical and pharmacological methods is recommended in patients undergoing total knee or hip arthroplasty. As patients with 'untreated inherited bleeding disorders such as haemophilia' are at risk of bleeding, no prophylaxis has been prescribed for these patients. However, a retrospective study reported subclinical deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in 10% of patients with haemophilia undergoing major orthopaedic surgery. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the risk of DVT after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We examined 38 TKA in 33 Japanese patients with haemophilia using ultrasonography. We did not detect DVT. The risk of DVT in patients with haemophilia after TKA may be lower than that in the general population. However, as patients with haemophilia progress in age, venous thromboembolism should be considered as a potential problem. PMID:25708424

  13. A REVIEW OF ANTI-HYPERTENSION THERAPIES IN DIABETIC PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Ogochukwu, Adibe Maxwell; Victoria, Ukwe Chinwe

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review published articles on the issues surrounding tight blood pressure control in hypertensive diabetics. Relevant medical subject headings (MeSH) terms and keywords to review scientific literatures were developed. These MeSH terms were used to generate MEDLINE searches that focused on English-language, peer-reviewed scientific literature. In reviewing the exceptionally large body of research literature in anti-hypertension therapies in diabetic patients , the review focused on outcomes of importance to patients and effects of sufficient magnitude to warrant changes in medical practice (“patient oriented evidence that matters” [POEMs]). Patient-oriented outcomes include not only mortality but also other outcomes that affect patients’ lives and well-being. Studies of physiological end points (diseaseoriented evidence [DOEs]) were used to address questions where POEMs were not available Treatment of hypertension in diabetic patients provides dramatic beneficial outcomes. Target diastolic BP of < 80 mmHg appears optimal; and systolic targets of 130 mmHg or less are also reasonable. Studies that compare drug classes do not suggest obviously superior agents. However, it is reasonable to conclude that ACEIs, thiazide diuretics and angiotension II receptor blockers may be the preferred first-line agents for treatment of hypertension in diabetes. ACEIs, ARBs and low dose thiazide diuretics may be the first line treatments although other agents are usually necessary and goals may not be achieved even with three or four agents. Aggressive blood pressure control may be the most important factor in preventing adverse outcomes in hypertensive patients with diabetes PMID:24825981

  14. Balneotherapy and platelet glutathione metabolism in type II diabetic patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshinori; Yabunaka, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Ichiro; Noro, Hiroshi; Agishi, Yuko

    1996-09-01

    Effects of balneotherapy on platelet glutathione metabolism were investigated in 12 type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Levels of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) on admission were well correlated with those of fasting plasma glucose (FPG; r=0.692, P<0.02). After 4 weeks of balneotherapy, the mean level of GSH showed no changes; however, in well-controlled patients (FPG <150 mg/dl), the level increased ( P<0.01) and in poorly controlled patients (FPG >150 mg/dl), the value decreased ( P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and the levels of FPG ( r=-0.430, P<0.05). After balneotherapy, the activity increased in 5 patients, decreased in 3 patients and showed no changes (alteration within ±3%) in all the other patients. From these findings in diabetic patients we concluded: (1) platelet GSH synthesis appeared to be induced in response to oxidative stress; (2) lowered GPX activities indicated that the antioxidative defense system was impaired; and (3) platelet glutathione metabolism was partially improved by 4 weeks balneotherapy, an effect thought to be dependent on the control status of plasma glucose levels. It is suggested that balneotherapy is beneficial for patients whose platelet antioxidative defense system is damaged, such as those with diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease.

  15. Fractal analysis of circulating platelets in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Bianciardi, G; Tanganelli, I

    2015-10-28

    This paper investigates the use of computerized fractal analysis for objective characterization by means of transmission electron microscopy of the complexity of circulating platelets collected from healthy individuals and from type 2 diabetic patients, a pathologic condition in which platelet hyperreactivity has been described. Platelet boundaries were extracted by means of automatically image analysis. Local fractal dimension by box counting (measure of geometric complexity) was automatically calculated. The results showed that the platelet boundary observed by electron microscopy is fractal and that the shape of the circulating platelets is significantly more complex in the diabetic patients in comparison to healthy subjects (p?< ?0.01), with 100% correct classification. In vitro activated platelets from healthy subjects show an analogous increase of geometric complexity. Computerized fractal analysis of platelet shape by transmission electron microscopy can provide accurate, quantitative, data to study platelet activation in diabetes mellitus. PMID:25335814

  16. Prevalence of Amiodarone-Induced Thyrotoxicosis and Associated Risk Factors in Japanese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Toyoyoshi; Takagi, Atsutoshi; Sekita, Gaku; Komiya, Koji; Takeno, Kageumi; Shigihara, Nayumi; Shimada, Kazunori; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Fujitani, Yoshio; Daida, Hiroyuki; Watada, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    Amiodarone is a widely used agent for life-threatening arrhythmias. Although amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) is a major adverse effect that can cause recurrence of arrhythmias and exacerbation of heart failure, risk factors for AIT among amiodarone-treated Japanese patients have not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the prevalence and predictive factors for AIT. The study subjects were 225 patients treated with amiodarone between 2008 and 2012, who were euthyroid before amiodarone therapy. All patients with AIT were diagnosed by measurement of thyroid hormones and ultrasonography. Among the 225 subjects, 13 patients (5.8%) developed AIT and all the patients were classified as Type 2 AIT. Baseline features of patients with AIT were not different from those who did not develop AIT, except for age (AIT, 55.1 ± 13.8, non-AIT, 68.1 ± 12.0 years, P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model identified age as the sole determinant of AIT (hazard ratio: 0.927, 95% confidence interval: 0.891–0.964). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified age of 63.5 years as the cutoff value for AIT with sensitivity of 70.3% and specificity of 69.2%. In summary, this study showed that the prevalence of AIT is 5.8% in Japanese patients treated with amiodarone and that young age is a risk factor for AIT. PMID:25053942

  17. Biomarkers of Renal Disease and Progression in Patients with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hojs, Radovan; Ekart, Robert; Bevc, Sebastjan; Hojs, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes prevalence is increasing worldwide, mainly due to the increase in type 2 diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy occurs in up to 40% of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It is important to identify patients at risk of diabetic nephropathy and those who will progress to end stage renal disease. In clinical practice, most commonly used markers of renal disease and progression are serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria or albuminuria. Unfortunately, they are all insensitive. This review summarizes the evidence regarding the prognostic value and benefits of targeting some novel risk markers for development of diabetic nephropathy and its progression. It is focused mainly on tubular biomarkers (neutrophil-gelatinase associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule 1, liver-fatty acid-binding protein, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase), markers of inflammation (pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor-? and tumour necrosis factor-? receptors, adhesion molecules, chemokines) and markers of oxidative stress. Despite the promise of some of these new biomarkers, further large, multicenter prospective studies are still needed before they can be used in everyday clinical practice. PMID:26239462

  18. Biomarkers of Renal Disease and Progression in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hojs, Radovan; Ekart, Robert; Bevc, Sebastjan; Hojs, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes prevalence is increasing worldwide, mainly due to the increase in type 2 diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy occurs in up to 40% of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It is important to identify patients at risk of diabetic nephropathy and those who will progress to end stage renal disease. In clinical practice, most commonly used markers of renal disease and progression are serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria or albuminuria. Unfortunately, they are all insensitive. This review summarizes the evidence regarding the prognostic value and benefits of targeting some novel risk markers for development of diabetic nephropathy and its progression. It is focused mainly on tubular biomarkers (neutrophil-gelatinase associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule 1, liver-fatty acid-binding protein, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase), markers of inflammation (pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor-? and tumour necrosis factor-? receptors, adhesion molecules, chemokines) and markers of oxidative stress. Despite the promise of some of these new biomarkers, further large, multicenter prospective studies are still needed before they can be used in everyday clinical practice. PMID:26239462

  19. Evaluation of Diabetic Patients with Breast Cancer Treated with Metformin during Adjuvant Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Adam; Goyal, Sharad; Kim, Sinae; Wu, Hao; Taunk, Neil K; Schiff, Devora; Pirlamarla, Aneesh; Haffty, Bruce G

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute locoregional toxicity in patients with breast cancer receiving concurrent metformin plus radiation therapy. Methods and Materials. Diabetic breast cancer patients receiving concurrent metformin and radiation therapy were matched with nondiabetic patients and diabetic patients using an alternative diabetes medication. Primary endpoints included the presence of a treatment break and development of dry or moist desquamation. Results. There was a statistically significant increase in treatment breaks for diabetic patients receiving concurrent metformin when compared to the nondiabetic patients (P value = 0.02) and a trend toward significance when compared to diabetic patients receiving an alternate diabetes medication (P value = 0.08). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated concurrent metformin use as being associated with a trend toward the predictive value of determining the incidence of developing desquamation in diabetic patients receiving radiation therapy compared to diabetic patients receiving an alternate diabetes medication (P value = 0.06). Conclusions. Diabetic patients treated with concurrent metformin and radiation therapy developed increased acute locoregional toxicity in comparison with diabetic patients receiving an alternate diabetes medication and nondiabetic patients. Further clinical investigation should be conducted to determine the therapeutic ratio of metformin in combination with radiation therapy. PMID:24416595

  20. Biophoton emission from blood serum of diabetic patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wijk, R.; Wiegant, F. A. C.; Popp, Fritz A.; Storms, G. E. M. G.

    1994-12-01

    The concept that free radicals mediate vascular abnormalities in diabetes has been debated. This study examines the relationship between serum free radical activity and glycaemic regulation. A cross-sectional assessment is presented of the chemiluminescence of blood serum, long term glycaemic control (HbAlc, fructosamine) and blood glucose concentrations in patients with type-1 (n equals 114) and patients with type-2 (n equals 112) diabetes. The average value of serum chemiluminescence of type-1 patients is higher than that of type-2 patients (p equals 0.014). Spectral analysis suggests that different sources of free radical activity are responsible in different ratios for chemiluminescence in type-1 and type-2 sera. Serum chemiluminescence values of type-1 patients strongly correspond with blood glucose levels (p < 0.001). Chemiluminescence values were higher, although not significant (p equals 0.082) in the 'poorly' controlled group characterized by high values of HbAlc and/or fructosamine in comparision with the group of 'good' glycaemic control with lower values of HbAlc and/or fructosamine. Serum chemeluminescence values of type-2 patients neither correspond to their long tern glycaemic status nor to their blood glucose levels. It is concluded that changes in glucose metabolism and changes in chemiluminescence are coordinated for type-1 but not for type-2 patients. This strongly indicates the relevance of ther free radical connection to diabetes type-1 complications.

  1. Diabetes mellitus patients' family caregivers' subjective quality of life.

    PubMed Central

    Awadalla, Abdel W.; Ohaeri, Jude U.; Al-Awadi, Shafika A.; Tawfiq, Adel M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the subjective quality of life (QOL) of family caregivers of Sudanese type-1 and type-2 diabetic outpatients, using the WHO 26-item QOL instrument, compared with a general population sample; and to examine the factors associated with caregiver QOL. METHOD: Responses of caregivers of 105 outpatients with type-1 diabetes and 135 with type-2 diabetes were compared with 139 general population subjects. RESULTS: Caregivers were satisfied with the content of items related to general social supports. Type-1 caregivers had significantly lower QOL scores than type-2 caregivers and the general population. Parents and siblings had lowest scores compared with other family groups. Caregivers scored higher than patients. Patients' age and duration of illness, and caregivers' education, marital status and state of health were positively associated with caregiver QOL. Caregivers' QOL was predicted by their appraisal of patients' QOL. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers who were sick, younger, single, less educated and caring for patients with more recent illness appeared relatively vulnerable. Clinicians should be interested in the dynamics of the family caregiving situation--as it impacts QOL--and in promoting caregiver awareness of diabetes in order to enhance the caregiving role, quality of care and QOL. PMID:16749648

  2. A Simple Causal Model for Glucose Metabolism in Diabetes Patients

    E-print Network

    Schwitter, Rolf

    .sattar@griffith.edu.au Abstract. Employing the theory of belief change, we study the imple- mentation of a simple causal model and correct model of a diabetic patient. Keywords: Belief Revision, Belief Update, Causal Models, Glucose understanding from molecular biology to the complex multi-organism and environmen- tal factor

  3. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in diabetic patients: prevalence, mechanisms, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Piciucchi, Matteo; Capurso, Gabriele; Archibugi, Livia; Delle Fave, Martina Maria; Capasso, Marina; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Pancreas is a doubled-entity organ, with both an exocrine and an endocrine component, reciprocally interacting in a composed system whose function is relevant for digestion, absorption, and homeostasis of nutrients. Thus, it is not surprising that disorders of the exocrine pancreas also affect the endocrine system and vice versa. It is well-known that patients with chronic pancreatitis develop a peculiar form of diabetes (type III), caused by destruction and fibrotic injury of islet cells. However, less is known on the influence of diabetes on pancreatic exocrine function. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) has been reported to be common in diabetics, with a prevalence widely ranging, in different studies, in both type I (25-74%) and type II (28-54%) diabetes. A long disease duration, high insulin requirement, and poor glycemic control seem to be risk factors for PEI occurrence. The impact of pancreatic exocrine replacement therapy on glycemic, insulin, and incretins profiles has not been fully elucidated. The present paper is aimed at reviewing published studies investigating the prevalence of PEI in diabetic patients and factors associated with its occurrence. PMID:25892991

  4. Psychological characteristics of Japanese patients with chronic pain assessed by the Rorschach test

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The increasing number of patients with chronic pain in Japan has become a major issue in terms of the patient's quality of life, medical costs, and related social problems. Pain is a multi-dimensional experience with physiological, affective, cognitive, behavioral and social components, and recommended to be managed via a combination of bio-psycho-social aspects. However, a biomedical approach is still the dominant method of pain treatment in Japan. The current study aimed to evaluate comprehensive psychological functions and processes in Japanese chronic pain patients. Methods The Rorschach Comprehensive System was administered to 49 in-patients with non-malignant chronic pain. Major variables and frequencies from the test were then compared to normative data from non-patient Japanese adults by way of the t-test and chi-square test. Results Patients exhibited high levels of emotional distress with a sense of helplessness with regard to situational stress, confusion, and ambivalent feelings. These emotions were managed by the patients in an inappropriate manner. Cognitive functions resulted in moderate dysfunction in all stages. Information processing tended to focus upon minute features in an inflexible manner. Mediational dysfunction was likely to occur with unstable affective conditions. Ideation was marked by pessimistic and less effective thinking. Since patients exhibited negative self-perception, their interpersonal relationship skills tended to be ineffective. Originally, our patients displayed average psychological resources for control, stress tolerance, and social skills for interpersonal relationships. However, patient coping styles were either situation- or emotion-dependent, and patients were more likely to exhibit emotional instability influenced by external stimuli, resulting in increased vulnerability to pain. Conclusions Data gathered from the Rorschach test suggested psychological approaches to support chronic pain patients that are likely to be highly beneficial, and we thus recommend their incorporation into the course of current pain treatments. PMID:21110860

  5. Free Triiodothyronine Levels Are Associated with Diabetic Nephropathy in Euthyroid Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingcheng; Li, Xiaohua; Tao, Yang; Wang, Yufei; Peng, Yongde

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the association of thyroid function and diabetic nephropathy (DN) in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A total of 421 patients were included in this cross-sectional study. The following parameters were assessed: anthropometric measurements, fast plasma glucose, serum creatinine, lipid profile, HbA1c, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Patients with UACR of ?30?mg/g were defined as those suffering from DN. Results. Of the 421 patients, 203 (48.2%) suffered from DN, and no difference was found between males and females. The patients with DN yielded significantly lower FT3 levels than those without DN (P < 0.01). The prevalence of DN showed a significantly decreasing trend across the three tertiles based on FT3 levels (59.6%, 46.4%, and 38.6%, P < 0.01). After adjustment for gender and age, FT3 levels were found to correlate positively with estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.03) and negatively with UACR (P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that FT3 level was independently associated with UACR (? = ?0.18, t = ?3.70, and P < 0.01). Conclusion. Serum FT3 levels are inversely associated with DN in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors. PMID:26697065

  6. [The cure of type 2 diabetes and patient education].

    PubMed

    Lagger, G; Chambouleyron, M; Correia, J C; Sittarame, F; Miganne, G; Lasserre Moutet, A; Golay, A

    2015-03-25

    Type 2 diabetes is a potentially reversible disease. Patient education encompasses a deep investment of the health care providers, who with the aid of pedagogic tools, help the pa tient commit to this path. This facilitates the learning of uncommon knowledge and skills required. Whether or not it leads to a complete remission of the disease may not be the main purpose. The main goal lies in the patient's motivation to learn and change on a long term basis. PMID:26027202

  7. Associated factors of diabetic retinopathy in patients that referred to teaching hospitals in Babol

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulinejad, Seyed Ahmad; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Mehdipour, Elnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Information regarding the frequency and severity of eye involvement in diabetic patients and its risk factors can be useful for prevention and treatment. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its associated risk factors in diabetic patients who referred to teaching hospitals in Babol, Mazandaran. Methods: In this study a total of 1562 patients with the definite diagnosis of diabetes mellitus were chosen and referred to the eye clinic of Shahid Beheshti and Ayatollah Rouhani Hospitals of Babol during 2006-2010. Information about age, duration of diabetes, hypertension family history of diabetes, history of other organs involvement, BMI and laboratory findings were recorded. Retinopathy was classified according to early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: Of the 1562 patients, 357 (22.9%) were males and 1205 (77.1%) were females. The mean age was 54.6±10.6 years, diabetic retinopathy was found in 990 (64.1%) patients, the frequency of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy was 37.3% and proliferative was 26.8%.Age, duration of diabetes, FBS, HbA1C, BUN, Cr, Hb were significantly different between the patient’s with diabetic retinopathy and no diabetic retinopathy (p<0.05). No relationship was found between smoking, gender, hypertension and serum lipid profile. Conclusion: Poor diabetes control, anemia and nephropathy were the most associated factors of diabetic retinopathy but hypertension BMI smoking, dyslipidemia and gender showed no association. PMID:26644897

  8. Clinical spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in diabetic and non-diabetic patients?

    PubMed Central

    Goh, George Boon-Bee; Pagadala, Mangesh R.; Dasarathy, Jaividhya; Unalp-Arida, Aynur; Sargent, Ruth; Hawkins, Carol; Sourianarayanane, Achuthan; Khiyami, Amer; Yerian, Lisa; Pai, Rish K.; Dasarathy, Srinivasan; McCullough, Arthur J.

    2014-01-01

    Background While non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been well characterised in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), less is known about NAFLD in non-DM patients. We investigated the clinical characteristics of NAFLD patients with and without DM and accuracy of the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) in these two NAFLD groups. Methods Clinical, biochemical and histological variables were evaluated in this prospective cross-sectional study of 503 patients with biopsy proven NAFLD. Comparisons between patients with and without DM were analysed. NFS was correlated with liver histology to assess its robustness in patients with and without DM. Results There were 503 biopsy proven NAFLD patients with 48% of the cohort being diabetic. Relative to patients without DM, patients with DM were older (52 vs. 46 years, p < 0.001), with higher proportion of females (70% vs. 54%, p < 0.001), higher BMI (37 vs. 35, p = 0.009), higher prevalence of hypertension (73% vs. 44%, p < 0.001), higher prevalence of NASH (80.2% vs. 64.4%; p < 0.001) and advanced fibrosis (40.3% vs. 17.0%; p < 0.001). A considerable amount of patients without DM still had NASH (64%) and advanced fibrosis (17%). The clinical utility of the NFS differed between NAFLD patients with and without DM, with sensitivity to exclude advanced fibrosis being 90% of NAFLD patients with DM but only 58% of patients without DM. Conclusion Patients with DM have more severe NAFLD based on histology. However, NASH and advanced fibrosis also occur in a considerable proportion of NAFLD patients without DM. The lower utility of the NFS in NAFLD patients without DM emphasises the heterogeneous nature of the NAFLD phenotype.

  9. Indicators of glycemic control in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kunihiko; Koga, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has become clear that mild abnormal glucose tolerance increases the incidence of perinatal maternal-infant complications, and so the definition and diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been changed. Therefore, in patients with GDM and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus, even stricter glycemic control than before is required to reduce the incidence of perinatal maternal-infant complications. Strict glycemic control cannot be attained without an indicator of glycemic control; this review proposes a reliable indicator. The gold standard indicator of glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus is hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); however, we have demonstrated that HbA1c does not reflect glycemic control accurately during pregnancy because of iron deficiency. It has also become clear that glycated albumin, another indicator of glycemic control, is not influenced by iron deficiency and therefore might be a better indicator of glycemic control in patients with GDM and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus. However, large-population epidemiological studies are necessary in order to confirm our proposal. Here, we outline the most recent findings about the indicators of glycemic control during pregnancy including fructosamine and 1,5-anhydroglucitol. PMID:26240701

  10. Mastication and Risk for Diabetes in a Japanese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Toru; Yamori, Masashi; Asai, Keita; Nakano-Araki, Ikuko; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Takahashi, Katsu; Sekine, Akihiro; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Kosugi, Shinji; Nakayama, Takeo; Inagaki, Nobuya; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Associations between mastication and insufficient nutrient intake, obesity, and glucose metabolism have been shown in previous studies. However, the association between mastication and diabetes has not been clarified. Our objective was to examine the association between mastication, namely masticatory performance or rate of eating, and diabetes in a population-based cohort. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of the association between mastication and diabetes in the Nagahama Prospective Cohort Study, an ongoing study which recruits citizens of Nagahama City in Shiga Prefecture, central Japan. 2,283 male and 4,544 female residents aged 40–74 years were enrolled from July 2009 to November 2010. Masticatory performance was evaluated by spectrophotometric measurement of color changes after masticating color-changeable chewing gum. Categorical rate of eating (fast, intermediate or slow) was self-assessed using a questionnaire. Results 177 males (7.7%) and 112 (2.4%) females were diagnosed with diabetes. We divided participants into four groups by quartile of masticatory performance, namely Q1 (lowest), 2, and 3 and 4 (highest). Compared to the lowest performance group, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR) of diabetes was 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58–1.4) in Q2, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.48–1.2) in Q3, and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.31–0.90) in the highest group in males, and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.73–2.0), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.54–1.6) and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.30–1.0) in females. We also estimated ORs of diabetes by rate of eating. Compared to the fast eating group, ORs in males were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.61–1.2) in the intermediate group and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.16–0.91) in the slow group, and ORs in females were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.59–1.4) and 1.5 (95% CI, 0.73–3.0). Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that higher masticatory performance and slow eating prevent the occurrence of diabetes. PMID:23755114

  11. Acute Multiple Arteriovenous Thromboses in a Patient with Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Sayaka; Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kishimoto, Miyako; Ikeda, Nahoko; Inoue, Kaori; Ihana, Noriko; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Noto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Kajio, Hiroshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the most serious acute complications of diabetes mellitus. An arterial thrombotic tendency from DKA is relatively common; however, the occurrence of acute multiple arteriovenous thromboses is rare. We herein report the case of a 49-year-old man with DKA complicated by multiple thromboses. After transfer to our emergency room with DKA, the patient developed sudden abdominal pain. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed near-complete occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, superior mesenteric vein, splenic artery, and right femoral artery. This occurrence highlights the need for considering the risk of thrombosis during the initial treatment for DKA. PMID:26278296

  12. Adherence and rehospitalizations in patients with schizophrenia: evidence from Japanese claims data

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Hiroyo; Saito, Yoshimichi; Mahlich, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to analyze if there is a relationship between adherence to antipsychotic medication and rehospitalization for patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in Japan. Methods Based on Japanese claims data, we constructed three patient groups based on their medication possession ratio (MPR). Controlling for potential confounders, a Cox proportional hazard model was employed to assess if medication adherence affects the risk of rehospitalization. Results Patients with good adherence (MPRs from 0.8–1.1) had the lowest rates of admission. Both poor adherence (MPRs <0.8) and overadherence (MPRs >1.1) were associated with a significant higher risk of rehospitalization with hazard ratios of 4.7 and 2.0, respectively. Conclusion The results of this study support the notion that good adherence to antipsychotic medication reduces the risk of rehospitalization of schizophrenia patients. Appropriate measures should be taken to improve adherence of schizophrenia patients. PMID:25897229

  13. Electrophysiological assessments of the motor pathway in diabetic patients with compressive cervical myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Kamei, Naosuke; Hiramatsu, Takeshi; Ujigo, Satoshi; Sumiyoshi, Norihiko; Rikita, Takanori; Takazawa, Atsushi; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT The occurrence of compressive cervical myelopathy (CCM) increases in adults over 50 years of age. In addition, diabetes mellitus (DM) is a frequent comorbidity for people of this age and may impact the severity of CCM. The authors assessed motor pathway function in diabetic patients with CCM to investigate the correlation between electrophysiological parameters and clinical symptoms. METHODS Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured from the abductor digiti minimi muscle (ADM) and the abductor hallucis muscle (AH) following transcranial magnetic stimulation, as were M- and F-waves following electrical stimulation of the ulnar and tibial nerves, in 22 patients with CCM and diabetes mellitus (DM) who had not experienced symptomatic diabetic neuropathy (CCM-DM group), in 92 patients with CCM alone (CCM group), and in 24 healthy adults (control group). The peripheral conduction time (PCT; measured from the ADM and AH) was calculated as follows: (M-wave latency + F-wave latency -1)/2. The central motor conduction time (CMCT; measured from the ADM and AH) was calculated by subtracting the PCT from the onset latency of the MEPs. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for cervical myelopathy was obtained before and 1 year after surgery as a clinical outcome measure. RESULTS MEP, PCT, and CMCT parameters in the CCM-DM and CCM groups were significantly longer than those in the control group (p = 0.000-0.007). The PCTs in the CCM-DM group were significantly longer than those in the CCM group (p = 0.001-0.003). No significant differences were detected in the MEP and CMCT parameters between the CCM-DM and CCM groups (p = 0.080-1.000). The JOA score before surgery in the CCM-DM group was 10.7 ± 2.0 points and was significantly lower than that in the CCM group (12.2 ± 2.5 points, p = 0.015). In the CCM-DM group, JOA scores before surgery correlated with MEP-AH (r = -0.610, p = 0.012) and PCT-AH (r = -0.676, p = 0.004) values, but not with CMCT values, while the JOA scores were related to both MEP and CMCT parameters in the CCM group. The JOA scores improved to 13.8 ± 2.2 points after surgery (p = 0.001) and correlated with MEP-AH (r = -0.667, p = 0.005) and PCT-AH (r = -0.611, p = 0.012) in the CCM-DM group. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that MEP, PCT, and CMCT parameters each reveal abnormalities in the upper and lower motor neurons even in patients with DM. The results also show a prolonged PCT in CCM-DM patients, despite having no history of diabetic neuropathy. Corticospinal tract impairments are similar between CCM and CCM-DM patients, while the JOA score of the CCM-DM patients is lower than that in the CCM patients. The JOA score in CCM-DM patients may be influenced by additional impairments in peripheral nerves or other diabetic complications. These electrophysiological studies may be useful for screening motor pathway function for CCM in patients with DM. PMID:26340381

  14. How health information is received by diabetic patients?

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Lalazaryan, Anasik; Rahimi, Alireza; Zadeh, Akbar Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of correct information-seeking behavior by the patients can provide health specialists and health information specialists with valuable information in improving health care. This study aimed to investigate the passive receipt and active seeking of health information by diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A survey method was used in this research on 6426 diabetic patients of whom 362 patients were selected by a no percentage stratified random sampling. The Longo information-seeking behavior questionnaire was used to collect data and they were analyzed by SPSS 20 software. Results: The most common information source by diabetic patients was practitioners (3.12). The minimum usage among the information sources were from charity organizations and emergency phone lines with a usage of close to zero. The amount of health information gained passively from each source has the lowest average of 4.18 and usage of this information in making health decision has the highest average score of 5.83. Analysis of the data related to active seeking of information showed that knowledge of available medical information from each source has the lowest average score of 3.95 and ability in using the acquired information for making medical decisions has the highest average score of 5.28. The paired t-test showed that differences between passive information receipt (41.68) and active information seeking (39.20) considered as statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Because diabetic patients are more passive information receivers than active information seekers, the health information must be distributed by passive means to these patients. In addition, information-seeking behavior during different time periods should be investigated; to identify more effective distribution of health information. PMID:26261828

  15. Comparison of HLA class II genes in Caucasoid, Chinese, and Japanese patients with primary Sjoegren's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Ho-II.; Chan, E.; Peebles, C.; Fox, R.I. ); Fei, I.; Chen, S. ); Saito, Ichiro; Sawada, Shigemasa ); Bugawan, T.L.; Erlich, H.A. ); Yi, D. )

    1993-04-15

    To better define the genetic factors that predispose to primary Sjoegren's syndrome (SS), the authors used polymerase chain reaction in combination with oligonucleotide probe hybridization and DNA sequencing to analyze HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, and -DPB1 alleles in Caucasoid (California), Japanese (Tokyo), and Chinese (Shanghai and Beijing) SS patients. In comparison to local controls in each region, we found: (1) increased frequency of the predicted haplotype HLA-DRB1[sup *]0301-DRB3[sup *]0101-DQA1[sup *]0501-DQB1[sup *]0201 in Caucasoid patients (p < 0.001); (2) increased frequency of the predicted haplotype HLA-DRB1[sup *]0405-DRB4[sup *]0101-DQA1[sup *]0301-DQB1[sup *]0401 in Japanese patients (p < 0.05); (3) increased frequency of the predicted haplotype DRB1[sup *]0803-DQA1[sup *]0103-DQB1[sup *]0601 in Chinese patients (p < 0.05); and (4) no statistically significant association with DBP1 alleles in any group, although an increased number of Caucasoid and Japanese SS patients possessed DPB1[sup *]0301. Comparison of DNA sequences for the three disease-associated haplotypes in these ethnic groups revealed a shared region of predicted amino acids from positions 58 to 69 in the first domain of HLA-DQB1. These results extend previous studies by demonstrating that no single class II allele was associated with 1[degrees] SS in the different ethnic groups. However, a shared amino acid motif in the DQB1 first domain was present in each disease-associated haplotype. 25 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Subclinical Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Yun Tae; Park, Byung Kyu; Cheong, In Yae

    2014-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the prevalence and characteristics of subclinical ulnar neuropathy at the elbow in diabetic patients. Methods One hundred and five patients with diabetes mellitus were recruited for the study of ulnar nerve conduction analysis. Clinical and demographic characteristics were assessed. Electrodiagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow was based on the criteria of the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM1 and AANEM2). The inching test of the ulnar motor nerve was additionally performed to localize the lesion. Results The duration of diabetes, the existence of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) symptoms, the duration of symptoms, and HbA1C showed significantly larger values in the DPN group (p<0.05). Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow was more common in the DPN group. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of cases that met the three diagnostic criteria between the no DPN group and the DPN group. The most common location for ulnar mononeuropathy at the elbow was the retrocondylar groove. Conclusion Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is more common in patients with DPN. If the conduction velocities of both the elbow and forearm segments are decreased to less than 50 m/s, it may be useful to apply the AANEM2 criteria and inching test to diagnose ulnar neuropathy. PMID:24639928

  17. The 5-Year Onset and Regression of Diabetic Retinopathy in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Peiyao; Peng, Jinjuan; Zou, Haidong; Wang, Weiwei; Fu, Jiong; Shen, Binjie; Bai, Xuelin; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the rate and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) onset and regression in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methods This is a 5-year community-based prospective study. The demographic information, systemic examination results and ophthalmological test results of each participant were collected. The study outcomes were DR incidence, defined as the onset of DR in at least one eye, and DR regression, defined as full regression from existing DR to no retinopathy without invasive treatments. The associations between each potential risk factor and the outcomes were studied. Results In total, 778 participants were enrolled. There were 322 patients without DR at baseline, of which 151 participants developed DR during follow-up (DR incidence rate?=?46.89%). Baseline hyperglycemia and high blood pressure were two independent risk factors associated with DR incidence. Among the 456 participants with existing DR at entry, 110 fully recovered after 5 years (DR regression rate?=?24.12%). Low baseline glucose and low serum triglyceride were two independent factors associated with DR regression. Conclusions DR incidence occurred more frequently in patients with hyperglycemia and high blood pressure. DR regression occurred mostly in patients with lower glucose and lower serum triglyceride levels among Chinese type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:25402474

  18. Mutations in the ribosomal protein genes in Japanese patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Yuki; Toki, Tsutomu; Tandai, Satoru; Xu, Gang; Wang, RuNan; Terui, Kiminori; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro; Hama, Asahito; Kojima, Seiji; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Yanagisawa, Ryu; Koike, Kenichi; Kanai, Rie; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Hongo, Teruaki; Park, Myoung-Ja; Sugita, Kanji; Ito, Etsuro

    2010-01-01

    Background Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare, clinically heterogeneous, congenital red cell aplasia: 40% of patients have congenital abnormalities. Recent studies have shown that in western countries, the disease is associated with heterozygous mutations in the ribosomal protein (RP) genes in about 50% of patients. There have been no studies to determine the incidence of these mutations in Asian patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Design and Methods We screened 49 Japanese patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (45 probands) for mutations in the six known genes associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia: RPS19, RPS24, RPS17, RPL5, RPL11, and RPL35A. RPS14 was also examined due to its implied involvement in 5q- syndrome. Results Mutations in RPS19, RPL5, RPL11 and RPS17 were identified in five, four, two and one of the probands, respectively. In total, 12 (27%) of the Japanese Diamond-Blackfan anemia patients had mutations in ribosomal protein genes. No mutations were detected in RPS14, RPS24 or RPL35A. All patients with RPS19 and RPL5 mutations had physical abnormalities. Remarkably, cleft palate was seen in two patients with RPL5 mutations, and thumb anomalies were seen in six patients with an RPS19 or RPL5 mutation. In contrast, a small-for-date phenotype was seen in five patients without an RPL5 mutation. Conclusions We observed a slightly lower frequency of mutations in the ribosomal protein genes in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia compared to the frequency reported in western countries. Genotype-phenotype data suggest an association between anomalies and RPS19 mutations, and a negative association between small-for-date phenotype and RPL5 mutations. PMID:20378560

  19. Hypothesis of Long-Term Outcome after Coronary Revascularization in Japanese Patients Compared to Multiethnic Groups in the US

    PubMed Central

    Inohara, Taku; Kohsaka, Shun; Goto, Masashi; Furukawa, Yutaka; Fukushima, Masanori; Sakata, Ryuzo; Elayda, MacArthur; Wilson, James M.; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethnicity has a significant impact on coronary artery disease (CAD). This study investigated the long-term outcomes of Japanese patients undergoing revascularization compared with US patients belonging to multiple ethnic groups. Methods and Results We evaluated clinical outcomes, based on ethnicity, of patients included in the Coronary Revascularization Demonstrating Outcome (CREDO-Kyoto) and the Texas (US) Heart Institute Research Database (THIRDBase) registries. For the analysis, we included 8871 patients from the CREDO-Kyoto registry (median follow-up period [FU], 3.5 years; interquartile range [IQR], 2.6–4.3) and 6717 patients from the THIRDBase registry (FU, 5.2 years; IQR, 3.8–6.5) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to compare the adjusted long-term outcomes for each ethnic group. A total of 8871 Japanese, 5170 Caucasians, 648 African-Americans, 817 Hispanics, and 82 Asian-Americans were identified. When adjusted, Japanese patients had significantly better outcomes than US patients, classified by ethnicity (Caucasians: hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35–1.79; Hispanics: HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.22–1.93; African-Americans: HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.62–2.56), except for Asian-Americans (HR, 0.84; 95% CI. 0.38–1.89) who had outcomes similar to Japanese patients. Conclusion Our findings indicate better survival outcomes in re-vascularized Japanese CAD patients compared to major ethnic groups in the US, including Caucasian, Hispanic, and African-American CAD patients. The characteristics and outcomes of Japanese CAD patients were similar to those of Asian-Americans, despite the sample size limitations in the US dataset. PMID:26023784

  20. Exercise thallium imaging in patients with diabetes mellitus. Prognostic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Felsher, J.; Meissner, M.D.; Hakki, A.H.; Heo, J.; Kane-Marsch, S.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-02-01

    We used exercise thallium 201 imaging in 123 patients with diabetes mellitus (77 men and 46 women, aged 56 +/- 8 years), 75% of whom had angina pectoris (typical or atypical). During exercise testing, 18 patients (15%) had angina pectoris, 28 (23%) had ischemic ST changes, and 69 (56%) had abnormal thallium images. During follow-up (up to 36 months), there were 12 cardiac events; four patients died of cardiac causes and eight had nonfatal acute myocardial infarction. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis identified two independent predictors of cardiac events: the event rate was significantly less in patients with normal images and exercise heart rate over 120 beats per minute than in patients with abnormal images and exercise heart rate of 120 beats per minute or less (0% vs 22%). The patients with abnormal images or exercise heart rate of 120 beats per minute or less had an intermediate event rate (11.5%). Furthermore, two of the 54 patients with normal images and ten of 69 patients with abnormal images had subsequent cardiac events. Thus, exercise thallium imaging is useful in risk stratification in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  1. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation, self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors, coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relation to DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM. PMID:25512782

  2. Designing mobile support for glycemic control in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lynne T; Tufano, James; Le, Tung; Rees, Courtney; Lewis, Ginny A; Evert, Alison B; Flowers, Jan; Collins, Carol; Hoath, James; Hirsch, Irl B; Goldberg, Harold I; Ralston, James D

    2010-10-01

    We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of using mobile phones as part of an existing Web-based system for collaboration between patients with diabetes and a primary care team. In design sessions, we tested mobile wireless glucose meter uploads and two approaches to mobile phone-based feedback on glycemic control. Mobile glucose meter uploads combined with graphical and tabular data feedback were the most desirable system features tested. Participants had a mixture of positive and negative reactions to an automated and tailored messaging feedback system for self-management support. Participants saw value in the mobile system as an adjunct to the Web-based program and traditional office-based care. Mobile diabetes management systems may represent one strategy to improve the quality of diabetes care. PMID:20937484

  3. Canagliflozin Treatment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Triplitt, Curtis; Cornell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) indicate a patient-centered approach that should go beyond glycemic control. Of the many antihyperglycemic agents available for treatment of T2DM, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors offer the advantages of reduced glycated hemoglobin (A1C), body weight (BW), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia when used either as monotherapy or with other agents not typically associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia. Collaborative, multidisciplinary teams are best suited to provide care to patients with diabetes, and clinical pharmacists can enhance the care provided by these teams. This review aims to provide insight into the mode of action, pharmacology, potential drug–drug interactions, clinical benefits, and safety considerations associated with use of the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin in patients with T2DM and to provide information to enhance clinical pharmacists’ understanding of canagliflozin. PMID:26523120

  4. Airway inflammation in Japanese COPD patients compared with smoking and nonsmoking controls

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Nobuhisa; Hattori, Noboru; Kohno, Nobuoki; Kobayashi, Akihiro; Hayamizu, Tomoyuki; Johnson, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the importance of inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by measuring airway and systemic inflammatory biomarkers in Japanese patients with the disease and relevant control groups. Patients and methods This was the first study of its type in Japanese COPD patients. It was a non-treatment study in which 100 participants were enrolled into one of three groups: nonsmoking controls, current or ex-smoking controls, and COPD patients. All participants underwent standard lung function assessments and provided sputum and blood samples from which the numbers of inflammatory cells and concentrations of biomarkers were measured, using standard procedures. Results The overall trends observed in levels of inflammatory cells and biomarkers in sputum and blood in COPD were consistent with previous reports in Western studies. Increasing levels of neutrophils, interleukin 8 (IL-8), surfactant protein D (SP-D), and Krebs von den Lungen 6 (KL-6) in sputum and clara cell 16 (CC-16), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and KL-6 in serum and plasma fibrinogen were seen in the Japanese COPD patients compared with the non-COPD control participants. In sputum, significant correlations were seen between total cell count and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9; P<0.001), neutrophils and MMP-9 (P<0.001), macrophages and KL-6 (P<0.01), total cell count and IL-8 (P<0.05), neutrophils and IL-8 (P<0.05), and macrophages and MMP-9 (P<0.05). Significant correlations were also observed between some inflammatory cells in sputum and biomarkers in serum, with the most significant between serum CC-16 and both total cell count (P<0.005) and neutrophils (P<0.005) in sputum. Conclusion These results provide evidence for the first time that COPD in Japanese patients is a multicomponent disease, involving both airway and systemic inflammation, in addition to airway obstruction. Therefore, intervention with anti-inflammatory therapy may provide additional benefit in disease management of COPD in Japan. PMID:25670894

  5. Total Antioxidant Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Kharroubi, Akram T.; Darwish, Hisham M.; Akkawi, Mutaz A.; Ashareef, Abdelkareem A.; Almasri, Zaher A.; Bader, Khaldoun A.; Khammash, Umaiyeh M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the level of total antioxidant status (TAS) in type 2 diabetic and normal Palestinian subjects as well as the major factors influencing TAS levels. A sample of convenience composed of 212 type 2 diabetic and 208 normal subjects above the age of 40 were recruited. Only 9.8% of the subjects had normal body mass index (BMI) levels (<25), 29% were overweight (?25 to <30), and 61.2% were obese (?30). The mean levels of TAS were significantly higher in diabetic compared to control subjects (2.18 versus 1.84?mM Trolox, P = 0.001) and in hypertensive subjects compared to subjects with normal blood pressure (BP). Mean TAS levels were higher in obese compared to nonobese subjects (2.12 versus 1.85?mM Trolox, P = 0.001). Mean TAS levels were similarly higher in subjects with high fasting plasma glucose (FPG) compared to normal FPG (2.19 versus 1.90?mM Trolox) and high HbA1c (?6.5%) compared to HbA1c < 6.5% (2.14 versus 1.91?mM Trolox). Multivariate analysis revealed that only diabetic status (P = 0.032) and the level of education (P = 0.036) were significantly associated with TAS. In conclusion diabetic patients had 18.5% increase in TAS levels compared to control subjects. PMID:26090472

  6. Plasma amino acid profiles are associated with insulin, C-peptide and adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, H; Jinzu, H; Nagao, K; Noguchi, Y; Shimba, N; Miyano, H; Watanabe, T; Iseki, K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) profiles have been associated with a future risk of developing diabetes or cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic subjects. These PFAA alterations might predominantly result from the metabolic shift caused by insulin resistance and visceral fat deposition. The variety of PFAA profiles within diabetic subjects is not well researched. In this study, we focused on type 2 diabetic subjects and examined the association between PFAA profiles and insulin- and glucose-related variables. Methods: Fifty-one Japanese subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were recruited from an outpatient clinic. The plasma concentrations of 21 amino acids; glucose-related markers including glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycoalbumin and 1,5-anhydroglucitol; insulin-related markers including insulin, C-peptide, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; and adipocytokines including adiponectin and leptin were determined. The association of PFAA and other metabolic profiles were analyzed, and stratified analyses of the PFAAs and clinical characteristics were performed according to the fasting plasma insulin and HbA1c levels. In addition, the PFAA indices that correlate to visceral fat obesity were evaluated. Results: Although strong correlations between PFAAs and glucose-related markers were not observed, several amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, tryptophan, alanine, tyrosine, glutamate and proline) and PFAA indices that evaluate visceral obesity were highly correlated with insulin-related markers and adiponectin (P<0.001). In the group of diabetic patients with hyperinsulinemia, the amino acid levels were significantly increased, which generally demonstrated good concordance with insulin-related markers and adiponectin levels. Conclusions: The PFAA profiles in diabetic patients were strongly associated with hyperinsulinemia and hypoadiponectinemia, which might become risk evaluation factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25177913

  7. Cognitive Dysfunction Survey of the Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease (COSMO-JAPAN Study): study protocol.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease characterized by progressive stenosis or by occlusion at the terminal portion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries. The unusual vascular network (moyamoya vessels) at the base of the brain with this disease as collateral channels is developed in this disease. Social independence because of cognitive impairment has recently been recognized as an important unsolved social issue with adult moyamoya disease. The patients with cognitive impairment have difficulty in proving their status because the standard neuroradiological and neuropsychological methods to define cognitive impairment with moyamoya disease are not determined. These patients with cognitive impairment should be supported by social welfare as psychologically handicapped persons. Thus Cognitive Dysfunction Survey of the Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease (COSMO-JAPAN study) is planned. In this study, we want to establish a standard finding of the cognitive impairment in patients with moyamoya disease. PMID:25739435

  8. The responsible genes in Japanese deafness patients and clinical application using Invader assay.

    PubMed

    Usami, Shin-Ichi; Wagatsuma, Michio; Fukuoka, Hisakuni; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Tsukada, Keita; Nishio, Shinya; Takumi, Yutaka; Abe, Satoko

    2008-04-01

    Discovery of deafness genes has progressed but clinical application lags because of the genetic heterogeneity. To establish clinical application strategy, we reviewed the frequency and spectrum of mutations found in Japanese hearing loss patients and compared them to those in populations of European ancestry. Screening revealed that in Japanese, mutations in GJB2, SLC26A4, and CDH23, and the mitochondrial 12S rRNA are the major causes of hearing loss. Also, mutations in KCNQ4, TECTA, COCH, WFS1, CRYM, COL9A3, and KIAA1199 were found in independent autosomal dominant families. Interestingly, spectrums of GJB2, SLC26A4, and CDH23 mutations in Japanese were quite different from those in Europeans. Simultaneous screening of multiple deafness mutations based on the mutation spectrum of a corresponding population using an Invader panel revealed that approximately 30% of subjects could be diagnosed. This assay will enable us to detect deafness mutations in an efficient and practical manner in the clinical platform. We conclude that specific racial populations may have unique deafness gene epidemiologies; therefore, ethnic background should be considered when genetic testing is performed. Simultaneous examination of multiple mutations based on a population's spectrum may be appropriate and effective for detecting deafness genes, facilitating precise clinical diagnosis, appropriate counseling, and proper management. PMID:18368581

  9. High levels of lipid peroxidation in semen of diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Vicari, E; D'Agata, R; Salemi, M; Calogero, A E

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) (one of the final products of lipid peroxidation and well-known marker of oxidative stress) in semen of infertile men with type 2 diabetes and to investigate its relationship with their glycaemic control. Forty infertile men with type 2 diabetes were evaluated. The mean ages were 36.5 ± 8.0. Men with diabetes were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 20) with glycated haemoglobin >10% and group B (n = 20) with glycated haemoglobin <7%. A single sample was examined according to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination of Human Semen and Sperm-Cervical Mucus Interaction, 1999, Cambridge University Press). MDA was assessed using the thiobarbituric acid method. MDA concentration in semen of group A patients (0.95 ± 0.35 nmol ml(-1)) was significantly higher than in group B patients (0.43 ± 0.13 nmol ml(-1)) (P value < 0.05) and had negative relationship with sperm density (r = -.717; P value < 0.05), total sperm count (r = -.625; P value < 0.05), progressive motility (r = -.489; P value < 0.05) and normal forms (r = -.545; P value < 0.05). Based on these results, it could be concluded that increase in lipid peroxidation in men with diabetes with poor metabolic control was associated with low sperm quality. PMID:21919944

  10. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dimitropoulos, Gerasimos; Tahrani, Abd A; Stevens, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is an often overlooked and common complication of diabetes mellitus. CAN is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of CAN is complex and involves a cascade of pathways activated by hyperglycaemia resulting in neuronal ischaemia and cellular death. In addition, autoimmune and genetic factors are involved in the development of CAN. CAN might be subclinical for several years until the patient develops resting tachycardia, exercise intolerance, postural hypotension, cardiac dysfunction and diabetic cardiomyopathy. During its sub-clinical phase, heart rate variability that is influenced by the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic tones can help in detecting CAN before the disease is symptomatic. Newer imaging techniques (such as scintigraphy) have allowed earlier detection of CAN in the pre-clinical phase and allowed better assessment of the sympathetic nervous system. One of the main difficulties in CAN research is the lack of a universally accepted definition of CAN; however, the Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy has recently issued guidance for the diagnosis and staging of CAN, and also proposed screening for CAN in patients with diabetes mellitus. A major challenge, however, is the lack of specific treatment to slow the progression or prevent the development of CAN. Lifestyle changes, improved metabolic control might prevent or slow the progression of CAN. Reversal will require combination of these treatments with new targeted therapeutic approaches. The aim of this article is to review the latest evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, manifestations, diagnosis and treatment for CAN. PMID:24567799

  11. sRAGE in diabetic and non-diabetic critically ill patients: effects of intensive insulin therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycemia represents an independent prognostic factor in critically ill non-diabetic patients but not in those with diabetes. In this context, there is an ongoing debate on the benefit of an intensive insulin therapy, particularly in diabetic patients. We tested the hypothesis that expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), an important signal transduction receptor that elicits long-lasting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation, may underlie this difference. RAGE expression is regulated by multiple ligands, including high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1), and is reflected by its released soluble form (sRAGE). Methods A predesigned analysis was conducted of prospectively collected samples from 76 hyperglycemic critically ill patients (33 type-2 diabetes, 43 non-diabetes) aged ?18 years with blood glucose of > 6.1 mmol/L enrolled in a randomized controlled trial comparing intensive insulin therapy with conventional insulin therapy. sRAGE and its ligand HMGB-1 together with IL-6, and soluble thrombomodulin (as markers of inflammation and endothelial cell injury, respectively) were evaluated in ICU, at Days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Plasma samples from 18 healthy subjects were used as controls. Results Both diabetic and non-diabetic hyperglycemic patients showed increased plasma sRAGE, HMGB-1 and soluble thrombomodulin levels at the time of admission to ICU. Plasma IL-6 concentration was only increased in non-diabetic patients. Plasma levels of sRAGE were higher in diabetic compared with non-diabetic patients. Intensive insulin therapy resulted in a significant decrease of sRAGE and thrombomodulin at Day 7, in diabetic but not in non-diabetic patients. Circulating sRAGE levels correlated positively with IL-6 and soluble thrombomodulin levels and inversely with HMGB-1. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that sRAGE remains independently correlated with HMGB-1 only in diabetic patients. Neither sRAGE nor any inflammatory markers are associated with mortality. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that sRAGE release, time-course and response to intensive insulin therapy differ between hyperglycemic diabetic and non-diabetic critically ill patients. Whether this difference underlies the dissimilarity in clinical outcome of hyperglycemia in these two conditions warrants further studies. PMID:21871056

  12. Smart Home-based Health Platform for Behavioral Monitoring and Alteration of Diabetes Patients

    E-print Network

    Cook, Diane J.

    . The architecture can be used to monitor the activity, diet, and exercise compliance of diabetes patientsSmart Home-based Health Platform for Behavioral Monitoring and Alteration of Diabetes Patients the best possible quality of life for individuals with diabetes. #12;Introduction Medical researchers

  13. Myeloperoxidase Levels Predict Accelerated Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Diabetic Patients: Insights from Intravascular Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Yu; Shao, Mingyuan; Wolski, Kathy; Uno, Kiyoko; Puri, Rishi; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Hazen, Stanley L.; Nissen, Steven E.; Nicholls, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective While inflammation has been proposed to contribute to the adverse cardiovascular outcome in diabetic patients, the specific pathways involved have not been elucidated. The leukocyte derived product, myeloperoxidase (MPO), has been implicated in all stages of atherosclerosis. The relationship between MPO and accelerated disease progression observed in diabetic patients has not been studied. Methods We investigated the relationship between MPO and disease progression in diabetic patients. 881 patients with angiographic coronary artery disease underwent serial evaluation of atherosclerotic burden with intravascular ultrasound. Disease progression in diabetic (n=199) and non-diabetic (n=682) patients, stratified by baseline MPO levels was investigated. Results MPO levels were similar in patients with and without diabetes (1362 vs. 1255 pmol/L, p=0.43). No relationship was observed between increasing quartiles of MPO and either baseline (p=0.81) or serial changes (p=0.43) in levels of percent atheroma volume (PAV) in non-diabetic patients. In contrast, increasing MPO quartiles were associated with accelerated PAV progression in diabetic patients (p=0.03). While optimal control of lipid and the use of high-dose statin were associated with less disease progression, a greater benefit was observed in diabetic patients with lower compared with higher MPO levels at baseline. Conclusions Increasing MPO levels are associated with greater progression of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. This finding indicates the potential importance of MPO pathways in diabetic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24468151

  14. Anemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Jéssica; Fontela, Paula Caitano; Winkelmann, Eliane Roseli; Zimmermann, Carine Eloise Prestes; Sandri, Yana Picinin; Mallet, Emanelle Kerber Viera; Frizzo, Matias Nunes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in DM2 patients and its correlation with demographic and lifestyle and laboratory variables. This is a descriptive and analytical study of the type of case studies in the urban area of the Ijuí city, registered in programs of the Family Health Strategy, with a total sample of 146 patients with DM2. A semistructured questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical variables and performed biochemical test was applied. Of the DM2 patients studied, 50 patients had anemia, and it was found that the body mass items and hypertension and hematological variables are significantly associated with anemia of chronic disease. So, the prevalence of anemia is high in patients with DM2. The set of observed changes characterizes the anemia of chronic disease, which affects quality of life of diabetic patients and is associated with disease progression, development, and comorbidities that contribute significantly to increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26640706

  15. Peripheral artery disease in patients with diabetes: Epidemiology, mechanisms, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvoipati, Thejasvi; Kielhorn, Caitlin E; Armstrong, Ehrin J

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the atherosclerosis of lower extremity arteries and is also associated with atherothrombosis of other vascular beds, including the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems. The presence of diabetes mellitus greatly increases the risk of PAD, as well as accelerates its course, making these patients more susceptible to ischemic events and impaired functional status compared to patients without diabetes. To minimize these cardiovascular risks it is critical to understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. This, in turn, can offer insights into the therapeutic avenues available for these patients. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology of PAD in diabetic patients, followed by an analysis of the mechanisms by which altered metabolism in diabetes promotes atherosclerosis and plaque instability. Outcomes of PAD in diabetic patients are also discussed, with a focus on diabetic ulcers and critical limb ischemia. PMID:26185603

  16. Phenotypic Variability and Newly Identified Mutations of the IVD Gene in Japanese Patients with Isovaleric Acidemia.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Osamu; Arai-Ichinoi, Natsuko; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Haruna, Hidenori; Maruyama, Hidehiko; Sugawara, Hidenori; Kure, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) is an autosomal recessive inborn error affecting leucine metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency in isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD), a mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of isovaleryl-CoA to 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA. IVD is a FAD-containing enzyme, consisting of four identical subunits. Clinical features of IVA include poor feeding, vomiting, lethargy, developmental delay, metabolic acidosis, and a characteristic "sweaty foot" odor. IVA is one of the target disorders for newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The human IVD gene is located on chromosome 15q. To date, over 50 disease-causing mutations have been reported worldwide. In this study, we searched for IVD mutations in five Japanese patients with IVA (neonatal type, two patients; chronic intermittent type, two patients; and mild biochemical type, one patient). The diagnosis of IVA was confirmed by urinary organic acid analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. All coding exons and the flanking introns in the IVD gene were amplified by PCR and were directly sequenced. We thus identified six hitherto unknown mutations (p.G94D, p.E116K, p.M167T, p.L243P, p.L246P, and c.696+1G>T) and four previously reported (p.R53P, p.R395C, p.Y403C, and p.E411K) pathogenic mutations. All patients were compound heterozygotes, and each mutation was identified in a single patient. Pathogenicity of newly identified mutations was validated using computational programs. Among them, the p.M167T is believed to influence FAD binding, as the position 167 is present in one of the FAD-binding sites. Our results have illustrated the heterogeneous mutation spectrum and clinical presentation of IVA in the Japanese patients. PMID:26018748

  17. High Mannose-Binding Lectin Serum Levels Are Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qian; Shang, Guilian; Deng, Haohua; Liu, Jie; Mei, Yan; Xu, Yancheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate mannose-binding lectin (MBL) serum levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods Serum MBL levels were determined in type 2 diabetic patients (N=324) as well as in 300 healthy control Subjects. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) was used to test the overall predict accuracy of MBL and other markers. Results Diabetic patients with DR and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) had significantly higher MBL levels on admission (P<0.0001 and P<0.0001). MBL improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the diabetes duration for DRfrom 0.82(95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77–0.86) to 0.88(95% CI, 0.82–0.96; P<0.01) and for VDTR from 0.85(95% CI, 0.77–0.92) to 0.90(95% CI, 0.83–0.96; P<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for common risk factors showed that serum MBL levels(per log-unit increase) was an independent predictor of DR (OR=3.45; 95%CI: 1.42–7.05) and VTDR (OR=4.42; 95%CI: 1.51-8.18). Conclusion MBL is a novel, independent diagnostic marker of DR in type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting that MBL may be involved in the pathogenesis of DR in diabetic patients. PMID:26136138

  18. Antiplatelet therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus and acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patti, Giuseppe; Proscia, Claudio; Di Sciascio, Germano

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased atherothrombotic risk and elevated rates of recurrent cardiac events, which may be in part attributable to abnormalities of platelet function resulting in increased platelet reactivity. Despite improved clinical outcomes with an antiplatelet strategy of aspirin plus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), diabetic patients continue to experience relatively high rates of adverse events during follow-up. Thus, strategies using more potent antiplatelet drugs are warranted in diabetic patients with ACS, especially in the presence of an increased coronary angiographic risk profile. The relative benefit of prasugrel has been described as higher in diabetic vs. nondiabetic patients, without increase in the bleeding risk, whereas a reduction in ischemic events was similar with ticagrelor in patients with and without diabetes. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are indicated in high-risk patients with ACS, but diabetic patients do not benefit from routine administration of such agents. PMID:24334561

  19. Underuse of an invasive strategy for patients with diabetes with acute coronary syndrome: a nationwide study

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Ida; Hvelplund, Anders; Hansen, Kim Wadt; Galatius, Søren; Madsen, Mette; Jensen, Jan Skov; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Jørgensen, Erik; Madsen, Jan Kyst; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend an early invasive strategy for patients with diabetes with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We investigated if patients with diabetes with ACS are offered coronary angiography (CAG) and revascularisation to the same extent as patients without diabetes. Methods and results The study is a nationwide cohort study linking Danish national registries containing information on healthcare. The study population comprises all patients hospitalised with first-time ACS in Denmark during 2005–2007 (N=24?952). Diabetes was defined as claiming of a prescription for insulin and/or oral hypoglycaemic agents within 6?months prior to the ACS event. Diabetes was present in 2813 (11%) patients. Compared with patients without diabetes, patients with diabetes were older (mean 69 vs 67?years, p<0.0001), less often males (60% vs 64%, p=0.0001) and had more comorbidity. Fewer patients with diabetes underwent CAG: cumulative incidence 64% vs 74% for patients without diabetes, HR=0.72 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.76, p<0.0001); adjusted for age, sex, previous revascularisation and comorbidity HR=0.78 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.82, p<0.0001). More patients with diabetes had CAG showing two-vessel or three-vessel disease (53% vs 38%, p<0.0001). However, revascularisation after CAG revealing multivessel disease was less likely in patients with diabetes (multivariable adjusted HR=0.76, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.85, p<0.0001). Conclusions In this nationwide cohort of patients with incident ACS, patients with diabetes were found to be less aggressively managed by an invasive treatment strategy. The factors underlying the decision to defer an invasive strategy in patients with diabetes are unclear and merit further investigation. PMID:25685362

  20. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Aitken-Saavedra, Juan; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar-Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes-Coloma, Andrea; Reyes-Rojas, Montserrat; Viera -Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca-Martínez, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and the level of metabolic control of type 2 diabetes patients. Material and Methods A convenience sample of 74 voluntary patients with type 2 DM was selected, each of whom donated a sample of unstimulated saliva. Salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate, protein concentration, pH, and xerostomia were studied. Results There is a positive relationship between the level of metabolic control measured with HbA1 and the protein concentration in saliva (Spearman rho = 0.329 and p = 0.004). The same assay showed an inverse correlation between HbA1 and pH (Spearman rho = -0.225 and p = 0.05). Conclusions The protein concentration in saliva and, to a lesser extent, the pH may be useful as glandular dysfunction indicators in DM2 patients. Key words:Saliva, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pH, protein concentration, xerostomia. PMID:26535097

  1. Increasing Patient Empowerment and Improving Diabetes Care by Utilizing a Computer-Based Patient “Roadmap”

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Catherine S.; Tusi, Circe; Caudle, Jane; Watkins, Noveta; Dames, Faye; Killian, Sarah M.; Watts, Betty; Ziemer, David C.

    2006-01-01

    The 20.8 million Americans with diabetes are at risk of amputation, kidney failure, blindness, and death which could be decreased if glucose control were better. Patients need motivation and empowerment to perform the daily management of diabetes. We are using informatics to help them organize their questions for providers and to generate “road maps” of their progress and future directions of care. PMID:17238472

  2. [Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity in patients with coronary artery diseases and in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Amine, Khadija; Atouk, Abdelouahed; Moussamih, Samya; Saile, Rachid; Mikou, Afaf; Kettani, Anass

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality in the world, diabetics and patients with coronary artery diseases in particular. In fact, the increase of cardiovascular risk was established in many epidemiological and clinical studies. The aim of this work is to study both the lipid profile and the enzymatic activity of PON1 in diabetics and coronary patients from Morocco (Casablanca region) along with the cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Three groups of Moroccan subjects were investigated: 36 patients with coronary artery diseases, 110 diabetic patients and 100 healthy subjects (control group). Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (c-HDL) levels were evaluated using colorimetric methods. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (c-LDL) was calculated according to the Friedewald's formula. Serum activity of PON1 was measured by spectrophotometry. Compared to healthy subjects, we noted a significant decrease of PON1 activity in coronary artery disease (285?U/mL?±?180?U/mL; P?diabetic (167?U/mL?±?71?U/mL; P?patients. In addition, we found that diabetic patients recorded significantly elevated LDL, TG and TC levels. In parallel, coronary artery disease patients scored TG level. The present study revealed an abnormal lipoprotein profile associated with hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of c-HDL, high levels of c-LDL and significant decrease of PON1 activity. These findings confirm the high risk of cardiovascular diseases in diabetic and coronary artery disease patients. PMID:22123566

  3. Factors Associated with Knowledge of Diabetes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Using the Diabetes Knowledge Test Validated with Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Eva K.; Xie, Jing; Rees, Gwyn; Finger, Robert P.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In patients with Type 2 diabetes, to determine the factors associated with diabetes knowledge, derived from Rasch analysis, and compare results with a traditional raw scoring method. Research Design & Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study underwent a comprehensive clinical and biochemical assessment. Diabetes knowledge (main outcome) was assessed using the Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT) which was psychometrically validated using Rasch analysis. The relationship between diabetes knowledge and risk factors identified during univariate analyses was examined using multivariable linear regression. The results using raw and Rasch-transformed methods were descriptively compared. Results 181 patients (mean age±standard deviation?=?66.97±9.17 years; 113 (62%) male) were included. Using Rasch-derived DKT scores, those with greater education (??=?1.14; CI: 0.25,2.04, p?=?0.013); had seen an ophthalmologist (??=?1.65; CI: 0.63,2.66, p?=?0.002), and spoke English at home (??=?1.37; CI: 0.43,2.31, p?=?0.005) had significantly better diabetes knowledge than those with less education, had not seen an ophthalmologist and spoke a language other than English, respectively. Patients who were members of the National Diabetes Service Scheme (NDSS) and had seen a diabetes educator also had better diabetes knowledge than their counterparts. Higher HbA1c level was independently associated with worse diabetes knowledge. Using raw measures, access to an ophthalmologist and NDSS membership were not independently associated with diabetes knowledge. Conclusions Sociodemographic, clinical and service use factors were independently associated with diabetes knowledge based on both raw scores and Rasch-derived scores, which supports the implementation of targeted interventions to improve patients' knowledge. Choice of psychometric analytical method can affect study outcomes and should be considered during intervention development. PMID:24312484

  4. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Voriconazole Intravenous-to-Oral Switch Regimens in Immunocompromised Japanese Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ryoji; Kato, Koji; Maeda, Naoko; Fukushima, Keitaro; Goto, Hiroaki; Inoue, Masami; Muto, Chieko; Okayama, Akifumi; Watanabe, Kenichi; Liu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of voriconazole following intravenous-to-oral switch regimens used with immunocompromised Japanese pediatric subjects (age 2 to <15 years) at high risk for systemic fungal infection. Twenty-one patients received intravenous-to-oral switch regimens based on a recent population pharmacokinetic modeling; they were given 9 mg/kg of body weight followed by 8 mg/kg of intravenous (i.v.) voriconazole every 12 h (q12h), and 9 mg/kg (maximum, 350 mg) of oral voriconazole q12h (for patients age 2 to <12 or 12 to <15 years and <50 kg) or 6 mg/kg followed by 4 mg/kg of i.v. voriconazole q12h and 200 mg of oral voriconazole q12h (for patients age 12 to <15 years and ?50 kg). The steady-state area under the curve over the 12-h dosing interval (AUC0–12,ss) was calculated using the noncompartmental method and compared with the predicted exposures in Western pediatric subjects based on the abovementioned modeling. The geometric mean (coefficient of variation) AUC0–12,ss values for the intravenous and oral regimens were 51.1 ?g · h/ml (68%) and 45.8 ?g · h/ml (90%), respectively; there was a high correlation between AUC0–12,ss and trough concentration. Although the average exposures were higher in the Japanese patients than those in the Western pediatric subjects, the overall voriconazole exposures were comparable between these two groups due to large interindividual variability. The exposures in the 2 cytochrome P450 2C19 poor metabolizers were among the highest. Voriconazole was well tolerated. The most common treatment-related adverse events were photophobia and abnormal hepatic function. These recommended doses derived from the modeling appear to be appropriate for Japanese pediatric patients, showing no additional safety risks compared to those with adult patients. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01383993.) PMID:25451051

  5. Pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole intravenous-to-oral switch regimens in immunocompromised Japanese pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Kato, Koji; Maeda, Naoko; Fukushima, Keitaro; Goto, Hiroaki; Inoue, Masami; Muto, Chieko; Okayama, Akifumi; Watanabe, Kenichi; Liu, Ping

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of voriconazole following intravenous-to-oral switch regimens used with immunocompromised Japanese pediatric subjects (age 2 to <15 years) at high risk for systemic fungal infection. Twenty-one patients received intravenous-to-oral switch regimens based on a recent population pharmacokinetic modeling; they were given 9 mg/kg of body weight followed by 8 mg/kg of intravenous (i.v.) voriconazole every 12 h (q12h), and 9 mg/kg (maximum, 350 mg) of oral voriconazole q12h (for patients age 2 to <12 or 12 to <15 years and <50 kg) or 6 mg/kg followed by 4 mg/kg of i.v. voriconazole q12h and 200 mg of oral voriconazole q12h (for patients age 12 to <15 years and ?50 kg). The steady-state area under the curve over the 12-h dosing interval (AUC0-12,ss) was calculated using the noncompartmental method and compared with the predicted exposures in Western pediatric subjects based on the abovementioned modeling. The geometric mean (coefficient of variation) AUC0-12,ss values for the intravenous and oral regimens were 51.1 ?g · h/ml (68%) and 45.8 ?g·h/ml (90%), respectively; there was a high correlation between AUC0-12,ss and trough concentration. Although the average exposures were higher in the Japanese patients than those in the Western pediatric subjects, the overall voriconazole exposures were comparable between these two groups due to large interindividual variability. The exposures in the 2 cytochrome P450 2C19 poor metabolizers were among the highest. Voriconazole was well tolerated. The most common treatment-related adverse events were photophobia and abnormal hepatic function. These recommended doses derived from the modeling appear to be appropriate for Japanese pediatric patients, showing no additional safety risks compared to those with adult patients. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01383993.). PMID:25451051

  6. Clinical Results of Percutaneous Needle Fasciotomy for Dupuytren’s Disease in Japanese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinical results of percutaneous needle fasciotomy (PNF) in Japanese patients with Dupuytren’s disease are reported. Methods: In this prospective study, 51 patients (103 fingers: 1 index, 9 middle, 47 ring, and 46 small) underwent PNF at 99 metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and 68 proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints. Patients were assessed postoperatively after 1 day, at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Correction of contracture was measured in degrees, and an improvement index (% improvement) was described previously by Tonkin et al. A correction of the contracture to 5° or less at each joint and at each digital ray represented a successful correction. The recurrence rates in MCP and PIP joints were also evaluated. Correlations between the Tubiana classification stage and successful correction, % improvement, and recurrence rate were evaluated. The relationships between recurrence rate and the diathesis score (more/less than 5 points) and between recurrence rate and age at surgery (<50/?50 years) were also examined. Results: In MCP and PIP joints, the improvement maintained at final follow-up was 89% and 57%, respectively, with successful corrections in 89% and 76%, respectively. PNF corrected digital rays at various Tubiana stages: stage 1 = 100%, stage 2 = 82%, stage 3 = 46%, and stage 4 = 0%. Improvements were preserved in stage 1 = 83%; stage 2 = 62%; stage 3 = 58%, and stage 4 = 60%. Recurrence of Dupuytren’s disease was significant for the PIP joint, severe Tubiana stage, and younger patients. Conclusions: Clinical results of PNF in Japanese patients with Dupuytren’s contractures were similar to those of whites. PMID:26090274

  7. Plasma Free Amino Acid Profiles Predict Four-Year Risk of Developing Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, Dyslipidemia, and Hypertension in Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yamakado, Minoru; Nagao, Kenji; Imaizumi, Akira; Tani, Mizuki; Toda, Akiko; Tanaka, Takayuki; Jinzu, Hiroko; Miyano, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Daimon, Takashi; Horimoto, Katsuhisa; Ishizaka, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is highlighted in its association with visceral obesity and hyperinsulinemia, and future diabetes. Indeed PFAA profiling potentially can evaluate individuals’ future risks of developing lifestyle-related diseases, in addition to diabetes. However, few studies have been performed especially in Asian populations, about the optimal combination of PFAAs for evaluating health risks. We quantified PFAA levels in 3,701 Japanese subjects, and determined visceral fat area (VFA) and two-hour post-challenge insulin (Ins120?min) values in 865 and 1,160 subjects, respectively. Then, models between PFAA levels and the VFA or Ins120?min values were constructed by multiple linear regression analysis with variable selection. Finally, a cohort study of 2,984 subjects to examine capabilities of the obtained models for predicting four-year risk of developing new-onset lifestyle-related diseases was conducted. The correlation coefficients of the obtained PFAA models against VFA or Ins120?min were higher than single PFAA level. Our models work well for future risk prediction. Even after adjusting for commonly accepted multiple risk factors, these models can predict future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. PFAA profiles confer independent and differing contributions to increasing the lifestyle-related disease risks in addition to the currently known factors in a general Japanese population. PMID:26156880

  8. Association Between Diabetic Macular Edema and Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Multicenter Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Leveziel, Nicolas; Ragot, Stéphanie; Gand, Elise; Lichtwitz, Olivier; Halimi, Jean Michel; Gozlan, Julien; Gourdy, Pierre; Robert, Marie-Françoise; Dardari, Dured; Boissonnot, Michèle; Roussel, Ronan; Piguel, Xavier; Dupuy, Olivier; Torremocha, Florence; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Maréchaud, Richard; Hadjadj, Samy

    2015-08-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the main cause of visual loss associated with diabetes but any association between DME and cardiovascular events is unclear.This study aims to describe the possible association between DME and cardiovascular events in a multicenter cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes.Two thousand eight hundred seven patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from diabetes and nephrology clinical institutional centers participating in the DIAB 2 NEPHROGENE study focusing on diabetic complications. DME (presence/absence) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) classification were based on ophthalmological report and/or on 30° color retinal photographs. DR was defined as absent, nonproliferative (background, moderate, or severe) or proliferative. Cardiovascular events were stroke, myocardial infarction, and lower limb amputation.Details regarding associations between DME and cardiovascular events were evaluated.The study included 2807 patients with type 2 diabetes, of whom 355 (12.6%) had DME. DME was significantly and independently associated with patient age, known duration of diabetes, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, and DR stage. Only the prior history of lower limb amputation was strongly associated with DME in univariate and multivariate analyses, whereas no association was found with regard to myocardial infarction or stroke. Moreover, both major (n?=?32) and minor lower limb (n?=?96) amputations were similarly associated with DME, with respective odds ratio of 3.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77-7.74; P?=?0.0012) and of 4.29 (95% CI, 2.79-6.61; P?diabetic patients. PMID:26287408

  9. Statins Can Delay Insulin Use and Reduce Diabetes-related Diseases in Asian Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Hung; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yeh, Su-Yin; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the role of statins in delaying insulin use and diabetes-related diseases in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) because statins can cause new-onset diabetes. We used data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in this retrospective cohort study. The 12,470 T2DM patients were categorized into 2 cohorts: a statin cohort comprising 2545 patients who received statin therapy for at least 6 months (180 days) before the index date and a nonstatin cohort comprising 9925 patients who did not receive statin therapy. The control-to-case ratio was set at approximately 4:1. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to evaluate the risk of diabetes-related events and insulin use on receiving statin treatment. Patients in the statin cohort had a 48% lower risk of diabetes-related coma than those in the nonstatin cohort (95% confidence interval?=?0.29–0.92). Patients with >730 days of statin therapy had a significantly lower risk of insulin use, diabetes-related disorders of the eye and neurons, and peripheral circulatory disorders. Compared with patients in the nonstatin cohort, the risk of insulin use, diabetes-related coma, and diabetes-related disorders of the eye and neurons was lower in patients on a cumulative defined daily dose (cDDD) of statins for >475 days. These results suggest that longer duration of statin use and higher cDDD of statins can delay insulin use in Asian patients with T2DM. PMID:25929907

  10. Current Antiplatelet Treatment Strategy in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jung Hwa; Tantry, Udaya S.; Gurbel, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have accelerated atherosclerosis with an increased risk for atherothrombotic cardiovascular complications. A state of high platelet reactivity and activation, hypercoagulability (prothrombotic state) and a subdued response to standard antiplatelet agents may explain high rate of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with DM. Several antithrombotic treatment strategies have been developed to control the prothrombotic state in patients with DM: dose modification of commonly used agents; use of potent agents; and addition of a third antithrombotic drug (triple therapy) to commonly prescribed dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor. The present review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge on platelet abnormalities in patients with DM, focusing on the challenges and perspectives of antiplatelet treatment strategies in this population. PMID:25922803

  11. Current antiplatelet treatment strategy in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jung Hwa; Tantry, Udaya S; Gurbel, Paul A; Jeong, Young-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have accelerated atherosclerosis with an increased risk for atherothrombotic cardiovascular complications. A state of high platelet reactivity and activation, hypercoagulability (prothrombotic state) and a subdued response to standard antiplatelet agents may explain high rate of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with DM. Several antithrombotic treatment strategies have been developed to control the prothrombotic state in patients with DM: dose modification of commonly used agents; use of potent agents; and addition of a third antithrombotic drug (triple therapy) to commonly prescribed dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor. The present review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge on platelet abnormalities in patients with DM, focusing on the challenges and perspectives of antiplatelet treatment strategies in this population. PMID:25922803

  12. [Cytological changes in patients with diabetes mellitus and corneal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Raica, D; Turlea, M; Ciocm?reanu, M; Haidar, A; Demian, C; Jinga, F

    1999-01-01

    There were studied 11 diabetic patients, insulin dependents, from 4 were with juvenile diabetes mellitus. These were hospitalized in the Dept. Ophthalm. of the City Hospital of Arad, during 1996-1998, admitted with the diagnosis of corneal ulcer. There were made samples of the gathered secretion from the level of conjunctiva and of the grataj material, gathered at the level of the edges of the corneal ulcer. All samples were stained with the BPT-Dr?gan method. There are described cytologic alterations, insisting on details that indicate the severity of the corneal disease. There are taken into consideration cytologic aspects in relationship with the clinical outcome of the disease, pointing out the cellular alterations which announce a nonfavourable prognosis. Cytologic results can improve the diagnosis and they are involved in therapeutic schedule. PMID:10641114

  13. The perils of high carbohydrate drinks in the undiagnosed diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Saad Aldeen; Hameed, Asjad; Yousif, Saif; Lessan, Nader

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing in its incidence and prevalence. Reduction in refined carbohydrate (sugar) intake is an important part of nutritional advice to patients with known diabetes. Sugar is available in a variety of confectionary products. It is also available in especially packaged 'convenience foods' as high energy drinks. Among people without diabetes, such food can have its own health risks. A significant group of patients with diabetes remain undiagnosed. This group are at especially high risk from all the negative metabolic effects of high sugar intake available as high calorie drinks. The authors report two patients without previously known diabetes who presented similarly with marked hyperglycaemic states, leading to severe metabolic disturbances. Both were obese, had common precipitating factors and consumed large quantities of sugary soft drinks ('lucozade'). Both patients recovered well. They were followed up for over 7 years. One is not diabetic and the second is diabetic requiring a small dose of metformin. PMID:22688486

  14. Determinants of sexual dysfunction among clinically diagnosed diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that can result in various medical, psychological and sexual dysfunctions (SD) if not properly managed. SD in men is a common under-appreciated complication of diabetes. This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of SD among diabetic patients in Tema, Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Method Sexual functioning was determined in 300 consecutive diabetic men (age range: 18-82 years) visiting the diabetic clinic of Tema General Hospital with the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) questionnaire, between November, 2010 and March, 2011. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, the level of glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum testosterone were assessed. All the men had a steady heterosexual relationship for at least 2 years before enrolment in the study. Results Out the 300 participants contacted, the response rate was 91.3% after 20 declined participation and 6 incomplete data were excluded All the respondents had at least basic education, 97.4% were married, 65.3% were known hypertensive, 3.3% smoked cigarettes, 27% took alcoholic beverages and 32.8% did some form of exercise. The 69.3% SD rate observed in this study appears to be related to infrequency (79.2%), non-sensuality (74.5%), dissatisfaction with sexual acts (71.9%), non-communication (70.8%) and impotence (67.9%). Other areas of sexual function, including premature ejaculation (56.6%) and avoidance (42.7%) were also substantially affected. However, severe SD was seen in only 4.7% of the studied population. The perceived "adequate", "desirable", "too short" and "too long intra-vaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) are 5-10, 5-10, 1-2 and 15-30 minutes respectively. Testosterone correlates negatively with glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c), FBS, perceived desirable, too short IELT, and weight as well as waist circumference. Conclusion SD rate from this study is high but similar to that reported among self-reported diabetic patients in Kumasi, Ghana and vary according to the condition and age. The determinants of SD from this study are income level, exercise, obesity, higher perception of "desirable" and "too short" IELT. PMID:21612653

  15. Treating diabetes mellitus in older and oldest old patients.

    PubMed

    Abbatecola, A M; Paolisso, G; Sinclair, A J

    2015-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing number of persons reaching extreme age limits. Indeed, the fastest growth is found in those over the age of 80 years or octogenarians. Along with this continuous rise, there is a significant increase in type 2 diabetes in this population. Unfortunately, individuals living past 80 years of age are often accompanied by numerous comorbidities and geriatric conditions, all which render anti-diabetic treatment options challenging. Indeed the principles of managing type 2 diabetes are similar to younger patients. Special considerations in this delicate group are essential due to the increased prevalence of comorbidities and relative inability to tolerate adverse effects of medication and severe hypoglycemia. It is important to recall that octogenarians have shown to have a greater prevalence for cognitive impairment, physical disability, ren al and hepatic dysfunction, and syndromes, such as frailty compared to younger elders. The frailty syndrome is considered one of the most important limitations when treating octogenarians with type 2 diabetes in polypharmacy. Due to the lack of evidence for specific targets of glucose and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels in the elderly, available treatment guidelines are based on data extrapolation from younger adults and expert opinion citing reliable evidence. Overall, the most important conclusion emerging from these groups is to accomplish a moderate glycemic control (A1C levels between 7 -8%) in complex elderly patients. However, the risk of hypoglycemia from some treatments may present the greatest significant barrier to optimal glycemic control for the very old. The present review discusses the highlights from the latest guidelines for treating older persons and underlines the need for specific considerations when treating the very old in order to maintain a balance between treating comorbidities and maintaining quality of life. PMID:25633119

  16. Efficacy and Safety Profile of Enzalutamide for Japanese Patients with Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Mutsushi; Yuasa, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Shinya; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Ogawa, Masahiro; Sakura, Mizuaki; Masuda, Hitoshi; Fukui, Iwao; Yonese, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Enzalutamide is a novel, non-steroidal anti-androgen that was approved for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in 2014 in Japan. To assess the potency of enzalutamide treatment in Japan, we performed a pilot retrospective study. Among 91 patients who received treatment in our Institution between May 2014 and July 2015, 51 patients with docetaxel-naïve CRPC (56.0%) underwent enzalutamide therapy. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 10.2 months and 27.9 months, respectively. The remaining 40 patients with CRPC (44.0%) underwent enzalutamide therapy after docetaxel. The median PFS and OS were 4.4 months and not reached, respectively. Among patients with docetaxel-naïve CRPC, 12 (24%) experienced adverse events, whereas 16 (40%) experienced adverse events after docetaxel. Fatigue (15%) and appetite loss (13%) were the most common. We partially clarified the characteristics of enzalutamide therapy in Japan. The PFS associated with enzalutamide might be shorter in Japanese patients. PMID:26722066

  17. Association between obstructive sleep apnea severity and glucose control in patients with untreated versus treated diabetes.

    PubMed

    Priou, Pascaline; Le Vaillant, Marc; Meslier, Nicole; Chollet, Sylvaine; Pigeanne, Thierry; Masson, Philippe; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Humeau, Marie-Pierre; Goupil, François; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Gagnadoux, Frédéric

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the association between obstructive sleep apnea severity and glucose control differs between patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes, and patients with known and treated type 2 diabetes. This multicentre cross-sectional study included 762 patients investigated by sleep recording for suspected obstructive sleep apnea, 497 of whom were previously diagnosed and treated for type 2 diabetes (treated diabetic patients), while 265 had no medical history of diabetes but had fasting blood glucose ?126 mg dL(-1) and/or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) ?6.5% consistent with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (untreated diabetic patients). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to evaluate the independent association between HbA1c and obstructive sleep apnea severity in treated and untreated patients with diabetes. In untreated diabetic patients, HbA1c was positively associated with apnea-hypopnea index (P = 0.0007) and 3% oxygen desaturation index (P = 0.0016) after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, alcohol habits, metabolic dyslipidaemia, hypertension, statin use and study site. The adjusted mean value of HbA1c increased from 6.68% in the lowest quartile of the apnea-hypopnea index (<17) to 7.20% in the highest quartile of the apnea-hypopnea index (>61; P = 0.033 for linear trend). In treated patients with diabetes, HbA1c was associated with non-sleep variables, including age, metabolic dyslipidaemia and insulin use, but not with obstructive sleep apnea severity. Obstructive sleep apnea may adversely affect glucose control in patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes, but may have a limited impact in patients with overt type 2 diabetes receiving anti-diabetic medications. PMID:25703309

  18. Applying the Transtheoretical Model to Investigate Behavioural Change in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Ping; Wang, Ming-Jye

    2013-01-01

    Background: Long-term behaviour change in type 2 diabetic patients may provide effective glycemic control. Purpose: To investigate the key factors that promote behaviour change in diabetic subjects using the transtheoretical model. Methods: Subjects were selected by purposive sampling from type 2 diabetes outpatients. Self-administered…

  19. Prevalence of Hypomagnesaemia among Obese Type 2 Diabetic Patients Attending the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG)

    PubMed Central

    Hyassat, Dana; Al Sitri, Ebtihaj; Batieha, Anwar; EL-Khateeb, Mohammed; Ajlouni, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some observations suggested that magnesium supplementation could be helpful in the treatment of diabetic patients by improving glycemic control and preventing the development of diabetes-related complications. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of hypomagnesaemia among obese patients with type 2 diabetes attending the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG) in Amman, Jordan. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Center for diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG) in Amman-Jordan. A total of 1105 patients with type 2 diabetes (51.9% females and 48.1% males) who attended this center between first of October 2011and end of February 2012 were included in the study. The mean age and duration of diabetes were 57.1 years and 5.1 years, respectively and the mean value of HbA1c was 7.9%. Our study also performed a comparison of the prevalence of hypomagnesaemia between our studied sample and 3600 individuals enrolled in the National Vitamin D study completed in Jordan in 2009. The obtained data included patients’ age, gender, smoking history, HbA1c level, comorbid history including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and presence of neuropathy and retinopathy. Results: Out of 1105 patients with type 2 diabetes, 210 patients (19%) (95% CI, 16.8%-21.4%) were hypomagnesaemic. Female gender, hypertension, statin therapy, HbA1c between 7-7.9% or ? 9% and patients with diabetes duration more than five years were independent risk factors for hypomagnesaemia. No association between hypomagnesaemia and age distribution, smoking history, neuropathy and retinopathy was found. In comparison with individuals enrolled in the National Vitamin D study, diabetic patients in this study had a much higher prevalence of hypomagnesaemia (19% vs. 0.7%) with odd’s ratio of 32 (95% CI, 21-48.2). Conclusions: As the prevalence of hypomagnesaemia among patients with type 2 diabetes treated at the NCDEG was found to be 19% (95% CI, 16.8%-21.4%), we recommend periodic determination of magnesium level and appropriate magnesium replacement therapy particularly among the above defined groups. PMID:25237327

  20. Issues of Cause and Control in Patient Accounts of Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, O.; Peel, E.; Douglas, M.; Lawton, J.

    2006-01-01

    Patients experience considerable difficulties in making and sustaining health-related lifestyle changes. Many Type 2 diabetes patients struggle to follow disease risk-management advice even when they receive extensive information and support. Drawing on a qualitative study of patients with Type 2 diabetes, the paper uses discourse analysis to…

  1. [Physical activity in patients with microvascular complications of diabetes].

    PubMed

    Matoulek, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity is often underestimated and little used in the treatment of diabetes. The fear of damage, especially in patients with diabetes complications is one of the reasons why it occurs. Physical activity plays an important role in prevention of the progression of peripheral neuropathy and its impact is primarily on the development of muscle strength and the ability to replace the function of nerve fibers damaged disabilities. Demonstrable effect on neuropathy is already recorded a few weeks of regular exercise, long-term programs then demonstrate the safety of occurrence of ulcers in compliance with basic foot care. Present autonomic neuropathy cannot predict response to cardiac respectively, heart rate and blood pressure. Due to other risks (silent ischemia, arrhythmia etc.), it is appropriate to stress test before a prescription of exercise programs. Monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose during the first hours of physical activity is necessary. In patients with autonomic neuropathy of the gastrointestinal tract may significantly affect the composition of the diet not only the ability of physical activity, but can also affect hypoglycaemia due to a slow carbohydrate absorption in these patients. Another risk in patients with autonomic neuropathy is orthostatic hypotension, which may potentiate antihypertensive drugs in "white coat" hypertension. Prescription of patients with retinopathy depends on the form and degree of retinopathy. Only proliferative retinopathy can significantly reduce exercise prescription, and it is always necessary to consult with ophthalmologist. In patients with nephropathy is an important stage of renal insufficiency for prescription of physical activity. Prescription is then influenced by the degree of renal insufficiency in addition to the presence of other associated diseases (anemia, hypertension, osteopathy etc.). Physical activity is essential in patients on dialysis respectively. After renal transplantation as maintaining peripheral muscle and its functions not only improves the prognosis, but also improves the quality of life and self-sufficiency is maintained. PMID:25894265

  2. Glycemic Control among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Countries of Arabic Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rasheedi, Ahmad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a growing, worldwide public health concern. The countries of Arabic Gulf appear to have a higher prevalence of diabetes than the global average. The recent and rapid socio-economic development of these countries has been associated with this rising prevalence. Although the rate of type 2 diabetes management based on glycosylated hemoglobin level in the countries of Arabic Gulf is labeled as poor, the outcomes are almost similar to those reported from elsewhere. Unfortunately, overweight and obesity are driving the global diabetes epidemic. A minority of patients with type 2 diabetes had a normal body weight which might make the control of diabetes difficult. Anyhow, Greater efforts are urgently needed to properly manage diabetes early in order to prevent short and long-term complications. Practical strategies aimed at more effective management of type 2 diabetes patients are strongly needed. PMID:26609299

  3. Development and evaluation of a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese sleep apnea patients receiving continuous positive airway pressure treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Ayako; Kojima, Shigeko; Sasaki, Fumihiko; Hayashi, Masamichi; Mieno, Yuki; Sakakibara, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Analyzed subjects were 653 Japanese OSA patients (619 males and 34 females) treated with CPAP at a sleep laboratory in a respiratory clinic in a Japanese city. Based on Bandura’s social cognitive theory, the CPAP Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Sleep Apnea in Japanese (CSESA-J) was developed by a focus group of experts, using a group interview of OSA patients for the items of two previous self-efficacy scales for Western sleep apnea patients receiving CPAP treatment. CSESA-J has two subscales, one for self-efficacy and the other for outcome expectancy, and consists of a total of 15 items. Content validity was confirmed by the focus group. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor loadings of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy were 0.47–0.76 and 0.41–0.92, respectively, for the corresponding items. CSESA-J had a significant but weak positive association with the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and a strong positive association with “Self-efficacy scale on health behavior in patients with chronic disease.” Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.85 for the self-efficacy subscale and 0.89 for the outcome expectancy subscale. The intraclass correlation coefficient using data from the first and second measurements with CSESA-J for a subset of 130 subjects was 0.93 for the self-efficacy and outcome expectancy subscales. These results support CSESA-J as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the self-efficacy of Japanese OSA patients treated with CPAP. Further studies are warranted to confirm validity for female OSA patients and generalizability. PMID:25678832

  4. Development and evaluation of a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese sleep apnea patients receiving continuous positive airway pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ayako; Kojima, Shigeko; Sasaki, Fumihiko; Hayashi, Masamichi; Mieno, Yuki; Sakakibara, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Analyzed subjects were 653 Japanese OSA patients (619 males and 34 females) treated with CPAP at a sleep laboratory in a respiratory clinic in a Japanese city. Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, the CPAP Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Sleep Apnea in Japanese (CSESA-J) was developed by a focus group of experts, using a group interview of OSA patients for the items of two previous self-efficacy scales for Western sleep apnea patients receiving CPAP treatment. CSESA-J has two subscales, one for self-efficacy and the other for outcome expectancy, and consists of a total of 15 items. Content validity was confirmed by the focus group. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor loadings of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy were 0.47-0.76 and 0.41-0.92, respectively, for the corresponding items. CSESA-J had a significant but weak positive association with the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and a strong positive association with "Self-efficacy scale on health behavior in patients with chronic disease." Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.85 for the self-efficacy subscale and 0.89 for the outcome expectancy subscale. The intraclass correlation coefficient using data from the first and second measurements with CSESA-J for a subset of 130 subjects was 0.93 for the self-efficacy and outcome expectancy subscales. These results support CSESA-J as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the self-efficacy of Japanese OSA patients treated with CPAP. Further studies are warranted to confirm validity for female OSA patients and generalizability. PMID:25678832

  5. Diabetic patients' willingness to use tele-technology to manage their disease – A descriptive study.

    PubMed Central

    Saddik, Basema; Al-Dulaijan, Norah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a public health concern worldwide. TeleHealth technology may be an effective tool for empowering patients in the self-management of diabetes mellitus. However despite the great impact of diabetes on healthcare in Saudi Arabia, no research has investigated diabetic patients' willingness to use this technology. This study investigates diabetic patients' willingness to use tele-technology as a tool to monitor their disease. Methods: Data were collected from diabetic patients attending the diabetes education clinic at the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNGHA) in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia over a three month period. A survey was developed which measured patients' willingness to use tele-technology in the self-management of their diabetes as well as their perceived expectations from the technology. Results: The study found that the majority of patients were willing to use tele-technology to self- monitor their diabetes. However, a minority (11.3%) indicated willingness to use the system daily and only half indicated preference to use it once a week (53.8%). Patients who were younger, had higher education levels, were employed, had internet access and had Type II diabetes were significantly more likely to report willingness to use the technology. Conclusions: Diabetic patients could be ready to play a more active role in their care if given the opportunity. Results from this study could serve as a baseline for future studies to develop targeted interventions by trialing tele-technology on a sample of the diabetic population. Patients with diabetes need to be in charge of their own care in order to improve health outcomes across the country. PMID:26284148

  6. Isotopic test of capillary permeability to albumin in diabetic patients: effects of hypertension, microangiopathy, and duration of diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Valensi, P.; Attali, J.R.; Behar, A.; Sebaoun, J.

    1987-09-01

    Capillary permeability to albumin (CPA) was studied by performing an isotopic noninvasive test with venous compression on 87 nonselected diabetics with no edema, no cardiac failure, and no peripheral vascular disease. Excessive albumin retention (AR greater than or equal to 8%) ten minutes after removal of the compression was found in 27 patients (31%). The radioactivity disappearance curve was then analyzed using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). An abnormal isotopic CPA test was thus found in at least 45 out of the 87 patients. The prevalence of an abnormal test was not different in type 1 and type 2 diabetics. We studied the independent effects of hypertension, presence of specific clinical signs of microangiopathy (retinopathy and/or significant proteinuria), and duration of diabetes. Among diabetics free of specific clinical signs of microangiopathy, the prevalence of an AR greater than or equal to 8% was significantly higher in those with hypertension (11/19) than in those with normal blood pressure (2/28) and in nondiabetic hypertensive patients (0/16). Among normotensive diabetics, the prevalence of an abnormal test was higher, but not significantly, in patients with specific clinical signs of microangiopathy (8/11) than in those free of them (7/18). Seven normotensive diabetics without specific clinical signs of microangiopathy had an abnormal test; five of them had had diabetes for more than five years. The prevalence of diabetes of more than five years duration was significantly higher in patients with an abnormal test (35/45) than in normotensive diabetics free of specific clinical signs of microangiopathy with a normal test (4/11).

  7. Plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure and primary angle closure glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Takanori; Ozaki, Mineo; Wakiyama, Harumi; Ogino, Nobuchika

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and analyze the biometric parameters in patients with plateau iris using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Methods In this cross-sectional observational study, subjects aged >50 years with PAC and PACG who had previously undergone a patent laser peripheral iridotomy underwent UBM in one eye. UBM images were qualitatively analyzed using standardized criteria. Plateau iris in a quadrant was defined by anteriorly directed ciliary body, absent ciliary sulcus, steep iris root from its point of insertion followed by a downward angulation, flat iris plane, and irido-angle contact. At least two quadrants had to fulfill these UBM criteria for an eye to be classified as having plateau iris. A-scan biometry was used to measure anterior segment parameters. Results Ninety-one subjects with PAC (58 subjects) or PACG (33 subjects) and 68 normal controls were recruited. The mean (standard deviation) ages of PAC and PACG patients and normal controls were 73.5 (6.2) and 72.6 (7.3), respectively. Based on UBM criteria, plateau iris was found in 16 eyes (17.6%) of 91 eyes. In these 16 eyes, quadrant-wise analysis showed ten eyes (62.5%) had plateau iris in two quadrants; four eyes (25%) had plateau iris in three quadrants; and two eyes (12.5%) had plateau iris in four quadrants. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length, lens position, and relative lens position were not statistically significant between the group having plateau iris and that not having plateau iris, respectively. Conclusion Approximately 20% of Japanese subjects with PAC and PACG with a patent laser peripheral iridotomy were found to have plateau iris on UBM. No morphological difference was noted in the anterior segment of the eye between those with or without plateau iris. PMID:26170608

  8. Novel treatment approaches in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Castro Torres, Yaniel; Katholi, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension represent two common conditions worldwide. Their frequent association with cardiovascular diseases makes management of hypertensive patients with T2DM an important clinical priority. Carvedilol and renal denervation are two promising choices to reduce plasma glucose levels and blood pressure in hypertensive patients with T2DM to reduce future complications and improve clinical outcomes and prognosis. Pathophysiological mechanisms of both options are under investigation, but one of the most accepted is an attenuation in sympathetic nervous system activity which lowers blood pressure and improves insulin sensitivity. Choice of these therapeutic approaches should be individualized based on specific characteristics of each patient. Further investigations are needed to determine when to consider their use in clinical practice. PMID:25126399

  9. Lactic Acidosis in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Lawrence S

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acidosis occurs when lactate production exceeds its metabolism. There are many possible causes of lactic acidosis, and in any given patient, several causes may coexist. This Attending Rounds presents a case in point. Metformin's role in the pathogenesis of lactic acidosis in patients with diabetes mellitus is complex, as the present case illustrates. The treatment of lactic acidosis is controversial, except for the imperative to remedy its underlying cause. The use of sodium bicarbonate to treat the often alarming metabolic derangements may be quite efficacious in that regard but is of questionable benefit to patients. Renal replacement therapies (RRTs) have particular appeal in this setting for a variety of reasons, but their effect on clinical outcomes is untested. PMID:25762524

  10. Differences in 24-h blood pressure profile of Japanese hypertensive patients under ARB treatment.

    PubMed

    Kita, Toshihiro; Sakima, Atsushi; Yokota, Naoto; Tamaki, Noboru; Etoh, Takuma; Shimokubo, Toru; Nakada, Seigo; Takishita, Shuichi; Ohya, Yusuke; Kitamura, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) control throughout the entire day is recommended for cardiovascular protection. Angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely used in hypertensive patients because of beneficial class effects. It is uncertain, however, whether are there any differences in 24-h BP profiles among ARBs. We examined ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) among 211 Japanese hypertensive patients (age, 69.4?±?9.6 years; female, 59.2%) under treatment with five different ARBs. Patients were divided into five groups according to ARBs prescribed. Patient backgrounds were almost identical in all the groups and there were no differences in office, 24-h and daytime BP; however, nighttime BP with olmesartan was significantly lower than with other ARBs. Office BPs with candesartan and telmisartan, but not other ARBs, correlated well with 24-h BP (p?patients, pulse pressure with office BP was significantly correlated with ambulatory arterial stiffness index (p?=?0.001) and fluctuation of systolic BP on ABPM (p?=?0.002). In conclusion, different ARB treatments produced meaningful differences in 24-h profiles. PMID:25992487

  11. Renal Replacement Therapy: Purifying Efficiency of Automated Peritoneal Dialysis in Diabetic versus Non-Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Diaz, Nicanor; Gonzalez-Cabrera, Fayna; Marrero-Robayna, Silvia; Santana-Estupiñan, Raquel; Gallego-Samper, Roberto; Henriquez-Palop, Fernando; Perez-Borges, Patricia; Rodriguez-Perez, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to reduce the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality of peritoneal dialysis (PD), a minimal level of small-solute clearances as well as a sodium and water balance are needed. The peritoneal dialysis solutions used in combination have reduced the complications and allow for a long-time function of the peritoneal membrane, and the preservation of residual renal function (RRF) in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is crucial for the maintenance of life quality and long-term survival. This retrospective cohort study reviews our experience in automatic peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients, with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to diabetic nephropathy (DN) in comparison to non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN), using different PD solutions in combination. Design: Fifty-two patients, 29 diabetic and 23 non-diabetic, were included. The follow-up period was 24 months, thus serving as their own control. Results: The fraction of renal urea clearance (Kt) relative to distribution volume (V) (or total body water) (Kt/V), or creatinine clearance relative to the total Kt/V or creatinine clearance (CrCl) decreases according to loss of RRF. The loss of the slope of RRF is more pronounced in DN than in NDN patients, especially at baseline time interval to 12 months (loss of 0.29 mL/month vs. 0.13 mL/month, respectively), and is attenuated in the range from 12 to 24 months (loss of 0.13 mL/month vs. 0.09 mL/month, respectively). Diabetic patients also experienced a greater decrease in urine output compared to non-diabetic, starting from a higher baseline urine output. The net water balance was adequate in both groups during the follow up period. Regarding the balance sodium, no inter-group differences in sodium excretion over follow up period was observed. In addition, the removal of sodium in the urine output decreases with loss of renal function. The average concentration of glucose increase in the cycler in both groups (DN: baseline 1.44 ± 0.22, 12 months 1.63 ± 0.39, 24 months 1.73 ± 0.47; NDN: baseline 1.59 ± 0.40, 12 months 1.76 ± 0.47, 24 months 1.80 ± 0.46), in order to maintain the net water balance. The daytime dwell contribution, the fraction of day and the renal fraction of studies parameters provide sustained benefit in the follow-up time, above 30%. Conclusions: The wet day and residual renal function are determinants in the achievement of the objective dose of dialysis, as well as in the water and sodium balance. The cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) does not seem to influence the cleansing effectiveness of the technique. PMID:26239689

  12. Uptitrating amlodipine significantly reduces blood pressure in diabetic patients with hypertension: a retrospective, pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, Barrett W; Bhambri, Rahul; Robbins, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic patients with hypertension are approximately twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease as non-diabetic patients with hypertension. Given that hypertension affects ?60% of patients with diabetes, effective blood pressure (BP) management is important in this high-risk population. This post-hoc analysis pooled data from six clinical studies to quantify additional BP efficacy achieved when titrating hypertensive diabetic patients from amlodipine 5 mg to 10 mg. Approximately half of the diabetic patients were male (44/98; 44.9%) with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 60.6 (9.6) years and a baseline mean (standard error [SE]) systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) of 150.8 (1.30)/87.5 (0.94) mmHg while on amlodipine 5 mg (159.1 [1.40]/92.6 [0.94] mmHg prior to treatment). In comparison, 350/610 (57.4%) non-diabetic patients were male with a mean (SD) age of 58.7 (11.1) years and baseline mean (SE) SBP/DBP of 150.3 (0.62)/90.9 (0.41) mmHg while on amlodipine 5 mg (160.0 [0.67]/96.2 [0.45] mmHg prior to treatment). Increasing amlodipine from 5 mg to 10 mg lowered sitting SBP by ?12.5 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): ?15.5, ?9.5; P<0.0001) and DBP by ?6.0 mmHg (?7.4, ?4.6; P<0.0001) in diabetic patients; and SBP by ?12.4 mmHg (?13.5, ?11.3; P<0.0001) and DBP by ?7.3 mmHg (?8.0, ?6.7; P<0.0001) in non-diabetic patients. In total, 12.0% (95% CI: 6.4, 20.0) of diabetic patients achieved their BP goal versus 46.4% (42.4, 50.4) of non-diabetic patients after titration to amlodipine 10 mg. Overall, 22.0% of diabetic patients experienced 31 adverse events (AEs) and 28.9% of non-diabetic patients experienced 282 AEs. Serious AEs were reported by one (1.0%) diabetic and five (0.8%) non-diabetic patients. In this analysis, increasing amlodipine from 5 mg to 10 mg produced a clinically significant reduction in the BP of diabetic hypertensive patients, similar to non-diabetic patients, highlighting the importance of optimizing amlodipine titration in this high-risk population. PMID:25484592

  13. [Dementia and insulin resistance in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Araki, Atsushi

    2010-03-01

    Insulin resistance in peripheral tissues has been suggested to have a crucial role for the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Diabetic people had a 1.5 to 4 fold risk for Alzheimer disease as well as vascular dementia. The insulin resistance (i.e., hyperinsulinemia) in people with impaired glucose tolerance has been one of risk factors for cognitive decline as well as atherosclerotic disease. In contrast, impaired insulin signaling and insulin resistance in brain has been found to be important role for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Peripheral hyperinsulinemia may link to cerebral insulin resistance, leading to the inhibition of removal of amyloid beta protein and the increase of tau hyperphosphorylation. Several studies have shown that insulin sensitizers (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) improve cognition and memory in patients with mild Alzheimer disease as well as animal model of Alzheimer disease. Therefore, insulin sensitizers may have one of the effective measures of the prevention of both types of dementia in people with diabetes mellitus. PMID:20229808

  14. Safety and efficacy of rosiglitazone in the elderly diabetic patient

    PubMed Central

    Viljoen, Adie; Sinclair, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is an important health condition for the aging population; at least 20% of patients over the age of 65 years have diabetes, and this number can be expected to grow rapidly in the coming decades. Rosiglitazone, a drug in the thiazolidinedione class which targets insulin resistance, was approved by drug regulatory bodies based on its ability to improve glycemic control nearly ten years ago. The greatest long-term risk in diabetes is cardiovascular disease with macrovascular disease being the cause of as much as 80% of mortality. More recently the cardiovascular safety of rosiglitazone was brought to center stage following several meta-analyses and the unplanned interim analysis of the RECORD trial. As opposed to pioglitazone, current evidence points to rosiglitazone having a greater risk of myocardial ischemic events than placebo, metformin, or sulfonylureas. A thiazolidinedione class effect however seems apparent with respect to the increased risk for fractures and congestive heart failure. Clinical trial evidence on rosiglitazone therapy in the elderly is limited. The available evidence is mainly related to observational cohort studies. Most of the trial evidence relates to a younger population and therefore these data can not be directly extrapolated to an older population. The effects of the thiazolidinedione drug class remain incompletely understood. PMID:19475776

  15. Myopia in young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Swati; Chia, Audrey; Htoon, Hla Myint; Lam, Pin Min; Yap, Fabian; Ling, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to evaluate the proportion of young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who have myopia, as well as the risk factors associated with myopia in this group. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, patients aged < 21 years with T1DM for ? 1 year underwent a comprehensive eye examination. Presence of parental myopia, and average hours of near-work and outdoor activity were estimated using a questionnaire. Annualised glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), defined as the mean of the last three HbA1c readings taken over the last year, was calculated. Multivariate analysis using genetic, environmental and diabetes-related factors was done to evaluate risk factors associated with myopia. RESULTS Of the 146 patients (mean age 12.5 ± 3.6 years) recruited, 66.4% were Chinese and 57.5% were female. Myopia (i.e. spherical equivalent [SE] of –0.50 D or worse) was present in 96 (65.8%) patients. The proportion of patients with myopia increased from 25.0% and 53.6% in those aged < 7.0 years and 7.0–9.9 years, respectively, to 59.2% and 78.4% in those aged 10.0–11.9 years and ? 12.0 years, respectively. Higher levels of SE were associated with lower parental myopia (p = 0.024) and higher annualised HbA1c (p = 0.011). CONCLUSION Compared to the background population, the proportion of myopia in young patients with T1DM was higher in those aged < 10 years but similar in the older age group. Myopia was associated with a history of parental myopia. Environmental risk factors and poor glycaemic control were not related to higher myopia risk. PMID:26310273

  16. Utilizing Information Technologies for Lifelong Monitoring in Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Davide; Lanzola, Giordano

    2011-01-01

    Background Information and communication technologies have long been acknowledged to support information sharing along the whole chain of care, from the clinic to the homes of patients and their relatives. Thus they are increasingly being considered for improving the delivery of health care services also in light of clinical and technological achievements that propose new treatments requiring a tighter interaction among patients and physicians. Methods The multiagent paradigm has been utilized within an architecture for delivering telemedicine services to chronic outpatients at their domiciles and enforcing cooperation among patients, caregivers, and different members of the health care staff. The architecture sees each communication device such as a palmtop, smart phone, or personal digital assistant as a separate agent upon which different services are deployed, including telemetry, reminders, notifications, and alarms. Decoupling services from agents account for a highly configurable environment applicable to almost any context that can be customized as needed. Results The architecture has been used for designing and implementing a prototypical software infrastructure, called LifePhone, that runs on several communication devices. A basic set of services has been devised with which we were able to configure two different applications that address long-term and short-term monitoring scenarios for diabetes patients. The long-term scenario encompasses telemetry and reminder services for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, which is a treatment for chronic renal failure, a diabetes complication. The short-term scenario incorporates telemetry and remote alarms and is applicable for training patients to use an artificial pancreas. Conclusions Our experiments proved that an infrastructure such as LifePhone can be used successfully for bridging the interaction gap that exists among all the components of a health care delivery process, improving the quality of service and possibly reducing the overall costs of health care. Furthermore, the modularity of services allows for more complex scenarios encompassing data analysis or even involving actors at multiple institutions in order to better support the overall health care organization. PMID:21303625

  17. Funduscopic examination of patients with diabetes who are admitted to hospital.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A L

    1986-06-01

    The charts of 123 patients with diabetes mellitus who were admitted to hospital were reviewed; 35 (28%) did not undergo funduscopic examination to detect diabetic retinopathy, and in 27 (22%) the examination was inadequate. Only four patients were referred to an ophthalmologist. Evidence of nephropathy and admission for diabetes control did not increase the probability of funduscopic examination. The findings suggest that house staff lack awareness of the natural history of diabetic retinopathy and of the success of current treatment. Annual funduscopic examination by an ophthalmologist in patients with diabetes is recommended, from the time of diagnosis in those with type II diabetes and starting 8 to 10 years after diagnosis in those with type I diabetes. PMID:3708471

  18. Assessment of vitamin B6 status in Korean patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hee Jung; Min, Kyung Wan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess vitamin B6 intake and status in Korean patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Sixty-four patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 8-11% glycated hemoglobin (A1C), along with 28 age-matched non-diabetic subjects, participated. Dietary vitamin B6 intake was estimated by the 24 hour recall method and plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) was measured. There was a significant difference in daily total calorie intake between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups (1,917 ± 376 vs 2,093 ± 311 kcal). There were no differences in intake of total vitamin B6 (2.51 ± 0.91 vs 2.53 ± 0.81 mg/d) or vitamin B6/1,000 kcal (1.31 ± 0.42 vs 1.20 ± 0.32 mg) between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups, andI intakes of total vitamin B6 were above the Korean RDA in both groups (180.0 ± 57.9 vs 179.0 ± 65.4). There was a higher percentage of diabetic subjects whose plasma PLP concentration was < 30 nmol/L compared to non-diabetic group. Plasma PLP levels tended to be lower in the diabetic subjects than in the non-diabetic subjects, although the difference was not statistically significant due to a large standard deviation (80.0 ± 61.2 nmol/L vs 68.2 ± 38.5 nmol/L). Nevertheless, plasma PLP levels should be monitored in pre-diabetic patients with diabetic risk factors as well as in newly diagnosed diabetic patients for long-term management of diabetes, even though this factor is not a major risk factor that contributes to the development of degenerative complications in certain patients. PMID:21487494

  19. Vorapaxar in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus and Previous Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cavender, Matthew A.; Scirica, Benjamin M.; Bonaca, Marc P.; Angiolillo, Dominick J.; Dalby, Anthony J.; Dellborg, Mikael; Morais, Joao; Murphy, Sabina A.; Ophuis, Ton Oude; Tendera, Michal; Braunwald, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Background— Vorapaxar reduces cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke in patients with previous MI while increasing bleeding. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at high risk of recurrent thrombotic events despite standard therapy and may derive particular benefit from antithrombotic therapies. The Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events-TIMI 50 trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vorapaxar in patients with stable atherosclerosis. Methods and Results— We examined the efficacy of vorapaxar in patients with and without DM who qualified for the trial with a previous MI. Because vorapaxar is contraindicated in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack, the analysis (n=16 896) excluded such patients. The primary end point of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke occurred more frequently in patients with DM than in patients without DM (rates in placebo group: 14.3% versus 7.6%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.47; P<0.001). In patients with DM (n=3623), vorapaxar significantly reduced the primary end point (11.4% versus 14.3%; hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.60–0.89]; P=0.002) with a number needed to treat to avoid 1 major cardiovascular event of 29. The incidence of moderate/severe bleeding was increased with vorapaxar in patients with DM (4.4% versus 2.6%; hazard ratio, 1.60 [95% confidence interval, 1.07–2.40]). However, net clinical outcome integrating these 2 end points (efficacy and safety) was improved with vorapaxar (hazard ratio, 0.79 [95% confidence interval, 0.67–0.93]). Conclusions— In patients with previous MI and DM, the addition of vorapaxar to standard therapy significantly reduced the risk of major vascular events with greater potential for absolute benefit in this group at high risk of recurrent ischemic events. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00526474. PMID:25681464

  20. Gastrointestinal symptoms after the substitution of sevelamer hydrochloride with lanthanum carbonate in Japanese patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, D; Ichie, T; Hayashi, H; Sugiura, Y; Sugiyama, T

    2015-08-01

    Lanthanum carbonate has the same phosphorus depressant effect as the other phosphorus adsorbents, and is expected to decrease digestive symptom onset such as constipation in Japanese patients undergoing hemodialysis compared to sevelamar hydrochloride. In this study, we investigated the short- and long-term changes in digestive symptoms in these patients after substituting sevelamar hydrochloride with lanthanum carbonate. We studied 16 patients (4 men, 12 women) and evaluated their gastrointestinal symptoms before administration, at the time of administration, and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after administration, using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. In addition, we conducted repeat evaluations 52 weeks after administration for the patients in whom lanthanum carbonate was administered continuously for 52 weeks. Fourteen (87.5%) out of the 16 patients could tolerate continuous administration for 12 weeks. The constipation score was 3.21 ± 1.74 before administration, 2.07 ± 0.83 2 weeks after administration, 1.76 ± 0.83 4 weeks after administration, 1.57 ± 0.56 8 weeks after administration, and 11.41 ± 0.48 12 weeks after administration. The scores improved significantly 4 weeks after administration (p < 0.05) and even 12 weeks after continuous administration. Among the 16 study patients, 9 patients (1 men, 8 women) were received lanthanum carbonate continuously for 52 weeks. The constipation score was 3.74 ± 1.92 at the start of administration, 1.37 ± 0.56 12 weeks after administration, and 1.85 ± 0.63 52 weeks after administration, with significant improvement even 52 weeks after administration (p < 0.05). This study shows that substituting sevelamar hydrochloride with lanthanum carbonate improves constipation symptoms in hemodialysis patients from an early stage, which indicates its usefulness in improving constipation symptoms caused by sevelamar hydrochloride. PMID:26380521

  1. Intraocular surgery in a large diabetes patient population: risk factors and surgical results.

    PubMed

    Ostri, Christoffer

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in developed countries. Accordingly, the prevention and treatment of vision-threatening diabetic eye complications is assuming greater importance. The overall aim of this thesis is to analyse risk factors for intraocular surgery in a large diabetes population and to report surgical results. The specific objectives are to (1) estimate the incidence of diabetic vitrectomy and analyse risk factors (Study I), (2) report long-term results, prognostic factors and incidence of cataract surgery after diabetic vitrectomy (Study II), (3) report results and prognostic factors after cataract surgery in diabetes patients (Study III) and (4) analyse risk factors for diabetic papillopathy with emphasis on metabolic control variability (Study IV). All studies are based on a close-to-complete national surgery register and a large, closely followed diabetic retinopathy screening population. Study I (cohort study, 3980 type 1 diabetes patients) illustrates that diabetic vitrectomy is rarely required in a diabetes patient population with varying degrees of diabetic retinopathy. The risk of reaching diabetic vitrectomy increases fourfold with poor metabolic control, defined as glycosylated haemoglobin A1c > 75 mmol/mol (~9%), which points to good metabolic control as an important preventive measure. Study II (cohort study, 167 diabetes patients) shows that most diabetic vitrectomy patients stand to gain visual acuity ?0.3 after surgery. Visual acuity is stable after 1 year, and the stability is maintained through 10 years of follow-up. The use of silicone oil for endotamponade is a consistent long-term predictor of low vision after surgery. The risk of requiring cataract surgery after diabetic vitrectomy is substantial, and the risk increases if silicone oil is used. Study III (cohort study, 285 diabetes patients) shows, on the other hand, that diabetes patients can expect a significant improvement in visual acuity after cataract surgery, regardless of the degree of diabetic retinopathy. Poor preoperative visual acuity, a high degree of diabetic retinopathy and advanced age are predictors of a poor visual acuity after surgery. The risk of diabetic macular oedema after surgery is 4%. Finally, Study IV (case-control study, 2066 type 1 diabetes patients) demonstrates that diabetic papillopathy shares characteristics with diabetic retinopathy. The risk of experiencing diabetic papillopathy increases markedly with a drastic, recent reduction in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c and a small optic disc. This lends support to the theory that diabetic eye complications may occur in anatomically predisposed patients in response to metabolic control variability. Overall, results after intraocular surgery in diabetes patients are favourable. Surgery, however, is associated with costs to society, patient discomfort and risk of complications. This thesis provides an analysis of risk factors for intraocular surgery and identifies prognostic factors for visual acuity after surgery, which can be used for preventive purposes, surgical decision-making and patient counselling. PMID:24809766

  2. Mild Clinical Course of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in an Elderly Japanese Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ohagi, Yuko; Nakamoto, Chiaki; Nakamoto, Hiromichi; Saijo, Masayuki; Shimojima, Masayuki; Nakano, Yoshio; Fujimoto, Tokuzo

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious and hemorrhagic disease recently described in China and western Japan. A 71-year-old healthy Japanese woman noticed a tick biting her after harvesting in an orchard and removed it herself. She developed diarrhea, anorexia, and chills eight days later. Because these symptoms continued, she visited a primary care physician 6 days after the onset. Laboratory data revealed thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes. She was then referred to our hospital. Although not completely fulfilling the diagnostic criteria used in a retrospective study in Japan, SFTS was suspected, and we detected SFTS virus in the patient's blood using RT-PCR. However, she recovered without intensive treatment and severe complications 13 days after the onset. In this report, we present a mild clinical course of SFTS virus infection in Japan in detail. PMID:25574405

  3. Behavioral economics survey of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Emoto, Naoya; Okajima, Fumitaka; Sugihara, Hitoshi; Goto, Rei

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence to treatment and the metabolic control of diabetes are challenging in many patients with diabetes. The theory of neuroeconomics can provide important clues for understanding unreasonable human behavior concerning decisions between outcomes occurring at different time points. Objective We investigated patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes to determine whether patients who are at a risk of developing complications are less risk averse. We also examined whether patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different behavioral traits in decision making under risk. Methods We conducted a behavioral economics survey of 219 outpatients, 66 with type 1 diabetes and 153 with type 2 diabetes. All patients had been referred by general practitioners or other departments in the hospital. At the time of the survey, levels of hemoglobin A1c were not significantly different between patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Results Patients with type 2 diabetes showed a lower response rate to the survey compared with patients with type 1 diabetes (71.9% vs 87.9%, P<0.01). Logistic regression analysis indicated that diabetic retinopathy was negatively associated with risk averse in pricing of hypothetical lotteries, myopic time preference, willingness to pay for preventive medicine, and levels of satisfaction with life. Diabetic nephropathy was also negatively associated with risk averse in pricing of hypothetical lotteries. Detailed analysis revealed that a lower proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes (22.7%) were categorized as risk averse compared with patients with type 1 diabetes (43.1%, P<0.05) in hypothetical lottery risk estimation. Conclusion This is the first report that investigated patients with diabetes in a clinical setting using a method based on behavioral economics. The results suggest that the attitude of patients toward risk plays an important role in the progress of the complications of diabetes. Different educational and psychological approaches may be necessary to assess patients with diabetes based on whether they have traits such as risk seeking or risk averse. PMID:25999700

  4. Survival outcomes after stereotactic body radiotherapy for 79 Japanese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Onishi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Naoya; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nomiya, Takuma; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a relatively new treatment for liver tumor. Outcomes of SBRT for liver tumors unsuitable for ablation or surgical resection were evaluated. A total of 79 patients treated with SBRT for primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) between 2004 and 2012 in six Japanese institutions were studied retrospectively. Patients treated with SBRT preceded by trans-arterial chemoembolization were eligible. Their median age was 73 years, 76% were males, and their Child–Pugh scores were Grades A (85%) and B (11%) before SBRT. The median biologically effective dose (?/? = 10 Gy) was 96.3 Gy. The median follow-up time was 21.0 months for surviving patients. The 2-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival were 53%, 40% and 76%, respectively. Sex and serum PIVKA-II values were significant predictive factors for OS. Hypovascular or hypervascular types of HCC, sex and clinical stage were significant predictive factors for PFS. The 2-year PFS was 66% in Stage I vs 18% in Stages II–III. Multivariate analysis indicated that clinical stage was the only significant predictive factor for PFS. No Grade 3 laboratory toxicities in the acute, sub-acute, and chronic phases were observed. PFS after SBRT for liver tumor was satisfactory, especially for Stage I HCC, even though these patients were unsuitable for resection and ablation. SBRT is safe and might be an alternative to resection and ablation. PMID:25691453

  5. Survival outcomes after stereotactic body radiotherapy for 79 Japanese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Onishi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Naoya; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nomiya, Takuma; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2015-05-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a relatively new treatment for liver tumor. Outcomes of SBRT for liver tumors unsuitable for ablation or surgical resection were evaluated. A total of 79 patients treated with SBRT for primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) between 2004 and 2012 in six Japanese institutions were studied retrospectively. Patients treated with SBRT preceded by trans-arterial chemoembolization were eligible. Their median age was 73 years, 76% were males, and their Child-Pugh scores were Grades A (85%) and B (11%) before SBRT. The median biologically effective dose (?/? = 10 Gy) was 96.3 Gy. The median follow-up time was 21.0 months for surviving patients. The 2-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival were 53%, 40% and 76%, respectively. Sex and serum PIVKA-II values were significant predictive factors for OS. Hypovascular or hypervascular types of HCC, sex and clinical stage were significant predictive factors for PFS. The 2-year PFS was 66% in Stage I vs 18% in Stages II-III. Multivariate analysis indicated that clinical stage was the only significant predictive factor for PFS. No Grade 3 laboratory toxicities in the acute, sub-acute, and chronic phases were observed. PFS after SBRT for liver tumor was satisfactory, especially for Stage I HCC, even though these patients were unsuitable for resection and ablation. SBRT is safe and might be an alternative to resection and ablation. PMID:25691453

  6. Reliability of predicted renal function in Japanese patients on cisplatin therapy.

    PubMed

    Yajima, A; Ogawa, C; Yatabe, M; Kondo, N; Saito, S; Suzuki, Y; Uesawa, Y

    2013-09-01

    Cisplatin, cis-Dichlorodiammine platinum (II) (CDDP) remains a major antineoplastic drug for the treatment of solid tumors. Its chief dose-limiting side effect is nephrotoxicity. To make a safe and effective dosing regimen of a drug excreted mainly by the renal route, evaluation of patients' renal function is essential. Creatinine clearance (CLcr) or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered to be a standard renal-function test. Several equations have been used in clinical settings, to predict CLcr and GFR using serum creatinine concentration. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the correlation between 24-hour CLcr measured by a urine collection method; and the predicted CLcr and GFR estimated by various equations such as Jelliffe, Yasuda, Orita, Mawer, Mawer, MDRD and modified MDRD, and Cockcroft-Gault. This study used data from Japanese head-and-neck cancer patients, before and after chemotherapy with CDDP. Slopes of regression lines of scatter plots between measured CLcr and predicted renal function in post-CDDP patients were less compared to pre-CDDP patients. On the other hand, Y-intercepts were noted in the scatter plots on renal function from all equations. These results suggest that evaluation of renal function using predictive formulae may have been over-/under-estimated after CDDP administration. PMID:24147348

  7. Various adiposity measures show similar positive associations with type 2 diabetes in Caucasians, native Hawaiians, and Japanese Americans: the multiethnic cohort.

    PubMed

    Steinbrecher, Astrid; Heak, Sreang; Morimoto, Yukiko; Grandinetti, Andrew; Kolonel, Larry N; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2015-03-01

    The authors evaluated the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with diabetes in Caucasians, Native Hawaiians, and Japanese Americans aged 45 to 75 years in the Multiethnic Cohort. Diabetes cases were obtained from self-reports and by linkages with health insurance plans. The authors estimated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs) and compared the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). All measures were positively associated with diabetes prevalence; the PORs were 1.25 to 1.64 in men and 1.52 to 1.83 in women. In all 3 ethnic groups, the AUCs in men were greater for BMI than for the other measures, whereas in women, the AUCs were greater for combined models than for BMI alone, but the differences were small and not clinically significant. It does not appear that one anthropometric measure best reflects diabetes prevalence or performs better in one ethnic group than in another. PMID:22500038

  8. The Wired Patient: Patterns of Electronic Patient Portal Use Among Patients With Cardiac Disease or Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Jonathan P; Shah, Nirav R; Stewart, Walter F

    2015-01-01

    Background As providers develop an electronic health record–based infrastructure, patients are increasingly using Web portals to access their health information and participate electronically in the health care process. Little is known about how such portals are actually used. Objective In this paper, our goal was to describe the types and patterns of portal users in an integrated delivery system. Methods We analyzed 12 months of data from Web server log files on 2282 patients using a Web-based portal to their electronic health record (EHR). We obtained data for patients with cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes who had a Geisinger Clinic primary care provider and were registered “MyGeisinger” Web portal users. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to longitudinal data to profile users based on their frequency, intensity, and consistency of use. User types were characterized by basic demographic data from the EHR. Results We identified eight distinct portal user groups. The two largest groups (41.98%, 948/2258 and 24.84%, 561/2258) logged into the portal infrequently but had markedly different levels of engagement with their medical record. Other distinct groups were characterized by tracking biometric measures (10.54%, 238/2258), sending electronic messages to their provider (9.25%, 209/2258), preparing for an office visit (5.98%, 135/2258), and tracking laboratory results (4.16%, 94/2258). Conclusions There are naturally occurring groups of EHR Web portal users within a population of adult primary care patients with chronic conditions. More than half of the patient cohort exhibited distinct patterns of portal use linked to key features. These patterns of portal access and interaction provide insight into opportunities for electronic patient engagement strategies. PMID:25707036

  9. Evaluation of Serum & Salivary IgA in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadiafshar, Akefeh; Mohsenifard, Mahmood Reza; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a common immune mediated disorder. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the level of serum and salivary IgA levels in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Material and Method In this case control study, serum and salivary IgA levels of patients with diabetes type 1 and similar non diabetes subjects were measured. Age, gender, duration of diabetes and the last HbA1c level of diabetic patients were also studied. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results Two hundred and fifty subjects (126 diabetics and 124 non diabetics) were enrolled in the study. The mean value of serum IgA in patients with Type 1 Diabetes and controls was 1.77± 1.55 g/lit and 2.39± 1.52 g/lit, respectively. The mean salivary IgA level in diabetics and controls was 276 ± 162.5 40 ?g/ml and 129 ± 112.2 40 ?g/ml, respectively. Selective IgA deficiency was detected in two (1.6%) and three(2.4%)cases of diabetic and control group; respectively (p=0.68). We found low salivary IgA level in 44.4% diabetic and 33.9% control (p=0.08). There was no significant correlation between serum and salivary IgA level. There was also significant association between serum IgA levels with age. Salivary IgA was significantly correlated with HbA1c level. But considering gender, duration of diabetes we didn’t find any association. Conclusion We didn't find any significant difference in serum and salivary IgA level among diabetic and non diabetics and also, no association between serum and salivary IgA levels. PMID:25875365

  10. Diagnosed diabetes and premature death among middle-aged Japanese: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan (JPHC study)

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masayuki; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Goto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Yumi; Nanri, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between diabetes and premature death for Japanese general people. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC study), data collected between 1990 and 2010. Population A total of 46?017 men and 53?567 women, aged 40–69?years at the beginning of baseline survey. Main outcome measures Overall and cause specific mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the HRs of all cause and cause specific mortality associated with diabetes. Results The median follow-up period was 17.8?years. During the follow-up period, 8223 men and 4640 women have died. Diabetes was associated with increased risk of death (856 men and 345 women; HR 1.60, (95% CI 1.49 to 1.71) for men and 1.98 (95% CI 1.77 to 2.21) for women). As for the cause of death, diabetes was associated with increased risk of death by circulatory diseases (HR 1.76 (95% CI 1.53 to 2.02) for men and 2.49 (95% CI 2.06 to 3.01) for women) while its association with the risk of cancer death was moderate (HR 1.25 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.42) for men and 1.04 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.32) for women). Diabetes was also associated with increased risk of death for ‘non-cancer, non-circulatory system disease’ (HR 1.91 (95% CI 1.71 to 2.14) for men and 2.67 (95% CI 2.25 to 3.17) for women). Conclusions Diabetes was associated with increased risk of death, especially the risk of death by circulatory diseases. PMID:25941187

  11. Impacts of the Great East Japan Earthquake on diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Mamiko; Imai, Junta; Satoh, Michihiro; Hashimoto, Takanao; Izumi, Tomohito; Sawada, Shojiro; Uno, Kenji; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Kaneko, Keizo; Yamada, Tetsuya; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Imai, Yutaka; Katagiri, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction We investigated impacts of the Great East Japan Earthquake on diabetic patients and characterized those with disaster-susceptible diabetes. Materials and Methods We enrolled 497 diabetic patients who had been followed at hospitals in devastated areas. We collected metabolic parameters prospectively, 1 and 3 months after the earthquake, and retrospectively for pre-earthquake time-points. Questionnaire surveys were carried out regarding earthquake-related damage and post-earthquake lifestyle alterations. Available data were analyzed to examine associations with post-earthquake glycosylated hemoglobin alterations. Results The mean glycosylated hemoglobin level of the participants was not elevated at 1 month, and was significantly decreased at 3 months as compared with the pre-earthquake glycosylated hemoglobin. There were no significant differences in earthquake-related damage or lifestyle alterations between the improved and worsened glycemic control groups according to the data obtained from the questionnaire survey. As reported, fasting serum C-peptide levels were significantly lower in the worsened glycemic control group (P < 0.05). Notably, plasma noradrenaline levels were significantly higher in the worsened glycemic control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, at 1 month after the earthquake, the plasma noradrenaline level was significantly higher in the low C-peptide group (fasting serum C-peptide <1.0 ng/mL) than in the high C-peptide group (fasting serum C-peptide ?1.0 ng/mL), but this difference had disappeared by 3 months after the earthquake. These findings show that post-earthquake plasma noradrenaline levels were temporarily increased in the low C-peptide group. Conclusions Sympathetic nerve activation might be elicited more easily in subjects with lower endogenous insulin secretory capacity, and could be involved in the mechanism underlying post-earthquake worsening of glycemic control. PMID:26417417

  12. Risk of Hand Syndromes in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu-Hsuan; Li, Chung-Yi; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Wang, Liang-Yi; Kuo, Ken N.; Jou, I-Ming; Hou, Wen-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the overall and cause-specific incidences of diabetic hand syndromes (DHS) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) by using age and sex stratifications. The DM and control cohorts comprised 606,152 patients with DM and 609,970 age- and sex-matched subjects, respectively, who were followed up from 2000 to 2008. We estimated the incidence densities (IDs) of overall and cause-specific DHS, namely carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), stenosing flexor tenosynovitis (SFT), limited joint mobility (LJM), and Dupuytren disease (DD), and calculated the hazard ratios (HRs) of DHS in relation to DM by using a Cox proportional hazards model with adjustment for potential confounders. Over a 9-year period, 51,207 patients with DM (8.45%) and 39,153 matched controls (6.42%) sought ambulatory care visits for various DHS, with an ID of 117.7 and 80.7 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. The highest cause-specific ID was observed for CTS, followed by SFT, LJM, and DD, regardless of the diabetic status. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with DM had a significantly high HR of overall DHS (1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.48–1.53). Men and women aged <35 years had the highest HR (2.64, 95% CI?=?2.15–3.24 and 2.99, 95% CI?=?2.55–3.50, respectively). Cause-specific analyses revealed that DM was more strongly associated with SFT (HR?=?1.90, 95% CI?=?1.86–1.95) and DD (HR?=?1.83, 95% CI?=?1.39–2.39) than with CTS (HR?=?1.31, 95% CI?=?1.28–1.34) and LJM (HR?=?1.24, 95% CI?=?1.13–1.35). Men and younger patients with DM have the highest risk of DHS. Certain hand syndromes, such as SFT and DD, were more strongly associated with DM than with other syndromes and require the attention of clinicians. PMID:26469895

  13. Patient-Specific Therapy via Cell-Reprogramming Technology: a Curative Potential for Patients with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haizhao; Wang, Xianbao; Zhang, Ruyi; Chen, Youping; Shu, Yi; Li, Huixian; Chen, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Gene therapeutics provides great opportunities for curing diabetes. Numerous attempts have been made to establish a safe and high-efficiency gene delivery strategy, but all of them are unsuccessful. To achieve an ideal transfection, a novel gene delivery strategy was presented in this research. The novel system proposed was transfection mediated by the combination of ultrasound with microbubbles and cross-linked polyethylenimines (PEIs). Ultrasound with microbubbles enhances the permeability of target cells; moreover, cross-linked PEIs enabled DNA to escape from endosomes into the cytoplasm. If the proposed method is feasible and effective, the endogenous secretion system of insulin would be re-established in patients with diabetes. PMID:26714858

  14. Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sang Youl

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) exhibits broad clinical characteristics and various consequences and is known as one of the major macrovascular complications of T2DM. Atherosclerosis is recognized as the most direct and important cause of PAD, but acute or chronic limb ischemia may be the result of various risk factors. In light of the increasing number of patients who undergo peripheral vascular procedures, the number of subjects who are exposed to the risks for PAD and related complications is increasing. In this review, we will discuss the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of PAD, as well as the clinical significance of PAD in T2DM subjects. PMID:26301189

  15. Outcomes and Complications of Diabetes Mellitus on Patients Undergoing Degenerative Lumbar Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Javier Z.; Iatridis, James C.; Skovrlj, Branko; Cutler, Holt; Hecht, Andrew C.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Cho, Samuel K.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective database analysis. Objective To assess the effect glycemic control has on perioperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing elective degenerative lumbar spine surgery. Summary of background data Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a prevalent disease of glucose dysregulation that has been demonstrated to increase morbidity and mortality following spine surgery. However, there is limited understanding of whether glycemic control influences surgical outcomes in DM patients undergoing lumbar spine procedures for degenerative conditions. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was analyzed from 2002 to 2011. Hospitalizations were isolated based on International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedural codes for lumbar spine surgery and diagnoses codes for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. Patients were then classified into three cohorts: controlled diabetics, uncontrolled diabetics and non-diabetics. Patient demographic data, acute complications and hospitalization outcomes were determined for each cohort. Results A total of 403,629 (15.7%) controlled diabetics and 19,421(0.75%) uncontrolled diabetics underwent degenerative lumbar spine surgery from 2002-2011. Relative to non-diabetics, uncontrolled diabetics had significantly increased odds of cardiac complications, deep venous thrombosis and post-operative shock; additionally, uncontrolled diabetics also had an increased mean length of stay (approximately 2.5 days), greater costs (1.3-fold) and a greater risk of inpatient mortality (odds ratio=2.6, 95% confidence interval=1.5-4.8, p < .0009). Controlled diabetics also had increased risk of acute complications and inpatient mortality when compared to non-diabetics, but not nearly to the same magnitude as uncontrolled diabetics. Conclusion Suboptimal glycemic control in diabetic patients undergoing degenerative lumbar spine surgery leads to increased risk of acute complications and poor outcomes. Patients with uncontrolled DM, or poor glucose control, may benefit from improving glycemic control prior to surgery. PMID:24983935

  16. Elevation of serum apelin-13 associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jun-Hui; Li, Xia; Li, Rong; Xu, Lin; Ma, Ran-Ran; Liu, Song-Fang; Zhang, Zhong; Sun, Hong-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    AIM To compare apelin-13, a ligand of G-protein-coupled receptor which has been shown to be involved in retinal angiogenesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) serum levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with or without retinopathy, and to investigate the relationship between the serum concentration of apelin-13 and diabetes retinopathy. METHODS Sixty-nine patients with T2DM were enrolled. Of the 69 patients, 16 had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR group), 23 had non-PDR (NPDR group) and 30 had no retinopathy (T2DM group). Subjects' information, including demographics, medical history, and use of medications were recorded. Their serum samples were collected for measuring the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum lipid and glycosylated hemoglobin. Apelin-13 and VEGF serum levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Kruskal-Wallis test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the differences among these groups. Chi-square test was used to assess categorical variables. Correlations between variables were investigated by Spearman rho correlation test and stepwise regression analysis. All statistical analyses were performed through SPSS 17.0 software. RESULTS Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, CRP, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) have no significantly difference in the three groups. Serum level of apelin-13 was significantly elevated in PDR group as compared with T2DM group (P=0.041). Differences of VEGF serum concentration in the three groups were statistically significant (P=0.007, P=0.007 and P<0.001, respectively). Spearman rho correlation test showed that serum apelin-13 was positively correlated with BMI, serum triglycerides, VEGF, but not with age, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, CRP, HbA1c and total-cholesterol. Stepwise regression analysis showed that BMI also significantly associated with serum apelin-13 (P=0.002), while VEGF and serum triglycerides were irrelevant. CONCLUSION This study elucidated a positive association of apelin-13 serum level with PDR, but not with VEGF. Apelin-13 may influence the promotion of PDR but unrelated with VEGF. PMID:25540748

  17. Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 01, 2011 National Diabetes Education Program. Overview of Diabetes in Children and Adolescents. Accessed January 01, 2011 National Institutes of Health. Type 1 Diabetes Fact Sheet. Accessed January 01, 2011 Diagnosis and ...

  18. Effect of candesartan cilexetil on diabetic and non-diabetic hypertensive patients: meta-analysis of five randomized double-blind clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Féghali, Ramzi EL; Nisse-Durgeat, Sophie; Asmar, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of candesartan cilexetil (CC) in the management of blood pressure (BP) in diabetic and non-diabetic hypertensive patients. Methods A selection of five randomized double-blind clinical trials in which patients were treated for hypertension with CC was analyzed. All of these were similar in design: i) a 4-week placebo run-in period, ii) a 4-to 6-week period (V1) with CC 8 mg once daily (od), after which the dosage was doubled if BP was not normalized (BP >140/90 or BP >130/80 mmHg in diabetes), and iii) a 4- to 6-week period (V2) with CC 8 or 16 mg od. Efficacy was measured at V1 and V2. Results 702 patients were screened. The population consisted of 397 males (56.6%) with a mean age of 60 ± 11 years, with 153 diabetic (21.8%) and 549 non-diabetic (78.2%) patients. At baseline, mean BP values were 160/94/65 mmHg for SPB, DBP, and pulse pressure (PP) respectively, with differences between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. SBP, DBP, and PP values showed a significant reduction at V1 (p < 0.001) and V2 (p < 0.001) compared with baseline for all hypertensive patients. Mean changes at V2 in SBP and PP values were higher in diabetic than non-diabetic patients (p < 0.001), and to a lesser degree on DBP values (p = 0.034). Conclusions CC was effective in lowering BP in diabetic and non-diabetic hypertensive patients. CC is a promising therapy to manage hypertensive diabetic patients, as demonstrated by the significant BP reduction. Short abstract The effect of candesartan cilexetil (CC) on controlling blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive diabetic and non-diabetic patients was analyzed. Five randomized double-blind trials were pooled treating hypertension by CC (n = 702), including 153 diabetic (21.8%) and 549 non-diabetic (78.2%) patients. After treatment with CC (8–16 mg), significant reductions in SBP, DBP, and pulse pressure (PP) values were observed after 4–6 weeks (p < 0.001) and after 8–12 weeks (p < 0.001) compared with baseline for all hypertensive patients. Mean BP reductions after 8–12 weeks were higher in diabetic patients than non-diabetic (p < 0.001). CC is a promising therapy to treat hypertensive patients, both diabetic and non-diabetic. PMID:17583187

  19. [Native vascular access for hemodialysis in patients with diabetes: a single-center experience].

    PubMed

    David, Paola; Navino, Carlo; Capurro, Federica; De Mauri, Andreana; Chiarinotti, Doriana; Ruva, Carlo Edoardo; De Maria, Mariangela; Brustia, Maddalena; De Leo, Martino

    2010-01-01

    With 135 million cases the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is very high worldwide. Diabetic nephropathy is a major complication of DM. In many countries diabetic nephropathy has become the most frequent cause of endstage renal disease. It is believed that in diabetic patients the creation of a native vascular access (NVA) might be difficult. We evaluated 274 occurrences of NVA creation during the period January 2003 to December 2008: 68 in diabetic patients (group 1) and 206 in nondiabetics (group 2). We compared the type of NVA, primary failure, and primary patency in these groups. Age was significantly higher in diabetic patients (68 vs 64 years; p < 0.05). No statistical differences in primary failure between groups were found for any NAV. Wrist vascular access survival rates were higher in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients (56.9% vs 20.7% at 72 months). No statistical differences were observed between groups in primary patency rates for middle- and upper-arm vascular access. According to our experience diabetes does not lead to additional difficulties in the creation of permanent vascular access, provided proper physical and instrumental examination is performed. Despite the advanced age of the diabetic patients in our study, wrist vascular access showed better results in this group than in nondiabetic patients on long-term follow-up. PMID:20922684

  20. Vitamin D Insufficiency Is Associated with Lower Physical Function in Patients with Heart Failure and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, M. R.; Ribeiro, Paula A. B.; Souza, Gabriela C.; Clausell, Nadine; Schaan, Beatriz D.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is frequent among patients with heart failure (HF) and diabetes, disorders associated with exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. This study aims to search for associations between vitamin D sufficiency and physical function indexes in patients with HF and diabetes. A cross-sectional study of 146 HF patients, 39.7% with diabetes, at a Brazilian tertiary outpatient clinic was performed. Patients underwent clinical evaluation, 6-minute walk test (6?MWT), handgrip strength, physical activity level (IPAQ), and biochemical evaluations including serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Classification was done according to vitamin D status (?30?ng/dL, sufficient) and presence/absence of diabetes in vitamin sufficient, no diabetes (DS-C, n = 25), vitamin sufficient, diabetes (DS-DM, n = 18), vitamin deficient, no diabetes (DD-C, n = 63), and vitamin deficient, diabetes (DD-DM, n = 40). Patients age was 55.4 ± 8 yrs; 70.5% had vitamin D deficiency. Clinical characteristics were similar among groups. Total time expended in physical activity was similar among groups (P = 0.26). DS-C covered higher distances in the 6?MWT (392 ± 60 m) versus DD-DM (309 ± 116?m); P = 0.024. Handgrip strength was similar among groups but tended to lower levels in DD-DM (P = 0.074) even after being adjusted to physical activity (P = 0.069). Vitamin D deficiency can influence physical function in HF diabetic patients. PMID:25243195

  1. Sociodemographic determinants of glycaemic control in young diabetic patients in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, I S; Nazaimoon, W M; Mohamad, W B; Letchuman, R; Singaraveloo, M; Pendek, R; Faridah, I; Rasat, R; Sheriff, I H; Khalid, B A

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that good glycaemic control can prevent the development of diabetic complications in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We wished to observe the glycaemic control in patients from different centres in Peninsular Malaysia and the factors that determine it. We recruited 926 patients with diabetes diagnosed before age 40 years from seven different centres, with proportionate representation from the three main ethnic groups. Clinical history and physical examination were done and blood taken for HbA1c and fasting glucose. The overall glycaemic control was poor with geometric mean HbA1c of 8.6% whilst 61.1% of the patients had HbA1c greater than 8%. Glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes varied between various centres and ethnic groups, with the best control obtained in Chinese patients. Significant predictors of HbA1c in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes include access to nurse educators, ethnic background and WHR. In type 2 diabetes, use of insulin was a significant predictor, while in type 1 diabetes, household income was a significant predictor. Socioeconomic status did not have a significant effect in type 2 diabetes. There were no significant differences in the glycaemic control in patients with different educational status. In conclusion, glycaemic control in big hospitals in Malaysia was poor, and was closely related to the availability of diabetes care facilities and ethnic group, rather than socioeconomic status. PMID:10660222

  2. A Model-Based Approach to Synthesizing Insulin Infusion Pump Usage Parameters for Diabetic Patients

    E-print Network

    Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    A Model-Based Approach to Synthesizing Insulin Infusion Pump Usage Parameters for Diabetic Patients used by type-1 diabetic patients to control their blood glucose levels. The amounts of insulin is essential for avoiding complications such as hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. In this paper, we propose

  3. Invasive rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis in a diabetic patient – the need for prompt treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Vanessa; Khan, Sheema; Balogun, Adeola; Mitchell, David; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare life threatening fungal infection predominately seen in immunocompromised or diabetic patients. The following case is of a known type II diabetic patient who presented with sepsis and sudden unilateral loss of vision secondary to infective rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. Treatment of the condition required extensive surgical intervention and medical management for a life saving outcome. PMID:25750854

  4. Invasive rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis in a diabetic patient - the need for prompt treatment.

    PubMed

    Chow, Vanessa; Khan, Sheema; Balogun, Adeola; Mitchell, David; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A

    2015-06-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare life threatening fungal infection predominately seen in immunocompromised or diabetic patients. The following case is of a known type II diabetic patient who presented with sepsis and sudden unilateral loss of vision secondary to infective rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. Treatment of the condition required extensive surgical intervention and medical management for a life saving outcome. PMID:25750854

  5. Quality Assessment of Diabetes Online Patient Education Materials from Academic Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorcely, Brenda; Agarwal, Nitin; Raghuwanshi, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the readability of type 2 diabetes online patient education materials from academic institutions in the northeast USA and the American Diabetes Association. Many US residents utilise the Internet to obtain health information. Studies have shown that online patient education materials…

  6. Diabetes Distress and Depressive Symptoms: A Dyadic Investigation of Older Patients and Their Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Melissa M.; Lucas, Todd; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Rook, Karen S.; Gonzalez, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this dyadic study, we examined diabetes distress experienced by male and female patients and their spouses (N = 185 couples), and its association with depressive symptoms using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Diabetes-related distress reported by both patients and spouses was associated with each partner's own depressive symptoms…

  7. Managing Activity in Patients Who Have Diabetes. Practical Ways to Incorporate Exercise into Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taunton, Jack E.; McCargar, Linda

    1995-01-01

    Diabetes control involves the appropriate balance of exercise, diet, and medication. Regular exercise has many benefits for people with diabetes. Physicians can educate patients about ways to regulate and monitor blood glucose before, during, and after workouts. Patients need to understand the effects of exercise and diet on insulin requirements.…

  8. Recent mortality and morbidity rates of Japanese atrial fibrillation patients: racial differences and risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is becoming an epidemiologically important syndrome among the developed countries. Although racial differences exist with regard to AF prevalence, it remains unclear whether the AF mortality and morbidity rates exhibit racial differences. Medical treatment and management of AF is aimed at improving the clinical course of AF patients who reside in a particular region; therefore, the AF mortality and morbidity rates should be assessed from both global and local viewpoints. AF is a progressive disease that might be first detected as paroxysmal, persistent, or permanent. The associations between AF progression and AF-related cardiovascular morbidities and those between the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates of AF are important matters of discussion, as they reflect the rationale of AF therapy. At present, AF patients have a wide variety of backgrounds, and these analyses would require stratification by risks, which would not be free from racial differences. In this review, the mortality and morbidity rates of Japanese AF patients are reviewed and discussed. PMID:23449371

  9. Renal outcomes and clinical course of nondiabetic renal diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Ja Min; Lee, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Sul Ra; Moon, Ju Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Tae Won; Ihm, Chun Gyoo

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims In several recent studies, renal biopsies in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal disease have revealed a heterogeneous group of disease entities. Our aim was to study the prognosis and clinical course of nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD) and to determine risk factors for NDRD in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Renal biopsy reports of 110 patients with type 2 diabetes who were seen at Kyung Hee University Medical Center and Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Korea between January 2000 and December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Of 110 patients with type 2 diabetes, 41 (37.3%) had diabetic nephropathy (DN), 59 (53.6%) had NDRD, and 10 (9.1%) had NDRD superimposed on DN. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (43.5%) was the most common NDRD. Patients with NDRD had a shorter duration of diabetes, lower frequency of diabetic retinopathy, and better renal outcomes, which might have resulted from the use of aggressive disease-specific treatments such as steroids and immunosuppressants in patients with NDRD. Conclusions Compared with DN, NDRD was associated with better renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes, as evidenced by a higher cumulative renal survival rate and lower rate of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Shorter duration of diabetes and absence of retinopathy were independent predictors of NDRD in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal involvement. Renal biopsy is recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes and risk factors for NDRD, to obtain an accurate diagnosis, prompt initiation of disease-specific treatment, and ultimately better renal outcomes with the avoidance of ESRD. PMID:24009452

  10. DECREASED CONTRACTILE RESPONSE TO ENDOTHELIN-1 OF PERIPHERAL MICROVASCULATURE FROM DIABETIC PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jun; Liu, Yuhong; Khabbaz, Kamal R.; Hagberg, Robert; Robich, Michael P.; Clements, Richard T.; Bianchi, Cesario; Sellke, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We compared the contractile responses to ET-1, with and without the inhibition of ET-A receptors and protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-?) in the human peripheral microvasculature of diabetic and case-matched non-diabetic patients. Methods Chest wall skeletal muscle was harvested from patients with and without diabetics undergoing cardiac surgery. Peripheral arterioles (90-180 micrometer in diameter) were dissected from the harvested tissue. Microvascular constriction was assessed by videomicroscopy in response to ET-1, with and without an endothelin A (ET-A) receptor antagonist, or an endothelin B (ET-B) antagonist or a PKC-? inhibitor. Results ET-1 induced a dose-dependent contractile response of skeletal muscle arterioles from diabetes and non-diabetes. The contractile response of diabetic arterioles from both pre-bypass and post-bypass to ET-1 (10?9mol/L) was significantly decreased compared with those of non-diabetics (P<0.05), respectively. The contractile responses of microvessels of both diabetics and non-diabetics to ET-1 were significantly inhibited in the presence of either ET-A receptor antagonist BQ123 (10?7mol/L, P<0.05, respectively) or the PKC-? inhibitor safingol (2 × 10?5mol/L), respectively. In contrast, the ET-1-induced vasoconstriction was not affected by the administration of the ET-B receptor antagonist BQ788 (10?7mol/L). There were no significant differences in skeletal muscle levels of the ET-A and ET-B receptors between diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Conclusion Diabetic patients demonstrated a decreased contractile response to ET-1 in human peripheral microvasculature. The contractile response to ET-1 is via activation of ET-A receptors and PKC-? in diabetics. These results provide novel mechanisms of ET-1-induced contraction in vasomotor dysfunction in patients with diabetes. PMID:20727565

  11. Dose- and Time-Dependent Association of Smoking and Its Cessation with Glycemic Control and Insulin Resistance in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of smoking and its cessation on glycemic control in diabetic patients has not been fully examined yet. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of smoking status with glycemic level and markers of insulin resistance and secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research Design and Methods A total of 2,490 Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged ?20 years were divided according to smoking status, amount of cigarettes smoked and years since quitting. The associations with glycemic level and markers of insulin resistance and secretion were examined cross-sectionally. Results HbA1c levels increased progressively with increases in both number of cigarettes per day and pack-years of cigarette smoking compared with never smokers (P for trend = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively), whereas fasting plasma glucose did not. On the other hand, HbA1c, but not fasting plasma glucose, decreased linearly with increase in years after smoking cessation (P for trend <0.001). These graded relationships persisted significantly after controlling for the confounders, including total energy intake, current drinking, regular exercise, depressive symptoms, and BMI. In addition, a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein also showed similar trends. Conclusions Smoking and its cessation showed dose- and time-dependent relationship with glycemic control and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These findings may highlight the importance of smoking cessation in the clinical management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25822499

  12. Salicylate (Salsalate) in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Goldfine, Allison B.; Fonseca, Vivian; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Tipton, Laura; Staten, Myrlene A.; Shoelson, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Short-duration studies show that salsalate improves glycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective To assess 1-year efficacy and safety of salsalate in T2DM. Design Placebo-controlled, parallel trial; computerized randomization and centralized allocation, with patients, providers, and researchers blinded to assignment. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00799643) Setting 3 private practices and 18 academic centers in the United States. Patients Persons aged 18 to 75 years with fasting glucose levels of 12.5 mmol/L or less (?225 mg/dL) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 7.0% to 9.5% who were treated for diabetes. Intervention 286 participants were randomly assigned (between January 2009 and July 2011) to 48 weeks of placebo (n = 140) or salsalate, 3.5 g/d (n = 146), in addition to current therapies, and 283 participants were analyzed (placebo, n = 137; salsalate, n = 146). Measurements Change in hemoglobin A1c level (primary outcome) and safety and efficacy measures. Results The mean HbA1c level over 48 weeks was 0.37% lower in the salsalate group than in the placebo group (95% CI, ?0.53% to ?0.21%; P < 0.001). Glycemia improved despite more reductions in concomitant diabetes medications in salsalate recipients than in placebo recipients. Lower circulating leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts show the anti-inflammatory effects of salsalate. Adiponectin and hematocrit levels increased more and fasting glucose, uric acid, and triglyceride levels decreased with salsalate, but weight and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels also increased. Urinary albumin levels increased but reversed on discontinuation; estimated glomerular filtration rates were unchanged. Limitation Trial duration and number of patients studied were insufficient to determine long-term risk–benefit of salsalate in T2DM. Conclusion Salsalate improves glycemia in patients with T2DM and decreases inflammatory mediators. Continued evaluation of mixed cardiorenal signals is warranted. Primary Funding Source National Institutes of Health. PMID:23817699

  13. Influence of Uncomplicated Phacoemulsification on Central Macular Thickness in Diabetic Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianping; Jones, Richard Edward; Zhao, Jiangyue; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of uncomplicated phacoemulsification on central macular thickness (CMT) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in both diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic patients with mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Methods Potential prospective observational studies were searched through PubMed and EMBASE. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for changes in CMT and BCVA were evaluated at postoperative 1, 3 and 6 months. The pooled effect estimates were calculated in the use of a random-effects model. Results A total of 10 studies involving 190 eyes of diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy and 143 eyes of diabetic patients with NPDR were identified. CMT values demonstrated a statistically significant increase after uncomplicated phacoemulsification at 1 month (SMD, -0.814; 95%CI, -1.230 to -0.399), 3 months (SMD, -0.565; 95%CI, -0.927 to -0.202) and 6 months (SMD, -0.458; 95%CI, -0.739 to -0.177) in diabetic patients with NPDR. There was no statistical difference in CMT values at postoperative 1 month (SMD, -1.206; 95%CI, -2.433 to 0.021)and no statistically significant increase in CMT values at postoperative3 months (SMD, -0.535; 95%CI, -1.252 to 0.182) and 6 months (SMD, -1.181; 95%CI, -2.625 to 0.263) in diabetic patients without DR.BCVA was significantly increased at postoperative 1 month (SMD, 1.149; 95%CI, 0.251 to 2.047; and SMD,1.349; 95%CI, 0.264 to 2.434, respectively) and 6 months (SMD, 1.295; 95%CI, 0.494 to 2.096; and SMD, 2.146; 95%CI, 0.172 to 4.120, respectively) in both diabetic patients without DR and diabetic patients with NPDR. Sensitivity analysis showed that the results were relatively stable and reliable. Conclusion Uncomplicated phacoemulsification in diabetic patients with mild to moderate NPDR seemed to influence significantly the subclinical thickening of the macular zones at postoperative 1, 3 and 6 months compared with diabetic patients without DR. BCVA was significantly improved in both diabetic patients without DR and diabetic patients with mild to moderate NPDR. PMID:25965404

  14. Excessive insulin secretion in Japanese schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotics despite normal fasting glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Takuro; Suzuki, Yutaro; Fukui, Naoki; Watanabe, Junzo; Ono, Shin; Tsuneyama, Nobuto; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2012-12-01

    The development of impaired glucose tolerance induced by antipsychotics (APs) is of concern as a serious adverse effect of psychiatric drug therapy. However, the mechanism by which APs cause dysfunction of the glucose-insulin response is not fully understood. Recent studies have shown that patients treated with APs for schizophrenia were more likely to exhibit impaired glucose tolerance after a glucose load compared with healthy control subjects, even if fasting glucose levels were within the reference range. To explain these findings, we hypothesized that insulin secretion is increased in schizophrenic patients treated with AP, even those normal fasting glucose (NFG) levels. Therefore, oral glucose tolerance tests were conducted in 159 Japanese inpatients with AP-treated schizophrenia and in 90 healthy subjects without schizophrenia. Plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were measured before (0 minute) and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the oral glucose load. Although insulin levels at 0 minute were similar in both groups of subjects, insulin levels were significantly higher in the patients treated with AP at all times after the glucose load than in the healthy subjects. In analyses of NFG subjects, insulin levels were significantly higher in the patients treated with AP compared with the healthy subjects at all times after glucose loading. Overall, we found that insulin secretion in response to a glucose load was significantly higher in the patients treated with AP, irrespective of NFG. These results suggest that APs affect the glucose-insulin response, which may lead to subclinical insulin resistance before the onset of overt glucose intolerance. PMID:23131894

  15. Patients with diabetes respond well to contingency management treatment targeting alcohol and substance use.

    PubMed

    Walter, Kimberly N; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol and drug use contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes and are associated with adverse health outcomes, but little research exists on treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs) in patients with diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate contingency management (CM) treatments targeting substance use in patients with diabetes. A secondary analysis evaluated the main and interactive effects of diabetes status and treatment condition on outcomes of 681 substance abusers. All participants were enrolled in randomized clinical trials comparing CM to standard care (SC). Overall, CM treatment improved outcomes. There was also a significant treatment condition X diabetes status interaction effect in terms of duration of abstinence achieved and proportion of negative samples submitted; patients with diabetes responded even more favorably than their counterparts without diabetes when receiving CM. Analyses of post-treatment effects revealed that patients with diabetes, regardless of the type of SUD treatment to which they were earlier assigned, were more likely than those without diabetes to be abstinent at the nine-month follow-up. The findings suggest CM may be an effective treatment for this vulnerable subgroup of substance-abusing patients. PMID:25531935

  16. Subsequent Type 2 Diabetes in Patients with Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Kari; Liu, Xiangdong; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Ji, Jianguang

    2015-01-01

    Immunological data show that type 2 diabetes (T2D) manifests autoimmune features. We wanted to test the association epidemiologically by assessing subsequent diagnosis of T2D following diagnosis of autoimmune disease (AId) and subsequent AId after T2D in the same individuals. Patients were identified from three Swedish health databases. A total of 32 different AId were included. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for T2D diagnosis in patients with previously diagnosed AId and compared to those without a previous AId. Among a total of 757,368 AId patients, 15,103 were diagnosed with T2D, giving an overall SIR for T2D of 1.66. T2D risks were increased after 27 AIds; the highest SIRs were noted for chorea minor (8.00), lupoid hepatitis (5.75), and Addison disease (2.63). T2D was increased after 27 of 32 AIds but we were unable to control for factors such as obesity and smoking. However, the clearly increased risks for T2D in most types of AId patients, and in reverse order increased risks for AId after T2D, do not support an overall confounding by life-style factors. Mechanistic links shared by T2D, AId and life-style factors such as obesity, perhaps through chronic inflammation, may drive autoimmune activation of T2D and many AIds. PMID:26350756

  17. Preservation of somatostatin secretion in cystic fibrosis patients with diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, L R; Caplan, D B; McKean, L P; Buchanan, C N; Parks, J S; Culler, F L

    1993-01-01

    Immunohistochemical studies of pancreatic tissue from patients with cystic fibrosis associated with diabetes mellitus (CFDM) show increased numbers of somatostatin secreting delta cells. To look for a possible functional correlate to this finding basal and arginine stimulated plasma somatostatin and serum C peptide concentrations in eight insulin treated patients with cystic fibrosis and eight normal male controls were measured. Mean basal somatostatin concentrations were not different in the two groups. Mean peak somatostatin concentrations were significantly higher in the group with CFDM: 11.60 pmol/l v 7.14 pmol/l in controls. Mean peak C peptide concentrations were significantly lower in the group with cystic fibrosis: 0.89 nmol/l v 4.27 nmol/l in controls. This observation provides a physiological correlate to the pathological finding of increased somatostatin content in pancreatic tissue from patients with CFDM. Selective preservation of somatostatin secretion in patients with cystic fibrosis may further complicate pancreatic endocrine insufficiencies through paracrine inhibition of insulin and glucagon secretion. PMID:8094610

  18. Subsequent Type 2 Diabetes in Patients with Autoimmune Disease.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Liu, Xiangdong; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Ji, Jianguang

    2015-01-01

    Immunological data show that type 2 diabetes (T2D) manifests autoimmune features. We wanted to test the association epidemiologically by assessing subsequent diagnosis of T2D following diagnosis of autoimmune disease (AId) and subsequent AId after T2D in the same individuals. Patients were identified from three Swedish health databases. A total of 32 different AId were included. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for T2D diagnosis in patients with previously diagnosed AId and compared to those without a previous AId. Among a total of 757,368 AId patients, 15,103 were diagnosed with T2D, giving an overall SIR for T2D of 1.66. T2D risks were increased after 27 AIds; the highest SIRs were noted for chorea minor (8.00), lupoid hepatitis (5.75), and Addison disease (2.63). T2D was increased after 27 of 32 AIds but we were unable to control for factors such as obesity and smoking. However, the clearly increased risks for T2D in most types of AId patients, and in reverse order increased risks for AId after T2D, do not support an overall confounding by life-style factors. Mechanistic links shared by T2D, AId and life-style factors such as obesity, perhaps through chronic inflammation, may drive autoimmune activation of T2D and many AIds. PMID:26350756

  19. Dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Filippatos, Theodosios D.; Liberopoulos, Evangelos N.

    2015-01-01

    Dapagliflozin is a selective and reversible inhibitor of sodium–glucose linked transporter type 2 (SGLT2), which mediates approximately 90% of active renal glucose reabsorption in the early proximal tubule of the kidney. Dapagliflozin significantly reduces glucose reabsorption and decreases serum glucose concentration in an insulin-independent manner. The decrease of glucose reabsorption by dapagliflozin has also been associated with a reduction in body weight. Furthermore, the drug modestly reduces blood pressure levels through weight loss and its action as osmotic diuretic. Dapagliflozin has been approved as monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who cannot tolerate metformin or in combination with other antidiabetic drugs, with the exception of pioglitazone due to the theoretical increased risk of bladder cancer. The drug should not be prescribed in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment or in patients at risk for developing volume depletion. Dapagliflozin is associated with increased incidence of genital and lower urinary tract infections, but these infections are usually mild to moderate and respond to standard antimicrobial treatment. Based on current evidence, dapagliflozin is a useful drug for patients with T2DM with a favorable safety profile. However, further research regarding the effects of dapagliflozin on cardiovascular outcomes is needed. PMID:25678954

  20. Short telomere length is associated with arterial aging in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dudinskaya, E N; Tkacheva, O N; Shestakova, M V; Brailova, N V; Strazhesko, I D; Akasheva, D U; Isaykina, O Y; Sharashkina, N V; Kashtanova, D A; Boytsov, S A

    2015-09-01

    It is known that glucose disturbances contribute to micro- and macrovascular complications and vascular aging. Telomere length is considered to be a cellular aging biomarker. It is important to determine the telomere length role in vascular structural and functional changes in patients with diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study in a high-risk population from Moscow, Russia. The study included 50 patients with diabetes and without clinical cardiovascular disease and 49 control group participants. Glucose metabolism assessment tests, measuring intima-media complex thickness and determining the presence of atherosclerotic plaques, pulse wave velocity measurement, and telomere length measurement were administered to all participants. Vascular changes were more dramatic in patients with diabetes than in the control group, and the telomeres were shorter in patients with diabetes. Significant differences were found in the vascular wall condition among diabetes patients, and there were no substantial differences in the arterial structure between patients with 'long' telomeres; however, there were statistically significant differences in the vascular wall condition between patients with 'short' telomeres. Vascular ageing signs were more prominent in patients with diabetes. However, despite diabetes, vascular changes in patients with long telomeres were very modest and were similar to the vascular walls in healthy individuals. Thus, long lymphocyte telomeres may have a protective effect on the vascular wall and may prevent vascular wall deterioration caused by glucose metabolism disorders. PMID:26034119

  1. Short telomere length is associated with arterial aging in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dudinskaya, E N; Tkacheva, O N; Shestakova, M V; Brailova, N V; Strazhesko, I D; Akasheva, D U; Isaykina, O Y; Sharashkina, N V; Kashtanova, D A; Boytsov, S A

    2015-01-01

    It is known that glucose disturbances contribute to micro- and macrovascular complications and vascular aging. Telomere length is considered to be a cellular aging biomarker. It is important to determine the telomere length role in vascular structural and functional changes in patients with diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study in a high-risk population from Moscow, Russia. The study included 50 patients with diabetes and without clinical cardiovascular disease and 49 control group participants. Glucose metabolism assessment tests, measuring intima–media complex thickness and determining the presence of atherosclerotic plaques, pulse wave velocity measurement, and telomere length measurement were administered to all participants. Vascular changes were more dramatic in patients with diabetes than in the control group, and the telomeres were shorter in patients with diabetes. Significant differences were found in the vascular wall condition among diabetes patients, and there were no substantial differences in the arterial structure between patients with ‘long’ telomeres; however, there were statistically significant differences in the vascular wall condition between patients with ‘short’ telomeres. Vascular ageing signs were more prominent in patients with diabetes. However, despite diabetes, vascular changes in patients with long telomeres were very modest and were similar to the vascular walls in healthy individuals. Thus, long lymphocyte telomeres may have a protective effect on the vascular wall and may prevent vascular wall deterioration caused by glucose metabolism disorders. PMID:26034119

  2. Fasting during Ramadan: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of vildagliptin in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Kamran MA

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes management during Ramadan fasting is challenging to the physician in terms of minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia. As compared to oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) and sulfonylureas (SUs), which carry a higher and significant risk of hypoglycemia, newer antidiabetic agents such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have demonstrated lower risk of hypoglycemia during Ramadan fasting, with better patient compliance. In addition to diabetes education and pre-Ramadan assessments, the physician should also consider use of DPP-4 inhibitors (such as vildagliptin) during Ramadan fasting to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetic subjects. Severe episodes of hypoglycemia have been demonstrated in recent research and clinical trials with OHAs/SUs. Conversely, these research observations have also demonstrated comparative safety and efficacy with lower risk of hypoglycemia associated with vildagliptin. Current research review has collected evidence-based clinical trials and observations for the drug vildagliptin to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia during Ramadan fasting, while at the same time focusing the role of diabetes self-management education (DSME), pre-Ramadan assessments, and patient care. PMID:25931826

  3. Low Magnesium Exacerbates Osteoporosis in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Wu, Hsu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of serum Mg on bone mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with or without diabetes. A total of 56 CKD patients not receiving dialysis were recruited and divided into two groups, one group of 27 CKD patients with diabetes and another group of 29 CKD patients without diabetes. Biochemical determinations were made, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was measured. Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum Mg was inversely correlated with serum Ca (P = 0.023) and positively correlated with serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) (P = 0.020), alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.044), and phosphate (P = 0.040) in the CKD patients with diabetes. The CKD patients with diabetes had lower serum albumin and a higher proportion of hypomagnesemia and osteoporosis than the nondiabetic patients did (P < 0.05). Serum Mg was inversely correlated with eGFR in the CKD patients with or without diabetes (P < 0.05). Serum Mg showed an inverse correlation with 25-hydroxyvitamin D in CKD patients without diabetes (P = 0.006). Furthermore, the diabetic CKD patients with low serum Mg had a lower iPTH (P = 0.007) and a higher serum Ca/Mg ratio (P < 0.001) than the other CKD patients. The lower serum Mg subgroup showed a higher incidence of osteoporosis than the moderate and higher serum Mg subgroups did (66.7%, 39.4%, and 29.4%, resp.). In conclusion, low serum Mg may impact iPTH and exacerbates osteoporosis in CKD patients, particularly with diabetes. PMID:26273297

  4. Barrier Factors to the Completion of Diabetes Education in Korean Diabetic Adult Patients: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Tae; Jung, Se Young; Oh, Seung-Min; Jeong, Su-Min; Choi, Yoon-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a disease with high social burdens and is expected to increase gradually. A long-term management is essential for the treatment of diabetes, requiring patient self-cares. Diabetes education is important for such self-cares, but it does not sufficiently take place. In addition, little studies have been conducted on the barriers to the completion of diabetes education. This study, thus, aimed to analyze the factors related to the completion of diabetes education and investigate its barriers. Methods Of 50,405 respondents to the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 3,820 were selected for the analysis, excluding those aged 29 or younger and those with missing values. The completion of diabetes education was set as a dependent variable and an analysis was made on the factors that affect the dependent variable. A multivariable logistic regression was employed for the analysis. Results Lower educational level was associated with less diabetes education, and the degree of diabetes education was lower in the group with male, the group that didn't have a family history or was not aware of a family history, the group that was not currently aware of diabetes and the group without a spouse. There was no difference in the completion of diabetes education by underlying diseases, family income level, age, residing area, economic activity status, insurance coverage, smoking, and drinking. Conclusion Diabetes education is of importance for the treatment and management of diabetes. Currently, however, diabetes education is not sufficiently carried out in Korea. The completion rate of diabetes education was low in male, patients without or not knowing a family history, patients who were not currently aware of their diabetes, patients without a spouse, and patients with low educational level. Therefore, encouraging these patients to take the education will be a more effective approach to increase the completion rate of diabetes education. PMID:26435809

  5. Apelin in epiretinal membranes of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiang; Ma, Yan; Xu, Yong-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Formation of epiretinal membranes (ERMs) in the posterior fundus results in visual impairment. ERMs have been associated with numerous clinical conditions, including proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), a neovascular disease. Apelin has been identified as a novel angiogenesis contributor. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between apelin and ERMs after PDR. Methods ERM samples were obtained by vitrectomy from 12 subjects with PDR (aged 57±6 years; duration of diabetes 16±7 years), and 12 subjects with idiopathic ERM (aged 68±5 years). The samples were processed for immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR). We also analyzed samples from patients with PDR who received an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) before vitrectomy. Results The mRNA expression of apelin was significantly higher in the PDR ERMs than in the idiopathic ERMs. Accordingly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong expression of apelin in all eight PDR ERMs without IVB, and was double-labeled with glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody (GFAP), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31), cytokeratin (CK) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) but not with fibronectin. They were mainly located in the adventitia. In contrast, the expression of apelin was lower in the PDR ERMs after IVB and the idiopathic ERMs. Conclusions The results showed that apelin was involved in the formation of ERMs and promoted the formation of adventitia, including glial, endothelial, and RPE cells. Bevacizumab blocked the expression of apelin and regressed gliosis and angiogenesis. PMID:25324682

  6. Statin and aspirin therapy for the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Udell, Jacob A; Scirica, Benjamin M; Braunwald, Eugene; Raz, Itamar; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Davidson, Jaime; Hirshberg, Boaz; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2012-12-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at 2 to 4 times increased risk of cardiovascular events compared with those without diabetes, both among patients with multiple risk factors only and those with established atherothrombosis. In this review, we provide recommendations for the use of statins and aspirin for the prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:22760763

  7. Relationship between Severity of Periodontal Disease and Control of Diabetes (Glycated Hemoglobin) in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Ankita; Parihar, Anuj Singh; Sood, Meenakshi; Singh, Pinojj; Singh, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Both diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontitis are chronic diseases affecting large number of the population worldwide. Changes in human behavior and lifestyle over the last century have resulted in a dramatic increase in the incidence of diabetes in the world. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between severity of periodontal disease and control of diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HBA1c]) in patients with Type 1 DM in a hospital based study. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (n = 50) with Type 1 diabetes were enrolled in the study. They were divided into three groups based on the degree of glycemic control by measuring HbA1c levels as: “Good” (HBA1c ?7) Group A, fair (HBA1c = 7-8) Group B and poor (HBA1c >8) Group C. All enrolled patients underwent detailed history and dental checkup. Evaluation for periodontal disease was done by measuring dental plaque (plaque index), inflammation of gums (gingival index), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level. Results: Type 1 diabetics with poor glycemic control had increased gingival inflammation (P < 0.05), more dental plaque (P < 0.05), increased PPDs (P < 0.05) and attachment loss (P < 0.05) as compared to those with fair and good glycemic control, respectively. Conclusion: Severity of periodontal disease increases with poor glycemic control in patients with Type 1 DM. PMID:26668475

  8. Patient-provider interaction from the perspectives of type 2 diabetes patients in Muscat, Oman: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Abdulhadi, Nadia; Al Shafaee, Mohammed; Freudenthal, Solveig; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Wahlström, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Background Patients' expectations and perceptions of the medical encounter and interactions are important tools in diabetes management. Some problems regarding the interaction during encounters may be related to a lack of communication skills on the part of either the physician or the patient. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions of type 2 diabetes patients regarding the medical encounters and quality of interactions with their primary health-care providers. Methods Four focus group discussions (two women and two men groups) were conducted among 27 purposively selected patients (13 men and 14 women) from six primary health-care centres in Muscat, Oman. Qualitative content analysis was applied. Results The patients identified some weaknesses regarding the patient-provider communication like: unfriendly welcoming; interrupted consultation privacy; poor attention and eye contact; lack of encouraging the patients to ask questions on the providers' side; and inability to participate in medical dialogue or express concerns on the patients' side. Other barriers and difficulties related to issues of patient-centeredness, organization of diabetes clinics, health education and professional competency regarding diabetes care were also identified. Conclusion The diabetes patients' experiences with the primary health-care providers showed dissatisfaction with the services. We suggest appropriate training for health-care providers with regard to diabetes care and developing of communication skills with emphasis on a patient-centred approach. An efficient use of available resources in diabetes clinics and distributing responsibilities between team members in close collaboration with patients and their families seems necessary. Further exploration of the providers' work situation and barriers to good interaction is needed. Our findings can help the policy makers in Oman, and countries with similar health systems, to improve the quality and organizational efficiency of diabetes care services. PMID:17925030

  9. Effect of uncontrolled hyperglycemia on levels of adhesion molecules in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2*

    PubMed Central

    Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara; Sokup, Alina; Wernik, Tomasz; Ruprecht, Zofia; Góralczyk, Barbara; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Gadomska, Gra?yna; Ro??, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Uncontrolled diabetes has become a major cause of mortality and morbidity by reason of vascular angiopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of soluble forms of vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), E-selectin, and thrombomodulin in patients with well-controlled and uncontrolled diabetes type 2. Methods: The study was conducted on 62 patients with diabetes. Group I consisted of 35 patients with well-controlled diabetes. The second group included 27 patients with uncontrolled diabetes with micro-albuminuria. A control group was made up of 25 healthy volunteers. The concentrations of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, and soluble thrombomodulin were assayed in plasma. Serum concentration of creatinine was measured and the plasma concentrations of fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) determined. Results: Lower concentrations of ICAM-1 were found in the group of uncontrolled diabetes patients compared with those with well-controlled disease. In patients with uncontrolled diabetes, VCAM-1 levels were significantly higher compared with the group with well-controlled diabetes. In patients with uncontrolled diabetes a positive correlation was obtained between glomerular filtration rate and sE-selectin and a negative correlation between the levels of creatinine and ICAM-1, although there was a positive correlation between (HbA1c) and ICAM-1. Conclusions: The study confirmed the participation of the inflammatory process associated with impaired vascular endothelial function in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The opposite effect of uncontrolled hyperglycemia on adhesion molecules suggests different functions of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in complications of diabetes. PMID:25990052

  10. Primary prevention of cardiovascular complications in type II diabetes patients using aspirin: a complicated tale.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Brian M; Arora, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a disease that affects 23 million in the United States alone. Within the past 20 years, there has been remarkable research performed concerning primary prevention of cardiovascular events in type II diabetes patients. The American Diabetes Association along with a government panel made recommendations that diabetes patients at a high risk of cardiovascular events should be on a low-dose aspirin regimen. However, more recent data show that aspirin has no clinical benefit to the diabetic patient as compared with a control group. Looking at research performed by groups in Japan, the United States, namely, the Primary Prevention Project, and a group in Ireland, we learn that there is no significant difference between diabetes patients who take aspirin and those who do not with respect to cardiovascular events. These studies are criticized by some newer research, and the prevailing thought about them call into question the results they obtained.Furthermore, we learn that many type II diabetes patients are not properly participating in an aspirin regimen or they are overusing aspirin, and these variables appear to confound the situation. One study showed that up to 50% of diabetes patients do not have their diabetes under control and are therefore increasing their risk for a multitude of complications arising from diabetes, including cardiovascular events.Finally, we learn of an upcoming project studying aspirin from Bayer, Inc. Much of the information presented in this article demonstrates the need for more and better research revolving around primary prevention of cardiovascular events in type II diabetes patients using aspirin. PMID:19797944

  11. Fondaparinux prevents venous thromboembolism after joint replacement surgery in Japanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Satoru; Ochi, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important complication of major orthopaedic surgery of the lower limbs. Fondaparinux, a synthetic pentasaccharide and highly selective inhibitor of activated Factor Xa, is the first in a new class of antithrombotic agents. To determine the optimal dose in Japanese patients, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging studies of fondaparinux were conducted in patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) or total hip replacement (THR) surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a once-daily subcutaneous injection of fondaparinux (0.75, 1.5, 2.5, or 3.0 mg) or placebo in Study 1 (TKR) and Study 2 (THR). In Study 1, the incidence of VTE was 65.3% in the placebo group and was 34.2%, 21.3%, 16.2%, and 9.5% in the groups receiving 0.75, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.0 mg fondaparinux respectively. In Study 2, the incidence of VTE was 33.8% in the placebo group and was 24.2%, 4.6%, 7.4%, and 14.4% in the 0.75, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.0 mg fondaparinux groups respectively. Dose–response effects were observed in both studies; however, no statistically significant differences in major bleeding events were found among any groups. Fondaparinux proved to be a potent anticoagulant with a favourable benefit-to-risk ratio in the prevention of VTE in these study patients. PMID:17468868

  12. Improving glucose management: ten steps to get more patients with type 2 diabetes to glycaemic goal.

    PubMed

    Del Prato, S; Felton, A-M; Munro, N; Nesto, R; Zimmet, P; Zinman, B

    2005-11-01

    Despite increasingly stringent clinical practice guidelines for glycaemic control, the implementation of recommendations has been disappointing, with over 60% of patients not reaching recommended glycaemic goals. As a result, current management of glycaemia falls significantly short of accepted treatment goals. The Global Partnership for Effective Diabetes Management has identified a number of major barriers that can prevent individuals from achieving their glycaemic targets. This article proposes 10 key practical recommendations to aid healthcare providers in overcoming these barriers and to enable a greater proportion of patients to achieve glycaemic goals. These include advice on targeting the underlying pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, treating early and effectively with combination therapies, adopting a holistic, multidisciplinary approach and improving patient understanding of type 2 diabetes. Implementation of these recommendations should reduce the risk of diabetes-related complications, improve patient quality of life and impact more effectively on the increasing healthcare cost related to diabetes. PMID:16236091

  13. Application of New Cholesterol Guidelines to the Korean Adult Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2015-11-01

    The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) 2013 joint guidelines for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia expand the indications for statin therapy. This study was performed to estimate the numbers of diabetic patients indicated for statin therapy according to the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III) of the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines and the new ACC/AHA guidelines in Korea. We analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Patients with diabetes over 30 yr of age were analyzed by the two guidelines. Of the total 1,975 diabetic patients, only 377 (19.1%) were receiving drugs for dyslipidemia. Among 1,598 patients who had not taken any medications for dyslipidemia, 65.6% would be indicated for statin therapy according to the ATP-III guidelines. When we apply the new guidelines, 94.3% would be eligible for statin therapy. Among the total diabetic patients, the new guidelines, compared with the ATP-III guidelines, increase the number eligible for statin therapy from 53.1% to 76.2%. The new guidelines would increase the indication for statin therapy for most diabetic patients. At present, many diabetic patients do not receive appropriate statin therapy. Therefore efforts should be made to develop the Korean guidelines and to ensure that more diabetic patients receive appropriate statin therapy. PMID:26539005

  14. Application of New Cholesterol Guidelines to the Korean Adult Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Ha, Kyoung Hwa

    2015-01-01

    The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) 2013 joint guidelines for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia expand the indications for statin therapy. This study was performed to estimate the numbers of diabetic patients indicated for statin therapy according to the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III) of the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines and the new ACC/AHA guidelines in Korea. We analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Patients with diabetes over 30 yr of age were analyzed by the two guidelines. Of the total 1,975 diabetic patients, only 377 (19.1%) were receiving drugs for dyslipidemia. Among 1,598 patients who had not taken any medications for dyslipidemia, 65.6% would be indicated for statin therapy according to the ATP-III guidelines. When we apply the new guidelines, 94.3% would be eligible for statin therapy. Among the total diabetic patients, the new guidelines, compared with the ATP-III guidelines, increase the number eligible for statin therapy from 53.1% to 76.2%. The new guidelines would increase the indication for statin therapy for most diabetic patients. At present, many diabetic patients do not receive appropriate statin therapy. Therefore efforts should be made to develop the Korean guidelines and to ensure that more diabetic patients receive appropriate statin therapy. PMID:26539005

  15. Evaluation and management of peripheral neuropathy in diabetic patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Visovsky, Constance; Meyer, Rachel R; Roller, Jeffre; Poppas, Megan

    2008-04-01

    Recently, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy has received a great deal of attention. However, the interaction of diabetic neuropathy with potentially neurotoxic chemotherapy is far less understood. The incidence of type II diabetes has risen exponentially in the past two decades. In concert with the rise in type II diabetes, the number of individuals with diabetes who need chemotherapy for cancer also is expected to increase. Diabetic neuropathy and the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy have a significant potential to cause functional disability. Diabetics may be most at risk for the effects of neurotoxic agents on peripheral nerve functioning, in addition to the other effects induced by chemotherapeutic agents. The purpose of this article is to review the evaluation, management, and clinical implications of peripheral neuropathy in patients with cancer and diabetes. PMID:18390460

  16. Prevention of exercise-related injuries and adverse events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Reis, Victor Machado; Themudo-Barata, José Luís

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is widely recommended as an essential non-pharmacological therapeutic strategy to the prevention and control of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with the natural progression of the disease and typical age and anthropometric profile of individuals with type 2 diabetes may expose these patients to an increased risk of injury and acute adverse events during exercise. These injuries and adverse events can lead to fear of new injury and consequent physical inactivity. Preventative measures are essential to reduce risk, increase safety and avoid the occurrence of exercise-related injuries in people with type 2 diabetes. This population can exercise safely if certain precautions are taken and if exercise is adapted to complications and contraindications of each individual. Conditions such as diabetic foot, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic autonomic neuropathy, cardiovascular risk factors, musculoskeletal disorders, hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia, dehydration and interactions between medication and exercise should be taken into consideration when prescribing exercise. PMID:24194555

  17. Prevalence and temporal pattern of hospital readmissions for patients with type I and type II diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lv, Yuanjun; Li, Changping; Cui, Zhuang; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Repeated hospitalisation for patients is common and costly, yet partly preventable. However, we know little about readmissions for patients with diabetes in China. The current study aims to assess the frequency and temporal pattern of and risk factors for all-cause readmission among hospitalised patients with diabetes in Tianjin, China. Method This retrospective, cohort analysis used the Tianjin Basic Medical Insurance Register System data of 2011. The patterns of and the reasons for all-cause readmissions for patients with diabetes were described. The differences of readmission-free survival (RFS) between newly and previously diagnosed patients were compared. Time-dependent Cox models were established to identify the risk factors for readmission at different time intervals after discharge. Results Readmission rates were approximately 30%, with the most common diagnoses of cerebral infarction (for type I) or diabetes (for type II) for patients with diabetes. The majority of patients were readmitted to the hospital after more than 90?days, followed by 8–30?days (all p=0.002). Approximately 37.2% and 42.8% of readmitted patients with type I and type II diabetes were diagnosed previously, and the RFS rates for previously diagnosed patients were significantly lower than for newly diagnosed patients at any time interval after discharge. Prior history of diabetes (all p<0.05), length of stay (all p<0.01) and reimbursement ratio (90% vs >92%, all p<0.0002) were consistently associated with the RFS for patients readmitted to the hospital at <7, 8–30, 31–60 and 61–90?days. Conclusions Hospital readmissions among patients with diabetes were affected by the diagnosis status. Patient characteristics and the quality of healthcare might regulate short-interval and long-interval hospital readmission, respectively, after discharge. PMID:26525716

  18. Depression and Quality of Life in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Derakhshanpour, Firooze; Vakili, Mohammad Ali; Farsinia, Maryam; Mirkarimi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Frequency of mood disorders in patients with chronic diseases, especially diabetes and its effects on life quality are dramatically increasing. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the relation between depression and quality of life in patients with diabetes. Patients and Methods: This is a cross sectional survey. Subjects were selected from 330 eligible people referred to the only diabetes clinic in Gorgan City during 6 months, using systematic random sampling. Beak Depression questionnaire and the brief questioner with 26 questions recommended by the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-BREF) were used to measure depression and quality of life, respectively. Data were analyzed through descriptive methods, Chi-square, Independent t test and linear regression model using SPSS16; moreover, P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In total, 330 patients with diabetes (35.5 % male and 64.5% women) were studied. The mean and standard deviation of their age and years involved with diabetes were 50.6 ± 9.0 and 5.4 ± 4.5 years, respectively. Range of age was 25 - 75 years, as well. The prevalence of depression in all patients with diabetes was 58.2% (124 mild, 56 medium, and 12 with severe depression). Hypertension was 13.9% more in diabetic patients with depression (P value < 0.001) and physical activity in 24.7% of the cases was less with a meaningful difference (P value = 0.01). The mean and standard deviation of quality of life in diabetic patients with and without depression was 50.7 ± 14 and 60.5 ± 13.3, respectively that was significant in two groups (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The prevalence of depression is high in patients with diabetes and has a considerable impact on the consequences of diabetes and quality of life too. PMID:26082854

  19. Evaluation of Hemoglobin A1c Criteria to Assess Preoperative Diabetes Risk in Cardiac Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Sima; Zrull, Christina A.; Patil, Preethi V.; Jha, Leena; Kling-Colson, Susan C.; Gandia, Kenia G.; DuBois, Elizabeth C.; Plunkett, Cynthia D.; Bodnar, Tim W.; Pop-Busui, Rodica

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Hemoglobin A1c (A1C) has recently been recommended for diagnosing diabetes mellitus and diabetes risk (prediabetes). Its performance compared with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h post-glucose load (2HPG) is not well delineated. We compared the performance of A1C with that of FPG and 2HPG in preoperative cardiac surgery patients. Methods Data from 92 patients without a history of diabetes were analyzed. Patients were classified with diabetes or prediabetes using established cutoffs for FPG, 2HPG, and A1C. Sensitivity and specificity of the new A1C criteria were evaluated. Results All patients diagnosed with diabetes by A1C also had impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes by other criteria. Using FPG as the reference, sensitivity and specificity of A1C for diagnosing diabetes were 50% and 96%, and using 2HPG as the reference they were 25% and 95%. Sensitivity and specificity for identifying prediabetes with FPG as the reference were 51% and 51%, respectively, and with 2HPG were 53% and 51%, respectively. One-third each of patients with prediabetes was identified using FPG, A1C, or both. When testing A1C and FPG concurrently, the sensitivity of diagnosing dysglycemia increased to 93% stipulating one or both tests are abnormal; specificity increased to 100% if both tests were required to be abnormal. Conclusions In patients before cardiac surgery, A1C criteria identified the largest number of patients with diabetes and prediabetes. For diagnosing prediabetes, A1C and FPG were discordant and characterized different groups of patients, therefore altering the distribution of diabetes risk. Simultaneous measurement of FGP and A1C may be a more sensitive and specific tool for identifying high-risk individuals with diabetes and prediabetes. PMID:21854260

  20. Prognosis of Japanese patients with previously untreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the era of molecular-targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Nobuo; Obara, Wataru; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Naito, Sei; Kamba, Tomomi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Murai, Sachiyo; Abe, Takashige; Oba, Koji; Naito, Seiji

    2015-05-01

    A multicenter cooperative study was conducted to clarify the prognosis of Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the era of molecular-targeted therapy and the clinical usefulness of the Japanese metastatic renal cancer (JMRC) prognostic classification. Of 389 consecutive patients for whom treatment was started between 2008 and 2010 at 23 hospitals in Japan, 357 patients who received vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFR-TKI) or cytokine as initial systemic therapy were the subject of the present study. Patients were classified into three prognostic groups according to the JMRC prognostic classification. The endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after the start of the initial treatment. The median PFS and OS for the entire cohort of 357 patients were 9.1 and 27.2 months, respectively. VEGFR-TKI were selected for patients with multiple organ metastases, those with liver metastasis, and those with bone metastasis. The median PFS and OS were 11.0 and 23.2 months and 5.4 and 38.2 months in the VEGFR-TKI group and the cytokines group, respectively. The JMRC prognostic classification was useful as a prognostic model for PFS and OS (c-indexes: 0.613 and 0.630 in patients who initially received VEGFR-TKI and 0.647 and 0.642 in patients who received cytokines, respectively). The present study showed for the first time the prognosis of Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the era of molecular-targeted therapy. The JMRC prognostic classification may be clinically useful as a prognostic model. PMID:25711777

  1. The optimal oral dose selection of ibandronate in Japanese patients with osteoporosis based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Kiyohiko; Tobinai, Masato; Hashimoto, Junko; Iida, Satofumi; Kawanishi, Takehiko

    2014-12-01

    Ibandronate is a drug widely used outside Japan for the treatment of osteoporosis. It is available in formulations for intermittent intravenous (i.v.) administration and for intermittent (once monthly) oral administration. Ibandronate was recently approved in Japan as an i.v. injection with a dosing regimen of 1.0 mg once a month. To establish the optimal dose for oral administration of ibandronate in Japanese osteoporotic patients, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of and pharmacodynamic response to ibandronate following oral and intravenous administrations to Japanese subjects. Ibandronate (20, 50, 100, or 150 mg) was given orally to healthy postmenopausal Japanese women and to Japanese patients with primary osteoporosis. Serial measurements were obtained for the concentrations of serum ibandronate and urinary cross-linked C-telopeptide of Type I collagen (uCTX). Pharmacokinetic parameters and the time profiles of creatinine-corrected uCTX were compared with those obtained from postmenopausal Japanese women with osteopenia after administration of 1.0 mg i.v. ibandronate. Following oral administration of ibandronate, the area under the serum ibandronate concentration-time curve (AUCinf) increased dose-proportionally for doses up to 100 mg; at 150 mg, AUCinf increased beyond the dose-proportionality seen with doses up to 100 mg. The AUCinf within the linear range following administration of 100 mg oral ibandronate was similar to that following 1.0 mg i.v. ibandronate. Additionally, corrected uCTX decreased after administration of 100 mg oral ibandronate and remained decreased for 1 month; the magnitude of the decrease was similar to or greater than that obtained after 1.0 mg i.v. ibandronate. From a clinical pharmacological perspective, administration of 100 mg/month oral ibandronate was equivalent to that of 1.0 mg/month i.v. ibandronate. PMID:25476995

  2. Case Reports That Illustrate the Efficacy of SGLT2 Inhibitors in the Type 1 Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David S. H.

    2015-01-01

    SGLT2 inhibitors are only approved for use in adults with type 2 diabetes. However, because SGLT2 inhibitors have a mechanism of action that does not require the presence of endogenous insulin, these drugs should also be efficacious in type 1 diabetes where endogenous insulin production is greatly reduced or absent. Herein, I present five cases which illustrate the benefits of utilizing an SGLT2 inhibitor with type 1 diabetes. In these cases the use of SGLT2 inhibitors resulted not only in better glycemic control in most patients but also in some patients' less hypoglycemia, weight loss, and decreased doses of insulin. In type 1 diabetes Candida albicans vaginitis and balanitis may occur more frequently than in type 2 diabetes. These cases show that a large randomized clinical trial of SGLT2 inhibitors in type 1 diabetes needs to be performed. PMID:25785209

  3. The ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) attenuates diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting p-38 MAPK activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2014-02-01

    The anti-inflammatory potential of Lonicera japonica makes it an excellent source of novel medicinal targets to reduce inflammation in diabetic nephropathy. We aimed to investigate whether the ethanol extract of the flowering aerial parts of L. japonica exerts an ameliorative effect on diabetic renal inflammation using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were treated orally with the ethanol extract of the flowering aerial parts of L. japonica (100 and 200?mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. The rats exhibited renal dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, increased blood urea nitrogen, and proteinuria, along with a marked elevation in the ratio of kidney weight to body weight; all of these abnormalities were significantly reversed by the ethanol extract of the flowering aerial parts of L. japonica. The histological examinations revealed amelioration of diabetes-induced glomerular pathological changes following treatment with the ethanol extract of the flowering aerial parts of L. japonica. It reduced the accumulation of ED-1-expressing macrophages in renal tissue of diabetic rats, almost completely abolished T cell infiltration and attenuated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. The ethanol extract of the flowering aerial parts of L. japonica downregulated the protein expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the kidney of diabetic rats. The results suggest that it has the property to inhibit the activity of p-38 MAPK-mediated inflammatory response to halt the progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24431014

  4. Variant ALDH2 is associated with accelerated progression of bone marrow failure in Japanese Fanconi anemia patients.

    PubMed

    Hira, Asuka; Yabe, Hiromasa; Yoshida, Kenichi; Okuno, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Nakamura, Jun; Kojima, Seiji; Ogawa, Seishi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Takata, Minoru; Yabe, Miharu

    2013-10-31

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a severe hereditary disorder with defective DNA damage response and repair. It is characterized by phenotypes including progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), developmental abnormalities, and increased occurrence of leukemia and cancer. Recent studies in mice have suggested that the FA proteins might counteract aldehyde-induced genotoxicity in hematopoietic stem cells. Nearly half of the Japanese population carries a dominant-negative allele (rs671) of the aldehyde-catalyzing enzyme ALDH2 (acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2), providing an opportunity to test this hypothesis in humans. We examined 64 Japanese FA patients, and found that the ALDH2 variant is associated with accelerated progression of BMF, while birth weight or the number of physical abnormalities was not affected. Moreover, malformations at some specific anatomic locations were observed more frequently in ALDH2-deficient patients. Our current data indicate that the level of ALDH2 activity impacts pathogenesis in FA, suggesting the possibility of a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:24037726

  5. Incidence of diabetes mellitus type 2 complications among Saudi adult patients at primary health care center

    PubMed Central

    Alsenany, Samira; Al Saif, Amer

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed type 2 diabetes and its role in complications among adult Saudi patients. [Subjects] Patients attending four primary health care centers in Jeddah were enrolled. [Methods] A cross-sectional design study among Saudi patients attending Ministry of Health primary health care centers in Jeddah was selected for use by the Primary Health Care administration. Patients were interviewed with structured questionnaires to determine the presence of diabetes and risk factors using questions about the history of any disease. [Results] Diabetes mellitus was present in 234 subjects during the data collection period (March–June 2014). Mean patient age was 58 years; diabetes prevalence was 42% in males and 58% in females. The mean age for diabetes onset in males and females was 34 and 39 years, respectively. There was a higher incidence of obesity (75%) associated with a sedentary lifestyle (body mass index ?25) in females (N= 96; 40%) compared with males (N= 87; 36%). In this study, >44% of individuals aged 55 or older had severe to uncontrolled diabetes with long-term complications. The age-adjusted incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease was 38% and 24%, respectively, showing a clear incidence of diabetes associated with cardiovascular disease in Saudi Arabia. [Conclusion] This study found that a multifactorial approach to managing diabetes complication risks is needed. PMID:26180307

  6. Permeability of the blood-ocular barrier in adolescent and adult diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, A; Ishiko, S; Kojima, M; Ogasawara, H

    1993-01-01

    The permeability of the blood-ocular barrier was examined by fluorophotometry in adolescent and adult diabetic patients before the onset of retinopathy. The adolescent group consisted of 52 eyes of 52 insulin dependent diabetic patients aged 11 to 19 years and a control group of 10 eyes of 10 normal adolescents. The adult group consisted of 74 eyes of 74 non-insulin dependent diabetics and a control group of 30 eyes of 30 normal adults. The increase in lens autofluorescence in the adolescent diabetic patients compared with the controls was striking and showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.79, p < 0.0001) with the duration of diabetes. Anterior chamber (AQ) values, an index of the permeability of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB), increased in the adolescent diabetic patients compared with the controls and showed a significant positive correlation with glycosylated haemoglobin levels. No significant differences from the controls were observed regarding the permeability of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). In the adult group there was no significant difference in either the permeability of the BRB or the AQ values between the diabetic and the control groups. Our results suggest that adolescent diabetic patients differ from adults in that BAB permeability is increased before the onset of retinopathy, suggesting that this is the cause of the striking increase in lens autofluorescence. PMID:8457507

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of Nonmydriatic Fundus Photography for the Detection of Glaucoma in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Negrete, Francisco J.; Contreras, Inés; Oblanca, Noelia; Pinazo-Durán, M. Dolores; Rebolleda, Gema

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the diagnostic accuracy for glaucoma of a set of criteria with nonmydriatic monoscopic fundus photography (NMFP) in diabetics. Methods. Diabetics recruited from a screening program for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic glaucoma patients recruited from our glaucoma unit were included. Any patient with evidence of diabetic retinopathy was excluded. Diabetic patients had to have no visual field defects to be included as controls. Glaucoma patients had to have a glaucomatous field defect in at least one eye to be included. One NMFP was taken per eye for all subjects. These photographs were evaluated by two masked glaucoma specialists for the presence of the following: bilateral cup to disc (C/D) ratio ?0.6, notching or thinning of the neuroretinal rim, disc hemorrhages, and asymmetry in the C/D ratio between both eyes ?0.2. This evaluation led to a dichotomous classification: if any of the above criteria was present, the patient was classified as glaucoma. If none were present, the patient was classified as normal. Results. 72 control subjects and 72 glaucoma patients were included. Evaluation of NMFP had a sensitivity of 79.17% and a specificity of 80.56% for specialist 1 and a sensitivity of 72.22% and a specificity of 88.88% for specialist 2 for the detection of glaucoma. The overall accuracy was 79.83% and 80.55%, respectively. Discussion. NMFP evaluation by a glaucoma specialist may be useful for the detection of glaucoma in diabetics. PMID:26557709

  8. Phase I study of LY2603618, a CHK1 inhibitor, in combination with gemcitabine in Japanese patients with solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Doi, Toshihiko; Yoshino, Takayuki; Shitara, Kohei; Matsubara, Nobuaki; Fuse, Nozomu; Naito, Yoichi; Uenaka, Kazunori; Nakamura, Takashi; Hynes, Scott M; Lin, Aimee Bence

    2015-11-01

    This phase I trial evaluated LY2603618, a selective inhibitor of the DNA damage checkpoint kinase 1, in combination with gemcitabine. Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled. All patients received gemcitabine (1000?mg/m on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days) and either 170?mg (cohort 1) or 230?mg (cohort 2) of LY2603618. The primary objective was assessment of safety/tolerability. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic marker profiles were secondary objectives. Of the 17 patients enrolled, dose-limiting toxicities were observed in one patient in cohort 1 (n=7) and in two patients in cohort 2 (n=10). The most common grade 3 or more drug-related treatment-emergent adverse events were hematological. Three patients discontinued because of adverse events. Dose-dependent decreases in LY2603618 exposure were observed, but the LY2603618 pharmacokinetics at each dose were consistent within and between cycles and did not influence gemcitabine pharmacokinetics. Circulating plasma DNA decreased from baseline in all four patients who achieved a partial response. Administration of 170 or 230?mg of LY2603618 following a standard dose of gemcitabine showed acceptable safety and tolerability in Japanese patients with solid tumors. PMID:26288133

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of a Diabetes Pay-For-Performance Program in Diabetes Patients with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Hui-Min; Gu, Song-Mao; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Kao, Hao-Yun; Lin, Yi-Chieh; Chiu, Herng-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Pay for performance (P4P) has been used as a strategy to improve quality for patients with chronic illness. Little was known whether care provided to individuals with multiple chronic conditions in a P4P program were cost-effective. This study investigated cost effectiveness of a diabetes P4P program for caring patients with diabetes alone (DM alone) and diabetes with comorbid hypertension and hyperlipidemia (DMHH) from a single payer perspective in Taiwan. Analyzing data using population-based longitudinal databases, we compared costs and effectiveness between P4P and non-P4P diabetes patient groups in two cohorts. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to match comparable control groups for intervention groups. Outcomes included life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), program intervention costs, cost-savings and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). QALYs for P4P patients and non-P4P patients were 2.80 and 2.71 for the DM alone cohort and 2.74 and 2.66 for the DMHH patient cohort. The average incremental intervention costs per QALYs was TWD$167,251 in the DM alone cohort and TWD$145,474 in the DMHH cohort. The average incremental all-cause medical costs saved by the P4P program per QALYs were TWD$434,815 in DM alone cohort and TWD$506,199 in the DMHH cohort. The findings indicated that the P4P program for both cohorts were cost-effective and the resulting return on investment (ROI) was 2.60:1 in the DM alone cohort and 3.48:1 in the DMHH cohort. We conclude that the diabetes P4P program in both cohorts enabled the long-term cost-effective use of resources and cost-savings, especially for patients with multiple comorbid conditions. PMID:26173086

  10. Evidence for a Specific Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: An Observational Retrospective Echocardiographic Study in 656 Asymptomatic Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Isabelle; Cosson, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Banu, Isabela; Genevois, Isabelle; Poignard, Patricia; Valensi, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of subclinical diabetic cardiomyopathy, occurring among diabetic patients without hypertension or coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods. 656 asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes for 14 ± 8 years (359 men, 59.7 ± 8.7 years old, HbA1c 8.7 ± 2.1%) and at least one cardiovascular risk factor had a cardiac echography at rest, a stress cardiac scintigraphy to screen for silent myocardial ischemia (SMI), and, in case of SMI, a coronary angiography to screen for silent CAD. Results. SMI was diagnosed in 206 patients, and 71 of them had CAD. In the 157 patients without hypertension or CAD, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH: 24.1%) was the most frequent abnormality, followed by left ventricular dilation (8.6%), hypokinesia (5.3%), and systolic dysfunction (3.8%). SMI was independently associated with hypokinesia (odds ratio 14.7 [2.7–81.7], p < 0.01) and systolic dysfunction (OR 114.6 [1.7–7907], p < 0.01), while HbA1c (OR 1.9 [1.1–3.2], p < 0.05) and body mass index (OR 1.6 [1.1–2.4], p < 0.05) were associated with systolic dysfunction. LVH was more prevalent among hypertensive patients and hypokinesia in the patients with CAD. Conclusion. In asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients, diabetic cardiomyopathy is highly prevalent and is predominantly characterized by LVH. SMI, obesity, and poor glycemic control contribute to structural and functional LV abnormalities. PMID:26074964

  11. Noninvasive assessment of cardiomyopathy in normotensive diabetic patients between 20 and 50 years old

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, A.; Sanz, N.; Botvinick, E.H.; Phillips, N.; Heilbron, D.; Byrd, B.F. 3d.; Karam, J.H.; Schiller, N.B. )

    1989-08-01

    To further the understanding of diabetic heart disease, we tested the hypothesis that an asymptomatic group of normotensive diabetic patients between 20 and 50 years old had a restrictive cardiomyopathy independent of clinically significant coronary artery disease. Quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were performed to detect and characterize the cardiac abnormalities in this study group comprising 88 patients with rigorously classified diabetes and 65 volunteer control subjects. Diabetic patients were shown to have a mildly reduced left ventricular end-diastolic volume index: 50.1 +/- 8.2 and 52.1 +/- 14.7 mL/m2 for patients with type I and type II diabetes, respectively, versus 58.9 +/- 11.7 mL/m2 for control subjects. The left ventricular diastolic filling was also impaired in diabetic patients as reflected by a lower atrial emptying index: 0.73 +/- 0.24 and 0.76 +/- 0.3 for type I and type II diabetics, respectively, compared with 1.14 +/- 0.24 for control subjects. Exercise tolerance was normal in subjects with type I diabetes and slightly reduced in subjects with type II diabetes. Only one patient developed regional ischemia on thallium exercise testing. Using a comprehensive, noninvasive approach, we have shown that asymptomatic normotensive patients with type I or type II diabetes who were between 20 and 50 years old had a restrictive cardiomyopathy characterized by mildly reduced left ventricular end-diastolic volume and altered left ventricular compliance independent of critical coronary artery disease.

  12. How effective is systematic care of diabetic patients? A study in one general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Koperski, M

    1992-01-01

    A method of systematic diabetic care compatible with personal lists, the 'diabetic day', was introduced into a seven partner inner city general practice. The effect on glycosylated haemoglobin levels and the recording of six process measures (fundoscopy, visual acuity, weight, blood glucose levels, glycosylated haemoglobin levels and blood pressure) was assessed. Of the 111 known registered diabetic patients, 64 entered the diabetic day and fulfilled the eligibility criteria. General practice records were analysed retrospectively over a period of four years--the two years before entry into the diabetic day were compared with the subsequent two years. Mean glycosylated haemoglobin levels fell from 10.52% in the year before entry to the diabetic day to 9.71% in the second year after entry (P < 0.01, 95% confidence intervals 0.19 to 1.39). There was a significant increase in all process measures recorded in the general practice notes after entry into the diabetic day. The introduction of systematic care for diabetic patients led to an improvement in recorded process measures and a reduction in patients' glycosylated haemoglobin levels in a general practice which had made previous efforts to improve diabetic care and was already well staffed, organized and motivated. PMID:1297371

  13. In Search of Patient Agency in the Rhetoric of Diabetes Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Mary Specker

    1997-01-01

    Examines the patient agency concept from a rhetorical perspective in lay/professional medical discourse relating to diabetes care. Shows that patient agency is related to patient compliance in the language of biomedicine. Finds that, in managed care, tension is evident between the trend toward greater patient agency and the constraints of…

  14. Serum tolbutamide and chlorpropamide concentrations in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Melander, A; Sartor, G; Wåhlin, E; Scherstén, B; Bitzén, P O

    1978-01-21

    A selective and sensitive gas chromatographic technique was used to measure the steady-state serum concentrations of tolbutamide and chlorpropamide in 97 patients with maturity-onset diabetes mellitus who had been taking these drugs (37 tolbutamide, 60 chlorpropamide) for at least a year. No other antidiabetic agents had been given. The serum tolbutamide concentrations varied widely between the patients (from close to zero to 370 mumol/l (100 mug/ml)), yet the variation in dosage was only sixfold (0.5-3.9 g daily). The serum chlorpropamide concentrations varied even more widely (from close to zero to 882 mumol/l (244 mug/ml)), though the dosage variation was fourfold (125-500 mg daily). There was no systematic relation between dosage and serum concentrations of the drugs.Only 2 (5.4%) of the tolbutamide-treated patients and 10 (16.7%) of the chlorpropamide-treated patients had normal fasting blood glucose concentrations (below 5.5 mmol/l (99 mg/100 ml)), and fewer than half had values below 8.0 mmol/l (144 mg/100 ml). In most cases, therefore, the treatment was insufficient.There was no significant difference in mean fasting blood glucose concentrations between the two treatment groups. The mean steady-state concentration of chlorpropamide, however, was significantly higher than that of tolbutamide. Thus, contrary to common belief, the intrinsic activity of chlorpropamide is apparently not greater than that of tolbutamide. The alleged greater potency of chlorpropamide seems to be related wholly to kinetic differences, such as the less extensive metabolic degradation and slower elimination of the drug.We conclude that treatment with sulphonylureas in conventional dosage is far from optimal and that monitoring the concentrations of these drugs in the blood may help to improve their efficacy. PMID:620227

  15. Serum tolbutamide and chlorpropamide concentrations in patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Melander, A; Sartor, G; Wåhlin, E; Scherstén, B; Bitzén, P-O

    1978-01-01

    A selective and sensitive gas chromatographic technique was used to measure the steady-state serum concentrations of tolbutamide and chlorpropamide in 97 patients with maturity-onset diabetes mellitus who had been taking these drugs (37 tolbutamide, 60 chlorpropamide) for at least a year. No other antidiabetic agents had been given. The serum tolbutamide concentrations varied widely between the patients (from close to zero to 370 ?mol/l (100 ?g/ml)), yet the variation in dosage was only sixfold (0·5-3·9 g daily). The serum chlorpropamide concentrations varied even more widely (from close to zero to 882 ?mol/l (244 ?g/ml)), though the dosage variation was fourfold (125-500 mg daily). There was no systematic relation between dosage and serum concentrations of the drugs. Only 2 (5·4%) of the tolbutamide-treated patients and 10 (16·7%) of the chlorpropamide-treated patients had normal fasting blood glucose concentrations (below 5·5 mmol/l (99 mg/100 ml)), and fewer than half had values below 8·0 mmol/l (144 mg/100 ml). In most cases, therefore, the treatment was insufficient. There was no significant difference in mean fasting blood glucose concentrations between the two treatment groups. The mean steady-state concentration of chlorpropamide, however, was significantly higher than that of tolbutamide. Thus, contrary to common belief, the intrinsic activity of chlorpropamide is apparently not greater than that of tolbutamide. The alleged greater potency of chlorpropamide seems to be related wholly to kinetic differences, such as the less extensive metabolic degradation and slower elimination of the drug. We conclude that treatment with sulphonylureas in conventional dosage is far from optimal and that monitoring the concentrations of these drugs in the blood may help to improve their efficacy. PMID:620227

  16. Response to treatment and recurrence of dermatomycosis in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Torres, J E; Lugo Somolinos, A; Sánchez, J L

    1993-09-01

    Thirteen diabetic and sixteen control patients with skin infections with dermatophytes and Candida albicans were evaluated for the response to treatment and the recurrence of the condition. Culture-proven infections of these organisms were treated with a topical antifungal cream (oxiconazole nitrate) for 30 days. There was no difference in response to treatment between the two groups. Nine diabetic and ten control patients were re-evaluated three months after finishing the treatment. Four of the nine diabetic patients (44%) and one of the ten control patients (10% had evidence of recurrence. Dermatophytic skin infections in diabetic patients seem to respond adequately to topical treatment, however, recurrences appear to be frequent. PMID:8272485

  17. Anaemia, a common but often unrecognized risk in diabetic patients: a review.

    PubMed

    Angelousi, A; Larger, E

    2015-02-01

    Anaemia in patients with diabetes, both type 1 and type 2, is a frequent clinical finding. The mechanisms of anaemia are multifactorial and often not very well understood. Iatrogenic causes, including oral antidiabetic drugs, ACE inhibitors and ARBs, and renal insufficiency are the major causes of anaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. In patients with type 1, the cause is often an associated autoimmune disease, and screening for autoimmune gastritis, pernicious anaemia, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, coeliac disease and Addison's disease is recommended. Other rare causes - including G6PD deficiency, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anaemia - should be suspected in young patients or when the classical causes are excluded. Early detection and recognition of the cause(s) of anaemia in patients with diabetes could help to prevent other clinical manifestations as well as the complications of diabetes. PMID:25043174

  18. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy in Japanese Patients: Clinical Features, Visual Function, and Factors Affecting Visual Function

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Saho; Saito, Wataru; Saito, Michiyuki; Hashimoto, Yuki; Mori, Shohei; Noda, Kousuke; Namba, Kenichi; Ishida, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical features and investigate their relationship with visual function in Japanese patients with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Methods Fifty-two eyes of 38 Japanese AZOOR patients (31 female and 7 male patients; mean age at first visit, 35.0 years; median follow-up duration, 31 months) were retrospectively collected: 31 untreated eyes with good visual acuity and 21 systemic corticosteroid-treated eyes with progressive visual acuity loss. Variables affecting the logMAR values of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the mean deviation (MD) on Humphrey perimetry at initial and final visits were examined using multiple stepwise linear regression analysis. Results In untreated eyes, the mean MD at the final visit was significantly higher than that at the initial visit (P = 0.00002). In corticosteroid-treated eyes, the logMAR BCVA and MD at the final visit were significantly better than the initial values (P = 0.007 and P = 0.02, respectively). The final logMAR BCVA was 0.0 or less in 85% of patients. Variables affecting initial visual function were moderate anterior vitreous cells, myopia severity, and a-wave amplitudes on electroretinography; factors affecting final visual function were the initial MD values, female sex, moderate anterior vitreous cells, and retinal atrophy. Conclusions Our data indicated that visual functions in enrolled patients significantly improved spontaneously or after systemic corticosteroids therapy, suggesting that Japanese patients with AZOOR have good visual outcomes during the follow-up period of this study. Furthermore, initial visual field defects, gender, anterior vitreous cells, and retinal atrophy affected final visual functions in these patients. PMID:25919689

  19. Circadian pattern of ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients with and without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Diana E; Moyá, Ana; Crespo, Juan J; Castiñeira, Carmen; Domínguez-Sardiña, Manuel; Gomara, Sonia; Sineiro, Elvira; Mojón, Artemio; Fontao, María J; Hermida, Ramón C

    2013-03-01

    There is strong association between diabetes and increased risk of end-organ damage, stroke, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Non-dipping (<10% decline in the asleep relative to awake blood pressure [BP] mean), as determined by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), is frequent in diabetes and consistently associated with increased CVD risk. The reported prevalence of non-dipping in diabetes is highly variable, probably due to differences in the study groups (normotensive subjects, untreated hypertensives, treated hypertensives), relatively small sample sizes, reliance only on a single, low-reproducibility, 24-h ABPM evaluation per participant, and definition of daytime and nighttime periods by arbitrary selected fixed clock-hour spans. Accordingly, we evaluated the influence of diabetes on the circadian BP pattern by 48-h ABPM (rather than for 24?h to increase reproducibility of results) during which participants maintained a diary listing times of going to bed at night and awakening in the morning. This cross-sectional study involved 12 765 hypertensive patients (6797 men/5968 women), 58.1?±?14.1 (mean?±?SD) yrs of age, enrolled in the Hygia Project, designed to evaluate prospectively CVD risk by ABPM in primary care centers of northwest Spain. Among the participants, 2954 (1799 men/1155 women) had type 2 diabetes. At the time of study, 525/3314 patients with/without diabetes were untreated for hypertension, and the remaining 2429/6497 patients with/without diabetes were treated. Hypertension was defined as awake systolic (SBP)/diastolic (DBP) BP mean ?135/85?mm Hg, or asleep SBP/DBP mean ?120/70?mm Hg, or BP-lowering treatment. Hypertensive patients with than without diabetes were more likely to be men and of older age, have diagnoses of microalbuminuria, proteinuria, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome, and/or obesity, plus higher glucose, creatinine, uric acid, and triglycerides, but lower cholesterol and estimated glomerular filtration rate. In patients with diabetes, ambulatory SBP was significantly elevated (p?patients without diabetes, mainly during the daytime. Differing trends for SBP and DBP between groups resulted in large differences in ambulatory pulse pressure (PP), it being significantly greater (p?patients with diabetes, even after correcting for age. Prevalence of non-dipping was significantly higher in patients with than without diabetes (62.1% vs. 45.9%; p?patients with and without diabetes, respectively; p?patients with diabetes; thus, among the uncontrolled hypertensive patients with diabetes, 89.2% had nocturnal hypertension. Our findings document significantly elevated prevalence of a blunted nocturnal BP decline in hypertensive patients with diabetes. Most important, prevalence of the riser BP pattern, associated with highest CVD risk among all possible BP patterns, was more than twice as prevalent in diabetes. Patients with diabetes also presented significantly elevated ambulatory PP, reflecting increased arterial stiffness and enhanced CVD risk. These collective findings indicate that diabetes should be included among the clinical conditions for which ABPM is recommended for proper CVD risk assessment. PMID:23098178

  20. Are patients with dementia treated as well as patients without dementia for hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia?

    PubMed Central

    Müther, Johannes; Abholz, Heinz-Harald; Wiese, Birgitt; Fuchs, Angela; Wollny, Anja; Pentzek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients suffering from dementia are at risk of being treated differently by GPs from patients without it. Explanations for this could be stigmatisation, treatment with a palliative approach, and the result of the disease process. Aim To ascertain whether patients with dementia are treated differently, the index diseases of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia were used to measure care. Design of study Retrospective matched control study. Setting German general practice. Method Sixteen GP practices recruited all their patients with dementia and at least one of the index diseases. Patients without dementia but only the index diseases were matched for age, sex, index disease, and practice, resulting in 216 pairs of patients with and without dementia. From the files, blood pressure, blood sugar/glycated haemoglobin, cholesterol, the dates of measurement, the number of doctor–patient contacts, and the prescribed medication to treat the three conditions under scrutiny were documented. For analysis, t-tests and ?2-tests were used. Results No differences were found in treatment outcomes between the two patients groups, except one significant difference: one of the two documented systolic blood pressure values is lower in the dementia group. Furthermore, patients with dementia more often do not receive any medication or are treated with low-priced medications for hypertension (nearly significant). Conclusion GPs do not seem to treat patients with dementia differently. The use of lower-priced antihypertensive medication could be the only indication for some kind of difference in approach. PMID:20849694

  1. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Vitreous Humor from Diabetic Retinopathy Patients.

    PubMed

    Loukovaara, Sirpa; Nurkkala, Helka; Tamene, Fitsum; Gucciardo, Erika; Liu, Xiaonan; Repo, Pauliina; Lehti, Kaisa; Varjosalo, Markku

    2015-12-01

    Initial triggers for diabetic retinopathy (DR) are hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and advanced glycation end-products. The most pathological structural changes occur in retinal microvasculature, but the overall development of DR is multifactorial, with a complex interplay of microvascular, neurodegenerative, genetic/epigenetic, immunological, and secondary inflammation-related factors. Although several individual factors and pathways have been associated with retinopathy, a systems level understanding of the disease is lacking. To address this, we performed mass spectrometry based label-free quantitative proteomics analysis of 138 vitreous humor samples from patients with nonproliferative DR or the more severe proliferative form of the disease. Additionally, we analyzed samples from anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) (bevacizumab)-treated patients from both groups. In our study, we identified 2482 and quantified the abundancy of 1351 vitreous proteins. Of these, the abundancy of 230 proteins was significantly higher in proliferative retinopathy compared with nonproliferative retinopathy. This specific subset of proteins was linked to inflammation, complement, and coagulation cascade proteins, protease inhibitors, apolipoproteins, immunoglobulins, and cellular adhesion molecules, reflecting the multifactorial nature of the disease. The identification of the key molecules of the disease is critical for the development of new therapeutic molecules and for the new use of existing drugs. PMID:26490944

  2. Recommendations for health-enhancing physical activities in type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Mynarski, W?adys?aw; Cholewa, Jaros?aw; Rozpara, Micha?; Borek, Zbigniew; Strojek, Krzysztof; Nawrocka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease of civilization with epidemiological coverage. An integral component of a comprehensive process of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention and treatment is reasonably proportioned exercise. The aim of the study was to evaluate the weekly physical activity of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects with respect to recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine and American Diabetes Association. [Subjects] The study involved 31 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (treatment duration 9 ± 0.8) and 31 healthy people. [Methods] Physical activity levels were determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A ?2 test was applied to determine the percentage of people who met recommendations. [Results] Analysis of the obtained results demonstrated that the intensity of physical activity in patients with diabetes was moderate or low. The men in the control group met the recommendations for standard health-related activities significantly more often than the patients with diabetes. In women, there was no such relationship, since most of the women were insufficiently physically active. [Conclusion] The conclusion to be drawn is that there is an urgent need to develop and implement effective programs to enhance physical activity among people at risk of diseases of civilization, including type 2 diabetes. PMID:26356173

  3. Recommendations for health-enhancing physical activities in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Mynarski, W?adys?aw; Cholewa, Jaros?aw; Rozpara, Micha?; Borek, Zbigniew; Strojek, Krzysztof; Nawrocka, Agnieszka

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease of civilization with epidemiological coverage. An integral component of a comprehensive process of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention and treatment is reasonably proportioned exercise. The aim of the study was to evaluate the weekly physical activity of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects with respect to recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine and American Diabetes Association. [Subjects] The study involved 31 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (treatment duration 9 ± 0.8) and 31 healthy people. [Methods] Physical activity levels were determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A ?(2) test was applied to determine the percentage of people who met recommendations. [Results] Analysis of the obtained results demonstrated that the intensity of physical activity in patients with diabetes was moderate or low. The men in the control group met the recommendations for standard health-related activities significantly more often than the patients with diabetes. In women, there was no such relationship, since most of the women were insufficiently physically active. [Conclusion] The conclusion to be drawn is that there is an urgent need to develop and implement effective programs to enhance physical activity among people at risk of diseases of civilization, including type 2 diabetes. PMID:26356173

  4. Diabetes Control among Vietnamese Patients in Ho Chi Minh City: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Khue, Nguyen Thy; Goto, Aya; Nam, Tran Quang; Trung, Tran The; Khoa, Vo Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Boi; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Okayama, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent of diabetic control and its associated factors among Vietnamese patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was conducted among 652 outpatients who were recruited at a public general hospital (People Hospital 115) and a private clinic (Medic Center) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Median age…

  5. Starting insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes: An individualized approach.

    PubMed

    Brateanu, Andrei; Russo-Alvarez, Giavanna; Nielsen, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Because type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease, most patients eventually need insulin. When and how to start insulin therapy are not one-size-fits-all decisions but rather must be individualized. This paper reviews the indications, goals, and options for insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26270430

  6. Protection from retinopathy and other complications in patients with type 1 diabetes of extreme duration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We performed a cross-sectional, observational study of 351 U.S. residents with at least 50 years of insulin-dependent diabetes. Longitudinal data on retinopathy progression was obtained via chart review in patients followed at the Joslin Diabetes Center eye clinic (Boston, MA). HbA1c was determined ...

  7. Determinants of Quality of Life in Primary Care Patients with Diabetes: Implications for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Liat; Gross, Revital; Tabenkin, Hava; Porath, Avi; Heymann, Anthony; Porter, Boaz

    2008-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional design of 400 primary care patients with diabetes, the authors evaluated demographics, health status, subjective health and mental health, health behaviors, health beliefs, knowledge of diabetes treatment, satisfaction with medical care, and quality of medical care as potential predictors of QoL and QoL in the hypothetical…

  8. Self-Care Management among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in East Jerusalem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Nihaya; Osman, Amira; Hart, Trevor A.; Berry, Elliott M.; Adler, Bella

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Little research exists on diabetes self-care management (DSCM) in Arab populations. We examined the contribution of health belief constructs, socioeconomic position (SEP) and clinical factors (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1C] level, type of diabetes treatments, and receiving professional guidance) to DSCM among Arab patients in East…

  9. VDR, RXR, Coronin-1 and Interferon? Levels in PBMCs of Type-2 Diabetes Patients: Molecular Link between Diabetes and Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Syal, Kirtimaan; Srinivasan, Anand; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes and tuberculosis are world's most deadly epidemics. People suffering from diabetes are susceptible to tuberculosis. Molecular link between the two is largely unknown. It is known that Vitamin A receptor (RXR) heterodimerizes with Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and Peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor-? (PPAR?) to regulate Tryptophan-aspartate containing coat protein (TACO) expression and fatty acid metabolism respectively, so it would be interesting to check the expression of these genes in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients which might explain the susceptibility of diabetics to tuberculosis. In this study, we checked the expression of RXR, VDR, TACO and Interferon-? (IFN?) genes in type-2 DM patients for understanding the link between the two diseases. We observed down regulation of RXR gene and corresponding up regulation of TACO gene expression. We have not observed significant change in expression of VDR and IFN? genes in type-2 DM patients. Repression of RXR gene could hamper VDR-RXR heterodimer formation and thus would up regulate TACO gene expression which may predispose the type-2 DM patients to tuberculosis. Also, decrease in RXR-PPAR? heterodimer could be involved in DM. PMID:26089620

  10. Cardiovascular Disease Predicts Severe Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jae-Seung; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ko, Sun-Hye; Song, Ki-Ho; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate whether a history of prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with severe hypoglycemia (SH) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study from January 2001 to December 2012 with a median follow-up time of 9.5 years (5,814 person-years). Patients aged 25 to 75 years with type 2 diabetes and without chronic kidney disease were enrolled (n=894), and 624 patients completed follow-up. SH was defined as hypoglycemic episodes requiring hospitalization or medical care in an emergency department. We used the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to test associations between SH episodes and potential explanatory variables. Results Among the 624 participants who completed follow-up, 60 patients (9.6%) had previous CVD. Compared to patients without CVD, patients with previous CVD were older, had a longer duration of diabetes and hypertension, received more insulin, and had more diabetic microvascular complications at baseline. During follow-up, 62 patients (9.9%) experienced at least one SH episode (incidence of 1.33 per 100 patient-years). The development of SH was associated with a history of CVD (hazard ratio, 1.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 3.72; P=0.031) after adjusting for sex, age, diabetic duration, hypertension, hemoglobin A1c levels, diabetic complications, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, and insulin use. Conclusion A history of CVD was an independent risk factor for the development of SH in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. For patients with CVD, modulation of glycemic targets and diabetic education for the prevention of hypoglycemia should be implemented. PMID:26370882

  11. Application of the COOP/WONCA charts to aged patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a comparison between Japanese and Chinese populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is similar in Japan and China and is increasing due to high rates of smoking in these countries. Reducing COPD is an important public health issue. The goals of this study were to verify the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the COOP/WONCA charts, a tool for measuring health status, and to examine the qualitative differences in health status between Japanese and Chinese patients with COPD and between these patients and healthy subjects. Methods From 2008 to 2011, we examined the factors affecting the health status of Japanese and Chinese populations living in six cities. Participants were patients with COPD staged according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria (140 Japanese, 201 Chinese) and healthy subjects (243 Japanese, 199 Chinese), all 50 to 79 years old. Health status was measured by using the COOP/WONCA charts, and basic information such as smoking status and medical history was reported by the participants. Results The Japanese and Chinese versions of the COOP/WONCA charts were shown to be reliable and valid by test-retest, comparison with the SF-36 and respiratory symptoms, and correlation of results obtained from patients and their physicians. Stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that “Physical fitness”, “Daily activities”, and “Social activities” were predicted by COPD status and/or respiratory symptoms; “Feelings” by nationality and respiratory symptoms; “Pain” by sex and respiratory symptoms; and “Overall health” by nationality. When the COOP/WONCA scores were stratified by nationality, age, sex, and COPD status, the difference of each score between the patients and healthy subjects was larger for the Chinese subjects than for the Japanese. The physical, psychosocial activities, and pain scores increased significantly as COPD status worsened in Chinese subjects, whereas these scores were not affected by sex, age, or COPD status for Japanese subjects. Brinkman index and use of smoky fuel indoors affected the COOP/WONCA scores in Chinese patients but not in Japanese patients. Conclusions The Japanese COOP/WONCA charts are reliable and valid. COPD more severely affected the health status of Chinese participants than of Japanese participants. These results suggest that countermeasures against insufficient health care and smoky environments may improve the health status of Chinese patients with COPD. PMID:23945173

  12. Relationship between plasma dabigatran concentration and activated partial thromboplastin time in Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, Daiki; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Kondo, Hirokazu; Tamura, Toshihiro; Amano, Masashi; Hayama, Yukiko; Onishi, Naoaki; Tamaki, Yodo; Miyake, Makoto; Kaitani, Kazuaki; Izumi, Chisato; Hayashida, Masahiko; Fukuda, Aya; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Kawano, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Background Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is recommended for monitoring anticoagulant activity in dabigatran-treated patients; however, there are limited data in Japanese patients. To clarify the relationship between plasma dabigatran concentration and aPTT, we analyzed plasma dabigatran concentration and aPTT at various time points following administration of oral dabigatran in a Japanese hospital. Methods We enrolled 149 patients (316 blood samples) with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) who were taking dabigatran. Patients had a mean age of 66.6±10.0 years (range: 35–84) and 66% were men. Plasma dabigatran concentrations and aPTT were measured using the Hemoclot® direct thrombin inhibitor assay and Thrombocheck aPTT-SLA®, respectively. Samples were classified into eight groups according to elapsed times in hours since oral administration of dabigatran. Results Significantly higher dabigatran concentrations were observed in samples obtained from patients with low creatinine clearance (CLCr) (CLCr<50 mL/min). Dabigatran concentrations and aPTT were highest in the 4-h post-administration range. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between plasma dabigatran concentrations and aPTT (y=0.063x+32.596, r2=0.648, p<0.001). However, when plasma dabigatran concentrations were 200 ng/mL or higher, the correlation was lower (y=0.040x+38.034 and r2=0.180); these results were evaluated by a quadratic curve, resulting in an increased correlation (r2=0.668). Conclusions There was a significant correlation between plasma dabigatran concentrations and aPTT. Additionally, in daily clinical practice in Japan, plasma dabigatran concentrations and aPTT reached a peak in the 4-h post administration range. Considering the pharmacokinetics of dabigatran, aPTT can be used as an index for risk screening for excess dabigatran concentrations in Japanese patients with NVAF. PMID:26336557

  13. Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Neuropathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes without Retinopathy or Microalbuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes W. S.; Alam, Uazman; Fadavi, Hassan; Marshall, Andrew; Asghar, Omar; Efron, Nathan; Tavakoli, Mitra; Malik, Rayaz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Corneal innervation is increasingly used as a surrogate marker of human diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) however its temporal relationship with the other microvascular complications of diabetes is not fully established. In this cross-sectional, observational study we aimed to assess whether neuropathy occurred in patients with type 1 diabetes, without retinopathy or microalbuminuria. Materials and Methods All participants underwent detailed assessment of peripheral neuropathy [neuropathy disability score (NDS), vibration perception threshold (VPT), peroneal motor nerve conduction velocity (PMNCV), sural sensory nerve conduction velocity (SSNCV) and in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCCM)], retinopathy (digital fundus photography) and albuminuria status [albumin: creatinine ratio (ACR)]. Results 53 patients with Type 1 diabetes with (n=37) and without retinopathy (n=16) were compared to control subjects (n=27). SSNCV, corneal nerve fibre (CNFD) and branch (CNBD) density and length (CNFL) were reduced significantly (p<0.001) in diabetic patients without retinopathy compared to control subjects. Furthermore, CNFD, CNBD and CNFL were also significantly (p<0.001) reduced in diabetic patients without microalbuminuria (n=39), compared to control subjects. Greater neuropathic severity was associated with established retinopathy and microalbuminuria. Conclusions IVCCM detects early small fibre damage in the absence of retinopathy or microalbuminuria in patients with Type 1 diabetes. PMID:25853247

  14. Treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Michael; Cunha-Vaz, José

    2008-01-01

    The number of patients with type 2 diabetes continues to rise; an anticipated 300 million people will be affected by 2025. The immense social and economic burden of the condition is exacerbated by the initial asymptomatic nature of type 2 diabetes, resulting in a high prevalence of micro-and macrovascular complications at presentation. Diabetic retinopathy, one of the potential microvascular complications associated with diabetes, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are the two most frequent retinal degenerative diseases, and are responsible for the majority of blindness due to retinal disease. Both conditions predominantly affect the central macula, and are associated with the presence of retinal edema and an aggressive inflammatory repair process that accelerates disease progression. The associated retinal edema and the inflammatory repair process are directly involved in the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Yet, the underlying alterations to the BRB caused by the diseases are very different. The coexistence of the two conditions appears to be relatively uncommon, suggesting that diabetes may even protect patients from developing neovascular AMD. However, it is thought that the inflammatory repair responses associated with diabetic retinopathy and neovascular AMD may be cumulative and, in patients affected by both, could result in chronic diffuse cystoid edema. Treatment considerations in such patients should, therefore, include the role of retinal edema and the increased susceptibility of patients with diabetes to potential systemic side effects associated with agents administered repeatedly for neovascular AMD treatment. PMID:19668728

  15. Non-adherence to life-style modification and its factors among type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Mumu, Shirin Jahan; Saleh, Farzana; Ara, Ferdous; Afnan, Fadia; Ali, Liaquat

    2014-01-01

    Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years), diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care centers operated by the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: Diet (88%), exercise (25%), routine blood glucose testing (32%), foot care (70%), smoking (6%) and betel quid chewing habit (25%). Binary logistic regression suggests that higher education group (P = 0.013), rural area (P = 0.013) and attendance to diabetes education classes (P = 0.043) showed good adherence to diet and non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.014), older age (P = 0.037) are associated to non-adherence to exercise. Unemployed patients showed more non-adherence to blood glucose testing (P = 0.045) than others. Non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.037) and business occupation group (P = 0.039) showed significant association to smoking and betel quid intake habit respectively. PMID:24748356

  16. Association between Albuminuria and Different Body Constitution in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Taichung Diabetic Body Constitution Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Li, Tsai-Chung; Tsai, Chia-I; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Hsin-Jung; Wu, Ya-Chi; Su, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Albuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients increases the risk of diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Because albuminuria is modifiable, identifying relevant risk factors could facilitate prevention and/or management. This cross-sectional study investigated whether body constitution (BC) independently predicts albuminuria. Method. Patients with T2DM (n = 846) received urinalysis, a blood test, and diabetic retinopathy examination. Albuminuria was defined by an elevated urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (?30??g/mg). BC type (Yang deficiency, Yin deficiency, and Phlegm stasis) was assessed using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ). Traditional risk factors for albuminuria were also recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) of albuminuria for BC were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Results. Albuminuria was more prevalent in patients with Yang deficiency or Phlegm stasis (both P < 0.01). After adjustment, patients with both Yang deficiency and Phlegm stasis exhibited a significantly higher risk of albuminuria (OR = 3.037; 95% confidence interval = 1.572–5.867, and P < 0.001). Conclusion. BC is strongly associated with albuminuria in T2DM patients. Using a BCQ to assess BC is noninvasive, convenient, and inexpensive and can provide information for health care professionals to identify T2DM patients who are at a high risk of albuminuria. PMID:26587046

  17. Yang Deficiency Body Constitution Acts as a Predictor of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Taichung Diabetic Body Constitution Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Li, Tsai-Chung; Tsai, Chia-I; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Hsin-Jung; Wu, Ya-Chi; Su, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), can cause severe visual impairment and blindness. To prevent the development of DR, identifying the associated risk factors for patient classification is critical. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine whether body constitution (BC) is an independent predictor of DR. Method. 673 type 2 DM (T2DM) patients were recruited from a medical center, all received DR examination and body constitution questionnaire to assess BC. Other risk factors for DR were also recorded, including life style, history of diabetes, and blood pressure, etc. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) for DR. Results. The prevalence of DR was significantly lower in Yang deficiency patients compared with non-Yang deficiency patients (24.69% versus 38.18% P = 0.02). After adjusting for other risk factors, we observed that patients exhibiting Yang deficiency BC were less likely to present with DR (OR = 0.531; 95% confidence interval = 0.312–0.903, P = 0.018). Conclusion. In addition to traditional risk factors, Yang deficiency BC might be an independent predictor of DR among T2DM patients and the results can be used as evidence for traditional Chinese medicine patient classification. PMID:26167195

  18. Nodular glomerulosclerosis in a non-diabetic patient: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, Sankar D; Singh, Sonal; Choudhry, Wajid

    2005-01-01

    We report a unusual case of idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis mimicking changes that develop in diabetic nephropathy. A 66-year-old non-diabetic female developed nephrotic range proteinuria and the work up was unremarkable. Light and electron microscopy showed mesangial expansion with Kimmelsteil-Wilson nodules and diffuse glomerular basement membrane thickening without any electron dense deposits. Diabetes mellitus was excluded by repeated clinical and laboratory investigations. Forty two similar cases have been reported. Exact etiology for the development of non-diabetic glomerulosclerosis is unclear. But, hypertension, smoking, obesity, intermittent hyperglycemia predating the diagnosis of diabetes possibly explain the development of nodular glomerulosclerosis in these patients. Long-term follow-up to screen for the delayed onset of diabetes or its complications may be worthwhile. PMID:16299690

  19. Long-term experiences with a computerized diabetes management and glucose monitoring system in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Meyerhoff, C; Bischof, F; Pfeiffer, E F

    1994-05-01

    Only a minority of patients use diabetes management systems. In our study, 24 patients were given a memory based blood glucometer (ROMEO, Diva Medical Systems), which additionally allowed the input of insulin doses, food intake and exercise for up to four years. Eight patients returned ROMEO within one month (group I), 8 used the system as long it was available as a loan (group II) and 8 patients bought the system (group III). The patients of group III had a significantly better diabetic control (HbA1 = 7.8% +/- 0.7 (S.D.) vs. 11.7 +/- 3.6 (group I) and 10.7 +/- 2.6 (group II)) and were more reliable in their input of the data. After 3 years, however, only five patients of group III continued to use the system, but as a glucose meter only. One patient used the options of the system. These data show that glycemic control is not a question of the equipment. After a certain period, even the well-motivated patients do not use the system options routinely. Obviously, the advantages of the system are only used by a minority of patients characterized by good metabolic control and good compliance, and even these patients do not persistingly use all the options of the system after a certain period of time. PMID:7924881

  20. Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Pre-Diabetic Japanese Individuals Categorized by HbA1c Levels: A Historical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Tetsuya; Imawatari, Ryuichiro; Kawahara, Chie; Inazu, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Reported incidence of type 2 diabetes estimated at the pre-diabetic stage differs widely (2.3–18.1% per year). Because clinicians need to know the risk of incident diabetes after a diagnosis of pre-diabetes, our objective was to estimate precise incidence of diabetes using baseline HbA1c levels. Methods A historical cohort study using electronic medical record data obtained between January 2008 and December 2013. A total of 52,781 individuals with HbA1c < 6.5% were assigned to one of six groups categorized by baseline HbA1c level: ? 5.5% (n=34,616), 5.6–5.7% (n=9,388), 5.8–5.9% (n=4,664), 6.0–6.1% (n= 2,338), 6.2–6.3% (n=1,257), and 6.4% (n=518). Participants were tracked until a subsequent diagnosis of diabetes or end of follow-up during a period of 5 years. Results During the follow-up period (mean 3.7 years), 4,369 participants developed diabetes. The incidence of diabetes in the first year was 0.7, 1.5, 2.9, 9.2, 30.4, and 44.0% in the six HbA1c groups, respectively. At five years the incidence was 3.6, 8.9, 13.8, 27.5, 51.6, and 67.8%, respectively (p < 0.0001 comparing the HbA1c ?5.5% group to the other groups). After adjustment for confounding factors, the hazard ratios compared with the HbA1c ?5.5% group were significantly elevated: 2.3 (95%CI 2.0–2.5), 3.4 (95%CI 2.9–3.7), 8.8 (95%CI 8.0–10.1), 26.3 (95%CI 23.3–30.1), and 48.7 (95%CI 40.8–58.1) in the five HbA1c groups (p < 0.0001). Conclusion By fractionating baseline HbA1c levels into narrower HbA1c range groups, accuracy of estimating the incidence of type 2 diabetes in subsequent years was increased. The risk of developing diabetes increased with increasing HbA1c levels, especially with the HbA1c level ? 6.2% in the first follow-up year. PMID:25853519

  1. [The use of negative pressure wound therapy in patients with infectious surgical complications of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Zavatski?, V V; Novitski?, A S

    2014-01-01

    In the Russian Federation diabetes affects about 11 million people. The frequency of amputation in patients with diabetes in Russia varies from 0.76 to 18.2 per 1.000 patients. From 48.9% to 60% are large amputation in which postoperative mortality reaches 50% and more. Up to half of all patients with diabetes have the defeat of major vessels of lower extremities with the formation of ischemic and neuroischemic forms of the diabetic foot syndrome. These patients are the most difficult and to save limbs need for revascularization. However, the existing algorithms of treatment of such patients do not take into account possible combination of such important pathogenetic factors, as ischemia, the prevalence of purulent-necrotic lesion of the tissues of the foot and the severity of clinical course of surgical infection. Also still not finally defined the sequence of execution of revascularization and rehabilitation of necrotic tissue, there are no indications for the use of new effective methods of treatment and rehabilitation of wounds in patients with diabetic foot. From the above, pathogenetic factors, the authors have developed a personalized Protocol of treatment of patients with ischemic and neuroischemic forms of the diabetic foot, the indications and conditions for holding therapy negative pressure. Efficiency of the proposed Protocol is accompanied by clinical examples. PMID:25484158

  2. Intentional hypoglycemia to control bingeing in a patient with type 1 diabetes and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Mandana; Kreisman, Stuart; Hall, Lacresha

    2015-02-01

    Most cases of eating disorders associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus are categorized as diabulimia, a disorder of withholding insulin treatment to lose weight through sustained hyperglycemia. In this paper, we report a unique case of a patient with both type 1 diabetes and bulimia nervosa who has an atypical way of controlling her bingeing by keeping her blood sugars low. This pattern of intentionally sustained hypoglycemia has not been previously described in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Knowing various presentations of eating disorders in patients with type 1 diabetes can provide healthcare workers with enhanced ability in recognizing and educating at-risk patients, in the hope of preventing serious hypoglycemia or complications. Furthermore, a patient's awareness of complications associated with suboptimal control of diabetes, whether by overdosing or underdosing their insulin regimen, might lead to avoidance of disordered eating behaviours. PMID:25282003

  3. Molecular cloning of the human hepatitis C virus genome from Japanese patients with non-A, non-B hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Nobuyuki; Hijikata, Makoto; Ootsuyama, Yuko; Nakagawa, Masanori; Ohkoshi, Showgo; Sugimura, Takashi; Shimotohno, Kunitada )

    1990-12-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Japanese type of hepatitis C virus (HCV-J) genome, consisting of 9413 nucleotides, was determined by analyses of cDNA clones from plasma specimens from Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis. HCV-J genome contains a long open reading frame that can encode a sequence of 3010 amino acid residues. Comparison of HCV-J with the American isolate of HCV showed 22.6% difference in nucleotide sequence and 15.1% difference in amino acid sequence. Thus HCV-J and the American isolate of HCV are probably different subtypes of HCV. The relationship of HCV-J with other animal RNA virus families and the putative organization of the HCV-J genome are discussed.

  4. Knowledge about diabetes and relationship between compliance to the management among the diabetic patients from Rural Area of Sangli District, Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Girish M.; Waghachavare, Vivek B.; Gore, Alka D.; Chavan, Vishwajeet M.; Dhobale, Randhir V.; Dhumale, Girish B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is an important public health problem of India. Studies have shown that increase in patients’ knowledge regarding the disease results in better compliance to treatment and decrease in complications. This study was planned to assess the knowledge about diabetes and its correlation with pharmacological and non-pharmacological compliance, among the diabetic patients attending rural health center from Sangli District, Maharashtra (India). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted during September to November 2014. The study subjects were all willing adult patients with type II diabetes mellitus attending a selected rural hospital. The study tool was pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Analysis was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS-22. Results: Total study participants were 307 in number, with the mean age of 55.6 years. The mean morbidity with diabetes was 10.7 years. Only 23.8% had good knowledge regarding diabetes, while 19.2% participants had poor knowledge. Knowledge was significantly associated with the compliance to the pharmacological and non-pharmacological management. Conclusion: Although most of the patients were suffering with diabetes for many years there is lack of knowledge regarding the disease and self care. The compliance to the management of diabetes was better in patients with good knowledge. Seminars, counseling sessions and workshop should be arranged periodically for diabetic patients to increase their awareness. PMID:26288789

  5. Characterization of diabetes risk factors in patients prescribed chronic statin therapy

    PubMed Central

    King, William M.; Saseen, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Determine the incidence of major diabetes risk factors over time in patients prescribed chronic statin therapy. Methods: Retrospective observational chart review of adult patients without diabetes in primary care who initiated statin therapy between 2005 and 2010. Presence of diabetes risk factors were determined 1 year prior to statin initiation and continued up to a maximum of 7 years. Diabetes risk factors included impaired fasting glucose, body mass index (BMI) ?30 kg/m2, hemoglobin A1c >6% and metabolic syndrome. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the incidence of diabetes risk factors over time. Results: A total of 98 patients met study criteria; mean age was 57 ± 13 years, 43% were men and 71% self-identified as Caucasian/white. Mean baseline values were A1c of 5.97%, fasting glucose of 104 mg/dl and BMI of 28 kg/m2. There were zero diabetes risk factors over time in 54% ± 7% of patients. The incidence over time of 1 risk factor was 25 ± 9%, 2 risk factors was 17 ± 5% and 3 risk factors was 3 ± 2%. A total of 12 patients were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes during the course of the study period. Conclusion: The incidence of diabetes risk factors did not change over time in an ambulatory adult population prescribed chronic statin therapy. Larger population studies assessing the incidence of and change in diabetes risk factors in patients on chronic statin therapy may help assess the association between statin therapy and presence of such risk factors. PMID:25177478

  6. Determinants of dietary self-care behaviours among Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Chung-Mei; Dwyer, Johanna T; Jacques, Paul F; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Haas, Catherine F; Weinger, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The effects of patient characteristics on reported adherence to dietary self-care behaviours in 184 Taiwanese outpatients 40 years or older with type 2 diabetes was assessed. Patient characteristics included the presence of predisposing factors affecting diabetes adherence (knowledge and attitudes about the disease, self-efficacy, and the absence of psychological problems), enabling factors (understanding of diabetes and environmental factors affecting it), and reinforcing factors (presence of medical and social support) which were evaluated using a 72 item self-administered questionnaire with 8 subscales. Adherence was assessed by patients' reports of carrying out 7 self-care behaviours (following a diabetic meal plan, following the diabetes exchange system, eating meals providing the same amount of carbohydrate every day, counting carbohydrates, reducing dietary fat, consuming high fiber foods, and keeping a daily food record). Reported adherence ranged from 17% to 74%. No single predisposing, enabling, or reinforcing factor predicted adherence to all of the dietary self-care behaviours. However, more self-efficacy, better understanding, and a better attitude toward diabetes were associated with performing five or more of the dietary self-care behaviours examined. With respect to specific self-care behaviours, women were more likely than men to count carbohydrates (OR=5.75) and reduce fat in their diets (OR=2.57). Patients who attended more nutrition education sessions were more likely to follow diabetes meal plans (OR=2.11) and the diabetes exchange system (OR=3.07). Efforts are needed to encourage providers to teach diabetes self-care behaviours to patients and to capitalize upon demographic and psychosocial characteristics that can enhance patient adherence. PMID:26420183

  7. The Impact of Diabetes on the Outcomes of Surgical and Nonsurgical Treatment of Patients in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Mitchell K.; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Blood, Emily A.; Zhao, Wenyan; Albert, Todd J.; Vacarro, Alexander; Oleson, Christina V.; Morgan, Tamara S.; Weinstein, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A secondary analysis comparing diabetic patients with nondiabetic patients enrolled in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). Objective To compare surgical outcomes and complications between diabetic and nondiabetic spine patients. Summary of Background Data Patients with diabetes are predisposed to comorbidities that may confound the diagnosis and treatment of patients with spinal disorders. Methods Baseline characteristics and outcomes of 199 patients with diabetes were compared with those of the nondiabetic population in a total of 2405 patients enrolled in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial for the diagnoses of intervertebral disc herniation (IDH), spinal stenosis (SpS), and degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Primary outcome measures include the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) Health Status questionnaire and the Oswestry Disability Index. Results Patients with diabetes were significantly older and had a higher body mass index than nondiabetic patients. Comorbidities, including hypertension, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and joint disease, were significantly more frequent in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic patients. Patients with diabetes and IDH did not make significant gains in pain and function with surgical intervention relative to diabetic patients who underwent nonoperative treatment. Diabetic patients with SpS and DS experienced significantly greater improvements in pain and function with surgical intervention when compared with nonoperative treatment. Among those who had surgery, nondiabetic patients with SpS achieved marginally significantly greater gains in function than their diabetic counterparts (SF-36 physical function, P = 0.062). Among patients who had surgery for DS, diabetic patients did not have as much improvement in pain or function as did the nondiabetic population (SF-36 bodily pain, P = 0.003; physical function, P = 0.002). Postoperative complications were more prevalent in patients with diabetes than in nondiabetic patients with SpS (P = 0.002). There was an increase in postoperative (P = 0.028) and intraoperative (P = 0.029) blood replacement in DS patients with diabetes. Conclusion Diabetic patients with SpS and DS benefited from surgery, though older SpS patients with diabetes have more postoperative complications. IDH patients with diabetes did not benefit from surgical intervention. PMID:21270715

  8. Exploring the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on diabetes control in diabetes patients: a prospective observational study in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Luijks, Hilde D; de Grauw, Wim JC; Bor, Jacobus HJ; van Weel, Chris; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine LM; Biermans, Marion CJ; Schermer, Tjard R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the association between COPD and diabetes control parameters. Aims: To explore the association between comorbid COPD and longitudinal glycaemic control (HbA1C) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in a primary care cohort of diabetes patients. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of type 2 diabetes patients in the Netherlands. In a mixed model analysis, we tested differences in the 5-year longitudinal development of HbA1C and SBP according to COPD comorbidity (present/absent). We corrected for relevant covariates. In subgroup effect analyses, we tested whether potential differences between diabetes patients with/without COPD were modified by age, sex, socio-economic status (SES) and body mass index (BMI). Results: We analysed 610 diabetes patients. A total of 63 patients (10.3%) had comorbid COPD. The presence of COPD was not significantly associated with the longitudinal development of HbA1C (P=0.54) or SBP (P=0.33), but subgroup effect analyses showed significant effect modification by SES (P<0.01) and BMI (P=0.03) on SBP. Diabetes patients without COPD had a flat SBP trend over time, with higher values in patients with a high BMI. For diabetes patients with COPD, SBP gradually increased over time in the middle- and high-SES groups, and it decreased over time in those in the low-SES group. Conclusions: The longitudinal development of HbA1C was not significantly associated with comorbid COPD in diabetes patients. The course of SBP in diabetes patients with COPD is significantly associated with SES (not BMI) in contrast to those without COPD. Comorbid COPD was associated with longitudinal diabetes control parameters, but it has complex interactions with other patient characteristics. Further research is needed. PMID:25906025

  9. Diabetes and the patient-centered medical home.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Teresa L

    2013-01-01

    Should you choose to adopt the PCMH, you need to recognize that there will be early adopters and there will be skeptics and it will most likely require a culture change for your organization. Starting small with a targeted population, such as diabetes, is helpful in allowing everyone an opportunity to test this change before implementing it with all patients. You will likely struggle with IT and you can expect confusion as to how the PCMH and care coordination fit with the day-to-day work flow. And, everyone will struggle with staff turnover at some point. This will make it especially necessary to maintain organizational memory of the process. In summary, the core concepts of the PCMH have demonstrated results. However, to get there, leadership support for not only the concept but also for the work is essential. Although the application and certification are important, the real results come from embedding the principles in your standard operating procedures. The PCMH becomes the way you do your work. PMID:23725236

  10. Molecular basis of carcinogenesis in diabetic patients (review).

    PubMed

    Matyszewski, Artur; Czarnecka, Anna M; Solarek, Wojciech; Korze?, Piotr; Safir, Ilan J; Kukwa, Wojciech; Szczylik, Cezary

    2015-04-01

    The most important molecular mechanisms promoting carcinogenesis in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) include oxidative stress, excessive generation of free radicals and nitrous oxide, damage to cellular membranes and DNA, overproduction of lactate, overabundance of protein glycosylation storage products, overexpression of pathological enzyme isoforms, and leakage of cytochromes from organelles. Additionally, dysfunctional signal transduction pathways, especially in pathways involving phosphoinositide 3?kinase (PI3K)/phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/Akt, RAS/Raf/ERK, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), have been implicated in malignant transformation and progression. Obesity and metabolic disorders, such as DM, may contribute to a dysfunctional immune system with a suppressed immune response by inducing a chronic inflammatory state, abnormal humoral and cellular mediated immunity, and lower counts and activity levels of natural killer (NK) cells and natural killer T cells (NKT cells). Recent advances in molecular biology will allow for better understanding of abnormal cellular pathways, as well as elucidating how metabolic disorders contribute to oncogenesis. Knowledge gained through these studies may lead to more efficacious oncologic therapies. PMID:25646857

  11. Acalculous pyelonephritis and cholecystitis occurring simultaneously in a diabetic patient on sitagliptin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Jayaprakash; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Vivekanandan, Muthupillai; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai

    2015-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new class of anti-diabetic drugs. They control both fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting degradation of incretin hormones, such as, glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Sitagliptin is the first DPP-4 inhibitor to be marketed in India. In addition to its glucose lowering effect, it also suppresses immunity resulting in various infections in a diabetes patient. Here, we describe the simultaneous development of two infections (acalculous pyelonephritis and cholecystitis) in a postmenopausal female patient, well-controlled on sitagliptin-based anti-diabetic therapy. PMID:26312005

  12. A personalized approach to deliver health care information to diabetic patients in community care clinics*†

    PubMed Central

    Koonce, Taneya Y.; Giuse, Nunzia B.; Kusnoor, Sheila V.; Hurley, Suzanne; Ye, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study’s purpose was to test the generalizability of an individualized information prescription model, which has been previously validated for educating patients about hypertension in emergency department and community health center settings. Study investigators assessed the effects of educational materials targeted to health literacy levels and learning styles on patientsdiabetes knowledge in a community clinic setting. Methods From May to August 2012, 160 patients were recruited and randomized into intervention (n?=?81) and control (n?=?79) groups. Inclusion criteria included 18 years or older, English or Spanish speaker, and a type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Measures included modified versions of the Diabetes Knowledge Test and Subjective Numeracy Scale, along with brief health literacy and learning style assessments. Study team members contacted both groups after 2 and 6 weeks to reassess diabetes knowledge. Results The control group showed no significant change in diabetes knowledge at both follow-ups. In contrast, the mean number of diabetes knowledge questions answered correctly by the intervention group increased significantly after 2 weeks (??=?2.66, P?=?0.000), which persisted at 6 weeks (??=?2.46, P?=?0.00). Conclusions This study showed that patients’ knowledge about diabetes increased significantly after exposure to educational materials targeted to their health literacy levels and learning style preferences and that the model is transferrable among health conditions. PMID:26213503

  13. Diabetes and Hypertension among Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment Since 1998 in Senegal: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Assane; Cournil, Amandine; Ba-Fall, Khadidiatou; Ngom-Guèye, Ndèye Fatou; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Ndiaye, Ibrahima; Batista, Gilbert; Guèye, Papa Mandoumbé; Bâ, Pape Samba; Taverne, Bernard; Delaporte, Eric; Sow, Papa Salif

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in people on antiretroviral treatment (ART) are poorly documented in resource-constrained settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 to assess prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in a sample of 242 HIV-infected patients who had initiated ART between 1998 and 2002 in Dakar, Senegal (ANRS 1215 observational cohort). World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were applied to diagnose diabetes and hypertension. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with diabetes and hypertension. Patients had a median age of 46 years and had received ART for a median duration of about 9 years. 14.5% had diabetes and 28.1% had hypertension. Long duration of ART (?119 months), older age, higher body mass index (BMI), and higher levels of total cholesterol were associated with higher risks of diabetes. Older age, higher BMI at ART initiation, and higher levels of triglycerides were associated with higher risk of hypertension. This study shows that diabetes and hypertension were frequent in these Senegalese HIV patients on ART. It confirms the association between duration of ART and diabetes and highlights the need to implement programs for prevention of cardiovascular risk factors in HIV patients from resource-constrained settings. PMID:24052880

  14. Health care services provided to type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A.; Al-Manaa, Hamad A.; Khoja, Tawfik A.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Aburisheh, Khaled H.; Youssef, Amira M.; Alotaibi, Metib S.; Al-Gamdi, Ali A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess health care services provided to type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and diabetes health care expenditure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This study was part of a nationwide, household, population based cross-sectional survey conducted at the University Diabetes Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2007 and December 2009 covering 13 administrative regions of the Kingdom. Using patients’ interview questionnaires, health care services data were collected by trained staff. Results: A total of 5,983 diabetic patients were chosen to assess health care services and expenditure. Approximately 92.2% of health services were governmental and the remaining 7.8% were in private services. The mean annual number of visits to physicians was 6.5±3.9 and laboratories was 5.1±3.9. Diabetic patients required one admission every 3 years with a mean admission duration of 13.3±28.3 days. General practitioners managed 85.9% of diabetic cases alone, or shared with internists and/or endocrinologists. Health care expenditure was governmental in 90% of cases, while it was personal in 7.7% or based on insurance payment in 2.3%. Conclusion: Health services and its expenditure provided to diabetic citizens in Saudi Arabia are mainly governmental. Empowerment of the role of both the private sector and health insurance system is badly needed, aside from implementing proper management guidelines to deliver good services at different levels. PMID:26446334

  15. Evaluation of the Role of Enteral Nutrition in Managing Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed. The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and globally partly due to lack of physical activities, poor dietary regimes and genetic susceptibility. The development of diabetes often leads to complications such as stroke, which may require enteral nutritional support. The provision of enteral feeds comes with its complications including hyperglycaemia which if not managed can have profound consequences for the patients in terms of clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to develop strategies for managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed with respect to the type and composition of the feed. This is a systematic review of published peer reviewed articles. EBSCOhost Research, PubMed and SwetsWise databases were searched. Reference lists of identified articles were reviewed. Randomised controlled trials comparing enteral nutrition diabetes specific formulas with standard formulas were included. The studies which compared diabetes specific formulas (DSF) with standard formulas showed that DSF was more effective in controlling glucose profiles including postprandial glucose, HbA1c and insulinemic response. The use of DSF appears to be effective in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed compared with standard feed. PMID:25412151

  16. Revisiting weight reduction and management in the diabetic patient: Novel therapies provide new strategies.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stanley; Herman, Mary

    2015-06-01

    Weight gain has been so synonymous with diabetes care that overweight/obesity is considered an intractable aspect of diabetes and its management. A healthy body mass index (BMI) is paramount, however, in preserving the cardiometabolic profile, slowing the course of the disease and extending the life expectancy of patients. It is also key to fostering a healthy and productive society at large. Two trends in care press us to challenge our assumptions about weight control in this population by reconsidering traditional approaches to the management of diabetes. First, new anti-diabetes drug classes have emerged that are more "weight-friendly" than previously available treatments and "gentler" on the faltering ? cell. Second, novel anti-obesity agents are proving efficacious in patients with diabetes. This paper presents the composite of newer and older anti-obesity and anti-diabetic drugs. It makes recommendations for anti-diabetic regimens and processes of care that engender weight loss, or neutralize or minimize weight gain, while getting many patients to their glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) goal. Anti-obesity agents that can be safely and effectively incorporated into these regimens for the patient needing supplemental support are reviewed in detail. PMID:25913393

  17. A cross-sectional survey to investigate the prevalence of pain in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Mukai, Tomohiko; Matsunaga, Shinji; Yasue, Ichiro; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Okochi, Tomo; Hirano, Shigeki; Kajio, Yusuke; Funahashi, Toshihiko; Akamatsu, Kaku; Ino, Kei; Okuda, Momoko; Tabuse, Hideaki; Iwata, Nakao

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of physical pain in Japanese major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SZ) patients as well as in healthy controls (HCs). We also examined the association between their psychopathology and characteristics of pain according to a face-to-face survey by an experienced psychiatrist and psychologist. We analyzed 233 HCs, 94 MDD patients, and 75 SZ patients using the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and SF-8 (all participants), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 21 items (MDD patients), and the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (SZ patients). Although MDD patients experienced more pain than HCs, there was no difference in the prevalence of pain between SZ patients and HCs. Moreover, HCs with pain did not have higher SF-8 total scores than those without pain, whereas both MDD and SZ patients with pain had higher SF-8 total scores than those without pain. The severity of psychopathology in MDD and SZ patients was also positively associated with both the prevalence of pain and MPQ scores. MPQ scores were also associated with positive symptoms in SZ patients. Considering these results, physicians need to query MDD patients about physical pain during examination if they are to ensure a favorable and quick response to treatment. The severity of positive symptoms (i.e., clinical status) in SZ patients might also be associated with pain sensitivity, and warrants further investigation. PMID:25724075

  18. Association of Body Mass Index and Mortality in Japanese Diabetic Men and Women Based on Self-Reports: The Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Yasuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality among Asian diabetic people, especially with respect to the obesity paradox (ie, higher BMI is associated with lower mortality risk), remains unresolved. Methods We followed a cohort of 3851 self-reported Japanese diabetics (2115 men and 1736 women) in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study from 1988–1990 through 2009. Individuals were aged 40 to 79 years and free from a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, renal disease, or tuberculosis. BMI was grouped into the following four categories: <20.0, 20.0–22.9, 23.0–24.9, and ?25.0 kg/m2. Results During 54 707 person-years of follow-up, 1457 deaths from all causes, 445 from cardiovascular disease, 421 from cancer, 43 from renal disease, and 148 from infectious disease were documented. Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and renal disease showed L-shaped associations with BMI. Compared to diabetics with BMI of 20.0–22.9 kg/m2, those with BMIs of 23.0–24.9 kg/m2 and ?25.0 kg/m2 had lower risks of mortality from infectious disease (ie, obesity paradox). The multivariable HRs for mortality from infectious disease were 0.50 (95% confidence interval, 0.31–0.81) and 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.32–0.82) among participants with BMIs of 23.0–24.9 kg/m2 and ?25.0 kg/m2, respectively. Similar results were observed after stratification by smoking status and age and exclusion of early deaths. Conclusions We observed L-shaped associations between BMI and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and renal disease, while the association between BMI and mortality from infectious disease manifested the obesity paradox. PMID:26250792

  19. [Guidelines for diabetic patients participating in Alpine sports].

    PubMed

    Berghold, F; Lässer, W

    1988-07-31

    The valuation of practicing alpine sport for diabetics has to be performed individually and depends always not only on the type of the alpinistic burden (kind and volume of the project) but also on the individual situation of metabolism and the according therapy. Under these conditions alpine sports can offer health-benefits to diabetics which without doubt overweight possible risks. PMID:3213061

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair Using the MitraClip® System in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Balzer, Jan; van Hall, Silke; Rammos, Christos; Wagstaff, Rabea; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes mellitus show a negative outcome in percutaneous coronary intervention, aortic valve replacement and cardiac surgery. The impact of diabetes on patients undergoing treatment of severe mitral regurgitation (MR) using the MitraClip system is not known. We therefore sought to assess whether percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system is safe and effective in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods and Results We included 58 patients with severe and moderate-to-severe MR in an open-label observational single-center study. Ninteen patients were under oral medication or insulin therapy for type II diabetes mellitus. MitraClip devices were successfully implanted in all patients with diabetes and in 97.4% (n?=?38) of patients without diabetes (p?=?0.672). Periprocedural major cardiac adverse and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) occurred in 5.1% (n?=?2) of patients without diabetes whereas patients with diabetes did not show any MACCE (p?=?0.448). 30-day mortality was 1.7% (n?=?1) with no case of death in the diabetes group. Short-term follow up of three months showed a significant improvement of NYHA class and quality of life evaluated by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire in both groups, with no changes in the 6-minute walk test. Conclusions Mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system is safe and effective in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Trial Registration MitraClip Registry NCT02033811 PMID:25375257

  1. Low-grade risk of hypercoagulable state in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2*

    PubMed Central

    Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara; Sokup, Alina; Wernik, Tomasz; Rhone, Piotr; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Bielawski, Kornel; Fija?kowska, Agata; Nowakowska, Aleksandra; Rhone, El?bieta; Ro??, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes, including type 1 and type 2, is associated with the hypercoagulable state. The aim of this study is to evaluate the concentration of selected hemostatic parameters and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in diabetic subjects. Methods: The study was conducted in 62 patients with diabetes. Group I consisted of 27 patients having uncontrolled diabetes with microalbuminuria and Group II included 35 well-controlled diabetic patients. The control group was made up of 25 healthy volunteers. In the citrate plasma, the concentrations of tissue factor (TF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complexes, and D-dimer were assayed. Serum concentrations of VEGF-A, lipid profile, creatinine, and plasma fasting glucose were measured and in the versene plasma the concentration of HbA1c was determined. Results: In the patients with uncontrolled diabetes, higher concentrations of TF, TFPI, and VEGF-A were observed, as compared with the well-controlled diabetics group and the control group. A significantly lower activity of antiplasmin was reported in patients from Group I as compared with the control group. In Group I, using the multivariate regression analysis, the glomerular filtration rate was independently associated with VEGF-A and dependently associated with total cholesterol. Conclusions: The study showed higher concentrations of TF and TFPI in the patients with uncontrolled diabetes with microalbuminuria, which is associated with rapid neutralization of the thrombin formation, since TFPI inhibits the complex of TF/VIIa/Ca2+. The manifestation of the above suggestions is the correct TAT complexes and D-dimer, which indicates a low grade of prothrombotic risk in this group of patients, but a higher risk of vascular complications. PMID:26365121

  2. Assessment of trace elements levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes using multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Badran, M; Morsy, R; Soliman, H; Elnimr, T

    2016-01-01

    The trace elements metabolism has been reported to possess specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of diabetes mellitus. Due to the continuous increase in the population of patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D), this study aims to assess the levels and inter-relationships of fast blood glucose (FBG) and serum trace elements in Type 2 diabetic patients. This study was conducted on 40 Egyptian Type 2 diabetic patients and 36 healthy volunteers (Hospital of Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt). The blood serum was digested and then used to determine the levels of 24 trace elements using an inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Multivariate statistical analysis depended on correlation coefficient, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to analysis the data. The results exhibited significant changes in FBG and eight of trace elements, Zn, Cu, Se, Fe, Mn, Cr, Mg, and As, levels in the blood serum of Type 2 diabetic patients relative to those of healthy controls. The statistical analyses using multivariate statistical techniques were obvious in the reduction of the experimental variables, and grouping the trace elements in patients into three clusters. The application of PCA revealed a distinct difference in associations of trace elements and their clustering patterns in control and patients group in particular for Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn that appeared to be the most crucial factors which related with Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, on the basis of this study, the contributors of trace elements content in Type 2 diabetic patients can be determine and specify with correlation relationship and multivariate statistical analysis, which confirm that the alteration of some essential trace metals may play a role in the development of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26653752

  3. Correlates of Self-Care in Low-Income African American and Latino Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Rosalba; Ruggiero, Laurie; Riley, Barth B.; Wang, Yamin; Chavez, Noel; Quinn, Lauretta T.; Gerber, Ben S.; Choi, Young-Ku

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine diabetes self-care (DSC) patterns in low-income African American and Latino patients with type 2 diabetes attending primary care clinics, and identify patient-related, biomedical/disease-related, and psychosocial correlates of DSC. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from African Americans and Latinos aged ?18 years with type 2 diabetes (n=250) participating in a diabetes self-management intervention at four primary care clinics. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities captured the subcomponents of healthy eating, physical activity, blood sugar testing, foot care and smoking. Correlates included patient-related attributes, biomedical/disease-related factors, and psychosocial constructs, with their multivariable influence assessed with a three-step model building procedure using regression techniques. Results Sample baseline characteristics were: Mean age of 53 years (SD=12.4); 69% female; 53% African American and 47% Hispanic; 74% with incomes below $20,000; and 60% with less than a high school education. DSC performance levels were highest for foot care (4.5/7 days) and lowest for physical activity (2.5/7 days). Across racial/ethnic subgroups, diabetes-related distress was the strongest correlate for diabetes self-care when measured as a composite score. Psychosocial factors (e.g., diabetes distress) accounted for 14–33% of variance in self-care areas for both racial/ethnic groups. Patient characteristics were more salient correlates in Hispanic/Latinos when examining the self-care subscales, particularly those requiring monetary resources (e.g., glucose monitoring). Conclusions Important information is provided on specific DSC patterns in a sample of ethnic/racial minorities with type 2 diabetes. Significant correlates found may help with identification and intervention of patients who may benefit from strategies aimed at increasing self-care adherence. PMID:24364373

  4. The Management of Diabetic Neuropathy in CKD and Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pop-Busui, Rodica; Roberts, Laurel; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kretzler, Mathias; Brosius, Frank C.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Case Presentation A 64-year-old male with a 15-year history of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and a 10-year history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia had developed multiple diabetes-related complications within the last 5 years. He first developed albuminuria 5 years ago, and over the next several years experienced fairly rapid decline in kidney function, with eGFR of 55 mL/min/1.73m2 noted 2 years ago. He was diagnosed with proliferative retinopathy 5 years ago and underwent laser photocoagulation. Four years ago, he noted symptoms of peripheral neuropathy manifested as shooting pain and numbness with loss of light touch, thermal and vibratory sensation in a stocking distribution. Last year he developed a non-healing ulcer on the plantar aspect of his left foot which was complicated with gangrene and resulted in a below-the-knee amputation of the left leg one year ago. He now reports a new onset of weakness, lightheadedness and dizziness on standing that affects his daily activities. He reports lancinating pain in his right lower extremity, worse in the evening. Medications include: neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin twice daily and regular insulin on a sliding scale, metoprolol 50 mg/d, lisinopril 40 mg/d, atorvastatin 80 mg/d, furosemide 40 mg/d and aspirin 81 mg/d. Blood pressure is 127/69 mm Hg with a pulse rate of 96 bpm while supine and 94/50 mmHg with a pulse rate of 102 bpm while standing. Strength is normal but with a complete loss of all sensory modalities to the knee in his remaining limb and up to the wrists in both upper extremities, and he is areflexic. Today's laboratory evaluations show a serum creatinine of 2.8 mg/dl, an estimated GFR (eGFR) of 24 ml/min/1.73m2, a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 7.9 % and 2.1 g of urine protein per gram of creatinine. What would be the most appropriate management for this patient? PMID:20042258

  5. ACE gene polymorphism and serum ACE activity in Iranians type II diabetic patients with macroalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Felehgari, Vahid; Rahimi, Zohreh; Mozafari, Hadi; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad

    2011-01-01

    There are controversial results related to the contribution of insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) in the development of diabetic nephropathy. To assess the distribution of this polymorphism in diabetic patients with and without nephropathy we studied 140 unrelated type 2 diabetic patients from the Kermanshah Province of Iran with ethnic background of Kurds including 68 patients with macroalbuminuria and 72 normoalbuinuric diabetic patients as controls. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The frequency of D allele in nephropathic and normoalbuminuric patients were 69.1 and 58.3%, respectively (P = 0.061). In individuals with DD genotype the risk of macroalbuminuria increased 2.87-fold (P = 0.057). Significant lower level of serum ACE activity was found in the normoalbuminuric (59.76 IU/l) compared to macroalbuminuric (97.43 IU/l) patients. The serum ACE activity was significantly higher in macroalbuminuric patients with ID (105.7 IU/l) and ID + DD (100.7 IU/l) genotypes compared to normoalbuminuric patients with the same genotypes (63.5 and 64.2 IU/l, respectively). Treatment with captopril significantly (P = 0.045) reduced the serum ACE activity in normoalbuminuric patients with DD genotype compared to macroalbuminuric patients with the same genotype (33.6 vs. 73.8 IU/l). However, the greatest benefit effect of losartan therapy on ACE activity was observed only in macroalbuminuric patients with DD genotype compared to that in normoalbuminuric patients (61.0 vs. 109.0 IU/l, P = 0.06). Our study suggests the importance of ethnic origin in the development of diabetic nephropathy and demonstrates different responses to therapy according to genotype and stage of diabetes. PMID:20830509

  6. Promoting oral health practice among patients with diabetes attending primary health care clinics

    PubMed Central

    Aljaber, Abeer; Al-Surimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    The oral public health program for patients with diabetes was initiated by Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health (MoH) based on international quality standard to control the severity of oral disease in patients with diabetes through improving the accessibility of patients to dental clinics in primary health care centers (PHCC). This program intends to deliver oral health care (OHC) for each patient with diabetes at least one visit every six months. However, we found that more than 90% of patients with diabetes that visited prince Mohammed bin Saud PHCC in Riyadh do not get their regular dental check up every six months. We developed a quality improvement project (QIP) using the quality improvement model to activate MoH oral health program for patients with diabetes visiting prince Mohamed bin Saud PHCC. The aim of our QIP was to increase number of patients with diabetes receiving their regular oral health check up during the PHC visit. The quality team tested two simple improvement ideas. The first idea was having the dentist signature on appointment request. The testing of the first idea led to the second idea, that both physician and dentist should sign the referral form. After running several PDSA cycles to test these interventions ideas, we found the number of patients with diabetes seen in dental clinic had increased dramatically compared with the baseline assessment. We conclude that the idea of signing the referral form by both physician and dentist is a practical and simple strategy to be executed and has a direct impact on the patient clinical flow between clinics.

  7. Diabetes Mellitus Increases Severity of Thrombocytopenia in Dengue-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Lin, Kun-Der; Hsu, Wei-Hao; Lee, Yaun-Jinn; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is known to exacerbate bacterial infection, but its effect on the severity of viral infection has not been well studied. The severity of thrombocytopenia is an indicator of the severity of dengue virus infection. We investigated whether diabetes is associated with thrombocytopenia in dengue-infected patients. Methods: We studied clinical characteristics of 644 patients with dengue infection at a university hospital during the epidemic on 1 June 2002 to 31 December 2002 in Taiwan. Platelet counts and biochemical data were compared between patients with and without diabetes. Potential risk factors associated with thrombocytopenia were explored using regression analyses. Results: Dengue-infected patients with diabetes had lower platelet counts than patients without diabetes during the first three days (54.54 ± 51.69 vs. 86.58 ± 63.4 (p ? 0.001), 43.98 ± 44.09 vs. 64.52 ± 45.06 (p = 0.002), 43.86 ± 35.75 vs. 62.72 ± 51.2 (p = 0.012)). Diabetes mellitus, death, dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and increased glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels were significantly associated with lower platelet counts during the first day of hospitalization for dengue fever with regression ? of ?13.981 (95% confidence interval (CI) ?27.587, ?0.374), ?26.847 (95% CI ?37.562, ?16.132), and 0.054 (95% CI 0.015, 0.094) respectively. Older age, hypoalbuminemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were independently correlated with thrombocytopenia in dengue patients with or without diabetes with regression ? of ?2.947 (p = 0.004), 2.801 (p = 0.005), and ?3.568 (p ? 0.001), respectively. Diabetic patients with dengue had a higher rate of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome (DSS) than non-diabetic patients. They also had lower blood albumin, were older, and higher triglyceride levels. Older age, hypoalbuminemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were independently correlated with thrombocytopenia in dengue patients. Conclusions: Dengue patients with diabetes tended to have more severe thrombocytopenia and were more likely to have DHF/DSS. Older age, hypoalbuminemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were independently associated with more severe thrombocytopenia in dengue patients. PMID:25674854

  8. Evaluation of bone metabolism and bone mass in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Oz, S. Gul; Guven, Gulay Sain; Kilicarslan, Alpaslan; Calik, Nursel; Beyazit, Yavuz; Sozen, Tumay

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether type-2 diabetes was associated with a higher bone mineral density (BMD) in men and women and to evaluate the differences in mineral metabolism between diabetic and normal subjects by using biochemical bone turnover markers. In this study, 52 patients (37 females/15 males) aged 41-64 with type-2 diabetes mellitus and 48 nondiabetic control subjects (34 females/14 males) were evaluated. In men, BMD was significantly higher in diabetics at the forearm (p <0.05), whereas in women tended to be higher at the hip (p=0.002). Serum osteocalcin (p<0.0001), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) (p<0.05) and carboxyterminal telopeptide (CTx) (p<0.05) were higher in the control group than in diabetics. In men, serum osteocalcin (p<0.05) and CTx (p<0.005) and, in women, serum osteocalcin (p<0.0001) and BAP (p<0.05) were lower in diabetic subjects. In conclusion, our findings suggest that although bone formation is decreased in type-2 diabetes, diabetic patients are not susceptible to bone resorption. This low bone turnover can slow the rate of bone loss and cause a higher bone density than expected for their age. PMID:17052049

  9. Intensive lipid-lowering therapy for slowing progression as well as inducing regression of atherosclerosis in Japanese patients: subanalysis of the JART study.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Nohara, Ryuji; Daida, Hiroyuki; Hata, Mitsumasa; Kaku, Kohei; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Kishimoto, Junji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Masuda, Izuru; Sakuma, Ichiro; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a subanalysis of the JART Study comparing rosuvastatin and pravastatin treatment. A total of 314 subjects were analyzed in this subanalysis, 282 of whom were eligible for evaluation of the relationship between LDL-C and carotid mean-IMT change. In the subanalysis, we evaluated the extent to which intensive lipid-lowering therapy slowed the mean-IMT progression by a correlation analysis between LDL-C and mean-IMT change after 12 months of statin treatment. Nearly half were male (49.4%) and elderly (49.7%). The majority (84.4%) were treated for primary prevention. Patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus accounted for 65.3% and 44.0%, respectively. At the 12-month measurement point, mean-IMT change was correlated with LDL-C (R = 0.187; P = 0.0016), LDL-C/ HDL-C ratio (R = 0.152; P = 0.0105), and non-HDL-C (R = 0.132; P = 0.0259). Mean-IMT after 12 months was divided into 4 subgroups by LDL-C at 12 months; < 80, ? 80 to < 100, ? 100 to < 120, and ? 120 mg/dL. A trend analysis using the Jonckheere-Terpstra test showed statistical signifi cance (P = 0.0002). Even for prevention in Japanese patients who have lower risk of atherosclerotic disease than Western patients, lowering the LDL-C level to below the therapeutic target prevented mean-IMT progression after 12 months more strongly. These findings suggest that more intensive control of LDL-C to levels lower than those in current JAS guidelines should be required to achieve slowing of progression as well as induction of regression of atherosclerosis. PMID:23428922

  10. The Efficacy of Optimism: Benefit Finding in the Treatment of Diabetes in Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Namdar Areshtanab, Hossein; Jouybari, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus is on the rise around the world. Middle Eastern countries will be facing a vast increase in the number of diabetes mellitus cases by 2030. Diagnosis of a chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus can be a shocking and life-altering event. Conversely, a diagnosis of a chronic illness can also offer the patient opportunities to change unhealthy behaviors such as poor diet, smoking, and lack of exercise, making them healthier than before their diagnosis. This is referred to as “benefit finding”. This study reveals the many benefit findings of Iranian patients who have been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and illustrates how benefit finding can be an integral part of long-term patient care. PMID:25006496

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M.; Han, Seung Jin; Moon, Seung Hei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aims of this study were to perform a cultural translation of the DMSES and evaluate the psychometric properties of the translated scale in a Korean population with type 2 diabetics. Methods. This study was conducted in patients with diabetes recruited from university hospitals. The first stage of this study involved translating the DMSES into Korean using a forward- and backward-translation technique. The content validity was assessed by an expert group. In the second stage, the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the DMSES (K-DMSES) were evaluated. Results. The content validity of the K-DMSES was satisfactory. Sixteen-items clustered into four-subscales were extracted by exploratory factor analysis, and supported by confirmatory factor analysis. The construct validity of the K-DMSES with the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities scale was satisfactory (r = 0.50, P<0.001). The Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient were 0.92 and 0.85 (P<0.001; 95% CI = 0.75–0.91), respectively, which indicate excellent internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability. Conclusions. The K-DMSES is a brief instrument that has demonstrated good psychometric properties. It is therefore feasible to use in practice, and is ready for use in clinical research involving Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26089892

  12. Characterisation of novel RUNX2 mutation with alanine tract expansion from Japanese cleidocranial dysplasia patient.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Akio; Machida, Junichiro; Yamaguchi, Seishi; Kimura, Masashi; Tatematsu, Tadashi; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Nakayama, Atsuo; Higashi, Yujiro; Shimozato, Kazuo; Tokita, Yoshihito

    2016-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD; MIM 119600) is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia characterised by hypopalstic and/or aplastic clavicles, midface hypoplasia, absent or delayed closure of cranial sutures, moderately short stature, delayed eruption of permanent dentition and supernumerary teeth. The molecular pathogenesis can be explained in about two-thirds of CCD patients by haploinsufficiency of the RUNX2 gene. In our current study, we identified a novel and rare variant of the RUNX2 gene (c.181_189dupGCGGCGGCT) in a Japanese patient with phenotypic features of CCD. The insertion led an alanine tripeptide expansion (+3Ala) in the polyalanine tract. To date, a RUNX2 variant with alanine decapeptide expansion (+10Ala) is the only example of a causative variant of RUNX2 with polyalanine tract expansion to be reported, whilst RUNX2 (+1Ala) has been isolated from the healthy population. Thus, precise analyses of the RUNX2 (+3Ala) variant were needed to clarify whether the tripeptide expanded RUNX2 is a second disease-causing mutant with alanine tract expansion. We therefore investigated the biochemical properties of the mutant RUNX2 (+3Ala), which contains 20 alanine residues in the polyalanine tract. When transfected in COS7 cells, RUNX2 (+3Ala) formed intracellular ubiquitinated aggregates after 24h, and exerted a dominant negative effect in vitro. At 24h after gene transfection, whereas slight reduction was observed in RUNX2 (+10Ala), all of these mutants significantly activated osteoblast-specific element-2, a cis-acting sequence in the promoter of the RUNX2 target gene osteocalcin. The aggregation growth of RUNX2 (+3Ala) was clearly lower and slower than that of RUNX2 (+10Ala). Furthermore, we investigated several other RUNX2 variants with various alanine tract lengths, and found that the threshold for aggregation may be RUNX2 (+3Ala). We conclude that RUNX2 (+3Ala) is the cause of CCD in our current case, and that the accumulation of intracellular aggregates in vitro is related to the length of the alanine tract. PMID:26220009

  13. The prevalence of macrovascular disease and lipid abnormalities amongst diabetic patients in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, D. J.; Siribaddana, S.; Perera, N.; Perera, S.; de Silva, D.

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of macrovascular disease and hyperlipidaemia was examined in 500 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus attending a diabetic clinic in a Sri Lankan teaching hospital and 250 controls matched for age and gender. Macrovascular disease was assessed using a modified World Health Organisation questionnaire and modified Minnesota coding of electrocardiogram recordings. Twenty-one per cent of diabetic patients and 14.3% of controls had hypercholesterolaemia (P < 0.05). Macrovascular disease was present in 13.4% of diabetic patients and 8.2% of controls. Significant differences were seen in the prevalence of hypertension (15.6% vs 4.8%, P < 0.05), obesity (16.2% vs 9.7%, P < 0.05), peripheral vascular disease (5.6% vs 2%, P < 0.05) and electrocardiographic abnormalities (12% vs 6%, P < 0.05) in diabetic patients when compared to controls. Hyperlipidaemia and macrovascular disease is common in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients in Sri Lanka and accounts for significant morbidity. PMID:8415344

  14. Prevalence of pathogenic fungi in the toe-webs and toe-nails of diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Alteras, I; Saryt, E

    1979-07-16

    100 diabetic and 100 diabetes-free patients were mycologically examined for the presence of pathogenic fungi in their toe-webs and toe-nails. While there were clinical signs of presumed mycotic infection in 73 of the diabetic and in 66 of the non-diabetic subjects, the examination of the KOH-treated specimens revealed fungal elements in only 70 of the former and in 53 of the latter group. Isolation of the causative agent was possible in 57 of the diabetic patients (T. rubrum in 46%, C. albicans in 31%, T. mentagrophytes in 21% and E. floccosum in 3%) and in 40 of the control group (T. rubrum 57,5%, T. mentagrophytes 35%, C. albicans 5%, E. floccosum 2,5%). An interesting correlation was observed between the level of blood sugar and the percentage of positive fungal findings, the patients with more than 3000 mg/ml being 100% afected. C. albicans was found in a lower percentage in non-diabetic patients. The in vitro test of the sensitivity of the isolated organisms to the antidiabetic drugs, received by the patients, showed no significant anti-fungal activity. PMID:384255

  15. Prevalence of peripheral neuropathy and painful peripheral neuropathy in Turkish diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Erbas, Tomris; Ertas, Mustafa; Yucel, Aysen; Keskinaslan, Abdulkadir; Senocak, Mustafa

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and neuropathic pain in diabetic patients attending university outpatient clinics in Turkey. In this multicenter cross-sectional study, neurologic examinations and nerve conduction studies along with clinical diabetic neuropathy score, and Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale were performed on 1,113 patients (46.2% male) from 14 centers. Prevalence of DPN determined only by clinical examination was 40.4% and increased to 62.2%, by combining nerve conduction studies with clinical examination. According to Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs scores, neuropathic pain prevalence was 16.0% in those who reported pain. Poor glycemic control, retinopathy, microalbuminuria, hyperlipidemia, diabetic foot, and foot amputation were more commonly observed in patients with DPN. Clinical DPN affected 40.4% of diabetic patients, and neuropathic pain prevalence in diabetic patient population was 14.0%. Clinical examinations and nerve conduction studies are important components for early detection and accurate diagnosis of DPN and painful DPN. PMID:21221008

  16. Elevated serum growth hormone in a patient with Type 1 diabetes: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, O M; Perros, P

    2000-01-01

    The biochemical confirmation of acromegaly is rarely difficult and is based on an elevated fasting serum growth hormone (GH) concentration, which fails to suppress in response to an oral glucose load. Impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes are common in patients with acromegaly, however the development of acromegaly in a patient with pre-existing Type 1 diabetes has not been well documented. Poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes in non-acromegalic patients is associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-GH/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, leading to elevation of serum GH concentrations. Therefore the diagnosis of acromegaly in a Type 1 diabetic patient may be fraught with practical difficulties in performing and interpreting the results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and other biochemical investigations. When, in addition, the clinical and radiological features of acromegaly are equivocal, the clinician is faced with a formidable diagnostic challenge. In this paper we report such a case, review the pathophysiology of hypersomatotrophinaemia in poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes, and recommend a diagnostic algorithm for the investigation of acromegaly in patients with diabetes. PMID:10867721

  17. Telomere mean length in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rupali; Gupta, Amod; Thungapathra, M; Bansal, Reema

    2015-01-01

    Telomere regression has been shown to be associated with several complex disorders like diabetes mellitus, cancer, cataract etc. Diabetic retinopathy develops as a complication of chronic hyperglycemia leading to increased oxidative stress that may potentially lead to shortening of telomeres. We sought to determine whether there is any association between telomere mean length (TML) of peripheral blood monocytes with the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy. The study involved 120 subjects, comprising 27 non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) without any diabetic retinopathy (NDR), 45 NIDDM subjects with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 12 NIDDM subjects with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and 36 healthy controls. Determination of TML of the study subjects was performed by Southern hybridization using telomere probe. Among the biochemical parameters, HBA1c showed a negative correlation with shortened telomeres in the PDR subjects. However, telomere length was positively correlated with high density lipo protein (HDL) in the control subjects. The control group had significantly greater TML as compared to the rest of the groups and the NDR subjects with NPDR and PDR had substantially decreased TML than the NIDDM subjects without retinopathy. PMID:26670612

  18. Telomere mean length in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rupali; Gupta, Amod; Thungapathra, M.; Bansal, Reema

    2015-01-01

    Telomere regression has been shown to be associated with several complex disorders like diabetes mellitus, cancer, cataract etc. Diabetic retinopathy develops as a complication of chronic hyperglycemia leading to increased oxidative stress that may potentially lead to shortening of telomeres. We sought to determine whether there is any association between telomere mean length (TML) of peripheral blood monocytes with the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy. The study involved 120 subjects, comprising 27 non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) without any diabetic retinopathy (NDR), 45 NIDDM subjects with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 12 NIDDM subjects with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and 36 healthy controls. Determination of TML of the study subjects was performed by Southern hybridization using telomere probe. Among the biochemical parameters, HBA1c showed a negative correlation with shortened telomeres in the PDR subjects. However, telomere length was positively correlated with high density lipo protein (HDL) in the control subjects. The control group had significantly greater TML as compared to the rest of the groups and the NDR subjects with NPDR and PDR had substantially decreased TML than the NIDDM subjects without retinopathy. PMID:26670612

  19. Identification and Clinical Characterization of Adult Patients with Multigenerational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ludovico, Ornella; Carella, Massimo; Bisceglia, Luigi; Basile, Giorgio; Mastroianno, Sandra; Palena, Antonio; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Copetti, Massimiliano; Prudente, Sabrina; Trischitta, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Background Some patients diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are, instead, affected by multigenerational diabetes whose clinical characteristics are mostly undefined. Objective 1. To identify among patients who had been previously defined as affected by T2DM those, in fact, affected by multigenerational diabetes; 2. After excluding patients carrying the most common MODY genes and mitochondrial mutations, we compared clinical features of remaining patients with those of patients with T2DM. Methods Among 2,583 consecutive adult patients who had been defined as affected by T2DM, we looked for those with diabetes in ?3 consecutive generations. All probands were screened for mutations in six MODY genes (HNF4A, GCK, HNF1A, PDX1, HNF1B and NeuroD1) and for the A3243G mitochondrial mutation. After excluding patients with mutations in one of such genes, we compared clinical features of the remaining 67 patients (2.6% of the whole initial sample) affected by multigenerational “familial diabetes of the adulthood” (FDA) and of their diabetic relatives (n = 63) to those with T2DM (n = 1,028) by generalized hierarchical linear models followed by pairwise comparisons. Results Age, age at diagnosis, proportion of hypertension (all p<0.001), and waist circumference (p<0.05) were lower in FDA than T2DM. Nonetheless, the two groups had similar age-adjusted incidence rate of all-cause mortality. Conclusions Beside younger age at diagnosis, FDA patients show lower waist circumference and reduced proportion of hypertension as compared to those with T2DM; despite such reduced potential cardiovascular risk factors, FDA patients did not show a reduced mortality risk than patients with T2DM. PMID:26287533

  20. Assessing the obese diabetic patient for bariatric surgery: which candidate do I choose?

    PubMed Central

    Raffaelli, Marco; Sessa, Luca; Mingrone, Geltrude; Bellantone, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising in association with an increasing frequency of overweight and obesity. Bariatric-metabolic procedures are considered as additional therapeutic options, allowing improved diabetes control in most patients. Multiple factors play in concert to achieve the improvements in diabetic remission observed after bariatric-metabolic surgery. Several studies have demonstrated that bariatric-metabolic surgery is an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes when compared with conventional nonsurgical medical treatment. Because the best results are achievable in patients with a relatively short history of diabetes and less advanced controlled disease, the surgical option could be considered early, especially in morbid obese subjects (BMI ?35 kg/m2) after failure of medical treatment. Patients with extensive weight loss are more likely to achieve type 2 diabetes remission after bariatric surgery. At present, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass seems the surgical procedure of choice because it has fewer risks than biliopancreatic diversion, and it is associated with higher weight loss and metabolic improvements compared with adjustable gastric banding. Recent evidences regarding the effectiveness of sleeve gastrectomy in diabetes remission have to be confirmed by controlled trials with longer follow-up. PMID:26089694

  1. Interferon expression in the pancreases of patients with type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Yuang, J; Goddard, A; Foulis, A; James, R F; Lernmark, A; Pujol-Borrell, R; Rabinovitch, A; Somoza, N; Stewart, T A

    1995-06-01

    We have used a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol to examine the expression of cytokines in the pancreases and islets of patients with type I diabetes. We detect a significant increase in the level of expression of interferon (IFN)-alpha in the pancreases of the diabetic patients as compared with the control pancreases. In contrast, IFN-beta was detected at comparable levels in both groups, while IFN-gamma was detected in three of four control pancreases and one of four pancreases from the diabetic individuals. The IFN-alpha cDNAs generated by the RT-PCR were cloned and sequenced to determine which alpha-subtypes were being expressed. We found that the repertoire of subtypes was quite limited in any one individual (diabetic or not), although each individual was different with respect to the pattern of subtypes expressed. We also examined these pancreases for the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6. We found no detectable expression of TNF-alpha or IL-2 in any pancreases, and the expression of the other cytokines was variable, with no pattern emerging from the comparison of the diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. We conclude that, of the cytokines examined, only IFN-alpha was significantly increased in the diabetic patients, a result that is consistent with the possibility that this cytokine is directly involved in the development of type I diabetes. PMID:7540571

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life (Hr-Qol) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vishakha; Shivkumar, Saumya; Gupta, Omprakash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Quality of life is an important aspect in diabetes because poor quality of life leads to diminished self-care, which in turn leads to worsened glycemic control, increased risks for complications, and exacerbation of diabetes overwhelming in both the short run and the long run. Aims: The aim of our study is to examine the health-related quality of life of diabetic patients in rural India. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was done among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending Medicine Outpatient department of a 780-bedded rural medical college located in central India. We used the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire — short version (WHOQOL-BREF) to assess quality of life. Results: The HRQOL among diabetics and non-diabetic controls is comparable to each other with bad physical health, bad psychological health, deteriorating social relationships, and bad environmental conditions affecting the HRQOL of both the groups equally. The overall HRQOL of the total study population (cases and controls) was poor. Conclusion: The finding of this study will help in health promotion in rural medical practice in India. It would beckon the much awaited avenue of holistic care of a diabetic patient with equal importance to the mental wellbeing and quality of life, as compared to physical well being. PMID:24696831

  3. Educational disparities in health behaviors among patients with diabetes: the Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) Study

    PubMed Central

    Karter, Andrew J; Stevens, Mark R; Brown, Arleen F; Duru, O Kenrik; Gregg, Edward W; Gary, Tiffany L; Beckles, Gloria L; Tseng, Chien-Wen; Marrero, David G; Waitzfelder, Beth; Herman, William H; Piette, John D; Safford, Monika M; Ettner, Susan L

    2007-01-01

    Background Our understanding of social disparities in diabetes-related health behaviors is incomplete. The purpose of this study was to determine if having less education is associated with poorer diabetes-related health behaviors. Methods This observational study was based on a cohort of 8,763 survey respondents drawn from ~180,000 patients with diabetes receiving care from 68 provider groups in ten managed care health plans across the United States. Self-reported survey data included individual educational attainment ("education") and five diabetes self-care behaviors among individuals for whom the behavior would clearly be indicated: foot exams (among those with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy or a history of foot ulcers); self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG; among insulin users only); smoking; exercise; and certain diabetes-related health seeking behaviors (use of diabetes health education, website, or support group in last 12 months). Predicted probabilities were modeled at each level of self-reported educational attainment using hierarchical logistic regression models with random effects for clustering within health plans. Results Patients with less education had significantly lower predicted probabilities of being a non-smoker and engaging in regular exercise and health-seeking behaviors, while SMBG and foot self-examination did not vary by education. Extensive adjustment for patient factors revealed no discernable confounding effect on the estimates or their significance, and most education-behavior relationships were similar across sex, race and other patient characteristics. The relationship between education and smoking varied significantly across age, with a strong inverse relationship in those aged 25–44, modest for those ages 45–64, but non-evident for those over 65. Intensity of disease management by the health plan and provider communication did not alter the examined education-behavior relationships. Other measures of socioeconomic position yielded similar findings. Conclusion The relationship between educational attainment and health behaviors was modest in strength for most behaviors. Over the life course, the cumulative effect of reduced practice of multiple self-care behaviors among less educated patients may play an important part in shaping the social health gradient. PMID:17967177

  4. “Ninjinto” (Ginseng Decoction), a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, Improves Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Immune Competence in Patients with Chronic Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Shuichiro; Ogawa, Keiko; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treating functional gastrointestinal disorders is extremely difficult. We herein report the effect of the oral administration of Ninjinto (NJT, ginseng decoction), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, on chronic intestinal failure. Patients and Methods. Seven patients with chronic intestinal failure treated with NJT were evaluated in this study. The primary diseases included chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO: n = 4), short bowel syndrome (SBS: n = 2), and intestinal atresia (n = 1). All patients orally received NJT extract granules at a dose of 0.3?g/kg BW per day. The treatment outcomes were then assessed according to the patients' symptoms and consecutive abdominal X-ray findings. Results. The targeted symptoms were abdominal distension in four patients, diarrhea in three patients, and frequent hospitalization due to infections in two patients. An improvement in the symptoms was observed in six of the seven patients, whereas one patient with SBS did not show any improvement. An improvement in an abdominal roentgenogram was observed in the four patients with remarkably dilated bowel loops due to CIPO. Conclusions. NJT may be effective in controlling functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with chronic intestinal failure. The use of Kampo medicine in the field of pediatric surgery may help to improve the quality of life in children suffering from such conditions. PMID:26495014

  5. Socio-demographic Determinants of Compliance among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Mohammad Abdul; Siddiqui, Aesha Farheen

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Saudi Arabia has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes. This study was conducted with the following objectives: (1) To study the socio-demographic profile of diabetic patients in Abha. (2) To find the socio-demographic determinants of compliance among diabetic patients in Abha. Material and Methods: A self administered questionnaire which had detailed the socio-demographic features and various aspects of compliance was used on a random sample of registered diabetics at two primary health care centres of Abha. Results: Most of the patients (70.4 percent) were between 40-60 years age. Most of the patients were men (about 60 percent) and Saudis. Majority of patients did not have a university education. Young patients (age<40) were more compliant with all aspects of management, except medication (23.8 percent). Women were significantly more compliant with exercise (49.7 percent), while men were significantly more compliant with follow up (81.1 percent). Saudi patients were significantly compliant with medication (79.2 percent), while non Saudis were compliant with exercise (62.9 percent). All single patients were diet compliant. Smokers were significantly less compliant with exercise. Patients with normal BMI were significantly more compliant with diet and exercise. Conclusion: Patients were found to be generally less compliant towards the regimen. Socio-demographic factors which were significantly associated with non compliance were age, gender, nationality, educational status, marital status, smoking status and BMI. PMID:24551644

  6. Self-reported use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products in topical treatment of diabetic foot disorders by diabetic patients in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is little published on current Saudi diabetic patients' practices when they are exposed to foot disorders such as open wound, ulcer, and skin cracks. These factors are usually influenced by local culture and communities beliefs. The aim of the current study was to identify the pattern of patients' use of CAM products in dealing with diabetic foot disorders topically in a group of diabetic patients. Findings A Cross-sectional descriptive study of a representative cohort of diabetic patients living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was designed. A pre-designed questionnaire to identify local diabetics' practices in dealing topically with foot disorders including open wound, chronic ulcer, and skin cracks was designed. Questionnaire was administered by a group of trained nutrition female students to diabetics face to face living in their neighborhood. A total of 1634 Saudi diabetics were interviewed. Foot disorders occurred in approximately two thirds of the respondents 1006 (61.6%). Out of the 1006 patients who had foot disorders, 653 reported trying some sort of treatment as 307 patients (47.1%) used conventional topical medical treatment alone, 142 (21.7%) used CAM products alone, and 204 (31.2%) used both treatments. The most commonly used CAM product by the patients was Honey (56.6%) followed by Commiphora Molmol (Myrrh) in (37.4%) and Nigellia Sativa (Black seed) in (35.1%). The least to be used was Lawsonia inermis (Henna) in (12.1%). Ten common natural preparations used topically to treat diabetic foot disorders were also identified. Conclusions The use of CAM products in topical treatment of diabetic foot disorders is fairly common among Saudi diabetic patients. Honey headed the list as a solo topical preparation or in combination with other herbs namely black seeds and myrrh. The efficacy of the most common products needs further research. PMID:20925956

  7. Are differences between patient and provider explanatory models of diabetes associated with patient self-management and glycemic control?

    PubMed

    Weller, Susan C; Baer, Roberta D; de Alba Garcia, Javier Garcia; Salcedo Rocha, Ana L

    2013-11-01

    In this study we test whether differences between patient and provider explanatory models of diabetes affect self-management and glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients. Diabetic patients (n=60) and family practice physicians (n=39) in Guadalajara, Mexico, responded to a structured explanatory model interview (130 questions on causes, symptoms, and treatments). A cultural consensus analysis indicated a widely shared model among physicians and provided a single shared set of answers to the questions. Patient-provider congruence in beliefs was assessed by comparing each patient's responses with the physician answer set. Congruence in beliefs predicted self-management behaviors (r=0.27, p=.03), more than educational level (r=0.16, p=.23), but was not predictive of A1C (r=0.12, p=.40). Differences between patient and physician explanatory models can adversely affect patient-directed activities and may indirectly affect glycemic control by affecting self-management. These differences may be due to low patient educational level and resulting problems in understanding biomedical approaches to diabetes. PMID:24185147

  8. Salivary alkaline phosphatase and calcium in caries-active type II diabetes mellitus patients: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Mithra N.; Tahiliani, Divya; Shetty, Shilpa; Devadiga, Darshana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic syndrome, affecting the oral health in various ways with dental caries being one of the most common problems encountered. Saliva is one of the most abundant secretions in the human body with a variety of natural protective and defence molecules bathing the oral cavity maintaining equilibrium. Its collection is easy and non-invasive. Aims: To compare and evaluate salivary alkaline phosphatase levels and calcium ion levels between caries active type II diabetes mellitus patients and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on caries-active age and gender matched 60 non-diabetic and 60 patients with known Type II diabetes mellitus subjects of age group 25-50 years with DMFT index >10. Saliva sample was collected to analyse for alkaline phosphatase enzyme and concentration of calcium ions using Agappe kits. Statistical Analysis: Student ‘t’ test was used to correlate the salivary electrolyte concentration in non- diabetic and diabetic patients with dental caries. A ‘P’ value of 0.05 or less was considered significant. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation (X ± SD). Results: The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in saliva was higher in diabetic patients when compared to that of non-diabetic patients with salivary calcium ions were significantly higher in non-diabetic individuals. Conclusion: Diabetes Mellitus patients are more prone to dental caries, hence require intervention to improve the quality of saliva. PMID:25395756

  9. Impact of pharmacological treatment on mortality after myocardial infarction in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Zuanetti, G; Latini, R

    1997-01-01

    Several studies performed before and after the introduction of fibrinolysis as a routine treatment of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) consistently showed that diabetic patients have a higher mortality in-hospital and after discharge. Women with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) appear to have a particularly ominous prognosis. So far, very few randomized prospective studies evaluated the effect of pharmacological treatments on prognosis of diabetic patients during acute MI: most of the information on the effect of commonly used cardiovascular drugs in diabetic patients with acute MI (AMI) has been obtained only from retrospective subgroup analyses of some of the large trials or as nonrandomized comparisons. The overview of fibrinolytic trials in acute MI found that fibrinolytic treatment was associated with a 35 days mortality of 13.6% versus 17.3% in diabetics (-21.7%) and 8.7% versus 10.2% in nondiabetics (-14.3%). Data from trials with aspirin suggest that the beneficial effect of this drug is maintained in diabetic patients with acute MI, but the optimal dosage remains undefined. Based on available evidence, beta blockers appear to be able to reduce mortality post-MI in diabetic patients, with an absolute and relative beneficial effect that is, in most cases, larger than that observed in nondiabetic patients. The pooled data from studies non beta blockers indicate a 37% mortality reduction in diabetic patients, compared to 13% in nondiabetics during the acute phase, and a 48% reduction of mortality compared to 33% in nondiabetics post-discharge. Data on outcome of diabetic patients in trials evaluating calcium antagonists are lacking, and there is a strong need for a reevaluation of data from completed trials to obtain some hints on the possible effect of these agents in this population. The "long-term" studies on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with left ventricular dysfunction some time after AMI have shown that the beneficial effect documented in the overall population is present also when limiting the analysis to patients with a history of diabetes, whereas the "acute" studies enrolling patients within 24-36 h after the onset of symptoms have shown a marked beneficial effect of ACE inhibitors in diabetic patients. For example, in the GISSI 3 study, treatment with lisinopril was associated with a decreased 6-week mortality in both IDD (11.8% versus 21.1, p < 0.05) and non-IDD (8.0% versus 10.6%, p < 0.05) patients corresponding to a 44.1% and 24.5% reduction, respectively. All these results must be taken with great caution because in no studies the effect of treatment in diabetic patients was a predefined analysis. They strongly suggest, however, that ACE inhibitors and beta blockers may be particularly beneficial during the acute phase of MI and also post-discharge, offering a strong rationale for their widespread use in diabetic patients with acute MI. PMID:9101399

  10. Frequency, severity and risk indicators of retinopathy in patients with diabetes screened by fundus photographs: a study from primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Saleh; Ahsan, Shahid; Riaz, Qamar; Basit, Abdul; Ali Sheikh, Sikandar; Fawwad, Asher; Shera, A Samad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency, severity and risk indicators of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with diabetes attending a primary care diabetes centre. Methods: This observational study was conducted at Diabetic Association of Pakistan - a World Health Organization collaborating center in Karachi, from March 2009 to December 2011. Registered patients with diabetes were screened by two field fundus photographs. Retina specialists graded the signs of retinopathy according to diabetic retinopathy disease severity scale. Results: Of total registered diabetic patients (n=11,158), 10,768 (96.5 %) were screened for DR. Overall DR was found in 2661 (24.7%) patients. DR was found in decreasing order of frequency in patients with type 2 (n= 2555, 23.7%) followed by patients with type 1 diabetes (n=101, 0.93% ) and patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (n=5, 0.46%). Among patients with DR, signs of non-sight threatening retinopathy was dominant. Females and patients of working age group predominantly had retinopathy. Type 1 patients >16 years and type 2 patients < 5 years of history of diabetes had sign of retinopathy in increased frequency. Conclusion: Every forth patient with diabetes in this large cohort had signs of diabetic retinopathy. Females and patients in working age group predominantly had retinopathy. Type 2 patients with short while type 1 patients with long history of diabetes most frequently had DR. Dissemination of the present study findings may help in increasing the awareness of this serious complication of diabetes. PMID:24772145

  11. Dilated eye examination screening guideline compliance among patients with diabetes without a diabetic retinopathy diagnosis: the role of geographic access

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David J; Kumar, Naresh; Feuer, William J; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Rosa, Potyra R; Schiffman, Joyce C; Morante, Alexis; Aldahan, Adam; Staropoli, Patrick; Fernandez, Cristina A; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Lam, Byron L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of, and factors associated with, dilated eye examination guideline compliance among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), but without diabetic retinopathy. Research design and methods Utilizing the computerized billing records database, we identified patients with International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 diagnoses of DM, but without any ocular diagnoses. The available medical records of patients in 2007–2008 were reviewed for demographic and ocular information, including visits through 2010 (n=200). Patients were considered guideline compliant if they returned at least every 15?months for screening. Participant street addresses were assigned latitude and longitude coordinates to assess their neighborhood socioeconomic status (using the 2000 US census data), distance to the screening facility, and public transportation access. Patients not compliant, based on the medical record review, were contacted by phone or mail and asked to complete a follow-up survey to determine if screening took place at other locations. Results The overall screening compliance rate was 31%. Patient sociodemographic characteristics, insurance status, and neighborhood socioeconomic measures were not significantly associated with compliance. However, in separate multivariable logistic regression models, those living eight or more miles from the screening facility were significantly less likely to be compliant relative to those living within eight miles (OR=0.36 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.86)), while public transit access quality was positively associated with screening compliance (1.34 (1.07 to 1.68)). Conclusions Less than one-third of patients returned for diabetic retinopathy screening at least every 15?months, with transportation challenges associated with noncompliance. Our results suggest that reducing transportation barriers or utilizing community-based screening strategies may improve compliance. PMID:25452871

  12. Phase I and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics study of the MEK inhibitor RO4987655 in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Shinji; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Noboru; Yamada, Yasuhide; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Tamura, Yosuke; Wakui, Hiroshi; Honda, Kazunori; Mizugaki, Hidenori; Kitazono, Satoru; Tanabe, Yuko; Asahina, Hajime; Yamazaki, Naoya; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Matsuoka, Mieko; Ogita, Yoshitaka; Tamura, Tomohide

    2015-06-01

    RO4987655 is an oral and selective inhibitor of MEK, a key enzyme of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. This phase I dose-escalation study of RO4987655 in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors aimed to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and anti-tumor activity. Patients received a single dose of RO4987655 (1, 2, 4, 5, or 6.5 mg) followed by continuous once-daily dosing (1, 2, or 4 mg QD) or twice-daily dosing (4, 5, or 6.5 mg BID) in 28-day cycles. A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used. PD was evaluated by pERK inhibition in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In dose-escalation, 25 patients were enrolled. After the MTD was determined, a further six patients were administered the MTD for further confirmation of safety. MTD was determined as 8 mg/day (4 mg BID) due to a total of four dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of grade 3 creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation (2 DLTs each in 10 mg/day and 13 mg/day). Most commonly related adverse events included dermatitis acneiform, CPK elevation, and eye disorders. Plasma concentration of RO4987655 appeared to increase in a dose-proportional manner with a plasma half-life of 4.32 to 21.1 h. Following multiple dose administration, a steady-state condition was reached by Cycle 1 Day 8. The inhibitory effects of RO4987655 on pERK in PBMCs increased in a dose-dependent manner. One esophageal cancer patient had confirmed partial response and seven patients showed progression-free survival for longer than 16 weeks. The MTD of RO4987655 for Japanese patients was determined as 8 mg/day (4 mg BID). RO4987655 was tolerated up to the MTD with a favorable PK/PD profile in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors. PMID:25809858

  13. Inverse association between serum total bilirubin levels and diabetic peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Sook; Lee, Sung Won; Mo, Eun Young; Moon, Sung Dae; Han, Je Ho

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have suggested that bilirubin, a potent innate antioxidant, plays a protective role against cardiovascular and microvascular disease. This study investigated the association between serum concentrations of total bilirubin (TB) and the presence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in Korean diabetic patients. This cross-sectional study involved 1207 patients aged more than 30 years with type 2 diabetes. DPN was assessed according to clinical symptoms and physical examinations using Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument examination score, 10-g monofilament sensation, and current perception threshold. The subjects were stratified into gender-specific tertiles based on TB values, and the relationship between the TB values and DPN was analyzed. Compared with patients within the lowest TB tertile, those with higher TB levels consisted of patients with shorter duration of diabetes, lower HbA1c, better renal function, and less autonomic neuropathy, retinopathy, and albuminuria. Serum TB levels were inversely associated with DPN. In multivariate analysis for the development of DPN after adjusting for potential confounding factors including retinopathy, albuminuria, and autonomic neuropathy, the TB levels were inversely associated with the presence of DPN, both as a continuous variable [odds ratio (OR) per log standard deviation (SD) 0.79; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.97; P = 0.022] and when categorized in tertiles (the highest vs. the lowest tertile; OR 0.63; 95 % CI 0.40-0.99; P = 0.046). Low serum bilirubin levels are significantly associated with DPN, independently of classic risk factors and other microvascular complications. Further investigation is necessary to determine whether serum bilirubin has a prognostic significance on DPN. PMID:25846483

  14. Morphometric and histological parameters in veins of diabetic patients undergoing brachiocephalic fistula placement

    PubMed Central

    Lazich, Ivana; Chang, Anthony; Watson, Sydeaka; Dhar, Promila; Madhurapantula, Rama S.; Hammes, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic patients with end-stage renal failure have higher rates of arteriovenous failures when compared with nondiabetics. The aim was to compare differences in indicators of vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction in veins of patients with or without diabetes at the time of surgical placement. In this prospective observational trial, vein samples were collected from patients when a brachiocephalic fistula was created. Morphometric measurements and extent of fibrosis were determined using Image J software. Histological analysis, for the presence of myofibroblasts and level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, was performed by immunohistochemical staining and scored in semi-quantitative manner. Asymmetric dimethylarginine was determined at the time of access placement. Comparison of diabetics and nondiabetics was performed using Wilcoxon rank sum and Fisher’s exact tests. Eighteen patients were included; 10 were diabetics. There was a significant difference in the measurement of vein area between groups, with diabetic vein samples having larger luminal area of average 832,001.18 µm2 (317,582.17–3,695,670.36, P = 0.04). The maximal intimal to medial thickness ratio was higher in diabetic vein samples (0.71 vs. 0.24, P = 0.03) along with statistically significant higher maximal intimal thickness (312.12 vs. 115.14 µm, P = 0.03). There is a significant difference in vascular wall remodeling between diabetics and nondiabetics at the level of the cephalic vein at the time of brachiocephalic placement. The unexpected finding of significantly larger luminal area in diabetic veins could be a major factor positively affecting brachiocephalic outcomes in otherwise impaired remodeling in this patient population. PMID:25731584

  15. Collaborative Depression Care Among Latino Patients in Diabetes Disease Management, Los Angeles, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Brian; Jin, Haomiao; Vidyanti, Irene; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Ell, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of comorbid diabetes and depression is high, especially in low-income Hispanic or Latino patients. The complex mix of factors in safety-net care systems impedes the adoption of evidence-based collaborative depression care and results in persistent disparities in depression outcomes. The Diabetes–Depression Care-Management Adoption Trial examined whether the collaborative depression care model is an effective approach in safety-net clinics to improve clinical care outcomes of depression and diabetes. Methods A sample of 964 patients with diabetes from 5 safety-net clinics were enrolled in a quasi-experimental study that included 2 arms: usual care, in which primary medical providers and staff translated and adopted evidence-based depression care; and supportive care, in which providers of a disease management program delivered protocol-driven depression care. Because the study design established individual treatment centers as separate arms, we calculated propensity scores that interpreted the probability of treatment assignment conditional on observed baseline characteristics. Primary outcomes were 5 depression care outcomes and 7 diabetes care measures. Regression models with propensity score covariate adjustment were applied to analyze 6-month outcomes. Results Compared with usual care, supportive care significantly decreased Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores, reduced the number of patients with moderate or severe depression, improved depression remission, increased satisfaction in care for patients with emotional problems, and significantly reduced functional impairment. Conclusion Implementing collaborative depression care in a diabetes disease management program is a scalable approach to improve depression outcomes and patient care satisfaction among patients with diabetes in a safety-net care system. PMID:25167093

  16. Effect of yoga-nidra on blood glucose level in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Amita, S; Prabhakar, S; Manoj, I; Harminder, S; Pavan, T

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder, which has become a major health challenge worldwide. South East Asian countries have a highest burden of diabetes. In India the prevalence of diabetes is rising rapidly especially in the urban population because of increasing obesity and reduced physical activity. An objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Yoga-Nidra on blood glucose level in diabetic patients. This study was conducted on 41, middle aged, type-2 diabetic patients, who were on oral hypoglycaemic. These patients were divided in to two groups: (a) 20 patients on oral hypoglycaemic with yoga-nidra, and (b) 21 were on oral hypoglycaemic alone. Yoga-nidra practiced for 30 minutes daily up to 90 days, parameters were recorded every. 30th day. Results of this study showed that most of the symptoms were subsided (P < 0.004, significant), and fall of mean blood glucose level was significant after 3-month of Yoga-nidra. This fall was 21.3 mg/dl, P < 0.0007, (from 159 +/- 12.27 to 137.7 +/- 23.15,) in fasting and 17.95 mg/dl, P = 0.02, (from 255.45 +/- 16.85 to 237.5 +/- 30.54) in post prandial glucose level. Results of this study suggest that subjects on Yoga-nidra with drug regimen had better control in their fluctuating blood glucose and symptoms associated with diabetes, compared to those were on oral hypoglycaemics alone. PMID:19810584

  17. Barriers to medication taking among Kuwaiti patients with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Jeragh-Alhaddad, Fatima B; Waheedi, Mohammad; Barber, Nick D; Brock, Tina Penick

    2015-01-01

    Background Nonadherence to medications among Kuwaitis with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is believed to be a major barrier to appropriate management of the disease. Published studies of barriers to medication adherence in T2DM suggest a Western bias, which may not adequately describe the Kuwaiti experience. Aim The purpose of this study was to explore barriers to medication adherence among Kuwaiti adults with T2DM. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 Kuwaiti patients with type 2 diabetes. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Barriers to medication adherence were identified. Emerging themes were: 1) lack of education/awareness about diabetes/medications, 2) beliefs about medicines/diabetes, 3) spirituality and God-centered locus of control, 4) attitudes toward diabetes 5) perceptions of self-expertise with the disease and body awareness, 6) social stigma, 7) perceptions of social support, 8) impact of illness on patient’s life, 9) perceptions of health care providers’ attitudes toward patients, and 10) health system-related factors, such as access difficulties and inequalities of medication supply and services. Conclusion Personal, sociocultural, religious, health care provider, and health care system-related factors may impede medication adherence among Kuwaitis with type 2 diabetes. Interventions to improve care and therapeutic outcomes in this particular population must recognize and attempt to resolve these factors. PMID:26604702

  18. Beginning A Patient-Centered Approach in the Design of A Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Richard W.; Pardo, Kimberlee A.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Wall, Sarah S.; Davy, Brenda M.; Almeida, Fabio A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify patient preferences for different components of a local diabetes prevention program that would improve reach.A secondary purpose was to determine if patient characteristics were related to program preferences. Methods: Participants were identified through electronic medical records from two family medicine clinics in Virginia. Participants completed a mailed survey addressing demographics, economic status, risk factors for diabetes, and preferences regarding diabetes prevention interventions—delivery mode, program length, and duration. Results: Twenty-nine percent of eligible participants responded (n = 142); 83% of participants were at risk for diabetes and 82% had a household income <$20,000.When presented with the choice between a class-based vs. a technology-based program, 83% preferred a technology-based program. Whites were less likely to choose the technology-based program, with no significant differences based on age, education, income, or gender. Conclusions: Contrary to beliefs that lower income individuals may not use technology-based interventions, lower socioeconomic patients indicated a preference for a technology- and telephone-supported diabetes prevention program over in-person class approaches. Findings provide formative data to support the design of a patient-centered, technology-enhanced diabetes prevention program in a real-world setting, thereby increasing potential participation and reach. PMID:24534767

  19. Religious care required for Japanese terminally ill patients with cancer from the perspective of bereaved family members.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takuya; Ando, Michiyo; Morita, Tatsuya; Hirai, Kei; Kawamura, Ryo; Mitsunori, Miyashita; Sato, Kazuki; Shima, Yasuo

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the most suitable religious care for Japanese terminally ill patients with cancer based on the opinions of bereaved family members. A multicenter questionnaire survey on palliative care service was sent to 592 bereaved family members of patients with cancer who were admitted to palliative care units in Japan, and 430 responded by mail. In the section of the questionnaire about religious care, 382 responses were used for quantitative analysis, and 71 responses about religious care for qualitative analysis. In the current study, the 71 responses were grouped into families with and without a religion and were analyzed qualitatively. Families with a religion (N = 28) chose answers such as ''Instrumental care'' such as music or a religious event, ''Freedom of choice of kinds for religious care,'' ''Staff involvement of religious care,'' ''Meeting with a pastoral care workers,'' and ''Burden of offering a different kind of personal religion.'' In contrast, families without a religion (N = 44) chose answers such as ''Instrumental care,'' ''Freedom of choice whether patients receive religious care or not,'' ''Spiritual care,'' ''Not being able to accept religious care,'' and ''Burden of thinking about a religion and nuisance.'' These findings suggest that Japanese bereaved families with a religion generally regard religious care positively and prefer care through their own religion, whereas some families without a religion require religious care but some do not prefer it. PMID:19755629

  20. Plasma Fibrinogen in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and its Relation with Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) and Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, J.V.; Anuradha, T.S.; Talikoti, Prashanth; Nagaraj, R.S.; Vishali, V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome or Syndrome X is characterized by hyperlipidemia, increased blood pressure, abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia, which increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. In addition to these, it is also associated with nontraditional risk factor like C- reactive protein, Plasminogen activator and fibrinogen. Various studies have documented association of these nontraditional risk factor, in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus patients with diabetes mellitus are higher risk of developing micro and macro vascular complications like ischemic heart disease (IHD) and diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of decreased visual acuity, which is associated with maculopathy and profierative complications of it. Chronic hyperglycemia and its associated nonenzymatic glycation play an important role in the development of microangiopathy. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus. To study the plasma fibrinogen and its relationship with IHD and retinopathy in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: Patients of type 2 diabetes Mellitus were recruited based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. History of IHD and ECG evidence of ischemia was obtained. Retinopathy was diagnosed by direct opthalmoscopy. Fasting glucose, lipid profile and plasma fibrinogen were analyzed. Stastical analysis was carried by Chi square test and student‘t’ test. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in study population of 100 type 2 diabetic patients is 58% and is significantly associated with duration of the disease (p<0.001). Fifty eight patients have hyperfibrinogenemia and mean fibrinogen level is significantly high in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome when compared to diabetic patients without metabolic syndrome (p<0.001). Diabetic patient with metabolic syndrome and hyperfibrinogenemia have higher prevalence of IHD and retinopathy in comparison with diabetic patients without metabolic syndrome (p<0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients. The combination of metabolic syndrome and hyperfibrinogenemia increases the risk of developing micro and macro vascular complications. PMID:25737976

  1. Association between Washing Residue on the Feet and Tinea Pedis in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Kimie; Amemiya, Ayumi; Mugita, Yuko; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Seko, Yoko; Ohashi, Yumiko; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Nagase, Takashi; Ikeda, Mari; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Tinea pedis (TP) may lead to the development of foot ulcers in diabetic patients; thus, its prevention in diabetic patients is important. TP occurs after dermatophytes on the skin scales of TP patients attach to the feet. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the scales and dermatophytes, and this can be performed using various methods, including foot washing. This study aimed to objectively examine the association between the presence of TP and foot-washing habits. We included 33 diabetic patients, and, of these, 17 had TP. The presence of washing residue on the feet was determined by applying a fluorescent cream to the participants' feet, and images of the feet were captured under ultraviolet light before and after foot washing. Our results showed that diabetic patients with TP had higher levels of washing residue on their feet than those without TP. The importance of washing feet to prevent TP needs to be emphasized through educational programs for diabetic patients. Furthermore, the development of an effective foot-washing technique is essential. PMID:25793125

  2. Management of critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes: The need for personalised therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Palash; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Deane, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    Critical illness in patients with pre-existing diabetes frequently causes deterioration in glycaemic control. Despite the prevalence of diabetes in patients admitted to hospital and intensive care units, the ideal management of hyperglycaemia in these groups is uncertain. There are data that suggest that acute hyperglycaemia in critically ill patients without diabetes is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Exogenous insulin to keep blood glucose concentrations < 10 mmol/L is accepted as standard of care in this group. However, preliminary data have recently been reported that suggest that chronic hyperglycaemia may result in conditioning, which protects these patients against damage mediated by acute hyperglycaemia. Furthermore, acute glucose-lowering to < 10 mmol/L in patients with diabetes with inadequate glycaemic control prior to their critical illness appears to have the capacity to cause harm. This review focuses on glycaemic control in critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes, the potential for harm from glucose-lowering and the rationale for personalised therapy. PMID:26069718

  3. Confronting Disparities in Diabetes Care: The Clinical Effectiveness of Redesigning Care Management for Minority Patients in Rural Primary Care Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Paul; Thompson, Debra; Wynn, Joan D.; Cummings, Doyle M.; Whetstone, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    Context: Diabetes mellitus and its complications disproportionately affect minority citizens in rural communities, many of whom have limited access to comprehensive diabetes management services. Purpose: To explore the efficacy of combining care management and interdisciplinary group visits for rural African American patients with diabetes

  4. An examination of the relationship among patient factors, patient-physician interaction, and utilization of health services in adults with diabetes 

    E-print Network

    Rivers, Desiree Avia

    2009-05-15

    In this study, patient-physician interaction, patient socio-demographic factors, health literacy, sources of care, and use of diabetes-related health services, were examined to assess the relationships to patients’ satisfaction with the quality...

  5. The Patient's Attitude Toward Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, a Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemi, Reyhaneh; Sedaghat, Mojtaba

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes is an important health problem through the world. In comprehensive diabetes care, therapists must understand not just the observable behavior but the underlying attitudes which drive that behavior. Health, then sickness, has many aspects, and one of the famous descriptions is guided by WHO. This study aimed to explore dimensions of attitudes in diabetic patients about their disease, attending two medical centers in Tehr