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Sample records for japanese industrial activities

  1. Japanese Industry Boosts Pollution Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Michael K.

    1975-01-01

    In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)

  2. Microgravity research in Japanese industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Isao

    1993-07-01

    Japanese industry will have many opportunities to perform microgravity tests in the 1990s. The world's longest dropshaft was completed in Hokkaido last year. SJAC has many programs, including GAS, MASER, CASIMIR, COSIMA, and MIR. In fact, 12 electronic and 4 biomaterial experiments using GAS canisters which have been waiting since 1986 will be finished by early 1993. STC will carry out 4 experiments on D-2 in 1993. USEF has two high-quality experiment programs on SFU and EXPRESS. SFU is an unmanned platform for multiple uses and the first flight is expected in 1994 or 95. Ground tests of 8 material experiments are now in progress. EXPRESS is a reusable reentry capsule. Multireactors in an autoclave which are designed for zeolite and catalyst crystal growth on EXPRESS have been developed.

  3. Japanese activities in refrigeration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Ohtsuka, T.; Ishizaki, Y.

    This paper reviews recent activities in refrigeration technology in Japan. The projects described are stimulated by growing industrial needs or form part of large national projects. The JNR project on the MAGLEV train is currently the most powerful activity and it demands knowledge in all the different disciplines of cryogenics in particular on various scales of refrigeration. Research activities are also directed towards the development of Stirling cycle and magnetic refrigerators for applications in a wider area.

  4. The ranks of Indonesian and Japanese industrial sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ranks of Indonesian and Japanese industrial sectors from the economic point of view. The analysis period of this study is 2005. This study employs one of the well-known analysis tools in the economic topic, the Input-Output (IO) analysis. More specifically, this study uses the analysis methods in the IO analysis, backward and forward linkages, in order to achieve the purpose. The results of calculations show that the orders of the ranks depend on the method used. Nevertheless, from the results, one can say that the manufacturing industry was a leading sector in the Indonesian economy on the analysis period. On the other hand, for the Japanese case, the sector which had the beneficial effects in the Japanese economy on the analysis period was the transport.

  5. Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Japanese. Bilingual Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle School District 1, WA.

    Designed for use in bilingual education programs, this industrial arts safety guide presents guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practice in both English and Japanese. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on…

  6. Quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecht, Michael; Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    Quality and reliability are two attributes required for all Japanese products, although the JTEC panel found these attributes to be secondary to customer cost requirements. While our Japanese hosts gave presentations on the challenges of technology, cost, and miniaturization, quality and reliability were infrequently the focus of our discussions. Quality and reliability were assumed to be sufficient to meet customer needs. Fujitsu's slogan, 'quality built-in, with cost and performance as prime consideration,' illustrates this point. Sony's definition of a next-generation product is 'one that is going to be half the size and half the price at the same performance of the existing one'. Quality and reliability are so integral to Japan's electronics industry that they need no new emphasis.

  7. Quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecht, Michael; Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    Quality and reliability are two attributes required for all Japanese products, although the JTEC panel found these attributes to be secondary to customer cost requirements. While our Japanese hosts gave presentations on the challenges of technology, cost, and miniaturization, quality and reliability were infrequently the focus of our discussions. Quality and reliability were assumed to be sufficient to meet customer needs. Fujitsu's slogan, 'quality built-in, with cost and performance as prime consideration,' illustrates this point. Sony's definition of a next-generation product is 'one that is going to be half the size and half the price at the same performance of the existing one'. Quality and reliability are so integral to Japan's electronics industry that they need no new emphasis.

  8. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    Many research activities regarding Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) have been conducted and continued all over the world since the 1960's and the concept of CELSS is now changing from Science Fiction to Scientific Reality. Development of CELSS technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into two categories, Environment Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Based on these considerations, Japanese research activities have been conducted and will be continued under the tentative guideline of CELSS research activities as shown in documents /1/,/2/. The status of the over all activities are discussed in this paper.

  9. Compulsory "Foreign Language Activities" in Japanese Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Kayoko

    2011-01-01

    From 2011, the new curriculum for introducing English to Japanese primary schools will be fully implemented in the form of "foreign language activities". This innovation forms part of the government's plan to cultivate "Japanese with English abilities", a development based on the awareness, particularly in the business sector, that equipping…

  10. Japanese industrial research on lean combustion: A case study: International Research Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    In recent years, Japanese automakers have introduced a number of successful lean-combustion engines. These engines, in addition to the general expertise in building small cars, have made the Japanese automobiles into the gas mileage champions of the US market. The lean-combustion engines also provide very satisfactory performance and acceptable emissions. United States automakers and research managers, who were probably better informed about lean-combustion than the Japanese were, actively investigated lean-combustion but did not develop an engine. This report examines the basis for the Japanese innovations, the research that took the Japanese past the US state of the art to permit engine development. A preliminary review of recent (1980s) Japanese literature did not turn up strong evidence of new research activity in the lean-combustion area, but did provide background on new engines developed by several major manufacturers. The study was conducted solely through the Japanese and US published literature, with emphasis on early research conducted in the 1970s. This report presents an example of how Japanese research progress can be examined by reviewing the Japanese research literature. Although useful information was obtained by this method, it is still difficult to get a complete picture. When reviewing the literature, as was done for this report, one must remember that the marginal use of references by Japanese researchers obscures prior work, as does the tendency of the Japanese to publish several articles on similar or identical topics. 50 refs., 15 figs.

  11. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    1987-01-01

    Development of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned Mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into 2 categories, Environmental Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Japanese research activities were conducted and will be continued accordingly.

  12. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Takaaki; Kita, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kota; Koike, Toshihide; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7–12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right DLPFC, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages. PMID:26236223

  13. An overview of the Japanese solar vehicle industry

    SciTech Connect

    Namasaki, H.

    1994-12-31

    Japan has long had a reputation for holding solar powered vehicle competitions. Many car and boat races are now held there on a regular basis. This year also saw Japan holding the world`s first solar bicycle race. Here, Hideo Namasaki provides SunWorld with an overview of the research and development of Japanese Solar Vehicles.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 26: The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the US and Japanese aerospace industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  15. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

  16. Cholinesterase activity in Japanese quail dusted with carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were dusted with 5% carbaryl to determine if this topical treatment would alter plasma and brain cholinesterase activities. Within 6 hours after dusting, plasma cholinesterase activity was depressed compared with controls, the depression averaging 20% for females and 27% for males. By 24 hours the cholinesterase activity of females had returned to normal, but the cholinesterase activity of males remained depressed. Brain cholinesterase activity was not affected by the treatment, and there were no overt toxic signs.

  17. JAPANESE ACTIVITIES IN SO2 AND NOX CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews Japanese activities in SO2 and NOx control. From 1970 to 1985, energy use in Japan increased by 25%, and annual coal consumption rose from virtually nothing to 20 million tons, yet emissions of SO2 declined by 75% and NOx by 40%. While increases in hydroelectric...

  18. REVIEW OF WESTERN EUROPEAN AND JAPANESE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY EXEMPLARY WATER POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature survey of current Western European and Japanese water pollution control technology in the iron and steel industry. Further information was obtained through personal communication. Recycle technology was identified as being practiced to a h...

  19. Antiviral activity of luteolin against Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenchun; Qian, Suhong; Qian, Ping; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-07-15

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a member of family Flaviviridae, is a neurotropic flavivirus that causes Japanese encephalitis (JE). JEV is one of the most important causative agents of viral encephalitis in humans, and this disease leads to high fatality rates. Although effective vaccines are available, no effective antiviral therapy for JE has been developed. Hence, identifying effective antiviral agents against JEV infection is important. In this study, we found that luteolin was an antiviral bioflavonoid with potent antiviral activity against JEV replication in A549 cells with IC50=4.56μg/mL. Luteolin also showed extracellular virucidal activity on JEV. With a time-of-drug addition assay revealing that JEV replication was inhibited by luteolin after the entry stage. Overall, our results suggested that luteolin can be used to develop an antiviral drug against JEV. PMID:27126774

  20. Private school activities and psychosomatic problems in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, K; Kaku, R; Nakagawa, K; Kaneko, Z

    1975-01-01

    This paper investigates the relation between private school activities and psychosomatic problems in Japanese elementary school children. Of 1,073 children studied, 67.3 percent attended private schools to study such subjects as calligraphy, abacus, and music. Of these children, 25.3 percent attended three to four times per week, and 18.1 percent five times and more. Statistical analysis showed that frequently attending children exhibited symptoms of dizziness, sleep disturbance, and other psycholphsiological problems. The results may warn educators as well as parents of some of the unfavorable effects of these extracurricular activities. PMID:1139974

  1. Things Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shigeta, Jessie M.

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Japanese culture. Some of the items and activities described include Japanese musical instruments and records, toys and crafts, traditional clothing and accessories, and food utensils. Several recipes for Japanese dishes are provided. Lists of pertinent…

  2. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXVI - The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the U.S. and Japanese aerospace industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Lahr, Tom; Hoetker, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry, which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  3. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushimaru, Kenji

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter-driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries, microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices, were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading U.S. variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales.

  5. Aerospatiale industrial thermal plasma activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrot, Maxime

    Details of nontransferred arc torches, plasma systems in industrial use and operational plasma applications are listed. A plasma application on a foundry cupola is detailed. The setting up of a plasma system is described. Research and development activities are summarized.

  6. Target system of IFMIF/EVEDA in Japanese activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, M.; Fukada, S.; Furukawa, T.; Hirakawa, Y.; Horiike, H.; Kanemura, T.; Kondo, H.; Miyashita, M.; Nakamura, H.; Sigiura, H.; Suzuki, A.; Terai, T.; Tsuji, Y.; Ushimaru, H.; Watanabe, K.; Yagi, J.

    2011-10-01

    The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been started. As Japanese activities for the target system, the EVEDA Lithium (Li) Test Loop to simulate hydraulic and impurity conditions of the IFMIF Li loop is under design. The feasibility of the thermo-mechanical structure of the target assembly and the replaceable back-plate made of F82H and 316L stainless steel is a key research subject. Toward final validation at the EVEDA loop, diagnostics systems applicable to the high-speed free-surface Li flow and hot traps to control nitrogen and hydrogen in Li loop have been investigated. In the remote handling subject of target assemblies and the replaceable back-plates activated by irradiation up to 50 dpa/y, lip welds on 316L-316L by laser and dissimilar metal welds on F82H-316L are necessary. Water experiments and hydraulic/thermo-mechanical analyses of the back-plate are underway.

  7. Japanese language and Japanese science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  8. Sexual Experience Modulates Neuronal Activity in Male Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Can, Adem; Domjan, Michael; Delville, Yvon

    2008-01-01

    After an initial increase, repeated exposure to a particular stimulus or familiarity with an event results in lower immediate early gene expression levels in relevant brain structures. We predicted that similar effects would occur in Japanese quail after repeated sexual experience within brain areas involved in sexual behavior, namely, the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), and the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA), an avian homolog of medial amygdala. High experience subjects copulated with a female once on each of 16 consecutive days, whereas low experience subjects were allowed to copulate either once or twice. Control subjects were never exposed to a female. High experience subjects were faster to initiate sexual interaction, performed more cloacal contacts, and completed each cloacal contact faster than low experience subjects. Low experience subjects showed an increase in egr-1 (ZENK) expression, an immediate early gene product used as marker of neural activation in birds, in the areas of interest. In contrast, in high experience animals, egr-1 expression in the POM, BST and the periaqueductal gray (PAG) was not different than the level of expression in unmated controls. These results show that experience modulates the level of immediate early gene expression in the case of sexual behavior. Our results also indicate that immediate early gene expression in specific brain areas is not necessarily related to behavioral output, but depends on the behavioral history of the subjects. PMID:17826778

  9. Industrious peasants in east and west: markets, technology, and family structure in Japanese and Western European agriculture.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Jan de Vries engages with Osamu Saito's discussion of Tokugawa Japan, in particular, his exploration of de Vries's concept of an industrious revolution for East Asia, which was published in this journal in 2010. The discussion bears on the ongoing debate over the timing and character of the Great Divergence, when advanced parts of Europe pulled ahead of Asia. de Vries argues that the constraint on the Japanese rural household to acquire and shed labour delayed the shift from supply-side industriousness to demand-motivated industriousness, which in turn meant that the Great Divergence was already in place before 1800. PMID:22069800

  10. Discussion Activities To Increase Intercultural Communication Skills for Japanese Learners in EFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresovich, Brant M.

    1988-01-01

    The study describes ten discussion activities designed to improve the communicative abilities of Japanese learners of English based on cultural instruction goals. The activities target intermediate and advanced students, but teachers can modify the lessons for false beginners. All exercises stress speaking and listening. They focus on topics…

  11. The technical analysis of the stock exchange and physics: Japanese candlesticks for solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, C.; Atanasov, V.

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we use the Japanese candlesticks, a method popular in the technical analysis of the Stock/Forex markets and apply it to a variable in physics-the solar activity. This method is invented and used exclusively for economic analysis and its application to a physical problem produced unexpected results. We found that the Japanese candlesticks are convenient tool in the analysis of the variables in the physics of the Sun. Based on our observations, we differentiated a new cycle in the solar activity.

  12. [The development of modern Japanese pharmaceutical industry (Part 3): from 1886 to 1906, coinciding with the era between the institution and issue of Japanese Pharmacopoeia first edition with third edition (JP I-JP III)].

    PubMed

    Yamada, H

    1992-01-01

    The history of the developmental outline of the pharmaceutical industry during the Meiji era, is introduced. The main topics or events in the development are as follows: 1. The establishment of Osaka Pharmaceutical Products, Examination Company; 2. National Institute of Hygiene which was originated from Drug Ruling Institute ("Shiyakujo"); 3. Development of the pharmaceutical industries, especially in East and West Japan ("Kanto and Kansai"); 4. The influences of two big wars (Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War) on the private pharmaceutical business. And each of them is considered in order to explain the background of the pharmaceutical business during the middle Meiji era. PMID:11639711

  13. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts—orthographically related, but which—in their commonly written form—share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  14. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts-orthographically related, but which-in their commonly written form-share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  15. Developmental Perspectives on the Education and Economic Activities of Japanese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mary Jean; Osawa, Machiko

    This document explores the role played by women in the economic success of Japan in recent decades. Part 1 provides a brief history of Japan's rural legacy and describes its urbanization process. Part 2 reveals trends in the nature and extent of the economic activity of Japanese women using data on cohort age-groups at 5-year intervals beginning…

  16. English Activities in International Understanding Lessons in a Japanese Public Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoi-Yamaga, Naoko

    2010-01-01

    This study was an investigation of public elementary school students' affective changes through English Activities of international understanding lessons at Japanese public elementary school. The learners' expected affective changes were regarded as "International Posture", "Self-esteem", "Collective Self-esteem", and "Interest in Foreign Affairs"…

  17. Problems in the Assistant Language Teacher System and English Activity at Japanese Public Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtani, Chie

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) released the "Rainbow Plan" as the educational reform plan for the twenty-first century. As part of the plan, MEXT will make English education activities compulsory at Japanese public elementary schools beginning in 2011. The purpose of the Rainbow Plan is to…

  18. Biological Activity of Japanese Quince Extract and Its Interactions with Lipids, Erythrocyte Membrane, and Human Albumin.

    PubMed

    Strugała, Paulina; Cyboran-Mikołajczyk, Sylwia; Dudra, Anna; Mizgier, Paulina; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Olejniczak, Teresa; Gabrielska, Janina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine in vitro biological activity of fruit ethanol extract from Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai (Japanese quince, JQ) and its important constituents (-)-epicatechin (EC) and chlorogenic acid (CA). The study also investigated the structural changes in phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes, and erythrocyte membranes (RBC) induced by the extract. It was found that the extract effectively inhibits oxidation of RBC, induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), and PC liposomes, induced by UVB radiation and AAPH. Furthermore, JQ extract to a significant degree inhibited the activity of the enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, involved in inflammatory reactions. The extract has more than 2 times greater activity in relation to COX-2 than COX-1 (selectivity ratio 0.48). JQ extract stimulated growth of the beneficial intestinal bacteria Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum. In the fluorimetric method by means of the probes Laurdan, DPH and TMA-DPH, and (1)H-NMR, we examined the structural changes induced by JQ and its EC and CA components. The results show that JQ and its components induce a considerable increase of the packing order of the polar heads of lipids with a slight decrease in mobility of the acyl chains. Lipid membrane rigidification could hinder the diffusion of free radicals, resulting in inhibition of oxidative damage induced by physicochemical agents. JQ extract has the ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of human serum albumin through static quenching. This report thus could be of huge significance in the food industry, pharmacology, and clinical medicine. PMID:26861057

  19. Recent developments in Japanese titanium research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niinomi, M.

    1996-07-01

    Activity in the titanium industries in Japan has been steadily increasing as the demand for titanium and titanium alloys in consumer goods grows. The key issues in continuing the growth of these applications are lowering costs and developing new markets. In this article, advances in R&D reported mainly in the Japanese journals and at Japanese conferences are briefly described.

  20. Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, Kenji )

    1990-02-01

    This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Industry as a metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Smart, B

    1992-02-01

    The concept of "industrial economic metabolism" can provide a bridge to better understanding between environmentalists and industry. In nature each individual or species reacts to natural stimuli, competing with others for resources, extending its domain until it loses comparative advantage and comes to equilibrium with an adjacent competitor. Those species that succeed over time flourish; those that do not, diminish or disappear. Nature's rule book has no moral or ethical ingredient beyond self-interest. Corporate metabolisms are remarkably similar to those of nature. They too react to stimuli, collect and use resources, and grow or perish based on how effectively they compete. Corporate management recognizes and responds naturally and efficiently to cost and price signals. Through them it selects resources and converts them into useful products. The efficiency with which this is done is measured by profit, the lifeblood of the corporation and its means of growth. Profit thus provides a discipline on corporate behavior, encouraging efficient performers, and, by its absence, weeding out others. Unfettered by influences other than economics, the path to corporate success is unlikely to be a compassionate one. The dilemma of the manager is that to do what is socially "right" often conflicts with what must be done to survive and prosper. Fortunately, corporations' behavior can be altered by society when their purely economic role comes into conflict with other human values. The environment and the economy are not separate systems but intertwined to form a complex natural and social setting. The human-designed economic system depends on natural resource inputs, and in turn its metabolic wastes can overload the ecological system, threatening the long-term survivability of both. Increasing concern for the environment now gives the farsighted manager new latitude. There are competitive benefits in some pollution prevention. But there are not sufficiently strong forces to

  2. Statistical analysis of fires and explosions attributed to static electricity over the last 50 years in Japanese industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsawa, A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a statistical analysis of 153 accidents attributable to static electricity in Japanese industry over the last 50 years. A more thorough understanding of their causes could help prevent similar incidents and identify hazards that could assist in the task of risk assessment. Most of the incidents occurred during operations performed by workers. In addition, more than 70% of the flammable atmospheres resulted from the presence of vapours. A noteworthy finding is that at least 70% of the ignitions were caused by isolated conductors including operators' bodies leading to spark discharges, which could have easily been prevented with earthing. These tendencies indicate that, when operators handle flammable liquids with any conductors, the ignition risk is significantly high. A serious lack of information regarding fundamental countermeasures for static electricity seems to be the main cause of such hazards. Only organised management, including education and risk communication, would prevent them.

  3. Style Shifts among Japanese Learners before and after Study Abroad in Japan: Becoming Active Social Agents in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwasaki, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on L2 Japanese sojourners often reported that learners overuse the plain style or haphazardly mix the plain and polite styles upon return. These styles, which are often associated with formal or informal contexts, also index complex social and situational meanings, and native speakers are reported to shift their styles to create…

  4. Activities of the Japanese space weather forecast center at Communications Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Watari, Shinichi; Tomita, Fumihiko

    2002-12-01

    The International Space Environment Service (ISES) is an international organization for space weather forecasts and belongs to the International Union of Radio Science (URSI). There are eleven ISES forecast centers in the world, and Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) runs the Japanese one. We make forecasts on the space environment and deliver them over the phones and through the Internet. Our forecasts could be useful for human activities in space. Currently solar activity is near maximum phase of the solar cycle 23. We report the several large disturbances of space environment occurred in 2001, during which low-latitude auroras were observed several times in Japan. PMID:12793730

  5. Japanese direct investment in the US high-technology industry: background, strategies, trends, impact, and alternative responses

    SciTech Connect

    Kavner, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Growth of foreign direct investment in the US, exceeding 1000% since 1970, has raised important issues regarding US policies toward foreign trade and domestic economic management. Japan, with its significant direct investment in America's high-technology industry, is often perceived as the most threatening of the foreign investors. This study was undertaken to determine the background, extent, and impact of Japanese direct investment in the US high-technology industry. Examination of patterns of foreign direct investment in the US since 1950 shows that Japan's participation has been governed largely by US monetary policies (e.g., revaluation of currency) and the proposed or actual imposition of protectionist measures (e.g., import quotas). Additional factors include US economic-growth potential, lenient tax laws, stable political structure, and many incentives at the state level, all of which provide an attractive environment for foreign investors. Results suggest that the problems associated with foreign direct investment in the US are far outweighed by its benefits of capital inflow and creation of new jobs. An optimum trade policy, in conjunction with the opening of Japan's trade and investment markets, would eliminate trade barriers and support a stabilization of currency.

  6. Antioxidative activity in the pericarp and seed of Japanese pepper (Xanthoxylum piperitum DC).

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, E; Matsui, M; Kubota, K; Kobayashi, A

    2000-10-01

    The antioxidative activity of the dried pericarp and seed of Japanese pepper was studied. The ethyl acetate extract from the pericarp and the methanol extract from the seed showed strong antioxidative activity against linoleic acid by the ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods. Japanese pepper contained 3.9 and 2.9 mg/100 g of dry weight (dw) of tocopherols in the pericarp and seed, respectively, alpha-Toc in the former constituting 82% of total tocopherol and gamma-Toc in the latter constituting 96%. Arbutin and magnoflorine were isolated as antioxidants and their chemical structures determined by instrumental analyses. The contents of arbutin evaluated as the trifluoroacetate derivative by GC-MS were 35 and 3.0 mg/100 g of dw in the pericarp and seed, respectively. Magnoflorine was present only in the seed, and not in the pericarp. Both arbutin and magnoflorine exhibited antioxidative activity against linoleic acid and radical-scavenging activity against the DPPH radical. PMID:11052757

  7. Direct activation of GABAA receptors by substances in the organic acid fraction of Japanese sake.

    PubMed

    Izu, Hanae; Shigemori, Kensuke; Eguchi, Masaya; Kawane, Shuhei; Fujii, Shouko; Kitamura, Yuji; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Yamada, Yasue

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of substances present in Japanese sake on the response of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sake was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. The fraction containing organic acids (OA fraction) showed agonist activities on the GABAA receptor. OA fractions from sake were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Of the 64 compounds identified, 13 compounds showed GABAA receptor agonist activities. Especially, l-lactic acid showed high agonist activity and its EC50 value was 37μM. Intraperitoneal injections of l-lactic acid, gluconic acid, and pyruvic acid (10, 10, and 5mg/kg BW, respectively), which showed agonistic activity on the GABAA receptor, led to significant anxiolytic effects during an elevated plus-maze test in mice. PMID:27507485

  8. Japanese; Japanese Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…

  9. R&D of low activation ferritic steels for fusion in japanese universities*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, Akira; Kohno, Yutaka; Asakura, Kentaro; Kayano, Hideo

    1994-09-01

    Following the brief review of the R&D of low activation ferritic steels in Japanese universities, the status of 9Cr-2W type ferritic steels development is presented. The main emphasis is on mechanical property changes by fast neutron irradiation in FFTF. Bend test, tensile test, CVN test and in-reactor creep results are provided including some data about low activation ferritic steels with Cr variation from 2.25 to 12%. The 9Cr-2W ferritic steel, denoted as JLF-1, showed excellent mechanical properties under fast neutron irradiation as high as 60 dpa. As potential materials for DEMO and beyond, innovative oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) quasi-amorphous low activation ferritic steels are introduced. The baseline properties, microstructural evolution under ion irradiation and the recent progress of new processes are provided.

  10. [The development of modern Japanese pharmaceutical industry (Part 4). From 1906 to 1920, coinciding with the era between the institution and issue of Japanese Pharmacopoeia Third Edition with Fourth Edition (JP III-JP IV)].

    PubMed

    Yamada, H

    1994-01-01

    The publishing of the Third Edition of Japanese Pharmacopoeia was performed after Russo-Japanese War, on July 2, 1906. In those times, the military and economical power of Japan advanced toward East Asia, and thus gradually, Japan had become one of the powerful force in the world, partly because due to the unexpected victory in the War. Thereafter, in the second decade of the twentieth century, Japan was involved in the World War I, from July, 1914 to November, 1918, which ceased the fire by the defeat of Germanic Allied Countries. In Japan, the next revise of the pharmacopoeia was performed and the Fourth Edition of it was published on December 15, 1920. The Japanese pharmaceutical industry developed remarkably in those times, during the big war and confusion in the market, by accompanying with the suitable and tentative pharmaceutical legislations by the government and the supportive aids to the civilian enterprises in the productions, supplies and distributions of the materials and medicinal products. PMID:11613500

  11. Infrasound Monitoring of the Volcanic Activities of Japanese Volcanoes in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. I.; Che, I. Y.; Shin, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Since 1999 when our first infrasound array station(CHNAR) has been installed at Cheolwon, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources(KIGAM) is continuously observing infrasound signals with an infrasound array network, named KIN(Korean Infrasound Network). This network is comprised of eight seismo-acoustic array stations(BRDAR, YPDAR, KMPAR, CHNAR, YAGAR, KSGAR, ULDAR, TJIAR). The aperture size of the smallest array is 300m and the largest is about 1.4km. The number of infrasound sensors are between 4(TJIAR) and 18(YAGAR), and 1~5 seismometers are collocated with infrasound sensors. Many interesting infrasound signals associated with different type of sources, such as blasting, large earthquake, bolide, volcanic explosion are detected by KIN in the past 15 years. We have analyzed the infrasound signals possibly associated with the japanese volcanic explosions with reference to volcanic activity report published by Japanese Meteorological Agency. Analysis results of many events, for example, Asama volcano explosion in 2004 and Shinmoe volcano in 2011, are well matched with the official report. In some cases, however, corresponding infrasound signals are not identified. By comparison of the infrasound signals from different volcanoes, we also found that the characteristics of signals are distinguishing. It may imply that the specific volcano has its own unique fingerprint in terms of infrasound signal. It might be investigated by long-term infrasound monitoring for a specific volcano as a ground truth generating repetitive infrasound signal.

  12. Active magnetic bearings applied to industrial compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. G.; Hustak, J. F.; Schoeneck, K. A.

    1993-01-01

    The design and shop test results are given for a high-speed eight-stage centrifugal compressor supported by active magnetic bearings. A brief summary of the basic operation of active magnetic bearings and the required rotor dynamics analysis are presented with specific attention given to design considerations for optimum rotor stability. The concerns for retrofits of magnetic bearings in existing machinery are discussed with supporting analysis of a four-stage centrifugal compressor. The current status of industrial machinery in North America using this new support system is presented and recommendations are given on design and analysis requirements for successful machinery operation of either retrofit or new design turbomachinery.

  13. Host suitability and diet mixing influence activities of detoxification enzymes in adult Japanese beetles.

    PubMed

    Adesanya, Adekunle; Liu, Nannan; Held, David W

    2016-05-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450, glutathione S transferase (GST), and carboxylesterase (CoE) activity was measured in guts of the scarab Popillia japonica Newman, after consumption of single or mixed plant diets of previously ranked preferred (rose, Virginia creeper, crape myrtle and sassafras) or non-preferred hosts (boxelder, riverbirch and red oak). The goal of this study was to quantify activities of P450, GST and CoE enzymes in the midgut of adult P. japonica using multiple substrates in response to host plant suitability (preferred host vs non-preferred hosts), and single and mixed diets. Non-preferred hosts were only sparingly fed upon, and as a group induced higher activities of P450, GST and CoE than did preferred hosts. However, enzyme activities for some individual plant species were similar across categories of host suitability. Similarly, beetles tended to have greater enzyme activities after feeding on a mixture of plants compared to a single plant type, but mixing per se does not seem as important as the species represented in the mix. Induction of detoxification enzymes on non-preferred hosts, or when switching between hosts, may explain, in part, the perceived feeding preferences of this polyphagous insect. The potential consequences of induced enzyme activities on the ecology of adult Japanese beetles are discussed. PMID:26964493

  14. Antiviral activity of Rheum palmatum methanol extract and chrysophanol against Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Jen; Huang, Su-Hua; Lin, Ying-Ju; Tsou, Yi-Yun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Rheum palmatum, Chinese traditional herb, exhibits a great variety of anti-cancer and anti-viruses properties. This study rates antiviral activity of R. palmatum extracts and its components against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in vitro. Methanol extract of R. palmatum contained higher levels of aloe emodin, chrysophanol, rhein, emodin and physcion than water extract. Methanol extract (IC₅₀ = 15.04 μg/ml) exhibited more potent inhibitory effects on JEV plaque reduction than water extract (IC₅₀ = 51.41 μg/ml). Meanwhile, IC₅₀ values determined by plaque reduction assay were 15.82 μg/ml for chrysophanol and 17.39 μg/ml for aloe-emodin, respectively. Virucidal activity of agents correlated with anti-JEV activity, while virucidal IC₅₀ values were 7.58 μg/ml for methanol extract, 17.36 μg/ml for water extract, 0.75 μg/ml for chrysophanol and 0.46 μg/ml for aloe-emodin, respectively. In addition, 10 μg/ml of extract, chrysophanol or aloe emodin caused 90 % inhibition of JEV yields in cells and significantly activated gamma activated sequence-driven promoters. Hence, methanol extract of R. palmatum and chrysophanol with high therapeutic index might be useful for development of antiviral agents against JEV. PMID:24395532

  15. Antimicrobial activities of ozenoxacin against isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Akiko; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Shoji; Okamoto, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ishii, Ritsuko; Fujikawa, Akira; Takei, Katsuaki; Kawashima, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Ozenoxacin, a novel non-fluorinated topical quinolone, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci according to the broth microdilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The isolates used in this study were collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris during a period from 2012 to 2013. The MIC90s of ozenoxacin against Propionibacterium acnes (n=266), Propionibacterium granulosum (n=10), Staphylococcus aureus (n=23), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=229) and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=82) were ≤0.06, ≤0.06, ≤0.06, 0.125 and ≤0.06 µg ml-1, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of ozenoxacin against the clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci was greater than that of five reference antimicrobial agents which have been used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The MICs of ozenoxacin were correlated with those of nadifloxacin in P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates. However, the MICs of ozenoxacin were 0.25-0.5 µg ml-1 and 0.5-8 µg ml-1 against nadifloxacin-resistant P. acnes (MIC: ≥8 µg ml-1; n=8) and S. epidermidis (MIC: ≥64 µg ml-1; n=10), respectively. These results indicated the potent antimicrobial activity against P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates resistant to nadifloxacin. Topical ozenoxacin could represent an alternative therapeutic drug for acne vulgaris based on its potent antimicrobial activity against the isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from acne patients. PMID:27305898

  16. Two farnesoid X receptor alpha isoforms in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) are differentially activated in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, Deanna L.; Hagey, Lee R.; Law, Sheran H.W.; Ai, Ni; Krasowski, Matthew D.; Ekins, Sean; Moore, John T.; Kollitz, Erin M.; Hinton, David E.; Kullman, Seth W.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor alpha (FXRα, NR1H4) is activated by bile acids in multiple species including mouse, rat, and human and in this study we have identified two isoforms of Fxrα in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), a small freshwater teleost. Both isoforms share a high amino acid sequence identity to mammalian FXRα (~70% in the ligand-binding domain). Fxrα1 and Fxrα2 differ within the AF1 domain due to alternative splicing at the fourth intron-exon boundary. This process results in Fxrα1 having an extended N-terminus compared to Fxrα2. A Gal4DBD-FxrαLBD fusion construct was activated by chenodeoxycholic, cholic, deoxycholic and lithocholic acids, and the synthetic agonist GW4064 in transient transactivation assays. Activation of the Gal4DBD-FxrαLBD fusion construct was enhanced by addition of PGC-1α, as demonstrated through titration assays. Surprisingly, when the full-length versions of the two Fxrα isoforms were compared in transient transfection assays, Fxrα2 was activated by C24 bile acids and GW4064, while Fxrα1 was not significantly activated by any of the compounds tested. Since the only significant difference between the full-length constructs was sequence in the AF1 domain, these experiments highlight a key functional region in the Fxrα AF1 domain. Furthermore, mammalian two-hybrid studies demonstrated the ability of Fxrα2, but not Fxrα1, to interact with PGC-1α and SRC-1, and supported our results from the transient transfection reporter gene activation assays. These data demonstrate that both mammalian and teleost FXR (Fxrα2 isoform) are activated by primary and secondary bile acids. PMID:20430454

  17. Potent antioxidative and antigenotoxic activity in aqueous extract of Japanese rice bran--association with peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Higashi-Okai, Kiyoka; Kanbara, Keiko; Amano, Kanako; Hagiwara, Akiko; Sugita, Chie; Matsumoto, Norie; Okai, Yasuji

    2004-08-01

    To estimate the preventive potential of Japanese rice bran (Oryza sativa japonica) against the oxygen radical-related chronic diseases such as cardio-vascular diseases and cancer, antioxidative and antigenotoxic activities of the rice bran extracts were analyzed by using assay systems for lipid peroxidation and genotoxin-induced umu gene expression. When effects of the rice bran extracts under different extraction conditions on hydroperoxide generation from auto-oxidized linoleic acid were examined using aluminum chloride method, the water extract showed strong antioxidant activity, but the methanol and acetone extracts did not exhibit significant activity. The water extract of rice bran was divided into the ethanol-precipitable (EP) and supernatant fractions, and EP fraction showed the dominant antioxidant activity, but the supernatant fraction did not exhibit significant antioxidant activity. When the effect of EP fraction on umu C gene expression in SOS response associated with DNA damage in Salmonella typhimurium (TA 1535/pSK 1002) induced by 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) was analyzed, it showed a dose-dependent suppressive activity against Trp-P-1-induced umu C gene expression. The bio-chemical analysis of EP fraction indicates that the major antioxidative and antigenotoxic activity of EP fraction is associated with a proteinous component with the molecular weight of more than 30 KDa. As a possible active principle for the antioxidative and antigenotoxic activity in EP fraction, the strong activity of an oxygen radical-scavenging enzyme, peroxidase was detected, and the purified horseradish peroxidase also caused the similar antioxidative and antigenotoxic activities. The significance of this finding is discussed from the viewpoint of the preventive role of rice bran against oxygen radical-related chronic diseases. PMID:15476307

  18. Toxic industrial deposit remediation by ant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilkova, Veronika; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Toxic industrial deposits are often contaminated by heavy metals and the substrates have low pH values. In such systems, soil development is thus slowed down by high toxicity and acidic conditions which are unfavourable to soil fauna. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) are considered tolerant to heavy metal pollution and are known to increase organic matter content and microbial activity in their nests. Here, we focused on soil remediation caused by three ant species (Formica sanguinea, Lasius niger, and Tetramorium sp.) in an ore-washery sedimentation basin near Chvaletice (Czech Republic). Soil samples were taken from the centre of ant nests and from the nest surroundings (>3 m from nests). Samples were then analyzed for microbial activity and biomass and contents of organic matter and nutrients. As a result, ant species that most influenced soil properties was F. sanguinea as there were higher microbial activity and total nitrogen and ammonia contents in ant nests than in the surrounding soil. We expected such a result because F. sanguinea builds conspicuous large nests and is a carnivorous species that brings substantial amounts of nitrogen in insect prey to their nests. Effects of the other two ant species might be lower because of smaller nests and different feeding habits as they rely mainly on honeydew from aphids or on plant seeds that do not contain much nutrients.

  19. Detection of neural activity in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a "hot defensive bee ball".

    PubMed

    Ugajin, Atsushi; Kiya, Taketoshi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Ono, Masato; Yoshida, Tadaharu; Kubo, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Anti-predator behaviors are essential to survival for most animals. The neural bases of such behaviors, however, remain largely unknown. Although honeybees commonly use their stingers to counterattack predators, the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) uses a different strategy to fight against the giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia japonica). Instead of stinging the hornet, Japanese honeybees form a "hot defensive bee ball" by surrounding the hornet en masse, killing it with heat. The European honeybee (A. mellifera ligustica), on the other hand, does not exhibit this behavior, and their colonies are often destroyed by a hornet attack. In the present study, we attempted to analyze the neural basis of this behavior by mapping the active brain regions of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. First, we identified an A. cerana homolog (Acks = Apis cerana kakusei) of kakusei, an immediate early gene that we previously identified from A. mellifera, and showed that Acks has characteristics similar to kakusei and can be used to visualize active brain regions in A. cerana. Using Acks as a neural activity marker, we demonstrated that neural activity in the mushroom bodies, especially in Class II Kenyon cells, one subtype of mushroom body intrinsic neurons, and a restricted area between the dorsal lobes and the optic lobes was increased in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. In addition, workers exposed to 46°C heat also exhibited Acks expression patterns similar to those observed in the brains of workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball, suggesting that the neural activity observed in the brains of workers involved in the hot defensive bee ball mainly reflects thermal stimuli processing. PMID:22431987

  20. Action-projection in Japanese conversation: topic particles wa, mo, and tte for triggering categorization activities.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Conversation analytic work has revealed how anticipatory completions and preemptive actions can offer invaluable glimpses into the cognitive, contextual, grammatical, and temporal bases of projectability in turn-taking, by virtue of their potential not only as a display of participants' online prediction of roughly what it might take to complete a turn-in-progress but also to plan the next move. While the predicate-final word order and the incremental transformability of turns in Japanese generally lead to delayed projectability of turn-endings, this may be partially offset by the capacity of certain postpositional particles to trigger and propel prospective action trajectories. This article engages in a case study of the topic particle wa (and related particles mo and tte), by demonstrating how its grammatical affordances, the categorization activities, and cognitive processing it can set in motion, coupled with the immediate contextual, and temporal-productional features may coalesce to a point of critical mass, thereby enhancing the projectability of the not-yet-produced trajectory of the current turn. The discussion attempts to contribute to recent debates on ways language-specific lexicogrammatical resources are deeply interlinked with the types of opportunities that are provided for social action. PMID:26379565

  1. Specificity of the Immunomodulating Activity of Sasa veitchii (Japanese Folk Medicine Kumazasa) to Fungal Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Sato, Wataru; Takeshita, Kazuo; Tsuboi, Masamichi; Kanamori, Masato; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Miura, Noriko N; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2015-01-01

    Many plant extracts are used as well-known folk medicines and exhibit various biological activities that are beneficial to human health. These extracts contain polysaccharides, and some are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that stimulate innate as well as acquired immune systems. In the present study, the cooperative effects of PAMPs and bamboo water-soluble methanol precipitation (BWMP) in a macromolecular fraction of the hot water extract of Sasa veitchii (in Japanese folk medicine, known as Kumazasa; family Poaceae) were analyzed in vitro using the spleen or bone marrow cells of mice. The splenocytes of male DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice were cultured with BWMP in the presence or absence of PAMPs, and responses were assessed by measuring cytokines. BWMP inhibited the production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) by not only toll like receptors (TLRs), but also the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) dectin-1 and dectin-2. BWMP also inhibited the autologous production of IFN-γ in the splenocyte culture. These results suggested that BWMP may inhibit the signaling pathways of PAMPs, but not ligand-receptor interactions. In contrast, BWMP did not inhibit the production of cytokines by dendritic cells. These results indicated that the inhibition of IFN-γ by BWMP was mediated through the cell-to-cell interactions of splenic cells during cultivation. PMID:26082980

  2. Determination of multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    2003-08-01

    Multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan, in collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five samples (ca. 510-1000 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (TRIGA Mark-II, 100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional gama-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The concentrations of 38 elements were determined by these methods. PMID:12945682

  3. Action-projection in Japanese conversation: topic particles wa, mo, and tte for triggering categorization activities

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Conversation analytic work has revealed how anticipatory completions and preemptive actions can offer invaluable glimpses into the cognitive, contextual, grammatical, and temporal bases of projectability in turn-taking, by virtue of their potential not only as a display of participants' online prediction of roughly what it might take to complete a turn-in-progress but also to plan the next move. While the predicate-final word order and the incremental transformability of turns in Japanese generally lead to delayed projectability of turn-endings, this may be partially offset by the capacity of certain postpositional particles to trigger and propel prospective action trajectories. This article engages in a case study of the topic particle wa (and related particles mo and tte), by demonstrating how its grammatical affordances, the categorization activities, and cognitive processing it can set in motion, coupled with the immediate contextual, and temporal-productional features may coalesce to a point of critical mass, thereby enhancing the projectability of the not-yet-produced trajectory of the current turn. The discussion attempts to contribute to recent debates on ways language-specific lexicogrammatical resources are deeply interlinked with the types of opportunities that are provided for social action. PMID:26379565

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Active Components of Yokukansan, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine after a Single Oral Administration to Healthy Japanese Volunteers: A Cross-Over, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Ichikawa, Kengo; Fukudome, Ian; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Igarashi, Yasushi; Hanyu, Haruo; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Context Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine called kampo medicine in Japan. Its extract comprises seven crude drugs: Atractylodis lanceae rhizoma, Poria, Cnidii rhizoma, Uncariae uncis cum ramulus, Angelicae radix, Bupleuri radix, and Glycyrrhizae radix. YKS is used to treat neurosis, insomnia, as well as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Objective To confirm the exposure and pharmacokinetics of the active components of YKS in healthy volunteers. Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized, open-label, 3-arm, 3-period, crossover trial was conducted on 21 healthy Japanese volunteers at the Kochi Medical University between May 2012 and November 2012. Interventions Single oral administration of YKS (2.5 g, 5.0 g, or 7.5 g/day) during each period. Main Outcome Measure Plasma concentrations of three active compounds in YKS, namely 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), and hirsuteine (HTE). Results The mean maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of GM and HTE increased dose-dependently (ranges: 0.650–1.98 ng/mL and 0.138–0.450 ng/mL, respectively). The times to maximum plasma concentration after drug administration (tmax) were 0.500 h for GM and 0.975–1.00 h for HTE. The apparent elimination half-lives (t1/2) were 1.72–1.95 h for GM and 2.47–3.03 h for HTE. These data indicate the rapid absorption and elimination of GM and HTE. On the other hand, the Cmax, tmax, and t1/2 of GA were 57.7–108 ng/mL, 8.00–8.01 h, and 9.39–12.3 h, respectively. Conclusion We demonstrated that pharmacologically active components of YKS are detected in humans. Further, we determined the pharmacokinetics of GM, HTE, and GA. This information will be useful to elucidate the pharmacological effects of YKS. Trial Registration Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center JAPIC CTI-121811 PMID:26151135

  5. Tri-Axial Accelerometer-Determined Daily Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior of Suburban Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Honda, Takanori; Chen, Sanmei; Haeuchi, Yuki; Nofuji, Yu Y; Matsuo, Eri; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge regarding accelerometer-derived physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SED) levels is scarce for Japanese older adults. The aims of this study were therefore to 1) describe levels of PA and SED in Japanese community-dwelling older adults, using tri-axial accelerometer; 2) examine the variation of PA and SED with respect to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Participants of this study were from the baseline survey of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study, who were 65 years or older and not certified as those requiring long-term care. PA was assessed objectively for seven consecutive days using tri-axial accelerometer. A total of 1,739 participants (median age: 72 years, men: 38.0%) with valid PA data were included. Overall, participants in the present study spent 54.5% of their waking time being sedentary and 45.5% being active, of which 5.4% was moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Women accumulated more minutes of light physical activity (LPA) and MVPA compared with men. In contrast, men spent more time being sedentary. Mean steps per day did not differ between sexes. Furthermore, participants with higher BMI (BMI ≥25) had lower PA levels, and longer SED compared with those with lower BMI (BMI <). PA levels were lower and SED was longer with age. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the levels of PA and SED differed by sex, age, and BMI in Japanese community-dwelling older adults. In particular, women were more active compared with men, providing unique insight into the current level of PA in older adults. Data presented in the study will enable further investigation of additional determinants of PA and SED in order to develop effective population-based intervention strategies to promote PA and reduce prolonged SED in the Japanese population and possibly other rapidly aging societies. Key points Accelerometer, that is capable to assess PA more precisely in large scale epidemiological studies, provides opportunity for improving

  6. [Activity of the Far East commonstate organization during the Russian-Japanese War 1904-1905].

    PubMed

    Goncharova, S G

    2010-07-01

    The article is concerned with the participation of commonstate organizations in the delivery of medical treatment for the wounded soldiers in Fast East during the Russian-Japanese War 1904-1905. On the morrow of the Russian-Japanese War this community was transformed into the commonstate organization of relief. This organization expanded its help to the harmed from bad harvest areas and than to the migrants. During the early of the World War I 1914-1918 on the ground of commonstate organization was developed The Russian commonstate union. PMID:20873197

  7. Seismic activity of Tokyo area and Philippine Sea plate under Japanese Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Kasahara, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.; Kurashimo, E.; Obara, K.; Hirata, N.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Japanese government has estimated the probability of earthquake occurrence with magnitude 7-class during the next 30 years as 70 %. This estimation is based on five earthquakes that occurred in this area in the late 120 years. However, it has been revealed that this region is lying on more complicated tectonic condition due to the two subducted plates and the various types of earthquakes which have been caused by. Therefore, it is necessary to classify these earthquakes into inter-plate earthquakes and intra-plate ones. Then, we have been constructing a seismic observation network since 5 years ago. Tokyo Metropolitan area is a densely populated region of about 40 million people. It is the center of Japan both in politics and in economy. So that human activities have been conducting quite busily, this region is unsuitable for seismic observation. Then, we have decided to make an ultra high dense seismic observation network. We named it the Metropolitan Seismometer Observation Network; MeSO-net. MeSO-net consists of 296 seismic stations. Minimum interval is about 2km and average interval is about 5km.We picked the P- and S-wave arrival times manually. We applied double-difference tomography method to the dataset and estimated the velocity structure. We depicted the plate boundaries from the newly developed velocity model. And, we referred to the locations of the repeating earthquakes, the distributions of normal hypocenters and the focal mechanisms. Our plate model became relatively flat and a little shallower than previous one.Seismicity of Metropolitan area after the M9 event was compared to the one before M9 event. The seismic activity is about 4 times as high as before the M9 event occurred. We examined spatial distribution of the activated seismicity with respect to the newly developed plate configuration. The activated events are located on upper boundaries and they have almost thrust type mechanisms. Recently, a slow slip event has occurred on October in

  8. Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909

  9. 40 CFR 721.80 - Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Industrial, commercial, and consumer... Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Whenever a substance is identified in subpart E of this part... the substance. (l) Non-industrial use. (m) Commercial use. (n) Non-commercial use. (o) Use in...

  10. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  11. 40 CFR 721.80 - Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Industrial, commercial, and consumer... Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Whenever a substance is identified in subpart E of this part... the substance. (l) Non-industrial use. (m) Commercial use. (n) Non-commercial use. (o) Use in...

  12. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  13. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  14. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  15. 40 CFR 721.80 - Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Industrial, commercial, and consumer... Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Whenever a substance is identified in subpart E of this part... the substance. (l) Non-industrial use. (m) Commercial use. (n) Non-commercial use. (o) Use in...

  16. 40 CFR 721.80 - Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Industrial, commercial, and consumer... Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Whenever a substance is identified in subpart E of this part... the substance. (l) Non-industrial use. (m) Commercial use. (n) Non-commercial use. (o) Use in...

  17. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  18. [The development of the Japanese pharmaceutical industry (part 7). Histories of medical advertisements from Taisho Era till Showa Era].

    PubMed

    Takehara, J; Yamada, H

    1999-01-01

    Medical advertisements in newspapers have been used quite often as a means of sales promotion since the Meiji Era. Medical advertisements were quantitatively the leading advertisements in Japanese newspapers from the Taisho Era to early in the Showa Era. When World War II broke out, the quanity of advertisements in newspapers decreased markedly. After the war ended, the quantity of radio commercials for medicine increased quite rapidly. In the 1960s, however, pharmaceutical companies were criticized for over-promoting and improperly using medicines. PMID:11624347

  19. Industry activities to improve valve performance

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, C.

    1996-12-01

    Motor-operated valve issues refuse to go away. For over a decade the industry and the NRC have been focusing extraordinary resources on assuring these special components operate when called upon. Now that industry has fixed the design deficiencies, it is focusing on assuring that they perform their safety function within the current licensing basis for the remainder of plant life. NEI supported the efforts by ASME to develop OMN-1 and was encouraged that the industry and the NRC worked together to develop risk and performance based approaches to maintain MOV performance.

  20. Japanese Strategy and Technology of Active Monitoring of the Earth's Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazawa, M.

    2004-12-01

    The difficulty of the research towards the highly nonlinear phenomena such as earthquakes motivated us to explore an essential tool demanded inevitably beyond the level of technology and budget available at present. Intuitively it must be the extensive and intensive monitoring of the target with higher resolution. Naturally it is the remote sensing by utilizing actively and continuously all possible types of `wave', i. e., seismic wave and electromagnetic wave. The developmental study of the active tools has been made since 1994 in Japan for the precise structure exploration and continuous state monitoring targeted to the tectonically active parts in the Earth's lithospheres. It was promoted after the disastrous Kobe Earthquake of 1993. Basic necessity for the technology is the robustness against the natural and artificial noise in remote observation to obtain data with larger S/N under non-destructive condition for environments. The data to be obtained is the transfer function between many transmitter sites and many receiver sites. We believe that our science would change drastically, once we come to obtain the highly reliable data with reliable estimate of observational error smaller than before by one order of magnitude. The technical demand is the precision of transmitting signal and receiving device, which are stable and accurate enough both in synchronization and reproducibility so as to allow the effective data stacking of long period of time in obtaining the transfer function data between the source and receiver. A special emphasis is placed on the polarization and dispersion (color) of the transfer function, in order to extract the data of anisotropy, scattering and attenuation that are expected to carry the information on the physical states within the polycrystalline rocks bearing the structural sensitivity under stress. A review is made on the current state of the technology called ACROSS (Accurately Controlled Routinely Operated Signal System) and

  1. NOVEL ASSAY TO ASSESS CYP-2E1-LIKE ACTIVITY IN THE JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liver microsomes and S-9 fraction of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) metabolized the CYP2E1 specific substrate, p-nitrophenol (PNP), to a single hydroxylated product, 4-nitrocatechol. The use of liver S-9 fraction proved to be a viable alternative to liver microsomes and allowe...

  2. Symbolism in Japanese Language and Culture: Activities for the Elementary Classroom. Grades--Upper Elementary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This book aims to expose students of grades 4-6 to the language and culture of Japan. The unifying theme of all of the lessons is symbolism in Japanese language and culture. Lessons can be used as a unit or in sections and specific lessons can be presented in isolation. Each day's materials and format are described in detail with specific…

  3. Contrastive Semantics of Physical Activity Verbs: "Cutting" and "Chopping" in English, Polish, and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Cliff; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the contrastive lexical semantics of verbs comparable to "cut" and "chop" in three languages (English, Polish, and Japanese), using the natural semantic metalanguage (NSM) technique of semantic analysis. It proposes a six-part semantic template, and argues that this template can serve as a basis for a lexical typology of…

  4. Activity and social factors affect cohesion among individuals in female Japanese macaques: A simultaneous focal-follow study.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Mari; Suzuki, Mariko; Sprague, David S

    2014-07-01

    Understanding cohesion among individuals within a group is necessary to reveal the social system of group-living primates. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are female-philopatric primates that reside in social groups. We investigated whether individual activity and social factors can affect spatio-temporal cohesion in wild female Japanese macaques. We conducted behavioral observation on a group, which contained 38 individuals and ranged over ca. 60 ha during the study period. Two observers carried out simultaneous focal-animal sampling of adult female pairs during full-day follows using global positioning system which enabled us to quantify interindividual distances (IIDs), group members within visual range (i.e., visual unit), and separation duration beyond visual range as indicators of cohesion among individuals. We found considerable variation in spatio-temporal group cohesion. The overall mean IID was 99.9 m (range = 0-618.2 m). The percentage of IIDs within visual range was 23.1%, within auditory range was 59.8%, and beyond auditory range was 17.1%. IIDs varied with activity; they were shorter during grooming and resting, and longer during foraging and traveling. Low-ranking females showed less cohesion than high-ranking ones. Kin females stayed nearly always within audible range. The macaques were weakly cohesive with small mean visual unit size (3.15 counting only adults, 5.99 counting all individuals). Both-sex units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were grooming/resting. Conversely, female units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were foraging. The overall mean visual separation duration was 25.7 min (range = 3-513 min). Separation duration was associated with dominance rank. These results suggest that Japanese macaques regulate cohesion among individuals depending on their activity and on social relationships; they were separated to adapt food distribution and aggregated to maintain social

  5. Identification of an active fault in the Japanese Alps from DEM-based hill shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Takashi; Aoki, Tatsuto; Matsuta, Nobuhisa

    2003-08-01

    Shaded-relief images created from digital elevation models (DEMs) are helpful in identifying faults in rugged mountains. Unlike airphoto interpretation, the method enhances lineaments by simulating topographic illumination under varied light directions. Interpretation of shaded-relief images of the Japanese Alps led to the discovery of a lineament unrelated to bedrock structure. Field surveys and analysis of large-scale maps and airphotos reveal the lineament to be a fault with high rates of vertical and lateral slip. The new fault is the southernmost segment of a known adjacent fault, and the rate and direction of its slip provide fresh insight into the late Quaternary history of the fault system. Because previous research mistook the fault scarp for a fluvial terrace scarp, discovery of the fault also changed the correlation of river terraces in the Northern Japanese Alps. The new corrections affect Pleistocene glacial chronology in the upstream area.

  6. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students) daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity. PMID:22894563

  7. Introductory Industrial Technology I. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towler, Alan L.; And Others

    This guide contains 36 learning modules intended for use by technology teachers and students in grades 7 and 8. Each module includes a student laboratory activity and instructor's resource sheet. Each student activity includes the following: activity topic and overview, challenge statement, objectives, vocabulary/concepts reinforced,…

  8. Introductory Industrial Technology II. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towler, Alan L.

    This guide contains 29 learning modules intended for use by technology teachers and students in grade 8. Each module includes a student laboratory activity and instructor's resource sheet. Each student activity includes the following: activity topic and overview, challenge statement, objectives, vocabulary/concepts reinforced, equipment/supplies,…

  9. Seasonal variations in the activity budget of Japanese macaques in the coniferous forest of Yakushima: effects of food and temperature.

    PubMed

    Hanya, Goro

    2004-07-01

    Seasonal variations in the activity budget of Japanese macaques in the coniferous forest of Yakushima were studied over the course of 1 year. On an annual basis, they spent 38% of the daytime feeding, 16% traveling, 14% in social interactions, and 32% engaged in resting. The effects of temperature and food-related factors (i.e., food distribution, feeding speed, and food abundance) on the seasonal variations of activity budget were examined by stepwise multiple regression analysis. When the temperature was low, the macaques decreased traveling and feeding time, in accordance with the prediction that endothermal animals save energy under severe thermoregulatory cost. When the feeding speed of available foods was slow, they spent more time feeding. When high-quality foods were abundant, they decreased feeding time. These macaques did not respond to fluctuations in food distribution. The present results indicate the importance of temperature, in addition to food-related factors, as a determinant of activity budgets. PMID:15258960

  10. 40 CFR 721.80 - Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industrial, commercial, and consumer... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Certain Significant New Uses § 721.80 Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Whenever a substance is identified in subpart E of this...

  11. ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS: SELECTED TECHNICAL PAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the tremendous interest in the organic constituent removal by activated carbon, the two industrial categories displaying the most interest are the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. EPA's Office of Research and Development has co-sponsored two technical s...

  12. Specific Activation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Beta Enhances Male Sexual Behavior and Neuroplasticity in Male Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Seredynski, Aurore L.; Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques; Charlier, Thierry D.

    2011-01-01

    Two subtypes of estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, have been identified in humans and numerous vertebrates, including the Japanese quail. We investigated in this species the specific role(s) of each receptor in the activation of male sexual behavior and the underlying estrogen-dependent neural plasticity. Castrated male Japanese quail received empty (CX) or testosterone-filled (T) implants or were daily injected with the ER general agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES), the ERα-specific agonist PPT, the ERβ-specific agonist DPN or the vehicle, propylene glycol. Three days after receiving the first treatment, subjects were alternatively tested for appetitive (rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements, RCSM) and consummatory aspects (copulatory behavior) of male sexual behavior. 24 hours after the last behavioral testing, brains were collected and analyzed for aromatase expression and vasotocinergic innervation in the medial preoptic nucleus. The expression of RCSM was activated by T and to a lesser extent by DES and PPT but not by the ERβagonist DPN. In parallel, T fully restored the complete sequence of copulation, DES was partially active and the specific activation of ERα or ERβ only resulted in a very low frequency of mount attempts in few subjects. T increased the volume of the medial preoptic nucleus as measured by the dense cluster of aromatase-immunoreactive cells and the density of the vasotocinergic innervation within this nucleus. DES had only a weak action on vasotocinergic fibers and the two specific ER agonists did not affect these neural responses. Simultaneous activation of both receptors or treatments with higher doses may be required to fully activate sexual behavior and the associated neurochemical events. PMID:21533185

  13. Japanese and English Sentence Reading Comprehension and Writing Systems: An fMRI Study of First and Second Language Effects on Brain Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Hasegawa, Mihoko; Just, Marcel A.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation from native Japanese (L1) readers reading hiragana (syllabic) and kanji (logographic) sentences, and English as a second language (L2). Kanji showed more activation than hiragana in right-hemisphere occipito-temporal lobe areas associated with visuospatial…

  14. The Japanese experience with the Blue Book and subsequent activities in environmental biosafety of GM crops.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    The Blue Book made a big contribution to the development of the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) guidelines established in 1991 for almost all of the basic issues. However, the MAFF guidelines could not sufficiently cover some important areas that the Blue Book addressed well, such as potential consequences. This gap has been recovered substantially by a new law established in 2003. Japan still faces several important issues, including assessment of stacked products, potential consequences, comparative assessment, assessment of imported GM commodities and movement of concerned groups. PMID:17640516

  15. Knockdown, residual, and antifeedant activity of pyrethroids and home landscape bioinsecticides against Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Linden foliage.

    PubMed

    Baumler, Rebecca E; Potter, Daniel A

    2007-04-01

    Residual toxicity and leaf protection capability of five pyrethroids, professional and home garden azadirachtin formulations, and six other bioinsecticides for the home landscape were evaluated against the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), on linden, Tilia cordata L. Capacity of intoxicated beetles to recover and subsequently feed and disperse also was evaluated to provide insight on activity characteristics of the different compounds. Intact shoots were sprayed and left in the field for varying intervals before being challenged with beetles in no-choice and choice tests. All pyrethroids except permethrin gave greater leaf protection, knockdown, and kill than did carbaryl, the standard, after 14 d of weathering. Deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and lamda-cyhalothrin gave a high level of protection for at least 19 d, and azadirachtin (Azatin XL) deterred feeding in choice tests for as long as 14 d. Home garden formulations containing pyrethrins in canola oil (Pyola) or azadiractin (Neem-Away) gave good short-term (< 3-d) protection. Formulations of capsaicin, rotenone + pyrethrins, kaolin particle film, D-limonene, or garlic extract were ineffective, the latter two formulations being highly phytotoxic to linden. Results of this study should help support updating of guidelines for insecticidal control of Japanese beetles. PMID:17461070

  16. The Nonacademic Curriculum of the Japanese Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Japanese nursery school and kindergarten activities are designed to facilitate the socialization of Japanese children. The culture of the home and the culture of the school (and by extension the rest of Japanese society) are so different from each other that it is believed the open and unselfconscious help of the education system is necessary to…

  17. The Effects of Pragmatic Consciousness-Raising Activities on the Development of Pragmatic Awareness and Use of Hearsay Evidential Markers for Learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narita, Ritsuko

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of pragmatic consciousness-raising (PCR) activities in the L2 pragmatic acquisition of hearsay evidential markers by learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). PCR is essentially an inductive approach to facilitating awareness of how language forms are used appropriately in a given context.…

  18. Modes of Governmentality in an Online Space: A Case Study of Blog Activities in an Advanced Level Japanese-as-a-Foreign-Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko M.; Sato, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the validity of the incorporation of online communication in language education classes as a practice free of power politics. By examining blog activities in an advanced-level Japanese-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom at a university in the USA, we show that the blog's postings and readers' comments evoke certain modes of…

  19. Levels of enzyme activities in six lysosomal storage diseases in Japanese neonates determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mashima, Ryuichi; Sakai, Eri; Kosuga, Motomichi; Okuyama, Torayuki

    2016-12-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are caused by defective enzyme activities in lysosomes, characterized by the accumulation of glycolipids, oligosaccharides, mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and other biological substances. Accumulating evidence has suggested that early detection of individuals with LSDs, followed by the immediate initiation of appropriate therapy during the presymptomatic period, usually results in better therapeutic outcomes. The activities of individual enzymes are measured using fluorescent substrates. However, the simultaneous determination of multiple enzyme activities has been awaited in neonatal screening of LSDs because the prevalence of individual LSDs is rare. In this study, the activities of six enzymes associated with LSDs were examined with 6-plex enzyme assay using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The accumulation of enzyme products was almost linear for 0-20 h at 37 °C. Dried blood spots (DBSs) provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were used for quality control (QC). The intraday and interday coefficient of variance values were < 25%. The enzyme activities of healthy individuals were higher than those of LSD-confirmed individuals. These results suggest that the levels of enzyme activities of six LSDs in a Japanese population were comparable to those of a recent report [Elliott et al. Mol Genet Metab 118 (2016) 304-309], providing additional evidence that the 6-plex LSD enzyme assay is a reproducible analytical procedure for neonatal screening. PMID:27625992

  20. Isolation of a ribonuclease with antiproliferative and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from Japanese large brown buckwheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Susu; Yan, Juan; Ye, Xiujuan; Wu, Zujian; Ng, Tzibun

    2015-03-01

    A ribonuclease, with a molecular mass of 22.5 kDa and an N-terminal sequence exhibiting resemblance to previously isolated buckwheat storage proteins and allergens, was isolated from Japanese large brown buckwheat seeds. The ribonuclease was purified using a simple protocol that comprised ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Superdex 75. The ribonuclease exhibited low activity toward poly U, lower activity toward poly C, and very low activity toward poly A and poly G. The enzyme was activated upon exposure to 10 mM of Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) ions but was inhibited by Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) ions at the same concentration. The optimum pH and optimum temperature for the enzyme were pH 9 and 60 °C, respectively. It inhibited proliferation of HepG2 hepatoma and MCF 7 breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 79.2 and 63.8 μM, respectively. It potently inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity with an IC50 of 48 μM. However, there were no antifungal and mitogenic activities. PMID:25503363

  1. [New challenge for social activities in the Japanese Society of Child Neurology--establishment of Social Activity and Public Relations Committee: introductory remarks].

    PubMed

    Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Konishi, Yukuo

    2004-05-01

    The Japanese Society of Child Neurology newly established Social Activity and Public Relations Committee for the purpose of flexible response to the social event publicity. The committee consists of more than 36 members and is divided into the following sub-committees: Sub-committee 1 is intended to support the management and care of patients with developmental disabilities from infancy to adolescence, Sub-committee 2 devoted to the acquisition of research grants and the communication of basic scientific research, and Sub-committee 3 to coordinate and support medical-educational relationship. These three sub-committees achieved many of their goals during their stated first year of existence. PMID:15176583

  2. Qualification of a cyanate ester epoxy blend supplied by Japanese industry for the ITER TF coil insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopec, R.; Humer, K.; Fillunger, H.; Maix, R. K.; Weber, H. W.; Knaster, J.; Savary, F.

    2012-06-01

    During the last years, two cyanate ester epoxy blends supplied by European and US industry have been successfully qualified for the ITER TF coil insulation. The results of the qualification of a third CE blend supplied by Industrial Summit Technology (IST, Japan) will be presented in this paper. Sets of test samples were fabricated exactly under the same conditions as used before. The reinforcement of the composite consists of wrapped R-glass / polyimide tapes, which are vacuum pressure impregnated with the resin. The mechanical properties of this material were characterized prior to and after reactor irradiation to a fast neutron fluence of 2×1022m-2 (E>0.1 MeV), i.e. twice the ITER design fluence. Static and dynamic tensile as well as static short beam shear tests were carried out at 77 K. In addition, stress strain relations were recorded to determine the Young's modulus at room temperature and at 77 K. The results are compared in detail with the previously qualified materials from other suppliers.

  3. An overview of Japanese occupational health.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, M R; Frumkin, H

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Japanese occupational health and evaluates the current situation from three perspectives. Major occupational health hazards are assessed using four sources of data, showing patterns similar to those found in other advanced industrial societies. Institutional structures for occupational health policy are then examined, illustrating strengths and weaknesses of the Japanese legal and administrative systems. Trade union activities are presented, indicating the constraints of enterprise unions, and the tendency for a greater orientation toward compensation than prevention. Significant occupational health problems persist among marginal workers in Japan, including women and various minority groups. The analysis demonstrates a record for occupational health in Japan considerably more mixed than the conventional view. PMID:2968056

  4. Antiviral Activity of a Novel Compound CW-33 against Japanese Encephalitis Virus through Inhibiting Intracellular Calcium Overload.

    PubMed

    Huang, Su-Hua; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chen, Chao-Jung; Liu, Yu-Ching; Wang, Ching-Ying; Ping, Chia-Fong; Lin, Yu-Fong; Huang, An-Cheng; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has five genotypes (I, II, III, IV, and V). JEV genotype I circulates widely in some Asian countries. However, current JEV vaccines based on genotype III strains show low neutralizing capacities against genotype I variants. In addition, JE has no specific treatment, except a few supportive treatments. Compound CW-33, an intermediate synthesized derivative of furoquinolines, was investigated for its antiviral activities against JEV in this study. CW-33 exhibited the less cytotoxicity to Syrian baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) and human medulloblastoma (TE761) cells. CW-33 dose-dependently reduced the cytopathic effect and apoptosis of JEV-infected cells. Supernatant virus yield assay pinpointed CW-33 as having potential anti-JEV activity with IC50 values ranging from 12.7 to 38.5 μM. Time-of-addition assay with CW-33 indicated that simultaneous and post-treatment had no plaque reduction activity, but continuous and simultaneous treatments proved to have highly effective antiviral activity, with IC50 values of 32.7 and 48.5 μM, respectively. CW-33 significantly moderated JEV-triggered Ca(2+) overload, which correlated with the recovery of mitochondria membrane potential as well as the activation of Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT1 signals in treated infected cells. Phosphopeptide profiling by LC-MS/MS revealed that CW-33 upregulated proteins from the enzyme modulator category, such as protein phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2), Rho GTPase-activating protein 35, ARF GTPase-activating protein GIT2, and putative 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 2. These enzyme modulators identified were associated with the activation of Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT1 signals. Meanwhile, I-2 treatment substantially inhibited the apoptosis of JEV-infected cells. The results demonstrated that CW-33 exhibited a significant potential in the development of anti-JEV agents. PMID:27563890

  5. Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263

  6. Climate change impact on economical and industrial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, S.; Bernardara, P.; Donat, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is under way and impacts can already be observed and have to be expected for the future, even if mitigation measures can be implemented. A number of economical and industrial activities are influenced by or even depend on the climatic conditions. Hence, changing climate has implications for those activities, and adaptation to the changing environmental conditions may be required. This presentation gives an overview of different studies investigating climate change impacts on the economical and industrial sector, as well as related adaptation actions. This includes investigations of climate impacts on agriculture, tourism, insurance risk,design of protection of industrial utilities against flood, and electricity production. Further studies investigate the mitigation of CO2 emissions by using renewable energy generation and the use of alternative building materials.

  7. Space Industrialization: Manufacturing and Construction Activities. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Charles H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how space industrialization will provide direct benefits for our nation and will transfer technology to the many diverse areas of human activity. Examples are the development of the Space Shuttle, the Space Studies Institute, and the LS Society (advocates for colonizing space). (NRJ)

  8. CONSIDERATIONS IN GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF COMBINED INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to examine the use of activated carbon in reducing the content of biologically resistant organic compounds in a combined industrial wastewater treatment system. The invvestigation was conducted in two stages: (1) characterize organic priority pol...

  9. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC) counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48) and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94). Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1) (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010) and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p < 0.001) and lower HDL cholesterol (55 ± 2 vs. 60 ± 1 mg/dl, p = 0.031) as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600) and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index < 600). Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p < 0.001; 2166 ± 86 vs. 827 ± 62 pg/ml, p = 0.005) than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437). In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p < 0.001) or light (6829 ± 352/μl, p = 0.001) smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl). There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158). Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male

  10. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  11. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  12. Japanese Characters in Written Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James H.

    From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…

  13. The time-course of lexical activation in Japanese morphographic word recognition: evidence for a character-driven processing model.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Koji; Libben, Gary; Dijkstra, Ton; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This lexical decision study with eye tracking of Japanese two-kanji-character words investigated the order in which a whole two-character word and its morphographic constituents are activated in the course of lexical access, the relative contributions of the left and the right characters in lexical decision, the depth to which semantic radicals are processed, and how nonlinguistic factors affect lexical processes. Mixed-effects regression analyses of response times and subgaze durations (i.e., first-pass fixation time spent on each of the two characters) revealed joint contributions of morphographic units at all levels of the linguistic structure with the magnitude and the direction of the lexical effects modulated by readers' locus of attention in a left-to-right preferred processing path. During the early time frame, character effects were larger in magnitude and more robust than radical and whole-word effects, regardless of the font size and the type of nonwords. Extending previous radical-based and character-based models, we propose a task/decision-sensitive character-driven processing model with a level-skipping assumption: Connections from the feature level bypass the lower radical level and link up directly to the higher character level. PMID:23713954

  14. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  15. Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and sleep/wake patterns of Japanese elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Oka, Yasunori; Suzuki, Shuhei; Inoue, Yuich

    2008-01-01

    Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and their impact on sleep/wake patterns were assessed in 509 elementary school children (6-12 years of age; 252 males and 257 females). Television viewing, playing video games, and surfing the Internet had negative impact on sleep/wake parameters. Moreover, presence of a television set or video game in the child's bedroom increased their activity before bedtime. Time to return home later than 8 p.m. from after-school activity also had a negative impact on sleep/wake patterns. Health care practitioners should be aware of the potential negative impact of television, video games, and the Internet before bedtime, and also the possibility that late after-school activity can disturb sleep/wake patterns. PMID:18853306

  16. American, Chinese, and Japanese Students' Acceptance of Their Parents' Values about Academic and Social Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chuansheng

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in students' acceptance of their parents' values about education and social activities. It also examines the relation between acceptance of values and such factors as type of values, knowledge of parental values, mathematics achievement, and psychological well-being. Participants were over 3,000…

  17. Introduction to a Dubbing Activity for a College First-Year Japanese Language Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    This case study presents a description and outline of a dubbing activity in which students utilized their basic linguistic skills holistically. Authentic materials such as television dramas and feature films are "a rich repository of various speech acts, lexicon and linguistic emotivity" (Koyama, 2009) and as such have the potential to…

  18. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. PMID:25153870

  19. Effects of PCBs on liver ultrastructure and monooxygenase activities in Japanese quail

    SciTech Connect

    Stouvenakers, N.; Kremers, P.

    1996-05-01

    The effect of environmental pollutants such as PCBs and DDT on avian species is well documented. It is proven that chronic high level PCB intoxication perturbs calcium metabolism in birds, affecting eggshell thickness. PCBs have an impact on the liver. which accumulates high levels of toxicants. These induce drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in quail (Coturnix coturnix), herring gull (larus argentatus), and partridge (Prdix perdix). As these enzymes can degrade endogeneous molecules such as steroids, xenobiotics like PCBs can severely hinder birds` reproductive performance. PCBs induce damage such as regression of the testes, decreased sperm concentration, and altered embryonic development resulting in death or malformation of chicks. More ever, ultrastructural alterations linked with induction of these enzymes have been observed in the livers of PCB-contaminated chickens and ducks. This study examines the effects of Aroclor 1254 on liver morphology and glycogen content in quail, and related morphological modification to liver monoxygenase activities. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Circulating interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 concentrations are closely associated with γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activity in middle-aged Japanese men without obvious cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Misaki, Yasumi; Miyauchi, Rie; Takabe, Satsuki; Shimada, Masaya; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Ichikawa, Yoko; Goda, Toshinao

    2011-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 expressions are known to be induced by oxidant stress. In the present study, we examined the relationships between these interleukins and the activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP), which was recently reported as a source of oxidant stress production, in the circulating blood of middle-aged Japanese men without obvious cardiovascular diseases. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 317 Japanese men without obvious cardiovascular diseases aged 40 to 69 years (mean ± SD, 58.6 ± 7.6 years) who participated in health checkups in Japan. We analyzed their clinical parameters in serum, lifestyle factors, and plasma IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations. We compared the relationships between these interleukin concentrations and the clinical parameters and lifestyle factors by Spearman correlation coefficients. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses for interleukins based on the other parameters and γ-GTP, which were classified into 3 groups according to the concentrations, were performed. Interleukin-1β and IL-6 concentrations were closely associated with γ-GTP activity but less associated with alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities by Spearman correlation coefficients. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses showed that γ-GTP activity was the explanatory variable for elevated IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations. As natural logarithms, the IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations were estimated to be 1.734- and 1.157-fold higher, respectively, in subjects with high γ-GTP activity ranges than in subjects with a low γ-GTP activity range. The present results show that circulating IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations are strongly and independently associated with γ-GTP activity in middle-aged Japanese men without obvious cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20934730

  1. Handling Japanese without a Japanese Operating System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatasa, Kazumi; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The Macintosh HyperCard environment has become a popular platform for Japanese language courseware because of its flexibility and ease of programing. This project created Japanese bitmap font files for the JIS Levels 1 and 2, and writing XFCNs for font manipulation, Japanese kana input, and answer correction. (12 references) (Author/LB)

  2. [Activities for laboratory medicine support after the Great East Japan Earthquake by the Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hideo; Goto, Kenji; Nagasawa, Mitsuaki; Ohana, Noboru; Okuda, Yuko; Yamada, Osamu; Yamazaki, Ieharu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Goda, Takashi; Nokoshimatsu, Naoki; Minowa, Masakazu; Suwabe, Akira; Shimetani, Naoto

    2011-12-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a tragic tsunami and resulted in serious damage to north region of Japan on March 11, 2011. The Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine, JSLM launched an ad hoc Committee to support Laboratory Medicine affairs in the affected area. We expected that laboratory testing demands would increase during the weeks following the disaster. We decided to support the use of Point-of-Care Testing. Many POCT devices use battery-powered analyzers. This is definite advantage for their use in areas with limited access to power and water supplies. We contacted many companies about the possibility of providing POCT devices, IVD reagents and/or any laboratory supplies including disposable materials. Finally, forty companies agreed to support this project and we received list of reagents materials for more than one hundred IVD tests. We entered this information on our web site and continued to update it as additional support was received. Once a request of support was received, communication were made to confirm the amount of material, the method of shipping/receipt and if any specific training that would be required for its use at the testing site. Also, we dispatched volunteer Medical Technologists for eight weeks to assist in the laboratory work. Some of the crucial points in recruiting volunteer laboratory professions are expenses and accommodations. We prepared not only accommodations but also transportation methods and covered all expenses including insurance and meals. Our relief activities have shown that Laboratory Medicine and Medical Technologists are useful in disaster-affected area. PMID:22338917

  3. Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Nabeshima, T; Buerano, C C

    2015-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an inflammation of the central nervous system in humans and animals, specifically horses and cattle. The disease, which can sometimes be fatal, is caused by the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), of which there are five genotypes (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The transmission cycle of the virus involves pigs and wild birds as virus amplifiers and mosquitoes as vectors for transferring the virus between amplifying hosts and to dead- end hosts, i.e. humans, horses and cattle. In horses and cattle the disease is usually asymptomatic, but when clinical signs do occur they include fever, decreased appetite, frothing at the mouth, rigidity of the legs and recumbency, and neurological signs, such as convulsive fits, circling, marked depression and disordered consciousness. In pigs, it can cause abortion and stillbirths. At present, the virus is detected in a wide area covering eastern and southern Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. JEV RNA has also been detected in Italy, first in dead birds in 1997 and 2000 and then in mosquitoes in 2010. Genotype shift, i.e. a change of genotype from genotype 3 to genotype 1, has occurred in some countries, namely Japan, South Korea, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam. Laboratory methods are available for confirming the causative agent of the disease. There are control measures to prevent or minimise infection and, among them, vaccination is one of the most important and one which should be adopted in endemic and epidemic areas. PMID:26601447

  4. Perspective of surface active agents in baking industry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Asif; Arshad, Nazish; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zahoor, Tahir; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Afreen, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Different researchers have previously used surfactants for improving bread qualities and revealed that these compounds result in improving the quality of dough and bread by influencing dough strength, tolerance, uniform crumb cell size, and improve slicing characteristics and gas retention. The objective of this review is to highlight the areas where surfactants are most widely used particularly in the bread industries, their role and mechanism of interaction and their contribution to the quality characteristics of the dough and bread. This review reveals some aspects of surface-active agents regarding its role physiochemical properties of dough that in turn affect the bread characteristics by improving its sensory quality and storage stability. PMID:24188269

  5. Using Sociocultural Perspectives: The Dynamic Process of Designing and Implementing Class Activities in an Online Japanese Language Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibakawa, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    The study documented the dynamic process of designing and implementing instructional interventions in an online course of Japanese language and culture at a two-year college. The results have impact in three distinct areas: pedagogical, theoretical, and methodological. First, the interventions that encouraged student agency with rich…

  6. Bacterial vectors for active immunotherapy reach clinical and industrial stages

    PubMed Central

    Le Gouëllec, Audrey; Chauchet, Xavier; Polack, Benoit; Buffat, Laurent; Toussaint, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Active immunotherapy based on live attenuated bacterial vectors has matured in terms of industrial development and develops through a combination of three phenomena. First, active immunotherapy that stimulates an antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell immune response has become a reality after several years of work. Second, there is still a need to identify vectors that can deliver antigens to the cytosol of antigen-presenting cells in vivo. Third, the recent progress in the understanding of bacterial lifestyle and in developing genetic engineering tools has enabled the design of bioengineered bugs that are capable of delivering antigens. Here, we review the mechanisms by which clinical bacterial vectors deliver antigens into the cytosol of antigen-presenting cells and summarize the development strategy of the three identified firms in this field. PMID:22894945

  7. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  8. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2005-06-01

    Plant essential oils from 29 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with plant material, exposure time, and concentration. Good insecticidal activity against the Japanese termite was achived with essential oils of Melaleuca dissitiflora, Melaleuca uncinata, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus polybractea, Eucalyptus radiata, Eucalyptus dives, Eucalyptus globulus, Orixa japonica, Cinnamomum cassia, Allium cepa, Illicium verum, Evodia officinalis, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Cacalia roborowskii, Juniperus chinensis var. horizontalis, Juniperus chinensis var. kaizuka, clove bud, and garlic applied at 7.6 microL/L of air. Over 90% mortality after 3 days was achieved with O. japonica essential oil at 3.5 microL/L of air. E. citriodora, C. cassia, A. cepa, I. verum, S. tenuifolia, C. roborowskii, clove bud, and garlic oils at 3.5 microL/L of air were highly toxic 1 day after treatment. At 2.0 microL/L of air concentration, essential oils of I. verum, C. roborowskik, S. tenuifolia, A. cepa, clove bud, and garlic gave 100% mortality within 2 days of treatment. Clove bud and garlic oils showed the most potent antitermitic activity among the plant essential oils. Garlic and clove bud oils produced 100% mortality at 0.5 microL/L of air, but this decreased to 42 and 67% after 3 days of treatment at 0.25 microL/L of air, respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of three major compounds from garlic oil and two from clove bud oils. These five compounds from two essential oils were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied with compound and dose. Diallyl trisulfide was the most toxic, followed by diallyl disulfide, eugenol, diallyl sulfide, and beta-caryophyllene. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite

  9. 2015 Summary Report on Industrial and Regulatory Engagement Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Kenneth David

    2015-09-01

    activities and future plans were made to Arizona Public Service, Exelon, Duke Energy, Pacific Gas & Electric, SCANA, Southern Nuclear, South Texas Project, STARS Alliance, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Xcel. Discussions were also held on the pathway goals and activities with major industry support organizations during FY 2102, including the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), the Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and the Electric Power Research Institute. The Advanced II&C Pathway work was presented at five major industry conferences and Informal discussions were held with key NRC managers at industry conferences. In addition, discussions were held with NRC senior managers on digital regulatory issues through participation on the NEI Digital I&C Working Group. Meetings were held with major industry suppliers and consultants, to explore opportunities for collaboration and to provide a means of pilot project technology transfer. In the international area, discussions were held with Electricite’ de France (EdF) concerning possible collaboration in the area NPP configuration control using intelligent wireless devices.

  10. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kurosu, Takeshi; Koketsu, Ritsuko Kubota; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. PMID:27462140

  11. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kurosu, Takeshi; Koketsu, Ritsuko Kubota; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. PMID:27462140

  12. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  13. Comparative proteomic and transcriptomic approaches to address the active role of GA4 in Japanese apricot flower bud dormancy release

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Weibing; Gao, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Hormones are closely associated with dormancy in deciduous fruit trees, and gibberellins (GAs) are known to be particularly important. In this study, we observed that GA4 treatment led to earlier bud break in Japanese apricot. To understand better the promoting effect of GA4 on the dormancy release of Japanese apricot flower buds, proteomic and transcriptomic approaches were used to analyse the mechanisms of dormancy release following GA4 treatment, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling, respectively. More than 600 highly reproducible protein spots (P<0.05) were detected and, following GA4 treatment, 38 protein spots showed more than a 2-fold difference in expression, and 32 protein spots were confidently identified according to the databases. Compared with water treatment, many proteins that were associated with energy metabolism and oxidation–reduction showed significant changes after GA4 treatment, which might promote dormancy release. We observed that genes at the mRNA level associated with energy metabolism and oxidation–reduction also played an important role in this process. Analysis of the functions of the identified proteins and genes and the related metabolic pathways would provide a comprehensive proteomic and transcriptomic view of the coordination of dormancy release after GA4 treatment in Japanese apricot flower buds. PMID:24014872

  14. Japanese encephalitis virus NS2B-NS3 protease induces caspase 3 activation and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Shiu, Su-Lian; Chuang, Pei-Hsin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Wan, Lei; Lan, Yu-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2009-07-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes severe neurological diseases with a high fatality rate. Clinical, neurophysiological and radiological features of Japanese encephalitis JE patients showed that JEV infection resulted in widespread involvement of the nervous system, including thalamus, basal ganglia, brainstem, cerebellum, cerebral cortex and spinal cord. In this study, we characterized the apoptotic effect of JEV infection and its viral proteins on the TE671 human medulloblastoma cells. JEV replicated in TE671 cells, inducing caspase 3-mediated apoptosis in MOI- and time-dependent manners. Of viral proteins, co-expression of JEV NS3 protease with NS2B cofactor significantly induced higher degrees of apoptosis and triggered higher caspase 3 activities than single expression of E, NS1, NS2B or NS3 protease in human medulloblastoma cells. Moreover, JEV NS2B-NS3 protease induced reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of mitochondrial cytochrome C, which were responsible for the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. In addition, the production of reactive oxygen species production and activation of ASK1-p38 MAPK signaling pathway might be associated with JEV NS2B-NS3 protease-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. The results demonstrated that the JEV infection and the co-expression of JEV NS3 protease with NS2B cofactor induced caspase 3 activation and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cells, being valuable insight for cellular and molecular levels of JEV pathogenesis. PMID:19463724

  15. [Inhibitory activity of hydrosols prepared from 18 Japanese herbs of weak aromatic flavor against filamentous formation and growth of Candida albicans].

    PubMed

    Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Leaf hydrosols prepared from 18 weakly aromatic Japanese herbs used traditionally were tested on the filamentation-inhibitory activity of Candida albicans. These hydrosols were divided into two classes, A and B. The inhibitory activity of 13 hydrosols belonging to class A was markedly altered depending on the drying process of the parent herbs. On the other hand, the remaining 5 hydrosols belonging to class B showed no significant change on the composition and inhibitory activity upon drying. The change of the bioactivity was correlated with the change and concentration of the respective major constituents. Especially strong bioactivity shown by hydrosols of dried Houttuynia cordata and fresh Prunus pendula was ascribed to n-capric acid and cyanide, respectively. Eight hydrosols exhibited weak or moderate activity against the growth of C. albicans. PMID:22467129

  16. Awareness and correlates of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women: results from an internet-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although considerable evidence has demonstrated that physical activity is associated with breast cancer prevention, few studies have assessed the level of awareness of this association. Awareness is a key first step to successful of behavior change. Increasing awareness may contribute to promote physical activity and prevent breast cancer at the population level. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of awareness about the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women. Methods 1,000 Japanese women aged 20–69 years (mean age: 44.3 ± 13.4 years) who responded to an internet-based cross-sectional survey. Awareness of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention, knowledge of breast cancer (symptom, risk factor, screening), exposure to information about physical activity and cancer, a self-reported physical activity, and sociodemographic variables (age, marital status, having a child, education level, employment status, and household income) were obtained. Force-entry logistic regression analysis was used. Results The prevalence of awareness was 31.5% (95% CI: 28.6-34.4). Factors significantly associated with awareness included sociodemographic variables, exposure to information, and knowledge of breast cancer. Being married (AOR, 95% CI: 1.75, 1.05–2.92) was positively related to awareness, while having children (0.65, 0.36–0.86) was negatively related. College graduates or those with higher levels of education (1.50, 1.01–2.22) were significantly more likely to be aware than those who had not graduated high school. Moreover, exposure to information (2.11, 1.51–2.95), and high knowledge of symptoms (2.43, 1.75–3.36) were positively associated with awareness. Finally, low knowledge of risk factors (0.30, 0.22–0.40) was negatively associated with awareness. Conclusions Japanese women through internet-based study were poorly aware of the role of physical activity in breast

  17. Reinspiring Japanese Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Shuji

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of the history of modern Japanese education, its early modernization, and the policy of intertwining the Japanese ideology with Western technology. Proposes the establishment of a new Buddhist-inspired philosophy of education. (GLR)

  18. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  19. Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

  20. Bullying in Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    Noting that although many Western educators praise the Japanese educational system because of its students' academic achievements, schools in Japan have developed severe and prevalent problems with student bullying. This paper examines the problem of bullying in Japanese schools. Part 1 of the paper reviews bullying incidents in Japanese schools…

  1. Hemato-nationalism: the past, present, and future of "Japanese blood".

    PubMed

    Robertson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, citizenship is based on the principle of jus sanguinis. Naturalized citizenship is a possibility, but there is a tacit understanding at large that really real, or "pure," Japaneseness is qualified (and circumscribed) by "blood" (chi, ketsu). Blood, in this sense, is understood as an active agent responsible for catalyzing an ethos, or a national-cultural identity. For many Japanese today, blood is understood in terms of blood type, which, despite its controversial serological history, prevails as a popular mode of horoscopy, match-making, and personality analysis. I interrogate the compelling fiction of something called "Japanese blood"-a multi-authored "hemato-narrative" that has been nurtured and sustained for more than a century. To this end, I assemble a comprehensive account of the constructive and deconstructive aspects of blood and blood type that considers the cuteness industry, eugenics, blood donation, and national identity. PMID:22515153

  2. Summary of mineral industry activities in Colorado. Part I: coal

    SciTech Connect

    Pascoe, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Coal production for 1981 was a record, with production at 19,701,496 tons of coal mined and reported to the Division of Mines. This was a 4.95% increase over 1980. Statewide Divisional efforts to support a practical type of health and safety training program while encouraging skill education appropriate to mining needs, saw extensive accomplishment in 1981. The Division gave direct or monetary support through training grant funds, largely used for reimbursed tuition from strategically located state vocational schools who taught on campus as well as at mine sites. Total miner training reported by area schools to the Division of Mines indicates that 8408 students received 86,251 hours of classroom and on-the-job training. It is hoped that the education and training programs throughout the state will be continued in an effort to educate both the new and old miners. We believe this is the best approach to the coal industry's never ending task of reducing both lost-time and fatal accidents. Coal mine certification in all categories totaled 780 certificates issued. This was a decrease from 1980, and will probably decrease again in 1982 with the initiation of the $25.00 fee for each examination. Coal mining activity is reported by district.

  3. Assessment of long-range correlation in animal behavior time series: The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Flesia, Ana Georgina; Gleiser, Raquel M.; Perillo, María A.; Marin, Raul H.

    2013-12-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a method that has been frequently used to determine the presence of long-range correlations in human and animal behaviors. However, according to previous authors using statistical model systems, in order to correctly use DFA different aspects should be taken into account such as: (1) the establishment by hypothesis testing of the absence of short term correlation, (2) an accurate estimation of a straight line in the log-log plot of the fluctuation function, (3) the elimination of artificial crossovers in the fluctuation function, and (4) the length of the time series. Taking into consideration these factors, herein we evaluated the presence of long-range correlation in the temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus). In our study, modeling the data with the general autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model, we rejected the hypothesis of short-range correlations (d=0) in all cases. We also observed that DFA was able to distinguish between the artificial crossover observed in the temporal pattern of locomotion of Japanese quail and the crossovers in the correlation behavior observed in mosquito larvae locomotion. Although the test duration can slightly influence the parameter estimation, no qualitative differences were observed between different test durations.

  4. Educational Activities within Business-Industry: Implications for Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, David R.; Nothom, John W.

    A study was made on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, of types and levels of training being conducted by business-industry; extent of business-industry inplant programs; costs of training programs; and opinions as to expectations for public education. Personal interviews were conducted in 23 large (more than 250 employees) organizations, and information…

  5. Active Learning for Creating Innovators: Employability Skills beyond Industrial Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology initiated a project entitled "Improving Higher Education for Industrial Needs" in which 147 universities have participated. One of the main purposes of this project is to identify what industrial needs and help develop university students' employability…

  6. A Comparison of Maternal Care and Infant Behavior in Japanese-American, American, and Japanese Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, William; Frost, Lois

    Previous studies have shown that American mothers, in contrast to Japanese, do more lively chatting to their babies, and that as a result, the American babies have a generally higher level of vocalization and, particularly, they respond with greater amounts of happy vocalization and gross motor activity than do Japanese babies. Thus, it appears…

  7. The Japanese Quality Control Circle: Why It Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Susumu

    1991-01-01

    The competitiveness of Japanese industry is in part because of their quality circles. Despite the West's interest in most Japanese business practices, quality circles have been difficult to transplant. This may be a result of misconceptions about their nature and the erroneous idea that workers' motivation is sociocultural, whereas in fact it is…

  8. 78 FR 42821 - Agency Information Collection (Technical Industry Standards) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Technical Industry Standards) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY... 852.211-75), Technical Industry Standards. OMB Control Number: 2900-0586. Type of Review: Revision of a currently approved collection. Abstract: VAAR provision 852.211-72, Technical Industry...

  9. 75 FR 13209 - Proposed Information Collection (Technical Industry Standards) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Technical Industry Standards) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... Regulation (VAAR) Provision 852.211-75, Technical Industry Standards. OMB Control Number: 2900-0586. Type of... Industry Standards, requires items offered for sale to VA under the solicitation conform to...

  10. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters. PMID:26547320

  11. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  12. Lower physical activity is a risk factor for a clustering of metabolic risk factors in non-obese and obese Japanese subjects: the Takahata study.

    PubMed

    Kaino, Wataru; Daimon, Makoto; Sasaki, Satoshi; Karasawa, Shigeru; Takase, Kaoru; Tada, Kyouko; Wada, Kiriko; Kameda, Wataru; Susa, Shinji; Oizumi, Toshihide; Fukao, Akira; Kubota, Isao; Kayama, Takamasa; Kato, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    In several countries including Japan, people without obesity but with a clustering of metabolic risk factors (MetRFs) were not considered to have the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Here, we examined whether lifestyle characteristics differed between non-obese and obese subjects with or without a clustering of MetRFs. From a population-based cross-sectional study of Japanese subjects aged ≥ 40 years, 1,601 subjects (age: 61.9 ± 10.3 years; 710/891 men/women) were recruited. Physical activity status and daily nutritional intake were estimated using questionnaires. A clustering of MetRFs was defined based on the presence of at least two non-essential risk factors for the diagnosis of the MetS in Japan. Energy intake was not higher in subjects with a clustering of MetRFs compared with those without. Among men, energy expenditure at work was significantly lower in non-obese (9.0 ± 8.2 vs. 11.3 ± 9.3 metabolic equivalents (METs), P = 0.025) and obese (9.0 ± 7.9 vs. 11.6 ± 9.4 METs, P = 0.017) subjects with a clustering of MetRFs than in those without. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that energy expenditure at work was significantly associated with a clustering of MetRFs after adjusting for possible confounding factors including total energy intake. The ORs (per 1 METs) were 0.970 (95% CI, 0.944-0.997; P = 0.032) in non-obese men and 0.962 (0.926- 0.999; P = 0.043) in obese men. Similar associations were not observed in women. In Japanese males, lower physical activity, but not excessive energy intake, is a risk factor for a clustering of MetRFs independent of their obesity status. PMID:23337516

  13. Leisure time physical activity and subsequent physical and mental health functioning among midlife Finnish, British and Japanese employees: a follow-up study in three occupational cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Jouni; Sabia, Séverine; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Tatsuse, Takashi; Yamada, Masaaki; Sekine, Michikazu; Lallukka, Tea

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine whether leisure time physical activity contributes to subsequent physical and mental health functioning among midlife employees. The associations were tested in three occupational cohorts from Finland, Britain and Japan. Design Cohort study. Setting Finland, Britain and Japan. Participants Prospective employee cohorts from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (2000–2002 and 2007, n=5958), British Whitehall II study (1997–1999 and 2003–2004, n=4142) and Japanese Civil Servants Study (1998–1999 and 2003, n=1768) were used. Leisure time physical activity was classified into three groups: inactive, moderately active and vigorously active. Primary outcome measure Mean scores of physical and mental health functioning (SF-36) at follow-up were examined. Results Physical activity was associated with better subsequent physical health functioning in all three cohorts, however, with varying magnitude and some gender differences. Differences were the clearest among Finnish women (inactive: 46.0, vigorously active: 49.5) and men (inactive: 47.8, active vigorous: 51.1) and British women (inactive: 47.3, active vigorous: 50.4). In mental health functioning, the differences were generally smaller and not that clearly related to the intensity of physical activity. Emerging differences in health functioning were relatively small. Conclusions Vigorous physical activity was associated with better subsequent physical health functioning in all three cohorts with varying magnitude. For mental health functioning, the intensity of physical activity was less important. Promoting leisure time physical activity may prove useful for the maintenance of health functioning among midlife employees. PMID:26739736

  14. Lags in Training Response to Changes in Economic Activity: An Exploratory Inquiry for Five Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Ross E.; Park, Jin S.; Akdere, Mesut

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the length of time it takes training budgets in five industries to respond to changes in the demand for their services/activity and for their speed of response to changes in productive activity. The results indicate that for the industries studied, the length of lag between change in demand and median adjustment to that…

  15. Identification of novel saponins from edible seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata Blume) after treatment with wooden ashes and their nutraceutical activity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideto; Ogawa, Satoshi; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Kimura, Yasuo; Katsube, Takuya; Yokota, Kazushige

    2006-08-28

    Natural seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata Blume) contain large amounts of mixed triterpenoidal saponins called escins. Recent studies have shown that escins have several biological activities including anti-inflammatory action and inhibitory effects on the absorption of ethanol and glucose. For the edible utilization of the seeds, natural seeds are usually treated with wooden ashes to remove harshness. Here, we found the novel compounds derived from escins in the edible seeds after the food processing with wooden ashes. The instrumental analyses revealed the chemical structures of escins and the derivatives. These compounds are identified as four types of deacetylescins Ia, IIa, Ib, and IIb as well as two types of desacylescins I and II. To determine their biological activity, the purified compounds were tested for their potential nutraceutical activity. The oral glucose tolerance test in mice revealed that a single oral administration of the isolated components of deacetylescins at a dose of 100 mg/kg was clearly effective in attenuating the elevation of blood glucose levels. The inhibitory effects of escins and their derivatives were in the order of escins>deacetylescins>desacylescins. Moreover, we found the inhibitory activity of those compounds on pancreatic lipase. Escins were the most potent in inhibiting the enzyme activity, and followed by desacylescins and then deacetylescins. Taken together, our results suggest the potential usefulness of novel saponins including deacetylescins and desacylescins from edible seeds as novel sources for nutraceutical foods with anti-obese effects. PMID:16621416

  16. Heavy metal exposure, in combination with physical activity and aging, is related with oxidative stress in Japanese women from a rural agricultural community.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoyi; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Mise, Nathan; Ikegami, Akihiko; Mizuno, Atsuko; Sakamoto, Takako; Ogawa, Masanori; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between oxidative stress and heavy metal exposure (lead [Pb] and cadmium [Cd]), as well as co-factors such as physical activity and age, in Japanese women. This study was conducted with female subjects from a rural agricultural community in Japan. Subjects were asked to complete lifestyle-related questionnaires and undergo a group health examination. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and other demographic information were collected. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations. Urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry; blood samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Age, physical activity, and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations were included in structural equation modeling analysis. Two latent factors for heavy metal exposure and physical activity were produced to predict the total influence of the variables. The final model was good: CMIN/DF = 0.775, CFI = 1.000, GFI = 0.975, AGFI = 0.954, RMSEA = 0.000. 8-OHdG levels were positively associated with heavy metal exposure, physical activity, and age (standard β of path analysis: 0.33, 0.38, and 0.20, respectively). Therefore, oxidative stress is associated with both, environmental and lifestyle factors, in combination with aging. PMID:27386333

  17. Industry briefs

    SciTech Connect

    1990-11-01

    Recent nuclear industry briefs are presented. These briefs include: President Bush signs Radiation Victim Compensation Act; Japan Nuclear Fuel Completes construction of Rokkasho Enrichment Plant; Japanese vapor laser achieves 5% enrichment; US to cooperate with Hungary and Czechoslovakia on nuclear power; Soviet Union may reopen nuclear station in Armenia; despite earthquake concerns; and Japan`s Kashiwazak; Kaviwa - 2 begins commercial operation.

  18. JCII Camera Museum: A unique museum that preserves and evaluates photographic artifacts, literature and artworks focusing on the Japanese phtography and related industries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Yasunori; Shirayama, Mari

    JCII Camera Museum is a unique photographic museum having three major departments, the camera museum that collects, preserves and exhibits historically valuable cameras and camera-related produts, the photo salon that collects, preserve and exhibits various original photographic films and prints, and the library that collects, preserves and appraises photo-historical literatures including magazines, industrial histories, product catalogues and scientific papers.

  19. Lexicogrammar in the International Construction Industry: A Corpus-Based Case Study of Japanese-Hong-Kongese On-Site Interactions in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handford, Michael; Matous, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify and interpret statistically significant lexicogrammatical items that are used in on-site spoken communication in the international construction industry, initially through comparisons with reference corpora of everyday spoken and business language. Several data sources, including audio and video…

  20. Asymmetric bioreduction of activated alkenes to industrially relevant optically active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Christoph K.; Tasnádi, Gábor; Clay, Dorina; Hall, Mélanie; Faber, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Ene-reductases from the ‘Old Yellow Enzyme’ family of flavoproteins catalyze the asymmetric reduction of various α,β-unsaturated compounds at the expense of a nicotinamide cofactor. They have been applied to the synthesis of valuable enantiopure products, including chiral building blocks with broad industrial applications, terpenoids, amino acid derivatives and fragrances. The combination of these highly stereoselective biocatalysts with a cofactor recycling system has allowed the development of cost-effective methods for the generation of optically active molecules, which is strengthened by the availability of stereo-complementary enzyme homologues. PMID:22498437

  1. Supplementation with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) expressing a single alien chromosome from shallot increases the antioxidant activity of Kamaboko fish jelly paste in vitro.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Wada, Ritsuko; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Maeda, Toshimichi; Date, Rie; Tokunaga, Takushi; Kazumura, Kimiko; Shimada, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Misato; Wako, Tadayuki; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-05-01

    Kamaboko is a traditional type of processed seafood made from fish jelly paste that is unique to Japan. We supplemented Kamaboko with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with an alien monosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) and we measured in vitro the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value, an index of antioxidant activity. We also evaluated the results of sensory testing. The ORAC value of plain Kamaboko was 166±14 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g fresh weight (FW). The values of the edible Alliaceae powder, i.e., Japanese bunching onion (JBO, genome FF, 2n=2x=16) and the alien addition line of JBO carrying the 6A chromosome from shallot (FF+6A, 2n=2x+1=17), were 6,659±238 and 14,096±635 μmol TE/100 g dry weight (DW). We hypothesized that the 6A chromosome encoded the enhancement of polyphenol production. Subsequently, we created Kamaboko containing 4.8% JBO powder or 4.8% FF+6A powder. The ORAC value of each modified Kamaboko product was increased to 376±24 μmol TE/100 g FW for the JBO powder and to 460±16 μmol TE/100 g FW for the FF+6A powder, respectively. We next created Kamaboko containing 9.0% JBO powder or 9.0% FF+6A powder and the ORAC values of the respective modified Kamaboko products was increased to 671±16 and 740±21 μmol TE/100 g FW, i.e., 4.1- and 4.5-times the value of plain Kamaboko. Consequently, taking into consideration the sensory evaluation regarding taste and appearance as well, the use of Kamaboko supplemented with 4.8% FF+6A powder is recommended. PMID:24648948

  2. Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Trials of Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lili; Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the Japanese response in terms of innovation capacity and entrepreneurship enhancement under the ever-changing economic environment. Particular focus would go to the interactions among government, industry and universities in the national innovation system at a macro level, and entrepreneurship education at the institutional…

  3. Chinese Tobacco Industry Promotional Activity on the Microblog Weibo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fan; Zheng, Pinpin; Yang, Dongyun; Freeman, Becky; Fu, Hua; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. Methods Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. Results Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143) could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%), followed by ‘advertisement’ and ‘tobacco culture’ (both at 12%), ‘traditional culture’ and ‘public relations’ (both at 11%), and finally ‘social and business affairs’ (5%). 33% of posts included the words ‘cigarette’ or ‘smoking’ and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. Conclusions Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban. PMID:24914739

  4. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching industrial arts/technology education. The activities are intended to present energy…

  5. Do You Read Me? Industrial Supplement: Reading Development Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

    This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension skills of…

  6. Extensive Reading in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Day, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading (ER) program into a second semester Japanese course at the University of Hawai'i using Japanese children's literature. After summarizing the ten principles of ER, we describe how we addressed six critical issues faced while introducing ER into the course. We also discuss the outcomes…

  7. The Japanese containerless experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azuma, Hisao

    1990-01-01

    There are three sets of Japanese containerless experiments. The first is Drop dynamics research. It consists of acoustic levitation and large amplitude drop oscillation. The second is Optical materials processing in an acoustic levitation furnace. And the third is Electrostatic levitator development by two different Japanese companies.

  8. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  9. Japanese Media in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  10. Japanese Quality Control Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Kazuo

    In recent years, United States scholars with an interest in international business and organizational communication have begun to notice the success of Japanese "quality control circles." These are small groups, usually composed of seven to ten workers, who are organized at the production levels within most large Japanese factories. A typical…

  11. Japanese Elementary School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Harold W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the development of Japanese elementary education in the context of three periods of its history. Considers salient characteristics of Japanese elementary schools and teaching procedures; these include curriculum; social and moral education; classroom environment; teachers; afterschool classes; college entrance examinations; the kyoiku…

  12. Travel-acquired Japanese encephalitis and vaccination considerations.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2015-09-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious arboviral disease caused by a virus of the genus Flavivirus. Japanese encephalitis is the most common vaccine-preventable virus causing encephalitis in Asia, affecting more than 50,000 persons and leading to 15,000 fatalities per year in endemic countries. For most travelers to Asia, the risk of Japanese encephalitis infection is extremely low and depends on destination, duration of travel, season, and activities. This article reviews travel-acquired Japanese encephalitis with a focus on epidemiology and prevention in the light of the newly available options for active immunization against Japanese encephalitis which have become available, and of the increasing popularity of travels to Japanese encephalitis endemic countries. PMID:26409731

  13. Promoting physical activity and healthy eating: convergence in framing the role of industry.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Lori; Yancey, Antronette K

    2009-10-01

    This commentary addresses a little explored aspect of prevention, namely, how public health practitioners conceptualize the roles of industries whose business interests may be at odds with physical activity and eating nutrient-rich foods. Taking their cues from successful campaigns in tobacco control, many public health advocates have framed obesity as a battle with the food industry. Such framing presents problems when it exacerbates existing tensions between practitioners in nutrition and physical activity, and alienates potential fitness industry partners. Creating healthy environments requires reframing expectations of all industries that influence physical activity and inactivity. A broader view of the influence of corporate practices on physical and social environments will help both physical activity and nutrition advocates identify what they can do together, and in partnership with the business sector, to create environments that promote activity and nutritious eating. PMID:19576928

  14. Database service for Japanese Standards Information : 'KIKAKU NET'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Masayuki

    Japanese Standards Association (JSA) started the standards information database services, 'KIKAKU NET' in October 1989. In Japan, it is the only standards information database compiled based on the information and know-hows which the Association has accumulated over fifteen years and has been entrusted the project for research by Agency Industrial Science and Technology, Ministry of International Trade and Industry. It covers the domestic standards information datafile for Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS), Japanese Agricultural Standards (JAS), and some Japanese Association Standards which are related to JIS, and the foreign standards information datafile for international standards of ISO and IEC, foreign national standards, and foreign association standards. 'KIKAKU NET' is available for user's personal computer by on-line access to the host computer of distributors which have been contracted with the Association. This paper describes characteristics, contents and the system outline of 'KIKAKU NET'.

  15. Oil market and macroeconomic activity in the industrialized countries

    SciTech Connect

    Viscio, A.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    In the oil market, the price inelasticity of non-OPEC supply and demand for oil requires most of the shortrun adjustment to occur through changes in price rather than quantity. This inflexibility of quantity if compounded by the ability of OPEC as a cartel to successfully prevent its nominally quoted official price from declining during periods of excess supply. A model of the shortrun price behavior of OPEC oil, which described the behavior of producers and consumers, is derived and estimated. The resultant spot-price reaction function proves to be highly nonlinear, and oil demand must exceed a critical level of capacity before the spot price begins to rise. This model explains the upward staircasing of nominal OPEC prices. The spot price leads the official price upward. The new official price establishes a higher floor for the spot price. Simulations are used to study the effects of changes in the rate of economic growth in the industrialized countries and the level of OPEC capacity on the price and consumption of oil. The relevant shortrun relationships between the price of oil and the economy, extracted from the literature, are estimated in a two-country model representing the United States and an aggregate of the remaining major industrialized countries.

  16. 77 FR 37704 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals Surveys (40...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... published a Federal Register Notice (77 FR 6580) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB for... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals... requirements for the Industrial Minerals Surveys. This collection consists of 40 forms. The revision...

  17. The affect of industrial activities on zinc in alluvial Egyptian soil determined using neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sabour, M F; Abdel-Basset, N

    2002-07-01

    Thirty-two surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted, moderately and highly polluted soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Zn content in alluvial soils of Nile Delta in Egypt by using the delayed neutron activation analysis technique (DNAA), in the irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1). The gamma-ray spectra were recorded with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The well resolved gamma-ray peak at 1116.0 keV was efficiently used for 65Zn content determination. Zn content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 74.1 and 103.8 ppm with an average of 98.5 +/- 5.1 ppm. Zn content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 136.0 and 232.5 ppm with an average of 180.1 +/- 32.6 ppm. The highest Zn levels ranging from 240.0 and 733.0 ppm with an average of 410.3 +/- 54.4 ppm, were observed in soil samples collected from, either highly polluted agricultural soils exposed to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites. PMID:12211982

  18. A Method for Fast Assessment of OP/CB Exposure in the Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Using Combined Esterases Enzyme Activity as Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Abass, Kasim Sakran

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of different esterase activities in plasma and liver for Japanese quail and to combine determination of both carboxylesterase and cholinesterase as biochemical biomarker in order to identify the effects of carbamate and organophosphate compounds exposure. Carboxylesterase exhibits larger sensitivity to carbamate and organophosphate compounds than to cholinesterase and is present at higher levels. This permitted nature and distribution of carboxylesterase or cholinesterase to be measured. One predominant toxicological form of enzyme level constant in its patterns of motivation and inhibition with cholinesterase was identified in plasma with an apparent Michaelis constant for butyrylthiocholine iodide of 0.394 mM. Carboxylesterase activity in liver was considered by its preferential hydrolysis of the S-phenyl thioacetate. A concentration dependent decrease of carboxylesterase and cholinesterase has demonstrated during in vitro incubation of malathion, parathion, and trichlorfon in the range 0.125–2 mM, while with methomyl was in the range 0.25–4 mM. When quail (n = 15) was exposed orally for 48 h to concentrations of carbamate or organophosphate compounds of 3–200 mg/kg, the percentage inhibition of cholinesterase was in each case larger than that of carboxylesterase and reached statistical significance (P < 0.05) at lower concentrations. PMID:24527206

  19. In vitro identification of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of Geissoschizine methyl ether, an active component of the traditional Japanese medicine Yokukansan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Kushida, Hirotaka; Maruyama, Takeshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Junko; Maemura, Kazuya; Kase, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    1. Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese medicine also called kampo, which has been used to treat neurosis, insomnia, and night crying and peevishness in children. Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), a major indole alkaloid found in Uncaria hook, has been identified as a major active component of YKS with psychotropic effects. Recently, GM was reported to have a partial agonistic effect on serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. However, there is little published information on GM metabolism in humans, although several studies reported the blood kinetics of GM in rats and humans. In this study, we investigated the GM metabolic pathways and metabolizing enzymes in humans. 2. Using recombinant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and polyclonal antibodies to CYP isoforms, we found that GM was metabolized into hydroxylated, dehydrogenated, hydroxylated+dehydrogenated, demethylated and water adduct forms by some CYP isoforms. 3. The relative activity factors in human liver microsomes were calculated to determine the relative contributions of individual CYP isoforms to GM metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs). We identified CYP3A4 as the CYP isoform primarily responsible for GM metabolism in human liver microsomes. 4. These findings provide an important basis for understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GM and YKS. PMID:26337900

  20. Effect of Hempseed (Cannabis sativa sp.) Inclusion to the Diet on Performance, Carcass and Antioxidative Activity in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Cimen, Behzat; Yalcin, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of hempseed (H) on performance, carcass traits, and antioxidant activity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 192 quail with seven-days old were divided into four experimental groups with four replicates. The treatments were; i) Control diet (C, no hempseed); ii) 5% hempseed in diet (H5); iii) 10% hempseed in diet (H10); and iv) 20% hempseed in diet (H20). The body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) of quail was determined at 7, 21 and 42 d of age. At 42 d of age four quail were slaughtered and the carcass and internal organ traits were determined. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), nitric oxide (NO) and total protein were determined in the blood serum end of the experiment. The BW of the groups were not significant at 7 and 21 d, however in the 20% hempseed group BW decreased at 42 d (p<0.05). The FI and feed conversion ratio were not significant among the treatment groups. The carcass, liver, intestine and heart weight and their percentage to carcass were significantly differ in treatment groups (p<0.05). The serum MDA and NO decreased in hempseed addition (p <0.001). The serum SOD, CAT and GSH-Px were increased by hempseed supplementation (p<0.001). In conclusion, hempseed supplementation to quail diets may not improve quail performance traits but increase antioxidant activity in blood. PMID:26760931

  1. Introduction to Korean Accelerator Science and Activities in Industrial Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namkung, Won

    2012-03-01

    After 20 years of the first large-scale accelerator in Korea, the Pohang Light Source (PLS) of 2.0 GeV at POSTECH, its upgrade (PLS-II) is now under commissioning with energy of 3.0 GeV. The users' service for synchrotron radiation is scheduled in April 2012. There are five big accelerator projects in various stages of construction, namely a high-intensity proton linac of 100 MeV, the PAL-XFEL of 10-GeV, a carbon therapy cyclotron of 400 MeV/u, and rare isotope accelerators for isotope separator on-line (ISOL) and In-flight Fragmentation (IFF). There are also strong demands for industrial uses of accelerators, especially in sterilization applications. In this paper, we report the current status of accelerator projects and its science in Korea, along with a brief review of accelerator R&D going back to the early 1960s at universities.

  2. Visual sensor fusion for active security in robotic industrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robla, Sandra; Llata, Jose R.; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Sarabia, Esther G.; Becerra, Victor; Perez-Oria, Juan

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a method of information fusion involving data captured by both a standard charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a time-of-flight (ToF) camera to be used in the detection of the proximity between a manipulator robot and a human. Both cameras are assumed to be located above the work area of an industrial robot. The fusion of colour images and time-of-flight information makes it possible to know the 3D localization of objects with respect to a world coordinate system. At the same time, this allows to know their colour information. Considering that ToF information given by the range camera contains innacuracies including distance error, border error, and pixel saturation, some corrections over the ToF information are proposed and developed to improve the results. The proposed fusion method uses the calibration parameters of both cameras to reproject 3D ToF points, expressed in a common coordinate system for both cameras and a robot arm, in 2D colour images. In addition to this, using the 3D information, the motion detection in a robot industrial environment is achieved, and the fusion of information is applied to the foreground objects previously detected. This combination of information results in a matrix that links colour and 3D information, giving the possibility of characterising the object by its colour in addition to its 3D localisation. Further development of these methods will make it possible to identify objects and their position in the real world and to use this information to prevent possible collisions between the robot and such objects.

  3. Anti-Tuberculosis Policy of the Government General of Korea during Japanese-Colonial Period (1910-1945): From Simple Restriction to Active Enlightenment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Kyung

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, I tried to examine the characteristic of anti-tuberculosis policy in colonial Korea and find out internal constraint of hygienic administration by Japanese government during Japanese-Colonial Period. Despite of high prevalence of tuberculosis among Japanese in Korea, the Japanese Government General of Korea had done almost nothing until 1936. Japan's hygienic administration was highly dependent upon hygienic police, and mainly with compulsory isolation and disinfection. It was inefficient in tuberculosis problem. In 1918, Japanese Government General enacted 'Ordinance of Prevention of Tuberculosis', solely based upon naive tuberculosis etiology in sputum; consisted of simple crackdown and isolation and had no effect due to the limit of anti-tuberculosis and health budget. Also the ordinance actually set limitation upon the tuberculosis facilities, only a few health care facilities could be affordable for tuberculosis patients. Since 1936, the Japanese Government General of Korea began tuberculosis prevention measures in earnest. Due to the Second Sino- Japanese War and World War II, there was urgent need to make Korean society and population as "safe, and healthy rear area". The Government organized 'Chosen Anti-tuberculosis Association' and highly pursued enlightment campaign. It was almost temporary measures of enlightenment and publicity. Also various types of health screening and tuberculosis prevalence research were introduced to Korean people. But it was not so effective to identify tuberculosis problem in Korea. Mass tuberculin test and X-ray test was introduced, but it was not well organized and scientifically designed. Besides, tuberculosis treatment facility was extremely rare because of strict isolation and high standard policy. Japanese Governemtn set numerous tuberculosis-counseling centers and mobilized public doctor for consulting tuberculosis, but the accessibility of centers was very low. Moreover, there was no source to establish

  4. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of a series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides learning activities for teachers to use with students in industrial arts/technology education. Each of the 17…

  5. Understanding Insurance. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.; Tuel, Charles

    This learning activity package (LAP) on the insurance industry and the methods used to give protection to the insured is designed for student self-study. Following a list of learning objectives, the LAP contains a pretest (answer key provided at the back). Six learning activities follow. The learning activities cover the following material: terms…

  6. Recent National Solar Thermal Test Facility activities, in partnership with industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanbari, C.; Cameron, C.P.; Ralph, M.E.; Pacheco, J.E.; Rawlinson, K.S.; Evans, L.R.

    1994-10-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA conducts testing of solar thermal components and systems, funded primarily by the US Department of Energy. Activities are conducted in support of Central Receiver Technology, Distributed Receiver Technology and Design Assistance projects. All activities are performed in support of various cost-shared government/industry joint ventures and, on a design assistance basis, in support of a number of other industry partners.

  7. Recent National Solar Thermal Test Facility activities, in partnership with industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Cherly; Cameron, Christopher P.; Ralph, Mark E.; Pacheco, James E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Evans, Lindsey R.

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA conducts testing of solar thermal components and systems, funded primarily by the US Department of Energy. Activities are conducted in support of Central Receiver Technology, Distributed Receiver Technology and Design Assistance projects. All activities are performed in support of various cost-shared government/industry joint ventures and, on a design assistance basis, in support of a number of other industry partners.

  8. Activated sludge optimization using ATP in pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Bäckman, Göran; Gytel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    The activated sludge process is an old technology, but still the most commonly used one for treatment of wastewater. Despite the wide spread usage the technology still suffers from instability (Tandoi et al. 2006) and high operating cost. Activated sludge processes often carry a large solids inventory. Managing the total inventory without interference is the key component of the optimization process described in this paper. Use of nutrients is common in pulp and paper effluent treatment. Feeding enough nutrients to support the biomass growth is a delicate balance. Overfeeding or underfeeding of nutrients can result in higher costs. Detrimental substances and toxic components in effluents entering a biological treatment system can cause severe, long lasting disturbances (Hynninen & Ingman 1998; Bergeron & Pelletier 2004). A LumiKem test kit is used to measure biological activity with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in a pulp and paper mill. ATP data are integrated with other standardized mill parameters. Measurements of active volatile suspended solids based on ATP can be used to quantify the living biomass in the activated sludge process and to ensure that sufficient biomass is present in order to degrade the wastewater constituents entering the process. Information about active biomass will assist in optimizing sludge inventories and feeding of nutrients allowing the living biomass to re-populate to create optimal efficiency. ATP measurements can also be used to alert operators if any components toxic to bacteria are present in wastewater. The bio stress index represents the stress level experienced by the microbiological population. This parameter is very useful in monitoring toxicity in and around bioreactors. Results from the wastewater process optimization and ATP measurements showed that treatment cost could be reduced by approximately 20-30% with fewer disturbances and sustained biological activity compared to the reference period. This was mainly achieved by

  9. High pre-industrial and modern Tibetan Plateau fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, N. M.; Li, Q.; Wang, N.; Zennaro, P.; Zangrando, R.; Barbante, C.

    2013-12-01

    The South Asian brown cloud created from a mix of biomass burning and fossil fuel aerosols is warming the atmosphere between 5000 to 7000 meters above sea level (m asl) along the southern slope of the Himalaya. The extent to which this atmospheric brown cloud is transported up and over the 7000 to 8000 m asl ridge of the Himalaya and northward across the Tibetan Plateau is unknown. Intense Eastern Asian industry and associated coal burning may also export fossil fuel burning products to the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, local cooking, agricultural and natural fires emit combustion products that alter atmospheric chemistry and are deposited on glacier surfaces. It is essential to differentiate between the effects of fossil fuel and biomass burning across the Tibetan Plateau to determine if combustion products affect glacier surfaces and, by extension, glacier volume. The specific biomarker levoglucosan can only be produced by biomass burning at temperatures of 300°C or higher and is trapped and preserved in glaciers across the globe. This specificity may allow the possibility of differentiating between fossil fuel and biomass burning contributions when comparing levoglucosan concentrations with more general ice core combustion proxies such as black carbon. Here, we present a biomass burning record from the entire 164 m Muztag ice core (36.35°N; 87.17°E; 5780 m asl) and from a southwest to northeast transect of snow pits across the Tibetan Plateau. Multiple total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon surface samples demonstrate organic carbon concentrations at or near detection limits. However, these samples have high levoglucosan concentrations suggesting that the biomass burning recorded in these sites may be from a regional rather than local source. The Tibetan Plateau levoglucosan concentrations are surprisingly substantially greater than Kilimanjaro levoglucosan concentrations, where Kilimanjaro is located in a relatively similar low-latitude high

  10. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  11. [Commercialization of results of intellectual activities in pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Posylkina, O V; Timaniuk, V N; Gladukh, E V

    2002-01-01

    An analysis has been done of those causes impending the development of innovative processes and commercialization of results of intellectual activities in the economics of Ukraine and its pharmaceutical sector. Possible ways for rectifying the prevailing situation are considered. A scheme is proposed of staged commercialization of developments involving creation of new pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:12669531

  12. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese in Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese women in Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted. PMID:21874580

  13. Association of Psychosocial Conditions, Oral Health, and Dietary Variety with Intellectual Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the factors related to intellectual activity in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods Self-administered questionnaires mailed to all people aged ≥65 years in a dormitory suburb in Japan (n = 15,210). The response rate was 72.2%. Analytical subjects (n = 8,910) were those who lived independently and completely answered questions about independent and dependent variables and covariates. Independent variables included psychosocial conditions (i.e., social activities, hobbies, and a sense that life is worth living (ikigai)), oral health (i.e., dental health behaviors and oral function evaluated by chewing difficulties, swallowing difficulties, and oral dryness), and dietary variety measured using the dietary variety score (DVS). A dependent variable was intellectual activity measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Covariates included age, gender, family structure, pensions, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, medical history, self-rated health, medications, cognitive function, depression, and falling. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for poor intellectual activity. Results Poor intellectual activity was reported by 28.9% of the study population. After adjustment for covariates and independent variables, poor intellectual activity was significantly associated with nonparticipation in social activities (OR = 1.90, 95%CI = 1.61–2.24), having neither hobbies nor ikigai (3.13, 2.55–3.84), having neither regular dental visits nor daily brushing (1.70, 1.35–2.14), the poorest oral function (1.61, 1.31–1.98), and the lowest DVS quartile (1.96, 1.70–2.26). Conclusion These results indicate that psychosocial conditions, oral health, and dietary variety are independently associated with intellectual activity in elderly persons. The factors identified in this study may be used in community health programs for maintaining the intellectual activity ability of the

  14. How the Japanese work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry. PMID:9929991

  15. Activity-Based Costing in the After Press Services Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevasuthisilp, Suntichai; Punsathitwong, Kosum

    2009-10-01

    This research was conducted to apply activity-based costing (ABC) in an after press service company in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The company produces all of its products by one-stop service (such as coating, stitching, binding, die cutting, and gluing). All products are made to order, and have different sizes and patterns. A strategy of low price is used to compete in the marketplace. After cost analysis, the study found that the company has high overhead (36.5% of total cost). The company's problem is its use of traditional cost accounting, which has low accuracy in assigning overhead costs. If management uses this information when pricing customer orders, losses may occur because real production costs may be higher than the selling price. Therefore, the application of ABC in cost analysis can help executives receive accurate cost information; establish a sound pricing strategy; and improve the manufacturing process by determining work activities which have excessively high production costs. According to this research, 6 out of 56 items had a production cost higher than the selling price, leading to losses of 123,923 baht per year. Methods used to solve this problem were: reducing production costs; establishing suitable prices; and creating a sales promotion with lower prices for customers whose orders include processes involving unused capacity. These actions will increase overall sales of the company, and allow more efficient use of its machinery.

  16. NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental agencies and institutes which are under supervision of different ministries. Thirdly, although the government budget is moderate and sales revenue of space industries is not so large, many large companies in aerospace or electronics industries see the importance of this business and compete each other mainly in the domestic market. NASDA, founded in 1969, is the largest governmental space organization and has played an important role in realizing practical applications of space activities. It has rapidly caught up the technology gap behind leading countries and has achieved remarkable successes with its own launch vehicles and satellites. Space industries, under the guidance of NASDA, have learned much from the U.S. companies and improved their technology levels and enjoyed steady growth during the early stage of Japanese space development. But before they became competitive enough in the world space business, the trade conflict between Japan and the U.S. made the procurement of Japanese non-R&D satellites open to the foreign satellite companies. Furthermore, interruptions of space activities due to recent successive failures of launch vehicles as well as Japanese economic slump have made space industries face hard situations. Under these circumstances, M&A of launch vehicle companies as well as satellite makers took place for the first time in Japanese aero-space history. Also at the government level, reorganization of space agencies is now under process. It is expected as a natural consequence of the merge of the Ministry of Education and the Science an Technology Agency, three space

  17. Tanko Bushi: Designing a Japanese-American Dance Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeting, Terry; Werner, Peter; Williams, Lori H.; Crump, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Many folk dances reflect the everyday activities of the people, celebrating the commonplace through physical forms of expression. The traditional Japanese folk dance, Tanko Bushi, is still performed in Japan and among Japanese-Americans today, and its theme of coal mining makes it relatable to many cultures around the world. With its traditional…

  18. Optics At The Arctic Circle, An Example Of Application-Oriented Research Generating New Industrial Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammasniemi, Jorma; Myllyla, Risto; Hannula, Tapio

    1989-04-01

    This paper discusses research/industry interaction in application-oriented research groups specializing in the development of optoelectronic instruments and measurement methods. The research groups are working in Oulu, a city in Northern Finland, in an industrial environment consisting originally of pulp and paper industries together with metalworking and engineering industries. These established industrial areas are active in adopting new technologies for automation and process renewal. Furthermore, new emerging businesses are being generated through pilot installations and new product ideas created by research groups. The technologies considered are optical and infrared process analyzers, semiconductor laser-based dimension measurements and optoelectronic hybrid module fabrication. Examples of new products and enterprises employing these technologies are given. Additional skills and education especially in miniature optics and related constructions, are considered important for the future.

  19. Public health, academic medicine, and the alcohol industry's corporate social responsibility activities.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry's economic interests. PMID:23237151

  20. Industry decries sharp decline in U. S. offshore activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    Roadblocks to offshore activity in the U.S. drew much of the spotlight at the 24th Offshore Technology Conference last week in Houston. Among OTC highlights included in this paper are: Two panels reviewed how federal leasing moratoriums and regulatory restrictions are reining U.S. offshore development. Conoco Inc.'s manager of exploration and development in Russia detailed the allure of giant and supergiant fields in the Commonwealth of Independent States and reviewed the status of the company's efforts to negotiate E and D deals with Russian partners. Minerals Management Service officials reviewed environmental challenges facing operators on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf and new MMS inspection strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. The 1992 OTC Distinguished Achievement Award for companies went to Brazil's Petroleo Brasileiro SA for deepwater development records set with the 3 Marlim well in the Campos basin off Brazil.

  1. Dispersal of the Japanese Pine Sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in Mainland China as Inferred from Molecular Data and Associations to Indices of Human Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Da-ying; Haack, Robert A.; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, De-dao; Ma, Xue-yu; Ye, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an important forest pest as well as the principal vector of the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer), in mainland China. Despite the economic importance of this insect-disease complex, only a few studies are available on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus and the relationship between its historic dispersal pattern and various human activities. The aim of the present study was to further explore aspects of human activity on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus in mainland China. The molecular data based on the combined mitochondrial cox1 and cox2 gene fragments from 140 individuals representing 14 Chinese populations yielded 54 haplotypes. Overall, a historical (natural) expansion that originated from China’s eastern coast to the western interior was revealed by the haplotype network, as well as several recent, long-distant population exchanges. Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes. Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system) in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior. In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were infested with PWN

  2. Dispersal of the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in mainland China as inferred from molecular data and associations to indices of human activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-ji; Ning, Tiao; Fu, Da-ying; Haack, Robert A; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, De-dao; Ma, Xue-yu; Ye, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an important forest pest as well as the principal vector of the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer), in mainland China. Despite the economic importance of this insect-disease complex, only a few studies are available on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus and the relationship between its historic dispersal pattern and various human activities. The aim of the present study was to further explore aspects of human activity on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus in mainland China. The molecular data based on the combined mitochondrial cox1 and cox2 gene fragments from 140 individuals representing 14 Chinese populations yielded 54 haplotypes. Overall, a historical (natural) expansion that originated from China's eastern coast to the western interior was revealed by the haplotype network, as well as several recent, long-distant population exchanges. Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes. Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system) in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior. In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were infested with PWN

  3. The accomplishment of the Engineering Design Activities of IFMIF/EVEDA: The European-Japanese project towards a Li(d,xn) fusion relevant neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Ibarra, A.; Abal, J.; Abou-Sena, A.; Arbeiter, F.; Arranz, F.; Arroyo, J. M.; Bargallo, E.; Beauvais, P.-Y.; Bernardi, D.; Casal, N.; Carmona, J. M.; Chauvin, N.; Comunian, M.; Delferriere, O.; Delgado, A.; Diaz-Arocas, P.; Fischer, U.; Frisoni, M.; Garcia, A.; Garin, P.; Gobin, R.; Gouat, P.; Groeschel, F.; Heidinger, R.; Ida, M.; Kondo, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Kubo, T.; Le Tonqueze, Y.; Leysen, W.; Mas, A.; Massaut, V.; Matsumoto, H.; Micciche, G.; Mittwollen, M.; Mora, J. C.; Mota, F.; Nghiem, P. A. P.; Nitti, F.; Nishiyama, K.; Ogando, F.; O'hira, S.; Oliver, C.; Orsini, F.; Perez, D.; Perez, M.; Pinna, T.; Pisent, A.; Podadera, I.; Porfiri, M.; Pruneri, G.; Queral, V.; Rapisarda, D.; Roman, R.; Shingala, M.; Soldaini, M.; Sugimoto, M.; Theile, J.; Tian, K.; Umeno, H.; Uriot, D.; Wakai, E.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokomine, T.

    2015-08-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase under the frame of the Broader Approach Agreement between Europe and Japan, accomplished in summer 2013, on schedule, its EDA phase with the release of the engineering design report of the IFMIF plant, which is here described. Many improvements of the design from former phases are implemented, particularly a reduction of beam losses and operational costs thanks to the superconducting accelerator concept, the re-location of the quench tank outside the test cell (TC) with a reduction of tritium inventory and a simplification on its replacement in case of failure, the separation of the irradiation modules from the shielding block gaining irradiation flexibility and enhancement of the remote handling equipment reliability and cost reduction, and the water cooling of the liner and biological shielding of the TC, enhancing the efficiency and economy of the related sub-systems. In addition, the maintenance strategy has been modified to allow a shorter yearly stop of the irradiation operations and a more careful management of the irradiated samples. The design of the IFMIF plant is intimately linked with the EVA phase carried out since the entry into force of IFMIF/EVEDA in June 2007. These last activities and their on-going accomplishment have been thoroughly described elsewhere (Knaster J et al [19]), which, combined with the present paper, allows a clear understanding of the maturity of the European-Japanese international efforts. This released IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report (IIEDR), which could be complemented if required concurrently with the outcome of the on-going EVA, will allow decision making on its construction and/or serve as the basis for the definition of the next step, aligned with the evolving needs of our fusion community.

  4. Association of Genetically Determined Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Activity with Diabetic Complications in Relation to Alcohol Consumption in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    PubMed

    Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Shinako; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Hirano, Atsushi; Nakamura, Udai; Kubo, Michiaki; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies aldehyde produced during ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress. A genetic defect in this enzyme is common in East Asians and determines alcohol consumption behaviors. We investigated the impact of genetically determined ALDH2 activity on diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications in relation to drinking habits in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An ALDH2 single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs671) was genotyped in 4,400 patients. Additionally, the relationship of clinical characteristics with ALDH2 activity (ALDH2 *1/*1 active enzyme activity vs. *1/*2 or *2/*2 inactive enzyme activity) and drinking habits (lifetime abstainers vs. former or current drinkers) was investigated cross-sectionally (n = 691 in *1/*1 abstainers, n = 1,315 in abstainers with *2, n = 1,711 in *1/*1 drinkers, n = 683 in drinkers with *2). The multiple logistic regression analysis for diabetic complications was adjusted for age, sex, current smoking habits, leisure-time physical activity, depressive symptoms, diabetes duration, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, insulin use, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors use. Albuminuria prevalence was significantly lower in the drinkers with *2 than that of other groups (odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 0.94 [0.76-1.16] in abstainers with *2, 1.00 [0.80-1.26] in *1/*1 drinkers, 0.71 [0.54-0.93] in drinkers with *2). Retinal photocoagulation prevalence was also lower in drinkers with ALDH2 *2 than that of other groups. In contrast, myocardial infarction was significantly increased in ALDH2 *2 carriers compared with that in ALDH2 *1/*1 abstainers (odds ratio [95% CI]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 2.63 [1.28-6.13] in abstainers with *2, 1.89 [0.89-4.51] in *1/*1 drinkers, 2.35 [1.06-5.79] in drinkers with *2). In summary, patients with type 2 diabetes and ALDH2 *2 displayed a

  5. Association of Genetically Determined Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Activity with Diabetic Complications in Relation to Alcohol Consumption in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    PubMed Central

    Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Shinako; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Hirano, Atsushi; Nakamura, Udai; Kubo, Michiaki; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies aldehyde produced during ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress. A genetic defect in this enzyme is common in East Asians and determines alcohol consumption behaviors. We investigated the impact of genetically determined ALDH2 activity on diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications in relation to drinking habits in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An ALDH2 single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs671) was genotyped in 4,400 patients. Additionally, the relationship of clinical characteristics with ALDH2 activity (ALDH2 *1/*1 active enzyme activity vs. *1/*2 or *2/*2 inactive enzyme activity) and drinking habits (lifetime abstainers vs. former or current drinkers) was investigated cross-sectionally (n = 691 in *1/*1 abstainers, n = 1,315 in abstainers with *2, n = 1,711 in *1/*1 drinkers, n = 683 in drinkers with *2). The multiple logistic regression analysis for diabetic complications was adjusted for age, sex, current smoking habits, leisure-time physical activity, depressive symptoms, diabetes duration, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, insulin use, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors use. Albuminuria prevalence was significantly lower in the drinkers with *2 than that of other groups (odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 0.94 [0.76–1.16] in abstainers with *2, 1.00 [0.80–1.26] in *1/*1 drinkers, 0.71 [0.54–0.93] in drinkers with *2). Retinal photocoagulation prevalence was also lower in drinkers with ALDH2 *2 than that of other groups. In contrast, myocardial infarction was significantly increased in ALDH2 *2 carriers compared with that in ALDH2 *1/*1 abstainers (odds ratio [95% CI]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 2.63 [1.28–6.13] in abstainers with *2, 1.89 [0.89–4.51] in *1/*1 drinkers, 2.35 [1.06–5.79] in drinkers with *2). In summary, patients with type 2 diabetes and ALDH2 *2

  6. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Described is the Industrial Arts component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also included in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681), Science (SE…

  7. The Japanese Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, J.

    The Japanese scientific ballooning program has been organized by ISAS since the institute was founded in mid 1960s. Since then, the balloon group of ISAS has been engaged in the development of the balloon technologies and scientific observations in collaboration with scientists and engineers in other universities and organizations. Here, I describe several subjects of recent activities, the details of some items will also be reported in the separate papers in this meeting.Preparation of a new mobile receiving station.

  8. Balloons of made of the EVAL (Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol) films. EVAL film has specific Infra-red absorption bands, and is expected to be useful for saving the ballast for a long duration flight.
  9. A high altitude balloon with thin polyethylene films achieving at an altitude of above 50km. Further improvement of this type of balloons is continued by inventing how to extrude thin films less than 5 microns of thickness.
  10. Recent achievement of Antarctica Flights under the collaboration of ISAS and National Polar Institute.
  11. Other new efforts to long duration flights such as satellite link boomerang balloon systems and others.
  12. New balloon borne scientific instrumentation for observations of high energy electrons and Anti-protons in cosmic-rays.
  13. Evaluating environmental impact caused by industrial activities - Implementation of the WTP-WTA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopsidas, Odysseas; Batzias, Fragiskos

    2012-12-01

    In this work, a methodological framework under the form of an algorithmic procedure, including 28 activity stages and 6 decision nodes, has been developed for evaluating environmental impact caused by industrial activities. The main part of this procedure is a modification of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), which is heavily relied on survey-based estimation of WTP-WTA (willingness to pay/accept, respectively). The survey may take place either under a strictly controlled environment or in situ and as-is ('laboratory conditions' or 'field conditions', respectively, in the terminology of experimental economics). Implementation of this methodology is presented, referring to three cases of industrial pollution (in three different sites) caused by (i) a cement producing units, (ii) an oil refinery complex, and (iii) an industrialized small city with an intensively polluted port, where several industrial units co-exist, all of them located in the vicinity of Athens, Greece. The results are interpreted/discussed and conclusions are drawn.

  14. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this report is to help focus the federal programs in biomass energy, by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid-1979. In addition, the industry's perceptions of government activities are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations, as listed in Exhibit 1. Interview findings have been supplemented by research of recent literature. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry; (2) what are the companies doing; (3) what are their objectives and strategies; and (4) what are the implications for government policy. This executive summary provides highlights of the key findings and conclusions. The summary discussion is presented in seven parts: (1) overview of the biomass field; (2) structure of the biomass industry today; (3) corporate activities in biomass-related areas; (4) motivations for these activities; (5) industry's outlook on the future for energy-from-biomass; (6) industry's view of government activities; and (7) implications for Federal policy.

  15. Japanese respond to campaign.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City. PMID:12288124

  16. Effects of propolis on eggshell microbial activity, hatchability, and chick performance in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) eggs.

    PubMed

    Aygun, A; Sert, D; Copur, G

    2012-04-01

    Propolis is a sticky resin produced by worker honeybees from substances collected from plants, and it has strong antibacterial and antifungal properties. The purpose of this study was to establish the effects of propolis on egg weight loss, hatchability, chick performance, and to control microbial activity naturally occurring on eggshells. A total of 750 fresh eggs was randomly divided into 5 groups. Eggs from the first group were sprayed with ethyl alcohol (70%, A), the second group was sprayed with benzalkonium chloride (B), and the third, fourth, and fifth groups were sprayed with propolis at 3 doses: 5, 10, and 15%. Eggs sprayed with propolis had lower egg weight loss than eggs from groups A and B (P < 0.001). Bacterial activity was reduced significantly in all propolis groups. There were no significant differences between treatments for hatchability, embryonic mortality, BW gain, and relative growth. Results of the present study indicated that propolis could be an alternative hatching egg disinfectant versus a chemical disinfectant, without adverse effects on hatchability and performance of quail chicks. PMID:22399742

  17. Post-hoc analysis showing better clinical response with the loading dose of certolizumab pegol in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Mariko; Shoji, Toshiharu; Togo, Osamu; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) with and without loading dose (LD) in a post-hoc analysis of two Japanese clinical studies. Methods: Data from the double-blind trials (DBT) J-RAPID and HIKARI, and their open-label extension (OLE) studies, were used. Patients randomized to CZP 200 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) groups starting with LD (400 mg Weeks 0/2/4; LD group; J-RAPID: n = 82, HIKARI: n = 116) and patients randomized to placebo groups who subsequently started CZP Q2W without LD in the OLEs (No-LD group; J-RAPID: n = 61, HIKARI: n = 99) were analyzed. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics were assessed during 24 weeks. Adverse events were reported from all studies. Results: In both trials, the LD groups showed more rapid initial ACR20/50/70 kinetics, and maintained higher ACR50/70 responses until 24 weeks, compared with the No-LD groups. Anti-CZP antibody development was less frequent in the LD groups (J-RAPID: 1.2% versus 4.9%; HIKARI: 17.2% versus 27.3%). Similar safety profiles were reported between LD and No-LD groups (any AEs: 281.8 versus 315.7 [J-RAPID], 282.6 versus 321.3 [HIKARI] [incidence rate/100 patient-years]). Conclusions: Despite limitations, including comparing DBT and OLE studies, these results suggest that a CZP LD improves clinical response in active rheumatoid arthritis without altering the safety profile. PMID:26472043

  18. Comparison of physical activity energy expenditure in Japanese adolescents assessed by EW4800P triaxial accelerometry and the doubly labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Kaneko, Kayoko; Koizumi, Kayo; Ito, Chinatsu

    2013-10-01

    The present study compared the accuracy of triaxial accelerometry and the doubly labelled water (DLW) method for measuring physical activity (PA) in Japanese adolescents. A total of sixty adolescents aged 12-15 years were analysed. The total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured over 7 d by the DLW method and with an EW4800P triaxial accelerometer (Panasonic Corporation). The measured (RMR)(m) and predicted RMR (RMR(p)) were 5·7 (SD 0·9) and 6·0 (SD 1·0) MJ/d, respectively. TEE measured by the DLW method and accelerometry using RMR(m) or RMR(p) were 11·0 (SD 2·6), 10·3 (SD 1·9), and 10·7 (SD 2·1) MJ/d, respectively. The PA levels (PAL) measured by the DLW method using RMR(m) or RMR(p) were 1·97 (SD 0·31) and 1·94 (SD 0·31) in subjects who exercised, and 1·85 (SD 0·27) and 1·74 (SD 0·29) in subjects who did not exercise. The percentage of body fat correlated significantly with the percentage difference between RMR(m) v. RMR(p), TEE, PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and PAL using RMR(p), and PAL using RMR(m) assessed by the DLW method and accelerometry. The present data showed that while accelerometry estimated TEE accurately, it did not provide the precise measurement of PAEE and PAL. The error in accelerometry was attributed to the prediction error of RMR and assessment in exercise. PMID:23544366

  19. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of estrogens and androgens in

  20. C3 variants in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Nishimukai, H; Kitamura, H; Sano, Y; Tamaki, Y

    1985-01-01

    By high-voltage agarose gel electrophoresis, seven phenotypes of C3 were found in Japanese. The allele frequencies for C3*S, C3*S025, C3*S02, C3*F, C3*F06, C3*F065, and C3*F08 were 0.9943, 0.0003, 0.0003, 0.0006, 0.0003, 0.0021, and 0.0021, respectively. CH50, C3/C3c protein concentrations, and C3 hemolytic activities in fresh sera with variant C3 phenotypes were within the normal ranges. PMID:3988301

  21. New Frontiers for Japanese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Frank H.

    1974-01-01

    Japanese literature, television, movies, and school texts from 1935 to 1955 are analyzed for their influence and contribution to Japanese youths' pioneering spirit and frontiermindedness. "Asian Affairs" is published by the American-Asian Educational Exchange, New York. (DE)

  22. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For ... What are the side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccination? Pain and tenderness are the most commonly reported ...

  23. Americanization through Public Education of Japanese Americans in Hawaii: 1930-1941. The Effect of Extracurricular Activities on the Americanization Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoho, Alan R.

    Using data from 60 oral testimonies, student handbooks, and yearbooks, this paper describes the Americanization of Japanese Americans in Hawaii through public school education between 1930 and 1941, delineating the roles that participation in student government, sports, clubs, assemblies, and home recreation played in the socialization process.…

  24. Development of a monitoring system to record the activity patterns in juvenile Japanese spiny lobsters, Panulirus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Yoshitaka; Norman, Christopher Paul; Nuka, Toshimitsu; Nagata, Yutaka

    A preliminary study of the effectiveness of an infrared monitoring system to detect the timing of exit and re-entry to a hole used as a daytime refuge by an individual juvenile P. japonicus was carried out at the Kominato Marine Biosystems Research Center of Chiba University. The monitoring system consisted of the infrared beam source and sensor which were attached to either side of the hole and connected by a 5 m cable to an external exchangeable battery and data logger. For a six day period (25th September to 1st October, 1998) clear activity patterns were observed for an individual lobster (ca. 120 mm total length) showing that the nocturnal foraging pattern of the individual lobster had a high degree of variation in both the duration of foraging (between ca. 1 to 4 hrs) and the period remaining in the hole during the night. The sensor showed high levels of response especially around dusk and dawn when we conclude that the lobster was near to the entrance of the hole and also intermittent peaks during the night when the lobster emerged to forage and then returned. In summary, the lobster remained in its hole during the day and moved to the entrance of the hole at dusk observed before emerging to forage and then returned to the hole at intermittent periods during the night. We conclude that the possession of a suitable hole and its defense from conspecifics may be a key factor, along with prey availability, determining the duration of foraging behavior and that the infrared system is highly effective for monitoring the movement patterns of juvenile lobsters.

  25. Future Plan and Recent Activities for the Japanese Follow-on Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Himawari-8/9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurino, T.

    2012-12-01

    In 1977, Japan launched the first geostationary meteorological satellite " Himawari-1 (GMS-1)" onto the geo-synchronous orbit at 140°E mainly to cover the western Pacific and the east part of Asia as part of a space segment of the Global Observation System (GOS) of the WMO World Weather Watch (WWW) programme up to the present. JMA plans to launch Himawari-8 in summer 2014 and commence its operation in 2015, when Himawari-7 (MTSAT-2) is scheduled to complete its period of operation. The Agency also plans to launch Himawari-9 in 2016. Himawari-8 and -9 carry Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) units comparable to the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on board GOES-R with the following functions: - Multi-channel capacity (16 channels in visible and infrared bands) - High spatial resolution (0.5 - 1.0 km for visible and 1.0 - 2.0 km for infrared) - High temporal resolution (within 10 minutes for full disk) - Rapid scanning with flexible area selection and scheduling The follow-on satellites will offer high observation potential, which will enable users to analyze cloud properties and extract other meteorological parameters. To make the most of these functions as well as to provide users with effective information from the start of Himawari-8's operation, JMA has set up an environment for the development of new products from the follow-on satellites in collaboration with its Meteorological Satellite Center (MSC) and other internal related divisions in JMA. The Agency also plans to start the development of related products, and is interested in pursuing scientific and prototyping activities in collaboration with Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS) members. This is particularly the case with EUMETSAT and NOAA/NESDIS, which already operate or are preparing to use a new generation of multi-channel imaging instruments (e.g. MSG/MTG, GOES-R). To support these developments, Himawari-8/9 simulated images are generated in two ways - one involving the accumulation of

  1. Why do Japanese Write Characters in Space?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Masato

    1987-01-01

    Reviews several experiments which examined the cognitive function of finger writing, an activity widely used by Japanese people and thought to be related to Kanji learning. Children and university students performed either Kanji anagram tasks or English word tasks. Finger writing appears to originate from the existence of motoric or action-based…

  2. A History of Japanese in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Japanese Society of Hawaii, Honolulu.

    This handbook contains the history of the first hundred years of Japanese activity in Hawaii, of the pioneer immigrant workers and their progeny. The book offers valuable source material to the people of Hawaii who want to know their origins and who wish to teach their children of the achievements of their ancestors. Ninety-one pages of black and…

  3. Cultural Competence in Business Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Shohei

    Cultural competence in business Japanese requires more than superficial knowledge of business etiquette. One must truly understand why Japanese people think and act differently from their American counterparts. For example, instruction in the use of Japanese taxis must be accompanied by instruction in the concept and implications of seating order…

  4. Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1985-03-01

    Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.

  5. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II API DMFs Under GDUFA.'' Under the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 (GDUFA), holders of certain drug master files, namely, Type II active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) drug master files (DMFs) that are referenced......

  6. Activated carbon: Utilization excluding industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial use and theoretical studies of activated carbon. Topics include performance evaluations in water treatment processes, preparation and regeneration techniques, materials recovery, and pore structure studies. Adsorption characteristics for specific materials are discussed. Studies pertaining specifically to industrial waste treatment are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution. PMID:22645468

  8. Insights into the emission reductions of multiple unintentional persistent organic pollutants from industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Yuyang; Zhan, Jiayu

    2016-02-01

    Industrial activities result in unintentional production of multiple types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at various concentrations. Because of the potential adverse effect of these POPs on the environment, biota and human health, methods for controlling emission of POPs are required. Development and application of techniques for controlling emissions of POPs can be a technical and economic burden for the industry involved. Therefore, from the point of view of cost-benefit analysis, reducing emissions of multiple pollutants at the same time is optimal for sustainable industrial development. Although techniques have been developed for reducing the emissions of individual POPs, such as dioxins, further work is required on multi-POP control emissions from industrial activities. This paper discusses three important aspects that need to be taken to achieve multi-POP control. These aspects include the establishment of a comprehensive system for evaluating the risk from emissions of multiple POPs, determination of indicators for total emissions of multiple POPs, and the preparation and application of functional materials to inhibit formation of multiple POPs. These discussion might be helpful for the future research on the multi-POP control in industry. PMID:26386431

  9. A trial of cross-disciplinary classes at the university and the high school on the seasonal transition and the seasonal feeling from autumn to winter in East Asia (joint activity of meteorology with Japanese classical literature, music and art)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, K.; Sato, S.; Kato, H.; Akagi, R.; Sueishi, N.; Mori, T.; Nakakura, T.; Irie, I.

    2012-04-01

    There are many steps of the rapid seasonal transitions in East Asia influenced by the seasonal cycle of the Asian monsoon system, resulting in the variety of "seasonal feeling" there. For example, the extremely cold air flowing from the Siberian continent to the Japan Islands is transformed by the huge supply of heat and moisture from the underlying sea (the Japan Sea) in midwinter, which brings the large amount of snowfall in the Japan Sea side of the Japan Islands. However, although the air temperature there is still rather higher from November to early December than in the midwinter, such wintertime weather pattern often appears due to the early development of the Siberian high (however, the precipitation is brought not as in snow but as rain). The intermittent rainfall in such situation due to the shallow cumulus clouds from late autumn to early winter is called the word "Shi-gu-re" in Japanese. It is also well known that the "Shi-gu-re" is often used for expression of the "seasonal feeling" in the Japanese classical literature (especially we can see in the Japanese classic poems called "Wa-Ka"). The present study reports a trial of cross-disciplinary class on the seasonal cycle in East Asia in association with the "seasonal feeling" from autumn to winter, by the joint activity of meteorology with the Japanese classical literature, the music, and the art. Firstly, we will summarize the characteristics of the large-scale climate systems and the daily weather situations from autumn to winter. We will also introduce some examples of the expression of the weather situation found in the Japanese classical poems. Next the outline of the cross-disciplinary classes on such topics at the Faculty of Education, Okayama University, and those at Okayama-Ichinomiya High School and Attached Junior High School of Okayama University will be presented together with the analyses of these practices. We should note that the present trial of the classes might also contribute to

  10. Japanese Temple Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

  11. Nucleus Course in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Nobuo; Flamm, Carol S.

    The "Nucleus Course in Japanese," based on the Institute of Modern Languages'"Situational Reinforcement" approach, is designed for 80 to 100 hours of instruction. Each lesson has several sections--Response drills, Appropriate Response Sequence, and Reading. Most of the lessons also include optional sections with Sentences for Repetition or a…

  12. Reflexives in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishida, Maki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Japanese through the following three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that are confounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based on their semantic difference, and (c) classification of predicates that occur with…

  13. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

  14. I Can Learn Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Michael; Funato, Makiko

    This set of materials for Japanese second language instruction was designed for students who can be taught most effectively through a functional, conversational approach. It is intended as a supplement to the regular course of study so that all students, regardless of ability level, can be provided with an effective instructional program. It…

  15. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  16. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Federal programs in biomass energy are defined by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid 1979. The industry's perceptions of government activites are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities, petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry? (2) what are the companies doing? (3) what are their objectives and strategies? (4) what are the implications for government policy?

  17. Development of New Cementitious Caterials by Alkaline Activating Industrial by-Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Jimenez, A.; García-Lodeiro, I.; Palomo, A.

    2015-11-01

    The alkaline activation of aluminosiliceous industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag and fly ash is widely known to yield binders whose properties make them comparable to or even stronger and more durable than ordinary Portland cement. The present paper discusses activation fundamentals (such as the type and concentration of alkaline activator and curing conditions) as well as the structure of the cementitious gels formed (C-A-S-H, N-A-S-H). The durability and strength of these systems make these materials apt for use in many industrial applications, such as precast concrete elements (masonery blocks, railroad sleepers), protective coatings for materials with low fire ratings and lightweight elements.

  18. Sponsorship of physical activity programs by the sweetened beverages industry: public health or public relations?

    PubMed

    Gómez, Luis; Jacoby, Enrique; Ibarra, Lorena; Lucumí, Diego; Hernandez, Alexandra; Parra, Diana; Florindo, Alex; Hallal, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    The growing evidence on the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity and other chronic diseases has highlighted the need to implement policy actions that go beyond programs exclusively focused on individual responsibility. In order to protect their commercial goals in Latin America, the sugar-sweetened beverage industry practices intense lobbying at high government levels in several countries across the region. This strategy is accompanied by corporate social responsibility programs that fund initiatives promoting physical activity. These efforts, although appearing altruistic, are intended to improve the industry's public image and increase political influence in order to block regulations counter to their interests. If this industry wants to contribute to human well being, as it has publicly stated, it should avoid blocking legislative actions intended to regulate the marketing, advertising and sale of their products. PMID:21225220

  19. Environmental Stressors: The Mental Health Impacts of Living Near Industrial Activity*

    PubMed Central

    DOWNEY, LIAM; VAN WILLIGEN, MARIEKE

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature examines whether the poor, the working class, and people of color are disproportionately likely to live in environmentally hazardous neighborhoods. This literature assumes that environmental characteristics such as industrial pollution and hazardous waste are detrimental to human health, an assumption that has not been well tested. Drawing upon the sociology of mental health and environmental inequality studies, we ask whether industrial activity has an impact on psychological well-being. We link individual-level survey data with data from the U.S. Census and the Toxic Release Inventory and find that residential proximity to industrial activity has a negative impact on mental health. This impact is both direct and mediated by individuals’ perceptions of neighborhood disorder and personal powerlessness, and the impact is greater for minorities and the poor than it is for whites and wealthier individuals. These results suggest that public health officials need to take seriously the mental health impacts of living near industrial facilities. PMID:16259150

  20. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  1. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  2. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  3. Treatment of industrial effluents by a continuous system: electrocoagulation--activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Moisés, Tejocote-Pérez; Patricia, Balderas-Hernández; Barrera-Díaz, C E; Gabriela, Roa-Morales; Natividad-Rangel, Reyna

    2010-10-01

    A continuous system electrocoagulation--active sludge was designed and built for the treatment of industrial wastewater. The system included an electrochemical reactor with aluminum electrodes, a clarifier and a biological reactor. The electrochemical reactor was tested under different flowrates (50, 100 and 200 mL/min). In the biological reactor, the performance of different cultures of active sludge was assessed: coliform bacterial, ciliate and flagellate protozoa and aquatic fungus. Overall treatment efficiencies of color, turbidity and COD removal were 94%, 92% and 80%, respectively, under optimal conditions of 50 mL/min flowrate and using ciliate and flagellate protozoa. It was concluded that the system was efficient for the treatment of industrial wastewater. PMID:20570506

  4. LWRS II&C Industry and Regulatory Engagement Activities for FY 11

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Thomas

    2011-09-01

    To ensure broad industry support and coordination for the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Controls (II&C) Systems Technologies research pathway, an engagement process will be continually pursued with nuclear asset owners, vendors, and suppliers, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the major industry support organizations of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), and Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). Nuclear asset owner engagement is a necessary and enabling activity to obtain data and accurate characterization of long-term operational challenges, assess the suitability of proposed research for addressing long-term needs, and gain access to data and representative infrastructure and expertise needed to ensure success of the proposed research and development (R&D) activities. Engagement with vendors and suppliers will ensure that vendor expectations and needs can be translated into requirements that can be met through technology commercialization.

  5. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-11-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L-1, respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation.

  6. Flowering of Japanese astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozai, Y.

    1988-06-01

    A development history is presented for Japanese astronomy from the 6th century to the present day, together with a status report and account of future plans. About 500 professionals currently belong to the Astronomical Society of Japan. Tokyo's Mitaka Observatory employs a staff of about 70 astronomers; most modern astronomical instruments, however, have been installed at sites outside the Tokyo area. The limitations of present instruments are notably severe for astronomers working in the visible and IR wavelengths.

  7. The RFad Method--a new fatigue recovery time assessment for industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Silva e Santos, Marcello; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez; Moreira, Sergio Bastos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study about fatigue recovery time assessment processes in work activities. It came about due to a demand presented by an automotive industry giant, in need of updating existing cycle time sheets and TAKT time parameters. The company decided to hire an Ergonomics Laboratory with ties to a major Brazilian University in order to evaluate current conditions and establish a new method to either calculate recovery times or validate existing assessment criteria, based in the ergonomics evaluation of the work activities. It is clear that there has been evident evolution in the industrial sector in the past two decades. It brought up fast modernization of industrial processes, not only in production but also in terms of management systems. Due to improved computer and robotics systems, combined with overall operational advancements - like the use of lighter hand tools and more effective hoist systems - most work activities have had its physical effort requirements reduced in the past decades. Thus, compensation factors built into production times need to be reviewed in order to avoid unnecessary costs associated to them. By using ergonomics considerations, we prevent simply removing the physical variables built in rest time calculations without taking on account, for example, additional cognitive load represented by the use of more sophisticated pieces of equipment. PMID:22316952

  8. Effect of leather industry effluents on soil microbial and protease activity.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, M Reddi; Narasimha, G

    2012-01-01

    Release of leather industry effluents into the agricultural fields causes indicative changes in nutrient cycling and organic matter processing. In the present study, leather industry effluent discharged soil (test) and undischarged soil(control) were collected from the surrounding areas of industry. The physico-chemical, biological properties and soil protease activity were examined. The study reflected the average mean value of pH, electrical conductivity and water holding capacity of the test soil was found to be 7.94, 0.89 microMhos cm(-1) and 0.51 ml g(-1), respectively. In chemical parameters, organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium has the mean of 6.73%, 0.23 g kg(-1), 4.28 mg g(-1) and 28 microg g(-1), respectively. In all the respects, the test soil showed higher values than the control. The soil protease enzyme activity was determined by using substrate casein and the activity was found to be higher (180 microg TE g(-1) 24 hr(-1)) in test soil than the control soil (63 microg TE g(-1) 24 hr(-1)). PMID:23033641

  9. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    PubMed

    Iga, M

    1981-01-01

    The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan. PMID:7233479

  10. Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Bharti, Alpana; Negi, Yogesh Kumar; Gusain, Omprakash; Pandey, Piyush; Bisht, Gajraj Singh

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41%) followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%),Saccharopolyspora (6.25%) and Nocardia (6.25%). Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2) was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes. PMID:24031819