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Sample records for japanese flowering cherry

  1. Interaction between Japanese flowering cherry trees and some wild animals observed during physiological experiment in fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Teruko

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the weeping habit of Japanese flowering cherry tree in the field of Tama Forest Science Garden, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute at the foot of Mt. Takao. Since cherry trees at various age were the materials for our plant physiology experiments, our studies were conducted in the fields where we experienced certain difficulties. Even under such difficult environment that was rather unexpected and uncontrollable, we could obtain fruitful results on the growth of cherry tree, and found them scientifically significant, especially in terms of biological effects of gravity on earth. Moreover, a lot of interesting interactions of cherry trees with various kinds of animals were observed in parallel to the plant physiology.

  2. Japanese flowering cherry tree as a woody plant candidate grown in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Yoshida, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Nyunoya, H.; Funada, R.; Katayama, T.; Suzuki, T.; Honma, T.; Nagatomo, M.; Nakamura, T.

    We are proposing to raise woody plant in space for several applications Japanese flowering cherry tree is a candidate to do wood science in space Mechanism of sensing gravity and controlling shape of tree has been studied quite extensively Cherry mutants associated with gravity are telling responsible plant hormones and molecular machinery for plant adaptation against action of gravity Space experiment using our wood model contribute to understand molecular and cellular process of gravitropism in plant Tree is considered to be an important member in space agriculture to produce excess oxygen wooden materials for constructing living environment and provide biomass for cultivating mushrooms and insects Furthermore trees and their flowers improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space

  3. Growth and photosynthesis of Japanese flowering cherry under simulated microgravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugano, Mami; Ino, Yoshio; Nakamura, Teruko

    2002-01-01

    The photosynthetic rate, the leaf characteristics related to photosynthesis, such as the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and density of the stomata, the leaf area and the dry weight in seedlings of Japanese flowering cherry grown under normal gravity and simulated microgravity conditions were examined. No significant differences were found in the photosynthetic rates between the two conditions. Moreover, leaf characteristics such as the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and density of the stomata in the seedlings grown under the simulated microgravity condition were not affected. However, the photosynthetic product of the whole seedling under the simulated microgravity condition increased compared with the control due to its leaf area increase. The results suggest that dynamic gravitational stimulus controls the partitioning of the products of photosynthesis.

  4. Interspecific hybridizations in ornamental flowering cherries (Prunus species)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. Controlled cross...

  5. Expression of gibberellin 3 beta-hydroxylase gene in a gravi-response mutant, weeping Japanese flowering cherry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugano, Mami; Nakagawa, Yuriko; Nyunoya, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Teruko

    2004-01-01

    Expressions of the gibberellin biosynthesis gene were investigated in a normal upright type and a gravi-response mutant, a weeping type of Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus spachiana), that is unable to support its own weight and elongates downward. A segment of the gibberellin 3 beta-hydroxylase cDNA of Prunus spachiana (Ps3ox), which is responsible for active gibberellin synthesis, was amplified by using real-time RT-PCR. The content of Ps3ox mRNA in the weeping type was much greater than that in the upright type, while the endogenous gibberellin level was much higher in the elongating zone of the weeping type. These results suggest that the amount and distribution of synthesized gibberellin regulate secondary xylem formation, and the unbalanced distribution of gibberellin affects the gravi-response of the Prunus tree.

  6. Evaluation of flowering cherry (Prunus L.) species, hybrids, and cultivars using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. A diverse collec...

  7. 'DREAM CATCHER' AND 'FIRST LADY' FLOWERING CHERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ornamental flowering cherry trees (Prunus L. species) are popular landscape plants, made famous in the U.S. by the historic Tidal Basin cherries planted in Washington, D.C. Although planted primarily for their spring bloom, flowering cherries are also used as street or shade trees, and are valued fo...

  8. Characterization of a Flowering Cherry Strain of Cherry Necrotic Rusty Mottle Virus usty

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host range and complete nucleotide sequences of two Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) isolates (FC4 and FC5) infecting flowering cherry accessions imported from Japan are described. Of the plants tested, sweet cherry cvs. ‘Bing’, ‘Canindex’, ‘Mazzard’ and ‘Sam’, flowering cherry cv. ‘Kw...

  9. Flowering of Japanese astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozai, Y.

    1988-06-01

    A development history is presented for Japanese astronomy from the 6th century to the present day, together with a status report and account of future plans. About 500 professionals currently belong to the Astronomical Society of Japan. Tokyo's Mitaka Observatory employs a staff of about 70 astronomers; most modern astronomical instruments, however, have been installed at sites outside the Tokyo area. The limitations of present instruments are notably severe for astronomers working in the visible and IR wavelengths.

  10. 'Helen Taft' and 'Abigail Adams' flowering cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Arboretum has an ongoing breeding program aimed at broadening the genetic base of ornamental cherry trees (Prunus species) by developing new cultivars with disease and pest resistance, tolerance to environmental stresses, and superior ornamental characteristics. This report documen...

  11. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium)

    PubMed Central

    Le Dantec, Loïck; Quero-García, José; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies ‘Regina’ × ‘Garnet’ and ‘Regina’ × ‘Lapins’, and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions. PMID:26587668

  12. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium).

    PubMed

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; Le Dantec, Loïck; Quero-García, José; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions. PMID:26587668

  13. RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of dormant flower buds of Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Youyin; Li, Yongqiang; Xin, Dedong; Chen, Wenrong; Shao, Xu; Wang, Yue; Guo, Weidong

    2015-01-25

    Bud dormancy is a critical biological process allowing Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus) to survive in winter. Due to the lake of genomic information, molecular mechanisms triggering endodormancy release in flower buds have remained unclear. Hence, we used Illumina RNA-Seq technology to carry out de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling of flower buds. Approximately 47million clean reads were assembled into 50,604 sequences with an average length of 837bp. A total of 37,650 unigene sequences were successfully annotated. 128 pathways were annotated by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and metabolic, biosynthesis of second metabolite and plant hormone signal transduction accounted for higher percentage in flower bud. In critical period of endodormancy release, 1644, significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from expression profile. DEGs related to oxidoreductase activity were especially abundant in Gene Ontology (GO) molecular function category. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis demonstrated that DEGs were involved in various metabolic processes, including phytohormone metabolism. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that levels of DEGs for abscisic acid and gibberellin biosynthesis decreased while the abundance of DEGs encoding their degradation enzymes increased and GID1 was down-regulated. Concomitant with endodormancy release, MADS-box transcription factors including P. pseudocerasus dormancy-associated MADS-box (PpcDAM), Agamous-like2, and APETALA3-like genes, shown remarkably epigenetic roles. The newly generated transcriptome and gene expression profiling data provide valuable genetic information for revealing transcriptomic variation during bud dormancy in Chinese cherry. The uncovered data should be useful for future studies of bud dormancy in Prunus fruit trees lacking genomic information. PMID:25447903

  14. Evaluation of the virus and viroid infection status of flowering cherry (Prunus yedoensis) collections in Korea and the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The virus and viroid infection status of flowering cherry trees (Prunus yedoensis) in prominent ornamental collections in Korea (Seoul, Jinhae, Jeju) and the U.S. (Washington, D.C.) was investigated. A total of 344 trees were tested by conventional RT-PCR for 13 viruses and 2 viroids. Eight viruses ...

  15. The phenology of cherry blossom (Prunus yedoensis ``Somei-yoshino'') and the geographic features contributing to its flowering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Yukitaka; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Shigeta, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Nobuko

    2012-09-01

    We investigated relationships between the flowering phenology of Prunus yedoensis "Somei-yoshino" (cherry blossom) and the local temperatures in Japan. Our observations were carried out across the Okayama Plain, which included Okayama City (about 700,000 inhabitants), from the winter of 2008 to the spring of 2009. Local air temperature (AT) and the globe temperature (GT) were recorded at the tree height. The flowering dates (FDs) of P. yedoensis were earliest in the central commercial area (located at the center of the plain), followed by the north residential area (further inland), and finally the south residential area (seaward). The recorded FDs were related to the period-averaged daily maximum/minimum AT and GT, and the phenologically effective AT and GT defined in this study. Of these parameters, the phenologically effective GTs correlated most with the FDs. Since the GT is determined by AT, solar and infrared radiations, and wind speed, our previous result suggests that a combination of these three components surrounding the tree is more important for budding and flowering than is AT alone. The supposition is supported by the flowering of P. yedoensis being the latest at the coastal region of the Okayama Plain where the AT were higher than at the inland region, excluding the urban area; it is probably caused by stronger winds there than at the other sites.

  16. The phenology of cherry blossom (Prunus yedoensis "Somei-yoshino") and the geographic features contributing to its flowering.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Yukitaka; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Shigeta, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Nobuko

    2012-09-01

    We investigated relationships between the flowering phenology of Prunus yedoensis "Somei-yoshino" (cherry blossom) and the local temperatures in Japan. Our observations were carried out across the Okayama Plain, which included Okayama City (about 700,000 inhabitants), from the winter of 2008 to the spring of 2009. Local air temperature (AT) and the globe temperature (GT) were recorded at the tree height. The flowering dates (FDs) of P. yedoensis were earliest in the central commercial area (located at the center of the plain), followed by the north residential area (further inland), and finally the south residential area (seaward). The recorded FDs were related to the period-averaged daily maximum/minimum AT and GT, and the phenologically effective AT and GT defined in this study. Of these parameters, the phenologically effective GTs correlated most with the FDs. Since the GT is determined by AT, solar and infrared radiations, and wind speed, our previous result suggests that a combination of these three components surrounding the tree is more important for budding and flowering than is AT alone. The supposition is supported by the flowering of P. yedoensis being the latest at the coastal region of the Okayama Plain where the AT were higher than at the inland region, excluding the urban area; it is probably caused by stronger winds there than at the other sites. PMID:21953217

  17. A Rare Excitatory Amino Acid from Flowers of Zonal Geranium responsible for Paralyzing the Japanese Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    e Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flowers from zonal geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum). Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from Pelargonium × hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paraly...

  18. Complete chloroplast genome of Prunus yedoensis Matsum.(Rosaceae), wild and endemic flowering cherry on Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myong-Suk; Hyun Cho, Chung; Yeon Kim, Su; Su Yoon, Hwan; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequences of the wild flowering cherry, Prunus yedoensis Matsum., which is native and endemic to Jeju Island, Korea, is reported in this study. The genome size is 157 786 bp in length with 36.7% GC content, which is composed of LSC region of 85 908 bp, SSC region of 19 120 bp and two IR copies of 26 379 bp each. The cp genome contains 131 genes, including 86 coding genes, 8 rRNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. The maximum likelihood analysis was conducted to verify a phylogenetic position of the newly sequenced cp genome of P. yedoensis using 11 representatives of complete cp genome sequences within the family Rosaceae. The genus Prunus exhibited monophyly and the result of the phylogenetic relationship agreed with the previous phylogenetic analyses within Rosaceae. PMID:26329800

  19. Over-expression of the PaAP1 gene from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Kaichun

    2013-02-15

    A homologue of SQUAMOSA/APETALA1, designated PaAP1, was isolated from Prunus avium by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full length of PaAP1 cDNA is 753 bp, and it codes for a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PaAP1 belongs to the MADS-box gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAP1 shared the highest identity with SQUA/AP1 homologues from Prunus serrulata. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that PaAP1 was expressed at high levels in petal, sepal, style, and flower buds, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To characterize the functions of PaAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis transformed with 35S::PaAP1. A total of 8 transgenic T(1) lines with an early flowering phenotype were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio of flowering time was observed in the T(2) generation of 4 lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an SQUA/AP1 homolog from P. avium and suggests that PaAP1 is potentially useful for shortening the juvenile period in sweet cherry. PMID:23206932

  20. Interploid hybridizations in ornamental cherries using Prunus maackii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States National Arboretum has an ongoing flowering cherry (Prunus) breeding program aimed at broadening the genetic base of cultivated ornamental cherries by developing new cultivars with disease and pest resistance, tolerance to environmental stresses, and superior ornamental characteris...

  1. Metabolic changes upon flower bud break in Japanese apricot are enhanced by exogenous GA4

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Weibing; Gao, Zhihong; Wen, Luhua; Huo, Ximei; Cai, Binhua; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA4) has a significant effect on promoting dormancy release in flower buds of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc). The transcriptomic and proteomic changes that occur after GA4 treatment have been reported previously; however, the metabolic changes brought about by GA4 remain unknown. The present study was undertaken to assess changes in metabolites in response to GA4 treatment, as determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and principal component analysis. Fifty-five metabolites that exhibited more than two-fold differences in abundance (P < 0.05) between samples collected over time after a given treatment or between samples exposed to different treatments were studied further. These metabolites were categorized into six main groups: amino acids and their isoforms (10), amino acid derivatives (7), sugars and polyols (14), organic acids (12), fatty acids (4), and others (8). All of these groups are involved in various metabolic pathways, in particular galactose metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism. These results suggested that energy metabolism is important at the metabolic level in dormancy release following GA4 treatment. We also found that more than 10-fold differences in abundance were observed for many metabolites, including sucrose, proline, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, which might play important roles during the dormancy process. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in budburst and dormancy release in response to GA4 and provides a theoretical basis for applying GA4 to release dormancy. PMID:26504583

  2. Metabolic changes upon flower bud break in Japanese apricot are enhanced by exogenous GA4.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Weibing; Gao, Zhihong; Wen, Luhua; Huo, Ximei; Cai, Binhua; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA4) has a significant effect on promoting dormancy release in flower buds of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc). The transcriptomic and proteomic changes that occur after GA4 treatment have been reported previously; however, the metabolic changes brought about by GA4 remain unknown. The present study was undertaken to assess changes in metabolites in response to GA4 treatment, as determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and principal component analysis. Fifty-five metabolites that exhibited more than two-fold differences in abundance (P < 0.05) between samples collected over time after a given treatment or between samples exposed to different treatments were studied further. These metabolites were categorized into six main groups: amino acids and their isoforms (10), amino acid derivatives (7), sugars and polyols (14), organic acids (12), fatty acids (4), and others (8). All of these groups are involved in various metabolic pathways, in particular galactose metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism. These results suggested that energy metabolism is important at the metabolic level in dormancy release following GA4 treatment. We also found that more than 10-fold differences in abundance were observed for many metabolites, including sucrose, proline, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, which might play important roles during the dormancy process. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in budburst and dormancy release in response to GA4 and provides a theoretical basis for applying GA4 to release dormancy. PMID:26504583

  3. Comparative proteomic and transcriptomic approaches to address the active role of GA4 in Japanese apricot flower bud dormancy release

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Weibing; Gao, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Hormones are closely associated with dormancy in deciduous fruit trees, and gibberellins (GAs) are known to be particularly important. In this study, we observed that GA4 treatment led to earlier bud break in Japanese apricot. To understand better the promoting effect of GA4 on the dormancy release of Japanese apricot flower buds, proteomic and transcriptomic approaches were used to analyse the mechanisms of dormancy release following GA4 treatment, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling, respectively. More than 600 highly reproducible protein spots (P<0.05) were detected and, following GA4 treatment, 38 protein spots showed more than a 2-fold difference in expression, and 32 protein spots were confidently identified according to the databases. Compared with water treatment, many proteins that were associated with energy metabolism and oxidation–reduction showed significant changes after GA4 treatment, which might promote dormancy release. We observed that genes at the mRNA level associated with energy metabolism and oxidation–reduction also played an important role in this process. Analysis of the functions of the identified proteins and genes and the related metabolic pathways would provide a comprehensive proteomic and transcriptomic view of the coordination of dormancy release after GA4 treatment in Japanese apricot flower buds. PMID:24014872

  4. Latitudinal variation in sensitivity of flower bud formation to high temperature in Japanese Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    Control of flowering time plays a key role in the successful range expansion of plants. Taraxacum officinale has expanded throughout Japan during the 110 years after it was introduced into a cool temperate region. The present study tested a hypothesis that there is a genetic difference in the bud formation time in relation to temperature along latitudinal gradient of T. officinale populations. In Experiment 1, plants from three populations at different latitudes (26, 36, and 43°N) were grown at three temperatures. Time to flower bud appearance did not significantly differ among the three populations when plants were grown at 14 °C, whereas it increased with increasing latitude when grown at 19 and 24 °C. Rosette diameter was not different among the populations, indicating that the variation in bud formation time reflected a difference in genetic control rather than size variation. The latitudinal variation in bud appearance time was confirmed by Experiment 2 in which plants from 17 population were used. In Experiment 3, the size of plants that exhibited late-flowering was studied to test a hypothesis that the variation in flowering time reflects dormancy of vegetative growth, but the late-flowering plants were found to continue growth, indicating that vegetative dormancy was not the cause of the variation. The results clearly indicate that the degree of suppression of flower bud formation at high temperature decreases with latitude from north to south, which is under genetic control. PMID:24585133

  5. Flower color changes in three Japanese hibiscus species: further quantitative variation of anthocyanin and flavonols.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Satoshi; Iwashina, Tsukasa; Murakami, Noriaki

    2015-03-01

    One anthocyanin and four flavonols were detected from the petals of Hibiscus hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber. They were identified as cyanidin 3-0- sambubioside, gossypetin 3-O-glucuronide-8-O-glucoside, quercetin 7-O-rutinoside, gossypetin 3-O-glucoside and gossypetin 8-O-glucuronide by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC. The flavonoid composition was essentially the same among the petals ofH. hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber, and there was little quantitative variation, except for cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside, the content of which in the petals ofH. tiliaceus and H. glaber was much higher than in that of H. hamabo. Flower colors of H. tiliaceus and H. glaber change from yellow to red, and that of H. hamabo changes from yellow to orange. These changes were caused by contents of anthocyanin and flavonols, which increased after flowering of H. hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber. PMID:25924527

  6. A Stowaway transposon disrupts the InWDR1 gene controlling flower and seed coloration in a medicinal cultivar of the Japanese morning glory.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Atsushi; Yoneda, Yoshiaki; Kuboyama, Tsutomu

    2016-07-20

    Floricultural cultivars of the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil) carry transposons of the Tpn1 family as active spontaneous mutagens. Half of the characterized mutations related to floricultural traits were caused by insertion of Tpn1 family elements. In addition, mutations comprising insertions of several bp, presumed to be footprints generated by transposon excisions, were also found. Among these, ca-1 and ca-2 are 7-bp insertions at the same position in the InWDR1 gene, which encodes a multifunctional transcription regulator. InWDR1 enhances anthocyanin pigmentation in blue flowers and red stems, and promotes dark brown seed pigmentation as well as seed-trichome formation. The recessive ca mutants show white flowers and whitish seeds. We characterized here a white flower and whitish seed line that is used as a medicinal herb. The mutant line carries a novel ca allele named ca-3, which is the InWDR1 gene carrying an insertion of a Stowaway-like transposon, InSto1. The ca-3 allele is the first example of a mutation induced by transposons other than those in the Tpn1 family in I. nil. Because InSto1 and the 7-bp putative footprints are inserted at identical positions in InWDR1, ca-3 is likely to be the ancestor of ca-1 and ca-2. According to Japanese historical records on whitish seeds of I. nil, putative ca mutants appeared at the end of the 17th century, at the latest. This is around one hundred years before the appearance of many floricultural mutants. This suggests that ca-3 is one of the oldest mutations, and that its origin is different from that of most floricultural mutations in I. nil. PMID:27074980

  7. Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

  8. Using daily temperature to predict phenology trends in spring flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Soo-Ock; Kim, Dae-Jun; Moon, Kyung Hwan; Yun, Jin I.

    2015-05-01

    The spring season in Korea features a dynamic landscape with a variety of flowers blooming sequentially one after another. This enables local governments to earn substantial sightseeing revenues by hosting festivals featuring spring flowers. Furthermore, beekeepers move from the southern tip of the Korean Peninsula all the way northward in a quest to secure spring flowers as nectar sources for a sustained period of time. However, areal differences in flowering dates of flower species are narrowing, which has economic consequences. Analysis of data on flowering dates of forsythia ( Forsythia koreana) and cherry blossom ( Prunus serrulata), two typical spring flower species, as observed for the past 60 years at six weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) indicated that the difference between the flowering date of forsythia, the earliest blooming flower in spring, and cherry blossom, which flowers later than forsythia, was 14 days on average in the climatological normal year for the period 1951-1980, compared with 11 days for the period 1981-2010. In 2014, the gap narrowed further to 7 days, making it possible in some locations to see forsythias and cherry blossoms blooming at the same time. Synchronized flowering of these two flower species is due to acceleration of flowering due to an abnormally high spring temperature, and this was more pronounced in the later-blooming cherry blossom than forsythia. While cherry blossom flowering dates across the nation ranged from March 31 to April 19 (an areal difference of 20 days) for the 1951-1980 normal year, the difference ranged from March 29 to April 12 (an areal difference of 16 days) for the 1981-2010 normal year, and in 2014, the flowering dates spanned March 25 and March 30 (an areal difference of 6 days). In the case of forsythia, the gap was narrower than in cherry blossoms. Climate change in the Korean Peninsula, reflected by rapid temperature hikes in late spring in contrast to a slow

  9. Effect of extending the photoperiod with low-intensity red or far-red light on the timing of shoot elongation and flower-bud formation of 1-year-old Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Saito, Takanori; Nishijima, Takaaki; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effects of light quality (wavelength) on shoot elongation and flower-bud formation in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai), we treated 1-year-old trees with the following: (i) 8 h sunlight + 16 h dark (SD); (ii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h red light (LD(SD + R)); or (iii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h far-red (FR) light (LD(SD + FR)) daily for 4 months from early April (before the spring flush) until early August in 2009 and 2010. In both years, shoot elongation stopped earlier in the LD(SD + FR) treatment than in the SD and LD(SD + R) treatments. After 4 months of treatments, 21% (2009) or 40% (2010) of LD(SD + FR)-treated trees formed flower buds in the shoot apices, whereas all the shoot apices from SD or LD(SD + R)-treated plants remained vegetative. With an additional experiment conducted in 2012, we confirmed that FR light at 730 nm was the most efficacious wavelength to induce flower-bud formation. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of two floral meristem identity gene orthologues, LEAFY (PpLFY2a) and APETALA1 (PpMADS2-1a), were up-regulated in the shoot apex of LD(SD + FR). In contrast, the expression of a flowering repressor gene, TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (PpTFL1-1a, PpTFL1-2a), was down-regulated. In addition, expression of an orthologue of the flower-promoting gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (PpFT1a) was positively correlated with flower-bud formation, although the expression of another orthologue, PpFT2a, was negatively correlated with shoot growth. Biologically active cytokinin and gibberellic acid concentrations in shoot apices were reduced with LD(SD + FR) treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that pear plants are able to regulate flowering in response to the R : FR ratio. Furthermore, LD(SD + FR) treatment terminated shoot elongation and subsequent flower-bud formation in the shoot apex at an earlier time, possibly by influencing the expression of flowering-related genes and modifying

  10. Flowers, Beautiful Flowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the lesson described, the middle school students had been studying the artist Georgia O'Keeffe and the history of her work. Students enhanced their flower portraits by adding a matching border and connecting the lesson to other subject areas. Students dissected a flower and drew a small diagram of the flower and labeled the parts. This is an…

  11. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants. PMID:26940832

  12. Inheritance of pink flower color in Styrax japonicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most Styrax japonicus (Japanese snowbell) cultivars produce white flowers, but a few pink-flowered forms have been reported. ‘Pink Chimes’ is the most widely grown pink-flowered form and the only S. japonicus cultivar with deep pink flowers that hold their color even under hot growing conditions. ...

  13. 7 CFR 930.3 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cherries. 930.3 Section 930.3 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... Definitions § 930.3 Cherries. Cherries means all tart/sour cherry varieties grown in the production...

  14. 7 CFR 930.3 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cherries. 930.3 Section 930.3 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... Definitions § 930.3 Cherries. Cherries means all tart/sour cherry varieties grown in the production...

  15. 7 CFR 930.3 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cherries. 930.3 Section 930.3 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... Definitions § 930.3 Cherries. Cherries means all tart/sour cherry varieties grown in the production...

  16. 7 CFR 930.3 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cherries. 930.3 Section 930.3 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... Definitions § 930.3 Cherries. Cherries means all tart/sour cherry varieties grown in the production...

  17. 7 CFR 930.3 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cherries. 930.3 Section 930.3 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... Definitions § 930.3 Cherries. Cherries means all tart/sour cherry varieties grown in the production...

  18. Flower Parts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents ideas for spring flower displays. Has students constructing their own interactive flower displays as extra-credit assignments to reinforce vocabulary and scientific concepts, and modeling flowers with household items. (JRH)

  19. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P.; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar `Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  20. Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid feeds on barley, oats, rye, triticale, and wheat by sucking plant juices. Its feeding may stunt plants and lead to yield loss, but it does not cause symptoms of yellowing and leaf curling. Bird cherry-oat aphid is also a vector of barley yellow dwarf virus. Biological, cultu...

  1. 7 CFR 923.5 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cherries. 923.5 Section 923.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.5 Cherries. Cherries means all varieties...

  2. 7 CFR 923.5 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cherries. 923.5 Section 923.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.5 Cherries. Cherries means all varieties...

  3. 7 CFR 923.5 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cherries. 923.5 Section 923.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.5 Cherries. Cherries means all varieties...

  4. 7 CFR 923.5 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cherries. 923.5 Section 923.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.5 Cherries. Cherries means all varieties...

  5. 7 CFR 923.5 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cherries. 923.5 Section 923.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.5 Cherries. Cherries means all varieties...

  6. Blob Flowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project called blob flowers in which fifth-grade students created pictures of flowers using watercolor and markers. Explains that the lesson incorporates ideas from art and science. Discusses in detail how the students created their flowers. (CMK)

  7. Maraschino Cherry: A Laboratory-Lecture Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Oregon State Univ. has offered FST 102 "Maraschino Cherry" as a 1-credit orientation course since 1994. The maraschino cherry serves as a vehicle from which faculty give their disciplinary perspective, for example, the chemistry of the maraschino cherry, processing unit operations, microbiology and food safety, food law, sensory analysis, product…

  8. Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Benítez, Mariana; Corvera-Poiré, Adriana; Chaos Cador, Álvaro; de Folter, Stefan; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice; Jaimes-Miranda, Fabiola; Pérez-Ruiz, Rigoberto V.; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E.

    2010-01-01

    Flowers are the most complex structures of plants. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana, which has typical eudicot flowers, have been fundamental in advancing the structural and molecular understanding of flower development. The main processes and stages of Arabidopsis flower development are summarized to provide a framework in which to interpret the detailed molecular genetic studies of genes assigned functions during flower development and is extended to recent genomics studies uncovering the key regulatory modules involved. Computational models have been used to study the concerted action and dynamics of the gene regulatory module that underlies patterning of the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem and specification of the primordial cell types during early stages of flower development. This includes the gene combinations that specify sepal, petal, stamen and carpel identity, and genes that interact with them. As a dynamic gene regulatory network this module has been shown to converge to stable multigenic profiles that depend upon the overall network topology and are thus robust, which can explain the canalization of flower organ determination and the overall conservation of the basic flower plan among eudicots. Comparative and evolutionary approaches derived from Arabidopsis studies pave the way to studying the molecular basis of diverse floral morphologies. PMID:22303253

  9. Validation of the hybrid flowering cherry Prunus xincam Ingram (Rosaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This contribution provides scientific validation for a widely-used scientific name of a nothospecies in Prunus sect. Pseudocerasus. This name has been used informally for many years, but without the publication of a full description in a recognized journal and the designation of a type specimen the ...

  10. Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    • The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) is an important vector of barley yellow dwarf viruses that affect wheat and other small-grain crops, but the aphid may also cause direct feeding damage to wheat. • Various plant-resistance modalities and natural enemies are not equally applicable in s...

  11. Ireland's Cherry Orchard National School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Cuiv, Shan

    2007-01-01

    This recently completed primary school illustrates how architecture can contribute to creating a safe and warm environment in a difficult area and can meet the particular needs of the student community. In its first year in operation, Cherry Orchard National School is proving to be a successful project. Presented here are the architectural…

  12. Chopping Down the Cherry Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Jerry

    1995-01-01

    Attempts once again to put to rest the infamous "I cannot tell a lie" episode involving George Washington and a downed cherry tree. Appends an editor's note that states that William Bennett's "The Children's Book of Virtues" which perpetuates this infamous piece of "fakelore." (RS)

  13. Japanese; Japanese Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…

  14. Flowers & Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the topics and teaching strategies employed in an Issues in Biology course. Discusses flowers, plant breeding, potatoes and tomatoes, the chocolate tree, weeds, Arabidopis, gene transfers, and plant genes/human genes. Contains 22 references. (JRH)

  15. 77 FR 12103 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Colorful Realm: Japanese...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...-Flower Paintings by It Jakuch (1716-1800)'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following... exhibition ``Colorful Realm: Japanese Bird-and-Flower Paintings by It Jakuch (1716-1800),'' imported...

  16. Open cherry picker simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The simulation program associated with a key piece of support equipment to be used to service satellites directly from the Shuttle is assessed. The Open Cherry Picker (OCP) is a manned platform mounted at the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) and is used to enhance extra vehicular activities (EVA). The results of simulations performed on the Grumman Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS) and at the JSC Water Immersion Facility are summarized.

  17. Sexual regeneration traits linked to black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.) invasiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pairon, Marie; Chabrerie, Olivier; Casado, Carolina Mainer; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-09-01

    In order to better understand the invasive capacity of black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.), the regeneration dynamics of the species was studied during two consecutive years in a Belgian Pine plantation. Flower and fruit production, seed rain, dispersal and viability as well as the survival of seedlings of different ages were assessed. Despite the low fruit/flower ratio, fruit production was high (up to 8940 fruits per tree) as trees produced huge quantities of flowers. Both flower and fruit productions were highly variable between years and among individuals. The production variability between individuals was not correlated with plant size variables. Fruits were ripe in early September and a majority fell in the vicinity of the parent tree. A wide range of bird species dispersed 18% of the fruits at the end of October. Sixty-two percent of the fruits were viable and mean densities of 611 fruits m -2 were recorded on the forest floor. High mortality among young seedlings was observed and 95.3% of the fruits failed to give 4-year-old saplings. Nevertheless, the few saplings older than 4 years (1.32 m -2) presented a high survival rate (86%). All these regeneration traits are discussed in order to determine the main factors explaining the black cherry invasive success in Europe.

  18. Speed, acceleration, chameleons and cherry pit projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific reasoning and how scientific knowledge is built.

  19. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  20. 7 CFR 930.15 - Restricted percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restricted percentage cherries. 930.15 Section 930.15... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Handling Definitions § 930.15 Restricted percentage cherries. Restricted percentage cherries means...

  1. 7 CFR 930.15 - Restricted percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted percentage cherries. 930.15 Section 930.15... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Handling Definitions § 930.15 Restricted percentage cherries. Restricted percentage cherries means...

  2. 7 CFR 930.15 - Restricted percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restricted percentage cherries. 930.15 Section 930.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Handling Definitions § 930.15 Restricted percentage cherries. Restricted percentage cherries means...

  3. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126... § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries by §...

  4. 7 CFR 930.15 - Restricted percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restricted percentage cherries. 930.15 Section 930.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Handling Definitions § 930.15 Restricted percentage cherries. Restricted percentage cherries means...

  5. Monitoring Drosophila suzukii Matsumura in Oregon, USA sweet cherry orchards.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii rapidly became a significant cherry pest in the western United States after it was observed damaging cherries in 2009 in California. It has caused significant damage to ripening cherries in all major USA cherry production districts leading to increased management costs and reduced...

  6. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126... § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries by §...

  7. 7 CFR 930.15 - Restricted percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restricted percentage cherries. 930.15 Section 930.15... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Handling Definitions § 930.15 Restricted percentage cherries. Restricted percentage cherries means...

  8. 7 CFR 930.8 - Free market tonnage percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Free market tonnage percentage cherries. 930.8 Section... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.8 Free market tonnage percentage cherries. Free market tonnage percentage cherries means that proportion of cherries handled in a crop year which are free to...

  9. 7 CFR 930.8 - Free market tonnage percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Free market tonnage percentage cherries. 930.8 Section... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.8 Free market tonnage percentage cherries. Free market tonnage percentage cherries means that proportion of cherries handled in a crop year which are free to...

  10. 7 CFR 930.8 - Free market tonnage percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Free market tonnage percentage cherries. 930.8 Section... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.8 Free market tonnage percentage cherries. Free market tonnage percentage cherries means that proportion of cherries handled in a crop year which are free to...

  11. 7 CFR 930.8 - Free market tonnage percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Free market tonnage percentage cherries. 930.8 Section... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.8 Free market tonnage percentage cherries. Free market tonnage percentage cherries means that proportion of cherries handled in a crop year which are free to...

  12. Cherry Irradiation Studies. 1984 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Hungate, F.P.; Tingey, G.L.; Olsen, K.L.; Fountain, J.B.; Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffit, H.R.; Johnson, D.A.; Lunden, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    Fresh cherries, cherry fruit fly larvae, and codling moth larvae were irradiated using the PNL cobalt-60 facility to determine the efficacy of irradiation treatment for insect disinfestation and potential shelf life extension. Irradiation is an effective disinfestation treatment with no significant degradation of fruit at doses well above those required for quarantine treatment. Sufficient codling moth control was achieved at projected doses of less than 25 krad; cherry fruit fly control, at projected doses of less than 15 krad. Dose levels up to 60 krad did not adversely affect cherry quality factors tested. Irradiation above 60 krad reduced the firmness of cherries but had no significant impact on other quality factors tested. Irradiation of cherries below 80 krad did not result in any significant differences in sensory evaluations (appearance, flavor, and firmness) in tests conducted at OSU. Irradiation up to 200 krad at a temperature of about 25/sup 0/C (77/sup 0/F) did not measurably extend shelf life. Irradiation at 500 krad at 25/sup 0/C (77/sup 0/F) increased mold and rotting of cherries tested. There is no apparent advantage of irradiation over low-temperature fumigation.

  13. Flowers in Their Variety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the diversity of flowers with regard to the flower paintings of Pierre-Joseph Redoute, books about flowers, and research in genetic studies. Discusses gardening flowers and flowering strategies and criticizes the fact that biology education has moved steadily away from plants. (KHR)

  14. Things Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shigeta, Jessie M.

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Japanese culture. Some of the items and activities described include Japanese musical instruments and records, toys and crafts, traditional clothing and accessories, and food utensils. Several recipes for Japanese dishes are provided. Lists of pertinent…

  15. Elevation of grove looking northeast toward Washington Monument 1910 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of grove looking northeast toward Washington Monument - 1910 Japanese Flowering Cherry Trees , East Potomac Golf Course, East Potomac Park, Hains Point vicinity, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Japanese language and Japanese science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  17. Lynne Cherry's World: A Celebration of Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winarski, Diana L.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles Lynne Cherry, author-illustrator whose books convey her interest in environmentalism and preserving natural resources. Describes her career, process of illustrating several recent books, and founding of the Center for Children's Environmental Literature in 1992. (TM)

  18. Invariant Measures for Cherry Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghin, Radu; Vargas, Edson

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the invariant probability measures for Cherry flows, i.e. flows on the two-torus which have a saddle, a source, and no other fixed points, closed orbits or homoclinic orbits. In the case when the saddle is dissipative or conservative we show that the only invariant probability measures are the Dirac measures at the two fixed points, and the Dirac measure at the saddle is the physical measure. In the other case we prove that there exists also an invariant probability measure supported on the quasi-minimal set, we discuss some situations when this other invariant measure is the physical measure, and conjecture that this is always the case. The main techniques used are the study of the integrability of the return time with respect to the invariant measure of the return map to a closed transversal to the flow, and the study of the close returns near the saddle.

  19. 75 FR 31663 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ...This rule revises the handling regulation for cherries under the Washington cherry marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington and is administered locally by the Washington Cherry Marketing Committee (Committee). This rule adds quality and pack requirements for Rainier cherries and other lightly-colored sweet cherry......

  20. Occurrence of Two Little Cherry Viruses in Sweet Cherry in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little cherry disease is one of the most damaging virus diseases of sweet cherries worldwide but remains poorly understood in both its distribution in the USA and the number of varieties of the disease that may occur. Diagnostic methods based on PCR for the LChV-1 strain were designed from the rep...

  1. 19. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at door to stairwell - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  2. 18. View of the second floor of the Cherry Hill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of the second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at door - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  3. 15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts looking towards the chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  4. 20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at floor area - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  5. 14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  6. 9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with chute building on the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  7. 3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking lot in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  8. 12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest showing office - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  9. 2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; chute building is in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  10. 6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, with chute building to the right - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  11. 16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up at the trusses of the second floor - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  12. 21. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards window - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  13. 22. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at double doors - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  14. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  15. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  16. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  17. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  18. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  19. 7 CFR 930.8 - Free market tonnage percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Free market tonnage percentage cherries. 930.8 Section... CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.8 Free market tonnage percentage cherries. Free...

  20. Complete nucleotide sequence of little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1) infecting sweet cherry in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1), associated with little cherry disease (LCD), has a significant impact on fruit quality of infected sweet cherry trees. We report the full genome sequence of an isolate of LChV-1 from China, detected by small RNA deep sequencing and amplified by overlapping RT-PCR. The...

  1. On-Line Sorting Maturity of Cherry Tomato Bymachine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinglong; Yin, Xiaoping; Xu, Tongyu; Zhao, Jiewen

    The cherry tomatoes online sorting according to their maturity is an important procedure after harvest. This research proposed an automated cherry tomato grading system base on machine vision. Three images of different angles are obtained from each cherry tomato, allowing the inspection of approximately 90% of the fruit surface. 9 features were extracted from the one cherry tomato images. In order to distinguish into three grades (immature, half ripe and ripe), Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the features. The PCA results show that ripe cherry tomatoes are distinguished from immature and half ripe ones. 414 cherry tomatoes were tested by the online sorting system. The overall accuracy was up to 94.9%. Furthermore, the grading speed of the sorting line reaches 7 cherry tomatoes per second which meet the actual demand of many farms.

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence of cherry virus A (CVA) infecting sweet cherry in India.

    PubMed

    Noorani, M S; Awasthi, P; Singh, Rahul Mohan; Ram, Raja; Sharma, M P; Singh, S R; Ahmed, N; Hallan, V; Zaidi, A A

    2010-12-01

    Cherry virus A (CVA) is a graft-transmissible member of the genus Capillovirus that infects different stone fruits. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L; family Rosaceae) is an important deciduous temperate fruit crop in the Western Himalayan region of India. In order to determine the health status of cherry plantations and the incidence of the virus in India, cherry orchards in the states of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and Himachal Pradesh (H.P.) were surveyed during the months of May and September 2009. The incidence of CVA was found to be 28 and 13% from J&K and H.P., respectively, by RT-PCR. In order to characterize the virus at the molecular level, the complete genome was amplified by RT-PCR using specific primers. The amplicon of about 7.4 kb was sequenced and was found to be 7,379 bp long, with sequence specificity to CVA. The genome organization was similar to that of isolates characterized earlier, coding for two ORFs, in which ORF 2 is nested in ORF1. The complete sequence was 81 and 84% similar to that of the type isolate at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively, with 5' and 3' UTRs of 54 and 299 nucleotides, respectively. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence of cherry virus A infecting sweet cherry in India. PMID:20938696

  3. Lynne Cherry's "A River Ran Wild."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Carolyn; Brent, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Paraphrases the book "A River Ran Wild" by Lynne Cherry, contrasts how Native American and European settlers use a river, and discusses the pollution and cleanup of the river. Provides classroom discussion questions, and individual or group activities in language arts, art, role-playing, geography, and interviewing. Includes an annotated…

  4. Detection of pits in fresh cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are a number of x-ray imaging techniques that could be implemented for the detection of pits in cherries, including linescan and real-time imaging using an image intensifier and CCD camera. However, x-ray imaging equipment is both expensive and bulky, and implementation on the processing line ...

  5. Design a Hummingbird Flower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)

  6. Development of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Related to the Phenology of Blueberry, Blackberry, Strawberry Guava, and Surinam Cherry Fruits.

    PubMed

    Bisognin, M; Nava, D E; Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Valgas, R A; Garcia, M S; Krolow, A C R; Antunes, L E C

    2015-02-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) is the main pest of temperate climate orcharding. The study investigated the development of A. fraterculus related to phenological stage of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees. The phenological stages I (green fruits), II (intermediate ripening stage of fruits), and III (fruits close to harvesting) were determined, and they are from 8th, 10th, and 11th week; 6th, 8th, and 9th week; 8th, 13th, and 16th week; and 5th, 6th, and 7th week after the first flowering of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees, respectively. We collected fruits from orchards to determine the infestation index using the formula: number of pupa/fruit weight. To investigate the development of A. fraterculus, we determined the following biological parameters: egg-to-adult period, weight of pupae, oviposition period, fecundity, number of pupae, and number of infested fruits. The infestation index for the fruits collected in the field was greater in strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits. In the laboratory, the development of A. fraterculus occurred in stage III of blueberry. In blackberry, besides stage III, we also observed the development in stage II, however, at lower infestation. In strawberry guava, the development of A. fraterulus occurred in stages II and III, and the development in both stages was similar. For Surinam cherry, the development occurred in the three phenological stages with similar values for biological parameters. Overall, of the four hosts studied, the strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits allowed a better biological development of A. fraterculus, corroborating its preference for fruits native to Brazil. PMID:26470120

  7. The oxygen supply to thermogenic flowers.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Ito, Kikukatsu; Umekawa, Yui; Matthews, Philip D G; Pirintsos, Stergios Arg

    2015-04-01

    Thermogenic flowers produce heat by intense respiration, and the rates of O2 consumption (Ṁo2) in some species can exceed those of all other tissues of plants and most animals. By exposing intact flowers to a range of O2 pressures (Po2) and measuring Ṁo2, we demonstrate that the highest respiration rates exceed the capacity of the O2 diffusive pathway and become diffusion limited in atmospheric air. The male florets on the inflorescence of Arum concinnatum have the highest known mass-specific Ṁo2 and can be severely diffusion limited. Intact spadices of Japanese skunk cabbage Symplocarpus renifolius are diffusion limited in air only when Ṁo2 is maximal, but not at lower levels. True flowers of the sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera and the appendix of Arum concinnatum are never diffusion limited in air. Ṁo2 - Po2 curves are evaluated quantitatively with the 'Regulation Index', a new tool to measure dependence of Ṁo2 on ambient Po2 , as well as the conventional 'Critical Po2 '. The study also includes measurements of Po2 within thermogenic tissues with O2-sensitive fibre optics, and reveals that the diffusion pathway is complicated and that O2 can be provided not only from the surface of the tissues but also from the pith of the flower's peduncle. PMID:25256124

  8. Identification of chilling and heat requirements of cherry trees—a statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedeling, Eike; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M.

    2013-09-01

    Most trees from temperate climates require the accumulation of winter chill and subsequent heat during their dormant phase to resume growth and initiate flowering in the following spring. Global warming could reduce chill and hence hamper the cultivation of high-chill species such as cherries. Yet determining chilling and heat requirements requires large-scale controlled-forcing experiments, and estimates are thus often unavailable. Where long-term phenology datasets exist, partial least squares (PLS) regression can be used as an alternative, to determine climatic requirements statistically. Bloom dates of cherry cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' trees in Klein-Altendorf, Germany, from 24 growing seasons were correlated with 11-day running means of daily mean temperature. Based on the output of the PLS regression, five candidate chilling periods ranging in length from 17 to 102 days, and one forcing phase of 66 days were delineated. Among three common chill models used to quantify chill, the Dynamic Model showed the lowest variation in chill, indicating that it may be more accurate than the Utah and Chilling Hours Models. Based on the longest candidate chilling phase with the earliest starting date, cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' cherries at Bonn exhibited a chilling requirement of 68.6 ± 5.7 chill portions (or 1,375 ± 178 chilling hours or 1,410 ± 238 Utah chill units) and a heat requirement of 3,473 ± 1,236 growing degree hours. Closer investigation of the distinct chilling phases detected by PLS regression could contribute to our understanding of dormancy processes and thus help fruit and nut growers identify suitable tree cultivars for a future in which static climatic conditions can no longer be assumed. All procedures used in this study were bundled in an R package (`chillR') and are provided as Supplementary materials. The procedure was also applied to leaf emergence dates of walnut (cv. `Payne') at Davis, California.

  9. Japanese Characters in Written Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James H.

    From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…

  10. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Washington cherry handling regulation. 923.322 Section... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Grade, Size, Container...

  11. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Washington cherry handling regulation. 923.322 Section... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Grade, Size, Container...

  12. Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L., is a serious pest of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., world-wide. It is the most efficient vector of barley yellow dwarf virus, the most important viral disease of small grains in the world. Not all bird cherry-oat aphids acquire the virus while feeding on ...

  13. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... percent, by count, of such cherries in any lot must exhibit a pink-to-red surface blush and, for any given sample, not more than 20 percent of the cherries shall be absent a pink-to-red surface blush. (2)...

  14. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... percent, by count, of such cherries in any lot must exhibit a pink-to-red surface blush and, for any given sample, not more than 20 percent of the cherries shall be absent a pink-to-red surface blush. (2)...

  15. First Report of Cherry virus A in Sweet Cherry Trees in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants in the genus Prunus of the family Rosaceae are important ornamental and fruit trees in China (1). In June 2007, sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees with mottling and mosaic symptoms were observed in a private garden near Kunming, Yunnan Province. Twenty-four samples were then collected from swe...

  16. Development and evaluation of a genome-wide 6K SNP array for diploid sweet cherry and tetraploid sour cherry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus). This effort was led by RosBREED, a commun...

  17. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  18. 7 CFR 930.54 - Prohibition on the use or disposition of inventory reserve cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reserve cherries. 930.54 Section 930.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH... disposition of inventory reserve cherries. Cherries that are placed in inventory reserve pursuant to...

  19. 7 CFR 930.54 - Prohibition on the use or disposition of inventory reserve cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... reserve cherries. 930.54 Section 930.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH... disposition of inventory reserve cherries. Cherries that are placed in inventory reserve pursuant to...

  20. 7 CFR 930.54 - Prohibition on the use or disposition of inventory reserve cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reserve cherries. 930.54 Section 930.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH... disposition of inventory reserve cherries. Cherries that are placed in inventory reserve pursuant to...

  1. 7 CFR 930.54 - Prohibition on the use or disposition of inventory reserve cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reserve cherries. 930.54 Section 930.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH... disposition of inventory reserve cherries. Cherries that are placed in inventory reserve pursuant to...

  2. 7 CFR 930.54 - Prohibition on the use or disposition of inventory reserve cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reserve cherries. 930.54 Section 930.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH... disposition of inventory reserve cherries. Cherries that are placed in inventory reserve pursuant to...

  3. Prunus x sieboldii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Siebold flowering cherry, Prunus x sieboldii, is an underutilized Japanese cherry ideal for today’s modern landscapes. First introduced from Japan nearly 150 years ago, Siebold cherry is now a rare taxon found primarily in botanic gardens and arboreta. The United States National Arboretum has one ...

  4. Say it with flowers

    PubMed Central

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings. PMID:24598343

  5. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  6. Differences in body size and egg loads of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from introduced and native cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, infests introduced, domesticated sweet [Prunus avium (L.) L.] and tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) as well as native bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas) Eaton. Bitter cherries are smaller than sweet and tart cherries and this coul...

  7. Handling Japanese without a Japanese Operating System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatasa, Kazumi; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The Macintosh HyperCard environment has become a popular platform for Japanese language courseware because of its flexibility and ease of programing. This project created Japanese bitmap font files for the JIS Levels 1 and 2, and writing XFCNs for font manipulation, Japanese kana input, and answer correction. (12 references) (Author/LB)

  8. Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Nabeshima, T; Buerano, C C

    2015-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an inflammation of the central nervous system in humans and animals, specifically horses and cattle. The disease, which can sometimes be fatal, is caused by the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), of which there are five genotypes (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The transmission cycle of the virus involves pigs and wild birds as virus amplifiers and mosquitoes as vectors for transferring the virus between amplifying hosts and to dead- end hosts, i.e. humans, horses and cattle. In horses and cattle the disease is usually asymptomatic, but when clinical signs do occur they include fever, decreased appetite, frothing at the mouth, rigidity of the legs and recumbency, and neurological signs, such as convulsive fits, circling, marked depression and disordered consciousness. In pigs, it can cause abortion and stillbirths. At present, the virus is detected in a wide area covering eastern and southern Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. JEV RNA has also been detected in Italy, first in dead birds in 1997 and 2000 and then in mosquitoes in 2010. Genotype shift, i.e. a change of genotype from genotype 3 to genotype 1, has occurred in some countries, namely Japan, South Korea, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam. Laboratory methods are available for confirming the causative agent of the disease. There are control measures to prevent or minimise infection and, among them, vaccination is one of the most important and one which should be adopted in endemic and epidemic areas. PMID:26601447

  9. Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909

  10. Development of the Potential for Cyanogenesis in Maturing Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Elisabeth; Li, Chun Ping; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical changes related to cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide production) were monitored during maturation of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits. At weekly intervals from flowering until maturity, fruits (or selected parts thereof) were analyzed for (a) fresh and dry weights, (b) prunasin and amygdalin levels, and (c) levels of the catabolic enzymes amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. During phase I (0-28 days after flowering [DAF]), immature fruits accumulated prunasin (mean: 3 micromoles/fruit) but were acyanogenic because they lacked the above enzymes. Concomitant with cotyledon development during mid-phase II, the seeds began accumulating both amygdalin (mean: 3 micromoles/seed) and the catabolic enzymes and were highly cyanogenic upon tissue disruption. Meanwhile, prunasin levels rapidly declined and were negligible by maturity. During phases II (29-65 DAF) and III (66-81 DAF), the pericarp also accumulated amygdalin, whereas its prunasin content declined toward maturity. Lacking the catabolic enzymes, the pericarp remained acyanogenic throughout all developmental stages. ImagesFigure 2Figure 4 PMID:16668810

  11. Molecular simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus by real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melting analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, real-time RT-PCR assays were combined with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) infection in sweet cherry trees. Detection of CNRMV and CGRMV was performed using a...

  12. Cherry picker at end of Train Shed with arm fully ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cherry picker at end of Train Shed with arm fully extended and photographer in bucket - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  13. Paleoflood investigations for Cherry Creek Basin, Eastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    In 1950 when Cherry Creek dam, which is located in Denver. Colorado, was completed, the design flood was 5,126 m3/s. Two recent probable maximum flood (PMF) estimates for the dam range from 14,840 to 18,750 m 3/s demonstrate the uncertainty in estimating extreme flooding in eastern Colorado. PMF difference is due in part to a lack of extreme rainfall and flood data in eastern Colorado. A paleoflood study was conducted to assist dam-safety officials in assessing the risk of large floods in Cherry Creek basin. An envelope curve encompassing maximum contemporary floods (19 sites) and paleofloods (99 sites) was developed for Cherry Creek basin streams; paleoflood data reflect maximum flooding during the last few hundred to many thousands of years. Maximum paleofloods in Cherry Creek range from about 1,050 m 3/s near Franktown (in about 5,000 to at least 10,000 years), about 2,100 m3/s near Melvin (in about 1,500 to 5,000 years), and about 2,270 m3/s at Cherry Creek Reservoir (also in about 1,500 to 5,000 years). Flood-frequency relations for Cherry Creek, which incorporate paleoflood data, indicate the 10,000-year flood (10-4 annual exceedence probability) ranges from about 1,200 m3/s (near Franktown) to about 2,200 m3/s (near Melvin). PMF estimates are about six to eight times larger than paleofloods in Cherry Creek basin. Additional research in flood hydrometeorology is needed to help dam safety officials evaluate potential safety problems related to large floods in Cherry Creek basin. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  14. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  15. Combined heat and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for control of western cherry fruit fly in sweet cherries.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

    2006-06-01

    Nonchemical quarantine treatments, using a combination of short duration high temperatures under low oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide atmospheric environment were developed to control western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.). The two treatments developed use a chamber temperature of 45 degrees C for 45 min and a chamber temperature of 47 degreesd C for 25 min, both under a 1% oxygen, 15% carbon dioxide, -2 degrees C dew point environment. Both these treatments have been shown to provide control of all life stages of western cherry fruit fly while preserving commodity market quality. There was no definitive egg or larval stage, which was demonstrated to be the most tolerant to either controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system treatment. Efficacy tests for both treatments resulted in 100% mortality of >5000 western cherry fruit flies in each treatment. These treatments may provide, with further study, quarantine security in exported sweet cherries where western cherry fruit fly is a quarantine concern and fumigation with methyl bromide is not desired. PMID:16813295

  16. Flower constancy in insect pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Ratnieks, Francis L.W.

    2011-01-01

    As first noted by Aristotle in honeybee workers, many insect pollinators show a preference to visit flowers of just one species during a foraging trip. This “flower constancy” probably benefits plants, because pollen is more likely to be deposited on conspecific stigmas. But it is less clear why insects should ignore rewarding alternative flowers. Many researchers have argued that flower constancy is caused by constraints imposed by insect nervous systems rather than because flower constancy is itself an efficient foraging method. We argue that this view is unsatisfactory because it both fails to explain why foragers flexibly adjust the degree of flower constancy and does not explain why foragers of closely related species show different degrees of constancy. While limitations of the nervous system exist and are likely to influence flower constancy to some degree, the observed behavioural flexibility suggests that flower constancy is a successful foraging strategy given the insect’s own information about different foraging options. PMID:22446521

  17. Origins of flower morphology.

    PubMed

    Endress, P K

    2001-08-15

    Flowers evolved in many steps, probably starting long before flowering plants (angiophytes) originated. Certain parts of flowers are conservative and have not changed much during evolution; others are evolutionarily highly plastic. Here conservative features are discussed and an attempt is made to trace them back through their evolutionary history. Microsporangia and ovules (which develop into seeds) are preangiophyte floral elements. Angiospermy, combined with postgenital fusion, was the most prominent key innovation in angiophytes. Angiospermy and thecal organization of stamens originated earlier than all clades of extant angiosperms (the crown group of angiophytes). Differentiation of a perianth into calyx and corolla and syncarpy appeared after the first branching of the basalmost clades of extant angiosperms. Sympetaly and floral tubes as well as tenuinucellar, unitegmic ovules originated as major innovations in the clade that led to asterids. An obvious trend in flower evolution is increased synorganisation of parts, which led to new structures. Fixation of floral organ number and position was a precondition for synorganization. Concomitantly, plasticity changed from number and position of organs to shape of the new structures. Character distribution mapped onto cladograms indicates that key innovations do not appear suddenly, but start with trials and only later become deeply rooted genetically in the organization. This is implied from the common occurrence of reversals in the early history of an innovation. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 291:105-115, 2001. PMID:11479912

  18. Identification of chilling and heat requirements of cherry trees--a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Luedeling, Eike; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-09-01

    Most trees from temperate climates require the accumulation of winter chill and subsequent heat during their dormant phase to resume growth and initiate flowering in the following spring. Global warming could reduce chill and hence hamper the cultivation of high-chill species such as cherries. Yet determining chilling and heat requirements requires large-scale controlled-forcing experiments, and estimates are thus often unavailable. Where long-term phenology datasets exist, partial least squares (PLS) regression can be used as an alternative, to determine climatic requirements statistically. Bloom dates of cherry cv. 'Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' trees in Klein-Altendorf, Germany, from 24 growing seasons were correlated with 11-day running means of daily mean temperature. Based on the output of the PLS regression, five candidate chilling periods ranging in length from 17 to 102 days, and one forcing phase of 66 days were delineated. Among three common chill models used to quantify chill, the Dynamic Model showed the lowest variation in chill, indicating that it may be more accurate than the Utah and Chilling Hours Models. Based on the longest candidate chilling phase with the earliest starting date, cv. 'Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' cherries at Bonn exhibited a chilling requirement of 68.6 ± 5.7 chill portions (or 1,375 ± 178 chilling hours or 1,410 ± 238 Utah chill units) and a heat requirement of 3,473 ± 1,236 growing degree hours. Closer investigation of the distinct chilling phases detected by PLS regression could contribute to our understanding of dormancy processes and thus help fruit and nut growers identify suitable tree cultivars for a future in which static climatic conditions can no longer be assumed. All procedures used in this study were bundled in an R package ('chillR') and are provided as Supplementary materials. The procedure was also applied to leaf emergence dates of walnut (cv. 'Payne') at Davis, California. PMID

  19. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    PubMed

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease. PMID:23525699

  20. Single-molecule localization microscopy using mCherry.

    PubMed

    Winterflood, Christian M; Ewers, Helge

    2014-11-10

    We demonstrate the potential of the commonly used red fluorescent protein mCherry for single-molecule super-resolution imaging. mCherry can be driven into a light-induced dark state in the presence of a thiol from which it can recover spontaneously or by irradiation with near UV light. We show imaging of subcellular protein structures such as microtubules and the nuclear pore complex with a resolution below 40 nm. We were able to image the C-terminus of the nuclear pore protein POM121, which is on the inside of the pore and not readily accessible for external labeling. The photon yield for mCherry is comparable to that of the latest optical highlighter fluorescent proteins. Our findings show that the widely used mCherry red fluorescent protein and the vast number of existing mCherry fusion proteins are readily amenable to super-resolution imaging. This obviates the need for generating novel protein fusions that may compromise function or the need for external fluorescent labeling. PMID:25111075

  1. Reinspiring Japanese Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Shuji

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of the history of modern Japanese education, its early modernization, and the policy of intertwining the Japanese ideology with Western technology. Proposes the establishment of a new Buddhist-inspired philosophy of education. (GLR)

  2. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A”...

  3. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52..., AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  4. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A”...

  5. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of frozen red tart pitted...

  6. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of frozen red tart pitted...

  7. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52..., AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  8. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52..., AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  9. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A”...

  10. 7 CFR 930.29 - Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry Administrative Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry... AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON... Cherry Industry Administrative Board. (a) Each grower member and each grower alternate member of...

  11. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  12. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52... for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label Net weight...

  13. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52... for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label Net weight...

  14. 7 CFR 930.29 - Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry Administrative Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry... AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON... Cherry Industry Administrative Board. (a) Each grower member and each grower alternate member of...

  15. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52.784 Section 52.784 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  16. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52.784 Section 52.784 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  17. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  18. 76 FR 46651 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 923 Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated... sweet cherry growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington. DATES: The referendum will...

  19. 7 CFR 930.29 - Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry Administrative Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry... AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON... Cherry Industry Administrative Board. (a) Each grower member and each grower alternate member of...

  20. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52.784 Section 52.784 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  1. 7 CFR 930.29 - Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry Administrative Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry... AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON... Cherry Industry Administrative Board. (a) Each grower member and each grower alternate member of...

  2. 76 FR 65357 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ...This rule changes the grower diversion regulations prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries (order). The order regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin and is administered locally by the Cherry Industry Administrative Board (Board). This rule suspends indefinitely the regulations......

  3. 75 FR 10442 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 923 Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... currently prescribed for cherries under the Washington cherry marketing order. The marketing order...

  4. 7 CFR 930.29 - Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry Administrative Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry... Cherry Industry Administrative Board. (a) Each grower member and each grower alternate member of the... shall be prohibited from having any financial interest in the cherry industry and shall possess...

  5. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  6. Bullying in Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    Noting that although many Western educators praise the Japanese educational system because of its students' academic achievements, schools in Japan have developed severe and prevalent problems with student bullying. This paper examines the problem of bullying in Japanese schools. Part 1 of the paper reviews bullying incidents in Japanese schools…

  7. Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

  8. Comparative Freezing Patterns in Stems of Cherry and Azalea 1

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Frank G.; Lumis, Glen P.; Olien, C. Robert

    1972-01-01

    Ice formation in stems, as determined by means of an electrophoretic mobility technique, occurs much more rapidly in azalea than in sour cherry. The difference is more marked in the bark than in the wood. Disrupting the structure of the tissues completely eliminates differences in freezing patterns, although gross anatomical differences do not appear to account for differences in species response. Microscopic examination of frozen stems indicated that little redistribution of water occurred during freezing in azalea, and the tissues were disrupted as these crystals developed. In cherry, on the other hand, water diffused to nucleating centers where crystal growth was not opposed, giving rise to “glaciers.” PMID:16658210

  9. Determination of some B Vitamins in Sour Cherry Juice Using Dispersive Liquid-liquid Microextraction Followed by High-performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Parsaei, Parvin; Bahmaei, Manouchehr; Ghannadi, AliReza

    2014-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (DLLME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was used to determine thiamine (B1), nicotinamide (B3) and pyridoxine (B6) in sour cherry juice. This method was rapid, simple and sensitive. Separation was accomplished using a C18 column. The optimum chromatographic conditions were found to be: mobile phase consisted of 8% methanol and 92% aqueous phase (1% (V/V) acetic acid water solution); flow rate, 0.7 mL/min; detection wavelength, 260 nm and pH, 3.3. The extraction efficiency of thiamine, nicotinamide and pyridoxine was influenced by factors such as: additional salt effect, the kind and volume of disperser and extraction solvents. In this research, the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.9 and 3 ng/mL for thiamine, 1.5 and 5 ng/mL for nicotinamide, 0.9 and 3 ng/mL for pyridoxine. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 2.87% (n=3). An appropriate linear behavior over the observed concentration range was obtained with the value of R²>0.996 for the target vitamins. This method was successfully applied to the sour cherry juice samples. Sour cherry var. Gise (Prunus cerasus var. Gise), which was used in this research, was a local variety of the sour cherry with large stone, double flowers, double fruits, dark red skin and dark red juice. This variety was identified in high altitude areas of Isfahan province after five years of study, since 2005, by Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Isfahan. PMID:25587335

  10. Determination of some B Vitamins in Sour Cherry Juice Using Dispersive Liquid-liquid Microextraction Followed by High-performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Parsaei, Parvin; Bahmaei, Manouchehr; Ghannadi, AliReza

    2014-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (DLLME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was used to determine thiamine (B1), nicotinamide (B3) and pyridoxine (B6) in sour cherry juice. This method was rapid, simple and sensitive. Separation was accomplished using a C18 column. The optimum chromatographic conditions were found to be: mobile phase consisted of 8% methanol and 92% aqueous phase (1% (V/V) acetic acid water solution); flow rate, 0.7 mL/min; detection wavelength, 260 nm and pH, 3.3. The extraction efficiency of thiamine, nicotinamide and pyridoxine was influenced by factors such as: additional salt effect, the kind and volume of disperser and extraction solvents. In this research, the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.9 and 3 ng/mL for thiamine, 1.5 and 5 ng/mL for nicotinamide, 0.9 and 3 ng/mL for pyridoxine. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 2.87% (n=3). An appropriate linear behavior over the observed concentration range was obtained with the value of R²>0.996 for the target vitamins. This method was successfully applied to the sour cherry juice samples. Sour cherry var. Gise (Prunus cerasus var. Gise), which was used in this research, was a local variety of the sour cherry with large stone, double flowers, double fruits, dark red skin and dark red juice. This variety was identified in high altitude areas of Isfahan province after five years of study, since 2005, by Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Isfahan. PMID:25587335

  11. Predicting the timing of cherry blossoms in Washington, DC and Mid-Atlantic States in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Chung, Uran; Mack, Liz; Yun, Jin I; Kim, Soo-Hyung

    2011-01-01

    Cherry blossoms, an icon of spring, are celebrated in many cultures of the temperate region. For its sensitivity to winter and early spring temperatures, the timing of cherry blossoms is an ideal indicator of the impacts of climate change on tree phenology. Here, we applied a process-based phenology model for temperate deciduous trees to predict peak bloom dates (PBD) of flowering cherry trees (Prunus×yedoensis 'Yoshino' and Prunus serrulata 'Kwanzan') in the Tidal Basin, Washington, DC and the surrounding Mid-Atlantic States in response to climate change. We parameterized the model with observed PBD data from 1991 to 2010. The calibrated model was tested against independent datasets of the past PBD data from 1951 to 1970 in the Tidal Basin and more recent PBD data from other locations (e.g., Seattle, WA). The model performance against these independent data was satisfactory (Yoshino: r(2) = 0.57, RMSE = 6.6 days, bias = 0.9 days and Kwanzan: r(2) = 0.76, RMSE = 5.5 days, bias = -2.0 days). We then applied the model to forecast future PBD for the region using downscaled climate projections based on IPCC's A1B and A2 emissions scenarios. Our results indicate that PBD at the Tidal Basin are likely to be accelerated by an average of five days by 2050 s and 10 days by 2080 s for these cultivars under a mid-range (A1B) emissions scenario projected by ECHAM5 general circulation model. The acceleration is likely to be much greater (13 days for 2050 s and 29 days for 2080s) under a higher (A2) emissions scenario projected by CGCM2 general circulation model. Our results demonstrate the potential impacts of climate change on the timing of cherry blossoms and illustrate the utility of a simple process-based phenology model for developing adaptation strategies to climate change in horticulture, conservation planning, restoration and other related disciplines. PMID:22087317

  12. Occupational allergy caused by flowers.

    PubMed

    de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H

    1998-02-01

    We describe 14 consecutive patients with complaints due to the handling of flowers. The symptoms varied from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma to urticaria. Most patients had professions in the flower industry. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with home-made pollen extracts from 17 different flowers known to be the most commonly grown and sold in The Netherlands RAST against mugwort, chrysanthemum, and solidago was performed. The diagnosis of atopy against flowers was based on work-related symptoms due to the handling of flowers, positive SPT with flower extracts, and positive RAST. The concordance between SPT and case history was 74%, and that between SPT and RAST was 77% Extensive cross-sensitization was seen to pollen of several members of the Compositae family (e.g., Matricaria, chrysanthemum, solidago) and to pollen of the Amaryllidaceae family (Alstroemeria and Narcissus). Homemade flower extracts can be used to confirm IgE-mediated flower allergy. Mugwort can be used as a screening test for possible flower allergy. For most patients, the allergy led to a change of profession. PMID:9534922

  13. Flowers that threaten Funza.

    PubMed

    Kendall, S

    1993-01-01

    Water shortages have resulted from agricultural development in a rural area outside Bogota, Colombia. These shortages have increased women's work load and caused problems in managing households because the water must be boiled before ingestion. In the community of Funza, women must obtain clean water in buckets at night from the main valve, which has insufficient water pressure and a slow stream. Some barrios collect water on a weekly basis. The local restaurant in town obtains water once a week from a tanker; the town is lucky to receive water three times a week. Men assume that women will take care of the problem. The mayor says that the piped water from Bogota will soon be connected and that each barrio will have its own valve. Women are concerned that the supply, even with new valves, will be limited and mixed with dirty lagoon water. Experts are saying that the water shortage and quality problems that began seven years ago will lead to rationing within three to six years. The flower companies, that came to the area 22 years age, are blamed for the water problems. People say that the flower companies have piped clean water from the area's supply in the San Patricia and that underground sources of water have been used up as well. The industry provides jobs and income, which have improved the standard of living, but there is little consideration given to the water supply. The community shifted water sources to the lagoon at a time when the water was being contaminated by sewage and pesticides and chemicals from the flower companies. PMID:12287011

  14. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on... solids requirements. (d) (e) Pack. (1) When containers of cherries are marked with a row count/row size... provisions of paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (e) of this section, and of §§ 923.41 and 923.55. (1)...

  15. Bird cherry-oat aphid: do we have resistance?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a highly efficient, non-propagative, persistent vector of the phloem limited leutovirus BYD-PAV. BYD is the most important viral disease of cereal grains in the world and PAV is the most prevalent strain of BYD in North America. Not all BCO...

  16. Triticale Lines Resistant to Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA) is one of the most common aphid pests of small grains worldwide. Triticale is a promising source of resistance to BCOA that may be developed further or crossed with wheat to transfer resistance to that crop. Several entries of triticale were evaluated against BCOA in a...

  17. Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  18. Wheat Lines Resistant to Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA) is one of the most common aphid pests of wheat worldwide, and resistant lines are needed as alternatives to chemical control. Several entries of wheat were evaluated against BCOA in a growth chamber test. The number of nymphs deposited by winged BCOA in the first 24 h ...

  19. First Complete Genome Sequence of Cherry virus A

    PubMed Central

    Koinuma, Hiroaki; Nijo, Takamichi; Iwabuchi, Nozomu; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Keima, Takuya; Okano, Yukari; Maejima, Kensaku; Yamaji, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The 5′-terminal genomic sequence of Cherry virus A (CVA) has long been unknown. We determined the first complete genome sequence of an apricot isolate of CVA (7,434 nucleotides [nt]). The 5′-untranslated region was 107 nt in length, which was 53 nt longer than those of known CVA sequences. PMID:27284130

  20. Screening for Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  1. Screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  2. First Complete Genome Sequence of Cherry virus A.

    PubMed

    Koinuma, Hiroaki; Nijo, Takamichi; Iwabuchi, Nozomu; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Keima, Takuya; Okano, Yukari; Maejima, Kensaku; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2016-01-01

    The 5'-terminal genomic sequence of Cherry virus A (CVA) has long been unknown. We determined the first complete genome sequence of an apricot isolate of CVA (7,434 nucleotides [nt]). The 5'-untranslated region was 107 nt in length, which was 53 nt longer than those of known CVA sequences. PMID:27284130

  3. Cherry Fruitworm, an emerging pest of Mississippi blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cherry fruitworm (CFW) is a univoltine moth, native to the U.S., and whose larvae preferentially infest rosaceous and ericaceous fruits. CFW larvae have been confirmed infesting rabbiteye blueberries in Mississippi, and this typically northern pest’s appearance may represent a new State record. ...

  4. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126 Section 145.126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  5. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126 Section 145.126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  6. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126 Section 145.126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  7. Screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  8. Complete nucleotide sequence of little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1) infecting sweet cherry in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhu, Dongzi; Tan, Yue; Zong, Xiaojuan; Wei, Hairong; Hammond, Rosemarie W; Liu, Qingzhong

    2016-03-01

    Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1), associated with little cherry disease (LCD), has a significant impact on fruit quality of infected sweet cherry trees. We report the full genome sequence of an isolate of LChV-1 from Taian, China (LChV-1-TA), detected by small-RNA deep sequencing and amplified by overlapping RT-PCR. The LChV-1-TA genome was 16,932 nt in length and contained nine open reading frames (ORFs), with sequence identity at the overall genome level of 76%, 76%, and 78% to LChV-1 isolates Y10237 (UW2 isolate), EU715989 (ITMAR isolate) and JX669615 (V2356 isolate), respectively. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of HSP70h amino acid sequences of Closteroviridae family members, LChV-1-TA was grouped into a well-supported cluster with the members of the genus Velarivirus and was also closely related to other LChV-1 isolates. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence of LChV-1 infecting sweet cherry in China. PMID:26733294

  9. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  10. Japanese Media in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  11. Japanese Quality Control Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Kazuo

    In recent years, United States scholars with an interest in international business and organizational communication have begun to notice the success of Japanese "quality control circles." These are small groups, usually composed of seven to ten workers, who are organized at the production levels within most large Japanese factories. A typical…

  12. The Japanese containerless experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azuma, Hisao

    1990-01-01

    There are three sets of Japanese containerless experiments. The first is Drop dynamics research. It consists of acoustic levitation and large amplitude drop oscillation. The second is Optical materials processing in an acoustic levitation furnace. And the third is Electrostatic levitator development by two different Japanese companies.

  13. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  14. Japanese Elementary School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Harold W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the development of Japanese elementary education in the context of three periods of its history. Considers salient characteristics of Japanese elementary schools and teaching procedures; these include curriculum; social and moral education; classroom environment; teachers; afterschool classes; college entrance examinations; the kyoiku…

  15. Extensive Reading in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Day, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading (ER) program into a second semester Japanese course at the University of Hawai'i using Japanese children's literature. After summarizing the ten principles of ER, we describe how we addressed six critical issues faced while introducing ER into the course. We also discuss the outcomes…

  16. Determination of self-incompatibility groups of sweet cherry genotypes from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ipek, A; Gulen, H; Akcay, M E; Ipek, M; Ergin, S; Eris, A

    2011-01-01

    Determination of S-allele combinations of sweet cherry genotypes and cultivars has importance for both growers and breeders. We determined S-allele combinations of 40 local Turkish sweet cherry genotypes using a PCR-based method. Ten different S-alleles were detected. Although the most common S-allele was S3, as also found in Western genotypes and cultivars, there were some differences in the frequencies of some S-alleles between Turkish and Western sweet cherry genotypes. According to their S-allele compositions, 30 local Turkish sweet cherry genotypes were assigned to 10 previously identified incompatibility groups. For the remaining genotypes, whose S-allele combinations did not fit to any previous incompatibility groups, three more incompatibility groups, XLII, XLIII and XLIV, were proposed. Results obtained from this study will help both sweet cherry growers and breeders to better manage these local Turkish sweet cherry genotypes in their orchards. PMID:21341217

  17. Say it with flowers: Flowering acceleration by root communication.

    PubMed

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings. PMID:25764422

  18. Say it with flowers: flowering acceleration by root communication.

    PubMed

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings. PMID:24598343

  19. The slow and fast pyrolysis of cherry seed.

    PubMed

    Duman, Gozde; Okutucu, Cagdas; Ucar, Suat; Stahl, Ralph; Yanik, Jale

    2011-01-01

    The slow and fast pyrolysis of cherry seeds (CWS) and cherry seeds shells (CSS) was studied in fixed-bed and fluidized bed reactors at different pyrolysis temperatures. The effects of reactor type and temperature on the yields and composition of products were investigated. In the case of fast pyrolysis, the maximum bio-oil yield was found to be about 44 wt% at pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C for both CWS and CSS, whereas the bio yields were of 21 and 15 wt% obtained at 500 °C from slow pyrolysis of CWS and CSS, respectively. Both temperature and reactor type affected the composition of bio-oils. The results showed that bio-oils obtained from slow pyrolysis of CWS and CSS can be used as a fuel for combustion systems in industry and the bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis can be evaluated as a chemical feedstock. PMID:20801019

  20. Epidemiological studies are like cherries, one draws another.

    PubMed

    Lunet, Nuno

    2009-01-01

    The proverb "Words are like cherries", meaning that when you start talking subjects pop up and you end up with long conversations, just like cherries coming out of the plate in chains when you pick one, may also be applied to epidemiological research. A sequence of epidemiological studies, each being drawn from the previous, is presented as an example of how each investigation may raise new questions to be addressed in following studies. This description stresses the need for appropriate planning and the usefulness of pilot testing to depict inadequacies that can hardly be anticipated without field work. I intend to illustrate how epidemiological research can provide a deep approach to research questions, as long as findings are properly interpreted and suboptimal methodological options are taken into account in future investigations. PMID:19713008

  1. Molecular Diagnosis of Subcutaneous Spirometra erinaceieuropaei Sparganosis in a Japanese Immigrant

    PubMed Central

    Tappe, Dennis; Berger, Luise; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Harder, Yves; Specht, Katja; Prazeres da Costa, Clarissa; Poppert, Sven

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of subcutaneous sparganosis in a 68-year-old female Japanese immigrant in Germany. The patient complained of a painless erythema caudal of the umbilicus with a palpable subcutaneous cherry-sized lump. Polymerase chain reaction on formalin-fixed parasite tissue identified Spirometra erinaceieuropaei as the causative agent; the proliferative form of sparganosis, which is caused by the branching and disseminating Sparganum proliferum, could, thus, be excluded. From the excised sparganum, an immunofluorescence test was established and revealed an antibody response directed against the parasite's tegument. Histological key features of the plerocercoid that facilitate diagnosis with different stains are presented. PMID:23166198

  2. Genomic analyses of cherry rusty mottle group and cherry twisted leaf-associated viruses reveal a possible new genus within the family betaflexiviridae.

    PubMed

    Villamor, D E V; Susaimuthu, J; Eastwell, K C

    2015-03-01

    It is demonstrated that closely related viruses within the family Betaflexiviridae are associated with a number of diseases that affect sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and other Prunus spp. Cherry rusty mottle-associated virus (CRMaV) is correlated with the appearance of cherry rusty mottle disease (CRMD), and Cherry twisted leaf-associated virus (CTLaV) is linked to cherry twisted leaf disease (CTLD) and apricot ringpox disease (ARPD). Comprehensive analysis of previously reported full genomic sequences plus those determined in this study representing isolates of CTLaV, CRMaV, Cherry green ring mottle virus, and Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus revealed segregation of sequences into four clades corresponding to distinct virus species. High-throughput sequencing of RNA from representative source trees for CRMD, CTLD, and ARPD did not reveal additional unique virus sequences that might be associated with these diseases, thereby further substantiating the association of CRMaV and CTLaV with CRMD and CTLD or ARPD, respectively. Based on comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity values, phylogenetic relationships with other triple-gene block-coding viruses within the family Betaflexiviridae, genome organization, and natural host range, a new genus (Robigovirus) is suggested. PMID:25496302

  3. Spirit Has Flower Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image with its hazard-avoidance camera on sol 86 (March 31, 2004), after the rover's rock abrasion tool had brushed for three minutes on each of six locations on the rock named 'Mazatzal' to create a flower-shaped mosaic.

    The goal for this operation was to create a brushed area big enough for the miniature thermal emission spectrometer to capture within one of its pixels, which are 11 centimeters (4.3 inches) in diameter at the distance between the rock and the instrument. Because the rock abrasion tool creates individual brushed areas only about 5 centimeters (2 inches) in diameter, the team designed this six-location series of tool placements in order to brush 92 percent to 95 percent of the spectrometer's pixel size.

    This operation was only the second time the rock abrasion tool has created a brushing mosaic. The first time was a three-spot brushing on the rock called 'Humphrey.' The brush was originally designed to be used as an aide during full grinding operations, however it has been very effective in brushing the top layer off of dusty martian rocks to allow scientists a multi-depth look into the rocks on Mars.

  4. Modelling of the spring phenological phases of the Silver birch Betula pendula and Bird cherry Padus racemosa in Baltic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta; Bitāne, Māra; Cepīte-Frišfelde, Daiga; Sīle, Tija; Seņņikovs, Juris

    2014-05-01

    The air temperature is the strongest driving factor of the plant development during spring time in moderate climate conditions. However other factors such as the air temperature during the dormancy period and light conditions can play a role as well. The full potential of the recent and historical phenological observation data can be utilised by modelling tools. We have calibrated seven phenological models described in scientific literature to calculate the likely dates leaf unfolding and start of flowering of the Silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa (Kalvāns at al, accepted). Phenological observations are derived from voluntary observation network for period 1960-2009 in Latvia. The number of used observations for each phase range from 149 to 172. Air temperature data measured in meteorological stations closest to the corresponding phenological observation sites are obtained from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. We used 33 random data subsamples for model calibration to produce a range of model coefficients enabling the estimation of the phenological model uncertainty. It is found that the best reproduction of the observational data are obtained using a simple linear degree day model considering daily minimum and maximum temperature and more complex sigmoidal model honouring the need for low temperatures for dormancy release (UniChill, Chuine, 2000). The median calibration base temperature in the degree day model for the silver birch leaf unfolding is 5.6°C and for start of the flowering 6.7°C; for the bird cherry the corresponding base temperatures are 3.2°C and 3.4°C. The calibrated models and air temperature archive data derived from the Danish Meteorological Institute is used to simulate the respective phase onset in the Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 2009. Significant regional differences between modelled phase onset times are observed. There is a wide regional variation of the model uncertainty as well

  5. Molecular analysis of East Anatolian traditional plum and cherry accessions using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Öz, M H; Vurgun, H; Bakir, M; Büyük, İ; Yüksel, C; Ünlü, H M; Çukadar, K; Karadoğan, B; Köse, Ö; Ergül, A

    2013-01-01

    We conducted SSR analyses of 59 accessions, including 29 traditional plum (Prunus domestica), 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium), and 1 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) selected from East Anatolian gene sources and 3 plum and 2 cherry reference accessions for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Eight SSR loci [1 developed from the apricot (UDAp-404), 4 from the peach (UDP96-010, UDP96-001, UDP96-019, Pchgms1) and 3 from the cherry (UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31) genome] for plum accessions and 9 SSR loci [5 developed from the cherry (PS12A02, UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31, UCD-CH21), 3 from the peach (Pchgms1, UDP96-001, UDP96-005) and 1 from the plum (CPSCT010) genome] for cherry accessions were used for genetic identification. A total of 66 and 65 alleles were obtained in the genetic analyses of 31 plum and 28 cherry accessions, respectively. The number of alleles revealed by SSR analysis ranged from 4 to 14 alleles per locus, with a mean value of 8.25 in plum accessions, and from 5 to 10 alleles per locus with a mean value of 7.2 in cherry accessions. Only one case of synonym was identified among the cherry accessions, while no case of synonym was observed among the plum accessions. Genomic SSR markers used in discrimination of plum and cherry accessions showed high cross-species transferability in the Prunus genus. Because of their appreciable polymorphism and cross species transferability, the SSR markers that we evaluated in this study will be useful for studies involving fingerprinting of cherry and plum cultivars. PMID:24301792

  6. Oral immunization of animals with transgenic cherry tomatillo expressing HBsAg

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Ma, Ying; Li, Mei; Cheng, Tong; Li, Shao-Wei; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg) in transgenic cherry tomatillo in order to explore the feasibility of producing HBV oral vaccine with cherry tomatillo by animal immune tests. METHODS: The recombinant plant expression vector containing HBsAg gene was constructed. Mediated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, HBsAg gene was transferred into cotyledons of cherry tomatillo. Transformed cherry tomatillos were obtained through hygromycin delay-selection. Integrated DNA in transgenic cherry tomatillo was confirmed by hygromycin resistance selection, Gus detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blotting analysis. Antigenicity of rHBsAg was examined by ELISA and the immunogenicity of rHBsAg derived from transgenic cherry tomatillo tissues was confirmed by oral feed of transformed tissues to BALB/c mice primed with commercial HBV vaccines. Specific antibody titers in mice’s serum were examined by ELISA every week. RESULTS: By far, 10 positive lines of transgenic cherry tomatillos containing HBsAg gene were obtained. Among different organs of the same transgenic cherry tomatillo, level of rHBsAg expressed in leaves was the highest with the yield up to 300 ng/g fresh weight. And the rHBsAg expression level in fruits was about 10 ng/g fresh weight. In animal immune tests, oral delivery with transgenic tissues to mice primed with commercial vaccine instead of naive mice resulted in significant immune response. CONCLUSION: The result of this animal immune test indicated the rHBsAg derived from transgenic cherry tomatillo possessed normal immunogenicity. This work demonstrated the feasibility to generate oral immunogenic rHBsAg in transgenic cherry tomatillo, and would provide some experimental approach for the production of low-cost oral vaccines using transgenic cherry tomatillo in large scale. PMID:12717845

  7. Does flower phenology mirror the slowdown of global warming?

    PubMed Central

    Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Although recent global warming trends in air temperature are not as pronounced as those observed only one decade ago, global mean temperature is still at a very high level. Does plant phenology – which is believed to be a suitable indicator of climate change – respond in a similar way, that is, does it still mirror recent temperature variations? We explored in detail long-term flowering onset dates of snowdrop, cherry, and lime tree and relevant spring temperatures at three sites in Germany (1901–2012) using the Bayesian multiple change-point approach. We investigated whether mean spring temperature changes were amplified or slowed down in the past decade and how plant phenology responded to the most recent temperature changes. Incorporating records with different end points (i.e., 2002 and 2012), we compared differences in trends and inferred possible differences caused by extrapolating phenological and meteorological data. The new multiple-change point approach is characterized by an enhanced structure and greater flexibility compared to the one change point model. However, the highest model probabilities for phenological (meteorological) records were still obtained for the one change point (linear) model. Marked warming trends in the recent decade were only revealed for mean temperatures of March to May, here better described with one or two change point models. In the majority of cases analyzed, changes in temperatures were well mirrored by phenological changes. However, temperatures in March to May were linked to less strongly advancing onset dates for lime tree flowering during the period 1901-2012, pointing to the likely influence of photoperiodic constraints or unfulfilled chilling requirements. Due to the slowdown of temperature increase, analyses conducted on records ending in 2002 demonstrated distinct differences when compared with records ending in 2012. Extrapolation of trends could therefore (along with the choice of the statistical method

  8. How the Japanese work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry. PMID:9929991

  9. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes

    PubMed Central

    Alkio, Merianne; Jonas, Uwe; Declercq, Myriam; Van Nocker, Steven; Knoche, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘Regina’), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes was constructed from de novo assembled short complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences generated from developing fruit between flowering and maturity at 14 time points. Expression levels in each sample were estimated for 34 695 contigs from numbers of reads mapping to each contig. Contigs were annotated functionally based on BLAST, gene ontology and InterProScan analyses. Coregulated genes were detected using partitional clustering of expression patterns. The results are discussed with emphasis on genes putatively involved in cuticle deposition, cell wall metabolism and sugar transport. The high temporal resolution of the expression patterns presented here reveals finely tuned developmental specialization of individual members of gene families. Moreover, the de novo assembled sweet cherry fruit transcriptome with 7760 full-length protein coding sequences and over 20 000 other, annotated cDNA sequences together with their developmental expression patterns is expected to accelerate molecular research on this important tree fruit crop. PMID:26504533

  10. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Alkio, Merianne; Jonas, Uwe; Declercq, Myriam; Van Nocker, Steven; Knoche, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., 'Regina'), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes was constructed from de novo assembled short complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences generated from developing fruit between flowering and maturity at 14 time points. Expression levels in each sample were estimated for 34 695 contigs from numbers of reads mapping to each contig. Contigs were annotated functionally based on BLAST, gene ontology and InterProScan analyses. Coregulated genes were detected using partitional clustering of expression patterns. The results are discussed with emphasis on genes putatively involved in cuticle deposition, cell wall metabolism and sugar transport. The high temporal resolution of the expression patterns presented here reveals finely tuned developmental specialization of individual members of gene families. Moreover, the de novo assembled sweet cherry fruit transcriptome with 7760 full-length protein coding sequences and over 20 000 other, annotated cDNA sequences together with their developmental expression patterns is expected to accelerate molecular research on this important tree fruit crop. PMID:26504533

  11. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  12. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  13. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  14. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  15. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.812 Section 52.812 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red...

  16. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.812 Section 52.812 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red...

  17. Astronauts Joseph Allen rides cherry picker over stowage area/work station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Joseph P. Allen rides a cherry picker over to a stowage area/work station to wrap up extravehicular activity (EVA) duties above Earth. The cherry picker is a union of the mobile foot restraint and the remote manipulator system (RMS), controlled from inside Discovery's cabin. The Westar VI/PAM-D satellite is pictured secured in Discovery's cargo bay.

  18. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions due to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fru...

  19. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. 208.82 Section 208.82 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.82 Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and...

  20. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. 208.82 Section 208.82 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.82 Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and...

  1. 75 FR 77564 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for the 2010-2011 Crop Year for Tart Cherries AGENCY: Agricultural... referred to as the ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  2. MILKWEED YELLOWS-RELATED PHYTOPLASMA IN BLUEBERRY AND A PREVIOUSLY UNDESCRIBED PHYTOPLASMA IN CHERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two phytoplasma lineages were identified in diseased plants of sour cherry (Cerasus vulgaris Mill. Syn. Prunus cerasus) and European blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). On the basis of RFLP and nucleotide sequence analyses of 16S rDNA, the cherry little leaf (ChLL) phytoplasma was classified in gro...

  3. Sweet bing cherries lower circulating concentrations of markers for chronic inflammatory diseases in healthy humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A limited number of studies have demonstrated that some modulators of inflammation can be altered by the consumption of sweet cherries. We have taken a proteomics approach to determine the effect of dietary cherries on targeted gene expression. The purpose was then to determine changes in the concen...

  4. Sensing the Moisture Content of Dry Cherries - A Rapid and Nondestructive Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impedance (Z), and phase angle (') of a parallel-plate capacitor with a single cherry fruit between the plates was measured using a CI meter (Chari’s Impedance meter), at 1 and 9 MHz . Capacitance C, was derived from Z and ', and using the C, ', and Z values of a set of cherries whose moisture cont...

  5. Reduction of optimal thermal range in aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies(Rhagoletis indifferens Curan)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance a...

  6. Real-time methods for non-destructive detection of pits in fresh cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of pits in processed cherries is a concern for both processors and consumers, in many cases causing injury and potential lawsuits. While machines used for pitting cherries are extremely efficient, if one or more plungers in a pitting head become misaligned, a large number of pits may p...

  7. One dimensional Linescan x-ray detection of pits in fresh cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of pits in processed cherries is a concern for both processors and consumers, in many cases causing injury and potential lawsuits. While machines used for pitting cherries are extremely efficient, if one or more plungers in a pitting head become misaligned, a large number of pits may p...

  8. Development of a systems approach for US cherries exported to Japan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop a systems approach for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), that will allow export of Pacific Northwest (Washington and Oregon) and California cherries to Japan, cherries were shown to be poor hosts for codling moth. Codling moth pheromone traps were pla...

  9. Bumblebee preference for symmetrical flowers.

    PubMed

    Møller, A P

    1995-03-14

    Fluctuating asymmetry, which represents small random deviations from otherwise bilateral symmetry, is a measure of the phenotypic quality of individuals indicating the ability of controlled development under given environmental and genetic conditions. I tested whether floral symmetry reliably reflects phenotypic quality measured in terms of pollinator rewards and whether pollinators respond to floral symmetry in a series of observations and experiments on Epilobium angustifolium (Onagraceae). Lower petal asymmetry was negatively related to mean lower petal length, whereas asymmetry in leaf width was positively related to mean leaf width. Flowers visited by bumblebees were larger and more symmetrical than the nearest neighboring flower. This relationship between pollinator preference for large and symmetrical flowers was demonstrated to be causal in experiments in which the lower petals were manipulated symmetrically or asymmetrically. Nectar production was larger in symmetrical flowers, and this may explain the bumblebee preference for flower symmetry. Floral symmetry therefore reliably reflects nectar production and hence enhances pollen transport. Extensive embryo abortion has been documented in E. angustifolium and other outcrossing plant species. Floral fluctuating asymmetry, which reflects general developmental homeostasis, may explain such developmental selection in these plants. PMID:11607519

  10. Acute kidney injury from cherry concentrate in a patient with CKD.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Randy L

    2014-03-01

    Nutraceuticals are supplements and medical foods that offer numerous health benefits. However, these substances may have adverse effects on multiple organ systems, leading to significant morbidity. I present a patient with chronic kidney disease who experienced hemodynamically mediated acute kidney injury and hyperkalemia after daily consumption of cherry concentrate. The method of injury was most likely cyclooxygenase inhibition by the compounds in cherries that mimic the mechanism of action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Ceasing cherry concentrate consumption led to improvements in both the patient's hyperkalemia and kidney injury. Physicians should be aware of the potentially harmful side effects of cherry concentrate and approach the use of cherry extract or concentrate with caution in patients with underlying kidney disease. PMID:24290246

  11. Population structure and genetic bottleneck in sweet cherry estimated with SSRs and the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Domestication and breeding involve the selection of particular phenotypes, limiting the genomic diversity of the population and creating a bottleneck. These effects can be precisely estimated when the location of domestication is established. Few analyses have focused on understanding the genetic consequences of domestication and breeding in fruit trees. In this study, we aimed to analyse genetic structure and changes in the diversity in sweet cherry Prunus avium L. Results Three subgroups were detected in sweet cherry, with one group of landraces genetically very close to the analysed wild cherry population. A limited number of SSR markers displayed deviations from the frequencies expected under neutrality. After the removal of these markers from the analysis, a very limited bottleneck was detected between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces, with a much more pronounced bottleneck between sweet cherry landraces and modern sweet cherry varieties. The loss of diversity between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces at the S-locus was more significant than that for microsatellites. Particularly high levels of differentiation were observed for some S-alleles. Conclusions Several domestication events may have happened in sweet cherry or/and intense gene flow from local wild cherry was probably maintained along the evolutionary history of the species. A marked bottleneck due to breeding was detected, with all markers, in the modern sweet cherry gene pool. The microsatellites did not detect the bottleneck due to domestication in the analysed sample. The vegetative propagation specific to some fruit trees may account for the differences in diversity observed at the S-locus. Our study provides insights into domestication events of cherry, however, requires confirmation on a larger sampling scheme for both sweet cherry landraces and wild cherry. PMID:20727153

  12. Synchronous Pulsed Flowering: Analysis of the Flowering Phenology in Juncus (Juncaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Stefan G.; Durka, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The timing of flowering within and among individuals is of fundamental biological importance because of its influence on total seed production and, ultimately, fitness. Traditional descriptive parameters of flowering phenology focus on onset and duration of flowering and on synchrony among individuals. These parameters do not adequately account for variability in flowering across the flowering duration at individual and population level. This study aims to analyse the flowering phenology of wind-pollinated Juncus species that has been described as temporally highly variable (‘pulsed flowering’). Additionally, an attempt is made to identify proximate environmental factors that may cue the flowering, and ultimate causes for the flowering patterns are discussed. Methods Flowering phenology was examined in populations of nine Juncus species by estimating flowering synchrony and by using the coefficient of variation (CV) to describe the temporal variation in flowering on individual and population levels. Phenologies were compared with null models to test which patterns deviate from random flowering. All parameters assessed were compared with each other and the performance of the parameters in response to randomization and varying synchrony was evaluated using a model population. Flowering patterns were correlated with temperature and humidity. Key Results Most flowering patterns of Juncus were best described as synchronous pulsed flowering, characterized as population-wide concerted flowering events separated by days with no or few open flowers. Flowering synchrony and variability differed from a random pattern in most cases. CV values in combination with a measure of synchrony differentiated among flowering patterns found. Synchrony varied among species and was independent from variability in flowering. Neither temperature nor humidity could be determined as potential cues for the flowering pulses. Conclusions The results indicate that selection

  13. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2013-03-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation (t 1), the base temperature (T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date (t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  14. South wing roof from the northeast, taken from a cherry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South wing roof from the northeast, taken from a cherry picker. This view is particularly good in capturing the monitor and the dormers that provided light and ventilation for the third-floor rooms. At center are two of the original stone chimneys and at right center is the elevator's mechanical penthouse. The severity of the 2003 fire damage is evident at the bottom of the photograph. capturing the central pavilion. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2014-07-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation ( t 1), the base temperature ( T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date ( t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  16. A Phase Transition for Circle Maps and Cherry Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmisano, Liviana

    2013-07-01

    We study C 2 weakly order preserving circle maps with a flat interval. The main result of the paper is about a sharp transition from degenerate geometry to bounded geometry depending on the degree of the singularities at the boundary of the flat interval. We prove that the non-wandering set has zero Hausdorff dimension in the case of degenerate geometry and it has Hausdorff dimension strictly greater than zero in the case of bounded geometry. Our results about circle maps allow to establish a sharp phase transition in the dynamics of Cherry flows.

  17. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of estrogens and androgens in

  18. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For ... What are the side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccination? Pain and tenderness are the most commonly reported ...

  19. New Frontiers for Japanese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Frank H.

    1974-01-01

    Japanese literature, television, movies, and school texts from 1935 to 1955 are analyzed for their influence and contribution to Japanese youths' pioneering spirit and frontiermindedness. "Asian Affairs" is published by the American-Asian Educational Exchange, New York. (DE)

  20. FLOBOTS: ROBOTIC FLOWERS FOR BEE BEHAVIOUR EXPERIMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Essenberg, Carla J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of pollinator foraging behaviour often require artificial flowers that can refill themselves, allowing pollinators to forage for long periods of time under experimental conditions. Here I describe a design for inexpensive flowers that can refill themselves upon demand and that are easy enough to set up and clean that they can be used in arrays of 30 or more flowers. I also summarize of a variety of artificial flower designs developed by other researchers. PMID:25722755

  1. Generation and characterization of Osterix-Cherry reporter mice.

    PubMed

    Strecker, Sara; Fu, Yu; Liu, Yaling; Maye, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Osterix is a zinc finger containing transcription factor, which functions as a key regulator of osteoblast differentiation. To better understand the temporal and spatial expression of Osterix during embryonic development and in the adult skeleton, we generated Osterix-Cherry reporter mice. Bacterial recombination techniques were employed to engineer a transgenic construct, which consisted of a ∼39 kb DNA fragment encompassing the Osterix/Sp7 gene, but excluding adjacent gene sequences. Osterix reporter expression was characterized at embryonic, neonatal, and adult ages both by itself and in the context of a cross with Bone Sialoprotein (BSP)-Topaz reporter mice. Relative to Osterix, BSP is a more mature marker of osteoblast differentiation. In agreement with osteoblast lineage maturation, Osterix reporter expression preceded BSP reporter expression during embryonic development and spatially appeared in a much broader cell population. Strong Osterix reporter expression was observed in mature osteoblasts and osteocytes. However, weaker Osterix-Cherry positive cells were also observed in the bone marrow, possibly identifying an early osteoprogenitor cell population. Evaluation of Osterix reporter expression in male femur tissue sections from 10 days to 12 weeks of age revealed persistent expression in cells of the osteoblast lineage and a surprising increase in maturing chondrocytes of the growth plate. Also, Osterix reporter expression was transiently detected in the kidney after birth. PMID:23180553

  2. Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

    1978-01-01

    Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

  3. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  4. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed Central

    Casida, J E

    1980-01-01

    The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins. PMID:6993201

  5. Hydrologic data for the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, J.W.; Arnold, L.M.; Reed, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes are flood control lakes constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and leased to the Colorado Division of Parks and Recreation. Both lakes are in the Denver metropolitan area and provide a variety of recreational activities, including boating, camping, fishing, picnicking, and swimming. The projected increase of urban development in the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes could increase the constituent loads delivered to the lakes. Due to the eutrophic condition of Cherry Creek Lake and the potential eutrophic condition of Chatfield Lake, increased constituent loads could affect the suitability of the lakes for recreation. A monitoring program was started to determine the constituent loads of the drainage basins to both lakes. A network of monitoring stations was established to collect ambient water quality samples, storm runoff water quality samples, precipitation, and stream discharge. In the Cherry Creek basin 12 observation wells were established in the alluvium upgradient from Cherry Creek lake. Water levels and water quality data were collected to determine the quantity and quality of groundwater entering Cherry Creek lake. Data were collected from January through December 1982. The data may be used to evaluate the present and projected impact of urbanization in the drainage basins and the effect of increased constituent loads delivered to Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Melatonin and its potential biological functions in the fruits of sweet cherry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Tan, Dun-Xian; Lei, Qiong; Chen, Hao; Wang, Lin; Li, Qing-tian; Gao, Yinan; Kong, Jin

    2013-08-01

    Melatonin is a well-known molecule which possesses many beneficial effects on human health. Many agriculture products provide natural melatonin in the diet. Cherry is one such fruit as they are rich in melatonin. In order to understand the biological roles of melatonin in cherry fruit, melatonin synthesis and its changes over 24 hr period were systematically monitored both during their development and in the ripe cherries in two cultivars, 'Hongdeng' (Prunus avium L. cv. Hongdeng) and 'Rainier' (Prunus avium L. cv. Rainier). It was found that both darkness and oxidative stress induced melatonin synthesis, which led to dual melatonin synthetic peaks during a 24 hr period. The high levels of malondialdehyde induced by high temperature and high intensity light exposure were directly related to up-regulated melatonin production. A primary function of melatonin in cherry fruits is speculated to be as an antioxidant to protect the cherry from the oxidative stress. Importantly, plant tryptophan decaboxylase gene (PaTDC) was identified in cherry fruits. Our data shows that PaTDC expression is positively related to the melatonin production in the cherry. This provides additional information to suggest that tryptophan decaboxylase is a rate-limiting enzyme of melatonin synthesis in plants. PMID:23480341

  7. Cultural Competence in Business Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Shohei

    Cultural competence in business Japanese requires more than superficial knowledge of business etiquette. One must truly understand why Japanese people think and act differently from their American counterparts. For example, instruction in the use of Japanese taxis must be accompanied by instruction in the concept and implications of seating order…

  8. Tracking Cholesterol/Sphingomyelin-Rich Membrane Domains with the Ostreolysin A-mCherry Protein

    PubMed Central

    Skočaj, Matej; Resnik, Nataša; Grundner, Maja; Ota, Katja; Rojko, Nejc; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Sobota, Andrzej; Maček, Peter; Veranič, Peter; Sepčić, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Ostreolysin A (OlyA) is an ∼15-kDa protein that has been shown to bind selectively to membranes rich in cholesterol and sphingomyelin. In this study, we investigated whether OlyA fluorescently tagged at the C-terminal with mCherry (OlyA-mCherry) labels cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in artificial membrane systems and in membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. OlyA-mCherry showed similar lipid binding characteristics to non-tagged OlyA. OlyA-mCherry also stained cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in the plasma membranes of both fixed and living MDCK cells, and in the living cells, this staining was abolished by pretreatment with either methyl-β-cyclodextrin or sphingomyelinase. Double labelling of MDCK cells with OlyA-mCherry and the sphingomyelin-specific markers equinatoxin II–Alexa488 and GST-lysenin, the cholera toxin B subunit as a probe that binds to the ganglioside GM1, or the cholesterol-specific D4 domain of perfringolysin O fused with EGFP, showed different patterns of binding and distribution of OlyA-mCherry in comparison with these other proteins. Furthermore, we show that OlyA-mCherry is internalised in living MDCK cells, and within 90 min it reaches the juxtanuclear region via caveolin-1–positive structures. No binding to membranes could be seen when OlyA-mCherry was expressed in MDCK cells. Altogether, these data clearly indicate that OlyA-mCherry is a promising tool for labelling a distinct pool of cholesterol/sphingomyelin membrane domains in living and fixed cells, and for following these domains when they are apparently internalised by the cell. PMID:24664106

  9. Difference in flowering time can initiate speciation of nocturnally flowering species.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomotaka; Yasumoto, Akiko A; Nitta, Kozue; Hirota, Shun K; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Tachida, Hidenori

    2015-04-01

    Isolation mechanisms that prevent gene flow between populations prezygotically play important roles in achieving speciation. In flowering plants, the nighttime flowering system provides a mechanism for isolation from diurnally flowering species. Although this system has long been of interest in evolutionary biology, the evolutionary process leading to this system has yet to be elucidated because of the lack of good model species. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying the differences in flowering times and the traits that attract pollinators between a pair of diurnally and nocturnally flowering species have recently been identified in a few cases. This identification enables us to build a realistic model for theoretically studying the evolution of a nocturnally flowering species. In this study, based on previous experimental data, we assumed a model in which two loci control the flowering time and one locus determines a trait that attracts pollinators. Using this model, we evaluated the possibility of the evolution of a nocturnally flowering species from a diurnally flowering ancestor through simulations. We found that a newly emerging nighttime flowering flower exhibited a sufficiently high fitness, and the evolution of a nocturnally flowering species from a diurnally flowering species could be achieved when hybrid viability was intermediate to low, even in a completely sympatric situation. Our results suggest that the difference in flowering time can act as a magic trait that induces both natural selection and assortative mating and would play an important role in speciation between diurnally and nocturnally flowering species pairs. PMID:25665720

  10. Dispersal of Rhagoletis cerasi in Commercial Cherry Orchards: Efficacy of Soil Covering Nets for Cherry Fruit Fly Control

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia; Baker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Demand for organic cherries offers producers a premium price to improve their commercial viability. Organic standards require that producers find alternatives to pesticides. Soil treatments to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephrididae) appear to be an attractive option. However, soil treatments can only be effective if the migration of flies is low, because mature flies may migrate from near-by trees for oviposition. To examine the general potential of soil treatments and to understand the dispersal and flight behaviour of R. cerasi within orchards, experiments using netting to cover the soil were conducted in two orchards with different pest pressure during two years. The netting reduced flight activity by 77% and fruit infestation by 91%. The data showed that the flies have a dispersal of less than 5 m within orchards, which is very low. The low thresholds for tolerance for infested fruit in the fresh market creates a strong economic incentive for control, therefore, soil covering is a promising strategy for controlling R. cerasi in commercial orchards. PMID:26466801

  11. Nucleus Course in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Nobuo; Flamm, Carol S.

    The "Nucleus Course in Japanese," based on the Institute of Modern Languages'"Situational Reinforcement" approach, is designed for 80 to 100 hours of instruction. Each lesson has several sections--Response drills, Appropriate Response Sequence, and Reading. Most of the lessons also include optional sections with Sentences for Repetition or a…

  12. Reflexives in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishida, Maki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Japanese through the following three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that are confounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based on their semantic difference, and (c) classification of predicates that occur with…

  13. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

  14. Japanese Temple Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

  15. I Can Learn Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Michael; Funato, Makiko

    This set of materials for Japanese second language instruction was designed for students who can be taught most effectively through a functional, conversational approach. It is intended as a supplement to the regular course of study so that all students, regardless of ability level, can be provided with an effective instructional program. It…

  16. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  17. Pistillate flowers experience more pollen limitation and less geitonogamy than perfect flowers in a gynomonoecious herb.

    PubMed

    Mamut, Jannathan; Xiong, Ying-Ze; Tan, Dun-Yan; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Gynomonoecy, a sexual system in which plants have both pistillate (female) flowers and perfect (hermaphroditic) flowers, occurs in at least 15 families, but the differential reproductive strategies of the two flower morphs within one individual remain unclear. Racemes of Eremurus anisopterus (Xanthorrhoeaceae) have basal pistillate and distal perfect flowers. To compare sex allocation and reproductive success between the two flower morphs, we measured floral traits, pollinator preferences, and pollen movement in the field. Pollen limitation was more severe in pistillate flowers; bee pollinators preferred to visit perfect flowers, which were also capable of partial self-fertilization. Pollen-staining experiments indicated that perfect flowers received a higher proportion of intra-plant pollen (geitonogamy) than pistillate flowers. Plants with greater numbers of pistillate flowers received more outcross pollen. The differential reproductive success conformed with differential floral sex allocation, in which pistillate flowers produce fewer but larger ovules, resulting in outcrossed seeds. Our flower manipulations in these nectarless gynomonoecious plants demonstrated that perfect flowers promote seed quantity in that they are more attractive to pollinators, while pistillate flowers compensate for the loss of male function through better seed quality. These results are consistent with the outcrossing-benefit hypothesis for gynomonoecy. PMID:24111788

  18. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  19. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  20. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    PubMed

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. PMID:24799232

  1. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  2. Mycotoxin production by Penicillium expansum on blackcurrant and cherry juice.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T O; Frisvad, J C; Ravn, G; Skaaning, T

    1998-01-01

    The production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites by Penicillium expansum on blackcurrant and cherry juice has been studied at 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C under storage imitated conditions. P. expansum was able to synthesize extracellular patulin under all conditions, and together with extracellular chaetoglobosin A when unlimited oxygen was available. Patulin, the chaetoglobosins A and C, the communesins A and B and the expansolides A and B could be detected intracellularly depending on the conditions. The metabolites were detected using thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection by comparison to standards. A method to detect the expansolides A and B by TLC was developed. PMID:10209577

  3. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Richa; Gupta, Ghanshyam Das

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins and reducing sugar. Evaluation of pharmacological activities confirmed C. obliqua plant as antimicrobial, hypotensive, respiratory stimulant, diuretic and anti-inflammatory drug. A number of traditional activities of this plant still need scientific approval which will increase its medicinal potential. This review presents the Pharmacognostic properties, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and biological activities reported for the plant and it will be helpful to explore the knowledge about Cordia obliqua Willd. for the researchers. PMID:26392710

  4. Early flower development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, D R; Bowman, J L; Meyerowitz, E M

    1990-01-01

    The early development of the flower of Arabidopsis thaliana is described from initiation until the opening of the bud. The morphogenesis, growth rate, and surface structure of floral organs were recorded in detail using scanning electron microscopy. Flower development has been divided into 12 stages using a series of landmark events. Stage 1 begins with the initiation of a floral buttress on the flank of the apical meristem. Stage 2 commences when the flower primordium becomes separate from the meristem. Sepal primordia then arise (stage 3) and grow to overlie the primordium (stage 4). Petal and stamen primordia appear next (stage 5) and are soon enclosed by the sepals (stage 6). During stage 6, petal primordia grow slowly, whereas stamen primordia enlarge more rapidly. Stage 7 begins when the medial stamens become stalked. These soon develop locules (stage 8). A long stage 9 then commences with the petal primordia becoming stalked. During this stage all organs lengthen rapidly. This includes the gynoecium, which commences growth as an open-ended tube during stage 6. When the petals reach the length of the lateral stamens, stage 10 begins. Stigmatic papillae appear soon after (stage 11), and the petals rapidly reach the height of the medial stamens (stage 12). This final stage ends when the 1-millimeter-long bud opens. Under our growing conditions 1.9 buds were initiated per day on average, and they took 13.25 days to progress through the 12 stages from initiation until opening. PMID:2152125

  5. GENETIC VARIATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PROMISING SOUR CHERRIES INFERRED FROM MICROSATELLITE MARKERS.

    PubMed

    Najafzadeh, R; Arzani, K; Bouzari, N; Saei, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the group of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for identification of promising sour cherries. From among 30 tested microsatellite (SSR) markers, 19 were selected to profile genetic variation in sour cherries due to high polymorphisms. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the accessions based on these markers. Totally 148 alleles were generated at 19 SSR loci which 122 alleles were polymorphic. The number of total alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 15 with an average of 7.78 and polymorphism percentage varied from 50 to 100% with an average of 78.76%. Also, PIC varied from 0.47 to 0.89 with an average of 0.79 and heterozygosity ranged from 0.35 to 0.55 with a mean of 0.45. According to these results, these markers specially PMS3, PS12A02, PceGA34, BPPCT021, EMPA004, EMPA018, and Pchgms3 produced good and various levels of amplifications and showed high heterozygosity levels. By the way, the genetic similarity showed a high diversity among the sour cherries. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising sour cherries, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the studied sour cherries were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these sour cherries can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that the set of microsatellite markers employed in this study demonstrated usefulness of microsatellite markers for the identification of sour cherry genotypes. PMID:27183795

  6. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    PubMed

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  7. Structure and Genome Organization of Cherry Virus A (Capillovirus, Betaflexiviridae) from China Using Small RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Liu, Weizhen; Dhingra, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Cherry virus A (CVA) (Capillovirus, Betaflexiviridae) is widely present in cherry-growing areas. We obtained the complete genome of a CVA isolate (CVA-TA) using small RNA deep sequencing, followed by overlapping reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The newly identified 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) from CVA-TA may form additional hairpin and loop structures to stabilize the CVA genome. PMID:27174277

  8. Tay-Sach disease with "cherry-red spot"--first reported case in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chan, L Y; Balasubramaniam, S; Sunder, R; Jamalia, R; Karunakar, T V N; Alagaratnam, J

    2011-12-01

    We present a rare case of Tay-Sachs disease with retinal 'cherry-red spots' in a 19-month-old Malay child. Molecular genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis. The case highlights that 'cherry-red spot' is a useful clinical clue in Tay-Sachs disease and several other lysosomal storage disorders. It serves as an ideal illustration of the eye as a window to inborn error of metabolism. PMID:22390110

  9. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  10. Structure and Genome Organization of Cherry Virus A (Capillovirus, Betaflexiviridae) from China Using Small RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Liu, Weizhen; Dhingra, Amit; Pappu, Hanu R; Liu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Cherry virus A (CVA) (Capillovirus, Betaflexiviridae) is widely present in cherry-growing areas. We obtained the complete genome of a CVA isolate (CVA-TA) using small RNA deep sequencing, followed by overlapping reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The newly identified 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) from CVA-TA may form additional hairpin and loop structures to stabilize the CVA genome. PMID:27174277

  11. Chemical Characterization of Fruit Wine Made from Oblačinska Sour Cherry

    PubMed Central

    Pantelić, Milica; Dabić, Dragana; Matijašević, Saša; Davidović, Sonja; Dojčinović, Biljana; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Tešić, Živoslav; Natić, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This paper was aimed at characterizing the wine obtained from Oblačinska, a native sour cherry cultivar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper with the most comprehensive information on chemical characterization of Oblačinska sour cherry wine. The chemical composition was characterized by hyphenated chromatographic methods and traditional analytical techniques. A total of 24 compounds were quantified using the available standards and another 22 phenolic compounds were identified based on the accurate mass spectrographic search. Values of total phenolics content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity for cherry wine sample were 1.938 mg gallic acid eqv L−1, 0.113 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside L−1, and 34.56%, respectively. In general, cherry wine polyphenolics in terms of nonanthocyanins and anthocyanins were shown to be distinctive when compared to grape wines. Naringenin and apigenin were characteristic only for cherry wine, and seven anthocyanins were distinctive for cherry wine. PMID:25101316

  12. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.): Situation in Switzerland and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia; Grunder, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU). Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities. PMID:26466721

  13. Cultivation of Tomato Tissues Capable of Forming Flowers and Fruits in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1998-01-01

    The final phase of this research project was designed to develop a practical method for producing a steady supply of fresh cherry tomato fruits over a period of several months, for possible use as a fresh vegetable supplement to a standard diet of astronauts on extended missions. This effort was successful. We were able to excise immature flowers from Pixie tomato plants grown in a controlled condition room, implant them on artificial media under aseptic conditions, and get them to develop into edible fruits in a little over a month. The medium (Murashige-Skoog) was purchased from Sigma, supplemented with sugar plus a synthetic analog of the plant hormone cytokinin, and adjusted to pH 5.8. A temperature of at least 25 C and visible light helped to produce ripe red fruits within 7 weeks. To ensure a steady supply of such tomatoes, we found it possible to store the explanted flower buds in MS medium at 5 C for at least 6 weeks without significant loss of ability to develop into fruits. This means that many containers could be prepared before launch and put into a refrigerator; a convenient number could then be removed periodically to guarantee a succession of harvests during the life of an extended mission. Details are found in the attached reprints. Subsequent applications for funds for flight or continued research were denied, and the project was terminated.

  14. Male flowers are better fathers than hermaphroditic flowers in andromonoecious Passiflora incarnata.

    PubMed

    Dai, Can; Galloway, Laura F

    2012-02-01

    • The diversity of plant breeding systems provides the opportunity to study a range of potential reproductive adaptations. Many mechanisms remain poorly understood, among them the evolution and maintenance of male flowers in andromonoecy. Here, we studied the role of morphologically male flowers ('male morph') in andromonoecious Passiflora incarnata. • We measured morphological differences between hermaphroditic and male morph flowers in P. incarnata and explored the fruiting and siring ability of both flower types. • Male morph flowers in P. incarnata were of similar size to hermaphroditic flowers, and there was little evidence of different resource allocation to the two flower types. Male morph flowers were less capable of producing fruit, even under ample pollen and resource conditions. By contrast, male morph flowers were more successful in siring seeds. On average, male morph flowers sired twice as many seeds as hermaphroditic flowers. This difference in male fitness was driven by higher pollen export from male morph flowers as a result of greater pollen production and less self-pollen deposition. • The production of male morph flowers in P. incarnata appears to be a flexible adaptive mechanism to enhance male fitness, which might be especially beneficial when plants face temporary resource shortages for nurturing additional fruits. PMID:22122433

  15. Flower size and longevity influence florivory in the large-flowered shrub Cistus ladanifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixido, Alberto L.; Méndez, Marcos; Valladares, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    Plants with larger and longer-lived flowers receive more pollinator visits and increase reproductive success, though may also suffer more from antagonistic interactions with animals. Florivores can reduce fruit and seed production, so selection on flower size, floral longevity and/or number of flowers may thus be determined by the relative effects of both pollinators and florivores. In this study flowers of Cistus ladanifer, a large-flowered Mediterranean shrub, were monitored to evaluate the effects of flower size, floral longevity and number of flowers on levels of florivory in four populations. Number of flowers was variable but did not differ among populations. Both flower size and floral longevity of C. ladanifer showed broad variation and significantly differed among populations. Overall, 7% of flowers suffered attack by florivores, which were mainly ants picking the stamens and beetles consuming petals and pollen. Within-populations, larger and longer-lived flowers tended to be affected by florivores more frequently. The low overall incidence of florivores and its lack of between-population variation suggest that florivory may not influence intraspecific variation of these floral traits. However, moderate florivory levels on the largest and longest-lived flowers open the possibility of exerting selection towards smaller and shorter-lived flowers in some of the populations studied.

  16. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Jurado, Enrique; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1-4 styles; 2-9 stamens; 6.5-41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5-29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5-59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5-77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5-30.5 mm; 4-9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants. PMID:27231656

  17. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1–4 styles; 2–9 stamens; 6.5–41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5–29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5–59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5–77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5–30.5 mm; 4–9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants. PMID:27231656

  18. EARLY FLOWERING3 Regulates Flowering in Spring Barley by Mediating Gibberellin Production and FLOWERING LOCUS T Expression[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Scott A.; Weiss, David; Ross, John J.; Davies, Noel W.; Trevaskis, Ben; Chandler, Peter M.; Swain, Steve M.

    2014-01-01

    EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) is a circadian clock gene that contributes to photoperiod-dependent flowering in plants, with loss-of-function mutants in barley (Hordeum vulgare), legumes, and Arabidopsis thaliana flowering early under noninductive short-day (SD) photoperiods. The barley elf3 mutant displays increased expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1); however, it remains unclear whether this is the only factor responsible for the early flowering phenotype. We show that the early flowering and vegetative growth phenotypes of the barley elf3 mutant are strongly dependent on gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. Expression of the central GA biosynthesis gene, GA20oxidase2, and production of the bioactive GA, GA1, were significantly increased in elf3 leaves under SDs, relative to the wild type. Inhibition of GA biosynthesis suppressed the early flowering of elf3 under SDs independently of FT1 and was associated with altered expression of floral identity genes at the developing apex. GA is also required for normal flowering of spring barley under inductive photoperiods, with chemical and genetic attenuation of the GA biosynthesis and signaling pathways suppressing inflorescence development under long-day conditions. These findings illustrate that GA is an important floral promoting signal in barley and that ELF3 suppresses flowering under noninductive photoperiods by blocking GA production and FT1 expression. PMID:24781117

  19. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    PubMed

    Iga, M

    1981-01-01

    The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan. PMID:7233479

  20. [Pathways of flowering regulation in plants].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongping; Yang, Jing; Yang, Mingfeng

    2015-11-01

    Flowering, the floral transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, is induced by diverse endogenous and exogenous cues, such as photoperiod, temperature, hormones and age. Precise flowering time is critical to plant growth and evolution of species. The numerous renewal molecular and genetic results have revealed five flowering time pathways, including classical photoperiod pathway, vernalization pathway, autonomous pathway, gibberellins (GA) pathway and newly identified age pathway. These pathways take on relatively independent role, and involve extensive crosstalks and feedback loops. This review describes the complicated regulatory network of this floral transition to understand the molecular mechanism of flowering and provide references for further research in more plants. PMID:26939439

  1. Ploidy analysis of azalea flower colour sports.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, S; De Loose, M; Van Bockstaele, E; Debergh, P

    2001-01-01

    Flower colour variegation is not only a phenomenon of importance to horticulture, the phenotype involved is also often used as a scientific model system for the study of complex gene regulation processes. In the course of such studies on azalea, we observed a correlation between flower colour patterns, flower morphology and somatic polyploidy. Using high-resolution flow cytometry of nuclear DNA, the ploidy level was determined in flowers of different azalea sport families. Sports exhibiting variegated flowers with broad (> 7mm), differently coloured, petal edges (picotee type) proved to be tetraploid in the petal edge while diploid in the rest of the flower tissue. Neither flower colour pattern nor ploidy differences are chimeral in origin, but seem to be correlated with the topographic location of the cells within the flower tissue, i.e. the margin of the petals. The possible role of gene dosage effects and cell size involved in the remarkable correlation between somatic polyploidy, (flavonoid) gene expression and the flower morphology is discussed. PMID:15954634

  2. Genetic determinism of phenological traits highly affected by climate change in Prunus avium: flowering date dissected into chilling and heat requirements.

    PubMed

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; García, José Quero; Le Dantec, Loïck; Lafargue, Maria; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the genetic determinism of flowering date (FD), dissected into chilling (CR) and heat (HR) requirements. Elucidation of the genetic determinism of flowering traits is crucial to anticipate the increasing of ecological misalignment of adaptative traits with novel climate conditions in most temperate-fruit species. CR and HR were evaluated over 3 yr and FD over 5 yr in an intraspecific sweet cherry (Prunus avium) F1 progeny, and FD over 6 yr in a different F1 progeny. One quantitative trait locus (QTL) with major effect and high stability between years of evaluation was detected for CR and FD in the same region of linkage group (LG) 4. For HR, no stable QTL was detected. Candidate genes underlying the major QTL on LG4 were investigated and key genes were identified for CR and FD. Phenotypic dissection of FD and year repetitions allowed us to identify CR as the high heritable component of FD and a high genotype × environment interaction for HR. QTLs for CR reported in this study are the first described in this species. Our results provide a foundation for the identification of genes involved in CR and FD in sweet cherry which could be used to develop ideotypes adapted to future climatic conditions. PMID:24417538

  3. North Dakota ''Flower Power'' project

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, J.; Aakre, P.; Derry, J.

    1982-05-01

    Flower Power Inc. was set up to study the long term effects of blends of sunflower oil and diesel fuel on engine components. Tests to date have indicated that farm diesel tractors can be operated on blends of up to 50% sunflower oil and diesel fuel but that its continued use would appear to cause premature engine problems. While the results of the tests are encouraging, use of sunflower oil as a fuel is not yet recommended. Continued long term testing is needed to evaluate the performance of sunflower oil-diesel blends.

  4. The Japanese Education System is a Failure, Say Some Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1997-01-01

    A Japanese editorial in an English-language daily harshly criticized Japanese education's failure to enhance students' spirit of independence; develop critical and artistic thinking skills; and promote social awareness and an international viewpoint. The United States finished fourth out of 60 in the (unpublicized) International Math Olympiad.…

  5. Seasonal Amounts of Nutrients in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Relation to Nutrient Availability on Cherry Plant Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and the availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral necta...

  6. Estimation of pyrethrum flower number using digital imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flower number is a major determinant of pyrethrin yield in pyrethrum [Tanacetum cineariifolium (Trefi.) Sch. Bip.] production. Traditional estimates of flower numbers utilize physical harvesting of flowers which is time consuming and destructive. Physical harvest is complicated by constraints such...

  7. The protective effect of the Cornus mas fruits (cornelian cherry) on hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis through PPARα activation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sozański, T; Kucharska, A Z; Szumny, A; Magdalan, J; Bielska, K; Merwid-Ląd, A; Woźniak, A; Dzimira, S; Piórecki, N; Trocha, M

    2014-11-15

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits have been used in traditional cuisine and in folk medicine in various countries. This study was conducted to evaluate the constituents and impact of cornelian cherry (C. mas L.) fruits lyophilisate on lipid levels, PPARα protein expression, atheromatous changes in the aorta, oxido-redox state, and proinflammatory cytokines in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The HPLC-MS method was used for determining active constituents in cornelian cherry. In a subsequent in vivo study the protective effect of the cornelian cherry on diet-induced hyperlipidemia was studied using a rabbit model fed 1% cholesterol. Cornelian cherry (100mg/kg b.w.) or simvastatin (5mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally for 60 days. Two iridoids - loganic acid and cornuside - and five anthocyanins were identified as the main constituents of the cornelian cherry. The administering of the cornelian cherry led to a 44% significant decrease in serum triglyceride levels, as well as prevented development of atheromatous changes in the thoracic aorta. Cornelian cherry significantly increased PPARα protein expression in the liver, indicating that its hypolipidemic effect may stem from enhanced fatty acid catabolism. Simvastatin treatment did not affect PPAR-α expression. Moreover, the cornelian cherry had a significant protective effect on diet-induced oxidative stress in the liver, as well as restored upregulated proinflammatory cytokines serum levels. In conclusion, we have shown loganic acid to be the main iridoid constituent in the European cultivar of the cornelian cherry, and proven that the cornelian cherry could have protective effects on diet-induced hypertriglicerydemia and atherosclerosis through enhanced PPARα protein expression and via regulating oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:25444446

  8. Delayed flowering and global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.

    2011-12-01

    Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.

  9. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. PMID:23574349

  10. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…

  11. The Japanese Language: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backhouse, A. E.

    This guide provides an overview of the salient features of the Japanese language from the perspective of the beginning-level English-speaking learner. Chapters address these topics: the Japanese language and its historic and cultural setting; phonology (sounds and syllables, word accentuation; loanwords; connected speech); writing (scripts,…

  12. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

  13. A GLOSSARY OF JAPANESE NEOLOGISMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAILEY, DON C.

    THIS GLOSSARY COMPRISES A LIST OF USEFUL NEW WORDS AND PHRASES IN CURRENT USE NOT FOUND IN JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARIES, SPECIFICALLY KENKYUSHA'S NEW JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 1954 EDITION, WHICH HAS SERVED AS THE MODEL IN MOST RESPECTS FOR THE FORMAT AND STYLE. ROMANIZATION OF THE ORTHOGRAPHY FOLLOWS A MODIFIED HEPBURN SYSTEM AND THE JAPANESE…

  14. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with men on…

  15. Making Flowers at the Right Time.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Doris

    2016-05-01

    Different plant species flower in different seasons, but there is also annual variability depending on environmental conditions. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Hyun et al. (2016) show that Arabidopsis plants can flower without proper seasonal cues if they have developed past the juvenile phase and have high levels of gibberellin. PMID:27165552

  16. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  17. How the Flowers Came to Be.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Linda; Brescia, William, Ed.

    The booklet tells the story of Josephine, a little Choctaw girl, who picks wild flowers and hurts her Aunt's feelings. Josephine later learns from her grandmother the importance of respecting nature and how the flowers came to be. The story introduces constellations, how weaving came to the Choctaw, how the sick were prayed for, and why wild…

  18. Analysis of soybean flowering-time genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of soybean flowering time is important for geographic adaptation, and maximizing yield. RT-PCR analysis was performed using primers synthesized for a number of putative flowering-time genes based on homology of soybean EST and genomic sequences to Arabidopsis genes. RNA for cDNA synthesis ...

  19. Susceptibility of blackberry flowers to freezing temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injury of tight buds, open flowers and green fruit often occur in fruit crops during spring frost events. In this study, freezing tolerance of ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry flowers at different reproductive stages of development (tight bud to green drupe) was determined using two methods. One method i...

  20. Meta-analysis of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology suggests that early flowering plants are favoured.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Ollerton, Jeff; Parra-Tabla, Victor; De-Nova, J Arturo

    2011-05-01

    Flowering times of plants are important life-history components and it has previously been hypothesized that flowering phenologies may be currently subject to natural selection or be selectively neutral. In this study we reviewed the evidence for phenotypic selection acting on flowering phenology using ordinary and phylogenetic meta-analysis. Phenotypic selection exists when a phenotypic trait co-varies with fitness; therefore, we looked for studies reporting an association between two components of flowering phenology (flowering time or flowering synchrony) with fitness. Data sets comprising 87 and 18 plant species were then used to assess the incidence and strength of phenotypic selection on flowering time and flowering synchrony, respectively. The influence of dependence on pollinators, the duration of the reproductive event, latitude and plant longevity as moderators of selection were also explored. Our results suggest that selection favours early flowering plants, but the strength of selection is influenced by latitude, with selection being stronger in temperate environments. However, there is no consistent pattern of selection on flowering synchrony. Our study demonstrates that phenotypic selection on flowering time is consistent and relatively strong, in contrast to previous hypotheses of selective neutrality, and has implications for the evolution of temperate floras under global climate change. PMID:21332621

  1. A quantum Cherry theorem for perturbations of the plane rotator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Fiorella; Graffi, Sandro

    2013-12-01

    We consider on L^2({T}^2) the Schrödinger operator family L_\\varepsilon : \\varepsilon in {R} with domain and action defined as D(L_\\varepsilon )=H^2({T}^2), L_\\varepsilon u=-1/2hbar ^2(α _1partial _{φ _1}^2+α _2partial _{φ _2}^2)u-ihbar (γ _1partial _{φ _1}+γ _2partial _{φ _2})u+\\varepsilon Vu. Here \\varepsilon in {R}, α = (α1, α2), γ = (γ1, γ2) are vectors of complex non-real frequencies, and V a pseudodifferential operator of order zero. Lɛ represents the Weyl quantization of the Hamiltonian family {L}_\\varepsilon (ξ,x)=1/2(α _1ξ _1^2+α _2ξ _2^2)+γ _1ξ _1+γ _2ξ _2+\\varepsilon {V}(ξ,x) defined on the phase space {R}^2× {T}^2, where {V}(ξ,x)in C^2({R}^2× {T}^2;{R}). We prove the uniform convergence with respect to ℏ ∈ [0, 1] of the quantum normal form, which reduces to the classical one for ℏ = 0. This result simultaneously entails an exact quantization formula for the quantum spectrum as well as a convergence criterion for the classical Birkhoff normal form generalizing a well known theorem of Cherry.

  2. The pathogenicity of novel duck reovirus in Cherry Valley ducks.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Wang, Yao; Wang, Youling; Yu, Kexiang; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-08-30

    The novel duck reovirus (NDRV) is an emerging, contagious infection. To better realize the pathogenic mechanism of NDRV in ducks, an infection experiment was conducted. The resulting data demonstrated that typical gross lesions were observed in the infected ducks. NDRV was able to replicate in various tissues, leading to these pathological lesions, especially on the liver and spleen. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the expression of most innate immune-related genes was up-regulated and the antiviral innate immune response could be established in both the liver and spleen. This study indicates that NDRV is a pantropic virus. To resist viral infection, several pathogen recognition receptors can cooperatively recognize NDRV and initiate innate immunity, but the responses are different between different tissues. As far as we know, this is the first systematic investigation of the pathogenicity of NDRV in Cherry Valley ducks based on the host's innate immunity, and these data will provide new insights into the further study of the disease. PMID:27527781

  3. Stability of ursodiol in SyrSpend SF Cherry flavored.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Christine M; Voudrie, Mark A; Sorenson, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Ursodiol is used in the treatment and prevention of certain types of gallstones and for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Ursodiol is marketed for this purpose by Watson Pharma, Inc. as ACTIGALL, by Axcan Scandipharm Inc. as URSO 250 and URSO Forte, and by a number of generic manufacturers. Ursodiol is available as capsules of varying strengths. The need for other dose-form options for those patients who cannot take capsules has led compounding pharmacies to seek other alternatives, namely oral solutions and suspensions. Additionally, some patients are unable to tolerate suspending agents containing alcohol or sorbitol. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of ursodiol in SyrSpend SF Cherry Flavored which does not contain sorbitol or alcohol. The studied sample was compounded into a 3-mg/mL [corrected] suspension and stored in a low-actinic plastic bottle at temperatures between 2 degrees C and 8 degrees C. Six samples were assayed at each time point out to 66 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced degradation studies. The sample remained within 90% to 110% of the initial concentration throughout the course of the study. The beyond-use-date of this product is at least 66 days, based on data collected when refrigerated and protected from light. PMID:23259368

  4. High throughput cherry-picking of solvated samples.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Robert; Traphagen, Linda; Hajduk, Phillip

    2010-07-01

    Advances in the design of automated compound storage systems have made it possible to store large collections of research compounds in individual single-use aliquots dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and rapidly retrieve a specific group off them. This 'cherry-picking' approach offers researchers the opportunity to request large numbers of compounds desired for testing without having to also retrieve all the other compounds stored on the same rack or plate. This makes it possible to meet the increasing demand for samples from High Throughput Screening and Therapeutic Area teams without adding staff to dispense from powder each time, without the constraints imposed by storing in solvated compounds in fixed-well 96- or 384-way plates, and without sacrificing sample quality or shelf life by storing at room temperature. We describe how this approach has been implemented at Abbott Laboratories' central compound repository to provide smaller amounts of more compounds faster and with high quality. In doing so, we have been able to better support the innovation of our Drug Discovery colleagues. PMID:20426754

  5. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    PubMed

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones. PMID:23179694

  6. Stability of midazolam in syrspend SF and syrspend SF cherry.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Christine M; Sorenson, Bridget; Whaley, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine central nervous system depressant available as an injection, tablet, or oral syrup. The need for alternative dosage form options for patients unable to take tablets and shortages of other forms of the drug have led compounding pharmacies to seek alternatives, mainly solutions and suspensions. Additionally, some patients are unable to use suspending agents containing alcohol or sorbitol. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of midazolam in sorbitol-free, alcohol-free SyrSpend SF and SyrSpend SF Cherry suspending agents. The studied samples were compounded into a 1-mg/mL suspension and stored in low-actinic plastic bottles at temperatures between 2 degrees C to 8 degrees C and at room temperature conditions. Six samples were assayed at each time point out to 58 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. The samples remained within 90% to 110% of the initial concentration throughout the course of the study. Based on the data collected, the beyond-use date of these preparations is at least 58 days when protected from light at both refrigerated and room temperature storage conditions. PMID:24261150

  7. The bacterial communities of Drosophila suzukii collected from undamaged cherries

    PubMed Central

    James, Pamela M.; Jospin, Guillaume; Lang, Jenna M.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii is an introduced pest insect that feeds on undamaged, attached fruit. This diet is distinct from the fallen, discomposing fruits utilized by most other species of Drosophila. Since the bacterial microbiota of Drosophila, and of many other animals, is affected by diet, we hypothesized that the bacteria associated with D. suzukii are distinct from that of other Drosophila. Using 16S rDNA PCR and Illumina sequencing, we characterized the bacterial communities of larval and adult D. suzukii collected from undamaged, attached cherries in California, USA. We find that the bacterial communities associated with these samples of D. suzukii contain a high frequency of Tatumella. Gluconobacter and Acetobacter, two taxa with known associations with Drosophila, were also found, although at lower frequency than Tatumella in four of the five samples examined. Sampling D. suzukii from different locations and/or while feeding on different fruits is needed to determine the generality of the results determined by these samples. Nevertheless this is, to our knowledge, the first study characterizing the bacterial communities of this ecologically unique and economically important species of Drosophila. PMID:25101226

  8. Induction of flowering by 5-azacytidine in some plant species: relationship between the stability of photoperiodically induced flowering and flower-inducing effect of DNA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hiroshi; Miura, Takashi; Wada, Kaede C; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2007-11-01

    The flower-inducing effect of 5-azacytidine, a DNA demethylating reagent, was examined in several plant species with a stable or unstable photoperiodically induced flowering state under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions. The long day plant Silene armeria, whose flowering state is stable and the short day plant Pharbitis nil, whose flowering state is unstable were induced to flower by 5-azacytidine under a non-inductive condition. Thus, the replacement of photoinduction by 5-azacytidine treatment is not specific to Perilla frutescens. On the other hand, 5-azacytidine did not induce flowering in Xanthium strumarium whose flowering state is stable and Lemna paucicostata whose flowering state is unstable. Thus, epigenetics caused by DNA demethylation may be involved in the regulation of photoperiodic flowering irrespective of the stability of the photoperiodically induced flowering state. PMID:18251884

  9. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

  10. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  11. First report of sweet cherry virescence disease in China and its association with infection by a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ziziphi’-related strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a deciduous tree originating in the Black Sea/Caspian Sea region where Asia and Europe converge. Being highly valued for its timber and fruit, sweet cherry has been cultivated and naturalized on all continents. Over the past decade, the area of sweet cherry culti...

  12. First Report of a New Phytoplasma Subgroup, 16SrIII-S, Associated with Decline Disease Affecting Sweet and Sour Cherry Trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During July 2007, we observed sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) trees exhibiting disease symptoms suggestive of possible phytoplasma infection in a large orchard in the Kaunas region of Lithuania. Samples of leaf tissue were collected from sweet cherry trees that were aff...

  13. Behavioral responses, rate of mortality, and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly exposed to Malathion, Zeta-cypermethrin, and Spinetoram

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of sweet and tart cherry, Prunus avium L. (L.) and P. cerasus L., respectively, in western North America. This fly is commonly controlled with spinosad bait sprays, but these sprays are ineffective against sp...

  14. Phytoplasma infecting cherry and lilac represent two distinct lineages having close evolutionary affinities with clover phyllody phytoplasma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplasmas infecting cherry and lilac in Lithuania were found to represent two lineages related to clover phyllody phytoplasma (CPh), a subgroup 16SrI-C strain exhibiting rRNA interoperon sequence heterogeneity. 16S rDNAs amplified from the cherry bunchy leaf (ChBL) and lilac little leaf (LcLL) p...

  15. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  16. 76 FR 10471 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... (75 FR 77564). Copies of the rule were mailed or sent via facsimile to all Board members and... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for the 2010-2011 Crop Year for Tart Cherries AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  17. The Effect of the Cherry Hill Study Skills Program on Eighth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Marilyn Tierney

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…

  18. 77 FR 36115 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... the Federal Register on March 2, 2012 (77 FR 12748). Copies of the rule were mailed or sent via... Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for the 2011-12 Crop Year for Tart Cherries AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA....

  19. 77 FR 33303 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ...This final rule amends Marketing Order No. 930 (order), which regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. These amendments were proposed by the Cherry Industry Administrative Board (CIAB), which is responsible for local administration of the order. These amendments revise: the definition of ``Handle''; and......

  20. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  1. Reduction in Emergence of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Sweet Cherries with Different Egg and Larval Distributions Using Newer Insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major insect pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. To reduce fly populations in unharvested fruit following the completion of commercial harvest, it is important to cont...

  2. Soil moisture and relative humidity effects during post-diapause on emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in western North America that is found in relatively moist and dry habitats. In this study, fly pupae from Kennewick and Roslyn in Washington state, U.S.A., were used to test the hypotheses tha...

  3. Evidence for the non-pest status of codling moth on commercial fresh sweet cherries intended for export

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain acceptance of a systems approach as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for U.S. fresh sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., exported to Japan, additional evidence was needed to show that sweet cherries are poor or non-hosts for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortri...

  4. 78 FR 46494 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...This rule invites comments on changes to handler reporting and grower diversion requirements prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin (order). The Cherry Industry Administrative Board (Board) locally administers the order. This rule changes the deadline for submitting the handler......

  5. Effects of Several Newer Insecticides and Kaolin on Oviposition and Adult Mortality in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of newer insecticides and kaolin-based particle film (Surround™ WP Crop Protectant), on oviposition and mortality in the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, were determined. In a no-choice experiment, azinphos-methyl sprayed on cherries reduced oviposition by 98.5% comp...

  6. 75 FR 12702 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for the 2009-2010 Crop Year for Tart Cherries... on the establishment of final free and restricted percentages for the 2009-2010 crop year. The percentages are 32 percent free and 68 percent restricted and will establish the proportion of cherries...

  7. Optimizing postharvest methyl bromide treatments to control spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, in sweet cherries from Western USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in fresh sweet cherry exports from Western USA. Sweet cherries were infested with SWD, incubated to maximize numbers of the most M...

  8. Effect of cultivar and variety on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cherry wine.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fang, Lingling; Niu, Yunwei; Yu, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    To compare the influence of cultivar and variety on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA) of cherry wines, total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), total anthocyanin (TA), total tannin (TT), five individual phenolic acids, and AA were determined. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) method was developed for the determination of gallic acid (GAE), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), chlorogenic acid (CHL), vanillic acid (VAN), and caffeic acid (CAF). A principal component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze differences related to cultivar and variety. The TP, TF, TA, TT, and AA of samples sourced from the Shandong province of China were higher than those from the Jiangsu province. The PCA and CA results showed that phenolic compounds in cherry wines were closely related to cultivar and variety and that cultivar had more influence on the phenolic compounds of cherry wines than variety. PMID:25976793

  9. In-package atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment of cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Misra, Nrusimha Nath; Keener, Kevin M; Bourke, Paula; Mosnier, Jean-Paul; Cullen, Patrick J

    2014-08-01

    Cold plasma is increasingly under research for decontamination of foods, especially fresh fruits and vegetables. The effect of cold plasma on food quality, however, remains under researched. This study investigates the effects of cold plasma generated within a sealed package from a dielectric barrier discharge on the physical quality parameters and respiration rates of cherry tomatoes. Respiration rates and weight loss were monitored continuously, while other parameters are reported at the end of storage period. Differences among weight loss, pH and firmness for control and treated cherry tomatoes were insignificant towards the end of storage life. Changes in respiration rates and colour of tomatoes were recorded as a function of treatment, which were not drastic. The results implicate that cold plasma could be employed as a means for decontamination of cherry tomatoes while retaining product quality. PMID:24650730

  10. Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Baek, In-Suck; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Hoosoo; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 410 nm excitation to determine the emission wavelengths for defect detection. The major emission wavelengths were 688 nm and 506 nm for the detection. Fluorescence images combined with the determined emission wavebands demonstrated the feasibility of detecting defective cherry tomatoes with >98% accuracy. Multi-spectral fluorescence imaging has potential utility in non-destructive quality sorting of cherry tomatoes. PMID:25405507

  11. A chalcone isomerase-like protein enhances flavonoid production and flower pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yasumasa; Takagi, Kyoko; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Ishiguro, Kanako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Nitasaka, Eiji; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Saito, Norio; Kagami, Takashi; Hoshino, Atsushi; Iida, Shigeru

    2014-04-01

    Flavonoids are major pigments in plants, and their biosynthetic pathway is one of the best-studied metabolic pathways. Here we have identified three mutations within a gene that result in pale-colored flowers in the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil). As the mutations lead to a reduction of the colorless flavonoid compound flavonol as well as of anthocyanins in the flower petal, the identified gene was designated enhancer of flavonoid production (EFP). EFP encodes a chalcone isomerase (CHI)-related protein classified as a type IV CHI protein. CHI is the second committed enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, but type IV CHI proteins are thought to lack CHI enzymatic activity, and their functions remain unknown. The spatio-temporal expression of EFP and structural genes encoding enzymes that produce flavonoids is very similar. Expression of both EFP and the structural genes is coordinately promoted by genes encoding R2R3-MYB and WD40 family proteins. The EFP gene is widely distributed in land plants, and RNAi knockdown mutants of the EFP homologs in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and torenia (Torenia hybrida) had pale-colored flowers and low amounts of anthocyanins. The flavonol and flavone contents in the knockdown petunia and torenia flowers, respectively, were also significantly decreased, suggesting that the EFP protein contributes in early step(s) of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to ensure production of flavonoid compounds. From these results, we conclude that EFP is an enhancer of flavonoid production and flower pigmentation, and its function is conserved among diverse land plant species. PMID:24517863

  12. Photoperiodic flowering regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Golembeski, Greg S.; Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A.; Song, Young Hun; Imaizumi, Takato

    2015-01-01

    Photoperiod, or the duration of light in a given day, is a critical cue that flowering plants utilize to effectively assess seasonal information and coordinate their reproductive development in synchrony with the external environment. The use of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that determine how plants process and utilize photoperiodic information to coordinate a flowering response. This mechanism is typified by the transcriptional activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene by the transcription factor CONSTANS (CO) under inductive long-day conditions in Arabidopsis. FT protein then moves from the leaves to the shoot apex, where floral meristem development can be initiated. As a point of integration from a variety of environmental factors in the context of a larger system of regulatory pathways that affect flowering, the importance of photoreceptors and the circadian clock in CO regulation throughout the day has been a key feature of the photoperiodic flowering pathway. In addition to these established mechanisms, the recent discovery of a photosynthate derivative trehalose-6-phosphate as an activator of FT in leaves has interesting implications for the involvement of photosynthesis in the photoperiodic flowering response that were suggested from previous physiological experiments in flowering induction. PMID:25684830

  13. Flower opening and closure: an update.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Kamdee, Chanattika

    2014-11-01

    This review is an update of a 2003 review (Journal of Experimental Botany 54,1801-1812) by the same corresponding author. Many examples of flower opening have been recorded using time-lapse photography, showing its velocity and the required elongation growth. Ethylene regulates flower opening, together with at least gibberellins and auxin. Ethylene and gibberellic acid often promote and inhibit, respectively, the expression of DELLA genes and the stability of DELLA proteins. DELLA results in growth inhibition. Both hormones also inhibited and promoted, respectively, the expression of aquaporin genes required for cell elongation. Arabidopsis miRNA319a mutants exhibited narrow and short petals, whereby miRNA319a indirectly regulates auxin effects. Flower opening in roses was controlled by a NAC transcription factor, acting through miRNA164. The regulatory role of light and temperature, in interaction with the circadian clock, has been further elucidated. The end of the life span in many flowers is determined by floral closure. In some species pollination resulted in earlier closure of turgid flowers, compared with unpollinated flowers. It is hypothesized that this pollination-induced effect is only found in flowers in which closure is regulated by ethylene. PMID:25135521

  14. Japanese viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Tiroumourougane, S; Raghava, P; Srinivasan, S

    2002-01-01

    One of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy in children in the tropics is Japanese encephalitis (JE). Transmitted by the culex mosquito, this neurotropic virus predominately affects the thalamus, anterior horns of the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. It mainly affects children <15 years and is mostly asymptomatic. The occasional symptomatic child typically presents with a neurological syndrome characterised by altered sensorium, seizures, and features of intracranial hypertension. Aetiological diagnosis is based on virus isolation or demonstration of virus specific antigen or antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid/blood. Though no antiviral drug is available against JE, effective supportive management can improve the outcome. Control of JE involves efficient vector control and appropriate use of vaccines. PMID:11930023

  15. Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  16. A quantum Cherry theorem for perturbations of the plane rotator

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Fiorella; Graffi, Sandro

    2013-12-15

    We consider on L{sup 2}(T{sup 2}) the Schrödinger operator family L{sub ε}:ε∈R with domain and action defined as D(L{sub ε})=H{sup 2}(T{sup 2}), L{sub ε}u=−(1/2)ℏ{sup 2}(α{sub 1}∂{sub φ{sub 1}{sup 2}}+α{sub 2}∂{sub φ{sub 2}{sup 2}})u−iℏ(γ{sub 1}∂{sub φ{sub 1}}+γ{sub 2}∂{sub φ{sub 2}})u+εVu. Here ε∈R, α= (α{sub 1}, α{sub 2}), γ= (γ{sub 1}, γ{sub 2}) are vectors of complex non-real frequencies, and V a pseudodifferential operator of order zero. L{sub ε} represents the Weyl quantization of the Hamiltonian family L{sub ε}(ξ,x)=(1/2)(α{sub 1}ξ{sub 1}{sup 2}+α{sub 2}ξ{sub 2}{sup 2})+γ{sub 1}ξ{sub 1}+γ{sub 2}ξ{sub 2}+εV(ξ,x) defined on the phase space R{sup 2}×T{sup 2}, where V(ξ,x)∈C{sup 2}(R{sup 2}×T{sup 2};R). We prove the uniform convergence with respect to ℏ∈[0, 1] of the quantum normal form, which reduces to the classical one for ℏ= 0. This result simultaneously entails an exact quantization formula for the quantum spectrum as well as a convergence criterion for the classical Birkhoff normal form generalizing a well known theorem of Cherry.

  17. Composition of the cuticle of developing sweet cherry fruit.

    PubMed

    Peschel, Stefanie; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas; Knoche, Moritz

    2007-04-01

    The composition of wax and cutin from developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit was studied by GC-MS between 22 and 85 days after full bloom (DAFB). In this and our previous study, fruit mass and surface area increased in a sigmoidal pattern with time, but mass of the cuticular membrane (CM) per unit fruit surface area decreased. On a whole fruit basis, mass of CM increased up to 36 DAFB and remained constant thereafter. At maturity, triterpenes, alkanes and alcohols accounted for 75.6%, 19.1% and 1.2% of total wax, respectively. The most abundant constituents were the triterpenes ursolic (60.0%) and oleanolic acid (7.5%), the alkanes nonacosane (13.0%) and heptacosane (3.0%), and the secondary alcohol nonacosan-10-ol (1.1%). In developing fruit triterpenes per unit area decreased, but alkanes and alcohols remained essentially constant. The cutin fraction of mature fruit consisted of mostly C16 (69.5%) and, to a lower extent, C18 monomers (19.4%) comprising alkanoic, omega-hydroxyacids, alpha,omega-dicarboxylic and midchain hydroxylated acids. The most abundant constituents were 9(10),16-dihydroxy-hexadecanoic acid (53.6%) and 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecanoic acid (7.8%). Amounts of C16 and C18 monomers per unit area decreased in developing fruit, but remained approximately constant on a whole fruit basis. Within both classes of monomers, opposing changes occurred. Amounts of hexadecandioic, 16-hydroxy-hexadecanoic, 9(10)-hydroxy-hexadecane-1,16-dioic and 9,10-epoxy-octadecane-1,18-dioic acids increased, but 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecanoic and 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecenoic acids decreased. There were no qualitative and minor quantitative differences in wax and cutin composition between cultivars at maturity. Our data indicate that deposition of some constituents of wax and cutin ceased during early fruit development. PMID:17328933

  18. Cherry Featured in NCI’s Spotlight on Scientists Video Series | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    James Cherry, Ph.D., learned at an early age that education is crucial to success. He credits his mentors, some of whom include his grandmother, Shepherd University professor Burton Lidgerding, Ph.D., David Munroe, Ph.D., Frederick National Lab, and Robert J. Hohman, Ph.D., National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, for guiding him to the career he has today. Cherry, scientific program director, Office of Scientific Operations (OSO), NCI at Frederick, is one of the scientists featured in NCI’s Spotlight on Scientists video series.

  19. Cherry Featured in NCI’s Spotlight on Scientists Video Series | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    James Cherry, Ph.D., learned at an early age that education is crucial to success. He credits his mentors, some of whom include his grandmother, Shepherd University professor Burton Lidgerding, Ph.D., David Munroe, Ph.D., Frederick National Lab, and Robert J. Hohman, Ph.D., National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, for guiding him to the career he has today. Cherry, scientific program director, Office of Scientific Operations (OSO), NCI at Frederick, is one of the scientists featured in NCI’s Spotlight on Scientists video series.

  20. Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Monica A.; Holbrook, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a significant human health concern in Asia, Indonesia and parts of Australia with more than 3 billion people potentially at risk of infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the causative agent of JE. Given the risk to human health and the theoretical potential for JEV use as a bioweapon, the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent JEV infection is vital for preserving human health. The development of vaccines for JE began in the 1940s with formalin-inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines. These vaccines have been shown to induce a protective immune response and to be very effective. Mouse brain-derived vaccines were still in use until May 2011 when the last lots of the BIKEN® JE-VAX® expired. Development of modern JE vaccines utilizes cell culture-derived viruses and improvements in manufacturing processes as well as removal of potential allergens or toxins have significantly improved vaccine safety. China has developed a live-attenuated vaccine that has proven to induce protective immunity following a single inoculation. In addition, a chimeric vaccine virus incorporating the prM and E structural proteins derived from the live-attenuated JE vaccine into the live-attenuated yellow fever 17D vaccine virus backbone is currently in clinical trials. In this article, we provide a summary of JE vaccine development and on-going clinical trials. We also discuss the potential risk of JEV as a bioweapon with a focus on virus sustainability if used as a weapon. PMID:23125946

  1. Photostimulation of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Molino, A B; Garcia, E A; Santos, G C; Vieira Filho, J A; Baldo, G A A; Almeida Paz, I C L

    2015-02-01

    To adapt commercial poultry production to a new scenario of energy savings and to develop specific practices for quail production aimed at reducing costs while maintaining or improving productivity, four experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, birds were allocated to four treatments (photoperiod duration): T1: 14 L:10 D; T2: 15 L:9 D; T3: 16 L:8 D; and T4: 17 L:7 D. In the second experiment, birds were subjected to four levels of brightness: T1: 5 lux; T2: 10 lux; T3:15 lux; and T4: 22 lux (control). In the third experiment, four types of lamps were evaluated: T1: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 6,500 K); T2: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 2,700 K); T3: incandescent lamp; and T4: yellow LED. In the last experiment, four lighting programs were compared: T1: continuous program (control), in which there was a single photoperiod of 15 h; the other treatments consisted of intermittent lighting programs, as follows: T2: 1 h of light provided 1 h after dusk; T3: 1 h of light provided 2 h before dawn; T4: half an hour of light provided 1 h after dusk and half an hour of light provided 1.5 h before dawn. In each experiment, 1,296 Japanese quail were evaluated for four 28-d cycles, totaling 112 experimental days. A completely randomized experimental design of 4 treatments with 12 replicates of 27 birds each was applied in all trials. Performance and egg quality were evaluated in each experiment. Higher egg production and adequate egg quality, as well as energy savings, can be obtained with Japanese quail using compact fluorescent lamps or LEDs and a photoperiod of 15 h/d supplied using an intermittent lighting program, with 1 h of artificial light 2 h before dawn at a brightness of 5 lux. PMID:25589080

  2. Seed Production from Non-flowering Orchardgrass: Proof of Concept

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-flowering or sparse flowering orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) would greatly simplify management of intensive rotational grazing systems in which flowering stems are an impediment to efficient pasture utilization. Our objective was to quantify seed production on non-flowering orchardgrass c...

  3. Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose. PMID:15156734

  4. "Say it...near the flower shop": further evidence of the effect of flowers on mating.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    For millennia, flowers have been used to convey romance. In this study, 18-25-year-old women (N = 600) walking alone in a shopping mall were approached by an attractive 20-year-old male-confederate who solicited them for their phone number. The women were solicited as they were walking in the area of a flower shop, a cake shop, or a women's shoes shop. It was found that women agreed more favorably to the confederate's courtship solicitation when solicited in the area of the flower shop. Positive mood induced by exposure to flowers was used to explain these results. PMID:22930994

  5. The evolutionary root of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Nikiforova, Svetlana V; Biggs, Patrick J; Zhong, Bojian; Delange, Peter; Martin, William; Woetzel, Stefan; Atherton, Robin A; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Correct rooting of the angiosperm radiation is both challenging and necessary for understanding the origins and evolution of physiological and phenotypic traits in flowering plants. The problem is known to be difficult due to the large genetic distance separating flowering plants from other seed plants and the sparse taxon sampling among basal angiosperms. Here, we provide further evidence for concern over substitution model misspecification in analyses of chloroplast DNA sequences. We show that support for Amborella as the sole representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage is founded on sequence site patterns poorly described by time-reversible substitution models. Improving the fit between sequence data and substitution model identifies Trithuria, Nymphaeaceae, and Amborella as surviving relatives of the most basal lineage of flowering plants. This finding indicates that aquatic and herbaceous species dominate the earliest extant lineage of flowering plants. [; ; ; ; ; .]. PMID:22851550

  6. Flowering responses to light and temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Li, Xu; Liu, Yawen; Liu, Hongtao

    2016-04-01

    Light and temperature signals are the most important environmental cues regulating plant growth and development. Plants have evolved various strategies to prepare for, and adapt to environmental changes. Plants integrate environmental cues with endogenous signals to regulate various physiological processes, including flowering time. There are at least five distinct pathways controlling flowering in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana: the photoperiod pathway, the vernalization/thermosensory pathway, the autonomous floral initiation, the gibberellins pathway, and the age pathway. The photoperiod and temperature/ vernalization pathways mainly perceive external signals from the environment, while the autonomous and age pathways transmit endogenous cues within plants. In many plant species, floral transition is precisely controlled by light signals (photoperiod) and temperature to optimize seed production in specific environments. The molecular mechanisms by which light and temperature control flowering responses have been revealed using forward and reverse genetic approaches. Here we focus on the recent advances in research on flowering responses to light and temperature. PMID:26687726

  7. Why Is a Flower Five-Petaled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines why many flowers are five-petaled through the use of a five-petaled model that draws insights from the location of cell clusters at a shoot apex, rather than by way of the Fibonacci sequence or the golden ratio as in the past. The conclusion drawn is that flowers are most likely to be five-petaled, followed by six-petaled;…

  8. Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Tim H; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2012-03-01

    We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming. PMID:21547445

  9. Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Tim H.; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2012-03-01

    We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming.

  10. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators.

    PubMed

    Huda, A Nurul; Salmah, M R Che; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Razak, M N Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. 'Sala' and 'Chok Anan'. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  11. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Huda, A. Nurul; Salmah, M. R. Che; Hassan, A. Abu; Hamdan, A.; Razak, M. N. Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. ‘Sala’ and ‘Chok Anan’. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  12. Trees as huge flowers and flowers as oversized floral guides: the role of floral color change and retention of old flowers in Tibouchina pulchra

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Vinícius L. G.; Weynans, Kevin; Sazima, Marlies; Lunau, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Floral color changes and retention of old flowers are frequently combined phenomena restricted to the floral guide or single flowers in few-flowered inflorescences. They are thought to increase the attractiveness over long distances and to direct nearby pollinators toward the rewarding flowers. In Tibouchina pulchra, a massively flowering tree, the whole flower changes its color during anthesis. On the first day, the flowers are white and on the next 3 days, they change to pink. This creates a new large-scale color pattern in which the white pre-changed flowers contrast against the pink post-changed ones over the entire tree. We describe the spectral characteristics of floral colors of T. pulchra and test bumblebees’ response to this color pattern when viewed at different angles (simulating long and short distances). The results indicated the role of different color components in bumblebee attraction and the possible scenario in which this flower color pattern has evolved. We tested bumblebees’ preference for simulated trees with 75% pink and 25% white flowers resembling the color patterns of T. pulchra, and trees with green leaves and pink flowers (control) in long-distance approach. We also compared an artificial setting with three pink flowers and one white flower (T. pulchra model) against four pink flowers with white floral guides (control) in short-distance approach. Bumblebees spontaneously preferred the simulated T. pulchra patterns in both approaches despite similar reward. Moreover, in short distances, pollinator visits to peripheral, non-rewarding flowers occurred only half as frequently in the simulated T. pulchra when compared to the control. Thefore, this exceptional floral color change and the retention of old flowers in T. pulchra favors the attraction of pollinators over long distances in a deception process while it honestly directs them toward the rewarding flowers at short distances possibly exploring their innate color preferences. PMID

  13. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  14. Ring Beholds a Delicate Flower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope finds a delicate flower in the Ring Nebula, as shown in this image. The outer shell of this planetary nebula looks surprisingly similar to the delicate petals of a camellia blossom. A planetary nebula is a shell of material ejected from a dying star. Located about 2,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Lyra, the Ring Nebula is also known as Messier Object 57 and NGC 6720. It is one of the best examples of a planetary nebula and a favorite target of amateur astronomers.

    The 'ring' is a thick cylinder of glowing gas and dust around the doomed star. As the star begins to run out of fuel, its core becomes smaller and hotter, boiling off its outer layers. The telescope's infrared array camera detected this material expelled from the withering star. Previous images of the Ring Nebula taken by visible-light telescopes usually showed just the inner glowing loop of gas around the star. The outer regions are especially prominent in this new image because Spitzer sees the infrared light from hydrogen molecules. The molecules emit infrared light because they have absorbed ultraviolet radiation from the star or have been heated by the wind from the star.

    Download the QuickTime movie for the animated version of this Ring Nebula image.

  15. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TREE AND SHRUB SPECIES AND RESPONSE OF BLACK CHERRY FOLIAGE TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants of 12 species were exposed to 0.20 ppm of ozone for 5 hr periodically throughout the growing season of 1976. Species exhibiting symptoms, in approximate descending order of susceptibility, were Hinodegiri azalea, black cherry, American sycamore, hybrid poplar, yellow popla...

  16. Commercial yellow sticky strips more attractive than yellow boards to western cherry fruit fly (Dipt., Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bright yellow sticky rectangles made of paper boards were previously identified as the most effective traps for capturing western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae). Thin rectangular sheets of yellow plastic allow higher light passage than yellow boards and may b...

  17. Natural surface coating to inactivate Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and maintain quality of cherry tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effectiveness of zein-based coatings in reducing populations of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and preserving quality of cherry tomatoes. Tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of S. Typhimurium LT2 plus three mutants on the smoo...

  18. "Clever v. Cherry Hill Township Board of Education": Recognition of Religious Diversity in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1994-01-01

    A New Jersey school board enacted a policy to broaden students' understanding of their multicultural community's religious heritage. The federal district court upheld the Cherry Hill Township's approach to recognizing religious diversity in public schools. Reviews the policy and the court decision, and explores implications for public schools. (90…

  19. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  20. 76 FR 69673 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ..., issue of the Federal Register (76 FR 13528). This action is governed by the provisions of sections 556..., Utah. Notice of this hearing was published in the Federal Register on March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13528). The... costs are incurred and there is a greater risk of waste. Diverting surplus cherries in the orchard...

  1. Greenhouse screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains through its role as a vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by feeding damage to winter and spring small grains. Barley accessions have been reported to have BCOA ...

  2. Metabolism of phenolic compounds by Lactobacillus spp. during fermentation of cherry juice and broccoli puree.

    PubMed

    Filannino, Pasquale; Bai, Yunpeng; Di Cagno, Raffaela; Gobbetti, Marco; Gänzle, Michael G

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the metabolism of phenolic acids and flavonoids during lactic acid fermentation of cherry juice and broccoli puree for potential food and pharmaceutical purposes. When fermenting cherry juice and broccoli puree, Lactobacillus spp. exhibited strain-specific metabolism of phenolic acid derivatives. The metabolism of protocatechuic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids through phenolic acid decarboxylases and reductases differed between mMRS and cherry juice and broccoli puree. The synthesis of reduced compounds was the highest during food fermentations and the substrate seemed to modulate the metabolism of phenolic compounds. The reduction of phenolic acids involves a hydrogen donor and the re-oxidation of the reduced co-factor NADH, which may provide a metabolic advantage through NAD(+) regeneration. Quinic acid reduction may replace fructose and pyruvate as hydrogen acceptors, and it may provide an energetic advantage to heterofermentative bacteria when growing in broccoli puree lacking of fructose. This study demonstrated that phenolics metabolism may confer a selective advantage for lactobacilli in vegetable and fruit fermentation, and the metabolic routes are strongly dependent on the intrinsic factors of substrate. Fermented cherry juice and broccoli puree, due to the selected bacterial bioconversion pathways, are enriched in phenolic derivative with high human bioavailability and biological activity. PMID:25475296

  3. Parasitoid complex of the bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus, in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid complex of Yponomeuta evonymellus L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), the bird cherry ermine moth, was sought in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) with the goal of identifying potential biological controls of the moth. 13 primary and two secondary parasitoids were found. Diadegma armil...

  4. Molecular screening of walnut backcross populations for a DNA marker linked to cherry leafroll virus resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackline disease, a graft union disorder caused by infection of English walnut (Juglans regia) trees by Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) is a major problem for walnut production in Northern California where scions are grafted onto virus resistant black walnut (J. hindsii) or ‘Paradox’ (J. hindsii × J. ...

  5. Characterization of R genes involved in resistance to Cherry leaf roll virus in paradox hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single dominant ‘R’ gene (clrvR), in black walnuts (Juglans hindsii) or ‘paradox’ hybrids (J. hindsii x J. regia) confers resistance to Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV), the causal agent of blackline disease. The identification and cloning of the ‘R’ gene is expected to aid the walnut breeding progra...

  6. Bird cherry-oat aphid (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha, Aphidinae): Biology, pest status, and management in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a worldwide pest of wheat and other small grains. This paper provides an overview of BCOA life history, reviews its pest status in wheat, synthesizes and integrates information on different management strategies, and gives up-to-date inf...

  7. Status of greenhouse seedling screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous or virulifer...

  8. Metabolic profiling of ethephon-treated sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing costs and decreasing labor availability for sweet cherry harvest in Washington State, USA, has reinvigorated commercial and research interest of mechanized harvest. Ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) can be used to improve fruit abscission for mechanical harvest. Our previous work s...

  9. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  10. 78 FR 48283 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ...,600 per year. In addition, the Committee reports that most of the industry's 53 handlers reported... the Washington sweet cherry industry. All interested persons were invited to attend the meeting and... requirements and duplication by industry and public sector agencies. AMS is committed to complying with the...

  11. Optimal fluorescence waveband determination for detecting defect cherry tomatoes using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defect cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface, and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-...

  12. Induced proteolysis within the bird cherry leaves evoked by Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea).

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, H; Czerniewicz, P; Sprawka, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Chrzanowski, G; Leszczyński, B

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate the impact of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) feeding on functioning of the proteolytic machinery in bird cherry leaves. Biochemical analyses proved that R. padi feeding in tissues of primary host stimulated activity of the two major fractions of proteinases (extracted at the optimal pH values: 5.0 and 7.0). Additionally, it has been demonstrated that aphids' feeding on bird cherry led to a decline in levels of albumins and globulins (main protein fractions in P. padus leaves). The opposite tendency, regarding the amounts of these protein fractions was ascertained at the phase of disappearance of R. padi population on tested shoots. Furthermore, it is reported that an increase in activity of the analysed enzymes and a decline in the content of tested protein fractions, were proportional to density of aphid individuals developing on P. padus side shoots. It is hypothesized that long-term R. padi feeding may lead to intensifying the catabolic processing of proteins by the activated proteolytic machinery in bird cherry leaves. The multi-level biological functions of endogenous plant proteinases and their significance in triggering the defense reactions in aphid-infested plant tissues are discussed. PMID:21840833

  13. Greenhouse screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance to barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains through its role as a vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by feeding damage to winter and spring small grains. Barley accessions have been reported to have BCOA ...

  14. Different Voices, Different Truths: The 1827 Murder at Cherry Hill, A Social History Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watrous, Rebecca; And Others

    This unit contains primary documents and teaching activities related to an early 19th-century crime. The packet analyzes a murder that occurred at the Cherry Hill farm near Albany, New York, in 1827. The subsequent trial of the man and woman accused of the murder reveals much about the values and fabric of the society of the time. Elsie Whipple…

  15. Feeding substrates and behaviors of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the abundance of potential foods and the feeding substrates of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in 2005 and 2006 in central Washington. Aphid colonies with honeydew were not seen on randomly selected branches of s...

  16. Cryopreservation of dormant vegetative buds of tart and sweet cherry in liquid nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field collections of clonally propagated fruit crops such as tart and sweet cherry are vulnerable to damage by pests, diseases and environmental stresses and are expensive to maintain. There is a need in Kazakhstan to create backup collections of plants to guarantee germplasm preservation. Cryoprese...

  17. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Blando, Federica

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW) and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW). PMID:15577186

  18. Screening USDA-ARS wheat germplasm for bird cherry-oat aphid tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) can cause significant yield reduction in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) without causing aboveground visual damage signs or symptoms. This lack of obvious aboveground symptom development makes it difficult to use standard aphid tolerance testing protoc...

  19. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 °C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  20. Transition of phenolics and cyanogenic glycosides from apricot and cherry fruit kernels into liqueur.

    PubMed

    Senica, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2016-07-15

    Popular liqueurs made from apricot/cherry pits were evaluated in terms of their phenolic composition and occurrence of cyanogenic glycosides (CGG). Analyses consisted of detailed phenolic and cyanogenic profiles of cherry and apricot seeds as well as beverages prepared from crushed kernels. Phenolic groups and cyanogenic glycosides were analyzed with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrophotometry (MS). Lower levels of cyanogenic glycosides and phenolics have been quantified in liqueurs compared to fruit kernels. During fruit pits steeping in the alcohol, the phenolics/cyanogenic glycosides ratio increased and at the end of beverage manufacturing process higher levels of total analyzed phenolics were detected compared to cyanogenic glycosides (apricot liqueur: 38.79 μg CGG per ml and 50.57 μg phenolics per ml; cherry liqueur 16.08 μg CGG per ml and 27.73 μg phenolics per ml). Although higher levels of phenolics are characteristic for liqueurs made from apricot and cherry pits these beverages nevertheless contain considerable amounts of cyanogenic glycosides. PMID:26948641

  1. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. 208.82 Section 208.82 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, acting jointly, hereinafter called the Districts, shall operate Don Pedro Dam and Reservoir...

  2. Detection of cuticle defects on cherry tomatoes based on hyperspectral fluorescence imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though cherry tomato is one of the major vegetables consumed in the fresh-cut market, its quality evaluation process has been dependent on simple size- or color-sorting techniques, which currently is inadequate for meeting the increased consumer demand for high quality and safety products. Of ...

  3. OZONE UPTAKE OF DIFFERENT-SIZED BLACK CHERRY TREES IN HIGH- AND LOW-LIGHT ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone uptake rates of different-sized black cherry trees located in both high and low light environments were calculated from measurements of ambient ozone concentration and stomatal conductance. he objective of the study was to determine how tree size and light conditions may di...

  4. Utilization of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Evaluation of Cherry Hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Aldahan, Adam S; Mlacker, Stephanie; Shah, Vidhi V; Chen, Lucy L; Nouri, Keyvan; Grichnik, James M

    2016-06-01

    Cherry hemangiomas are common vascular proliferative lesions that can be concerning from a cosmetic perspective. Laser therapy is often used to eradicate cherry hemangiomas, but some lesions require multiple treatments or do not resolve at all. The suboptimal response to laser treatment may be due to limitations in penetration depth by vascular lasers such as the pulsed dye laser. Optical coherence tomography is a low-energy, light-based imaging device that can evaluate the depth and extent of vascular lesions such as cherry hemangiomas by allowing visualization of tissue structure and blood vessel architecture, which cannot be appreciated by clinical or dermatoscopic examination alone. We present optical coherence tomography images of a cherry hemangioma to demonstrate the precision and resolution of this imaging modality. Optical coherence tomography provides valuable information that has the potential to predict response to laser therapy without unnecessary attempts. Future prospective studies will determine its value for this purpose.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):713-714. PMID:27272077

  5. A Tale of Two Bees: Looking at Pollination Fees for Both Almonds and Sweet Cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economic theory of supply and demand can explain the recent drastic changes in the pollination prices for almonds and cherries, following large acreage increases for these crops and a concurrent drop in honey bee availability due to colony collapse disorder (CCD). We constructed a model which s...

  6. Humidity maintenance clamshell and ethanol vapor improve quality of intact and fresh-cut cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently commercial clamshells are very inefficient because 3-10% of the total surface area is exposed to air. These openings allow fruit weight to decrease more than 5% when stored at 10 C, a normal produce shelf temperature, for 7 days. Thus, as a result of this exposure to air, cherry stems dr...

  7. The Japanese Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, J.

    The Japanese scientific ballooning program has been organized by ISAS since the institute was founded in mid 1960s. Since then, the balloon group of ISAS has been engaged in the development of the balloon technologies and scientific observations in collaboration with scientists and engineers in other universities and organizations. Here, I describe several subjects of recent activities, the details of some items will also be reported in the separate papers in this meeting.Preparation of a new mobile receiving station.

  8. Balloons of made of the EVAL (Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol) films. EVAL film has specific Infra-red absorption bands, and is expected to be useful for saving the ballast for a long duration flight.
  9. A high altitude balloon with thin polyethylene films achieving at an altitude of above 50km. Further improvement of this type of balloons is continued by inventing how to extrude thin films less than 5 microns of thickness.
  10. Recent achievement of Antarctica Flights under the collaboration of ISAS and National Polar Institute.
  11. Other new efforts to long duration flights such as satellite link boomerang balloon systems and others.
  12. New balloon borne scientific instrumentation for observations of high energy electrons and Anti-protons in cosmic-rays.
  13. Temperature-related development and population parameters for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on cherry and blueberry.

    PubMed

    Tochen, Samantha; Dalton, Daniel T; Wiman, Nik; Hamm, Christopher; Shearer, Peter W; Walton, Vaughn M

    2014-04-01

    Temperature-related studies were conducted on Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae: Drosophilini). From 10-28°C, temperature had a significant impact on blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L. 1755 (Rosales: Rosaceae), important commercial hosts of D. suzukii. Temperature had a significant influence on D. suzukii developmental period, survival, and fecundity, with decreasing developmental periods as temperatures increased to 28°C. At 30°C, the highest temperature tested, development periods increased, indicating that above this temperature the developmental extremes for the species were approached. D. suzukii reared on blueberries had lower fecundity than reared on cherries at all temperatures where reproduction occurred. The highest net reproductive rate (R(o)) and intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) were recorded on cherries at 22°C and was 195.1 and 0.22, respectively. Estimations using linear and nonlinear fit for the minimum, optimal, and maximum temperatures where development can take place were respectively, 7.2, 28.1, and 42.1°C. The r(m) values were minimal, optimal, and maximal at 13.4, 21.0, and 29.3°C, respectively. Our laboratory cultures of D. suzukii displayed high rates of infection for Wolbachia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and this infection may have impacted fecundity found in this study. A temperature-dependent matrix population estimation model using fecundity and survival data were run to determine whether these data could predict D. suzukii pressure based on environmental conditions. The model was applied to compare the 2011 and 2012 crop seasons in an important cherry production region. Population estimates using the model explained different risk levels during the key cherry harvest period between these seasons. PMID:24612968

  14. A Stochastic Flowering Model Describing an Asynchronically Flowering Set of Trees

    PubMed Central

    NORMAND, F.; HABIB, R.; CHADŒUF, J.

    2002-01-01

    A general stochastic model is presented that simulates the time course of flowering of individual trees and populations, integrating the synchronization of flowering both between and within trees. Making some hypotheses, a simplified expression of the model, called the ‘shoot’ model, is proposed, in which the synchronization of flowering both between and within trees is characterized by specific parameters. Two derived models, the ‘tree’ model and the ‘population’ model, are presented. They neglect the asynchrony of flowering, respectively, within trees, and between and within trees. Models were fitted and tested using data on flowering of Psidium cattleianum observed at study sites at elevations of 200, 520 and 890 m in Réunion Island. The ‘shoot’ model fitted the data best and reproduced the strong irregularities in flowering shown by empirical data. The asynchrony of flowering in P. cattleianum was more pronounced within than between trees. Simulations showed that various flowering patterns can be reproduced by the ‘shoot’ model. The use of different levels of organization of the general model is discussed. PMID:12234153

  15. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callow, J.M.; Kantrud, H.A.; Higgins, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    We recorded flowering events for 97 species of prairie plants for 2-6 years near Woodworth, ND. Earliest and latest flower initiation dates varied by year. Temperature seemed much more important than precipitation in influencing phenology of species that bloom from late March through May, but no strong climatic effect was evident for plants that bloom later in the growing season.

  16. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Björn K; Burmeister, Carina; Westphal, Catrin; Tscharntke, Teja; von Fragstein, Maximilian; von Fragstein, Maximillian

    2013-01-01

    Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding. PMID:23977347

  17. Flower power: Tree flowering phenology as a settlement cue for migrating birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGrath, L.J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Fontaine, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  18. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  19. Mineral and metabolic profiles in tea leaves and flowers during flower development.

    PubMed

    Jia, Sisi; Wang, Yu; Hu, Jianhui; Ding, Zhaotang; Liang, Qing; Zhang, Yinfei; Wang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverage crops in the world, and the physiological processes and gene regulations involved in development in tea plants have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the metabolic changes combined with mineral distributions that occur during flower development. Here we detected the contents of 11 elements in tea leaves and flowers and found that, some of them, especially phosphorus, sulfur and copper, showed significant changes during tea flowering. We also detected 122 metabolites in tea leaves and flowers and found that, 72 of them showed significant differences between flowers and leaves, of which sugars, organic acids, and flavonoids dominated. The sugars, such as trehalose and galactose, all accumulated in tea flowers, and the organic acids, such as malic acid, citric acid and fumaric acid involved in TCA cycle. The flavonoids, like epicatechin, catechin gallate and epigallocatechin, were more abundant in leaves. Furthermore, we found that the contents of 33 metabolites changed during the development of flowers. Especially, citric acid, phenylalanine and most flavonoids decreased while fructose and galactose increased during flowering stages in flowers. We also analyzed the correlations between the ions and metabolites and found that, some mineral nutrients including phosphorus, sulfur, manganese and zinc had close relations to organic acids, flavonoids, sugars and several amino acids during flowering. We mapped the metabolic pathway according to the KEGG database. This work will serve as the foundation for a systems biology approach to the understanding of mineral metabolism. PMID:27372442

  20. Japanese respond to campaign.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City. PMID:12288124

  21. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  22. 76 FR 63600 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit From South Africa Into the Continental...

  23. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point approximately 6,800 feet west of the mouth of Slocum Creek, and all waters of Hancock and Slocum Creeks and...

  24. BP Cherry Point Cogeneration Project, Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-09-19

    BP West Coast Products, LLC (BP or the Applicant) proposes to construct and operate a nominal 720-megawatt (MW), natural-gas-fired, combined-cycle cogeneration facility next to the existing BP Cherry Point Refinery in Whatcom County, Washington. The Applicant also owns and operates the refinery, but the cogeneration facility and the refinery would be operated as separate business units. The cogeneration facility and its ancillary infrastructure would provide steam and 85 MW of electricity to meet the operating needs of the refinery and 635 MW of electrical power for local and regional consumption. The proposed cogeneration facility would be located between Ferndale and Blaine in northwestern Whatcom County, Washington. The Canadian border is approximately 8 miles north of the proposed project site. The Washington State Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council (EFSEC) has jurisdiction over the evaluation of major energy facilities including the proposed project. As such, EFSEC will recommend approval or denial of the proposed cogeneration facility to the governor of Washington after an environmental review. On June 3, 2002, the Applicant filed an Application for Site Certification (ASC No. 2002-01) with EFSEC in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 463-42. On April 22, 2003, the Applicant submitted an amended ASC that included, among other things, a change from air to water cooling. With the submission of the ASC and in accordance with the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) (WAC 463-47), EFSEC is evaluating the siting of the proposed project and conducting an environmental review with this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Because the proposed project requires federal agency approvals and permits, this EIS is intended to meet the requirements under both SEPA and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) also will use this EIS as part of their

  25. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840

  1. JABEE in Japanese Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki

    JABEE in Japanese engineering education is discussed by focusing on the status and treatment of engineers in Japanese society and their achievements. The entrance fee and tuition of the engineering departments of higher education facilities are higher than those of the law, economy and literature departments. On the other hand, an engineer's lifelong wage is smaller than that of those who have graduated from the latter fields. Although engineering students must study for a longer period of time, the scholarship system to support these students in Japan falls far behind that in the U.S.A. The achievements of Japanese engineering were summarized from the viewpoint of economic indications such as 1) production of steel, 2) energy consumption per person as a function of GDP, 3) income 4) real estate abroad and miscellaneous factors such as the life spans and criminal rates of many countries. These analyses made it clear that Japanese engineers have the highest ability even compared to advanced countries and this is because of the higher engineering education in Japan ; but their status is unreasonably low in Japanese society. The four points by which the present status of Japanese engineers can be improved were discussed in relation to the introduction and the achievement of the JABEE system. The true aim of education reform by JABEE is that the engineering education in Japan should shift “from government to non-government”, “from organization to individual” and “from control to interdependency.” The expected points of improvement are discussed.

  2. Tiger cubs and little flowers.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Short vignettes are related to show the conditions for girls and women in Morocco. Descriptions are given for child labor, literacy, the government's education campaign, youth group efforts to enhance family planning (FP) knowledge, the impact of FP outreach in rural areas, and unmarried mothers. In Morocco's cities, young boys can be seen hawking cigarettes and working in market stalls; in the countryside, boys herd goats or do other farm work. In rural areas girls are hidden by having them perform work around the house or on the farm primarily indoors. Women are supervised by women. 54% work as maids and 39% are apprentices in carpet factories. Parents prefer to have their daughters working and consider it protection from mischief as well as needed income. Only 60% of girls are enrolled in primary school vs. 80% of the boys. In rural areas, only 44% of girls are enrolled, and 20% stay to complete their primary education, while 76% of boys enroll and 63% complete primary school. Literacy of women has an effect on the ability to accurately take birth control pills. All ages of women gather at schools in the evening for lessons in reading and writing in a program supported by the King. Women are pleased with their success in just learning how to write their own names. Television advertisements promote sending children to school, as another part of the Ministry of Education's campaign to increase girl's educational status. There are still not enough schools; many schools are double shift, and communities are building their own schools. Youth clubs, which refer to boys as "tiger cubs" and girls as "little flowers," try to familiarize young people with some basic information about contraception. A traditional midwife relates some problems with girl's education: costs for clothing and supplies, worry about male teachers, and poor role models. In some remote areas, farm families do not send their children to school, because of the distance to schools and the need for

  3. Resilient Plant–Bird Interactions in a Volcanic Island Ecosystem: Pollination of Japanese Camellia Mediated by the Japanese White-Eye

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Harue; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Takahashi, Toshimori; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Hasegawa, Masami

    2013-01-01

    Observations of interspecies interactions during volcanic activity provide important opportunities to study how organisms respond to environmental devastation. Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica L.) and its main avian pollinator, the Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonica), offer an excellent example of such an interaction as key members of the biotic community on Miyake-jima, which erupted in 2000 and continues to emit volcanic gases. Both species exhibit higher resistance to volcanic damage than other species. We examined the effects of volcanic activity on this plant–pollinator system by estimating pollen flow and the genetic diversity of the next generation. The results showed that despite a decrease in Camellia flowers, the partitioning of allelic richness among mother-tree pollen pools and seeds decreased while the migration rate of pollen from outside the study plot and the pollen donor diversity within a fruit increased as the index of volcanic damage increased. In areas with low food (flower) density due to volcanic damage, Z. japonica ranged over larger areas to satisfy its energy needs rather than moving to areas with higher food density. Consequently, the genetic diversity of the seeds (the next plant generation) increased with the index of volcanic damage. The results were consistent with previously published data on the movement of Z. japonica based on radio tracking and the genetic diversity of Camellia pollen adhering to pollinators. Overall, our results indicated that compensation mechanisms ensured better pollination after volcanic disturbance. PMID:23646136

  4. The Nonacademic Curriculum of the Japanese Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Japanese nursery school and kindergarten activities are designed to facilitate the socialization of Japanese children. The culture of the home and the culture of the school (and by extension the rest of Japanese society) are so different from each other that it is believed the open and unselfconscious help of the education system is necessary to…

  5. Shattering Myths: Japanese American Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshiwara, Florence M.

    An historical review of the immigration and resettlement patterns, and a demographic profile of Japanese Americans reveals a myth of the "successful minority." Since the founding of the Japanese American Citizens League in 1928, Japanese Americans have defeated alien land laws, discriminatory immigration quotas, anti-miscengenation laws, and…

  6. Two Modes of Counting in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backus, Robert L.

    1972-01-01

    This paper seeks to formulate a principle that explains the working of the Japanese number system with respect to Japanese nouns and that defines the kinds of nouns and contexts that condition the forms of number expressions. It is the author's theory that in applying numbers to nouns, the Japanese make a formal distinction between things they…

  7. Teaching Japanese Literature and Translation in Tandem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beichman, Janine

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method of teaching Japanese literature to Japanese native speakers by comparing English translations to the original texts. Discusses criteria for choosing a text and lists some of the texts used and the method in which they were used. This method gave students a deeper understanding of the original Japanese text. (SED)

  8. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…

  9. Development of the Japanese Sword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, Hiromu

    1980-02-01

    Both the beauty and the utility of the Japanese sword as a weapon depend on the characteristic metallic component structure of the sword blade steel. After briefly describing the characteristics of the sword blade and the history of the Japanese sword, this paper describes the forging process for making the composite structure of the sword blade steel, according to the author's experiences. Finally, andent ironmaking and steelmaking processes are briefly explained. The author concludes that the high purity of the iron and steel obtained to the beauty and artistry of the finished sword blade.

  10. Unique Crystallization of Fullerenes: Fullerene Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungah; Park, Chibeom; Song, Intek; Lee, Minkyung; Kim, Hyungki; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2016-01-01

    Solution-phase crystallization of fullerene molecules strongly depends on the types of solvent and their ratios because solvent molecules are easily included in the crystal lattice and distort its structure. The C70 (solute)–mesitylene (solvent) system yields crystals with various morphologies and structures, such as cubes, tubes, and imperfect rods. Herein, using C60 and C70 dissolved in mesitylene, we present a novel way to grow unique flower-shaped crystals with six symmetric petals. The different solubility of C60 and C70 in mesitylene promotes nucleation of C70 with sixfold symmetry in the early stage, which is followed by co-crystallization of both C60 and C70 molecules, leading to lateral petal growth. Based on the growth mechanism, we obtained more complex fullerene crystals, such as multi-deck flowers and tube-flower complexes, by changing the sequence and parameters of crystallization. PMID:27561446

  11. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2000-03-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.

  12. Tropism in azalea and lily flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Tropic responses were examined in azalea Rhododendrom pulchrum and lily Lilium cv. 'Casablanca' flowers. Orientation of the flowers in these two species depicts several up/down characteristics, such as angle of the corolla opening, alignment or configuration of a specific petal at the top, plus direction in the curved tip of the pistil and stamen. Gravity was found to be the prime factor, with light as a secondary signal that determines gravitropism in the pistil of the azalea. Within the azalea, sedimented amyloplasts were observed throughout the cells along the inner layers below the epidermis. In lily flowers, no sedimented amyloplasts were found in style cells, and phototropic responses caused upward bending of the pistil. Responses of lily pistils to monochromatic light were consistent with the action spectrum for phototropism in the shoots of monocotyledonous plants. We discuss how these features may increase the fitness for pollination in these two species.

  13. Unique Crystallization of Fullerenes: Fullerene Flowers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungah; Park, Chibeom; Song, Intek; Lee, Minkyung; Kim, Hyungki; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2016-01-01

    Solution-phase crystallization of fullerene molecules strongly depends on the types of solvent and their ratios because solvent molecules are easily included in the crystal lattice and distort its structure. The C70 (solute)-mesitylene (solvent) system yields crystals with various morphologies and structures, such as cubes, tubes, and imperfect rods. Herein, using C60 and C70 dissolved in mesitylene, we present a novel way to grow unique flower-shaped crystals with six symmetric petals. The different solubility of C60 and C70 in mesitylene promotes nucleation of C70 with sixfold symmetry in the early stage, which is followed by co-crystallization of both C60 and C70 molecules, leading to lateral petal growth. Based on the growth mechanism, we obtained more complex fullerene crystals, such as multi-deck flowers and tube-flower complexes, by changing the sequence and parameters of crystallization. PMID:27561446

  14. Sensitivity of flowering phenology to changing temperature in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haicheng; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Fu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Plant phenology is one of the preferred indicators of climate change, and its variation potentially impacts community dynamics and ecosystem functions. To better understand the responses of plants' flowering phenology to rising temperatures, we investigated the temperature sensitivity (expressed as the date of changes in phenology per change in temperature in degree Celsius, d °C-1) of flowering phenology for more than 220 plant species at 59 sites in China during the period 1963-1988. Our results indicated that most flowerings in China were significantly sensitive to the temperature in the 2 months (60 days) prior to the flowering dates. Plants in warmer regions showed larger sensitivities to increased temperatures. Species flowering in the late spring and early summer were generally less sensitive to changing temperature than species flowering at other times of the year. For plants flowering in the spring, species that flower earlier showed higher temperature sensitivity; however, for plants flowering in the summer and autumn, species that flower earlier showed lower temperature sensitivity. The responses of the first and last flowering times to changing temperature were mostly consistent, so flowering durations were rarely (6.1%) sensitive to changing temperature. We hypothesize that plants in cold regions may have adapted to the more variable temperatures and thus showed lower temperature sensitivities than plants in warm regions. Overall, the responses of flowering phenology to temperature varied significantly among temperature zones and plant species, so it should be considered carefully when estimating the impacts of climate warming on the terrestrial biosphere.

  15. Construction of the first genetic linkage map of Japanese gentian (Gentianaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Japanese gentians (Gentiana triflora and Gentiana scabra) are amongst the most popular floricultural plants in Japan. However, genomic resources for Japanese gentians have not yet been developed, mainly because of the heterozygous genome structure conserved by outcrossing, the long juvenile period, and limited knowledge about the inheritance of important traits. In this study, we developed a genetic linkage map to improve breeding programs of Japanese gentians. Results Enriched simple sequence repeat (SSR) libraries from a G. triflora double haploid line yielded almost 20,000 clones using 454 pyrosequencing technology, 6.7% of which could be used to design SSR markers. To increase the number of molecular markers, we identified three putative long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences using the recently developed inter-primer binding site (iPBS) method. We also developed retrotransposon microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) markers combining retrotransposon and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. In addition to SSR and REMAP markers, modified amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and random amplification polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were developed. Using 93 BC1 progeny from G. scabra backcrossed with a G. triflora double haploid line, 19 linkage groups were constructed with a total of 263 markers (97 SSR, 97 AFLP, 39 RAPD, and 30 REMAP markers). One phenotypic trait (stem color) and 10 functional markers related to genes controlling flower color, flowering time and cold tolerance were assigned to the linkage map, confirming its utility. Conclusions This is the first reported genetic linkage map for Japanese gentians and for any species belonging to the family Gentianaceae. As demonstrated by mapping of functional markers and the stem color trait, our results will help to explain the genetic basis of agronomic important traits, and will be useful for marker-assisted selection in gentian breeding programs. Our map will also be an

  16. High-resolution seismic reflection/refraction imaging from Interstate 10 to Cherry Valley Boulevard, Cherry Valley, Riverside County, California: implications for water resources and earthquake hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandhok, G.; Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.; Horta, E.; Rymer, M.J.; Martin, P.; Christensen, A.

    1999-01-01

    This report is the second of two reports on seismic imaging investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during the summers of 1997 and 1998 in the Cherry Valley area in California (Figure 1a). In the first report (Catchings et al., 1999), data and interpretations were presented for four seismic imaging profiles (CV-1, CV-2, CV-3, and CV-4) acquired during the summer of 1997 . In this report, we present data and interpretations for three additional profiles (CV-5, CV-6, and CV-7) acquired during the summer of 1998 and the combined seismic images for all seven profiles. This report addresses both groundwater resources and earthquake hazards in the San Gorgonio Pass area because the shallow (upper few hundred meters) subsurface stratigraphy and structure affect both issues. The cities of Cherry Valley and Beaumont are located approximately 130 km (~80 miles) east of Los Angeles, California along the southern alluvial fan of the San Bernardino Mountains (see Figure 1b). These cities are two of several small cities that are located within San Gorgonio Pass, a lower-lying area between the San Bernardino and the San Jacinto Mountains. Cherry Valley and Beaumont are desert cities with summer daytime temperatures often well above 100 o F. High water usage in the arid climate taxes the available groundwater supply in the region, increasing the need for efficient management of the groundwater resources. The USGS and the San Gorgonio Water District (SGWD) work cooperatively to evaluate the quantity and quality of groundwater supply in the San Gorgonio Pass region. To better manage the water supplies within the District during wet and dry periods, the SGWD sought to develop a groundwater recharge program, whereby, excess water would be stored in underground aquifers during wet periods (principally winter months) and retrieved during dry periods (principally summer months). The SGWD preferred a surface recharge approach because it could be less expensive than a

  17. Shorter flowering seasons and declining abundance of flower visitors in a warmer Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høye, Toke T.; Post, Eric; Schmidt, Niels M.; Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Forchhammer, Mads C.

    2013-08-01

    Advancing phenology in response to global warming has been reported across biomes, raising concerns about the temporal uncoupling of trophic interactions. Concurrently, widely reported flower visitor declines have been linked to resource limitations. Phenological responses in the Arctic have been shown to outpace responses from lower latitudes and recent studies suggest that differences between such responses for plants and their flower visitors could be particularly pronounced in the Arctic. The evidence for phenological uncoupling is scant because relevant data sets are lacking or not available at a relevant spatial scale. Here, we present evidence of a climate-associated shortening of the flowering season and a concomitant decline in flower visitor abundance based on a long-term, spatially replicated (1996-2009) data set from high-Arctic Greenland. A unique feature of the data set is the spatial and temporal overlap of independent observations of plant and insect phenology. The shortening of the flowering season arose through spatial variation in phenological responses to warming. The shorter flowering seasons may have played a role in the observed decline in flower visitor abundance. Our results demonstrate that the dramatic climatic changes currently taking place in the Arctic are strongly affecting individual species and ecological communities, with implications for trophic interactions.

  18. Other Japanese Educations and Japanese Education Otherwise. Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2011-01-01

    Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular support. Subsequent…

  19. Japanese couples' opinions.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, M

    1993-06-01

    The Japanese National Survey on Family Planning has been conducted since 1950 by the Mainichi Newspapers. The 21st survey, which included approximately 3400 persons, was conducted in 1992 in conjunction with various family planning organizations. The results reported include the ideal number of children, care for the elderly, tolerance for induced abortion, beliefs about the side effects of oral contraceptives, attitudes of husbands toward their wives working outside the home, sexual harassment, and elderly husband's concern about contracting AIDS. 45% of respondents supported Japan's involvement in FP efforts in developing countries, and 20.9% disapproved of involvement. Fertility declined from 1.54 in 1990 to 1.53 in 1991. There was an 5% increase to 75.3% in the number of women concerned about declining fertility for such reasons as the loss of social vitality and the increased burden of support in old age. However, 60.9% of wives and 56.8% of husbands felt that the government should not take action to prevent further fertility decline. Public policies for reducing the cost of education were supported by 39.6% of wives and 43.6% of husbands. A similar number supported increases in child allowance, and a smaller percentage of husbands and wives wanted the government to subsidize housing expenses. The ideal number of children was 3 for 45.7% of those surveyed, which was more than those desiring 2 children. The ideal of 3 children was held by survey participants who were more than 35 years old and by those with a high education. Part-time workers and office clerks were more likely to report that 2 children were ideal. An increasing number of respondents (60.4%) do not intend to rely on their children in old age. There has been a shift in family planning methods from induced abortions to increased contraceptive use. The highest rate of contraceptive use is among wives 35-39 years old. 75.3% use condoms. 67.7% reported concern about side effects from oral

  20. Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittka, Lars; Thomson, James D.; Waser, Nickolas M.

    Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species, in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution, and our understanding of the learning processes involved in finding food. Some scientists have assumed that flower constancy is adaptive per se. Others argued that constancy occurs because memory capacity for floral features in insects is limited, but attempts to identify the limitations often remained rather simplistic. We elucidate now different sensory and motor memories from natural foraging tasks are stored and retrieved, using concepts from modern learning science and visual search, and conclude that flower constancy is likely to have multiple causes. Possible constraints favoring constancy are interference sensitivity of short-term memory, and temporal limitations on retrieving information from long-term memory as rapidly as from short-term memory, but further empirical evidence is needed to substantiate these possibilities. In addition, retrieving memories may be slower and more prone to errors when there are several options than when an insect copes with only a single task. In addition to memory limitations, we also point out alternative explanations for flower constancy. We then consider the way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color (as seen through bees' eyes) affect constancy. Finally, we discuss the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution. To date there is no evidence that flowers have diverged to favor constancy, although the appropriate tests may not have yet been conducted. However, there is good evidence against the notion that pollinator constancy is involved in speciation or maintenance of plant species integrity.

  1. Determination of optimal excitation and emission wavebands for detection of defect cherry tomato by using fluorescence emission and excitation matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, In-Suck; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Kim, Moon S.; Kim, Young-Sik

    2013-05-01

    Fluorescence imaging technique has been widely used for quality and safety measurements of agro-food materials. Fluorescence emission intensities of target materials are influenced by wavelengths of excitation sources. Hence, selection of a proper excitation wavelength is an important factor in differentiating target materials effectively. In this study, optimal fluorescence excitation wavelength was determined on the basis of fluorescence emission intensity of defect and sound areas of cherry tomatoes. The result showed that fluorescence responses of defect and sound surfaces of cherry tomatoes were most significantly separated with the excitation light wavelength range between 400 and 410 nm. Fluorescence images of defect cherry tomatoes were acquired with the LEDs with the central wavelength of 410 nm as the excitation source to verify the detection efficiency of cherry tomato defects. The resultant fluorescence images showed that the defects were discriminated from sound areas on cherry tomatoes with above 98% accuracy. This study shows that high power LEDs as the excitation source for fluorescence imaging are suitable for defect detection of cherry tomatoes.

  2. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    PubMed

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  3. Teaching Japanese-American Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miksch, Karen L.; Ghere, David

    2004-01-01

    Few events in American history are so universally deplored as the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The United States government has acknowledged the error and the injustice that resulted with an official Presidential apology and a Congressional disbursement of reparations to the victims of the incarceration policy. The…

  4. The Japanese Copula: A Dummy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenck, G.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of whether the Japanese copula can adequately be described as a dummy, i.e., as an element which although existing in the surface structure can be dispensed with in the deep structure of a sentence; based on a paper read at the 1970 meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia. (RS)

  5. Japanese Industry Boosts Pollution Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Michael K.

    1975-01-01

    In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)

  6. Contrastive Rhetoric: Japanese and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, John

    Research is reviewed on systematic differences in expository styles due to cultural or linguistic diversity. The critique concentrates on the method of data gathering, the usage of the categorization "Oriental," and the description of English paragraph development. An investigation is reported that consisted of an analysis of the Japanese and…

  7. Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…

  8. Japanese at Mimosa Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchihara, Azusa

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Japanese program at Mimosa Elementary School in Roswell, Georgia. The success of the program has been aided by collaborative team teaching, a spiraled curriculum, creative teaching methods, Teacher -made materials, and communication among teachers, parents, and administrators. he challenges are also discussed. (Author/VWL)

  9. An Island Effect in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Norvin

    2000-01-01

    Develops an argument for a pied-piping approach to the apparent absence of island effects in Japanese, along the lines of Nishigauchi (1986, 1990). Investigates the nature of pied-piping, developing a theory that accounts for the fact that wh-islands cannot be pied-piped. (Author/VWL)

  10. Three Plays from the Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, M. Kent

    This study is both an interpretation and a translation of three modern Japanese plays, providing an artistic perspective on the radical reordering of experience and thought with which modern man must grapple in cross-cultural encounters. An introductory essay prefaces each play, providing a historical, critical, or appreciative perspective from…

  11. Citation Indicators of Japanese Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiqi, Zhang; Yamazaki, Shigeaki

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates Japanese journals--128 indexed in the 1994 "Journal Citation Reports"--in bibliometric parameters such as impact factors (IFs), mean IFs from citing and cited journals, and self-citing and self-cited rates. Results: only 15 journals, with a wide variation of self-citing and self-cited rates, have obtained a current impact higher than…

  12. Moral Development of Japanese Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Satomi Izumi; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Wilson, Jeanne

    2002-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 28 kindergartners, their teachers, and their director to examine Japanese children's moral development. Qualitative analysis of interviews revealed three themes related to moral development: social system morality, emotions, and responsibility. Children made moral decisions based on social system morality…

  13. Japanese; Particles, Verbs, and Adjectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume has been prepared as a reference book on particles, verbs, and "true" adjectives, as presented in the Defense Language Institute's Basic Course in Japanese. Forty-six particles are listed, with varying numbers of different usages explained and illustrated by examples. (AMM)

  14. Long Distance Scrambling in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Mamoru

    1992-01-01

    The nature of scrambling in Japanese is examined in light of the work of Webelhuth and Mahajan, and it is argued that their apparently inconsistent hypotheses are both necessary for the analysis of scrambling. A modified version is suggested. (59 references) (Author/LB)

  15. Characterization of cell wall polysaccharides of cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace.

    PubMed

    Kosmala, Monika; Milala, Joanna; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Markowski, Jarosław; Mieszczakowska, Monika; Ginies, Christian; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2009-12-01

    The polysaccharide composition of cell wall of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace was investigated. Furthermore, the alcohol insoluble solids composition of 'Kelleriis' and 'Dobreczyn Botermo' varieties were studied too. Yield of alcohol insoluble solids for fruits was lower than 10%, and for pomaces circa 50%. Uronic acid was the main pectin component of alcohol insoluble solids. Enzymes used as juice processing aids decreased the content of uronic acid. Araban and galactan side chains bonded tightly to cellulose presence was suggested by high content of arabinose and galactose in hemicellulose fraction. The process of drying at below 70 degrees C did not influence polysaccharide composition of sour cherry pomaces. Alcohol insoluble solids of fruits expressed higher hydration properties than of pomaces. PMID:19757068

  16. Effect of oligosaccharides derived from Laminaria japonica-incorporated pullulan coatings on preservation of cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun; Lu, Mingsheng; Wang, Shujun

    2016-05-15

    Laminaria japonica-derived oligosaccharides (LJOs) exhibit antibacterial and antioxidant activities, and pullulan is a food thickener that can form impermeable films. The ability of pullulan coatings with various LJO concentrations (1% pullulan+0.1%, 0.2% or 0.3% LJOs) to preserve cherry tomatoes during storage at room temperature was investigated. The LJO-incorporated pullulan coatings were found to effectively reduce respiratory intensity, vitamin C loss, weight loss and softening, as well as to increase the amount of titratable acid and the overall likeness of fruit compared with the control. These effects were observed to be dose-dependent. Therefore, using LJO-incorporated pullulan coatings can extend the shelf life of cherry tomatoes. PMID:26775974

  17. Characterization of cuticle composition after cold storage of "Celeste" and "Somerset" sweet cherry fruit.

    PubMed

    Belge, Burcu; Llovera, Montserrat; Comabella, Eva; Gatius, Ferran; Guillén, Pere; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2014-08-27

    Cuticle composition and structure may be relevant factors affecting the storage potential of fruits, but very few studies have analyzed fruit cuticle composition from a postharvest perspective. In this work, the chemical composition of waxes and cutin (major cuticular components) was analyzed in cuticle samples isolated from "Celeste" and "Somerset" cherries (Prunus avium L.) after cold storage at 0 °C. Total cuticle amounts per surface unit (μg cm(-2)) increased along with cold storage. The triterpene ursolic acid, the alkane nonacosane, linoleic acid, and β-sitosterol were the most abundant components of cuticular waxes, whereas cutin composition was dominated by C18-type monomers. In spite of being comprised of similar chemical families, cultivar-related differences were found regarding the abundance and the evolution of some compound families during cold storage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in cuticle composition of sweet cherry during postharvest storage. PMID:25089645

  18. Physicochemical characterisation of four cherry species (Prunus spp.) grown in China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinping; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-15

    The physicochemical characteristics of four cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus pseudocerasus and Prunus tomentosa) were evaluated. Inter-species variability was greater than intra-species differences. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars, and malic acid was the main organic acid in all species. Combining HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS technologies, total 25 phenolic components were preliminarily identified. P. avium was characterised by high fruit weight, edible proportion, sugar content and low acid content, which made it suitable for fresh eating. P. cerasus was high in acid content and anthocyanins content, making it a good processing species. P. pseudocerasus had rich flavonols varieties and high proportion of hydrocinnamic acids. P. tomentosa was characterised by high total phenolics content (especially flavonols and tannins) and antioxidant activity, indicating a great developmental potential as a health fruit. The results of the present study might provide theoretical guidance for the further development and utilisation of cherries. PMID:25466099

  19. Features of adult neurogenesis and neurochemical signaling in the Cherry salmon Oncorhynchus masou brain☆

    PubMed Central

    Pushchina, Evgeniya V.; Obukhov, Dmitry K.; Varaksin, Anatoly A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of gamma aminobutyric acid, tyrosine hydroxylase and nitric oxide-producing elements in a cherry salmon Oncorhynchus masou brain at various stages of postnatal ontogenesis by immunohistochemical staining and histochemical staining. The periventricular region cells exhibited the morphology of neurons and glia including radial glia-like cells and contained several neurochemical substances. Heterogeneous populations of tyrosine hydroxylase-, gamma aminobutyric acid-immunoreactive, as well as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase-positive cells were observed in proliferating cell nuclear antigen-immunoreactive proliferative zones in periventricular area of diencephalon, central grey layer of dorsomedial tegmentum, medulla and spinal cord. Immunolocalization of Pax6 in the cherry salmon brain revealed a neuromeric construction of the brain at various stages of postnatal ontogenesis, and this was confirmed by tyrosine hydroxylase and gamma aminobutyric acid labeling. PMID:25206367

  20. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2014-06-01

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions owing to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major quarantine pest of sweet cherry. We used 1) niche models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to map the climatic suitability, 2) North Carolina State University-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Pest Forecasting System to examine chilling requirement, and 3) host distribution and availability to assess the potential for establishment of R. indifferens in areas of western North America where it currently does not exist and eight current or potential fresh sweet cherry markets: Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Results from niche models conformed well to the current distribution of R. indifferens in western North America. MaxEnt and CLIMEX models had high performance and predicted climatic suitability in some of the countries (e.g., Andean range in Colombia and Venezuela, northern and northeastern India, central Taiwan, and parts of Vietnam). However, our results showed no potential for establishment of R. indifferens in Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam when the optimal chilling requirement to break diapause (minimum temperature < or = 3 degree C for at least 15 wk) was used as the criterion for whether establishment can occur. Furthermore, these countries have no host plant species available for R. indifferens. Our results can be used to make scientifically informed international trade decisions and negotiations by policy makers. PMID:25026662

  1. Using a Mousy, Little Flower to Understand the Flamboyant Ones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Anna Maria

    1995-01-01

    Discusses major leaps in knowledge about the production of flowers that have come from studying genes that regulate the flowers of mouse ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana). Examines the ABC model of flower morphogenesis, commonality of genes, evolution of angiosperms, and agricultural and horticultural potential. (LZ)

  2. Flower biology and biologically-based integrated fire blight management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight infection is generally initiated in flowers, and thus, research has been directed to the biology and microbial ecology of flowers as related to this disease. In addition to investigations involving apple and pear flowers, Manchurian crab apple (Malus manchurica), closely related to appl...

  3. The evolution of flowering strategies in US weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local adaptation in plants often involves changes in flowering time in response to day length and temperature differences. Many crop varieties have been selected for uniformity in flowering time. In contrast, variable flowering may be important for increased competitiveness in weed species invading ...

  4. Management of flowering rush in the Detroit Lakes, Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus) is an invasive aquatic plant introduced to North America from Eurasia in 1897. Flowering rush can grow either submersed or emergent from wet soil habitats to waters that are up to 5 m deep. Flowering rush was first observed in the Detroit Lake system in the 196...

  5. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis... paragraph (b) of this section, cut flowers may be moved interstate from Hawaii under limited permit, to...

  6. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis... paragraph (b) of this section, cut flowers may be moved interstate from Hawaii under limited permit, to...

  7. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis... paragraph (b) of this section, cut flowers may be moved interstate from Hawaii under limited permit, to...

  8. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis... paragraph (b) of this section, cut flowers may be moved interstate from Hawaii under limited permit, to...

  9. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis... paragraph (b) of this section, cut flowers may be moved interstate from Hawaii under limited permit, to...

  10. Feasibility of Seed Production from Non-flowering Orchardgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-flowering or sparse flowering orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) would greatly simplify management of intensive rotational grazing systems. Our objective was to quantify seed production on non-flowering orchardgrass clones selected in cold-winter climates, but grown for seed in mild-winter cl...

  11. Genetic control of flowering and biomass in switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early flowering can negatively affect biomass yield of switchgrass. In temperate regions of the USA, flowering occurs in switchgrass around the time of peak biomass yield (about 5 to 8 weeks prior to killing frost), effectively reducing the length of the growing season. The use of late-flowering swi...

  12. Headspace Volatiles of Scutellaria Baicalensis Georgi Flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile constituents of Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) flowers were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 64 constituents was identified (constituting 57.1 – 89.9% of the total area), 13 of which were tentatively identified. beta...

  13. Hearts and flowers: Bryophyllum poisoning of cattle.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Dunster, P J

    1986-07-01

    Findings from natural cases and experiments with cattle emphasise that flowering plants are the most important form of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) spp in poisonings in Australia. The main life-threatening lesion is myocardial. The effects on the alimentary tract are less important than was believed previously. B. tubiflorum, B. daigremontianum x B. tubiflorum, B. pinnatum and B. proliferum caused 41 recorded poisoning incidents affecting 379 cattle in Queensland between 1960 and 1984. Poisoning occurred between May and October--the flowering season of these plants. Experimental B. tubiflorum poisoning and natural poisonings produced anorexia, depression, ruminal atony, diarrhoea, heart rate and rhythm abnormalities, dyspnoea and death. Increased plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine and glucose and decreased chloride were measured experimentally. Both natural and experimental cases had myocardial degeneration and necrosis with haemorrhages of the heart and alimentary tract. Cattle with severe dyspnoea had atelectasis and emphysema of the lungs. Some cattle had mild nephrosis. The median lethal doses of B. tubiflorum flowers, roots and leaf plus stem were 0.7, 2.3 and 5.0 g dry matter/kg liveweight respectively (7, 7 and 40 g wet weight/kg). Bufadienolides have been isolated recently from B. tubiflorum flowers and the syndrome is consistent with cardiac glycoside poisoning. PMID:3778371

  14. Flowering, Capsule and Seed Characteristics in Cuphea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We modeled the flowering and capsule set dynamics, quantified the level of variation in seed characteristics, elucidated the inter-relationships among seed and capsule physical dimensions, and quantified their impact on single seed weight as the main determinant of seed yield in the indeterminate, p...

  15. Grammar Schools: Brief Flowering of Social Mobility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Grammar schools are increasingly remembered, especially by right-wing ideologues, as the agents of a "brief flowering" of post-war social mobility. This article presents statistical, documentary and interview evidence of secondary education in the eleven plus era, and finds nothing to justify the claim that selective schools produced a general…

  16. Genes directing flower development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, J L; Smyth, D R; Meyerowitz, E M

    1989-01-01

    We describe the effects of four recessive homeotic mutations that specifically disrupt the development of flowers in Arabidopsis thaliana. Each of the recessive mutations affects the outcome of organ development, but not the location of organ primordia. Homeotic transformations observed are as follows. In agamous-1, stamens to petals; in apetala2-1, sepals to leaves and petals to staminoid petals; in apetala3-1, petals to sepals and stamens to carpels; in pistillata-1, petals to sepals. In addition, two of these mutations (ap2-1 and pi-1) result in loss of organs, and ag-1 causes the cells that would ordinarily form the gynoecium to differentiate as a flower. Two of the mutations are temperature-sensitive. Temperature shift experiments indicate that the wild-type AP2 gene product acts at the time of primordium initiation; the AP3 product is active later. It seems that the wild-type alleles of these four genes allow cells to determine their place in the developing flower and thus to differentiate appropriately. We propose that these genes may be involved in setting up or responding to concentric, overlapping fields within the flower primordium. PMID:2535466

  17. TWO NEW WHITE-FLOWERED GRIFFINIA SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Griffinia leucantha and G. cordata, distinct from any other known species of the genus, are described as new from nineteenth century herbarium specimens. Both belong to subg. Griffinia. These Brazilian species lack blue range pigments in the flowers, a characteristic of Griffinia subg. Hyline, but...

  18. Identification of Mendel's white flower character

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified A, the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice...

  19. The Genetic Architecture of Maize Flowering Time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering time is the key trait controlling adaptation of plants to their local environment, and, in an outcrossing species like maize, it is a complex trait. Variation for this complex trait was dissected in maize using a novel set of 5000 recombinant inbred lines (maize Nested Association Mapping...

  20. Where Have All the Flowers Gone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Janet M.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an activity for secondary mathematics students using digital imaging on The Geometer's Sketchpad to model polar functions of flowers. The activity presented in the appendix engages students in learning and exploring the polar coordinate system while helping them analyze a real-world situation. By completing this activity,…

  1. Discovering Flowers in a New Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNall, Rebecca L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2004-01-01

    Children love observing seeds change as they germinate and grow into tall healthy plants, but how can teachers make investigating plants an exciting and immediate event? Microscopy might just be the answer. Although most students have seen flowers, not many have looked closely at their various structures or seen their colorful designs only…

  2. Flower development: open questions and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many ques...

  3. Chemical and functional properties of cell wall polymers from two cherry varieties at two developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Basanta, María F; de Escalada Plá, Marina F; Stortz, Carlos A; Rojas, Ana M

    2013-01-30

    The cell wall polysaccharides of Regina and Sunburst cherry varieties at two developmental stages were extracted sequentially, and their changes in monosaccharide composition and functional properties were studied. The loosely-attached pectins presented a lower d-galacturonic acid/rhamnose ratio than ionically-bound pectins, as well as lower thickening effects of their respective 2% aqueous solution: the lowest Newtonian viscosity and shear rate dependence during the pseudoplastic phase. The main constituents of the cell wall matrix were covalently bound pectins (probably through diferulate cross-linkings), with long arabinan side chains at the RG-I cores. This pectin domain was also anchored into the XG-cellulose elastic network. Ripening occurred with a decrease in the proportion of HGs, water extractable GGM and xylogalacturonan, and with a concomitant increase in neutral sugars. Ripening was also associated with higher viscosities and thickening effects, and to larger distribution of molecular weights. The highest firmness and compactness of Regina cherry may be associated with its higher proportion of calcium-bound HGs localized in the middle lamellae of cell walls, as well as to some higher molar proportion of NS (Rha and Ara) in covalently bound pectins. These pectins showed significantly better hydration properties than hemicellulose and cellulose network. Chemical composition and functional properties of cell wall polymers were dependent on cherry variety and ripening stage, and helped explain the contrasting firmness of Regina and Sunburst varieties. PMID:23218373

  4. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    PubMed

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. PMID:25466109

  5. Coherences of instrumental and sensory characteristics: case study on cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Csambalik, László; Divéky-Ertsey, Anna; Pap, Zoltán; Orbán, Csaba; Stégerné Máté, Mónika; Gere, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva; Sipos, László

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 6 cherry tomato varieties in terms of morphological, instrumental, and sensory attributes. Hungarian cherry tomato landraces have not been investigated in comparison with new commercial varieties for these traits. Parameters investigated were water-soluble antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and TEAC), and total polyphenol, vitamin C, β-carotene, lycopene, total soluble solids, and acid contents. Colorimetric measurements as well as sensory analyses were conducted. It was concluded that varied antioxidant assays should be used in parallel to overcome the selectivity of any 1 method. Total phenolic content significantly contributed to results of antioxidant assays for the investigated varieties. The sensory profiles of the 6 cherry tomato varieties have been created. The differences between the products based on the 18 attributes were analyzed by Tukey post hoc test. The biplot of the principal component analysis showed that the sensory panel could discriminate the samples along the principal components. No correlation was found between colorimetric data a* and b* measured from pulp and lycopene, but a negative connection of β-carotene and hue was noted. Total polyphenol content showed correlations with colorimetric results, except for b*. The influence of tomato skin color on color perception is significant as in the present study instrumental data measured from pulp did not match that of the panelists evaluating intact fruit. Instrumental results of sugar content were supported by the ratings of the sensory panel. PMID:25319201

  6. Root density of cherry trees grafted on prunus mahaleb in a semi-arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Gavat, Corina; Chitu, Emil; Oprita, Alexandru; Moale, Cristina; Lamureanu, Gheorghe; Vrinceanu, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    Root density was investigated using the trench method in a cherry (Prunus avium grafted on Prunus mahaleb) orchard with clean cultivation in inter-rows and in-row. Trenches of 1 m width and 1.2 m depth were dug up between neighbouring trees. The objectives of the paper were to clarify the spatial distribution of root density of cherry trees under the soil and climate conditions of the region to expand knowledge of optimum planting distance and orchard management for a broad area of chernozems. Some soil physical properties were significantly worsened in inter-rows versus in-row, mainly due to soil compaction, and there were higher root density values in in-row versus inter-rows. Root density decreased more intensely with soil depth than with distance from trees. The pattern of root density suggests that the cherry tree density and fruit yield could be increased. However, other factors concerning orchard management and fruit yield should also be considered. The results obtained have a potential impact to improve irrigation and fertilizer application by various methods, considering the soil depth and distance from trees to wet soil, in accordance with root development.

  7. Benzaldehyde in cherry flavour as a precursor of benzene formation in beverages.

    PubMed

    Loch, Christine; Reusch, Helmut; Ruge, Ingrid; Godelmann, Rolf; Pflaum, Tabea; Kuballa, Thomas; Schumacher, Sandra; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-09-01

    During sampling and analysis of alcohol-free beverages for food control purposes, a comparably high contamination of benzene (up to 4.6μg/L) has been detected in cherry-flavoured products, even when they were not preserved using benzoic acid (which is a known precursor of benzene formation). There has been some speculation in the literature that formation may occur from benzaldehyde, which is contained in natural and artificial cherry flavours. In this study, model experiments were able to confirm that benzaldehyde does indeed degrade to benzene under heating conditions, and especially in the presence of ascorbic acid. Analysis of a large collective of authentic beverages from the market (n=170) further confirmed that benzene content is significantly correlated to the presence of benzaldehyde (r=0.61, p<0.0001). In the case of cherry flavoured beverages, industrial best practices should include monitoring for benzene. Formulations containing either benzoic acid or benzaldehyde in combination with ascorbic acid should be avoided. PMID:27041300

  8. Pair-List Readings in Korean-Japanese, Chinese-Japanese and English-Japanese Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In English and Chinese, questions with a "wh"-object and a universally quantified subject (e.g. "What did everyone buy?") allow an individual answer ("Everyone bought apples.") and a pair-list answer ("Sam bought apples, Jo bought bananas, Sally bought..."). By contrast, the pair-list answer is reportedly unavailable in Japanese and Korean. This…

  9. Bilabiate Flowers: The Ultimate Response to Bees?

    PubMed Central

    Westerkamp, Christian; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Bilabiate flowers have evolved in many lineages of the angiosperms, thus representing a convincing example of parallel evolution. Similar to keel blossoms, they have obviously evolved in order to protect pollen against pollen-collecting bees. Although many examples are known, a comprehensive survey on floral diversity and functional constraints of bilabiate flowers is lacking. Here, the concept is widened and described as a general pattern. Methods The present paper is a conceptional review including personal observations of the authors. To form a survey on the diversity of bilabiate blossoms, a search was made for examples across the angiosperms and these were combined with personal observations collected during the last 25 years, coupled with knowledge from the literature. New functional terms are introduced that are independent of morphological and taxonomic associations. Key Results Bilabiate constructions occur in at least 38 angiosperm families. They are characterized by dorsiventral organization and dorsal pollen transfer. They are most often realised on the level of a single flower, but may also be present in an inflorescence or as part of a so-called ‘walk-around flower’. Interestingly, in functional terms all nototribic blossoms represent bilabiate constructions. The great majority of specialized bee-flowers can thus be included under bilabiate and keel blossoms. The syndrome introduced here, however, also paves the way for the inclusion of larger animals such as birds and bats. The most important evolutionary trends appear to be in the saving of pollen and the precision of its transfer. With special reference to the Lamiales, selected examples of bilabiate flowers are presented and their functional significance is discussed. Conclusions Bilabiate blossoms protect their pollen against pollen-collecting bees and at the same time render their pollination more precisely. The huge diversity of realised forms indicate the high selection

  10. A transposon insertion in FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with delayed flowering in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueming; Meng, Lin; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yunyan; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Jianli; Aarts, Mark G M; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Long days and vernalization accelerate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassica rapa. Bolting before plants reach the harvesting stage is a serious problem in B. rapa vegetable crop cultivation. The genetic dissection of flowering time is important for breeding of premature bolting-resistant B. rapa crops. Using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we twice detected two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in two different growing seasons that were located on chromosomes A02 and A07, respectively. We hypothesized that an orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, named as BrFT2, was the candidate gene underlying the QTL localized to A07. A transposon insertion in the second intron of BrFT2 was detected in one of the parental lines, which was predicted to generate a loss-of-function allele. Transcription analysis revealed that the BrFT2 transcript was not present in the parental line that harbored the mutated allele. RILs carrying only the mutated BrFT2 allele showed delayed flowering regardless of growing seasons when compared to RILs carrying the wild-type BrFT2 allele. These data suggest that BrFT2 is involved in flowering time regulation in controlling flowering time in B. rapa. PMID:26706072

  11. Emission of volatile chemicals from flowering dogwood (cornus Florida L.) flowers.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Klingeman, William E; Hu, Jun; Chen, Feng

    2008-10-22

    Reproduction of flowering dogwood trees occurs via obligate out-crossing, and U.S. native bees have been suggested to be primary pollinators of this ecologically and economically important deciduous tree. Whether floral volatiles play a role in reproduction of the dogwood remains unclear. Objectives of this study were to identify principal volatile chemicals emitted from dogwood flowers and to assess a temporal volatile emission profile and volatile consistency across four cultivars. Inflorescences with intact bracts and 5 cm flower pedicel were removed from dogwood trees and subjected to headspace volatile collection. Six principal volatile compounds were detected from the flowers of the cultivar 'World's Fair' with 3-formylpyridine as the most abundant constituent. Subsequent headspace analyses performed using inflorescences without bracts or floral pedicels alone indicated that 3-formylpyridine, E-beta-ocimene, S-linalool, and ketoisophorone were mainly emitted from inflorescences. Experiments were also conducted to determine whether volatile emissions differed across time and between different cultivars of flowering dogwood. When volatile emission was analyzed for 48 h using 12 h light/dark cycles, the emission of several volatile compounds displayed diurnal patterns. Finally, whereas florets in inflorescences of four different dogwood cultivars emitted similar levels of the six principal floral volatile chemicals, 'Cherokee Brave' flowers alone yielded 4-methoxybenzaldehyde and germacrene-D. The implications of the findings of this study to dogwood breeding programs are discussed. PMID:18811168

  12. Systemic Inflammatory Load in Young and Old Ringdoves Is Modulated by Consumption of a Jerte Valley Cherry-Based Product

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Jonathan; Terrón, María del Pilar; Garrido, María; Barriga, Carmen; Paredes, Sergio Damián; Espino, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A chronic subclinical inflammatory status that coexists with immune dysfunction is commonly found in the elderly population. Consumption of foods rich in antioxidants (e.g., cherries) is an attractive strategy to reduce risk from chronic diseases. Based on previous studies showing the antioxidant effect of a Jerte Valley cherry derivative product in humans, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the intake of a Jerte Valley cherry-based beverage on inflammatory load in both young and old ringdoves (Streptopelia risoria). To this purpose, circulating levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as serum levels of different acute-phase proteins were measured before and after a 10-day treatment with the Jerte Valley cherry-based beverage. Thus, the 10-day treatment with the cherry-based beverage modulated the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in both young and old ringdoves by down-regulating the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ) and up-regulating the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-2, and IL-10). Moreover, the 10-day treatment with the Jerte Valley cherry-based product reduced the levels of several proteins involved in acute-phase responses, such as C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, α2-macroglobulin, and serum amyloid P component. On the other hand, old birds showed imbalanced levels of inflammatory markers toward a pro-inflammatory status, thereby underlining the fact that aging is usually accompanied by systemic inflammation and inflammation-related chronic diseases. To sum up, the data suggest a potential health benefit by consuming the cherry-based beverage, especially in aged populations, through their anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:22846077

  13. The Phenotypic and Genetic Underpinnings of Flower Size in Polemoniaceae

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Jacob B.; O'Toole, Rebecca D.; Ventura, Kayla L.; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Oppenheimer, David G.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2016-01-01

    Corolla length is a labile flower feature and has strong implications for pollinator success. However, the phenotypic and genetic bases of corolla elongation are not well known, largely due to a lack of good candidate genes for potential genetic exploration and functional work. We investigate both the cellular phenotypic differences in corolla length, as well as the genetic control of this trait, in Saltugilia (Polemoniaceae). Taxa in this clade exhibit a large range of flower sizes and differ dramatically in pollinator guilds. Flowers of each species were collected from multiple individuals during four stages of flower development to ascertain if cell number or cell size is more important in determining flower size. In Saltugilia, increased flower size during development appears to be driven more by cell size than cell number. Differences in flower size between species are governed by both cell size and cell number, with the large-flowered S. splendens subsp. grantii having nearly twice as many cells as the small-flowered species. Fully mature flowers of all taxa contain jigsaw cells similar to cells seen in sepals and leaves; however, these cells are not typically found in the developing flowers of most species. The proportion of this cell type in mature flowers appears to have substantial implications, comprising 17–68% of the overall flower size. To identify candidate genes responsible for differences in cell area and cell type, transcriptomes were generated for two individuals of the species with the smallest (S. australis) and largest (S. splendens subsp. grantii) flowers across the same four developmental stages visualized with confocal microscopy. Analyses identified genes associated with cell wall formation that are up-regulated in the mature flower stage compared to mid-stage flowers (75% of mature size). This developmental change is associated with the origin of jigsaw cells in the corolla tube of mature flowers. Further comparisons between mature

  14. Effect of Ethylene on Flower Abscission: a Survey

    PubMed Central

    VAN DOORN, WOUTER G.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of ethylene on flower abscission was investigated in monocotyledons and eudicotyledons, in about 300 species from 50 families. In all species studied except Cymbidium, flower abscission was highly sensitive to ethylene. Flower fall was not consistent among the species in any family studied. It also showed no relationship with petal senescence or abscission, nor with petal colour changes or flower closure. Results suggest that flower abscission is generally mediated by endogenous ethylene, but that some exceptional ethylene‐insensitive abscission occurs in the Orchidaceae. PMID:12102524

  15. Identification of putative candidate genes involved in cuticle formation in Prunus avium (sweet cherry) fruit

    PubMed Central

    Alkio, Merianne; Jonas, Uwe; Sprink, Thorben; van Nocker, Steven; Knoche, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The cuticular membrane (CM) of Prunus avium (sweet cherry) and other fleshy fruit is under stress. Previous research indicates that the resultant strain promotes microscopic cuticular cracking. Microcracks impair the function of the CM as a barrier against pathogens and uncontrolled water loss/uptake. Stress and strain result from a cessation of CM deposition during early development, while the fruit surface continues to expand. The cessation of CM deposition, in turn, may be related to an early downregulation of CM-related genes. The aims of this study were to identify genes potentially involved in CM formation in sweet cherry fruit and to quantify their expression levels. Methods Fruit growth and CM deposition were quantified weekly from anthesis to maturity and rates of CM deposition were calculated. Sequences of genes expressed in the sweet cherry fruit skin (exocarp) were generated using high-throughput sequencing of cDNA and de novo assembly and analysed using bioinformatics tools. Relative mRNA levels of selected genes were quantified in the exocarp and fruit flesh (mesocarp) weekly using reverse transcriptase-quantitative real-time PCR and compared with the calculated CM deposition rate over time. Key Results The rate of CM deposition peaked at 93 (±5) μg per fruit d−1 about 19 d after anthesis. Based on sequence analyses, 18 genes were selected as potentially involved in CM formation. Selected sweet cherry genes shared up to 100 and 98 % similarity with the respective Prunus persica (peach) and Arabidopsis thaliana genes. Expression of 13 putative CM-related genes was restricted to the exocarp and correlated positively with the CM deposition rate. Conclusions The results support the view that the cessation of CM deposition during early sweet cherry fruit development is accounted for by a downregulation of genes involved in CM deposition. Genes that merit further investigation include PaWINA, PaWINB, PaLipase, PaLTPG1, PaATT1, Pa

  16. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  17. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period. PMID:25656796

  18. Flowering cycles of woody bamboos native to southern South America.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Carolina

    2014-03-01

    Neotropical woody bamboos range from northern Mexico to southern Argentina and Chile. The most interesting aspect of bamboo biology is their flowering habit. The species that are the most intriguing are those that manifest a cyclic pattern of gregarious flowering after long vegetative periods. The flowering cycle has been described in very few species. The goal was to identify mass flowering events of woody bamboo species native to Argentina and neighboring areas, and to estimate the flowering cycle of each species. Sixteen species were surveyed: Chusquea culeou, C. deficiens, C. lorentziana, C. montana, C. quila, C. ramosissima, C. tenella, C. valdiviensis; Colanthelia rhizantha; Guadua chacoensis, G. paraguayana, G. trinii; Merostachys clausenii, M. multiramea, Rhipidocladum neumannii and R. racemiflorum. To reconstruct flowering dates, information from literature and herbarium collections was consulted and more than 990 records were gathered. Flowering cycles were estimated by recording the intervals between reported flowering events. Evidence of regular flowering cycles of ca. 30 years was found for most of the species considered. There is a remarkable concentration of flowering cycles about multiples of 15-16 years. Flowering synchrony among different species of woody bamboos was recorded for the first time in South America. PMID:24162620

  19. Chilling and Host Plant/Site-Associated Eclosion Times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a Host-Specific Parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Forbes, Andrew A; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an endemic herbivore of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ∼100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of adult R. indifferens from sweet and bitter cherry differ according to the phenology of their respective host plants and if eclosion times of the host-specific parasitoid Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking bitter and sweet cherry flies differ according to the eclosion phenology of their fly hosts. Fly pupae from sweet and bitter cherry fruit were collected from sympatric and allopatric sites in Washington state, and chilled at 5°C. Because timing of eclosion in R. indifferens depends on chill duration, eclosion time in wasps could also vary with chill duration. To account for this, fly pupae were chilled for 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, or 8 mo. Both flies and wasps eclosed earlier with longer chill durations. Eclosion times of sweet and bitter cherry flies from a sympatric site in central Washington did not differ. However, at allopatric sites in northwestern and central Washington, bitter cherry flies eclosed later than sweet and bitter cherry flies at the sympatric site. Correspondingly, D. muliebre parasitizing a more isolated bitter cherry fly population eclosed later than D. muliebre parasitizing earlier-emerging sweet and bitter cherry fly populations. These results provide evidence for D. muliebre rapidly responding to changes in host plant shifts by R. indifferens. PMID:26314048

  20. Microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Kang, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    We compared microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis. In this study, although microsporogenesis and cytokinesis occurred simultaneously during meiosis of pollen mother cells, we observed a strong asynchronism in different anthers from a flower bud. The developmental period of microsporogenesis in anthers originated from the long thrum before the short thrum. Flower development was also asynchronous at different locations on a branch. The flower buds grew on the lower side of the branch and showed greater increases in diameter. In addition, we observed a relationship between microsporogenesis development and flower bud diameter growth. Generally, when the pachytene stage was first observed in a small single flower bud growing on top of a flowering branch, the remaining microsporogenesis stages (from diplotene to tetrad) in the whole branch occurred over the next 5–9 days. Thus, the start of microsporogenesis in E. urophylla × E. tereticornis could be determined, which may be applicable to future breeding studies. PMID:26069443

  1. Ants and ant scent reduce bumblebee pollination of artificial flowers.

    PubMed

    Cembrowski, Adam R; Tan, Marcus G; Thomson, James D; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Ants on flowers can disrupt pollination by consuming rewards or harassing pollinators, but it is difficult to disentangle the effects of these exploitative and interference forms of competition on pollinator behavior. Using highly rewarding and quickly replenishing artificial flowers that simulate male or female function, we allowed bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) to forage (1) on flowers with or without ants (Myrmica rubra) and (2) on flowers with or without ant scent cues. Bumblebees transferred significantly more pollen analogue both to and from ant-free flowers, demonstrating that interference competition with ants is sufficient to modify pollinator foraging behavior. Bees also removed significantly less pollen analogue from ant-scented flowers than from controls, making this the first study to show that bees can use ant scent to avoid harassment at flowers. Ant effects on pollinator behavior, possibly in addition to their effects on pollen viability, may contribute to the evolution of floral traits minimizing ant visitation. PMID:24334742

  2. Photosynthate partitioning during flowering in relation to senescence of spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Sklensky, D.; Davies, P.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Male spinach plants are frequently cited as a counter-example to the nutrient drain hypothesis. Photosynthate partitioning in both male and female plants was examined. Leaves just below the inflorescences in plants at various stages of flowering were labelled with {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and the photosynthate allowed to partition for three hours. The leaves, flowers and stems of the inflorescence, and the other above ground vegetative tissue were harvested. These parts were combusted in a sample oxidizer for the collection of the {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Allocation to the male and female flowers at very early stages are similar. As the flowers develop further, male flowers receive more photosynthate than do female flowers in early fruit production. Thus it is possible that nutrient drain to the flowers in male spinach plants is sufficient to account for senescence.

  3. Japanese carbon storage in materials.

    PubMed

    Gielen, Dolf; Yagita, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    The NEAT model (Nonenergy-use Emission Accounting Tables) has been developed in order to estimate CO2 emissions caused by so-called nonenergy use of fossil fuels. The model is based on material flow accounting. The model has been applied to a number of countries in order to validate and improve its use. This paper discusses the case study for Japan. The NEAT analysis suggests that emissions in 1996 were 23 Mt higher than previously estimated based on the guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This quantity equals 1.9% of the total Japanese greenhouse gas emission. It is recommended to adjust the Japanese emission accounting practice and to apply more detailed emission estimation methods in future years. Given similar results for other countries it is also recommended to improve the IPCC guidelines. PMID:11928351

  4. Tropism in azalea and lily flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Flowers have coevolved with pollinator animals. Some flowers have the up-down directional features in their form and orientation, which results the higher success of pollination under the influence of gravity. Azalea, Rhododendron pulchrum, flower responds against gravity, and orients the specific petal at its top. This petal with honey mark guides pollinator animals to nectary of the flower. Pistil and stamen bend upward by sensing gravity, and increase probability of their contact with pollinator. There was large sediment amyloplast found in sectioned tissue of style. In addition to this action of gravity, phototropic response was also observed at lesser degree, while the gravitational cue was removed by the 3D-clinorotation of the plant. In contrast to azalea, pistil of lily flower senses light in order to determine the direction of bending. Lily, Lilium cv. 'Casablanca', tepals open horizontally or slightly inclined downward. After its anthesis, pistil and stamen start to bend upward by light. Gravity induced no tropic response at all, evidenced by the experiment conducted under dark. Sediment amyloplast was not found in lily style. Phototropic response of pistil and stamen in lily was activated by blue light even at lower energy density. On the other hand, red light was not effective to induce the tropic response even with substantial energy density. This action spectrum of light agreed with those for the phototropism shown in coleoptile of monocotyledonous plants. Because the tropism of style was not hindered at removal of stigma, reception site for incident light is neither restricted to stigma nor its close vicinity, but distributes through style. The process of lily pistil elongation was analyzed in details to identify the site of its initiation and propagation of bending movement through the anthesis period. Elongation started at basal part of pistil and propagated towards its top after opening of perianth. Steep bending occurred at the basal zone of

  5. Repellent effects of various cherry tomato accessions on the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Lucini, T; Resende, J T V; Oliveira, J R F; Scabeni, C J; Zeist, A R; Resende, N C V

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted on resistance sources to improve the genetic resistance of farm-grown tomatoes to arthropod pests, including phytophagous mites. In the present study, we evaluate the behavior of the two-spotted spider mite on different cherry tomato accessions to identify possible sources of resistance (repellent effect) to this pest. Sixty-four accessions of cherry tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (Dunal), were tested. In addition, a commercial cultivar of cherry tomato cv. Sweet Grape (susceptible pattern) and the wild tomato accession Solanum pennellii Correll LA-716 (multiple pest resistance) were evaluated as well. The distance traveled by mites on the leaflet surface over time varied largely among cherry tomato accessions. The wild genotype, S. pennellii LA-716, showed the smallest traveled distance on the leaflet surface (0.8 to 1.1 mm over time), and the variety cv. Sweet Grape was one of the genotypes with highest traveled distance (16.2 to 16.4 mm over time). The cherry tomato accessions 2298-42, RVTC-03, and 6889-53 showed a decrease in the traveled distance by mites over time, similar to that as observed in the wild tomato accession LA716. These accessions showed mite repellence levels similar to those of the wild genotype and may, therefore, be good candidates for breeding programs dealing with resistance to mites. PMID:27050983

  6. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest.

    PubMed

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  7. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

  8. Rapid and sensitive detection of Little cherry virus 2 using isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Tefera A; Zhang, Shulu; Eastwell, Kenneth C

    2014-09-01

    Little cherry virus 2 (LChV2) (genus Ampelovirus) is the primary causal agent of little cherry disease (LCD) in sweet cherry (Prunus avium) in North America and other parts of the world. This mealybug-transmitted virus does not induce significant foliar symptoms in most sweet cherry cultivars, but does cause virus-infected trees to yield unevenly ripened small fruits with poor flavor. Most fruits from infected trees are unmarketable. In the present study, an isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) technique was developed using LChV2 coat protein specific primers and probe. Detection of terminally labeled amplicons was achieved with a high affinity lateral flow strip. The RT-RPA is confirmed to be simple, fast, and specific. In comparison, although it retains the sensitivity of RT-PCR, it is a more cost-effective procedure. RT-RPA will be a very useful tool for detecting LChV2 from crude extracts in any growth stage of sweet cherry from field samples. PMID:24797461

  9. Phenolic Compounds, Volatiles, and Sensory Characteristics of Twelve Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Cultivars Grown in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the phenolic, anthocyanin, and volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of 12 cultivars of sweet cherries including cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat. Eight individual phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC-DAD method. Among these cherries, cvs. Bing, Durona di Cesena, and Lambert contained higher levels of total individual phenolic compounds than the other cultivars. Six anthocyanins were detected in cherries and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was principal and it was the highest level in cv. Bing. The major volatiles found were 1-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzylalcohol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, and benzaldehyde. Sensory evaluation of the cherries showed that cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, and Summit have higher textural and flavor scores than others. It was concluded that the same compounds for phenolic or volatiles profiles of sweet cherries were similar in qualitative; however, quantitative differences were observed in these cultivars. PMID:26646816

  10. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest

    PubMed Central

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  11. Dormancy release and flowering time in Ziziphus jujuba Mill., a "direct flowering" fruit tree, has a facultative requirement for chilling.

    PubMed

    Meir, Michal; Ransbotyn, Vanessa; Raveh, Eran; Barak, Simon; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Zaccai, Michele

    2016-03-15

    In deciduous fruit trees, the effect of chilling on flowering has mostly been investigated in the "indirect flowering" group, characterized by a period of rest between flower bud formation and blooming. In the present study, we explored the effects of chilling and chilling deprivation on the flowering of Ziziphus jujuba, a temperate deciduous fruit tree belonging to the "direct flowering" group, in which flower bud differentiation, blooming and fruit development occur after dormancy release, during a single growing season. Dormancy release, vegetative growth and flowering time in Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li were assessed following several treatments of chilling. Chilling treatments quantitatively decreased the timing of vegetative bud dormancy release, thereby accelerating flowering, but had no effect on the time from dormancy release to flowering. Trees grown at a constant temperature of 25°C, without chilling, broke dormancy and flowered, indicating the facultative character of chilling in this species. We measured the expression of Z. jujuba LFY and AP1 homologues (ZjLFY and ZjAP1). Chilling decreased ZjLFY expression in dormant vegetative buds but had no effect on ZjAP1expression, which reached peak expression before dormancy release and at anthesis. In conclusion, chilling is not obligatory for dormancy release of Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li vegetative buds. However, the exposure to chilling during dormancy does accelerate vegetative bud dormancy release and flowering. PMID:26949231

  12. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty.

    PubMed

    Hůla, Martin; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research. PMID:27330863

  13. Mass flowering of the tropical tree Shorea beccariana was preceded by expression changes in flowering and drought-responsive genes

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masaki J; Takeuchi, Yayoi; Kenta, Tanaka; Kume, Tomonori; Diway, Bibian; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2013-01-01

    Community-level mass flowering, known as general flowering, which occurs in South-East Asia at supra-annual irregular intervals, is considered a particularly spectacular phenomenon in tropical ecology. Recent studies have proposed several proximate factors inducing general flowering, such as drought and falls in minimum temperature. However, limited empirical data on the developmental and physiological processes have been available to test the significance of such factors. To overcome this limitation and test the hypotheses that general flowering is triggered by the proposed factors, we conducted an ‘ecological transcriptome’ study of a mass flowering species, Shorea beccariana, comparing meteorological data with genome-wide expression patterns obtained using next-generation sequencing. Among the 98 flowering-related genes identified, the homologs of a floral pathway integrator, SbFT, and a floral repressor, SbSVP, showed dramatic transcriptional changes before flowering, and their flowering functions were confirmed using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression in drought-responsive and sucrose-induced genes also changed before flowering. All these expression changes occurred when the flowering-inducing level of drought was reached, as estimated using data from the preceding 10 years. These genome-wide expression data support the hypothesis that drought is a trigger for general flowering. PMID:23651119

  14. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  15. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research. PMID:27330863

  16. Changes of flowering phenology and flower size in rosaceous plants from a biodiversity hotspot in the past century

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qin; Jia, Dong-Rui; Tian, Bin; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Responses of plant traits to climate changes are complex, which could be mirrored by the investigations of herbarium specimens. By examining specimens of Rosa and Cotoneaster species collected since 1920s in Hengduan Mountains, we analyzed the changes of flowering phenology and flower size in the past century when climate changes were considered to be intensified. We found that flowering phenology of Rosa showed no significant change, but flowering phenology of Cotoneaster was delayed in recent years. Flower size of Rosa species showed a marginally significant decrease over the past century. The results suggested that responses of flowering time to global changes and pollinator mediated selection on floral traits might be more complex than what were expected. Our results indicated that future researches based on investigations of herbarium specimens should be carried out on multiple plant species with different flower structures and life histories to better understand the effects of climate changes on plant traits. PMID:27312838

  17. Changes of flowering phenology and flower size in rosaceous plants from a biodiversity hotspot in the past century.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Jia, Dong-Rui; Tian, Bin; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Responses of plant traits to climate changes are complex, which could be mirrored by the investigations of herbarium specimens. By examining specimens of Rosa and Cotoneaster species collected since 1920s in Hengduan Mountains, we analyzed the changes of flowering phenology and flower size in the past century when climate changes were considered to be intensified. We found that flowering phenology of Rosa showed no significant change, but flowering phenology of Cotoneaster was delayed in recent years. Flower size of Rosa species showed a marginally significant decrease over the past century. The results suggested that responses of flowering time to global changes and pollinator mediated selection on floral traits might be more complex than what were expected. Our results indicated that future researches based on investigations of herbarium specimens should be carried out on multiple plant species with different flower structures and life histories to better understand the effects of climate changes on plant traits. PMID:27312838

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared between native Japanese and Japanese-Americans.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Masayasu; Yamane, Kiminori; Jitsuiki, Kuniaki; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Kamei, Nozomu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2008-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by the accumulation of multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis. Japanese-Americans in the U.S. have a more rapid and intense progression of atherosclerosis than native Japanese in Japan due to a westernization of their lifestyle. We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between 416 native Japanese (194 men and 222 women) in Hiroshima and 574 Japanese-Americans (217 men and 357 women) in Los Angeles, aged 30-89 years. According to the criteria proposed by the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine, the prevalence was 13.9 and 2.7% for native Japanese men and women, and 32.7 and 3.4% for Japanese-American men and women, respectively. According to the IDF or AHA/NHLBI criteria, the prevalence was 20.1 and 6.3%, and 38.7 and 4.5%, or 13.4 and 14.4%, and 30.9 and 27.7%, respectively. Thus, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by all the three criteria. However, the prevalence in women was similar between native Japanese and Japanese-American by the Japanese and IDF criteria, whereas it was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by the AHA/NHLBI criteria. This report demonstrates that a westernization of lifestyle can increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese-Americans as compared to native Japanese. PMID:18006105

  19. Geochemical aspects of some Japanese lavas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpotts, J. A.; Martin, W.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    K, Rb, Sr, Ba and rare-earth concentrations in some Japanese lavas have been determined by mass-spectrometric stable-isotope dilution. The samples fall into three rare-earth groups corresponding to tholeiitic, high alumina and alkali basalts. Japanese tholeiites have trace element characteristics similar to those of oceanic ridge tholeiites except for distinctly higher relative concentrations of Ba. Japanese lavas may result from various degrees of partial fusion of amphibole eclogite.

  20. Small-scale positive flower structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clendenin, C. W.

    1993-01-01

    Field relations indicate that small-scale positive flower structures along sub-regional strike-slip faults localize ore in particular 4 m thick, bedded ore zones in Mississippi Valley-type Pb-Zn deposits of the Viburnum Trend, southeast Missouri, U.S.A. Outwardly divergent, shallow-dipping, duplex-deformed fault splays control ore and merge inwardly with sub-vertical fault strands. The characteristics of both duplex-deformed splays and ore suggest that the flower structures acted as drains for fluids being moved vertically along the strike-slip faults. This ore control differs from pipe-like conduits of transtensional dilation jogs in that duplex-deformed splays form under transpression and develop horizontal veins adjacent to strike-slip faults.