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Sample records for japanese industrial activities

  1. Japanese Industry Boosts Pollution Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Michael K.

    1975-01-01

    In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)

  2. Microgravity research in Japanese industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Isao

    1993-07-01

    Japanese industry will have many opportunities to perform microgravity tests in the 1990s. The world's longest dropshaft was completed in Hokkaido last year. SJAC has many programs, including GAS, MASER, CASIMIR, COSIMA, and MIR. In fact, 12 electronic and 4 biomaterial experiments using GAS canisters which have been waiting since 1986 will be finished by early 1993. STC will carry out 4 experiments on D-2 in 1993. USEF has two high-quality experiment programs on SFU and EXPRESS. SFU is an unmanned platform for multiple uses and the first flight is expected in 1994 or 95. Ground tests of 8 material experiments are now in progress. EXPRESS is a reusable reentry capsule. Multireactors in an autoclave which are designed for zeolite and catalyst crystal growth on EXPRESS have been developed.

  3. Japanese activities in refrigeration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Ohtsuka, T.; Ishizaki, Y.

    This paper reviews recent activities in refrigeration technology in Japan. The projects described are stimulated by growing industrial needs or form part of large national projects. The JNR project on the MAGLEV train is currently the most powerful activity and it demands knowledge in all the different disciplines of cryogenics in particular on various scales of refrigeration. Research activities are also directed towards the development of Stirling cycle and magnetic refrigerators for applications in a wider area.

  4. The ranks of Indonesian and Japanese industrial sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ranks of Indonesian and Japanese industrial sectors from the economic point of view. The analysis period of this study is 2005. This study employs one of the well-known analysis tools in the economic topic, the Input-Output (IO) analysis. More specifically, this study uses the analysis methods in the IO analysis, backward and forward linkages, in order to achieve the purpose. The results of calculations show that the orders of the ranks depend on the method used. Nevertheless, from the results, one can say that the manufacturing industry was a leading sector in the Indonesian economy on the analysis period. On the other hand, for the Japanese case, the sector which had the beneficial effects in the Japanese economy on the analysis period was the transport.

  5. Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Japanese. Bilingual Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle School District 1, WA.

    Designed for use in bilingual education programs, this industrial arts safety guide presents guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practice in both English and Japanese. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on…

  6. Quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecht, Michael; Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    Quality and reliability are two attributes required for all Japanese products, although the JTEC panel found these attributes to be secondary to customer cost requirements. While our Japanese hosts gave presentations on the challenges of technology, cost, and miniaturization, quality and reliability were infrequently the focus of our discussions. Quality and reliability were assumed to be sufficient to meet customer needs. Fujitsu's slogan, 'quality built-in, with cost and performance as prime consideration,' illustrates this point. Sony's definition of a next-generation product is 'one that is going to be half the size and half the price at the same performance of the existing one'. Quality and reliability are so integral to Japan's electronics industry that they need no new emphasis.

  7. Quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecht, Michael; Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    Quality and reliability are two attributes required for all Japanese products, although the JTEC panel found these attributes to be secondary to customer cost requirements. While our Japanese hosts gave presentations on the challenges of technology, cost, and miniaturization, quality and reliability were infrequently the focus of our discussions. Quality and reliability were assumed to be sufficient to meet customer needs. Fujitsu's slogan, 'quality built-in, with cost and performance as prime consideration,' illustrates this point. Sony's definition of a next-generation product is 'one that is going to be half the size and half the price at the same performance of the existing one'. Quality and reliability are so integral to Japan's electronics industry that they need no new emphasis.

  8. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    Many research activities regarding Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) have been conducted and continued all over the world since the 1960's and the concept of CELSS is now changing from Science Fiction to Scientific Reality. Development of CELSS technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into two categories, Environment Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Based on these considerations, Japanese research activities have been conducted and will be continued under the tentative guideline of CELSS research activities as shown in documents /1/,/2/. The status of the over all activities are discussed in this paper.

  9. Compulsory "Foreign Language Activities" in Japanese Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Kayoko

    2011-01-01

    From 2011, the new curriculum for introducing English to Japanese primary schools will be fully implemented in the form of "foreign language activities". This innovation forms part of the government's plan to cultivate "Japanese with English abilities", a development based on the awareness, particularly in the business sector, that equipping…

  10. Japanese industrial research on lean combustion: A case study: International Research Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    In recent years, Japanese automakers have introduced a number of successful lean-combustion engines. These engines, in addition to the general expertise in building small cars, have made the Japanese automobiles into the gas mileage champions of the US market. The lean-combustion engines also provide very satisfactory performance and acceptable emissions. United States automakers and research managers, who were probably better informed about lean-combustion than the Japanese were, actively investigated lean-combustion but did not develop an engine. This report examines the basis for the Japanese innovations, the research that took the Japanese past the US state of the art to permit engine development. A preliminary review of recent (1980s) Japanese literature did not turn up strong evidence of new research activity in the lean-combustion area, but did provide background on new engines developed by several major manufacturers. The study was conducted solely through the Japanese and US published literature, with emphasis on early research conducted in the 1970s. This report presents an example of how Japanese research progress can be examined by reviewing the Japanese research literature. Although useful information was obtained by this method, it is still difficult to get a complete picture. When reviewing the literature, as was done for this report, one must remember that the marginal use of references by Japanese researchers obscures prior work, as does the tendency of the Japanese to publish several articles on similar or identical topics. 50 refs., 15 figs.

  11. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    1987-01-01

    Development of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned Mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into 2 categories, Environmental Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Japanese research activities were conducted and will be continued accordingly.

  12. An overview of the Japanese solar vehicle industry

    SciTech Connect

    Namasaki, H.

    1994-12-31

    Japan has long had a reputation for holding solar powered vehicle competitions. Many car and boat races are now held there on a regular basis. This year also saw Japan holding the world`s first solar bicycle race. Here, Hideo Namasaki provides SunWorld with an overview of the research and development of Japanese Solar Vehicles.

  13. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Takaaki; Kita, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kota; Koike, Toshihide; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7–12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right DLPFC, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages. PMID:26236223

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 26: The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the US and Japanese aerospace industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  15. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

  16. Cholinesterase activity in Japanese quail dusted with carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were dusted with 5% carbaryl to determine if this topical treatment would alter plasma and brain cholinesterase activities. Within 6 hours after dusting, plasma cholinesterase activity was depressed compared with controls, the depression averaging 20% for females and 27% for males. By 24 hours the cholinesterase activity of females had returned to normal, but the cholinesterase activity of males remained depressed. Brain cholinesterase activity was not affected by the treatment, and there were no overt toxic signs.

  17. JAPANESE ACTIVITIES IN SO2 AND NOX CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews Japanese activities in SO2 and NOx control. From 1970 to 1985, energy use in Japan increased by 25%, and annual coal consumption rose from virtually nothing to 20 million tons, yet emissions of SO2 declined by 75% and NOx by 40%. While increases in hydroelectric...

  18. REVIEW OF WESTERN EUROPEAN AND JAPANESE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY EXEMPLARY WATER POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature survey of current Western European and Japanese water pollution control technology in the iron and steel industry. Further information was obtained through personal communication. Recycle technology was identified as being practiced to a h...

  19. Antiviral activity of luteolin against Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenchun; Qian, Suhong; Qian, Ping; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-07-15

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a member of family Flaviviridae, is a neurotropic flavivirus that causes Japanese encephalitis (JE). JEV is one of the most important causative agents of viral encephalitis in humans, and this disease leads to high fatality rates. Although effective vaccines are available, no effective antiviral therapy for JE has been developed. Hence, identifying effective antiviral agents against JEV infection is important. In this study, we found that luteolin was an antiviral bioflavonoid with potent antiviral activity against JEV replication in A549 cells with IC50=4.56μg/mL. Luteolin also showed extracellular virucidal activity on JEV. With a time-of-drug addition assay revealing that JEV replication was inhibited by luteolin after the entry stage. Overall, our results suggested that luteolin can be used to develop an antiviral drug against JEV. PMID:27126774

  20. Private school activities and psychosomatic problems in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, K; Kaku, R; Nakagawa, K; Kaneko, Z

    1975-01-01

    This paper investigates the relation between private school activities and psychosomatic problems in Japanese elementary school children. Of 1,073 children studied, 67.3 percent attended private schools to study such subjects as calligraphy, abacus, and music. Of these children, 25.3 percent attended three to four times per week, and 18.1 percent five times and more. Statistical analysis showed that frequently attending children exhibited symptoms of dizziness, sleep disturbance, and other psycholphsiological problems. The results may warn educators as well as parents of some of the unfavorable effects of these extracurricular activities. PMID:1139974

  1. Things Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shigeta, Jessie M.

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Japanese culture. Some of the items and activities described include Japanese musical instruments and records, toys and crafts, traditional clothing and accessories, and food utensils. Several recipes for Japanese dishes are provided. Lists of pertinent…

  2. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXVI - The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the U.S. and Japanese aerospace industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Lahr, Tom; Hoetker, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry, which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  3. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushimaru, Kenji

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter-driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries, microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices, were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading U.S. variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales.

  4. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Aerospatiale industrial thermal plasma activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrot, Maxime

    Details of nontransferred arc torches, plasma systems in industrial use and operational plasma applications are listed. A plasma application on a foundry cupola is detailed. The setting up of a plasma system is described. Research and development activities are summarized.

  6. Target system of IFMIF/EVEDA in Japanese activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, M.; Fukada, S.; Furukawa, T.; Hirakawa, Y.; Horiike, H.; Kanemura, T.; Kondo, H.; Miyashita, M.; Nakamura, H.; Sigiura, H.; Suzuki, A.; Terai, T.; Tsuji, Y.; Ushimaru, H.; Watanabe, K.; Yagi, J.

    2011-10-01

    The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been started. As Japanese activities for the target system, the EVEDA Lithium (Li) Test Loop to simulate hydraulic and impurity conditions of the IFMIF Li loop is under design. The feasibility of the thermo-mechanical structure of the target assembly and the replaceable back-plate made of F82H and 316L stainless steel is a key research subject. Toward final validation at the EVEDA loop, diagnostics systems applicable to the high-speed free-surface Li flow and hot traps to control nitrogen and hydrogen in Li loop have been investigated. In the remote handling subject of target assemblies and the replaceable back-plates activated by irradiation up to 50 dpa/y, lip welds on 316L-316L by laser and dissimilar metal welds on F82H-316L are necessary. Water experiments and hydraulic/thermo-mechanical analyses of the back-plate are underway.

  7. Japanese language and Japanese science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  8. Sexual Experience Modulates Neuronal Activity in Male Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Can, Adem; Domjan, Michael; Delville, Yvon

    2008-01-01

    After an initial increase, repeated exposure to a particular stimulus or familiarity with an event results in lower immediate early gene expression levels in relevant brain structures. We predicted that similar effects would occur in Japanese quail after repeated sexual experience within brain areas involved in sexual behavior, namely, the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), and the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA), an avian homolog of medial amygdala. High experience subjects copulated with a female once on each of 16 consecutive days, whereas low experience subjects were allowed to copulate either once or twice. Control subjects were never exposed to a female. High experience subjects were faster to initiate sexual interaction, performed more cloacal contacts, and completed each cloacal contact faster than low experience subjects. Low experience subjects showed an increase in egr-1 (ZENK) expression, an immediate early gene product used as marker of neural activation in birds, in the areas of interest. In contrast, in high experience animals, egr-1 expression in the POM, BST and the periaqueductal gray (PAG) was not different than the level of expression in unmated controls. These results show that experience modulates the level of immediate early gene expression in the case of sexual behavior. Our results also indicate that immediate early gene expression in specific brain areas is not necessarily related to behavioral output, but depends on the behavioral history of the subjects. PMID:17826778

  9. Industrious peasants in east and west: markets, technology, and family structure in Japanese and Western European agriculture.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Jan de Vries engages with Osamu Saito's discussion of Tokugawa Japan, in particular, his exploration of de Vries's concept of an industrious revolution for East Asia, which was published in this journal in 2010. The discussion bears on the ongoing debate over the timing and character of the Great Divergence, when advanced parts of Europe pulled ahead of Asia. de Vries argues that the constraint on the Japanese rural household to acquire and shed labour delayed the shift from supply-side industriousness to demand-motivated industriousness, which in turn meant that the Great Divergence was already in place before 1800. PMID:22069800

  10. Discussion Activities To Increase Intercultural Communication Skills for Japanese Learners in EFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresovich, Brant M.

    1988-01-01

    The study describes ten discussion activities designed to improve the communicative abilities of Japanese learners of English based on cultural instruction goals. The activities target intermediate and advanced students, but teachers can modify the lessons for false beginners. All exercises stress speaking and listening. They focus on topics…

  11. The technical analysis of the stock exchange and physics: Japanese candlesticks for solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, C.; Atanasov, V.

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we use the Japanese candlesticks, a method popular in the technical analysis of the Stock/Forex markets and apply it to a variable in physics-the solar activity. This method is invented and used exclusively for economic analysis and its application to a physical problem produced unexpected results. We found that the Japanese candlesticks are convenient tool in the analysis of the variables in the physics of the Sun. Based on our observations, we differentiated a new cycle in the solar activity.

  12. [The development of modern Japanese pharmaceutical industry (Part 3): from 1886 to 1906, coinciding with the era between the institution and issue of Japanese Pharmacopoeia first edition with third edition (JP I-JP III)].

    PubMed

    Yamada, H

    1992-01-01

    The history of the developmental outline of the pharmaceutical industry during the Meiji era, is introduced. The main topics or events in the development are as follows: 1. The establishment of Osaka Pharmaceutical Products, Examination Company; 2. National Institute of Hygiene which was originated from Drug Ruling Institute ("Shiyakujo"); 3. Development of the pharmaceutical industries, especially in East and West Japan ("Kanto and Kansai"); 4. The influences of two big wars (Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War) on the private pharmaceutical business. And each of them is considered in order to explain the background of the pharmaceutical business during the middle Meiji era. PMID:11639711

  13. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts—orthographically related, but which—in their commonly written form—share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  14. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts-orthographically related, but which-in their commonly written form-share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  15. Developmental Perspectives on the Education and Economic Activities of Japanese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mary Jean; Osawa, Machiko

    This document explores the role played by women in the economic success of Japan in recent decades. Part 1 provides a brief history of Japan's rural legacy and describes its urbanization process. Part 2 reveals trends in the nature and extent of the economic activity of Japanese women using data on cohort age-groups at 5-year intervals beginning…

  16. English Activities in International Understanding Lessons in a Japanese Public Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoi-Yamaga, Naoko

    2010-01-01

    This study was an investigation of public elementary school students' affective changes through English Activities of international understanding lessons at Japanese public elementary school. The learners' expected affective changes were regarded as "International Posture", "Self-esteem", "Collective Self-esteem", and "Interest in Foreign Affairs"…

  17. Problems in the Assistant Language Teacher System and English Activity at Japanese Public Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtani, Chie

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) released the "Rainbow Plan" as the educational reform plan for the twenty-first century. As part of the plan, MEXT will make English education activities compulsory at Japanese public elementary schools beginning in 2011. The purpose of the Rainbow Plan is to…

  18. Biological Activity of Japanese Quince Extract and Its Interactions with Lipids, Erythrocyte Membrane, and Human Albumin.

    PubMed

    Strugała, Paulina; Cyboran-Mikołajczyk, Sylwia; Dudra, Anna; Mizgier, Paulina; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Olejniczak, Teresa; Gabrielska, Janina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine in vitro biological activity of fruit ethanol extract from Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai (Japanese quince, JQ) and its important constituents (-)-epicatechin (EC) and chlorogenic acid (CA). The study also investigated the structural changes in phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes, and erythrocyte membranes (RBC) induced by the extract. It was found that the extract effectively inhibits oxidation of RBC, induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), and PC liposomes, induced by UVB radiation and AAPH. Furthermore, JQ extract to a significant degree inhibited the activity of the enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, involved in inflammatory reactions. The extract has more than 2 times greater activity in relation to COX-2 than COX-1 (selectivity ratio 0.48). JQ extract stimulated growth of the beneficial intestinal bacteria Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum. In the fluorimetric method by means of the probes Laurdan, DPH and TMA-DPH, and (1)H-NMR, we examined the structural changes induced by JQ and its EC and CA components. The results show that JQ and its components induce a considerable increase of the packing order of the polar heads of lipids with a slight decrease in mobility of the acyl chains. Lipid membrane rigidification could hinder the diffusion of free radicals, resulting in inhibition of oxidative damage induced by physicochemical agents. JQ extract has the ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of human serum albumin through static quenching. This report thus could be of huge significance in the food industry, pharmacology, and clinical medicine. PMID:26861057

  19. Recent developments in Japanese titanium research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niinomi, M.

    1996-07-01

    Activity in the titanium industries in Japan has been steadily increasing as the demand for titanium and titanium alloys in consumer goods grows. The key issues in continuing the growth of these applications are lowering costs and developing new markets. In this article, advances in R&D reported mainly in the Japanese journals and at Japanese conferences are briefly described.

  20. Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, Kenji )

    1990-02-01

    This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Industry as a metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Smart, B

    1992-02-01

    The concept of "industrial economic metabolism" can provide a bridge to better understanding between environmentalists and industry. In nature each individual or species reacts to natural stimuli, competing with others for resources, extending its domain until it loses comparative advantage and comes to equilibrium with an adjacent competitor. Those species that succeed over time flourish; those that do not, diminish or disappear. Nature's rule book has no moral or ethical ingredient beyond self-interest. Corporate metabolisms are remarkably similar to those of nature. They too react to stimuli, collect and use resources, and grow or perish based on how effectively they compete. Corporate management recognizes and responds naturally and efficiently to cost and price signals. Through them it selects resources and converts them into useful products. The efficiency with which this is done is measured by profit, the lifeblood of the corporation and its means of growth. Profit thus provides a discipline on corporate behavior, encouraging efficient performers, and, by its absence, weeding out others. Unfettered by influences other than economics, the path to corporate success is unlikely to be a compassionate one. The dilemma of the manager is that to do what is socially "right" often conflicts with what must be done to survive and prosper. Fortunately, corporations' behavior can be altered by society when their purely economic role comes into conflict with other human values. The environment and the economy are not separate systems but intertwined to form a complex natural and social setting. The human-designed economic system depends on natural resource inputs, and in turn its metabolic wastes can overload the ecological system, threatening the long-term survivability of both. Increasing concern for the environment now gives the farsighted manager new latitude. There are competitive benefits in some pollution prevention. But there are not sufficiently strong forces to

  2. Statistical analysis of fires and explosions attributed to static electricity over the last 50 years in Japanese industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsawa, A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a statistical analysis of 153 accidents attributable to static electricity in Japanese industry over the last 50 years. A more thorough understanding of their causes could help prevent similar incidents and identify hazards that could assist in the task of risk assessment. Most of the incidents occurred during operations performed by workers. In addition, more than 70% of the flammable atmospheres resulted from the presence of vapours. A noteworthy finding is that at least 70% of the ignitions were caused by isolated conductors including operators' bodies leading to spark discharges, which could have easily been prevented with earthing. These tendencies indicate that, when operators handle flammable liquids with any conductors, the ignition risk is significantly high. A serious lack of information regarding fundamental countermeasures for static electricity seems to be the main cause of such hazards. Only organised management, including education and risk communication, would prevent them.

  3. Style Shifts among Japanese Learners before and after Study Abroad in Japan: Becoming Active Social Agents in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwasaki, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on L2 Japanese sojourners often reported that learners overuse the plain style or haphazardly mix the plain and polite styles upon return. These styles, which are often associated with formal or informal contexts, also index complex social and situational meanings, and native speakers are reported to shift their styles to create…

  4. Activities of the Japanese space weather forecast center at Communications Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Watari, Shinichi; Tomita, Fumihiko

    2002-12-01

    The International Space Environment Service (ISES) is an international organization for space weather forecasts and belongs to the International Union of Radio Science (URSI). There are eleven ISES forecast centers in the world, and Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) runs the Japanese one. We make forecasts on the space environment and deliver them over the phones and through the Internet. Our forecasts could be useful for human activities in space. Currently solar activity is near maximum phase of the solar cycle 23. We report the several large disturbances of space environment occurred in 2001, during which low-latitude auroras were observed several times in Japan. PMID:12793730

  5. Japanese direct investment in the US high-technology industry: background, strategies, trends, impact, and alternative responses

    SciTech Connect

    Kavner, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Growth of foreign direct investment in the US, exceeding 1000% since 1970, has raised important issues regarding US policies toward foreign trade and domestic economic management. Japan, with its significant direct investment in America's high-technology industry, is often perceived as the most threatening of the foreign investors. This study was undertaken to determine the background, extent, and impact of Japanese direct investment in the US high-technology industry. Examination of patterns of foreign direct investment in the US since 1950 shows that Japan's participation has been governed largely by US monetary policies (e.g., revaluation of currency) and the proposed or actual imposition of protectionist measures (e.g., import quotas). Additional factors include US economic-growth potential, lenient tax laws, stable political structure, and many incentives at the state level, all of which provide an attractive environment for foreign investors. Results suggest that the problems associated with foreign direct investment in the US are far outweighed by its benefits of capital inflow and creation of new jobs. An optimum trade policy, in conjunction with the opening of Japan's trade and investment markets, would eliminate trade barriers and support a stabilization of currency.

  6. Antioxidative activity in the pericarp and seed of Japanese pepper (Xanthoxylum piperitum DC).

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, E; Matsui, M; Kubota, K; Kobayashi, A

    2000-10-01

    The antioxidative activity of the dried pericarp and seed of Japanese pepper was studied. The ethyl acetate extract from the pericarp and the methanol extract from the seed showed strong antioxidative activity against linoleic acid by the ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods. Japanese pepper contained 3.9 and 2.9 mg/100 g of dry weight (dw) of tocopherols in the pericarp and seed, respectively, alpha-Toc in the former constituting 82% of total tocopherol and gamma-Toc in the latter constituting 96%. Arbutin and magnoflorine were isolated as antioxidants and their chemical structures determined by instrumental analyses. The contents of arbutin evaluated as the trifluoroacetate derivative by GC-MS were 35 and 3.0 mg/100 g of dw in the pericarp and seed, respectively. Magnoflorine was present only in the seed, and not in the pericarp. Both arbutin and magnoflorine exhibited antioxidative activity against linoleic acid and radical-scavenging activity against the DPPH radical. PMID:11052757

  7. Direct activation of GABAA receptors by substances in the organic acid fraction of Japanese sake.

    PubMed

    Izu, Hanae; Shigemori, Kensuke; Eguchi, Masaya; Kawane, Shuhei; Fujii, Shouko; Kitamura, Yuji; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Yamada, Yasue

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of substances present in Japanese sake on the response of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sake was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. The fraction containing organic acids (OA fraction) showed agonist activities on the GABAA receptor. OA fractions from sake were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Of the 64 compounds identified, 13 compounds showed GABAA receptor agonist activities. Especially, l-lactic acid showed high agonist activity and its EC50 value was 37μM. Intraperitoneal injections of l-lactic acid, gluconic acid, and pyruvic acid (10, 10, and 5mg/kg BW, respectively), which showed agonistic activity on the GABAA receptor, led to significant anxiolytic effects during an elevated plus-maze test in mice. PMID:27507485

  8. Japanese; Japanese Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…

  9. R&D of low activation ferritic steels for fusion in japanese universities*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, Akira; Kohno, Yutaka; Asakura, Kentaro; Kayano, Hideo

    1994-09-01

    Following the brief review of the R&D of low activation ferritic steels in Japanese universities, the status of 9Cr-2W type ferritic steels development is presented. The main emphasis is on mechanical property changes by fast neutron irradiation in FFTF. Bend test, tensile test, CVN test and in-reactor creep results are provided including some data about low activation ferritic steels with Cr variation from 2.25 to 12%. The 9Cr-2W ferritic steel, denoted as JLF-1, showed excellent mechanical properties under fast neutron irradiation as high as 60 dpa. As potential materials for DEMO and beyond, innovative oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) quasi-amorphous low activation ferritic steels are introduced. The baseline properties, microstructural evolution under ion irradiation and the recent progress of new processes are provided.

  10. [The development of modern Japanese pharmaceutical industry (Part 4). From 1906 to 1920, coinciding with the era between the institution and issue of Japanese Pharmacopoeia Third Edition with Fourth Edition (JP III-JP IV)].

    PubMed

    Yamada, H

    1994-01-01

    The publishing of the Third Edition of Japanese Pharmacopoeia was performed after Russo-Japanese War, on July 2, 1906. In those times, the military and economical power of Japan advanced toward East Asia, and thus gradually, Japan had become one of the powerful force in the world, partly because due to the unexpected victory in the War. Thereafter, in the second decade of the twentieth century, Japan was involved in the World War I, from July, 1914 to November, 1918, which ceased the fire by the defeat of Germanic Allied Countries. In Japan, the next revise of the pharmacopoeia was performed and the Fourth Edition of it was published on December 15, 1920. The Japanese pharmaceutical industry developed remarkably in those times, during the big war and confusion in the market, by accompanying with the suitable and tentative pharmaceutical legislations by the government and the supportive aids to the civilian enterprises in the productions, supplies and distributions of the materials and medicinal products. PMID:11613500

  11. Infrasound Monitoring of the Volcanic Activities of Japanese Volcanoes in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. I.; Che, I. Y.; Shin, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Since 1999 when our first infrasound array station(CHNAR) has been installed at Cheolwon, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources(KIGAM) is continuously observing infrasound signals with an infrasound array network, named KIN(Korean Infrasound Network). This network is comprised of eight seismo-acoustic array stations(BRDAR, YPDAR, KMPAR, CHNAR, YAGAR, KSGAR, ULDAR, TJIAR). The aperture size of the smallest array is 300m and the largest is about 1.4km. The number of infrasound sensors are between 4(TJIAR) and 18(YAGAR), and 1~5 seismometers are collocated with infrasound sensors. Many interesting infrasound signals associated with different type of sources, such as blasting, large earthquake, bolide, volcanic explosion are detected by KIN in the past 15 years. We have analyzed the infrasound signals possibly associated with the japanese volcanic explosions with reference to volcanic activity report published by Japanese Meteorological Agency. Analysis results of many events, for example, Asama volcano explosion in 2004 and Shinmoe volcano in 2011, are well matched with the official report. In some cases, however, corresponding infrasound signals are not identified. By comparison of the infrasound signals from different volcanoes, we also found that the characteristics of signals are distinguishing. It may imply that the specific volcano has its own unique fingerprint in terms of infrasound signal. It might be investigated by long-term infrasound monitoring for a specific volcano as a ground truth generating repetitive infrasound signal.

  12. Active magnetic bearings applied to industrial compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. G.; Hustak, J. F.; Schoeneck, K. A.

    1993-01-01

    The design and shop test results are given for a high-speed eight-stage centrifugal compressor supported by active magnetic bearings. A brief summary of the basic operation of active magnetic bearings and the required rotor dynamics analysis are presented with specific attention given to design considerations for optimum rotor stability. The concerns for retrofits of magnetic bearings in existing machinery are discussed with supporting analysis of a four-stage centrifugal compressor. The current status of industrial machinery in North America using this new support system is presented and recommendations are given on design and analysis requirements for successful machinery operation of either retrofit or new design turbomachinery.

  13. Host suitability and diet mixing influence activities of detoxification enzymes in adult Japanese beetles.

    PubMed

    Adesanya, Adekunle; Liu, Nannan; Held, David W

    2016-05-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450, glutathione S transferase (GST), and carboxylesterase (CoE) activity was measured in guts of the scarab Popillia japonica Newman, after consumption of single or mixed plant diets of previously ranked preferred (rose, Virginia creeper, crape myrtle and sassafras) or non-preferred hosts (boxelder, riverbirch and red oak). The goal of this study was to quantify activities of P450, GST and CoE enzymes in the midgut of adult P. japonica using multiple substrates in response to host plant suitability (preferred host vs non-preferred hosts), and single and mixed diets. Non-preferred hosts were only sparingly fed upon, and as a group induced higher activities of P450, GST and CoE than did preferred hosts. However, enzyme activities for some individual plant species were similar across categories of host suitability. Similarly, beetles tended to have greater enzyme activities after feeding on a mixture of plants compared to a single plant type, but mixing per se does not seem as important as the species represented in the mix. Induction of detoxification enzymes on non-preferred hosts, or when switching between hosts, may explain, in part, the perceived feeding preferences of this polyphagous insect. The potential consequences of induced enzyme activities on the ecology of adult Japanese beetles are discussed. PMID:26964493

  14. Antiviral activity of Rheum palmatum methanol extract and chrysophanol against Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Jen; Huang, Su-Hua; Lin, Ying-Ju; Tsou, Yi-Yun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Rheum palmatum, Chinese traditional herb, exhibits a great variety of anti-cancer and anti-viruses properties. This study rates antiviral activity of R. palmatum extracts and its components against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in vitro. Methanol extract of R. palmatum contained higher levels of aloe emodin, chrysophanol, rhein, emodin and physcion than water extract. Methanol extract (IC₅₀ = 15.04 μg/ml) exhibited more potent inhibitory effects on JEV plaque reduction than water extract (IC₅₀ = 51.41 μg/ml). Meanwhile, IC₅₀ values determined by plaque reduction assay were 15.82 μg/ml for chrysophanol and 17.39 μg/ml for aloe-emodin, respectively. Virucidal activity of agents correlated with anti-JEV activity, while virucidal IC₅₀ values were 7.58 μg/ml for methanol extract, 17.36 μg/ml for water extract, 0.75 μg/ml for chrysophanol and 0.46 μg/ml for aloe-emodin, respectively. In addition, 10 μg/ml of extract, chrysophanol or aloe emodin caused 90 % inhibition of JEV yields in cells and significantly activated gamma activated sequence-driven promoters. Hence, methanol extract of R. palmatum and chrysophanol with high therapeutic index might be useful for development of antiviral agents against JEV. PMID:24395532

  15. Antimicrobial activities of ozenoxacin against isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Akiko; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Shoji; Okamoto, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ishii, Ritsuko; Fujikawa, Akira; Takei, Katsuaki; Kawashima, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Ozenoxacin, a novel non-fluorinated topical quinolone, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci according to the broth microdilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The isolates used in this study were collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris during a period from 2012 to 2013. The MIC90s of ozenoxacin against Propionibacterium acnes (n=266), Propionibacterium granulosum (n=10), Staphylococcus aureus (n=23), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=229) and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=82) were ≤0.06, ≤0.06, ≤0.06, 0.125 and ≤0.06 µg ml-1, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of ozenoxacin against the clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci was greater than that of five reference antimicrobial agents which have been used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The MICs of ozenoxacin were correlated with those of nadifloxacin in P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates. However, the MICs of ozenoxacin were 0.25-0.5 µg ml-1 and 0.5-8 µg ml-1 against nadifloxacin-resistant P. acnes (MIC: ≥8 µg ml-1; n=8) and S. epidermidis (MIC: ≥64 µg ml-1; n=10), respectively. These results indicated the potent antimicrobial activity against P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates resistant to nadifloxacin. Topical ozenoxacin could represent an alternative therapeutic drug for acne vulgaris based on its potent antimicrobial activity against the isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from acne patients. PMID:27305898

  16. Two farnesoid X receptor alpha isoforms in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) are differentially activated in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, Deanna L.; Hagey, Lee R.; Law, Sheran H.W.; Ai, Ni; Krasowski, Matthew D.; Ekins, Sean; Moore, John T.; Kollitz, Erin M.; Hinton, David E.; Kullman, Seth W.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor alpha (FXRα, NR1H4) is activated by bile acids in multiple species including mouse, rat, and human and in this study we have identified two isoforms of Fxrα in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), a small freshwater teleost. Both isoforms share a high amino acid sequence identity to mammalian FXRα (~70% in the ligand-binding domain). Fxrα1 and Fxrα2 differ within the AF1 domain due to alternative splicing at the fourth intron-exon boundary. This process results in Fxrα1 having an extended N-terminus compared to Fxrα2. A Gal4DBD-FxrαLBD fusion construct was activated by chenodeoxycholic, cholic, deoxycholic and lithocholic acids, and the synthetic agonist GW4064 in transient transactivation assays. Activation of the Gal4DBD-FxrαLBD fusion construct was enhanced by addition of PGC-1α, as demonstrated through titration assays. Surprisingly, when the full-length versions of the two Fxrα isoforms were compared in transient transfection assays, Fxrα2 was activated by C24 bile acids and GW4064, while Fxrα1 was not significantly activated by any of the compounds tested. Since the only significant difference between the full-length constructs was sequence in the AF1 domain, these experiments highlight a key functional region in the Fxrα AF1 domain. Furthermore, mammalian two-hybrid studies demonstrated the ability of Fxrα2, but not Fxrα1, to interact with PGC-1α and SRC-1, and supported our results from the transient transfection reporter gene activation assays. These data demonstrate that both mammalian and teleost FXR (Fxrα2 isoform) are activated by primary and secondary bile acids. PMID:20430454

  17. Toxic industrial deposit remediation by ant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilkova, Veronika; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Toxic industrial deposits are often contaminated by heavy metals and the substrates have low pH values. In such systems, soil development is thus slowed down by high toxicity and acidic conditions which are unfavourable to soil fauna. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) are considered tolerant to heavy metal pollution and are known to increase organic matter content and microbial activity in their nests. Here, we focused on soil remediation caused by three ant species (Formica sanguinea, Lasius niger, and Tetramorium sp.) in an ore-washery sedimentation basin near Chvaletice (Czech Republic). Soil samples were taken from the centre of ant nests and from the nest surroundings (>3 m from nests). Samples were then analyzed for microbial activity and biomass and contents of organic matter and nutrients. As a result, ant species that most influenced soil properties was F. sanguinea as there were higher microbial activity and total nitrogen and ammonia contents in ant nests than in the surrounding soil. We expected such a result because F. sanguinea builds conspicuous large nests and is a carnivorous species that brings substantial amounts of nitrogen in insect prey to their nests. Effects of the other two ant species might be lower because of smaller nests and different feeding habits as they rely mainly on honeydew from aphids or on plant seeds that do not contain much nutrients.

  18. Potent antioxidative and antigenotoxic activity in aqueous extract of Japanese rice bran--association with peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Higashi-Okai, Kiyoka; Kanbara, Keiko; Amano, Kanako; Hagiwara, Akiko; Sugita, Chie; Matsumoto, Norie; Okai, Yasuji

    2004-08-01

    To estimate the preventive potential of Japanese rice bran (Oryza sativa japonica) against the oxygen radical-related chronic diseases such as cardio-vascular diseases and cancer, antioxidative and antigenotoxic activities of the rice bran extracts were analyzed by using assay systems for lipid peroxidation and genotoxin-induced umu gene expression. When effects of the rice bran extracts under different extraction conditions on hydroperoxide generation from auto-oxidized linoleic acid were examined using aluminum chloride method, the water extract showed strong antioxidant activity, but the methanol and acetone extracts did not exhibit significant activity. The water extract of rice bran was divided into the ethanol-precipitable (EP) and supernatant fractions, and EP fraction showed the dominant antioxidant activity, but the supernatant fraction did not exhibit significant antioxidant activity. When the effect of EP fraction on umu C gene expression in SOS response associated with DNA damage in Salmonella typhimurium (TA 1535/pSK 1002) induced by 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) was analyzed, it showed a dose-dependent suppressive activity against Trp-P-1-induced umu C gene expression. The bio-chemical analysis of EP fraction indicates that the major antioxidative and antigenotoxic activity of EP fraction is associated with a proteinous component with the molecular weight of more than 30 KDa. As a possible active principle for the antioxidative and antigenotoxic activity in EP fraction, the strong activity of an oxygen radical-scavenging enzyme, peroxidase was detected, and the purified horseradish peroxidase also caused the similar antioxidative and antigenotoxic activities. The significance of this finding is discussed from the viewpoint of the preventive role of rice bran against oxygen radical-related chronic diseases. PMID:15476307

  19. Detection of neural activity in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a "hot defensive bee ball".

    PubMed

    Ugajin, Atsushi; Kiya, Taketoshi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Ono, Masato; Yoshida, Tadaharu; Kubo, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Anti-predator behaviors are essential to survival for most animals. The neural bases of such behaviors, however, remain largely unknown. Although honeybees commonly use their stingers to counterattack predators, the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) uses a different strategy to fight against the giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia japonica). Instead of stinging the hornet, Japanese honeybees form a "hot defensive bee ball" by surrounding the hornet en masse, killing it with heat. The European honeybee (A. mellifera ligustica), on the other hand, does not exhibit this behavior, and their colonies are often destroyed by a hornet attack. In the present study, we attempted to analyze the neural basis of this behavior by mapping the active brain regions of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. First, we identified an A. cerana homolog (Acks = Apis cerana kakusei) of kakusei, an immediate early gene that we previously identified from A. mellifera, and showed that Acks has characteristics similar to kakusei and can be used to visualize active brain regions in A. cerana. Using Acks as a neural activity marker, we demonstrated that neural activity in the mushroom bodies, especially in Class II Kenyon cells, one subtype of mushroom body intrinsic neurons, and a restricted area between the dorsal lobes and the optic lobes was increased in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. In addition, workers exposed to 46°C heat also exhibited Acks expression patterns similar to those observed in the brains of workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball, suggesting that the neural activity observed in the brains of workers involved in the hot defensive bee ball mainly reflects thermal stimuli processing. PMID:22431987

  20. Specificity of the Immunomodulating Activity of Sasa veitchii (Japanese Folk Medicine Kumazasa) to Fungal Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Sato, Wataru; Takeshita, Kazuo; Tsuboi, Masamichi; Kanamori, Masato; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Miura, Noriko N; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2015-01-01

    Many plant extracts are used as well-known folk medicines and exhibit various biological activities that are beneficial to human health. These extracts contain polysaccharides, and some are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that stimulate innate as well as acquired immune systems. In the present study, the cooperative effects of PAMPs and bamboo water-soluble methanol precipitation (BWMP) in a macromolecular fraction of the hot water extract of Sasa veitchii (in Japanese folk medicine, known as Kumazasa; family Poaceae) were analyzed in vitro using the spleen or bone marrow cells of mice. The splenocytes of male DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice were cultured with BWMP in the presence or absence of PAMPs, and responses were assessed by measuring cytokines. BWMP inhibited the production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) by not only toll like receptors (TLRs), but also the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) dectin-1 and dectin-2. BWMP also inhibited the autologous production of IFN-γ in the splenocyte culture. These results suggested that BWMP may inhibit the signaling pathways of PAMPs, but not ligand-receptor interactions. In contrast, BWMP did not inhibit the production of cytokines by dendritic cells. These results indicated that the inhibition of IFN-γ by BWMP was mediated through the cell-to-cell interactions of splenic cells during cultivation. PMID:26082980

  1. Determination of multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    2003-08-01

    Multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan, in collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five samples (ca. 510-1000 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (TRIGA Mark-II, 100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional gama-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The concentrations of 38 elements were determined by these methods. PMID:12945682

  2. Action-projection in Japanese conversation: topic particles wa, mo, and tte for triggering categorization activities

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Conversation analytic work has revealed how anticipatory completions and preemptive actions can offer invaluable glimpses into the cognitive, contextual, grammatical, and temporal bases of projectability in turn-taking, by virtue of their potential not only as a display of participants' online prediction of roughly what it might take to complete a turn-in-progress but also to plan the next move. While the predicate-final word order and the incremental transformability of turns in Japanese generally lead to delayed projectability of turn-endings, this may be partially offset by the capacity of certain postpositional particles to trigger and propel prospective action trajectories. This article engages in a case study of the topic particle wa (and related particles mo and tte), by demonstrating how its grammatical affordances, the categorization activities, and cognitive processing it can set in motion, coupled with the immediate contextual, and temporal-productional features may coalesce to a point of critical mass, thereby enhancing the projectability of the not-yet-produced trajectory of the current turn. The discussion attempts to contribute to recent debates on ways language-specific lexicogrammatical resources are deeply interlinked with the types of opportunities that are provided for social action. PMID:26379565

  3. Action-projection in Japanese conversation: topic particles wa, mo, and tte for triggering categorization activities.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Conversation analytic work has revealed how anticipatory completions and preemptive actions can offer invaluable glimpses into the cognitive, contextual, grammatical, and temporal bases of projectability in turn-taking, by virtue of their potential not only as a display of participants' online prediction of roughly what it might take to complete a turn-in-progress but also to plan the next move. While the predicate-final word order and the incremental transformability of turns in Japanese generally lead to delayed projectability of turn-endings, this may be partially offset by the capacity of certain postpositional particles to trigger and propel prospective action trajectories. This article engages in a case study of the topic particle wa (and related particles mo and tte), by demonstrating how its grammatical affordances, the categorization activities, and cognitive processing it can set in motion, coupled with the immediate contextual, and temporal-productional features may coalesce to a point of critical mass, thereby enhancing the projectability of the not-yet-produced trajectory of the current turn. The discussion attempts to contribute to recent debates on ways language-specific lexicogrammatical resources are deeply interlinked with the types of opportunities that are provided for social action. PMID:26379565

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Active Components of Yokukansan, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine after a Single Oral Administration to Healthy Japanese Volunteers: A Cross-Over, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Ichikawa, Kengo; Fukudome, Ian; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Igarashi, Yasushi; Hanyu, Haruo; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Context Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine called kampo medicine in Japan. Its extract comprises seven crude drugs: Atractylodis lanceae rhizoma, Poria, Cnidii rhizoma, Uncariae uncis cum ramulus, Angelicae radix, Bupleuri radix, and Glycyrrhizae radix. YKS is used to treat neurosis, insomnia, as well as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Objective To confirm the exposure and pharmacokinetics of the active components of YKS in healthy volunteers. Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized, open-label, 3-arm, 3-period, crossover trial was conducted on 21 healthy Japanese volunteers at the Kochi Medical University between May 2012 and November 2012. Interventions Single oral administration of YKS (2.5 g, 5.0 g, or 7.5 g/day) during each period. Main Outcome Measure Plasma concentrations of three active compounds in YKS, namely 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), and hirsuteine (HTE). Results The mean maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of GM and HTE increased dose-dependently (ranges: 0.650–1.98 ng/mL and 0.138–0.450 ng/mL, respectively). The times to maximum plasma concentration after drug administration (tmax) were 0.500 h for GM and 0.975–1.00 h for HTE. The apparent elimination half-lives (t1/2) were 1.72–1.95 h for GM and 2.47–3.03 h for HTE. These data indicate the rapid absorption and elimination of GM and HTE. On the other hand, the Cmax, tmax, and t1/2 of GA were 57.7–108 ng/mL, 8.00–8.01 h, and 9.39–12.3 h, respectively. Conclusion We demonstrated that pharmacologically active components of YKS are detected in humans. Further, we determined the pharmacokinetics of GM, HTE, and GA. This information will be useful to elucidate the pharmacological effects of YKS. Trial Registration Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center JAPIC CTI-121811 PMID:26151135

  5. Tri-Axial Accelerometer-Determined Daily Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior of Suburban Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Honda, Takanori; Chen, Sanmei; Haeuchi, Yuki; Nofuji, Yu Y; Matsuo, Eri; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge regarding accelerometer-derived physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SED) levels is scarce for Japanese older adults. The aims of this study were therefore to 1) describe levels of PA and SED in Japanese community-dwelling older adults, using tri-axial accelerometer; 2) examine the variation of PA and SED with respect to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Participants of this study were from the baseline survey of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study, who were 65 years or older and not certified as those requiring long-term care. PA was assessed objectively for seven consecutive days using tri-axial accelerometer. A total of 1,739 participants (median age: 72 years, men: 38.0%) with valid PA data were included. Overall, participants in the present study spent 54.5% of their waking time being sedentary and 45.5% being active, of which 5.4% was moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Women accumulated more minutes of light physical activity (LPA) and MVPA compared with men. In contrast, men spent more time being sedentary. Mean steps per day did not differ between sexes. Furthermore, participants with higher BMI (BMI ≥25) had lower PA levels, and longer SED compared with those with lower BMI (BMI <). PA levels were lower and SED was longer with age. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the levels of PA and SED differed by sex, age, and BMI in Japanese community-dwelling older adults. In particular, women were more active compared with men, providing unique insight into the current level of PA in older adults. Data presented in the study will enable further investigation of additional determinants of PA and SED in order to develop effective population-based intervention strategies to promote PA and reduce prolonged SED in the Japanese population and possibly other rapidly aging societies. Key points Accelerometer, that is capable to assess PA more precisely in large scale epidemiological studies, provides opportunity for improving

  6. [Activity of the Far East commonstate organization during the Russian-Japanese War 1904-1905].

    PubMed

    Goncharova, S G

    2010-07-01

    The article is concerned with the participation of commonstate organizations in the delivery of medical treatment for the wounded soldiers in Fast East during the Russian-Japanese War 1904-1905. On the morrow of the Russian-Japanese War this community was transformed into the commonstate organization of relief. This organization expanded its help to the harmed from bad harvest areas and than to the migrants. During the early of the World War I 1914-1918 on the ground of commonstate organization was developed The Russian commonstate union. PMID:20873197

  7. Seismic activity of Tokyo area and Philippine Sea plate under Japanese Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Kasahara, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.; Kurashimo, E.; Obara, K.; Hirata, N.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Japanese government has estimated the probability of earthquake occurrence with magnitude 7-class during the next 30 years as 70 %. This estimation is based on five earthquakes that occurred in this area in the late 120 years. However, it has been revealed that this region is lying on more complicated tectonic condition due to the two subducted plates and the various types of earthquakes which have been caused by. Therefore, it is necessary to classify these earthquakes into inter-plate earthquakes and intra-plate ones. Then, we have been constructing a seismic observation network since 5 years ago. Tokyo Metropolitan area is a densely populated region of about 40 million people. It is the center of Japan both in politics and in economy. So that human activities have been conducting quite busily, this region is unsuitable for seismic observation. Then, we have decided to make an ultra high dense seismic observation network. We named it the Metropolitan Seismometer Observation Network; MeSO-net. MeSO-net consists of 296 seismic stations. Minimum interval is about 2km and average interval is about 5km.We picked the P- and S-wave arrival times manually. We applied double-difference tomography method to the dataset and estimated the velocity structure. We depicted the plate boundaries from the newly developed velocity model. And, we referred to the locations of the repeating earthquakes, the distributions of normal hypocenters and the focal mechanisms. Our plate model became relatively flat and a little shallower than previous one.Seismicity of Metropolitan area after the M9 event was compared to the one before M9 event. The seismic activity is about 4 times as high as before the M9 event occurred. We examined spatial distribution of the activated seismicity with respect to the newly developed plate configuration. The activated events are located on upper boundaries and they have almost thrust type mechanisms. Recently, a slow slip event has occurred on October in

  8. Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909

  9. 40 CFR 721.80 - Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Industrial, commercial, and consumer... Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Whenever a substance is identified in subpart E of this part... the substance. (l) Non-industrial use. (m) Commercial use. (n) Non-commercial use. (o) Use in...

  10. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  11. 40 CFR 721.80 - Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Industrial, commercial, and consumer... Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Whenever a substance is identified in subpart E of this part... the substance. (l) Non-industrial use. (m) Commercial use. (n) Non-commercial use. (o) Use in...

  12. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  13. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  14. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  15. 40 CFR 721.80 - Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Industrial, commercial, and consumer... Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Whenever a substance is identified in subpart E of this part... the substance. (l) Non-industrial use. (m) Commercial use. (n) Non-commercial use. (o) Use in...

  16. 40 CFR 721.80 - Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Industrial, commercial, and consumer... Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Whenever a substance is identified in subpart E of this part... the substance. (l) Non-industrial use. (m) Commercial use. (n) Non-commercial use. (o) Use in...

  17. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  18. Industry activities to improve valve performance

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, C.

    1996-12-01

    Motor-operated valve issues refuse to go away. For over a decade the industry and the NRC have been focusing extraordinary resources on assuring these special components operate when called upon. Now that industry has fixed the design deficiencies, it is focusing on assuring that they perform their safety function within the current licensing basis for the remainder of plant life. NEI supported the efforts by ASME to develop OMN-1 and was encouraged that the industry and the NRC worked together to develop risk and performance based approaches to maintain MOV performance.

  19. [The development of the Japanese pharmaceutical industry (part 7). Histories of medical advertisements from Taisho Era till Showa Era].

    PubMed

    Takehara, J; Yamada, H

    1999-01-01

    Medical advertisements in newspapers have been used quite often as a means of sales promotion since the Meiji Era. Medical advertisements were quantitatively the leading advertisements in Japanese newspapers from the Taisho Era to early in the Showa Era. When World War II broke out, the quanity of advertisements in newspapers decreased markedly. After the war ended, the quantity of radio commercials for medicine increased quite rapidly. In the 1960s, however, pharmaceutical companies were criticized for over-promoting and improperly using medicines. PMID:11624347

  20. Japanese Strategy and Technology of Active Monitoring of the Earth's Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazawa, M.

    2004-12-01

    The difficulty of the research towards the highly nonlinear phenomena such as earthquakes motivated us to explore an essential tool demanded inevitably beyond the level of technology and budget available at present. Intuitively it must be the extensive and intensive monitoring of the target with higher resolution. Naturally it is the remote sensing by utilizing actively and continuously all possible types of `wave', i. e., seismic wave and electromagnetic wave. The developmental study of the active tools has been made since 1994 in Japan for the precise structure exploration and continuous state monitoring targeted to the tectonically active parts in the Earth's lithospheres. It was promoted after the disastrous Kobe Earthquake of 1993. Basic necessity for the technology is the robustness against the natural and artificial noise in remote observation to obtain data with larger S/N under non-destructive condition for environments. The data to be obtained is the transfer function between many transmitter sites and many receiver sites. We believe that our science would change drastically, once we come to obtain the highly reliable data with reliable estimate of observational error smaller than before by one order of magnitude. The technical demand is the precision of transmitting signal and receiving device, which are stable and accurate enough both in synchronization and reproducibility so as to allow the effective data stacking of long period of time in obtaining the transfer function data between the source and receiver. A special emphasis is placed on the polarization and dispersion (color) of the transfer function, in order to extract the data of anisotropy, scattering and attenuation that are expected to carry the information on the physical states within the polycrystalline rocks bearing the structural sensitivity under stress. A review is made on the current state of the technology called ACROSS (Accurately Controlled Routinely Operated Signal System) and

  1. NOVEL ASSAY TO ASSESS CYP-2E1-LIKE ACTIVITY IN THE JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liver microsomes and S-9 fraction of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) metabolized the CYP2E1 specific substrate, p-nitrophenol (PNP), to a single hydroxylated product, 4-nitrocatechol. The use of liver S-9 fraction proved to be a viable alternative to liver microsomes and allowe...

  2. Symbolism in Japanese Language and Culture: Activities for the Elementary Classroom. Grades--Upper Elementary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This book aims to expose students of grades 4-6 to the language and culture of Japan. The unifying theme of all of the lessons is symbolism in Japanese language and culture. Lessons can be used as a unit or in sections and specific lessons can be presented in isolation. Each day's materials and format are described in detail with specific…

  3. Contrastive Semantics of Physical Activity Verbs: "Cutting" and "Chopping" in English, Polish, and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Cliff; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the contrastive lexical semantics of verbs comparable to "cut" and "chop" in three languages (English, Polish, and Japanese), using the natural semantic metalanguage (NSM) technique of semantic analysis. It proposes a six-part semantic template, and argues that this template can serve as a basis for a lexical typology of…

  4. Activity and social factors affect cohesion among individuals in female Japanese macaques: A simultaneous focal-follow study.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Mari; Suzuki, Mariko; Sprague, David S

    2014-07-01

    Understanding cohesion among individuals within a group is necessary to reveal the social system of group-living primates. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are female-philopatric primates that reside in social groups. We investigated whether individual activity and social factors can affect spatio-temporal cohesion in wild female Japanese macaques. We conducted behavioral observation on a group, which contained 38 individuals and ranged over ca. 60 ha during the study period. Two observers carried out simultaneous focal-animal sampling of adult female pairs during full-day follows using global positioning system which enabled us to quantify interindividual distances (IIDs), group members within visual range (i.e., visual unit), and separation duration beyond visual range as indicators of cohesion among individuals. We found considerable variation in spatio-temporal group cohesion. The overall mean IID was 99.9 m (range = 0-618.2 m). The percentage of IIDs within visual range was 23.1%, within auditory range was 59.8%, and beyond auditory range was 17.1%. IIDs varied with activity; they were shorter during grooming and resting, and longer during foraging and traveling. Low-ranking females showed less cohesion than high-ranking ones. Kin females stayed nearly always within audible range. The macaques were weakly cohesive with small mean visual unit size (3.15 counting only adults, 5.99 counting all individuals). Both-sex units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were grooming/resting. Conversely, female units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were foraging. The overall mean visual separation duration was 25.7 min (range = 3-513 min). Separation duration was associated with dominance rank. These results suggest that Japanese macaques regulate cohesion among individuals depending on their activity and on social relationships; they were separated to adapt food distribution and aggregated to maintain social

  5. Identification of an active fault in the Japanese Alps from DEM-based hill shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Takashi; Aoki, Tatsuto; Matsuta, Nobuhisa

    2003-08-01

    Shaded-relief images created from digital elevation models (DEMs) are helpful in identifying faults in rugged mountains. Unlike airphoto interpretation, the method enhances lineaments by simulating topographic illumination under varied light directions. Interpretation of shaded-relief images of the Japanese Alps led to the discovery of a lineament unrelated to bedrock structure. Field surveys and analysis of large-scale maps and airphotos reveal the lineament to be a fault with high rates of vertical and lateral slip. The new fault is the southernmost segment of a known adjacent fault, and the rate and direction of its slip provide fresh insight into the late Quaternary history of the fault system. Because previous research mistook the fault scarp for a fluvial terrace scarp, discovery of the fault also changed the correlation of river terraces in the Northern Japanese Alps. The new corrections affect Pleistocene glacial chronology in the upstream area.

  6. Introductory Industrial Technology I. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towler, Alan L.; And Others

    This guide contains 36 learning modules intended for use by technology teachers and students in grades 7 and 8. Each module includes a student laboratory activity and instructor's resource sheet. Each student activity includes the following: activity topic and overview, challenge statement, objectives, vocabulary/concepts reinforced,…

  7. Introductory Industrial Technology II. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towler, Alan L.

    This guide contains 29 learning modules intended for use by technology teachers and students in grade 8. Each module includes a student laboratory activity and instructor's resource sheet. Each student activity includes the following: activity topic and overview, challenge statement, objectives, vocabulary/concepts reinforced, equipment/supplies,…

  8. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students) daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity. PMID:22894563

  9. ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS: SELECTED TECHNICAL PAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the tremendous interest in the organic constituent removal by activated carbon, the two industrial categories displaying the most interest are the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. EPA's Office of Research and Development has co-sponsored two technical s...

  10. 40 CFR 721.80 - Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industrial, commercial, and consumer... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Certain Significant New Uses § 721.80 Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Whenever a substance is identified in subpart E of this...

  11. Seasonal variations in the activity budget of Japanese macaques in the coniferous forest of Yakushima: effects of food and temperature.

    PubMed

    Hanya, Goro

    2004-07-01

    Seasonal variations in the activity budget of Japanese macaques in the coniferous forest of Yakushima were studied over the course of 1 year. On an annual basis, they spent 38% of the daytime feeding, 16% traveling, 14% in social interactions, and 32% engaged in resting. The effects of temperature and food-related factors (i.e., food distribution, feeding speed, and food abundance) on the seasonal variations of activity budget were examined by stepwise multiple regression analysis. When the temperature was low, the macaques decreased traveling and feeding time, in accordance with the prediction that endothermal animals save energy under severe thermoregulatory cost. When the feeding speed of available foods was slow, they spent more time feeding. When high-quality foods were abundant, they decreased feeding time. These macaques did not respond to fluctuations in food distribution. The present results indicate the importance of temperature, in addition to food-related factors, as a determinant of activity budgets. PMID:15258960

  12. Specific Activation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Beta Enhances Male Sexual Behavior and Neuroplasticity in Male Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Seredynski, Aurore L.; Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques; Charlier, Thierry D.

    2011-01-01

    Two subtypes of estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, have been identified in humans and numerous vertebrates, including the Japanese quail. We investigated in this species the specific role(s) of each receptor in the activation of male sexual behavior and the underlying estrogen-dependent neural plasticity. Castrated male Japanese quail received empty (CX) or testosterone-filled (T) implants or were daily injected with the ER general agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES), the ERα-specific agonist PPT, the ERβ-specific agonist DPN or the vehicle, propylene glycol. Three days after receiving the first treatment, subjects were alternatively tested for appetitive (rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements, RCSM) and consummatory aspects (copulatory behavior) of male sexual behavior. 24 hours after the last behavioral testing, brains were collected and analyzed for aromatase expression and vasotocinergic innervation in the medial preoptic nucleus. The expression of RCSM was activated by T and to a lesser extent by DES and PPT but not by the ERβagonist DPN. In parallel, T fully restored the complete sequence of copulation, DES was partially active and the specific activation of ERα or ERβ only resulted in a very low frequency of mount attempts in few subjects. T increased the volume of the medial preoptic nucleus as measured by the dense cluster of aromatase-immunoreactive cells and the density of the vasotocinergic innervation within this nucleus. DES had only a weak action on vasotocinergic fibers and the two specific ER agonists did not affect these neural responses. Simultaneous activation of both receptors or treatments with higher doses may be required to fully activate sexual behavior and the associated neurochemical events. PMID:21533185

  13. Japanese and English Sentence Reading Comprehension and Writing Systems: An fMRI Study of First and Second Language Effects on Brain Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Hasegawa, Mihoko; Just, Marcel A.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation from native Japanese (L1) readers reading hiragana (syllabic) and kanji (logographic) sentences, and English as a second language (L2). Kanji showed more activation than hiragana in right-hemisphere occipito-temporal lobe areas associated with visuospatial…

  14. The Japanese experience with the Blue Book and subsequent activities in environmental biosafety of GM crops.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    The Blue Book made a big contribution to the development of the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) guidelines established in 1991 for almost all of the basic issues. However, the MAFF guidelines could not sufficiently cover some important areas that the Blue Book addressed well, such as potential consequences. This gap has been recovered substantially by a new law established in 2003. Japan still faces several important issues, including assessment of stacked products, potential consequences, comparative assessment, assessment of imported GM commodities and movement of concerned groups. PMID:17640516

  15. Knockdown, residual, and antifeedant activity of pyrethroids and home landscape bioinsecticides against Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Linden foliage.

    PubMed

    Baumler, Rebecca E; Potter, Daniel A

    2007-04-01

    Residual toxicity and leaf protection capability of five pyrethroids, professional and home garden azadirachtin formulations, and six other bioinsecticides for the home landscape were evaluated against the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), on linden, Tilia cordata L. Capacity of intoxicated beetles to recover and subsequently feed and disperse also was evaluated to provide insight on activity characteristics of the different compounds. Intact shoots were sprayed and left in the field for varying intervals before being challenged with beetles in no-choice and choice tests. All pyrethroids except permethrin gave greater leaf protection, knockdown, and kill than did carbaryl, the standard, after 14 d of weathering. Deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and lamda-cyhalothrin gave a high level of protection for at least 19 d, and azadirachtin (Azatin XL) deterred feeding in choice tests for as long as 14 d. Home garden formulations containing pyrethrins in canola oil (Pyola) or azadiractin (Neem-Away) gave good short-term (< 3-d) protection. Formulations of capsaicin, rotenone + pyrethrins, kaolin particle film, D-limonene, or garlic extract were ineffective, the latter two formulations being highly phytotoxic to linden. Results of this study should help support updating of guidelines for insecticidal control of Japanese beetles. PMID:17461070

  16. The Nonacademic Curriculum of the Japanese Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Japanese nursery school and kindergarten activities are designed to facilitate the socialization of Japanese children. The culture of the home and the culture of the school (and by extension the rest of Japanese society) are so different from each other that it is believed the open and unselfconscious help of the education system is necessary to…

  17. Modes of Governmentality in an Online Space: A Case Study of Blog Activities in an Advanced Level Japanese-as-a-Foreign-Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko M.; Sato, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the validity of the incorporation of online communication in language education classes as a practice free of power politics. By examining blog activities in an advanced-level Japanese-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom at a university in the USA, we show that the blog's postings and readers' comments evoke certain modes of…

  18. The Effects of Pragmatic Consciousness-Raising Activities on the Development of Pragmatic Awareness and Use of Hearsay Evidential Markers for Learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narita, Ritsuko

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of pragmatic consciousness-raising (PCR) activities in the L2 pragmatic acquisition of hearsay evidential markers by learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). PCR is essentially an inductive approach to facilitating awareness of how language forms are used appropriately in a given context.…

  19. Levels of enzyme activities in six lysosomal storage diseases in Japanese neonates determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mashima, Ryuichi; Sakai, Eri; Kosuga, Motomichi; Okuyama, Torayuki

    2016-12-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are caused by defective enzyme activities in lysosomes, characterized by the accumulation of glycolipids, oligosaccharides, mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and other biological substances. Accumulating evidence has suggested that early detection of individuals with LSDs, followed by the immediate initiation of appropriate therapy during the presymptomatic period, usually results in better therapeutic outcomes. The activities of individual enzymes are measured using fluorescent substrates. However, the simultaneous determination of multiple enzyme activities has been awaited in neonatal screening of LSDs because the prevalence of individual LSDs is rare. In this study, the activities of six enzymes associated with LSDs were examined with 6-plex enzyme assay using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The accumulation of enzyme products was almost linear for 0-20 h at 37 °C. Dried blood spots (DBSs) provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were used for quality control (QC). The intraday and interday coefficient of variance values were < 25%. The enzyme activities of healthy individuals were higher than those of LSD-confirmed individuals. These results suggest that the levels of enzyme activities of six LSDs in a Japanese population were comparable to those of a recent report [Elliott et al. Mol Genet Metab 118 (2016) 304-309], providing additional evidence that the 6-plex LSD enzyme assay is a reproducible analytical procedure for neonatal screening. PMID:27625992

  20. Isolation of a ribonuclease with antiproliferative and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from Japanese large brown buckwheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Susu; Yan, Juan; Ye, Xiujuan; Wu, Zujian; Ng, Tzibun

    2015-03-01

    A ribonuclease, with a molecular mass of 22.5 kDa and an N-terminal sequence exhibiting resemblance to previously isolated buckwheat storage proteins and allergens, was isolated from Japanese large brown buckwheat seeds. The ribonuclease was purified using a simple protocol that comprised ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Superdex 75. The ribonuclease exhibited low activity toward poly U, lower activity toward poly C, and very low activity toward poly A and poly G. The enzyme was activated upon exposure to 10 mM of Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) ions but was inhibited by Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) ions at the same concentration. The optimum pH and optimum temperature for the enzyme were pH 9 and 60 °C, respectively. It inhibited proliferation of HepG2 hepatoma and MCF 7 breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 79.2 and 63.8 μM, respectively. It potently inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity with an IC50 of 48 μM. However, there were no antifungal and mitogenic activities. PMID:25503363

  1. Qualification of a cyanate ester epoxy blend supplied by Japanese industry for the ITER TF coil insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopec, R.; Humer, K.; Fillunger, H.; Maix, R. K.; Weber, H. W.; Knaster, J.; Savary, F.

    2012-06-01

    During the last years, two cyanate ester epoxy blends supplied by European and US industry have been successfully qualified for the ITER TF coil insulation. The results of the qualification of a third CE blend supplied by Industrial Summit Technology (IST, Japan) will be presented in this paper. Sets of test samples were fabricated exactly under the same conditions as used before. The reinforcement of the composite consists of wrapped R-glass / polyimide tapes, which are vacuum pressure impregnated with the resin. The mechanical properties of this material were characterized prior to and after reactor irradiation to a fast neutron fluence of 2×1022m-2 (E>0.1 MeV), i.e. twice the ITER design fluence. Static and dynamic tensile as well as static short beam shear tests were carried out at 77 K. In addition, stress strain relations were recorded to determine the Young's modulus at room temperature and at 77 K. The results are compared in detail with the previously qualified materials from other suppliers.

  2. [New challenge for social activities in the Japanese Society of Child Neurology--establishment of Social Activity and Public Relations Committee: introductory remarks].

    PubMed

    Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Konishi, Yukuo

    2004-05-01

    The Japanese Society of Child Neurology newly established Social Activity and Public Relations Committee for the purpose of flexible response to the social event publicity. The committee consists of more than 36 members and is divided into the following sub-committees: Sub-committee 1 is intended to support the management and care of patients with developmental disabilities from infancy to adolescence, Sub-committee 2 devoted to the acquisition of research grants and the communication of basic scientific research, and Sub-committee 3 to coordinate and support medical-educational relationship. These three sub-committees achieved many of their goals during their stated first year of existence. PMID:15176583

  3. An overview of Japanese occupational health.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, M R; Frumkin, H

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Japanese occupational health and evaluates the current situation from three perspectives. Major occupational health hazards are assessed using four sources of data, showing patterns similar to those found in other advanced industrial societies. Institutional structures for occupational health policy are then examined, illustrating strengths and weaknesses of the Japanese legal and administrative systems. Trade union activities are presented, indicating the constraints of enterprise unions, and the tendency for a greater orientation toward compensation than prevention. Significant occupational health problems persist among marginal workers in Japan, including women and various minority groups. The analysis demonstrates a record for occupational health in Japan considerably more mixed than the conventional view. PMID:2968056

  4. Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263

  5. Antiviral Activity of a Novel Compound CW-33 against Japanese Encephalitis Virus through Inhibiting Intracellular Calcium Overload.

    PubMed

    Huang, Su-Hua; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chen, Chao-Jung; Liu, Yu-Ching; Wang, Ching-Ying; Ping, Chia-Fong; Lin, Yu-Fong; Huang, An-Cheng; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has five genotypes (I, II, III, IV, and V). JEV genotype I circulates widely in some Asian countries. However, current JEV vaccines based on genotype III strains show low neutralizing capacities against genotype I variants. In addition, JE has no specific treatment, except a few supportive treatments. Compound CW-33, an intermediate synthesized derivative of furoquinolines, was investigated for its antiviral activities against JEV in this study. CW-33 exhibited the less cytotoxicity to Syrian baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) and human medulloblastoma (TE761) cells. CW-33 dose-dependently reduced the cytopathic effect and apoptosis of JEV-infected cells. Supernatant virus yield assay pinpointed CW-33 as having potential anti-JEV activity with IC50 values ranging from 12.7 to 38.5 μM. Time-of-addition assay with CW-33 indicated that simultaneous and post-treatment had no plaque reduction activity, but continuous and simultaneous treatments proved to have highly effective antiviral activity, with IC50 values of 32.7 and 48.5 μM, respectively. CW-33 significantly moderated JEV-triggered Ca(2+) overload, which correlated with the recovery of mitochondria membrane potential as well as the activation of Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT1 signals in treated infected cells. Phosphopeptide profiling by LC-MS/MS revealed that CW-33 upregulated proteins from the enzyme modulator category, such as protein phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2), Rho GTPase-activating protein 35, ARF GTPase-activating protein GIT2, and putative 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 2. These enzyme modulators identified were associated with the activation of Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT1 signals. Meanwhile, I-2 treatment substantially inhibited the apoptosis of JEV-infected cells. The results demonstrated that CW-33 exhibited a significant potential in the development of anti-JEV agents. PMID:27563890

  6. Climate change impact on economical and industrial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, S.; Bernardara, P.; Donat, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is under way and impacts can already be observed and have to be expected for the future, even if mitigation measures can be implemented. A number of economical and industrial activities are influenced by or even depend on the climatic conditions. Hence, changing climate has implications for those activities, and adaptation to the changing environmental conditions may be required. This presentation gives an overview of different studies investigating climate change impacts on the economical and industrial sector, as well as related adaptation actions. This includes investigations of climate impacts on agriculture, tourism, insurance risk,design of protection of industrial utilities against flood, and electricity production. Further studies investigate the mitigation of CO2 emissions by using renewable energy generation and the use of alternative building materials.

  7. CONSIDERATIONS IN GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF COMBINED INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to examine the use of activated carbon in reducing the content of biologically resistant organic compounds in a combined industrial wastewater treatment system. The invvestigation was conducted in two stages: (1) characterize organic priority pol...

  8. Space Industrialization: Manufacturing and Construction Activities. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Charles H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how space industrialization will provide direct benefits for our nation and will transfer technology to the many diverse areas of human activity. Examples are the development of the Space Shuttle, the Space Studies Institute, and the LS Society (advocates for colonizing space). (NRJ)

  9. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC) counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48) and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94). Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1) (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010) and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p < 0.001) and lower HDL cholesterol (55 ± 2 vs. 60 ± 1 mg/dl, p = 0.031) as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600) and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index < 600). Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p < 0.001; 2166 ± 86 vs. 827 ± 62 pg/ml, p = 0.005) than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437). In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p < 0.001) or light (6829 ± 352/μl, p = 0.001) smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl). There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158). Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male

  10. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  11. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  12. Japanese Characters in Written Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James H.

    From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…

  13. The time-course of lexical activation in Japanese morphographic word recognition: evidence for a character-driven processing model.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Koji; Libben, Gary; Dijkstra, Ton; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This lexical decision study with eye tracking of Japanese two-kanji-character words investigated the order in which a whole two-character word and its morphographic constituents are activated in the course of lexical access, the relative contributions of the left and the right characters in lexical decision, the depth to which semantic radicals are processed, and how nonlinguistic factors affect lexical processes. Mixed-effects regression analyses of response times and subgaze durations (i.e., first-pass fixation time spent on each of the two characters) revealed joint contributions of morphographic units at all levels of the linguistic structure with the magnitude and the direction of the lexical effects modulated by readers' locus of attention in a left-to-right preferred processing path. During the early time frame, character effects were larger in magnitude and more robust than radical and whole-word effects, regardless of the font size and the type of nonwords. Extending previous radical-based and character-based models, we propose a task/decision-sensitive character-driven processing model with a level-skipping assumption: Connections from the feature level bypass the lower radical level and link up directly to the higher character level. PMID:23713954

  14. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  15. Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and sleep/wake patterns of Japanese elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Oka, Yasunori; Suzuki, Shuhei; Inoue, Yuich

    2008-01-01

    Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and their impact on sleep/wake patterns were assessed in 509 elementary school children (6-12 years of age; 252 males and 257 females). Television viewing, playing video games, and surfing the Internet had negative impact on sleep/wake parameters. Moreover, presence of a television set or video game in the child's bedroom increased their activity before bedtime. Time to return home later than 8 p.m. from after-school activity also had a negative impact on sleep/wake patterns. Health care practitioners should be aware of the potential negative impact of television, video games, and the Internet before bedtime, and also the possibility that late after-school activity can disturb sleep/wake patterns. PMID:18853306

  16. American, Chinese, and Japanese Students' Acceptance of Their Parents' Values about Academic and Social Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chuansheng

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in students' acceptance of their parents' values about education and social activities. It also examines the relation between acceptance of values and such factors as type of values, knowledge of parental values, mathematics achievement, and psychological well-being. Participants were over 3,000…

  17. Introduction to a Dubbing Activity for a College First-Year Japanese Language Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    This case study presents a description and outline of a dubbing activity in which students utilized their basic linguistic skills holistically. Authentic materials such as television dramas and feature films are "a rich repository of various speech acts, lexicon and linguistic emotivity" (Koyama, 2009) and as such have the potential to…

  18. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. PMID:25153870

  19. Effects of PCBs on liver ultrastructure and monooxygenase activities in Japanese quail

    SciTech Connect

    Stouvenakers, N.; Kremers, P.

    1996-05-01

    The effect of environmental pollutants such as PCBs and DDT on avian species is well documented. It is proven that chronic high level PCB intoxication perturbs calcium metabolism in birds, affecting eggshell thickness. PCBs have an impact on the liver. which accumulates high levels of toxicants. These induce drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in quail (Coturnix coturnix), herring gull (larus argentatus), and partridge (Prdix perdix). As these enzymes can degrade endogeneous molecules such as steroids, xenobiotics like PCBs can severely hinder birds` reproductive performance. PCBs induce damage such as regression of the testes, decreased sperm concentration, and altered embryonic development resulting in death or malformation of chicks. More ever, ultrastructural alterations linked with induction of these enzymes have been observed in the livers of PCB-contaminated chickens and ducks. This study examines the effects of Aroclor 1254 on liver morphology and glycogen content in quail, and related morphological modification to liver monoxygenase activities. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Circulating interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 concentrations are closely associated with γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activity in middle-aged Japanese men without obvious cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Misaki, Yasumi; Miyauchi, Rie; Takabe, Satsuki; Shimada, Masaya; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Ichikawa, Yoko; Goda, Toshinao

    2011-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 expressions are known to be induced by oxidant stress. In the present study, we examined the relationships between these interleukins and the activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP), which was recently reported as a source of oxidant stress production, in the circulating blood of middle-aged Japanese men without obvious cardiovascular diseases. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 317 Japanese men without obvious cardiovascular diseases aged 40 to 69 years (mean ± SD, 58.6 ± 7.6 years) who participated in health checkups in Japan. We analyzed their clinical parameters in serum, lifestyle factors, and plasma IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations. We compared the relationships between these interleukin concentrations and the clinical parameters and lifestyle factors by Spearman correlation coefficients. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses for interleukins based on the other parameters and γ-GTP, which were classified into 3 groups according to the concentrations, were performed. Interleukin-1β and IL-6 concentrations were closely associated with γ-GTP activity but less associated with alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities by Spearman correlation coefficients. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses showed that γ-GTP activity was the explanatory variable for elevated IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations. As natural logarithms, the IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations were estimated to be 1.734- and 1.157-fold higher, respectively, in subjects with high γ-GTP activity ranges than in subjects with a low γ-GTP activity range. The present results show that circulating IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations are strongly and independently associated with γ-GTP activity in middle-aged Japanese men without obvious cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20934730

  1. Handling Japanese without a Japanese Operating System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatasa, Kazumi; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The Macintosh HyperCard environment has become a popular platform for Japanese language courseware because of its flexibility and ease of programing. This project created Japanese bitmap font files for the JIS Levels 1 and 2, and writing XFCNs for font manipulation, Japanese kana input, and answer correction. (12 references) (Author/LB)

  2. [Activities for laboratory medicine support after the Great East Japan Earthquake by the Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hideo; Goto, Kenji; Nagasawa, Mitsuaki; Ohana, Noboru; Okuda, Yuko; Yamada, Osamu; Yamazaki, Ieharu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Goda, Takashi; Nokoshimatsu, Naoki; Minowa, Masakazu; Suwabe, Akira; Shimetani, Naoto

    2011-12-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a tragic tsunami and resulted in serious damage to north region of Japan on March 11, 2011. The Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine, JSLM launched an ad hoc Committee to support Laboratory Medicine affairs in the affected area. We expected that laboratory testing demands would increase during the weeks following the disaster. We decided to support the use of Point-of-Care Testing. Many POCT devices use battery-powered analyzers. This is definite advantage for their use in areas with limited access to power and water supplies. We contacted many companies about the possibility of providing POCT devices, IVD reagents and/or any laboratory supplies including disposable materials. Finally, forty companies agreed to support this project and we received list of reagents materials for more than one hundred IVD tests. We entered this information on our web site and continued to update it as additional support was received. Once a request of support was received, communication were made to confirm the amount of material, the method of shipping/receipt and if any specific training that would be required for its use at the testing site. Also, we dispatched volunteer Medical Technologists for eight weeks to assist in the laboratory work. Some of the crucial points in recruiting volunteer laboratory professions are expenses and accommodations. We prepared not only accommodations but also transportation methods and covered all expenses including insurance and meals. Our relief activities have shown that Laboratory Medicine and Medical Technologists are useful in disaster-affected area. PMID:22338917

  3. Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Nabeshima, T; Buerano, C C

    2015-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an inflammation of the central nervous system in humans and animals, specifically horses and cattle. The disease, which can sometimes be fatal, is caused by the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), of which there are five genotypes (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The transmission cycle of the virus involves pigs and wild birds as virus amplifiers and mosquitoes as vectors for transferring the virus between amplifying hosts and to dead- end hosts, i.e. humans, horses and cattle. In horses and cattle the disease is usually asymptomatic, but when clinical signs do occur they include fever, decreased appetite, frothing at the mouth, rigidity of the legs and recumbency, and neurological signs, such as convulsive fits, circling, marked depression and disordered consciousness. In pigs, it can cause abortion and stillbirths. At present, the virus is detected in a wide area covering eastern and southern Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. JEV RNA has also been detected in Italy, first in dead birds in 1997 and 2000 and then in mosquitoes in 2010. Genotype shift, i.e. a change of genotype from genotype 3 to genotype 1, has occurred in some countries, namely Japan, South Korea, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam. Laboratory methods are available for confirming the causative agent of the disease. There are control measures to prevent or minimise infection and, among them, vaccination is one of the most important and one which should be adopted in endemic and epidemic areas. PMID:26601447

  4. Perspective of surface active agents in baking industry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Asif; Arshad, Nazish; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zahoor, Tahir; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Afreen, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Different researchers have previously used surfactants for improving bread qualities and revealed that these compounds result in improving the quality of dough and bread by influencing dough strength, tolerance, uniform crumb cell size, and improve slicing characteristics and gas retention. The objective of this review is to highlight the areas where surfactants are most widely used particularly in the bread industries, their role and mechanism of interaction and their contribution to the quality characteristics of the dough and bread. This review reveals some aspects of surface-active agents regarding its role physiochemical properties of dough that in turn affect the bread characteristics by improving its sensory quality and storage stability. PMID:24188269

  5. Using Sociocultural Perspectives: The Dynamic Process of Designing and Implementing Class Activities in an Online Japanese Language Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibakawa, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    The study documented the dynamic process of designing and implementing instructional interventions in an online course of Japanese language and culture at a two-year college. The results have impact in three distinct areas: pedagogical, theoretical, and methodological. First, the interventions that encouraged student agency with rich…

  6. Bacterial vectors for active immunotherapy reach clinical and industrial stages

    PubMed Central

    Le Gouëllec, Audrey; Chauchet, Xavier; Polack, Benoit; Buffat, Laurent; Toussaint, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Active immunotherapy based on live attenuated bacterial vectors has matured in terms of industrial development and develops through a combination of three phenomena. First, active immunotherapy that stimulates an antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell immune response has become a reality after several years of work. Second, there is still a need to identify vectors that can deliver antigens to the cytosol of antigen-presenting cells in vivo. Third, the recent progress in the understanding of bacterial lifestyle and in developing genetic engineering tools has enabled the design of bioengineered bugs that are capable of delivering antigens. Here, we review the mechanisms by which clinical bacterial vectors deliver antigens into the cytosol of antigen-presenting cells and summarize the development strategy of the three identified firms in this field. PMID:22894945

  7. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  8. 2015 Summary Report on Industrial and Regulatory Engagement Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Kenneth David

    2015-09-01

    activities and future plans were made to Arizona Public Service, Exelon, Duke Energy, Pacific Gas & Electric, SCANA, Southern Nuclear, South Texas Project, STARS Alliance, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Xcel. Discussions were also held on the pathway goals and activities with major industry support organizations during FY 2102, including the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), the Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and the Electric Power Research Institute. The Advanced II&C Pathway work was presented at five major industry conferences and Informal discussions were held with key NRC managers at industry conferences. In addition, discussions were held with NRC senior managers on digital regulatory issues through participation on the NEI Digital I&C Working Group. Meetings were held with major industry suppliers and consultants, to explore opportunities for collaboration and to provide a means of pilot project technology transfer. In the international area, discussions were held with Electricite’ de France (EdF) concerning possible collaboration in the area NPP configuration control using intelligent wireless devices.

  9. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2005-06-01

    Plant essential oils from 29 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with plant material, exposure time, and concentration. Good insecticidal activity against the Japanese termite was achived with essential oils of Melaleuca dissitiflora, Melaleuca uncinata, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus polybractea, Eucalyptus radiata, Eucalyptus dives, Eucalyptus globulus, Orixa japonica, Cinnamomum cassia, Allium cepa, Illicium verum, Evodia officinalis, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Cacalia roborowskii, Juniperus chinensis var. horizontalis, Juniperus chinensis var. kaizuka, clove bud, and garlic applied at 7.6 microL/L of air. Over 90% mortality after 3 days was achieved with O. japonica essential oil at 3.5 microL/L of air. E. citriodora, C. cassia, A. cepa, I. verum, S. tenuifolia, C. roborowskii, clove bud, and garlic oils at 3.5 microL/L of air were highly toxic 1 day after treatment. At 2.0 microL/L of air concentration, essential oils of I. verum, C. roborowskik, S. tenuifolia, A. cepa, clove bud, and garlic gave 100% mortality within 2 days of treatment. Clove bud and garlic oils showed the most potent antitermitic activity among the plant essential oils. Garlic and clove bud oils produced 100% mortality at 0.5 microL/L of air, but this decreased to 42 and 67% after 3 days of treatment at 0.25 microL/L of air, respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of three major compounds from garlic oil and two from clove bud oils. These five compounds from two essential oils were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied with compound and dose. Diallyl trisulfide was the most toxic, followed by diallyl disulfide, eugenol, diallyl sulfide, and beta-caryophyllene. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite

  10. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kurosu, Takeshi; Koketsu, Ritsuko Kubota; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. PMID:27462140

  11. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kurosu, Takeshi; Koketsu, Ritsuko Kubota; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. PMID:27462140

  12. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  13. Comparative proteomic and transcriptomic approaches to address the active role of GA4 in Japanese apricot flower bud dormancy release

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Weibing; Gao, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Hormones are closely associated with dormancy in deciduous fruit trees, and gibberellins (GAs) are known to be particularly important. In this study, we observed that GA4 treatment led to earlier bud break in Japanese apricot. To understand better the promoting effect of GA4 on the dormancy release of Japanese apricot flower buds, proteomic and transcriptomic approaches were used to analyse the mechanisms of dormancy release following GA4 treatment, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling, respectively. More than 600 highly reproducible protein spots (P<0.05) were detected and, following GA4 treatment, 38 protein spots showed more than a 2-fold difference in expression, and 32 protein spots were confidently identified according to the databases. Compared with water treatment, many proteins that were associated with energy metabolism and oxidation–reduction showed significant changes after GA4 treatment, which might promote dormancy release. We observed that genes at the mRNA level associated with energy metabolism and oxidation–reduction also played an important role in this process. Analysis of the functions of the identified proteins and genes and the related metabolic pathways would provide a comprehensive proteomic and transcriptomic view of the coordination of dormancy release after GA4 treatment in Japanese apricot flower buds. PMID:24014872

  14. Japanese encephalitis virus NS2B-NS3 protease induces caspase 3 activation and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Shiu, Su-Lian; Chuang, Pei-Hsin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Wan, Lei; Lan, Yu-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2009-07-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes severe neurological diseases with a high fatality rate. Clinical, neurophysiological and radiological features of Japanese encephalitis JE patients showed that JEV infection resulted in widespread involvement of the nervous system, including thalamus, basal ganglia, brainstem, cerebellum, cerebral cortex and spinal cord. In this study, we characterized the apoptotic effect of JEV infection and its viral proteins on the TE671 human medulloblastoma cells. JEV replicated in TE671 cells, inducing caspase 3-mediated apoptosis in MOI- and time-dependent manners. Of viral proteins, co-expression of JEV NS3 protease with NS2B cofactor significantly induced higher degrees of apoptosis and triggered higher caspase 3 activities than single expression of E, NS1, NS2B or NS3 protease in human medulloblastoma cells. Moreover, JEV NS2B-NS3 protease induced reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of mitochondrial cytochrome C, which were responsible for the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. In addition, the production of reactive oxygen species production and activation of ASK1-p38 MAPK signaling pathway might be associated with JEV NS2B-NS3 protease-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. The results demonstrated that the JEV infection and the co-expression of JEV NS3 protease with NS2B cofactor induced caspase 3 activation and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cells, being valuable insight for cellular and molecular levels of JEV pathogenesis. PMID:19463724

  15. [Inhibitory activity of hydrosols prepared from 18 Japanese herbs of weak aromatic flavor against filamentous formation and growth of Candida albicans].

    PubMed

    Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Leaf hydrosols prepared from 18 weakly aromatic Japanese herbs used traditionally were tested on the filamentation-inhibitory activity of Candida albicans. These hydrosols were divided into two classes, A and B. The inhibitory activity of 13 hydrosols belonging to class A was markedly altered depending on the drying process of the parent herbs. On the other hand, the remaining 5 hydrosols belonging to class B showed no significant change on the composition and inhibitory activity upon drying. The change of the bioactivity was correlated with the change and concentration of the respective major constituents. Especially strong bioactivity shown by hydrosols of dried Houttuynia cordata and fresh Prunus pendula was ascribed to n-capric acid and cyanide, respectively. Eight hydrosols exhibited weak or moderate activity against the growth of C. albicans. PMID:22467129

  16. Awareness and correlates of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women: results from an internet-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although considerable evidence has demonstrated that physical activity is associated with breast cancer prevention, few studies have assessed the level of awareness of this association. Awareness is a key first step to successful of behavior change. Increasing awareness may contribute to promote physical activity and prevent breast cancer at the population level. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of awareness about the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women. Methods 1,000 Japanese women aged 20–69 years (mean age: 44.3 ± 13.4 years) who responded to an internet-based cross-sectional survey. Awareness of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention, knowledge of breast cancer (symptom, risk factor, screening), exposure to information about physical activity and cancer, a self-reported physical activity, and sociodemographic variables (age, marital status, having a child, education level, employment status, and household income) were obtained. Force-entry logistic regression analysis was used. Results The prevalence of awareness was 31.5% (95% CI: 28.6-34.4). Factors significantly associated with awareness included sociodemographic variables, exposure to information, and knowledge of breast cancer. Being married (AOR, 95% CI: 1.75, 1.05–2.92) was positively related to awareness, while having children (0.65, 0.36–0.86) was negatively related. College graduates or those with higher levels of education (1.50, 1.01–2.22) were significantly more likely to be aware than those who had not graduated high school. Moreover, exposure to information (2.11, 1.51–2.95), and high knowledge of symptoms (2.43, 1.75–3.36) were positively associated with awareness. Finally, low knowledge of risk factors (0.30, 0.22–0.40) was negatively associated with awareness. Conclusions Japanese women through internet-based study were poorly aware of the role of physical activity in breast

  17. Reinspiring Japanese Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Shuji

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of the history of modern Japanese education, its early modernization, and the policy of intertwining the Japanese ideology with Western technology. Proposes the establishment of a new Buddhist-inspired philosophy of education. (GLR)

  18. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  19. Bullying in Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    Noting that although many Western educators praise the Japanese educational system because of its students' academic achievements, schools in Japan have developed severe and prevalent problems with student bullying. This paper examines the problem of bullying in Japanese schools. Part 1 of the paper reviews bullying incidents in Japanese schools…

  20. Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

  1. Hemato-nationalism: the past, present, and future of "Japanese blood".

    PubMed

    Robertson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, citizenship is based on the principle of jus sanguinis. Naturalized citizenship is a possibility, but there is a tacit understanding at large that really real, or "pure," Japaneseness is qualified (and circumscribed) by "blood" (chi, ketsu). Blood, in this sense, is understood as an active agent responsible for catalyzing an ethos, or a national-cultural identity. For many Japanese today, blood is understood in terms of blood type, which, despite its controversial serological history, prevails as a popular mode of horoscopy, match-making, and personality analysis. I interrogate the compelling fiction of something called "Japanese blood"-a multi-authored "hemato-narrative" that has been nurtured and sustained for more than a century. To this end, I assemble a comprehensive account of the constructive and deconstructive aspects of blood and blood type that considers the cuteness industry, eugenics, blood donation, and national identity. PMID:22515153

  2. Summary of mineral industry activities in Colorado. Part I: coal

    SciTech Connect

    Pascoe, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Coal production for 1981 was a record, with production at 19,701,496 tons of coal mined and reported to the Division of Mines. This was a 4.95% increase over 1980. Statewide Divisional efforts to support a practical type of health and safety training program while encouraging skill education appropriate to mining needs, saw extensive accomplishment in 1981. The Division gave direct or monetary support through training grant funds, largely used for reimbursed tuition from strategically located state vocational schools who taught on campus as well as at mine sites. Total miner training reported by area schools to the Division of Mines indicates that 8408 students received 86,251 hours of classroom and on-the-job training. It is hoped that the education and training programs throughout the state will be continued in an effort to educate both the new and old miners. We believe this is the best approach to the coal industry's never ending task of reducing both lost-time and fatal accidents. Coal mine certification in all categories totaled 780 certificates issued. This was a decrease from 1980, and will probably decrease again in 1982 with the initiation of the $25.00 fee for each examination. Coal mining activity is reported by district.

  3. Assessment of long-range correlation in animal behavior time series: The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Flesia, Ana Georgina; Gleiser, Raquel M.; Perillo, María A.; Marin, Raul H.

    2013-12-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a method that has been frequently used to determine the presence of long-range correlations in human and animal behaviors. However, according to previous authors using statistical model systems, in order to correctly use DFA different aspects should be taken into account such as: (1) the establishment by hypothesis testing of the absence of short term correlation, (2) an accurate estimation of a straight line in the log-log plot of the fluctuation function, (3) the elimination of artificial crossovers in the fluctuation function, and (4) the length of the time series. Taking into consideration these factors, herein we evaluated the presence of long-range correlation in the temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus). In our study, modeling the data with the general autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model, we rejected the hypothesis of short-range correlations (d=0) in all cases. We also observed that DFA was able to distinguish between the artificial crossover observed in the temporal pattern of locomotion of Japanese quail and the crossovers in the correlation behavior observed in mosquito larvae locomotion. Although the test duration can slightly influence the parameter estimation, no qualitative differences were observed between different test durations.

  4. Educational Activities within Business-Industry: Implications for Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, David R.; Nothom, John W.

    A study was made on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, of types and levels of training being conducted by business-industry; extent of business-industry inplant programs; costs of training programs; and opinions as to expectations for public education. Personal interviews were conducted in 23 large (more than 250 employees) organizations, and information…

  5. Active Learning for Creating Innovators: Employability Skills beyond Industrial Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology initiated a project entitled "Improving Higher Education for Industrial Needs" in which 147 universities have participated. One of the main purposes of this project is to identify what industrial needs and help develop university students' employability…

  6. A Comparison of Maternal Care and Infant Behavior in Japanese-American, American, and Japanese Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, William; Frost, Lois

    Previous studies have shown that American mothers, in contrast to Japanese, do more lively chatting to their babies, and that as a result, the American babies have a generally higher level of vocalization and, particularly, they respond with greater amounts of happy vocalization and gross motor activity than do Japanese babies. Thus, it appears…

  7. 75 FR 13209 - Proposed Information Collection (Technical Industry Standards) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Technical Industry Standards) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... Regulation (VAAR) Provision 852.211-75, Technical Industry Standards. OMB Control Number: 2900-0586. Type of... Industry Standards, requires items offered for sale to VA under the solicitation conform to...

  8. 78 FR 42821 - Agency Information Collection (Technical Industry Standards) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Technical Industry Standards) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY... 852.211-75), Technical Industry Standards. OMB Control Number: 2900-0586. Type of Review: Revision of a currently approved collection. Abstract: VAAR provision 852.211-72, Technical Industry...

  9. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters. PMID:26547320

  10. The Japanese Quality Control Circle: Why It Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Susumu

    1991-01-01

    The competitiveness of Japanese industry is in part because of their quality circles. Despite the West's interest in most Japanese business practices, quality circles have been difficult to transplant. This may be a result of misconceptions about their nature and the erroneous idea that workers' motivation is sociocultural, whereas in fact it is…

  11. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  12. Lower physical activity is a risk factor for a clustering of metabolic risk factors in non-obese and obese Japanese subjects: the Takahata study.

    PubMed

    Kaino, Wataru; Daimon, Makoto; Sasaki, Satoshi; Karasawa, Shigeru; Takase, Kaoru; Tada, Kyouko; Wada, Kiriko; Kameda, Wataru; Susa, Shinji; Oizumi, Toshihide; Fukao, Akira; Kubota, Isao; Kayama, Takamasa; Kato, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    In several countries including Japan, people without obesity but with a clustering of metabolic risk factors (MetRFs) were not considered to have the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Here, we examined whether lifestyle characteristics differed between non-obese and obese subjects with or without a clustering of MetRFs. From a population-based cross-sectional study of Japanese subjects aged ≥ 40 years, 1,601 subjects (age: 61.9 ± 10.3 years; 710/891 men/women) were recruited. Physical activity status and daily nutritional intake were estimated using questionnaires. A clustering of MetRFs was defined based on the presence of at least two non-essential risk factors for the diagnosis of the MetS in Japan. Energy intake was not higher in subjects with a clustering of MetRFs compared with those without. Among men, energy expenditure at work was significantly lower in non-obese (9.0 ± 8.2 vs. 11.3 ± 9.3 metabolic equivalents (METs), P = 0.025) and obese (9.0 ± 7.9 vs. 11.6 ± 9.4 METs, P = 0.017) subjects with a clustering of MetRFs than in those without. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that energy expenditure at work was significantly associated with a clustering of MetRFs after adjusting for possible confounding factors including total energy intake. The ORs (per 1 METs) were 0.970 (95% CI, 0.944-0.997; P = 0.032) in non-obese men and 0.962 (0.926- 0.999; P = 0.043) in obese men. Similar associations were not observed in women. In Japanese males, lower physical activity, but not excessive energy intake, is a risk factor for a clustering of MetRFs independent of their obesity status. PMID:23337516

  13. Leisure time physical activity and subsequent physical and mental health functioning among midlife Finnish, British and Japanese employees: a follow-up study in three occupational cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Jouni; Sabia, Séverine; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Tatsuse, Takashi; Yamada, Masaaki; Sekine, Michikazu; Lallukka, Tea

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine whether leisure time physical activity contributes to subsequent physical and mental health functioning among midlife employees. The associations were tested in three occupational cohorts from Finland, Britain and Japan. Design Cohort study. Setting Finland, Britain and Japan. Participants Prospective employee cohorts from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (2000–2002 and 2007, n=5958), British Whitehall II study (1997–1999 and 2003–2004, n=4142) and Japanese Civil Servants Study (1998–1999 and 2003, n=1768) were used. Leisure time physical activity was classified into three groups: inactive, moderately active and vigorously active. Primary outcome measure Mean scores of physical and mental health functioning (SF-36) at follow-up were examined. Results Physical activity was associated with better subsequent physical health functioning in all three cohorts, however, with varying magnitude and some gender differences. Differences were the clearest among Finnish women (inactive: 46.0, vigorously active: 49.5) and men (inactive: 47.8, active vigorous: 51.1) and British women (inactive: 47.3, active vigorous: 50.4). In mental health functioning, the differences were generally smaller and not that clearly related to the intensity of physical activity. Emerging differences in health functioning were relatively small. Conclusions Vigorous physical activity was associated with better subsequent physical health functioning in all three cohorts with varying magnitude. For mental health functioning, the intensity of physical activity was less important. Promoting leisure time physical activity may prove useful for the maintenance of health functioning among midlife employees. PMID:26739736

  14. Lags in Training Response to Changes in Economic Activity: An Exploratory Inquiry for Five Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Ross E.; Park, Jin S.; Akdere, Mesut

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the length of time it takes training budgets in five industries to respond to changes in the demand for their services/activity and for their speed of response to changes in productive activity. The results indicate that for the industries studied, the length of lag between change in demand and median adjustment to that…

  15. Industry briefs

    SciTech Connect

    1990-11-01

    Recent nuclear industry briefs are presented. These briefs include: President Bush signs Radiation Victim Compensation Act; Japan Nuclear Fuel Completes construction of Rokkasho Enrichment Plant; Japanese vapor laser achieves 5% enrichment; US to cooperate with Hungary and Czechoslovakia on nuclear power; Soviet Union may reopen nuclear station in Armenia; despite earthquake concerns; and Japan`s Kashiwazak; Kaviwa - 2 begins commercial operation.

  16. Identification of novel saponins from edible seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata Blume) after treatment with wooden ashes and their nutraceutical activity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideto; Ogawa, Satoshi; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Kimura, Yasuo; Katsube, Takuya; Yokota, Kazushige

    2006-08-28

    Natural seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata Blume) contain large amounts of mixed triterpenoidal saponins called escins. Recent studies have shown that escins have several biological activities including anti-inflammatory action and inhibitory effects on the absorption of ethanol and glucose. For the edible utilization of the seeds, natural seeds are usually treated with wooden ashes to remove harshness. Here, we found the novel compounds derived from escins in the edible seeds after the food processing with wooden ashes. The instrumental analyses revealed the chemical structures of escins and the derivatives. These compounds are identified as four types of deacetylescins Ia, IIa, Ib, and IIb as well as two types of desacylescins I and II. To determine their biological activity, the purified compounds were tested for their potential nutraceutical activity. The oral glucose tolerance test in mice revealed that a single oral administration of the isolated components of deacetylescins at a dose of 100 mg/kg was clearly effective in attenuating the elevation of blood glucose levels. The inhibitory effects of escins and their derivatives were in the order of escins>deacetylescins>desacylescins. Moreover, we found the inhibitory activity of those compounds on pancreatic lipase. Escins were the most potent in inhibiting the enzyme activity, and followed by desacylescins and then deacetylescins. Taken together, our results suggest the potential usefulness of novel saponins including deacetylescins and desacylescins from edible seeds as novel sources for nutraceutical foods with anti-obese effects. PMID:16621416

  17. Heavy metal exposure, in combination with physical activity and aging, is related with oxidative stress in Japanese women from a rural agricultural community.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoyi; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Mise, Nathan; Ikegami, Akihiko; Mizuno, Atsuko; Sakamoto, Takako; Ogawa, Masanori; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between oxidative stress and heavy metal exposure (lead [Pb] and cadmium [Cd]), as well as co-factors such as physical activity and age, in Japanese women. This study was conducted with female subjects from a rural agricultural community in Japan. Subjects were asked to complete lifestyle-related questionnaires and undergo a group health examination. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and other demographic information were collected. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations. Urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry; blood samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Age, physical activity, and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations were included in structural equation modeling analysis. Two latent factors for heavy metal exposure and physical activity were produced to predict the total influence of the variables. The final model was good: CMIN/DF = 0.775, CFI = 1.000, GFI = 0.975, AGFI = 0.954, RMSEA = 0.000. 8-OHdG levels were positively associated with heavy metal exposure, physical activity, and age (standard β of path analysis: 0.33, 0.38, and 0.20, respectively). Therefore, oxidative stress is associated with both, environmental and lifestyle factors, in combination with aging. PMID:27386333

  18. Asymmetric bioreduction of activated alkenes to industrially relevant optically active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Christoph K.; Tasnádi, Gábor; Clay, Dorina; Hall, Mélanie; Faber, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Ene-reductases from the ‘Old Yellow Enzyme’ family of flavoproteins catalyze the asymmetric reduction of various α,β-unsaturated compounds at the expense of a nicotinamide cofactor. They have been applied to the synthesis of valuable enantiopure products, including chiral building blocks with broad industrial applications, terpenoids, amino acid derivatives and fragrances. The combination of these highly stereoselective biocatalysts with a cofactor recycling system has allowed the development of cost-effective methods for the generation of optically active molecules, which is strengthened by the availability of stereo-complementary enzyme homologues. PMID:22498437

  19. JCII Camera Museum: A unique museum that preserves and evaluates photographic artifacts, literature and artworks focusing on the Japanese phtography and related industries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Yasunori; Shirayama, Mari

    JCII Camera Museum is a unique photographic museum having three major departments, the camera museum that collects, preserves and exhibits historically valuable cameras and camera-related produts, the photo salon that collects, preserve and exhibits various original photographic films and prints, and the library that collects, preserves and appraises photo-historical literatures including magazines, industrial histories, product catalogues and scientific papers.

  20. Lexicogrammar in the International Construction Industry: A Corpus-Based Case Study of Japanese-Hong-Kongese On-Site Interactions in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handford, Michael; Matous, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify and interpret statistically significant lexicogrammatical items that are used in on-site spoken communication in the international construction industry, initially through comparisons with reference corpora of everyday spoken and business language. Several data sources, including audio and video…

  1. Supplementation with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) expressing a single alien chromosome from shallot increases the antioxidant activity of Kamaboko fish jelly paste in vitro.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Wada, Ritsuko; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Maeda, Toshimichi; Date, Rie; Tokunaga, Takushi; Kazumura, Kimiko; Shimada, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Misato; Wako, Tadayuki; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-05-01

    Kamaboko is a traditional type of processed seafood made from fish jelly paste that is unique to Japan. We supplemented Kamaboko with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with an alien monosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) and we measured in vitro the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value, an index of antioxidant activity. We also evaluated the results of sensory testing. The ORAC value of plain Kamaboko was 166±14 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g fresh weight (FW). The values of the edible Alliaceae powder, i.e., Japanese bunching onion (JBO, genome FF, 2n=2x=16) and the alien addition line of JBO carrying the 6A chromosome from shallot (FF+6A, 2n=2x+1=17), were 6,659±238 and 14,096±635 μmol TE/100 g dry weight (DW). We hypothesized that the 6A chromosome encoded the enhancement of polyphenol production. Subsequently, we created Kamaboko containing 4.8% JBO powder or 4.8% FF+6A powder. The ORAC value of each modified Kamaboko product was increased to 376±24 μmol TE/100 g FW for the JBO powder and to 460±16 μmol TE/100 g FW for the FF+6A powder, respectively. We next created Kamaboko containing 9.0% JBO powder or 9.0% FF+6A powder and the ORAC values of the respective modified Kamaboko products was increased to 671±16 and 740±21 μmol TE/100 g FW, i.e., 4.1- and 4.5-times the value of plain Kamaboko. Consequently, taking into consideration the sensory evaluation regarding taste and appearance as well, the use of Kamaboko supplemented with 4.8% FF+6A powder is recommended. PMID:24648948

  2. Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Trials of Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lili; Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the Japanese response in terms of innovation capacity and entrepreneurship enhancement under the ever-changing economic environment. Particular focus would go to the interactions among government, industry and universities in the national innovation system at a macro level, and entrepreneurship education at the institutional…

  3. Chinese Tobacco Industry Promotional Activity on the Microblog Weibo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fan; Zheng, Pinpin; Yang, Dongyun; Freeman, Becky; Fu, Hua; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. Methods Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. Results Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143) could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%), followed by ‘advertisement’ and ‘tobacco culture’ (both at 12%), ‘traditional culture’ and ‘public relations’ (both at 11%), and finally ‘social and business affairs’ (5%). 33% of posts included the words ‘cigarette’ or ‘smoking’ and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. Conclusions Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban. PMID:24914739

  4. Do You Read Me? Industrial Supplement: Reading Development Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

    This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension skills of…

  5. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching industrial arts/technology education. The activities are intended to present energy…

  6. Promoting physical activity and healthy eating: convergence in framing the role of industry.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Lori; Yancey, Antronette K

    2009-10-01

    This commentary addresses a little explored aspect of prevention, namely, how public health practitioners conceptualize the roles of industries whose business interests may be at odds with physical activity and eating nutrient-rich foods. Taking their cues from successful campaigns in tobacco control, many public health advocates have framed obesity as a battle with the food industry. Such framing presents problems when it exacerbates existing tensions between practitioners in nutrition and physical activity, and alienates potential fitness industry partners. Creating healthy environments requires reframing expectations of all industries that influence physical activity and inactivity. A broader view of the influence of corporate practices on physical and social environments will help both physical activity and nutrition advocates identify what they can do together, and in partnership with the business sector, to create environments that promote activity and nutritious eating. PMID:19576928

  7. Japanese Media in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  8. Japanese Quality Control Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Kazuo

    In recent years, United States scholars with an interest in international business and organizational communication have begun to notice the success of Japanese "quality control circles." These are small groups, usually composed of seven to ten workers, who are organized at the production levels within most large Japanese factories. A typical…

  9. The Japanese containerless experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azuma, Hisao

    1990-01-01

    There are three sets of Japanese containerless experiments. The first is Drop dynamics research. It consists of acoustic levitation and large amplitude drop oscillation. The second is Optical materials processing in an acoustic levitation furnace. And the third is Electrostatic levitator development by two different Japanese companies.

  10. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  11. Japanese Elementary School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Harold W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the development of Japanese elementary education in the context of three periods of its history. Considers salient characteristics of Japanese elementary schools and teaching procedures; these include curriculum; social and moral education; classroom environment; teachers; afterschool classes; college entrance examinations; the kyoiku…

  12. Extensive Reading in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Day, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading (ER) program into a second semester Japanese course at the University of Hawai'i using Japanese children's literature. After summarizing the ten principles of ER, we describe how we addressed six critical issues faced while introducing ER into the course. We also discuss the outcomes…

  13. Travel-acquired Japanese encephalitis and vaccination considerations.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2015-09-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious arboviral disease caused by a virus of the genus Flavivirus. Japanese encephalitis is the most common vaccine-preventable virus causing encephalitis in Asia, affecting more than 50,000 persons and leading to 15,000 fatalities per year in endemic countries. For most travelers to Asia, the risk of Japanese encephalitis infection is extremely low and depends on destination, duration of travel, season, and activities. This article reviews travel-acquired Japanese encephalitis with a focus on epidemiology and prevention in the light of the newly available options for active immunization against Japanese encephalitis which have become available, and of the increasing popularity of travels to Japanese encephalitis endemic countries. PMID:26409731

  14. Oil market and macroeconomic activity in the industrialized countries

    SciTech Connect

    Viscio, A.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    In the oil market, the price inelasticity of non-OPEC supply and demand for oil requires most of the shortrun adjustment to occur through changes in price rather than quantity. This inflexibility of quantity if compounded by the ability of OPEC as a cartel to successfully prevent its nominally quoted official price from declining during periods of excess supply. A model of the shortrun price behavior of OPEC oil, which described the behavior of producers and consumers, is derived and estimated. The resultant spot-price reaction function proves to be highly nonlinear, and oil demand must exceed a critical level of capacity before the spot price begins to rise. This model explains the upward staircasing of nominal OPEC prices. The spot price leads the official price upward. The new official price establishes a higher floor for the spot price. Simulations are used to study the effects of changes in the rate of economic growth in the industrialized countries and the level of OPEC capacity on the price and consumption of oil. The relevant shortrun relationships between the price of oil and the economy, extracted from the literature, are estimated in a two-country model representing the United States and an aggregate of the remaining major industrialized countries.

  15. 77 FR 37704 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals Surveys (40...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... published a Federal Register Notice (77 FR 6580) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB for... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals... requirements for the Industrial Minerals Surveys. This collection consists of 40 forms. The revision...

  16. Database service for Japanese Standards Information : 'KIKAKU NET'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Masayuki

    Japanese Standards Association (JSA) started the standards information database services, 'KIKAKU NET' in October 1989. In Japan, it is the only standards information database compiled based on the information and know-hows which the Association has accumulated over fifteen years and has been entrusted the project for research by Agency Industrial Science and Technology, Ministry of International Trade and Industry. It covers the domestic standards information datafile for Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS), Japanese Agricultural Standards (JAS), and some Japanese Association Standards which are related to JIS, and the foreign standards information datafile for international standards of ISO and IEC, foreign national standards, and foreign association standards. 'KIKAKU NET' is available for user's personal computer by on-line access to the host computer of distributors which have been contracted with the Association. This paper describes characteristics, contents and the system outline of 'KIKAKU NET'.

  17. The affect of industrial activities on zinc in alluvial Egyptian soil determined using neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sabour, M F; Abdel-Basset, N

    2002-07-01

    Thirty-two surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted, moderately and highly polluted soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Zn content in alluvial soils of Nile Delta in Egypt by using the delayed neutron activation analysis technique (DNAA), in the irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1). The gamma-ray spectra were recorded with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The well resolved gamma-ray peak at 1116.0 keV was efficiently used for 65Zn content determination. Zn content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 74.1 and 103.8 ppm with an average of 98.5 +/- 5.1 ppm. Zn content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 136.0 and 232.5 ppm with an average of 180.1 +/- 32.6 ppm. The highest Zn levels ranging from 240.0 and 733.0 ppm with an average of 410.3 +/- 54.4 ppm, were observed in soil samples collected from, either highly polluted agricultural soils exposed to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites. PMID:12211982

  18. In vitro identification of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of Geissoschizine methyl ether, an active component of the traditional Japanese medicine Yokukansan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Kushida, Hirotaka; Maruyama, Takeshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Junko; Maemura, Kazuya; Kase, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    1. Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese medicine also called kampo, which has been used to treat neurosis, insomnia, and night crying and peevishness in children. Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), a major indole alkaloid found in Uncaria hook, has been identified as a major active component of YKS with psychotropic effects. Recently, GM was reported to have a partial agonistic effect on serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. However, there is little published information on GM metabolism in humans, although several studies reported the blood kinetics of GM in rats and humans. In this study, we investigated the GM metabolic pathways and metabolizing enzymes in humans. 2. Using recombinant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and polyclonal antibodies to CYP isoforms, we found that GM was metabolized into hydroxylated, dehydrogenated, hydroxylated+dehydrogenated, demethylated and water adduct forms by some CYP isoforms. 3. The relative activity factors in human liver microsomes were calculated to determine the relative contributions of individual CYP isoforms to GM metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs). We identified CYP3A4 as the CYP isoform primarily responsible for GM metabolism in human liver microsomes. 4. These findings provide an important basis for understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GM and YKS. PMID:26337900

  19. Effect of Hempseed (Cannabis sativa sp.) Inclusion to the Diet on Performance, Carcass and Antioxidative Activity in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Cimen, Behzat; Yalcin, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of hempseed (H) on performance, carcass traits, and antioxidant activity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 192 quail with seven-days old were divided into four experimental groups with four replicates. The treatments were; i) Control diet (C, no hempseed); ii) 5% hempseed in diet (H5); iii) 10% hempseed in diet (H10); and iv) 20% hempseed in diet (H20). The body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) of quail was determined at 7, 21 and 42 d of age. At 42 d of age four quail were slaughtered and the carcass and internal organ traits were determined. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), nitric oxide (NO) and total protein were determined in the blood serum end of the experiment. The BW of the groups were not significant at 7 and 21 d, however in the 20% hempseed group BW decreased at 42 d (p<0.05). The FI and feed conversion ratio were not significant among the treatment groups. The carcass, liver, intestine and heart weight and their percentage to carcass were significantly differ in treatment groups (p<0.05). The serum MDA and NO decreased in hempseed addition (p <0.001). The serum SOD, CAT and GSH-Px were increased by hempseed supplementation (p<0.001). In conclusion, hempseed supplementation to quail diets may not improve quail performance traits but increase antioxidant activity in blood. PMID:26760931

  20. A Method for Fast Assessment of OP/CB Exposure in the Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Using Combined Esterases Enzyme Activity as Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Abass, Kasim Sakran

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of different esterase activities in plasma and liver for Japanese quail and to combine determination of both carboxylesterase and cholinesterase as biochemical biomarker in order to identify the effects of carbamate and organophosphate compounds exposure. Carboxylesterase exhibits larger sensitivity to carbamate and organophosphate compounds than to cholinesterase and is present at higher levels. This permitted nature and distribution of carboxylesterase or cholinesterase to be measured. One predominant toxicological form of enzyme level constant in its patterns of motivation and inhibition with cholinesterase was identified in plasma with an apparent Michaelis constant for butyrylthiocholine iodide of 0.394 mM. Carboxylesterase activity in liver was considered by its preferential hydrolysis of the S-phenyl thioacetate. A concentration dependent decrease of carboxylesterase and cholinesterase has demonstrated during in vitro incubation of malathion, parathion, and trichlorfon in the range 0.125–2 mM, while with methomyl was in the range 0.25–4 mM. When quail (n = 15) was exposed orally for 48 h to concentrations of carbamate or organophosphate compounds of 3–200 mg/kg, the percentage inhibition of cholinesterase was in each case larger than that of carboxylesterase and reached statistical significance (P < 0.05) at lower concentrations. PMID:24527206

  1. Introduction to Korean Accelerator Science and Activities in Industrial Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namkung, Won

    2012-03-01

    After 20 years of the first large-scale accelerator in Korea, the Pohang Light Source (PLS) of 2.0 GeV at POSTECH, its upgrade (PLS-II) is now under commissioning with energy of 3.0 GeV. The users' service for synchrotron radiation is scheduled in April 2012. There are five big accelerator projects in various stages of construction, namely a high-intensity proton linac of 100 MeV, the PAL-XFEL of 10-GeV, a carbon therapy cyclotron of 400 MeV/u, and rare isotope accelerators for isotope separator on-line (ISOL) and In-flight Fragmentation (IFF). There are also strong demands for industrial uses of accelerators, especially in sterilization applications. In this paper, we report the current status of accelerator projects and its science in Korea, along with a brief review of accelerator R&D going back to the early 1960s at universities.

  2. Visual sensor fusion for active security in robotic industrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robla, Sandra; Llata, Jose R.; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Sarabia, Esther G.; Becerra, Victor; Perez-Oria, Juan

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a method of information fusion involving data captured by both a standard charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a time-of-flight (ToF) camera to be used in the detection of the proximity between a manipulator robot and a human. Both cameras are assumed to be located above the work area of an industrial robot. The fusion of colour images and time-of-flight information makes it possible to know the 3D localization of objects with respect to a world coordinate system. At the same time, this allows to know their colour information. Considering that ToF information given by the range camera contains innacuracies including distance error, border error, and pixel saturation, some corrections over the ToF information are proposed and developed to improve the results. The proposed fusion method uses the calibration parameters of both cameras to reproject 3D ToF points, expressed in a common coordinate system for both cameras and a robot arm, in 2D colour images. In addition to this, using the 3D information, the motion detection in a robot industrial environment is achieved, and the fusion of information is applied to the foreground objects previously detected. This combination of information results in a matrix that links colour and 3D information, giving the possibility of characterising the object by its colour in addition to its 3D localisation. Further development of these methods will make it possible to identify objects and their position in the real world and to use this information to prevent possible collisions between the robot and such objects.

  3. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of a series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides learning activities for teachers to use with students in industrial arts/technology education. Each of the 17…

  4. Understanding Insurance. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.; Tuel, Charles

    This learning activity package (LAP) on the insurance industry and the methods used to give protection to the insured is designed for student self-study. Following a list of learning objectives, the LAP contains a pretest (answer key provided at the back). Six learning activities follow. The learning activities cover the following material: terms…

  5. Recent National Solar Thermal Test Facility activities, in partnership with industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Cherly; Cameron, Christopher P.; Ralph, Mark E.; Pacheco, James E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Evans, Lindsey R.

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA conducts testing of solar thermal components and systems, funded primarily by the US Department of Energy. Activities are conducted in support of Central Receiver Technology, Distributed Receiver Technology and Design Assistance projects. All activities are performed in support of various cost-shared government/industry joint ventures and, on a design assistance basis, in support of a number of other industry partners.

  6. Recent National Solar Thermal Test Facility activities, in partnership with industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanbari, C.; Cameron, C.P.; Ralph, M.E.; Pacheco, J.E.; Rawlinson, K.S.; Evans, L.R.

    1994-10-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA conducts testing of solar thermal components and systems, funded primarily by the US Department of Energy. Activities are conducted in support of Central Receiver Technology, Distributed Receiver Technology and Design Assistance projects. All activities are performed in support of various cost-shared government/industry joint ventures and, on a design assistance basis, in support of a number of other industry partners.

  7. Activated sludge optimization using ATP in pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Bäckman, Göran; Gytel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    The activated sludge process is an old technology, but still the most commonly used one for treatment of wastewater. Despite the wide spread usage the technology still suffers from instability (Tandoi et al. 2006) and high operating cost. Activated sludge processes often carry a large solids inventory. Managing the total inventory without interference is the key component of the optimization process described in this paper. Use of nutrients is common in pulp and paper effluent treatment. Feeding enough nutrients to support the biomass growth is a delicate balance. Overfeeding or underfeeding of nutrients can result in higher costs. Detrimental substances and toxic components in effluents entering a biological treatment system can cause severe, long lasting disturbances (Hynninen & Ingman 1998; Bergeron & Pelletier 2004). A LumiKem test kit is used to measure biological activity with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in a pulp and paper mill. ATP data are integrated with other standardized mill parameters. Measurements of active volatile suspended solids based on ATP can be used to quantify the living biomass in the activated sludge process and to ensure that sufficient biomass is present in order to degrade the wastewater constituents entering the process. Information about active biomass will assist in optimizing sludge inventories and feeding of nutrients allowing the living biomass to re-populate to create optimal efficiency. ATP measurements can also be used to alert operators if any components toxic to bacteria are present in wastewater. The bio stress index represents the stress level experienced by the microbiological population. This parameter is very useful in monitoring toxicity in and around bioreactors. Results from the wastewater process optimization and ATP measurements showed that treatment cost could be reduced by approximately 20-30% with fewer disturbances and sustained biological activity compared to the reference period. This was mainly achieved by

  8. Anti-Tuberculosis Policy of the Government General of Korea during Japanese-Colonial Period (1910-1945): From Simple Restriction to Active Enlightenment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Kyung

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, I tried to examine the characteristic of anti-tuberculosis policy in colonial Korea and find out internal constraint of hygienic administration by Japanese government during Japanese-Colonial Period. Despite of high prevalence of tuberculosis among Japanese in Korea, the Japanese Government General of Korea had done almost nothing until 1936. Japan's hygienic administration was highly dependent upon hygienic police, and mainly with compulsory isolation and disinfection. It was inefficient in tuberculosis problem. In 1918, Japanese Government General enacted 'Ordinance of Prevention of Tuberculosis', solely based upon naive tuberculosis etiology in sputum; consisted of simple crackdown and isolation and had no effect due to the limit of anti-tuberculosis and health budget. Also the ordinance actually set limitation upon the tuberculosis facilities, only a few health care facilities could be affordable for tuberculosis patients. Since 1936, the Japanese Government General of Korea began tuberculosis prevention measures in earnest. Due to the Second Sino- Japanese War and World War II, there was urgent need to make Korean society and population as "safe, and healthy rear area". The Government organized 'Chosen Anti-tuberculosis Association' and highly pursued enlightment campaign. It was almost temporary measures of enlightenment and publicity. Also various types of health screening and tuberculosis prevalence research were introduced to Korean people. But it was not so effective to identify tuberculosis problem in Korea. Mass tuberculin test and X-ray test was introduced, but it was not well organized and scientifically designed. Besides, tuberculosis treatment facility was extremely rare because of strict isolation and high standard policy. Japanese Governemtn set numerous tuberculosis-counseling centers and mobilized public doctor for consulting tuberculosis, but the accessibility of centers was very low. Moreover, there was no source to establish

  9. High pre-industrial and modern Tibetan Plateau fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, N. M.; Li, Q.; Wang, N.; Zennaro, P.; Zangrando, R.; Barbante, C.

    2013-12-01

    The South Asian brown cloud created from a mix of biomass burning and fossil fuel aerosols is warming the atmosphere between 5000 to 7000 meters above sea level (m asl) along the southern slope of the Himalaya. The extent to which this atmospheric brown cloud is transported up and over the 7000 to 8000 m asl ridge of the Himalaya and northward across the Tibetan Plateau is unknown. Intense Eastern Asian industry and associated coal burning may also export fossil fuel burning products to the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, local cooking, agricultural and natural fires emit combustion products that alter atmospheric chemistry and are deposited on glacier surfaces. It is essential to differentiate between the effects of fossil fuel and biomass burning across the Tibetan Plateau to determine if combustion products affect glacier surfaces and, by extension, glacier volume. The specific biomarker levoglucosan can only be produced by biomass burning at temperatures of 300°C or higher and is trapped and preserved in glaciers across the globe. This specificity may allow the possibility of differentiating between fossil fuel and biomass burning contributions when comparing levoglucosan concentrations with more general ice core combustion proxies such as black carbon. Here, we present a biomass burning record from the entire 164 m Muztag ice core (36.35°N; 87.17°E; 5780 m asl) and from a southwest to northeast transect of snow pits across the Tibetan Plateau. Multiple total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon surface samples demonstrate organic carbon concentrations at or near detection limits. However, these samples have high levoglucosan concentrations suggesting that the biomass burning recorded in these sites may be from a regional rather than local source. The Tibetan Plateau levoglucosan concentrations are surprisingly substantially greater than Kilimanjaro levoglucosan concentrations, where Kilimanjaro is located in a relatively similar low-latitude high

  10. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  11. [Commercialization of results of intellectual activities in pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Posylkina, O V; Timaniuk, V N; Gladukh, E V

    2002-01-01

    An analysis has been done of those causes impending the development of innovative processes and commercialization of results of intellectual activities in the economics of Ukraine and its pharmaceutical sector. Possible ways for rectifying the prevailing situation are considered. A scheme is proposed of staged commercialization of developments involving creation of new pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:12669531

  12. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese in Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese women in Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted. PMID:21874580

  13. Association of Psychosocial Conditions, Oral Health, and Dietary Variety with Intellectual Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the factors related to intellectual activity in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods Self-administered questionnaires mailed to all people aged ≥65 years in a dormitory suburb in Japan (n = 15,210). The response rate was 72.2%. Analytical subjects (n = 8,910) were those who lived independently and completely answered questions about independent and dependent variables and covariates. Independent variables included psychosocial conditions (i.e., social activities, hobbies, and a sense that life is worth living (ikigai)), oral health (i.e., dental health behaviors and oral function evaluated by chewing difficulties, swallowing difficulties, and oral dryness), and dietary variety measured using the dietary variety score (DVS). A dependent variable was intellectual activity measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Covariates included age, gender, family structure, pensions, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, medical history, self-rated health, medications, cognitive function, depression, and falling. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for poor intellectual activity. Results Poor intellectual activity was reported by 28.9% of the study population. After adjustment for covariates and independent variables, poor intellectual activity was significantly associated with nonparticipation in social activities (OR = 1.90, 95%CI = 1.61–2.24), having neither hobbies nor ikigai (3.13, 2.55–3.84), having neither regular dental visits nor daily brushing (1.70, 1.35–2.14), the poorest oral function (1.61, 1.31–1.98), and the lowest DVS quartile (1.96, 1.70–2.26). Conclusion These results indicate that psychosocial conditions, oral health, and dietary variety are independently associated with intellectual activity in elderly persons. The factors identified in this study may be used in community health programs for maintaining the intellectual activity ability of the

  14. Activity-Based Costing in the After Press Services Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevasuthisilp, Suntichai; Punsathitwong, Kosum

    2009-10-01

    This research was conducted to apply activity-based costing (ABC) in an after press service company in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The company produces all of its products by one-stop service (such as coating, stitching, binding, die cutting, and gluing). All products are made to order, and have different sizes and patterns. A strategy of low price is used to compete in the marketplace. After cost analysis, the study found that the company has high overhead (36.5% of total cost). The company's problem is its use of traditional cost accounting, which has low accuracy in assigning overhead costs. If management uses this information when pricing customer orders, losses may occur because real production costs may be higher than the selling price. Therefore, the application of ABC in cost analysis can help executives receive accurate cost information; establish a sound pricing strategy; and improve the manufacturing process by determining work activities which have excessively high production costs. According to this research, 6 out of 56 items had a production cost higher than the selling price, leading to losses of 123,923 baht per year. Methods used to solve this problem were: reducing production costs; establishing suitable prices; and creating a sales promotion with lower prices for customers whose orders include processes involving unused capacity. These actions will increase overall sales of the company, and allow more efficient use of its machinery.

  15. How the Japanese work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry. PMID:9929991

  16. NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental agencies and institutes which are under supervision of different ministries. Thirdly, although the government budget is moderate and sales revenue of space industries is not so large, many large companies in aerospace or electronics industries see the importance of this business and compete each other mainly in the domestic market. NASDA, founded in 1969, is the largest governmental space organization and has played an important role in realizing practical applications of space activities. It has rapidly caught up the technology gap behind leading countries and has achieved remarkable successes with its own launch vehicles and satellites. Space industries, under the guidance of NASDA, have learned much from the U.S. companies and improved their technology levels and enjoyed steady growth during the early stage of Japanese space development. But before they became competitive enough in the world space business, the trade conflict between Japan and the U.S. made the procurement of Japanese non-R&D satellites open to the foreign satellite companies. Furthermore, interruptions of space activities due to recent successive failures of launch vehicles as well as Japanese economic slump have made space industries face hard situations. Under these circumstances, M&A of launch vehicle companies as well as satellite makers took place for the first time in Japanese aero-space history. Also at the government level, reorganization of space agencies is now under process. It is expected as a natural consequence of the merge of the Ministry of Education and the Science an Technology Agency, three space

  17. Industry decries sharp decline in U. S. offshore activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    Roadblocks to offshore activity in the U.S. drew much of the spotlight at the 24th Offshore Technology Conference last week in Houston. Among OTC highlights included in this paper are: Two panels reviewed how federal leasing moratoriums and regulatory restrictions are reining U.S. offshore development. Conoco Inc.'s manager of exploration and development in Russia detailed the allure of giant and supergiant fields in the Commonwealth of Independent States and reviewed the status of the company's efforts to negotiate E and D deals with Russian partners. Minerals Management Service officials reviewed environmental challenges facing operators on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf and new MMS inspection strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. The 1992 OTC Distinguished Achievement Award for companies went to Brazil's Petroleo Brasileiro SA for deepwater development records set with the 3 Marlim well in the Campos basin off Brazil.

  18. Optics At The Arctic Circle, An Example Of Application-Oriented Research Generating New Industrial Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammasniemi, Jorma; Myllyla, Risto; Hannula, Tapio

    1989-04-01

    This paper discusses research/industry interaction in application-oriented research groups specializing in the development of optoelectronic instruments and measurement methods. The research groups are working in Oulu, a city in Northern Finland, in an industrial environment consisting originally of pulp and paper industries together with metalworking and engineering industries. These established industrial areas are active in adopting new technologies for automation and process renewal. Furthermore, new emerging businesses are being generated through pilot installations and new product ideas created by research groups. The technologies considered are optical and infrared process analyzers, semiconductor laser-based dimension measurements and optoelectronic hybrid module fabrication. Examples of new products and enterprises employing these technologies are given. Additional skills and education especially in miniature optics and related constructions, are considered important for the future.

  19. Public health, academic medicine, and the alcohol industry's corporate social responsibility activities.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry's economic interests. PMID:23237151

  20. Tanko Bushi: Designing a Japanese-American Dance Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeting, Terry; Werner, Peter; Williams, Lori H.; Crump, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Many folk dances reflect the everyday activities of the people, celebrating the commonplace through physical forms of expression. The traditional Japanese folk dance, Tanko Bushi, is still performed in Japan and among Japanese-Americans today, and its theme of coal mining makes it relatable to many cultures around the world. With its traditional…

  1. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Described is the Industrial Arts component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also included in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681), Science (SE…

  2. Dispersal of the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in mainland China as inferred from molecular data and associations to indices of human activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-ji; Ning, Tiao; Fu, Da-ying; Haack, Robert A; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, De-dao; Ma, Xue-yu; Ye, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an important forest pest as well as the principal vector of the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer), in mainland China. Despite the economic importance of this insect-disease complex, only a few studies are available on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus and the relationship between its historic dispersal pattern and various human activities. The aim of the present study was to further explore aspects of human activity on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus in mainland China. The molecular data based on the combined mitochondrial cox1 and cox2 gene fragments from 140 individuals representing 14 Chinese populations yielded 54 haplotypes. Overall, a historical (natural) expansion that originated from China's eastern coast to the western interior was revealed by the haplotype network, as well as several recent, long-distant population exchanges. Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes. Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system) in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior. In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were infested with PWN

  3. Dispersal of the Japanese Pine Sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in Mainland China as Inferred from Molecular Data and Associations to Indices of Human Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Da-ying; Haack, Robert A.; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, De-dao; Ma, Xue-yu; Ye, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an important forest pest as well as the principal vector of the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer), in mainland China. Despite the economic importance of this insect-disease complex, only a few studies are available on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus and the relationship between its historic dispersal pattern and various human activities. The aim of the present study was to further explore aspects of human activity on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus in mainland China. The molecular data based on the combined mitochondrial cox1 and cox2 gene fragments from 140 individuals representing 14 Chinese populations yielded 54 haplotypes. Overall, a historical (natural) expansion that originated from China’s eastern coast to the western interior was revealed by the haplotype network, as well as several recent, long-distant population exchanges. Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes. Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system) in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior. In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were infested with PWN

  4. The accomplishment of the Engineering Design Activities of IFMIF/EVEDA: The European-Japanese project towards a Li(d,xn) fusion relevant neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Ibarra, A.; Abal, J.; Abou-Sena, A.; Arbeiter, F.; Arranz, F.; Arroyo, J. M.; Bargallo, E.; Beauvais, P.-Y.; Bernardi, D.; Casal, N.; Carmona, J. M.; Chauvin, N.; Comunian, M.; Delferriere, O.; Delgado, A.; Diaz-Arocas, P.; Fischer, U.; Frisoni, M.; Garcia, A.; Garin, P.; Gobin, R.; Gouat, P.; Groeschel, F.; Heidinger, R.; Ida, M.; Kondo, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Kubo, T.; Le Tonqueze, Y.; Leysen, W.; Mas, A.; Massaut, V.; Matsumoto, H.; Micciche, G.; Mittwollen, M.; Mora, J. C.; Mota, F.; Nghiem, P. A. P.; Nitti, F.; Nishiyama, K.; Ogando, F.; O'hira, S.; Oliver, C.; Orsini, F.; Perez, D.; Perez, M.; Pinna, T.; Pisent, A.; Podadera, I.; Porfiri, M.; Pruneri, G.; Queral, V.; Rapisarda, D.; Roman, R.; Shingala, M.; Soldaini, M.; Sugimoto, M.; Theile, J.; Tian, K.; Umeno, H.; Uriot, D.; Wakai, E.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokomine, T.

    2015-08-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase under the frame of the Broader Approach Agreement between Europe and Japan, accomplished in summer 2013, on schedule, its EDA phase with the release of the engineering design report of the IFMIF plant, which is here described. Many improvements of the design from former phases are implemented, particularly a reduction of beam losses and operational costs thanks to the superconducting accelerator concept, the re-location of the quench tank outside the test cell (TC) with a reduction of tritium inventory and a simplification on its replacement in case of failure, the separation of the irradiation modules from the shielding block gaining irradiation flexibility and enhancement of the remote handling equipment reliability and cost reduction, and the water cooling of the liner and biological shielding of the TC, enhancing the efficiency and economy of the related sub-systems. In addition, the maintenance strategy has been modified to allow a shorter yearly stop of the irradiation operations and a more careful management of the irradiated samples. The design of the IFMIF plant is intimately linked with the EVA phase carried out since the entry into force of IFMIF/EVEDA in June 2007. These last activities and their on-going accomplishment have been thoroughly described elsewhere (Knaster J et al [19]), which, combined with the present paper, allows a clear understanding of the maturity of the European-Japanese international efforts. This released IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report (IIEDR), which could be complemented if required concurrently with the outcome of the on-going EVA, will allow decision making on its construction and/or serve as the basis for the definition of the next step, aligned with the evolving needs of our fusion community.

  5. Evaluating environmental impact caused by industrial activities - Implementation of the WTP-WTA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopsidas, Odysseas; Batzias, Fragiskos

    2012-12-01

    In this work, a methodological framework under the form of an algorithmic procedure, including 28 activity stages and 6 decision nodes, has been developed for evaluating environmental impact caused by industrial activities. The main part of this procedure is a modification of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), which is heavily relied on survey-based estimation of WTP-WTA (willingness to pay/accept, respectively). The survey may take place either under a strictly controlled environment or in situ and as-is ('laboratory conditions' or 'field conditions', respectively, in the terminology of experimental economics). Implementation of this methodology is presented, referring to three cases of industrial pollution (in three different sites) caused by (i) a cement producing units, (ii) an oil refinery complex, and (iii) an industrialized small city with an intensively polluted port, where several industrial units co-exist, all of them located in the vicinity of Athens, Greece. The results are interpreted/discussed and conclusions are drawn.

  6. Association of Genetically Determined Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Activity with Diabetic Complications in Relation to Alcohol Consumption in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    PubMed

    Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Shinako; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Hirano, Atsushi; Nakamura, Udai; Kubo, Michiaki; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies aldehyde produced during ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress. A genetic defect in this enzyme is common in East Asians and determines alcohol consumption behaviors. We investigated the impact of genetically determined ALDH2 activity on diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications in relation to drinking habits in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An ALDH2 single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs671) was genotyped in 4,400 patients. Additionally, the relationship of clinical characteristics with ALDH2 activity (ALDH2 *1/*1 active enzyme activity vs. *1/*2 or *2/*2 inactive enzyme activity) and drinking habits (lifetime abstainers vs. former or current drinkers) was investigated cross-sectionally (n = 691 in *1/*1 abstainers, n = 1,315 in abstainers with *2, n = 1,711 in *1/*1 drinkers, n = 683 in drinkers with *2). The multiple logistic regression analysis for diabetic complications was adjusted for age, sex, current smoking habits, leisure-time physical activity, depressive symptoms, diabetes duration, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, insulin use, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors use. Albuminuria prevalence was significantly lower in the drinkers with *2 than that of other groups (odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 0.94 [0.76-1.16] in abstainers with *2, 1.00 [0.80-1.26] in *1/*1 drinkers, 0.71 [0.54-0.93] in drinkers with *2). Retinal photocoagulation prevalence was also lower in drinkers with ALDH2 *2 than that of other groups. In contrast, myocardial infarction was significantly increased in ALDH2 *2 carriers compared with that in ALDH2 *1/*1 abstainers (odds ratio [95% CI]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 2.63 [1.28-6.13] in abstainers with *2, 1.89 [0.89-4.51] in *1/*1 drinkers, 2.35 [1.06-5.79] in drinkers with *2). In summary, patients with type 2 diabetes and ALDH2 *2 displayed a

  7. Association of Genetically Determined Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Activity with Diabetic Complications in Relation to Alcohol Consumption in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    PubMed Central

    Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Shinako; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Hirano, Atsushi; Nakamura, Udai; Kubo, Michiaki; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies aldehyde produced during ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress. A genetic defect in this enzyme is common in East Asians and determines alcohol consumption behaviors. We investigated the impact of genetically determined ALDH2 activity on diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications in relation to drinking habits in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An ALDH2 single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs671) was genotyped in 4,400 patients. Additionally, the relationship of clinical characteristics with ALDH2 activity (ALDH2 *1/*1 active enzyme activity vs. *1/*2 or *2/*2 inactive enzyme activity) and drinking habits (lifetime abstainers vs. former or current drinkers) was investigated cross-sectionally (n = 691 in *1/*1 abstainers, n = 1,315 in abstainers with *2, n = 1,711 in *1/*1 drinkers, n = 683 in drinkers with *2). The multiple logistic regression analysis for diabetic complications was adjusted for age, sex, current smoking habits, leisure-time physical activity, depressive symptoms, diabetes duration, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, insulin use, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors use. Albuminuria prevalence was significantly lower in the drinkers with *2 than that of other groups (odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 0.94 [0.76–1.16] in abstainers with *2, 1.00 [0.80–1.26] in *1/*1 drinkers, 0.71 [0.54–0.93] in drinkers with *2). Retinal photocoagulation prevalence was also lower in drinkers with ALDH2 *2 than that of other groups. In contrast, myocardial infarction was significantly increased in ALDH2 *2 carriers compared with that in ALDH2 *1/*1 abstainers (odds ratio [95% CI]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 2.63 [1.28–6.13] in abstainers with *2, 1.89 [0.89–4.51] in *1/*1 drinkers, 2.35 [1.06–5.79] in drinkers with *2). In summary, patients with type 2 diabetes and ALDH2 *2

  8. The Japanese Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, J.

    The Japanese scientific ballooning program has been organized by ISAS since the institute was founded in mid 1960s. Since then, the balloon group of ISAS has been engaged in the development of the balloon technologies and scientific observations in collaboration with scientists and engineers in other universities and organizations. Here, I describe several subjects of recent activities, the details of some items will also be reported in the separate papers in this meeting.Preparation of a new mobile receiving station.

  9. Balloons of made of the EVAL (Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol) films. EVAL film has specific Infra-red absorption bands, and is expected to be useful for saving the ballast for a long duration flight.
  10. A high altitude balloon with thin polyethylene films achieving at an altitude of above 50km. Further improvement of this type of balloons is continued by inventing how to extrude thin films less than 5 microns of thickness.
  11. Recent achievement of Antarctica Flights under the collaboration of ISAS and National Polar Institute.
  12. Other new efforts to long duration flights such as satellite link boomerang balloon systems and others.
  13. New balloon borne scientific instrumentation for observations of high energy electrons and Anti-protons in cosmic-rays.
  14. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this report is to help focus the federal programs in biomass energy, by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid-1979. In addition, the industry's perceptions of government activities are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations, as listed in Exhibit 1. Interview findings have been supplemented by research of recent literature. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry; (2) what are the companies doing; (3) what are their objectives and strategies; and (4) what are the implications for government policy. This executive summary provides highlights of the key findings and conclusions. The summary discussion is presented in seven parts: (1) overview of the biomass field; (2) structure of the biomass industry today; (3) corporate activities in biomass-related areas; (4) motivations for these activities; (5) industry's outlook on the future for energy-from-biomass; (6) industry's view of government activities; and (7) implications for Federal policy.

  15. Japanese respond to campaign.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City. PMID:12288124

  16. Effects of propolis on eggshell microbial activity, hatchability, and chick performance in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) eggs.

    PubMed

    Aygun, A; Sert, D; Copur, G

    2012-04-01

    Propolis is a sticky resin produced by worker honeybees from substances collected from plants, and it has strong antibacterial and antifungal properties. The purpose of this study was to establish the effects of propolis on egg weight loss, hatchability, chick performance, and to control microbial activity naturally occurring on eggshells. A total of 750 fresh eggs was randomly divided into 5 groups. Eggs from the first group were sprayed with ethyl alcohol (70%, A), the second group was sprayed with benzalkonium chloride (B), and the third, fourth, and fifth groups were sprayed with propolis at 3 doses: 5, 10, and 15%. Eggs sprayed with propolis had lower egg weight loss than eggs from groups A and B (P < 0.001). Bacterial activity was reduced significantly in all propolis groups. There were no significant differences between treatments for hatchability, embryonic mortality, BW gain, and relative growth. Results of the present study indicated that propolis could be an alternative hatching egg disinfectant versus a chemical disinfectant, without adverse effects on hatchability and performance of quail chicks. PMID:22399742

  17. Post-hoc analysis showing better clinical response with the loading dose of certolizumab pegol in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Mariko; Shoji, Toshiharu; Togo, Osamu; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) with and without loading dose (LD) in a post-hoc analysis of two Japanese clinical studies. Methods: Data from the double-blind trials (DBT) J-RAPID and HIKARI, and their open-label extension (OLE) studies, were used. Patients randomized to CZP 200 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) groups starting with LD (400 mg Weeks 0/2/4; LD group; J-RAPID: n = 82, HIKARI: n = 116) and patients randomized to placebo groups who subsequently started CZP Q2W without LD in the OLEs (No-LD group; J-RAPID: n = 61, HIKARI: n = 99) were analyzed. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics were assessed during 24 weeks. Adverse events were reported from all studies. Results: In both trials, the LD groups showed more rapid initial ACR20/50/70 kinetics, and maintained higher ACR50/70 responses until 24 weeks, compared with the No-LD groups. Anti-CZP antibody development was less frequent in the LD groups (J-RAPID: 1.2% versus 4.9%; HIKARI: 17.2% versus 27.3%). Similar safety profiles were reported between LD and No-LD groups (any AEs: 281.8 versus 315.7 [J-RAPID], 282.6 versus 321.3 [HIKARI] [incidence rate/100 patient-years]). Conclusions: Despite limitations, including comparing DBT and OLE studies, these results suggest that a CZP LD improves clinical response in active rheumatoid arthritis without altering the safety profile. PMID:26472043

  18. Comparison of physical activity energy expenditure in Japanese adolescents assessed by EW4800P triaxial accelerometry and the doubly labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Kaneko, Kayoko; Koizumi, Kayo; Ito, Chinatsu

    2013-10-01

    The present study compared the accuracy of triaxial accelerometry and the doubly labelled water (DLW) method for measuring physical activity (PA) in Japanese adolescents. A total of sixty adolescents aged 12-15 years were analysed. The total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured over 7 d by the DLW method and with an EW4800P triaxial accelerometer (Panasonic Corporation). The measured (RMR)(m) and predicted RMR (RMR(p)) were 5·7 (SD 0·9) and 6·0 (SD 1·0) MJ/d, respectively. TEE measured by the DLW method and accelerometry using RMR(m) or RMR(p) were 11·0 (SD 2·6), 10·3 (SD 1·9), and 10·7 (SD 2·1) MJ/d, respectively. The PA levels (PAL) measured by the DLW method using RMR(m) or RMR(p) were 1·97 (SD 0·31) and 1·94 (SD 0·31) in subjects who exercised, and 1·85 (SD 0·27) and 1·74 (SD 0·29) in subjects who did not exercise. The percentage of body fat correlated significantly with the percentage difference between RMR(m) v. RMR(p), TEE, PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and PAL using RMR(p), and PAL using RMR(m) assessed by the DLW method and accelerometry. The present data showed that while accelerometry estimated TEE accurately, it did not provide the precise measurement of PAEE and PAL. The error in accelerometry was attributed to the prediction error of RMR and assessment in exercise. PMID:23544366

  19. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of estrogens and androgens in

  20. C3 variants in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Nishimukai, H; Kitamura, H; Sano, Y; Tamaki, Y

    1985-01-01

    By high-voltage agarose gel electrophoresis, seven phenotypes of C3 were found in Japanese. The allele frequencies for C3*S, C3*S025, C3*S02, C3*F, C3*F06, C3*F065, and C3*F08 were 0.9943, 0.0003, 0.0003, 0.0006, 0.0003, 0.0021, and 0.0021, respectively. CH50, C3/C3c protein concentrations, and C3 hemolytic activities in fresh sera with variant C3 phenotypes were within the normal ranges. PMID:3988301

  21. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For ... What are the side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccination? Pain and tenderness are the most commonly reported ...

  22. New Frontiers for Japanese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Frank H.

    1974-01-01

    Japanese literature, television, movies, and school texts from 1935 to 1955 are analyzed for their influence and contribution to Japanese youths' pioneering spirit and frontiermindedness. "Asian Affairs" is published by the American-Asian Educational Exchange, New York. (DE)

  23. Americanization through Public Education of Japanese Americans in Hawaii: 1930-1941. The Effect of Extracurricular Activities on the Americanization Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoho, Alan R.

    Using data from 60 oral testimonies, student handbooks, and yearbooks, this paper describes the Americanization of Japanese Americans in Hawaii through public school education between 1930 and 1941, delineating the roles that participation in student government, sports, clubs, assemblies, and home recreation played in the socialization process.…

  24. Development of a monitoring system to record the activity patterns in juvenile Japanese spiny lobsters, Panulirus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Yoshitaka; Norman, Christopher Paul; Nuka, Toshimitsu; Nagata, Yutaka

    A preliminary study of the effectiveness of an infrared monitoring system to detect the timing of exit and re-entry to a hole used as a daytime refuge by an individual juvenile P. japonicus was carried out at the Kominato Marine Biosystems Research Center of Chiba University. The monitoring system consisted of the infrared beam source and sensor which were attached to either side of the hole and connected by a 5 m cable to an external exchangeable battery and data logger. For a six day period (25th September to 1st October, 1998) clear activity patterns were observed for an individual lobster (ca. 120 mm total length) showing that the nocturnal foraging pattern of the individual lobster had a high degree of variation in both the duration of foraging (between ca. 1 to 4 hrs) and the period remaining in the hole during the night. The sensor showed high levels of response especially around dusk and dawn when we conclude that the lobster was near to the entrance of the hole and also intermittent peaks during the night when the lobster emerged to forage and then returned. In summary, the lobster remained in its hole during the day and moved to the entrance of the hole at dusk observed before emerging to forage and then returned to the hole at intermittent periods during the night. We conclude that the possession of a suitable hole and its defense from conspecifics may be a key factor, along with prey availability, determining the duration of foraging behavior and that the infrared system is highly effective for monitoring the movement patterns of juvenile lobsters.

  25. Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1985-03-01

    Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.

  1. Cultural Competence in Business Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Shohei

    Cultural competence in business Japanese requires more than superficial knowledge of business etiquette. One must truly understand why Japanese people think and act differently from their American counterparts. For example, instruction in the use of Japanese taxis must be accompanied by instruction in the concept and implications of seating order…

  2. Future Plan and Recent Activities for the Japanese Follow-on Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Himawari-8/9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurino, T.

    2012-12-01

    In 1977, Japan launched the first geostationary meteorological satellite " Himawari-1 (GMS-1)" onto the geo-synchronous orbit at 140°E mainly to cover the western Pacific and the east part of Asia as part of a space segment of the Global Observation System (GOS) of the WMO World Weather Watch (WWW) programme up to the present. JMA plans to launch Himawari-8 in summer 2014 and commence its operation in 2015, when Himawari-7 (MTSAT-2) is scheduled to complete its period of operation. The Agency also plans to launch Himawari-9 in 2016. Himawari-8 and -9 carry Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) units comparable to the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on board GOES-R with the following functions: - Multi-channel capacity (16 channels in visible and infrared bands) - High spatial resolution (0.5 - 1.0 km for visible and 1.0 - 2.0 km for infrared) - High temporal resolution (within 10 minutes for full disk) - Rapid scanning with flexible area selection and scheduling The follow-on satellites will offer high observation potential, which will enable users to analyze cloud properties and extract other meteorological parameters. To make the most of these functions as well as to provide users with effective information from the start of Himawari-8's operation, JMA has set up an environment for the development of new products from the follow-on satellites in collaboration with its Meteorological Satellite Center (MSC) and other internal related divisions in JMA. The Agency also plans to start the development of related products, and is interested in pursuing scientific and prototyping activities in collaboration with Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS) members. This is particularly the case with EUMETSAT and NOAA/NESDIS, which already operate or are preparing to use a new generation of multi-channel imaging instruments (e.g. MSG/MTG, GOES-R). To support these developments, Himawari-8/9 simulated images are generated in two ways - one involving the accumulation of

  3. Why do Japanese Write Characters in Space?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Masato

    1987-01-01

    Reviews several experiments which examined the cognitive function of finger writing, an activity widely used by Japanese people and thought to be related to Kanji learning. Children and university students performed either Kanji anagram tasks or English word tasks. Finger writing appears to originate from the existence of motoric or action-based…

  4. A History of Japanese in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Japanese Society of Hawaii, Honolulu.

    This handbook contains the history of the first hundred years of Japanese activity in Hawaii, of the pioneer immigrant workers and their progeny. The book offers valuable source material to the people of Hawaii who want to know their origins and who wish to teach their children of the achievements of their ancestors. Ninety-one pages of black and…

  5. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II API DMFs Under GDUFA.'' Under the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 (GDUFA), holders of certain drug master files, namely, Type II active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) drug master files (DMFs) that are referenced......

  6. Activated carbon: Utilization excluding industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial use and theoretical studies of activated carbon. Topics include performance evaluations in water treatment processes, preparation and regeneration techniques, materials recovery, and pore structure studies. Adsorption characteristics for specific materials are discussed. Studies pertaining specifically to industrial waste treatment are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution. PMID:22645468

  8. Insights into the emission reductions of multiple unintentional persistent organic pollutants from industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Yuyang; Zhan, Jiayu

    2016-02-01

    Industrial activities result in unintentional production of multiple types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at various concentrations. Because of the potential adverse effect of these POPs on the environment, biota and human health, methods for controlling emission of POPs are required. Development and application of techniques for controlling emissions of POPs can be a technical and economic burden for the industry involved. Therefore, from the point of view of cost-benefit analysis, reducing emissions of multiple pollutants at the same time is optimal for sustainable industrial development. Although techniques have been developed for reducing the emissions of individual POPs, such as dioxins, further work is required on multi-POP control emissions from industrial activities. This paper discusses three important aspects that need to be taken to achieve multi-POP control. These aspects include the establishment of a comprehensive system for evaluating the risk from emissions of multiple POPs, determination of indicators for total emissions of multiple POPs, and the preparation and application of functional materials to inhibit formation of multiple POPs. These discussion might be helpful for the future research on the multi-POP control in industry. PMID:26386431

  9. A trial of cross-disciplinary classes at the university and the high school on the seasonal transition and the seasonal feeling from autumn to winter in East Asia (joint activity of meteorology with Japanese classical literature, music and art)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, K.; Sato, S.; Kato, H.; Akagi, R.; Sueishi, N.; Mori, T.; Nakakura, T.; Irie, I.

    2012-04-01

    There are many steps of the rapid seasonal transitions in East Asia influenced by the seasonal cycle of the Asian monsoon system, resulting in the variety of "seasonal feeling" there. For example, the extremely cold air flowing from the Siberian continent to the Japan Islands is transformed by the huge supply of heat and moisture from the underlying sea (the Japan Sea) in midwinter, which brings the large amount of snowfall in the Japan Sea side of the Japan Islands. However, although the air temperature there is still rather higher from November to early December than in the midwinter, such wintertime weather pattern often appears due to the early development of the Siberian high (however, the precipitation is brought not as in snow but as rain). The intermittent rainfall in such situation due to the shallow cumulus clouds from late autumn to early winter is called the word "Shi-gu-re" in Japanese. It is also well known that the "Shi-gu-re" is often used for expression of the "seasonal feeling" in the Japanese classical literature (especially we can see in the Japanese classic poems called "Wa-Ka"). The present study reports a trial of cross-disciplinary class on the seasonal cycle in East Asia in association with the "seasonal feeling" from autumn to winter, by the joint activity of meteorology with the Japanese classical literature, the music, and the art. Firstly, we will summarize the characteristics of the large-scale climate systems and the daily weather situations from autumn to winter. We will also introduce some examples of the expression of the weather situation found in the Japanese classical poems. Next the outline of the cross-disciplinary classes on such topics at the Faculty of Education, Okayama University, and those at Okayama-Ichinomiya High School and Attached Junior High School of Okayama University will be presented together with the analyses of these practices. We should note that the present trial of the classes might also contribute to

  10. Nucleus Course in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Nobuo; Flamm, Carol S.

    The "Nucleus Course in Japanese," based on the Institute of Modern Languages'"Situational Reinforcement" approach, is designed for 80 to 100 hours of instruction. Each lesson has several sections--Response drills, Appropriate Response Sequence, and Reading. Most of the lessons also include optional sections with Sentences for Repetition or a…

  11. Reflexives in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishida, Maki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Japanese through the following three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that are confounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based on their semantic difference, and (c) classification of predicates that occur with…

  12. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

  13. Japanese Temple Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

  14. I Can Learn Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Michael; Funato, Makiko

    This set of materials for Japanese second language instruction was designed for students who can be taught most effectively through a functional, conversational approach. It is intended as a supplement to the regular course of study so that all students, regardless of ability level, can be provided with an effective instructional program. It…

  15. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  16. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Federal programs in biomass energy are defined by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid 1979. The industry's perceptions of government activites are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities, petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry? (2) what are the companies doing? (3) what are their objectives and strategies? (4) what are the implications for government policy?

  17. Development of New Cementitious Caterials by Alkaline Activating Industrial by-Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Jimenez, A.; García-Lodeiro, I.; Palomo, A.

    2015-11-01

    The alkaline activation of aluminosiliceous industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag and fly ash is widely known to yield binders whose properties make them comparable to or even stronger and more durable than ordinary Portland cement. The present paper discusses activation fundamentals (such as the type and concentration of alkaline activator and curing conditions) as well as the structure of the cementitious gels formed (C-A-S-H, N-A-S-H). The durability and strength of these systems make these materials apt for use in many industrial applications, such as precast concrete elements (masonery blocks, railroad sleepers), protective coatings for materials with low fire ratings and lightweight elements.

  18. Sponsorship of physical activity programs by the sweetened beverages industry: public health or public relations?

    PubMed

    Gómez, Luis; Jacoby, Enrique; Ibarra, Lorena; Lucumí, Diego; Hernandez, Alexandra; Parra, Diana; Florindo, Alex; Hallal, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    The growing evidence on the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity and other chronic diseases has highlighted the need to implement policy actions that go beyond programs exclusively focused on individual responsibility. In order to protect their commercial goals in Latin America, the sugar-sweetened beverage industry practices intense lobbying at high government levels in several countries across the region. This strategy is accompanied by corporate social responsibility programs that fund initiatives promoting physical activity. These efforts, although appearing altruistic, are intended to improve the industry's public image and increase political influence in order to block regulations counter to their interests. If this industry wants to contribute to human well being, as it has publicly stated, it should avoid blocking legislative actions intended to regulate the marketing, advertising and sale of their products. PMID:21225220

  19. Environmental Stressors: The Mental Health Impacts of Living Near Industrial Activity*

    PubMed Central

    DOWNEY, LIAM; VAN WILLIGEN, MARIEKE

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature examines whether the poor, the working class, and people of color are disproportionately likely to live in environmentally hazardous neighborhoods. This literature assumes that environmental characteristics such as industrial pollution and hazardous waste are detrimental to human health, an assumption that has not been well tested. Drawing upon the sociology of mental health and environmental inequality studies, we ask whether industrial activity has an impact on psychological well-being. We link individual-level survey data with data from the U.S. Census and the Toxic Release Inventory and find that residential proximity to industrial activity has a negative impact on mental health. This impact is both direct and mediated by individuals’ perceptions of neighborhood disorder and personal powerlessness, and the impact is greater for minorities and the poor than it is for whites and wealthier individuals. These results suggest that public health officials need to take seriously the mental health impacts of living near industrial facilities. PMID:16259150

  20. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  1. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  2. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  3. Treatment of industrial effluents by a continuous system: electrocoagulation--activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Moisés, Tejocote-Pérez; Patricia, Balderas-Hernández; Barrera-Díaz, C E; Gabriela, Roa-Morales; Natividad-Rangel, Reyna

    2010-10-01

    A continuous system electrocoagulation--active sludge was designed and built for the treatment of industrial wastewater. The system included an electrochemical reactor with aluminum electrodes, a clarifier and a biological reactor. The electrochemical reactor was tested under different flowrates (50, 100 and 200 mL/min). In the biological reactor, the performance of different cultures of active sludge was assessed: coliform bacterial, ciliate and flagellate protozoa and aquatic fungus. Overall treatment efficiencies of color, turbidity and COD removal were 94%, 92% and 80%, respectively, under optimal conditions of 50 mL/min flowrate and using ciliate and flagellate protozoa. It was concluded that the system was efficient for the treatment of industrial wastewater. PMID:20570506

  4. LWRS II&C Industry and Regulatory Engagement Activities for FY 11

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Thomas

    2011-09-01

    To ensure broad industry support and coordination for the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Controls (II&C) Systems Technologies research pathway, an engagement process will be continually pursued with nuclear asset owners, vendors, and suppliers, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the major industry support organizations of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), and Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). Nuclear asset owner engagement is a necessary and enabling activity to obtain data and accurate characterization of long-term operational challenges, assess the suitability of proposed research for addressing long-term needs, and gain access to data and representative infrastructure and expertise needed to ensure success of the proposed research and development (R&D) activities. Engagement with vendors and suppliers will ensure that vendor expectations and needs can be translated into requirements that can be met through technology commercialization.

  5. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-11-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L-1, respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation.

  6. The RFad Method--a new fatigue recovery time assessment for industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Silva e Santos, Marcello; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez; Moreira, Sergio Bastos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study about fatigue recovery time assessment processes in work activities. It came about due to a demand presented by an automotive industry giant, in need of updating existing cycle time sheets and TAKT time parameters. The company decided to hire an Ergonomics Laboratory with ties to a major Brazilian University in order to evaluate current conditions and establish a new method to either calculate recovery times or validate existing assessment criteria, based in the ergonomics evaluation of the work activities. It is clear that there has been evident evolution in the industrial sector in the past two decades. It brought up fast modernization of industrial processes, not only in production but also in terms of management systems. Due to improved computer and robotics systems, combined with overall operational advancements - like the use of lighter hand tools and more effective hoist systems - most work activities have had its physical effort requirements reduced in the past decades. Thus, compensation factors built into production times need to be reviewed in order to avoid unnecessary costs associated to them. By using ergonomics considerations, we prevent simply removing the physical variables built in rest time calculations without taking on account, for example, additional cognitive load represented by the use of more sophisticated pieces of equipment. PMID:22316952

  7. Effect of leather industry effluents on soil microbial and protease activity.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, M Reddi; Narasimha, G

    2012-01-01

    Release of leather industry effluents into the agricultural fields causes indicative changes in nutrient cycling and organic matter processing. In the present study, leather industry effluent discharged soil (test) and undischarged soil(control) were collected from the surrounding areas of industry. The physico-chemical, biological properties and soil protease activity were examined. The study reflected the average mean value of pH, electrical conductivity and water holding capacity of the test soil was found to be 7.94, 0.89 microMhos cm(-1) and 0.51 ml g(-1), respectively. In chemical parameters, organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium has the mean of 6.73%, 0.23 g kg(-1), 4.28 mg g(-1) and 28 microg g(-1), respectively. In all the respects, the test soil showed higher values than the control. The soil protease enzyme activity was determined by using substrate casein and the activity was found to be higher (180 microg TE g(-1) 24 hr(-1)) in test soil than the control soil (63 microg TE g(-1) 24 hr(-1)). PMID:23033641

  8. Flowering of Japanese astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozai, Y.

    1988-06-01

    A development history is presented for Japanese astronomy from the 6th century to the present day, together with a status report and account of future plans. About 500 professionals currently belong to the Astronomical Society of Japan. Tokyo's Mitaka Observatory employs a staff of about 70 astronomers; most modern astronomical instruments, however, have been installed at sites outside the Tokyo area. The limitations of present instruments are notably severe for astronomers working in the visible and IR wavelengths.

  9. Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Bharti, Alpana; Negi, Yogesh Kumar; Gusain, Omprakash; Pandey, Piyush; Bisht, Gajraj Singh

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41%) followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%),Saccharopolyspora (6.25%) and Nocardia (6.25%). Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2) was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes. PMID:24031819

  10. Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Bharti, Alpana; Negi, Yogesh Kumar; Gusain, Omprakash; Pandey, Piyush; Bisht, Gajraj Singh

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41%) followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%),Saccharopolyspora (6.25%) and Nocardia (6.25%). Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2) was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes. PMID:24031819

  11. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    PubMed

    Iga, M

    1981-01-01

    The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan. PMID:7233479

  12. Selective extraction, structural characterisation and antifungal activity assessment of napins from an industrial rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Nioi, Claudia; Kapel, Romain; Rondags, Emmanuel; Marc, Ivan

    2012-10-15

    This article reports an extraction-purification of napins from an industrial rapeseed meal and the assessment of their antimicrobial activity against Fusarium langsethiae. The best extraction conditions are observed at pH 2, 12% (w/w) of rapeseed meal after 15 min of extraction in water at room temperature. Under these conditions the extraction is highly selective, allowing a simple purification process (ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by desalting size exclusion chromatography) to get purified napins. These napins possessed significant anti-Fusarium activity (IC(50)=70 μM) and a compact secondary structure rich in α-helix, which may explain this bioactivity. PMID:23442668

  13. In silico analysis of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase active site with toxic industrial dyes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Nirmal K; Vindal, Vaibhav; Narayana, Siva Lakshmi; Ramakrishna, V; Kunal, Swaraj Priyaranjan; Srinivas, M

    2012-05-01

    Laccases belong to multicopper oxidases, a widespread class of enzymes implicated in many oxidative functions in various industrial oxidative processes like production of fine chemicals to bioremediation of contaminated soil and water. In order to understand the mechanisms of substrate binding and interaction between substrates and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase, a homology model was generated. The resulted model was further validated and used for docking studies with toxic industrial dyes- acid blue 74, reactive black 5 and reactive blue 19. Interactions of chemical mediators with the laccase was also examined. The docking analysis showed that the active site always cannot accommodate the dye molecules, due to constricted nature of the active site pocket and steric hindrance of the residues whereas mediators are relatively small and can easily be accommodated into the active site pocket, which, thereafter leads to the productive binding. The binding properties of these compounds along with identification of critical active site residues can be used for further site-directed mutagenesis experiments in order to identify their role in activity and substrate specificity, ultimately leading to improved mutants for degradation of these toxic compounds. PMID:21877154

  14. Afatinib versus cisplatin plus pemetrexed in Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer harboring activating EGFR mutations: Subgroup analysis of LUX-Lung 3.

    PubMed

    Kato, Terufumi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Okamoto, Isamu; Yokoyama, Akira; Hida, Toyoaki; Seto, Takashi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Massey, Dan; Seki, Yoko; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    In LUX-Lung 3, afatinib significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) versus cisplatin/pemetrexed in EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma patients and overall survival (OS) in Del19 patients. Preplanned analyses in Japanese patients from LUX-Lung 3 were performed. Patients were randomized 2:1 to afatinib or cisplatin/pemetrexed, stratified by mutation type (Del19/L858R/Other). Primary endpoint was PFS (independent review). Secondary endpoints included OS, objective response, and safety. Median PFS (data cut-off: February 2012) for afatinib versus cisplatin/pemetrexed was 13.8 vs 6.9 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-0.70; P = 0.0014) in all Japanese patients (N = 83), with more pronounced improvements in those with common mutations (Del19/L858R; HR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.15-0.52; P < 0.0001) and Del19 mutations (HR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.06-0.39; P < 0.0001). PFS was also improved in L858R patients (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.20-1.25; P = 0.1309). Median OS (data cut-off: November 2013) with afatinib versus cisplatin/pemetrexed was 46.9 vs 35.8 months (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.40-1.43; P = 0.3791) in all Japanese patients, with greater benefit in patients with common mutations (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.29-1.12; P = 0.0966) and Del19 mutations (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.87; P = 0.0181); OS was not significantly different in L858R patients (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.40-3.21; P = 0.8212). Following study treatment discontinuation, most patients (93.5%) received subsequent anticancer therapy. The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea, rash/acne, nail effects and stomatitis with afatinib and nausea, decreased appetite, neutropenia, and leukopenia with cisplatin/pemetrexed. Afatinib significantly improved PFS versus cisplatin/pemetrexed in Japanese EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma patients and OS in Del19 but not L858R patients (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00949650). PMID:26094656

  15. Afatinib versus cisplatin plus pemetrexed in Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer harboring activating EGFR mutations: Subgroup analysis of LUX-Lung 3

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Terufumi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Okamoto, Isamu; Yokoyama, Akira; Hida, Toyoaki; Seto, Takashi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Massey, Dan; Seki, Yoko; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    In LUX-Lung 3, afatinib significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) versus cisplatin/pemetrexed in EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma patients and overall survival (OS) in Del19 patients. Preplanned analyses in Japanese patients from LUX-Lung 3 were performed. Patients were randomized 2:1 to afatinib or cisplatin/pemetrexed, stratified by mutation type (Del19/L858R/Other). Primary endpoint was PFS (independent review). Secondary endpoints included OS, objective response, and safety. Median PFS (data cut-off: February 2012) for afatinib versus cisplatin/pemetrexed was 13.8 vs 6.9 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20–0.70; P = 0.0014) in all Japanese patients (N = 83), with more pronounced improvements in those with common mutations (Del19/L858R; HR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.15–0.52; P < 0.0001) and Del19 mutations (HR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.06–0.39; P < 0.0001). PFS was also improved in L858R patients (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.20–1.25; P = 0.1309). Median OS (data cut-off: November 2013) with afatinib versus cisplatin/pemetrexed was 46.9 vs 35.8 months (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.40–1.43; P = 0.3791) in all Japanese patients, with greater benefit in patients with common mutations (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.29–1.12; P = 0.0966) and Del19 mutations (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13–0.87; P = 0.0181); OS was not significantly different in L858R patients (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.40–3.21; P = 0.8212). Following study treatment discontinuation, most patients (93.5%) received subsequent anticancer therapy. The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea, rash/acne, nail effects and stomatitis with afatinib and nausea, decreased appetite, neutropenia, and leukopenia with cisplatin/pemetrexed. Afatinib significantly improved PFS versus cisplatin/pemetrexed in Japanese EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma patients and OS in Del19 but not L858R patients (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00949650). PMID:26094656

  16. Japanese plan for SSF utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) program has made significant progress. The JEM preliminary design review was completed in July 1992; construction of JEM operation facilities has begun; and the micro-G airplane, drop shaft, and micro-G experiment rocket are all operational. The national policy for JEM utilization was also established. The Space Experiment Laboratory (SEL) opened in June '92 and will function as a user support center. Eight JEM multiuser facilities are in phase B, and scientific requirements are being defined for 17 candidate multiuser facilities. The National Joint Research Program is about to start. Precursor missions and early Space Station utilization activities are being defined. This paper summarizes the program in outline and graphic form.

  17. Dielectric elastomer based active layer for macro-scaled industrial application in roto-flexographic printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, F.; D'Oriano, G.; Meo, M.

    2014-03-01

    The use of dielectric elastomer (DE) for the realisation of new generation actuators has attracted the interest of many researchers in the last ten years due to their high efficiency, a very good electromechanical coupling and large achievable strains [1-3]. Although these properties constitute a very important advantage, the industrial exploitation of such systems is hindered by the high voltages required for the actuation [4] that could potentially constitute also a risk for the operators. In this work we present a DE based active layer that can be used in different macro-scaled parts of industrial equipment for roto-flexographic printing substituting traditional mechanical devices, reducing manufacturing costs and enhancing its reliability. Moreover, the specific configuration of the system requires the driving voltage to be applied only in the mounting/dismounting step thus lowering further the operative costs without posing any threat for the workers. Starting from the industrial requirements, a complete thermo-mechanical characterisation using DSC and DMA was undertaken on acrylic elastomer films in order to investigate their behaviour under the operative frequencies and solicitations. Validation of the active layer was experimentally evaluated by manufacturing a DE actuator controlling both prestrain and nature of the complaint electrodes, and measuring the electrically induced Maxwell's strain using a laser vibrometer to evaluate the relative displacement along the z-axis.

  18. Activity concentration of natural radioactive nuclides in nonmetallic industrial raw materials in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-11-01

    Natural materials such as rock, ore, and clay, containing natural radioactive nuclides are widely used as industrial raw materials in Japan. If these are high concentrations, the workers who handle the material can be unknowingly exposed to radiation at a high level. In this study, about 80 nonmetallic natural materials frequently used as industrial raw materials in Japan were comprehensively collected from several industrial companies, and the activity concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K in the materials was determined by ICP-MS (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and gamma ray spectrum analyses. Effective doses to workers handling them were estimated by using methods for dose estimation given in the RP 122. We found the activity concentrations to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the IAEA Safety Guide. The maximum estimated effective dose to workers handling these materials was 0.16 mSv y(-1), which was lower than the reference level (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for existing situation given in the ICRP Publ.103. PMID:25046866

  19. JETC (Japanese Technology Evaluation Center) Panel Report on High Temperature Superconductivity in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Duane; Gamota, George

    1989-01-01

    The Japanese regard success in R and D in high temperature superconductivity as an important national objective. The results of a detailed evaluation of the current state of Japanese high temperature superconductivity development are provided. The analysis was performed by a panel of technical experts drawn from U.S. industry and academia, and is based on reviews of the relevant literature and visits to Japanese government, academic and industrial laboratories. Detailed appraisals are presented on the following: Basic research; superconducting materials; large scale applications; processing of superconducting materials; superconducting electronics and thin films. In all cases, comparisons are made with the corresponding state-of-the-art in the United States.

  20. The Japanese Education System is a Failure, Say Some Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1997-01-01

    A Japanese editorial in an English-language daily harshly criticized Japanese education's failure to enhance students' spirit of independence; develop critical and artistic thinking skills; and promote social awareness and an international viewpoint. The United States finished fourth out of 60 in the (unpublicized) International Math Olympiad.…

  1. An economic benefit deriving from space activities: Integration between science institutions and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, R.; D'Amore, M.; D'Angelo, L.

    1993-09-01

    A lively debate is taking place in Italy on the assessment of the economic benefits deriving from the national expenditure in space programmes. Specific studies have been recently committed by the Italian Space Agency on this subject. This paper aims at providing an original insight in this debate by focusing on the often underestimated effect that the development of space programmes has on the process of integration of university, research centres and industry. In fact, the economic analysis of the technology innovation evidences that the integration of research institutions and industry represents a key issue in the establishment of an effective national innovation system towards a higher industrial competitiveness. It is widely recognized that the initiation and promotion of the process of integration of industry and research institutions is primarily dependent on their cooperation within large public funded programmes in the field of high technology. Do space programmes show any peculiarity which make them especially suitable to generate an effective cooperation between industry and science institutions? The major goal of this paper will be to give an answer to this question through the analysis of the main characteristics of space programmes as far as the integration process is concerned. Space programmes will then be analysed identifying the critical aspects related to the process of research and technology development. Following, it will be demonstrated to which extent cooperation between industry and science institutions has been helpful in solving the identified critical aspects. The analysis will also address the organizational issues in order to identify the cooperation modes. Furthermore, an attempt will be made to assess the benefits deriving from the identified forms of cooperation in view of an increasing integration between industry and science institutions. The analysis will then be focused on the microgravity field; in fact, on the basis of the

  2. Central obesity and health-related factors among middle-aged men: a comparison among native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan.

    PubMed

    Schwingel, Andiara; Nakata, Yoshio; Ito, Lucy S; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Erb, Christopher T; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Shinjo, Samuel K; Uno, Miyuki; Marie, Suely K N; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different cultural environments on the development of obesity by examining the association of central obesity, lifestyle, and selected coronary risk factors among people with identical Japanese genetic backgrounds living in Japan and Brazil. One hundred and four native Japanese and 286 Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan aged 35 years or over were studied. Obesity, metabolic risk factors for coronary disease, and history of regular sports activity, daily physical activity, and eating habits were assessed. The results showed Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil with significantly higher waist circumference values, and greater prevalence of central obesity compared to native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Japan. The risk of developing central obesity was found to be 2.8 times higher among Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil. However, this association was no longer found to be significant after adjusting for lifestyle factors in the logistic model. Additionally, waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. These findings suggest substantial variation in measures of central obesity among the three groups of Japanese ancestry, and underscore the heterogeneity of risk factors among communities of Japanese ancestry living in different cultural environments. The results also suggest that immigrant men exposed to the Brazilian cultural environment are more susceptible to the development of central obesity, and it seems to be associated with various lifestyle items and metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. PMID:17641453

  3. Evaluating the performance of close-range 3D active vision systems for industrial design applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Gaiani, Marco

    2004-12-01

    In recent years, active three-dimensional (3D) active vision systems or range cameras for short have come out of research laboratories to find niche markets in application fields as diverse as industrial design, automotive manufacturing, geomatics, space exploration and cultural heritage to name a few. Many publications address different issues link to 3D sensing and processing but currently these technologies pose a number of challenges to many recent users, i.e., "what are they, how good are they and how do they compare?". The need to understand, test and integrate those range cameras with other technologies, e.g. photogrammetry, CAD, etc. is driven by the quest for optimal resolution, accuracy, speed and cost. Before investing, users want to be certain that a given range camera satisfy their operational requirements. The understanding of the basic theory and best practices associated with those cameras are in fact fundamental to fulfilling the requirements listed above in an optimal way. This paper addresses the evaluation of active 3D range cameras as part of a study to better understand and select one or a number of them to fulfill the needs of industrial design applications. In particular, object material and surface features effect, calibration and performance evaluation are discussed. Results are given for six different range cameras for close range applications.

  4. Evaluating the performance of close-range 3D active vision systems for industrial design applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Gaiani, Marco

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, active three-dimensional (3D) active vision systems or range cameras for short have come out of research laboratories to find niche markets in application fields as diverse as industrial design, automotive manufacturing, geomatics, space exploration and cultural heritage to name a few. Many publications address different issues link to 3D sensing and processing but currently these technologies pose a number of challenges to many recent users, i.e., "what are they, how good are they and how do they compare?". The need to understand, test and integrate those range cameras with other technologies, e.g. photogrammetry, CAD, etc. is driven by the quest for optimal resolution, accuracy, speed and cost. Before investing, users want to be certain that a given range camera satisfy their operational requirements. The understanding of the basic theory and best practices associated with those cameras are in fact fundamental to fulfilling the requirements listed above in an optimal way. This paper addresses the evaluation of active 3D range cameras as part of a study to better understand and select one or a number of them to fulfill the needs of industrial design applications. In particular, object material and surface features effect, calibration and performance evaluation are discussed. Results are given for six different range cameras for close range applications.

  5. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…

  6. The Japanese Language: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backhouse, A. E.

    This guide provides an overview of the salient features of the Japanese language from the perspective of the beginning-level English-speaking learner. Chapters address these topics: the Japanese language and its historic and cultural setting; phonology (sounds and syllables, word accentuation; loanwords; connected speech); writing (scripts,…

  7. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

  8. A GLOSSARY OF JAPANESE NEOLOGISMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAILEY, DON C.

    THIS GLOSSARY COMPRISES A LIST OF USEFUL NEW WORDS AND PHRASES IN CURRENT USE NOT FOUND IN JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARIES, SPECIFICALLY KENKYUSHA'S NEW JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 1954 EDITION, WHICH HAS SERVED AS THE MODEL IN MOST RESPECTS FOR THE FORMAT AND STYLE. ROMANIZATION OF THE ORTHOGRAPHY FOLLOWS A MODIFIED HEPBURN SYSTEM AND THE JAPANESE…

  9. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with men on…

  10. Cold active pectinases: advancing the food industry to the next generation.

    PubMed

    Adapa, Vijayanand; Ramya, L N; Pulicherla, K K; Rao, K R S Sambasiva

    2014-03-01

    Pectinase has been an integral part of commercial food processing, where it is used for degradation of pectin and facilitates different processing steps such as liquefaction, clarification and juice extraction. The industry currently uses pectinases from mesophilic or thermophilic microorganisms which are well established, but recently, there has been is a new trend in the food industry to adopt low-temperature processing. This trend is due to the potential economic and environmental advantages which the industry envisages. In order to achieve this change, an alternative for the existing pectinases, which are mostly mesophilic and temperature-dependent, must be identified, which can function efficiently at low temperatures. Psychrophilic pectinases derived from cold-adapted microorganisms, are known to function at low to freezing temperatures and may be an alternative to address the problem. Psychrophilic pectinases can be obtained from the vast microflora inhabiting various cold regions on earth such as oceans, Polar Regions, snow-covered mountains, and glaciers. This article is intended to study the advantages of cold active pectinases, its sources, and the current state of the research. PMID:24390855

  11. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  12. Differences in the drug-metabolizing enzyme activities among fish and bivalves living in waters near industrial and non-industrial areas

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Hidaka, C.; Izu, S.; Imada, N. )

    1994-07-01

    Fish and shellfishes, living in coastal areas receiving agricultural, industrial and domestic wastewaters, have been exposed to various chemicals. Identifing the various harmful chemicals in the environments and accumulated in aquatic organisms is difficult. Even if concentrations of pollutants are low so that no mortality of fish and shellfishes occurs, the pollutants may affect the biochemistry and physiology of aquatic organisms. Activities of some drug-metabolizing enzymes, especially the cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenase (MO) in fish livers, increase when fish are exposed to environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated organic chemicals. However, most studies have been done on the field evaluation only by MO induction in fish as a monitor for marine pollution with crude-oil and halogenated organic compounds, without regard for other chemicals. In a previous paper, the activity of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (AHH) was induced by 22 times at 2-wk, although the cytochrome P-450 content increased only twice. Activity of phenol-sulfate transferase in the mid-gut gland of short-necked clam was induced by exposure to some phenolic compounds, especially pentachlorophenol (PCP), resulting in the increase of the enzyme activity by approximately 7 times the control after 5 wk exposure. Induced activity was maintained at least for 3 wk, even after the clam had been transferred to running clean sea water, although PCP accumulated in its body is rapidly excreted. Although the activity of this enzyme in the clam is easily induced by exposure to phenols, the induction of this enzyme activity in fish is very low as compared with that of clam. This paper examines the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes of fish and bivalves living in waters near industrial and non-industrial areas to elucidate the applicability of the sulfate transferase activity in bivalves as a monitor for marine pollution, as well as the MO activity in fish.

  13. Halophilic Bacteria of Lunsu Produce an Array of Industrially Important Enzymes with Salt Tolerant Activity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sonika; Sharma, Parul; Dev, Kamal; Sourirajan, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    The halophilic bacterial isolates SS1, SS2, SS3, SS5, and SS8 were characterized for production of industrially important enzymes like amylase, protease, lipase, and glutaminase. Halophilic bacterial isolates SS1 and SS3 exhibited salt dependent extracellular amylase and protease activities. Both the halophilic isolates SS1 and SS3 exhibited maximum amylase and protease activities in the presence of 1.5 and 1.0 M NaCl, respectively, with the optimum pH 8 and temperature 40°C. SS2 showed maximum extracellular protease and lipase activities in the presence of 0.75 M NaCl, at optimum pH of 7, and temperature 37°C. The glutaminase activity of SS3 increased with increase in concentration of NaCl up to 2.5 M. The optimum pH and temperature for L-glutaminase activity of SS3 was 8 and 40°C, respectively. The combined hydrolytic activities of these halophilic bacterial isolates can be used for bioconversion of organic materials to useful products. PMID:26885394

  14. Halophilic Bacteria of Lunsu Produce an Array of Industrially Important Enzymes with Salt Tolerant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sonika; Sharma, Parul; Dev, Kamal; Sourirajan, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    The halophilic bacterial isolates SS1, SS2, SS3, SS5, and SS8 were characterized for production of industrially important enzymes like amylase, protease, lipase, and glutaminase. Halophilic bacterial isolates SS1 and SS3 exhibited salt dependent extracellular amylase and protease activities. Both the halophilic isolates SS1 and SS3 exhibited maximum amylase and protease activities in the presence of 1.5 and 1.0 M NaCl, respectively, with the optimum pH 8 and temperature 40°C. SS2 showed maximum extracellular protease and lipase activities in the presence of 0.75 M NaCl, at optimum pH of 7, and temperature 37°C. The glutaminase activity of SS3 increased with increase in concentration of NaCl up to 2.5 M. The optimum pH and temperature for L-glutaminase activity of SS3 was 8 and 40°C, respectively. The combined hydrolytic activities of these halophilic bacterial isolates can be used for bioconversion of organic materials to useful products. PMID:26885394

  15. Daily Physical Activity Assessed by a Triaxial Accelerometer Is Beneficially Associated with Waist Circumference, Serum Triglycerides, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Patients with Prediabetes or Untreated Early Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Mishima, Shuichi; Kakei, Masafumi; Ezaki, Osamu; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the association between daily physical activity and metabolic risk factors in Japanese adults with prediabetes or untreated early type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods. Daily physical activity level was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. We assessed correlations between physical activity level and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting levels of plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results. A total of 80 patients were studied. After adjustment for age and body mass index, in all subjects, physical activity level was negatively associated with waist circumference (β = −0.124, P = 0.018) and fasting serum triglycerides (β = −0.239, P = 0.035), insulin (β = −0.224, P = 0.022). In men, physical activity level was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (β = −0.351, P = 0.044), fasting plasma glucose (β = −0.369, P = 0.025) and insulin (β = −0.362, P = 0.012), and HOMA-IR (β = −0.371, P = 0.011). No significant associations were found between physical activity level and metabolic risk factors in women. Conclusion. Objectively measured daily physical activity is beneficially associated with waist circumference, serum triglycerides, and insulin resistance in individuals with prediabetes or untreated early T2D. (This trial is registered with UMIN000015774.) PMID:26064983

  16. Water resources in the Japanese Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, T.

    2005-12-01

    Due to its limited land area and limited range of natural resources (particularly fuel), Japan has developed a highly efficient economy in terms of resource utilization. This also applies to water resources. For sustainable use of water resources in the Japanese Islands, integrated and unified analyses of the data of groundwater by the nation and local governments have been needed. Land area of the Japanese Islands is 377,000 square kilometers, which is equivalent to the area of the state of Montana, but extends for 3,600 kilometers along the margin of the Eurasian continent. Mountainous areas separated by isolated, narrow plains make up 80 % of the land area. Due to the topography of Japan, rivers are generally short with steep grades, the longest being only 367 kilometers in length. Average annual precipitation is 1,600 millimeters but is highly seasonal. The annual water demand was approximately 87 billion cubic meters during the past 25 years, which represents 21 % of the total usable water. The water demand for agriculture makes up 66 % of the total water demand, and 96 % of the water for agricultural uses is used for the irrigation of rice paddies. Municipal and industrial uses make up 15.4 and 18.9 % of the demand, respectively (as of 2000). Nearly 80 % of the water used by industry in recycled. Approximately 87 % of the water demand is supplied from surface water with the rest from ground water. Because of its mountainous topography, the extent of individual aquifers is far smaller than in United States. Groundwater basins in the Japanese Islands are classified into the following six types: plain type (thick Quaternary strata); basin type (intermontane terraces and fans; hill type (highly eroded old volcanoes); volcano type (permeable lava and pyroclasitc flows comprising Quaternary strato volcanoes); pyroclastic type (thick tuff associated with large caldera formations); and limestone type (limestone blocks with karsts). Of the above types, the only major

  17. Japanese suppliers in transition from domestic nuclear reactor vendors to international suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.; Rowan, W.J.

    1994-06-27

    Japan is emerging as a major leader and exporter of nuclear power technology. In the 1990s, Japan has the largest and strongest nuclear power supply industry worldwide as a result of the largest domestic nuclear power plant construction program. The Japanese nuclear power supply industry has moved from dependence on foreign technology to developing, design, building, and operating its own power plants. This report describes the Japanese nuclear power supply industry and examines one supplier--the Mitsubishi group--to develop an understanding of the supply industry and its relationship to the utilities, government, and other organizations.

  18. Characteristics of Zero-Emission Activities in the Grain Cleaning and Flour Milling Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shifeng; Yamamoto, Kayoko; Izumi, Jun

    The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics of zero-emission activities in the grain cleaning and flour milling industry. The findings of this study are summarized in the following two points: (1) There are very few common features among factories in regards to zero-emission efforts. High processing cost, lack of manpower, recycling traders and space for wastes classification are pointed out as difficulties, and information gathering from the outside of each company is not widespread. (2) Zero-emission activities differ according to factory, and the number of recycling categories is less than the number of waste categories, even though wheat is the only raw material. Ten different kinds of waste were identified, and the lack of means to recycle this waste was identified as a significant hindrance to zero emissions.

  19. Magnetotactic bacteria in microcosms originating from the French Mediterranean Coast subjected to oil industry activities.

    PubMed

    Postec, Anne; Tapia, Nicolas; Bernadac, Alain; Joseph, Manon; Davidson, Sylvain; Wu, Long-Fei; Ollivier, Bernard; Pradel, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) mineralize nanosized magnetite or greigite crystals within cells and thus play an important role in the biogeochemical process. Despite decades of research, knowledge of MTB distribution and ecology, notably in areas subjected to oil industry activities, is still limited. In the present study, we investigated the presence of MTB in the Gulf of Fos, French Mediterranean coast, which is subjected to intensive oil industry activities. Microcosms containing sediments/water (1:2, v/v) from several sampling sites were monitored over several weeks. The presence of MTB was revealed in five of eight sites. Diverse and numerous MTB were revealed particularly from one site (named CAR), whilst temporal variations of a homogenous magnetotactic cocci population was shown within the LAV site microcosm over a 4-month period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, and a novel genus from the LAV site was evidenced. Among the physicochemical parameters measured, a correlation was shown between the variation of MTB abundance in microcosms and the redox state of sulphur compounds. PMID:21766218

  20. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Nissen, Lorenzo; Zatta, Alessandro; Stefanini, Ilaria; Grandi, Silvia; Sgorbati, Barbara; Biavati, Bruno; Monti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THC<0.2% w/v) hemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth. The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thereafter, the oils were compared to standard reagents on a broad range inhibition of microbial growth via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Microbial strains were divided into three groups: i) Gram (+) bacteria, which regard to food-borne pathogens or gastrointestinal bacteria, ii) Gram (-) bacteria and iii) yeasts, both being involved in plant interactions. The results showed that essential oils of industrial hemp can significantly inhibit the microbial growth, to an extent depending on variety and sowing time. It can be concluded that essential oils of industrial hemp, especially those of Futura, may have interesting applications to control spoilage and food-borne pathogens and phytopathogens microorganisms. PMID:19969046

  1. Effects of preincubation application of low and high frequency ultrasound on eggshell microbial activity, hatchability, supply organ weights at hatch, and chick performance in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) hatching eggs.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Iskender; Aygun, Ali; Sert, Durmus

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to establish the effects of preincubation application of low and high frequency ultrasound on egg weight loss, hatchability, supply organ weights, chick performance, and eggshell microbial activity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 630 fresh eggs were randomly divided into 3 groups. Treatments were no ultrasound but eggs were sprayed with benzalkonium chloride solution (B), 35 kHz ultrasound applied for 30 min (U35), and 130 kHz ultrasound applied for 30 min (U130). At the beginning of the incubation, the eggs in the U130 treatment had lower coliform, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus counts than those in the B group. However, no significant differences were found in coliform, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus counts among treatments at d 14 of incubation. Among treatments, there were no significant differences in egg weight loss, hatchability, embryonic mortality, supply organ weights, spread of hatch, or relative growth. PMID:25971949

  2. The adsorption of chromium (VI) from industrial wastewater by acid and base-activated lignocellulosic residues.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Patricia; Blanco, Clara; Granda, Marcos

    2007-06-01

    This study deals with the adsorption of Cr(VI) from synthetic and industrial wastewater, produced by a sewage plant. The activated carbons were prepared from a lignocellulosic raw material by thermal treatment at 450 and 650 degrees C in the presence of acid (AlCl(3), HCl, H(3)PO(4) and H(2)SO(4)) and base (NaOH) agents. To optimize the adsorption of Cr(VI), the chemical modifications caused by each activating agent (related to the capability of Cr(VI) removal), and the optimal experimental conditions of the pH, Cr(VI) concentration, adsorbent dose and residence time, were studied. Thus, treatment with H(3)PO(4) gives rise to carbons with a high surface area and high efficiency for Cr(VI) removal at short equilibrium times. In contrast, the generation of active surface sites by means of NaOH requires longer equilibrium times, the adsorption being less effective than in the former case. The adsorption isotherms obey the Langmuir equation only in the first stages of the reaction but fit the Freundlich equations over the whole range studied, so the heat of adsorption can be easily calculated. The results also show that the activated carbons obtained can be recovered by filtration with an efficiency of 30% in the third cycle. PMID:17126488

  3. Mining the metagenome of activated biomass of an industrial wastewater treatment plant by a novel method.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nandita; Tanksale, Himgouri; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2012-12-01

    Metagenomic libraries herald the era of magnifying the microbial world, tapping into the vast metabolic potential of uncultivated microbes, and enhancing the rate of discovery of novel genes and pathways. In this paper, we describe a method that facilitates the extraction of metagenomic DNA from activated sludge of an industrial wastewater treatment plant and its use in mining the metagenome via library construction. The efficiency of this method was demonstrated by the large representation of the bacterial genome in the constructed metagenomic libraries and by the functional clones obtained. The BAC library represented 95.6 times the bacterial genome, while, the pUC library represented 41.7 times the bacterial genome. Twelve clones in the BAC library demonstrated lipolytic activity, while four clones demonstrated dioxygenase activity. Four clones in pUC library tested positive for cellulase activity. This method, using FTA cards, not only can be used for library construction, but can also store the metagenome at room temperature. PMID:24293707

  4. Surface Alteration of Activated Carbon for Detoxification of Copper (ii) from Industrial Effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhutto, Sadaf; Khan, M. Nasiruddin

    2013-04-01

    The low-cost modified activated carbons were prepared from Thar and Lakhra (Pakistan) coals by activation with sulfuric acid and further modified with citric, tartaric and acetic acids for the selective adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The original carbon obtained from activated Thar and Lakhra coals at pH 3.0 displayed significant adsorption capacity for lead and insignificant capacity values (0.880 and 0.830 mgṡg-1) for copper. However, after modification with citric, tartaric and acetic acid the copper adsorption capacities enhanced in the range of 5.56-21.85 and 6.05-44.61 times, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were used to elucidate the observed sorption phenomena. The isotherm equilibrium data was well fitted by the Langmuir and sufficiently fitted to the Freundlich models. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) inferred that the investigated adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Based on the results, it was concluded that the surface alteration with citric and tartaric acid, Thar and Lakhra activated carbons had significant potential for selective removal of copper(II) from industrial wastewater.

  5. Japanese viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Tiroumourougane, S; Raghava, P; Srinivasan, S

    2002-01-01

    One of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy in children in the tropics is Japanese encephalitis (JE). Transmitted by the culex mosquito, this neurotropic virus predominately affects the thalamus, anterior horns of the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. It mainly affects children <15 years and is mostly asymptomatic. The occasional symptomatic child typically presents with a neurological syndrome characterised by altered sensorium, seizures, and features of intracranial hypertension. Aetiological diagnosis is based on virus isolation or demonstration of virus specific antigen or antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid/blood. Though no antiviral drug is available against JE, effective supportive management can improve the outcome. Control of JE involves efficient vector control and appropriate use of vaccines. PMID:11930023

  6. Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  7. Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Active Ingredients and Its Metabolites Derived from Rikkunshito, a Ghrelin Enhancer, in Healthy Japanese Volunteers: A Cross-Over, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sadakane, Chiharu; Fukutake, Miwako; Aoki, Katsuyuki; Watanabe, Junko; Maemura, Kazuya; Hattori, Tomohisa; Kase, Yosio; Uezono, Yasuhito; Inui, Akio; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Rikkunshito, a traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, has been used to treat upper gastrointestinal disorders such as functional dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux. This study investigated the exposure and pharmacokinetics of the ingredients of rikkunshito in healthy volunteers. Methods and Results First, an exploratory nonrandomized, open-label, one-period, noncrossover study using four healthy Japanese volunteers to detect 32 typical ingredients of rikkunshito in plasma and urine. As a result, 18 or 21 of 32 ingredients was detected in plasma or urine samples after oral administration of rikkunshito (7.5 g/day). Furthermore, a randomized, open-label, three-arm, three-period, crossover study using 21 subjects was conducted to determine the amounts of exposure and pharmacokinetic parameters of nine ingredients derived from rikkunshito (atractylodin, atractylodin carboxylic acid, pachymic acid, 3,3′,4′,5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone, naringenin, nobiletin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid) after oral administration of rikkunshito at three different doses (2.5, 5.0, or 7.5 g/day) during each period. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the nine ingredients in plasma were characterized. The geometric means (95% confidence interval) for the Cmax of the ingredients at a dose of 7.5 g were 1570 (1210–2040), 14,300 (12,200–16,800), 91.0 (71.8–115), 105 (75.6–144), 1150 (802–1650), 35.9 (24.6–52.5), 800 (672–952), 42.8 (30.4–60.3), and 55,600 (39,600–78,100) pg/mL, respectively, and for the AUC0–last were 1760 (1290–2390), 12700 (11,100–14,600), 1210 (882–1650), 225 (157–322), 4630 (2930–7320), 35.7 (20.4–62.7), 4040 (3260–5010), 122 (88.2–168), and 832,000 (628,000–1,100,000) pg·h/mL respectively. Conclusions We identified the ingredients of rikkunshito that are absorbed in humans. Furthermore, we determined the pharmacokinetics of nine ingredients derived from rikkunshito. This information

  8. Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Monica A.; Holbrook, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a significant human health concern in Asia, Indonesia and parts of Australia with more than 3 billion people potentially at risk of infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the causative agent of JE. Given the risk to human health and the theoretical potential for JEV use as a bioweapon, the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent JEV infection is vital for preserving human health. The development of vaccines for JE began in the 1940s with formalin-inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines. These vaccines have been shown to induce a protective immune response and to be very effective. Mouse brain-derived vaccines were still in use until May 2011 when the last lots of the BIKEN® JE-VAX® expired. Development of modern JE vaccines utilizes cell culture-derived viruses and improvements in manufacturing processes as well as removal of potential allergens or toxins have significantly improved vaccine safety. China has developed a live-attenuated vaccine that has proven to induce protective immunity following a single inoculation. In addition, a chimeric vaccine virus incorporating the prM and E structural proteins derived from the live-attenuated JE vaccine into the live-attenuated yellow fever 17D vaccine virus backbone is currently in clinical trials. In this article, we provide a summary of JE vaccine development and on-going clinical trials. We also discuss the potential risk of JEV as a bioweapon with a focus on virus sustainability if used as a weapon. PMID:23125946

  9. Photostimulation of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Molino, A B; Garcia, E A; Santos, G C; Vieira Filho, J A; Baldo, G A A; Almeida Paz, I C L

    2015-02-01

    To adapt commercial poultry production to a new scenario of energy savings and to develop specific practices for quail production aimed at reducing costs while maintaining or improving productivity, four experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, birds were allocated to four treatments (photoperiod duration): T1: 14 L:10 D; T2: 15 L:9 D; T3: 16 L:8 D; and T4: 17 L:7 D. In the second experiment, birds were subjected to four levels of brightness: T1: 5 lux; T2: 10 lux; T3:15 lux; and T4: 22 lux (control). In the third experiment, four types of lamps were evaluated: T1: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 6,500 K); T2: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 2,700 K); T3: incandescent lamp; and T4: yellow LED. In the last experiment, four lighting programs were compared: T1: continuous program (control), in which there was a single photoperiod of 15 h; the other treatments consisted of intermittent lighting programs, as follows: T2: 1 h of light provided 1 h after dusk; T3: 1 h of light provided 2 h before dawn; T4: half an hour of light provided 1 h after dusk and half an hour of light provided 1.5 h before dawn. In each experiment, 1,296 Japanese quail were evaluated for four 28-d cycles, totaling 112 experimental days. A completely randomized experimental design of 4 treatments with 12 replicates of 27 birds each was applied in all trials. Performance and egg quality were evaluated in each experiment. Higher egg production and adequate egg quality, as well as energy savings, can be obtained with Japanese quail using compact fluorescent lamps or LEDs and a photoperiod of 15 h/d supplied using an intermittent lighting program, with 1 h of artificial light 2 h before dawn at a brightness of 5 lux. PMID:25589080

  10. Japanese contributions to International Planetary Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yukio; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Hirata, Naru; Shinohara, Iku

    2012-07-01

    In this presentation, we will introduce Japanese contributions to the data archives for international collaborations. In Japan, the importance of planetary data archive was not recognized enough until early in 2000's. While NASA and ESA started their collaborations to their archives: PDS and PSA, and tried to make the new standard, JAXA was looking for the way of contributions because Japan did not have own data and archiving policy. The activities of NASA and ESA extended to the international collaborations, and International Planetary Data Alliance was established. JAXA had an opportunity to join the IPDA as an agency member. One of the contributions, the IPDA chairman was undertaken by Japanese member. The projects in IPDA were managed and were proceeded successfully during the term. For the technical part, JAXA is making several pilot systems to share planetary data. Planetary Data Access Protocol, PDAP, developed by IPDA, is implemented in JAXA's system, and provides a search system for Hayabusa and Kaguya (SELENE) data. Not only for Japanese data, but also Apollo's seismic data archives are prepared for scientific communities. The seismic data on the moon has not been measured for a long time, and Apollo's data are still precious and should be archived together with much information. The contributions to planetary data archives has just started and continues as a member of IPDA.

  11. Removal of chromium from tannery industry effluents with (activated carbon and fly ash) adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Rao, S; Lade, H S; Kadam, T A; Ramana, T V; Krishnamacharyulu, S K G; Deshmukh, S; Gyananath, G

    2007-10-01

    Adsorption is a strong choice for removal operations as it is very simple to recover a high quality product from waste sludge. The efficiency of adsorbents like fly ash and activated carbon are tested based on their performance to remove chrome at various pH values, bed heights, and concentration of adsorbents. The removal efficiency was also tested for wastewater characteristics in a pilot plant in addition to the use of adsorbents. The concentration of chromium was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer). The results depicted that the efficiency of removal increased with increasing pH and bed height and decreased with increasing concentration. The removal efficiency with fly ash as an adsorbent was comparatively better than activatedcarbon. Thus, adsorbents can be used for chromium removal from tannery industry effluent. PMID:18476371

  12. Changes in phenolic compounds, colour and antioxidant activity in industrial red myrtle liqueurs during storage.

    PubMed

    Vacca, Vincenzo; Piga, Antonio; Del Caro, Alessandra; Fenu, Paolo A M; Agabbio, Mario

    2003-12-01

    The results of a study on the evolution of phenolic compounds, colour and antioxidant activity in two industrial red myrtle liqueurs during storage in bottles under different bottle headspace (constant or increasing) and exposure to light are reported. In the year of the study, the phenolic compounds showed considerable changes even in the liqueurs stored with constant headspace. The anthocyanins in particular, both free and combined, tended to decrease. As expected, the same phenomena were observed in an accelerated form in the product stored in bottles with increasing headspace. The colour, evaluated according to the classic spectrophotometric parameters of intensity and hue, showed marked variability, especially in samples in which headspace was progressively increased. The two liqueurs showed antioxidant capacity values, expressed as mM of Trolox, comparable to those of red wine. They significantly decreased during storage in the bottles with increasing headspace, while values remained almost constant in the others. PMID:14727776

  13. Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose. PMID:15156734

  14. Measurement of surface mercury fluxes at active industrial gold mines in Nevada (USA).

    PubMed

    Eckley, C S; Gustin, M; Marsik, F; Miller, M B

    2011-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) may be naturally associated with the rock units hosting precious and base metal deposits. Active gold mines are known to have point source releases of Hg associated with ore processing facilities. The nonpoint source release of Hg to the air from the large area (hundreds to thousands of hectares) of disturbed and processed material at industrial open pit gold mines has not been quantified. This paper describes the field data collected as part of a project focused on estimating nonpoint source emissions of Hg from two active mines in Nevada, USA. In situ Hg flux data were collected on diel and seasonal time steps using a dynamic flux chamber from representative mine surfaces. Hg fluxes ranged from <1500 ng m(-2) day(-1) for waste rock piles (0.6-3.5 μg g(-1)) to 684,000 ng m(-2) day(-1) for tailings (2.8-58 μg g(-1)). Releases were positively correlated with material Hg concentrations, surface grain size, and moisture content. Highest Hg releases occurred from materials under active cyanide leaching and from tailings impoundments containing processed high-grade ore. Data collected indicate that as mine sites are reclaimed and material disturbance ceases, emissions will decline. Additionally local cycling of atmospheric Hg (deposition and re-emission) was found to occur. PMID:21078520

  15. Sensitive detection of chemical agents and toxic industrial chemicals using active open-path FTIRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, William T.

    2004-03-01

    Active open-path FTIR sensors provide more sensitive detection of chemical agents than passive FTIRs, such as the M21 RSCAAL and JSLSCAD, and at the same time identify and quantify toxic industrial chemicals (TIC). Passive FTIRs are bistatic sensors relying on infrared sources of opportunity. Utilization of earth-based sources of opportunity limits the source temperatures available for passive chemical-agent FTIR sensors to 300° K. Active FTIR chemical-agent sensors utilize silicon carbide sources, which can be operated at 1500° K. The higher source temperature provides more than an 80-times increase in the infrared radiant flux emitted per unit area in the 7 to 14 micron spectral fingerprint region. Minimum detection limits are better than 5 μgm/m3 for GA, GB, GD, GF and VX. Active FTIR sensors can (1) assist first responders and emergency response teams in their assessment of and reaction to a terrorist threat, (2) provide information on the identification of the TIC present and their concentrations and (3) contribute to the understanding and prevention of debilitating disorders analogous to the Gulf War Syndrome for military and civilian personnel.

  16. Alkali-Activated Aluminium-Silicate Composites as Insulation Materials for Industrial Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembovska, L.; Bajare, D.; Pundiene, I.; Bumanis, G.

    2015-11-01

    The article reports on the study of thermal stability of alkali-activated aluminium- silicate composites (ASC) at temperature 800-1100°C. ASC were prepared by using calcined kaolinite clay, aluminium scrap recycling waste, lead-silicate glass waste and quartz sand. As alkali activator, commercial sodium silicate solution modified with an addition of sodium hydroxide was used. The obtained alkali activation solution had silica modulus Ms=1.67. Components of aluminium scrap recycling waste (aluminium nitride (AlN) and iron sulphite (FeSO3)) react in the alkali media and create gases - ammonia and sulphur dioxide, which provide the porous structure of the material [1]. Changes in the chemical composition of ASC during heating were identified and quantitatively analysed by using DTA/TG, dimension changes during the heating process were determined by using HTOM, pore microstructure was examined by SEM, and mineralogical composition of ASC was determined by XRD. The density of ASC was measured in accordance with EN 1097-7. ASC with density around 560 kg/m3 and heat resistance up to 1100°C with shrinkage less than 5% were obtained. The intended use of this material is the application as an insulation material for industrial purposes at elevated temperatures.

  17. Phytochemistry, biological activities and potential of annatto in natural colorant production for industrial applications - A review.

    PubMed

    Shahid-Ul-Islam; Rather, Luqman J; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2016-05-01

    Bixa orellana commonly known as annatto is one of the oldest known natural dye yielding plants native to Central and South America. Various parts of annatto have been widely used in the traditional medical system for prevention and treatment of a wide number of health disorders. The plethora of traditional uses has encouraged researchers to identify and isolate phytochemicals from all parts of this plant. Carotenoids, apocarotenoids, terpenes, terpenoids, sterols, and aliphatic compounds are main compounds found in all parts of this plant and are reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. In recent years annatto has received tremendous scientific interest mainly due to the isolation of yellow-orange natural dye from its seeds which exhibits high biodegradability, low toxicity, and compatibility with the environment. Considerable research work has already been done and is currently underway for its applications in food, textile, leather, cosmetic, solar cells, and other industries. The present review provides up-to-date systematic and organized information on the traditional usage, phytochemistry and pharmacology of annatto. It also highlights its non-food industrial applications in order to bring more interest on this dye plant, identifies the existing gaps and provides potential for future studies. Studies reported in this review have demonstrated that annatto holds a great potential for being exploited as source of drugs and a potential natural dye. However, further efforts are required to identify extract biomolecules and their action mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities in order to understand the full phytochemical profile and the complex pharmacological effects of this plant. PMID:27222755

  18. Active load management with advanced window wall systems: Research and industry perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Levi, Mark S.; Blanc, Steven L.; McConahey, Erin; McClintock, Maurya; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Sbar, Neil L.; Myser, Michael P.

    2002-06-01

    Advanced window wall systems have the potential to provide demand response by reducing peak electric loads by 20-30% in many commercial buildings through the active control of motorized shading systems, switchable window coatings, operable windows, and ventilated double-skin facade systems. These window strategies involve balancing daylighting and solar heat gains, heat rejection through ventilation, and night-time natural ventilation to achieve space-conditioning and lighting energy use reductions without the negative impacts on occupants associated with other demand responsive (DR) strategies. This paper explores conceptually how advanced window systems fit into the context of active load management programs, which cause customers to directly experience the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Technological options are suggested. We present pragmatic criteria that building owners use to determine whether to deploy such strategies. A utility's perspective is given. Industry also provides their perspectives on where the technology is today and what needs to happen to implement such strategies more broadly in the US. While there is significant potential for these advanced window concepts, widespread deployment is unlikely to occur with business-as-usual practice. Technologically, integrated window-lighting-HVAC products are underdeveloped. Implementation is hindered by fragmented labor practices, non-standard communication protocols, and lack of technical expertise. Design tools and information products that quantify energy performance, occupant impacts, reliability, and other pragmatic concerns are not available. Interest within the building industry in sustainability, energy-efficiency, and increased occupant amenity, comfort, and productivity will be the driving factors for these advanced facades in the near term--at least until the dust settles on the deregulated electricity market.

  19. Blending Buddhism, Shinto, and the Secular: Japanese Conceptualizations of the Divine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Lauren Shapiro; Bruce, Jessica L.; Salmon, Ptamonie Y.; Eich, R. Tony; Brandewie, Erika N.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative interview study investigated Japanese understandings of spirituality, religion, and The Divine. Thirteen native Japanese living in central Ohio (6 male, 7 female) answered open-ended questions about spiritual or religious activities they engaged in, motivations for engaging in them, what constitutes sacredness, why humanity and…

  20. Entrepreneurialism in Japanese and UK Universities: Governance, Management, Leadership, and Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokoyama, Keiko

    2006-01-01

    This paper scrutinises organisational change in Japanese and UK universities which are engaged in entrepreneurial activities. The study focuses on recent changes in governance, management, leadership, and funding in these universities. The paper argues there are convergent trends between Japanese and UK universities in terms of increasing…

  1. Voices of the Minority: Japanese Immigrant Mothers' Perceptions of Preschools in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterbottom, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Japanese immigrants have been living in the United States for nearly 150 years. Yet, despite the continued presence of this population, there is not a lot of research to suggest why Japanese families have not become more active participants in preschools across the United States (US). In an attempt to understand this phenomenon, this paper…

  2. China`s petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Makoto; Tamura, Kazuhisa

    1996-01-01

    It is clear from the trade press that American, European, and Japanese chemical companies are making major capital investment commitments in China. They are also developing strategies to participate in the country`s growth. Many people wonder how long the window of opportunity will remain open. Some questions one may ask include: What are the driving forces for such intense activity? What role is the Chinese government playing in implementing growth plans? What are the classes of chemical products receiving priority attention? To what degree is China integrating upstream into energy and basic feedstocks? What are the long-term implications for Asia and the rest of the world with respect to foreign trade? To answer these and other questions, Martech, Inc., a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, recently completed a comprehensive report on China`s petrochemical industry. This article is adapted from the executive summary of that report.

  3. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines. PMID:23229279

  4. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  5. The extract of Japanese soybean, Kurosengoku activates the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ by DC or NK1.1(+) cells in a TLR4- and TLR2-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sachi; Koizumi, Shin-ichi; Makiuchi, Naoko; Aoyagi, Yuka; Quivy, Emi; Mitamura, Rieko; Kano, Tsutomu; Wakita, Daiko; Chamoto, Kenji; Kitamura, Hidemitsu; Nishimura, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    During the search for immuno-improving foods, we found that a variety of the Japanese soybean, Glycine max cv. Kurosengoku (Kurosengoku), which activated Type-1 immunity in a Toll-like receptor (TLR)4- and TLR2-dependent manner. Namely, the extract of Kurosengoku first caused production of IL-12 from DC and sequentially induced IFN-γ production by NK1.1(+) NK cells and NKT cells. The IFN-γ production was significantly blocked by neutralizing mAb against IL-12 or TLR4- and TLR2-deficient condition, indicating that TLR4- and TLR2-dependent activation of DC to produce IL-12 was essential for the production of IFN-γ from spleen cells by Kurosengoku. Moreover, the extract of Kurosengoku also enhanced production of IFN-γ from human PBMC by co-stimulation with anti-CD3 mAb in a TLR2- and TLR4-dependent manner. Thus, our findings strongly suggest that Kurosengoku might a novel immuno-improving food, which would be a useful tool for preventing the tip of immune balance in developed countries. PMID:20971456

  6. Japanese photovoltaic power generation for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saga, T.; Kiyota, Y.; Matsutani, T.; Suzuki, A.; Kawasaki, O.; Hisamatsu, T.; Matsuda, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes Japanese activities on mainly silicon solar cell research development and applications. The high efficiency thin silicon solar cells and the same kinds of solar cells with integrated bypass function (IBF cells) were developed and qualified for space applications. The most efficient cells (NRS/LBSF cells) showed average 18% at AMO and 28 C conditions. After electron irradiation, NRS/BSF cells showed higher efficiency than NRS/LBSF cells. The IBF cells do not suffer high reverse voltage and can survive from shadowing. The designs and characteristics of these solar cells are presented. In the last section, our future plan for the solar cell calibration is presented.

  7. Tapping private industry.

    PubMed

    Weerakoon, B

    1986-12-01

    Many firms throughout Japan and around the world have come to realize that family planning is good for employee morale and company profits. Japanese and Indian efforts prove that family planning programs not only bring welfare benefits to workers, but commercial advantages to businesses. Because workers' family welfare is closely linked to labor welfare and productivity, the trade union movement has started to become active in promoting family planning activities. Factory-based family planning programs have often cut pregnancy rates in half. Godrej Enterprises of India started promoting family planning in 1957; it provides a model of how family planning has been incorporated into a comprehensive employee welfare system in a factory complex on the outskirts of Bombay, where about 1/2 the workers live in high-rise apartments in the company township of Pirojsha Nagar. Similar programs are presented in India, Thailand, Indonesia, Jamaica, Guatemala, Colombia, Korea, and Turkey. Limiting family size enriches workers' lives and improves the quality of the workforce. The International Labor Organization, through its Workers' Education Program on Population, has played an important role in stimulating industrial sector interest in family planning throughout the world. PMID:12341236

  8. How is post-industrial decline associated with the geography of physical activity? Evidence from the Health Survey for England

    PubMed Central

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy; Southall, Humphrey

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the prevalence of physical activity has declined considerably in many developed countries, which has been related to rising levels of obesity and several weight-related medical conditions, such as coronary heart disease. There is evidence that areas exhibiting particularly low levels of physical activity have undergone a strong transition away from employment in physically demanding occupations. It is proposed that such processes of deindustrialisation may be causally linked to unexplained geographical disparities in physical activity. This study investigates how geographical variations in deindustrialisation are associated with current levels of physical activity across different activity domains and relevant macro-economic time periods in England. The analysis includes data on 27,414 adults from the Health Survey for England 2006 and 2008 who reported total, occupational, domestic, recreational and walking activity. Based on employment change in industries associated with heavy manual work, a local measurement of industrial decline was developed, covering the period 1841–2001. We applied a multilevel modelling approach to study associations between industrial decline and physical activity. Results indicate that the process of deindustrialisation appears to be associated with patterns of physical activity and that this is independent of household income. The effects observed were generally similar for men and women. However, the nature of the association differed across areas, time periods and employment types; in particular, residents of districts characterised by a history of manufacturing and mining employment had increased odds of reporting low activity levels. We conclude that post-industrial change may be a factor in explaining present-day variations in physical activity, emphasising the plausible impact of inherited cultures and regional identities on health related behaviours. PMID:24581066

  9. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  10. Spanish activities (research and industrial applications) in the field of microwave material treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Catala Civera, J.M.; Reyes Davo, E.R. de los

    1996-12-31

    The GCM (Microwave Heating Group) within the Communications Department at the Technical University of Valencia is dedicated to the study of microwaves and their use in the current industrial processes in the Valencian Community and in Spain. To this end, a microwave heating laboratory has been developed and the benefits of incorporating microwave technologies into current industrial processes have been demonstrated. In this paper some of the industrial applications which are being investigated are presented.

  11. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  12. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  13. [Advanced Treatment of Effluent from Industrial Park Wastewater Treatment Plant by Ferrous Ion Activated Sodium Persulfate].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song-mei; Zhou, Zhen; Gu, Ling-yun; Jiang, Hai-tao; Ren, Jia-min; Wang, Luo-chun

    2016-01-15

    Fe(II) activated sodium persulfate (PS) technology was used for advanced treatment of effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plant. Separate and combined effects of PS/COD, Fe(II)/PS and pH on COD and TOC removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology. Variations of organic substances before and after Fe(II)-PS oxidation were characterized by UV-Vis spectrometry, gel chromatography and three-dimensional fluorescence. PS/COD and Fe(II)/PS had significant effect on COD removal, while all the three factors had significant effect on TOC removal. The combined effect of PS/COD and pH had significant effect on COD removal. COD and TOC removal efficiencies reached 50.7% and 60.6% under optimized conditions of PS/COD 3.47, Fe(II)/PS 3.32 and pH 6.5. Fe(II)-PS oxidation converted macromolecular organic substances to small ones, and reduced contents of protein-, humic- and fulvic-like substances. PMID:27078964

  14. Cumulative industrial activity alters lotic fish assemblages in two boreal forest watersheds of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Garry J; Hvenegaard, Paul J; Tchir, John

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the cumulative effects of land use disturbance resulting from forest harvesting, and exploration and extraction of oil and gas resources on the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression models showed that the occurrence of numerically dominant species in both watersheds was related to two metrics defining industrial activity (i.e., percent disturbance and road density), in addition to stream wetted width, elevation, reach slope, and percent fines. Occurrences of bull trout, slimy sculpin, and white sucker were negatively related to percent disturbance and that of Arctic grayling, and mountain whitefish were positively related to percent disturbance and road density. Assessments of individual sites showed that 76% of the 74 and 46 test sites in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds were possibly impaired or impaired. Impaired sites in the Kakwa Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout, but higher densities of Arctic grayling compared to appropriate reference sites. Impaired sites in the Simonette Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, but higher densities of lake chub compared to reference sites. Our data suggest that current levels of land use disturbance alters the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages. PMID:18815827

  15. Cumulative Industrial Activity Alters Lotic Fish Assemblages in Two Boreal Forest Watersheds of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrimgeour, Garry J.; Hvenegaard, Paul J.; Tchir, John

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the cumulative effects of land use disturbance resulting from forest harvesting, and exploration and extraction of oil and gas resources on the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression models showed that the occurrence of numerically dominant species in both watersheds was related to two metrics defining industrial activity (i.e., percent disturbance and road density), in addition to stream wetted width, elevation, reach slope, and percent fines. Occurrences of bull trout, slimy sculpin, and white sucker were negatively related to percent disturbance and that of Arctic grayling, and mountain whitefish were positively related to percent disturbance and road density. Assessments of individual sites showed that 76% of the 74 and 46 test sites in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds were possibly impaired or impaired. Impaired sites in the Kakwa Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout, but higher densities of Arctic grayling compared to appropriate reference sites. Impaired sites in the Simonette Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, but higher densities of lake chub compared to reference sites. Our data suggest that current levels of land use disturbance alters the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages.

  16. Optoelectronics-related competence building in Japanese and Western firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Kumiko

    1992-05-01

    In this paper, an analysis is made of how different firms in Japan and the West have developed competence related to optoelectronics on the basis of their previous experience and corporate strategies. The sample consists of a set of seven Japanese and four Western firms in the industrial, consumer electronics and materials sectors. Optoelectronics is divided into subfields including optical communications systems, optical fibers, optoelectronic key components, liquid crystal displays, optical disks, and others. The relative strengths and weaknesses of companies in the various subfields are determined using the INSPEC database, from 1976 to 1989. Parallel data are analyzed using OTAF U.S. patent statistics and the two sets of data are compared. The statistical analysis from the database is summarized for firms in each subfield in the form of an intra-firm technology index (IFTI), a new technique introduced to assess the revealed technology advantage of firms. The quantitative evaluation is complemented by results from intensive interviews with the management and scientists of the firms involved. The findings show that there is a marked variation in the way firms' technological trajectories have evolved giving rise to strength in some and weakness in other subfields for the different companies, which are related to their accumulated core competencies, previous core business activities, organizational, marketing, and competitive factors.

  17. Conveying misinformation: Top-ranked Japanese books on tobacco

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco control efforts in Japan have lagged other high income countries, possibly because the Japanese government partially owns Japan Tobacco, Inc. In Japan, tobacco use is still often regarded as an issue of manners rather than an issue of health. Information about tobacco is available, but may not always be accurate. We explored what information Japanese consumers might access by reading popular Japanese books about tobacco. Methods We searched Amazon.com Japan using the term "Tobacco", identifying the top 12 books by "relevance" and "bestselling." We eliminated duplicates and books not concerned with tobacco use and classified the remaining books as pro-smoking, anti-smoking, or neutral. We reviewed the pro-smoking books, published 2004-2009, and analyzed examples of misinformation by theme. Results Pro-smoking popular books conveyed five types of misinformation: doubt about science; suggestions that smoking increased health, longevity, virility, etc.; trivializing tobacco's effects; attacking public health advocates/authorities; and linking tobacco use with authenticity, history, or civil rights. At least one book was authored by a former Japan Tobacco employee; another used a popular Japan Tobacco advertising phrase. Conclusions Creating doubt and confusion about tobacco serves tobacco industry interests and re-creates a strategy developed by US tobacco interests more than 40 years ago. Japanese readers may be misled by texts such as those reviewed. Tobacco control and public health advocates in Japan and globally should expose and counter such misinformation. "Naming and shaming" may be effective. PMID:21261991

  18. Foundation and progress of Japanese society of toxicologic pathology*.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yoichi; Enomoto, Makoto; Hayashi, Yuzo

    2011-03-01

    The Japanese Society of Toxicologic Pathology (JSTP) has a differing conceptual framework from the Japanese Society of Pathology (JSP) and Japanese Society of Toxicology (JST) and was founded in 1985 by the leadership of late Dr. Yasukazu Nishiyama with the cooperation of several founding members and the support of JSP. The aim of the JSTP is to improve the human and animal health using an interdisciplinary scientific approach based on pathology and toxicology. In its development as a professional society, the JSTP has established society rules and activities. The JSTP has grown in terms of membership and financial aspects and is now recognized not only domestically but also internationally as a well-organized scientific society. To maintain the high professional standard and visibility of JSTP, we here provide the historical background of the society as a basis for current members to contribute to the continued improvement of our scientific organization. PMID:22272039

  19. Understanding seismic design criteria for Japanese Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Costello, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results of recent survey studies on the seismic design practice for nuclear power plants in Japan. The seismic design codes and standards for both nuclear as well as non-nuclear structures have been reviewed and summarized. Some key documents for understanding Japanese seismic design criteria are also listed with brief descriptions. The paper highlights the design criteria to determine the seismic demand and component capacity in comparison with U.S. criteria, the background studies which have led to the current Japanese design criteria, and a survey of current research activities. More detailed technical descriptions are presented on the development of Japanese shear wall equations, design requirements for containment structures, and ductility requirements.

  20. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840

  1. JABEE in Japanese Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki

    JABEE in Japanese engineering education is discussed by focusing on the status and treatment of engineers in Japanese society and their achievements. The entrance fee and tuition of the engineering departments of higher education facilities are higher than those of the law, economy and literature departments. On the other hand, an engineer's lifelong wage is smaller than that of those who have graduated from the latter fields. Although engineering students must study for a longer period of time, the scholarship system to support these students in Japan falls far behind that in the U.S.A. The achievements of Japanese engineering were summarized from the viewpoint of economic indications such as 1) production of steel, 2) energy consumption per person as a function of GDP, 3) income 4) real estate abroad and miscellaneous factors such as the life spans and criminal rates of many countries. These analyses made it clear that Japanese engineers have the highest ability even compared to advanced countries and this is because of the higher engineering education in Japan ; but their status is unreasonably low in Japanese society. The four points by which the present status of Japanese engineers can be improved were discussed in relation to the introduction and the achievement of the JABEE system. The true aim of education reform by JABEE is that the engineering education in Japan should shift “from government to non-government”, “from organization to individual” and “from control to interdependency.” The expected points of improvement are discussed.

  2. Development of an industrial method to quantitatively measure carry-over amylase activity in raw and refined sugars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, there has been increased concern over carry-over activity of mostly high temperature (HT) and very high temperature (VHT) stable amylases in white, refined sugars from refineries to various food manufacturing industries and other end-users. HT and VHT stable amylases were developed...

  3. Activated carbon: Utilization in sewage and industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of activated carbon in treating sewage and industrial wastes. The citations include engineering studies, site evaluations, and regeneration techniques. References to air pollution are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Activated carbon: Utilization in sewage and industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of activated carbon in treating sewage and industrial wastes. The citations include engineering studies, site evaluations, and regeneration techniques. References to air pollution are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Activated carbon: Utilization excluding industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial use and theoretical studies of activated carbon. Topics include performance evaluations in water treatment processes, preparation and regeneration techniques, materials recovery, and pore structure studies. Adsorption characteristics for specific materials are discussed. Studies pertaining specifically to industrial waste treatment are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Scientific and Engineering Influences on Industrial Arts. A Summary of Institute Activities (NDEA Summer Inst., College Station, Texas).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Industrial Education.

    These units developed for teacher use consist primarily of a collection of typical experiments or research activities developed by staff and participants of a National Defense Education Act Institute. The institute was designed to broaden the viewpoint of 25 industrial arts teachers with regard to some of the newer scientific and/or engineering…

  7. Lags in Training Response to Changes in Economic Activity: An Update for Five Industries and an Addition of Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Ross E.; Park, Jin S.; Akdere, Mesut

    2008-01-01

    An expanded investigation of the time it takes training budgets in five, now seven, industries to respond to changes in market demand and productive activity. A serious question, this reflects directly on the ability of the American economy to respond to changes in economic environment. Results indicate that for three of the five initial…

  8. Advances in integrated system heath management system technologies : overview of NASA and industry collaborative activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixit, Sunil; Brown, Steve; Fijany, Amir; Park, Han; Mackey, Ryan; James, Mark; Baroth, Ed

    2005-01-01

    This paper will describe recent advances in ISHM technologies made through collaboration between NASA and industry. In particular, the paper will focus on past, present, and future technology development and maturation efforts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and its industry partner, Northrop Grumman lntegrated Systems (NGIS).

  9. Shattering Myths: Japanese American Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshiwara, Florence M.

    An historical review of the immigration and resettlement patterns, and a demographic profile of Japanese Americans reveals a myth of the "successful minority." Since the founding of the Japanese American Citizens League in 1928, Japanese Americans have defeated alien land laws, discriminatory immigration quotas, anti-miscengenation laws, and…

  10. Two Modes of Counting in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backus, Robert L.

    1972-01-01

    This paper seeks to formulate a principle that explains the working of the Japanese number system with respect to Japanese nouns and that defines the kinds of nouns and contexts that condition the forms of number expressions. It is the author's theory that in applying numbers to nouns, the Japanese make a formal distinction between things they…

  11. Teaching Japanese Literature and Translation in Tandem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beichman, Janine

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method of teaching Japanese literature to Japanese native speakers by comparing English translations to the original texts. Discusses criteria for choosing a text and lists some of the texts used and the method in which they were used. This method gave students a deeper understanding of the original Japanese text. (SED)

  12. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…

  13. Nippon Nyumon: An Idea Book for Teaching Japanese Economic Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

    This sourcebook contains lessons and materials developed by the Keizai Koho Center (Japan Institute for Social and Economic Affairs). The ideas and activities in the sourcebook focus on the Japanese economy and are useful in social studies classrooms and courses including, economics, geography, and world cultures. Essays in the sourcebook are: (1)…

  14. Japanese Elementary School Teachers and English Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machida, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    "Foreign language activities" (English) officially began in Japanese elementary schools in April 2011. Since that starting date, and despite insufficient knowledge and preparation, classroom teachers have been required to instruct in English. They also have been required to team-teach with native-English-speaking assistant language…

  15. Japanese University Athletes' Dilemma: Study, Sport Performance, or Both

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the Japanese university athletes' dilemma of managing both study and sport performance effectively, and to try to find answers to how they can effectively manage both their study and sport club activities. Questionnaires were used in order to collect the data (1st year, 2nd year, and 3rd year students). A…

  16. Social Development of Infants and Toddlers in Japanese Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shigaki, Irene S.

    To examine children's patterns of social interaction in group care, the activities and verbal behavior of 50 preschool children attending 5 Japanese day care centers in metropolitan Tokyo were observed and recorded during a total of 20 minutes of free play for each child. Participants were equally dispersed across five age categories each…

  17. Development of the Japanese Sword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, Hiromu

    1980-02-01

    Both the beauty and the utility of the Japanese sword as a weapon depend on the characteristic metallic component structure of the sword blade steel. After briefly describing the characteristics of the sword blade and the history of the Japanese sword, this paper describes the forging process for making the composite structure of the sword blade steel, according to the author's experiences. Finally, andent ironmaking and steelmaking processes are briefly explained. The author concludes that the high purity of the iron and steel obtained to the beauty and artistry of the finished sword blade.

  18. Report on the findings of the Japanese Investigative Team on US Space Station Design (Keidanren)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The objectives, itinerary and results of the Japanese Investigative Team on U.S. Space Station Design (Keidanren), consisting of members of the Space Development Promotion Council and representatives of Japanese industries involved in Japan's space station development effort are presented. This team visited NASA facilities in February, 1985. The objectives of the study team are to gather information on preliminary design efforts toward space station planning in Japan and the promotion of Japanese space related industries, as well as the evaluation of the present status of space environment exploitation in the U.S. This report is intended to be a basic reference for government agencies and industry in addressing the course of action to be taken in the future development of Japan's space station participation.

  19. Other Japanese Educations and Japanese Education Otherwise. Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2011-01-01

    Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular support. Subsequent…

  20. Japanese couples' opinions.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, M

    1993-06-01

    The Japanese National Survey on Family Planning has been conducted since 1950 by the Mainichi Newspapers. The 21st survey, which included approximately 3400 persons, was conducted in 1992 in conjunction with various family planning organizations. The results reported include the ideal number of children, care for the elderly, tolerance for induced abortion, beliefs about the side effects of oral contraceptives, attitudes of husbands toward their wives working outside the home, sexual harassment, and elderly husband's concern about contracting AIDS. 45% of respondents supported Japan's involvement in FP efforts in developing countries, and 20.9% disapproved of involvement. Fertility declined from 1.54 in 1990 to 1.53 in 1991. There was an 5% increase to 75.3% in the number of women concerned about declining fertility for such reasons as the loss of social vitality and the increased burden of support in old age. However, 60.9% of wives and 56.8% of husbands felt that the government should not take action to prevent further fertility decline. Public policies for reducing the cost of education were supported by 39.6% of wives and 43.6% of husbands. A similar number supported increases in child allowance, and a smaller percentage of husbands and wives wanted the government to subsidize housing expenses. The ideal number of children was 3 for 45.7% of those surveyed, which was more than those desiring 2 children. The ideal of 3 children was held by survey participants who were more than 35 years old and by those with a high education. Part-time workers and office clerks were more likely to report that 2 children were ideal. An increasing number of respondents (60.4%) do not intend to rely on their children in old age. There has been a shift in family planning methods from induced abortions to increased contraceptive use. The highest rate of contraceptive use is among wives 35-39 years old. 75.3% use condoms. 67.7% reported concern about side effects from oral

  1. Japanese R&D on new cast alloys and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, H.W.

    1996-05-01

    On the basis of observations of the JTEC team, it appears that Japanese universities and research institutes are leading long-term R&D thrusts for development of new materials casting technologies. Significant efforts include amorphous metals, intermetallics, application of MHD in continuous casting of steel, and energy efficient furnace technology. Industrial R&D seems focused more on process improvements than on new product technologies, but significant efforts in new cast materials included cast metal matrix composites, materials substitutions for thinner wall products, and advanced ceramic products for foundry industry applications.

  2. TSH receptor antibody titers measured with a third-generation assay did not reflect the activity of Graves' ophthalmopathy in untreated Japanese Graves' disease patients.

    PubMed

    Mukasa, Koji; Yoshimura Noh, Jaeduk; Kouzaki, Ai; Ohye, Hidemi; Kunii, Yo; Watanabe, Natsuko; Yoshihara, Ai; Matsumoto, Masako; Suzuki, Miho; Ito, Koichi

    2016-02-29

    TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) titer has been reported to be correlated with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). However, the correlation between GO activity and TRAb titer assessed with a third-generation assay has not been reported. We enrolled 238 untreated Graves' disease patients who came to the outpatient clinic of Ito Hospital and 28 patients who were euthyroid. All of the patients were assessed for GO by an ophthalmologist within 3 months of their initial visit to Ito Hospital. Clinical activity score (CAS), short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR), and sum of the maximum external orbital muscle areas (SEOMA) on a frontal sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The TRAb titer was significantly higher in patients with inactive ophthalmopathy (the inactive-GO group) than in patients with active ophthalmopathy (the active-GO group) (17.7 ± 13.5 IU/L vs 13.0 ± 13.1 IU/L, p=0.0082). The SEOMA values were not correlated with TRAb titer. The prevalence of active-GO was higher in euthyroid patients than in hyperthyroid patients although the difference was not significant. In conclusion, TRAb titer measured with a third-generation assay dose not correlate with GO activity based on MRI findings in untreated Graves' disease patients, and the prevalence of active-GO is higher in euthyroid patients with lower TRAb titers than in hyperthyroid patients. PMID:26581710

  3. The Industrial Revolution in the Twentieth Century, with a Focus on Japan and the East Asian Followers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the suitability of the term "revolution," the national versus transnational focus, and characterizations of the industrial revolution. Considers a late-development model of industrialization and its application to East Asia. Focuses on issues in Japanese industrialization, such as the role of the Japanese government, militarism and…

  4. Electric Pole Maintenance in Nagoya City Science Museum as a Cooperative Activity of Industry, School and Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabuchi, Koichi

    The object of this paper is to suggest an education model as a cooperative activity of industry, school and local government in science museums. Nagoya City Science Museum has opened the new exhibit on electric pole maintenance since 2002, which makes a visitor a temporary electrician working at a height of 3 meters. The exhibit, named “Be an Electrician”, is focusing on stimulating young people's interest in industrial technology. The electric pole and equipments on the pole like transformer, electric wires and so forth were donated from an electric power company to the museum. The museum manages volunteers including an active electrician and students to study engineering, who instruct the visitors in the bucket how to change the insulator on the pole. The active electrician also instructs some technical high school students in practical works at height. This new exhibit indicates the science museum positioned between companies and schools will make it possible to extend internship.

  5. 77 FR 74170 - Authorization of Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 107A, Winnebago Industries, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Federal Register inviting public comment (77 FR 50462-50463, 8-21-2012). The FTZ Board has determined that... Industries, Inc. (Polyurethane Coated Upholstery Fabric), Forest City and Charles City, IA On July 24,...

  6. Teaching Japanese-American Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miksch, Karen L.; Ghere, David

    2004-01-01

    Few events in American history are so universally deplored as the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The United States government has acknowledged the error and the injustice that resulted with an official Presidential apology and a Congressional disbursement of reparations to the victims of the incarceration policy. The…

  7. The Japanese Copula: A Dummy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenck, G.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of whether the Japanese copula can adequately be described as a dummy, i.e., as an element which although existing in the surface structure can be dispensed with in the deep structure of a sentence; based on a paper read at the 1970 meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia. (RS)

  8. Contrastive Rhetoric: Japanese and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, John

    Research is reviewed on systematic differences in expository styles due to cultural or linguistic diversity. The critique concentrates on the method of data gathering, the usage of the categorization "Oriental," and the description of English paragraph development. An investigation is reported that consisted of an analysis of the Japanese and…

  9. Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…

  10. Japanese at Mimosa Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchihara, Azusa

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Japanese program at Mimosa Elementary School in Roswell, Georgia. The success of the program has been aided by collaborative team teaching, a spiraled curriculum, creative teaching methods, Teacher -made materials, and communication among teachers, parents, and administrators. he challenges are also discussed. (Author/VWL)

  11. An Island Effect in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Norvin

    2000-01-01

    Develops an argument for a pied-piping approach to the apparent absence of island effects in Japanese, along the lines of Nishigauchi (1986, 1990). Investigates the nature of pied-piping, developing a theory that accounts for the fact that wh-islands cannot be pied-piped. (Author/VWL)

  12. Three Plays from the Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, M. Kent

    This study is both an interpretation and a translation of three modern Japanese plays, providing an artistic perspective on the radical reordering of experience and thought with which modern man must grapple in cross-cultural encounters. An introductory essay prefaces each play, providing a historical, critical, or appreciative perspective from…

  13. Citation Indicators of Japanese Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiqi, Zhang; Yamazaki, Shigeaki

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates Japanese journals--128 indexed in the 1994 "Journal Citation Reports"--in bibliometric parameters such as impact factors (IFs), mean IFs from citing and cited journals, and self-citing and self-cited rates. Results: only 15 journals, with a wide variation of self-citing and self-cited rates, have obtained a current impact higher than…

  14. Moral Development of Japanese Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Satomi Izumi; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Wilson, Jeanne

    2002-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 28 kindergartners, their teachers, and their director to examine Japanese children's moral development. Qualitative analysis of interviews revealed three themes related to moral development: social system morality, emotions, and responsibility. Children made moral decisions based on social system morality…

  15. Japanese; Particles, Verbs, and Adjectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume has been prepared as a reference book on particles, verbs, and "true" adjectives, as presented in the Defense Language Institute's Basic Course in Japanese. Forty-six particles are listed, with varying numbers of different usages explained and illustrated by examples. (AMM)

  16. Long Distance Scrambling in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Mamoru

    1992-01-01

    The nature of scrambling in Japanese is examined in light of the work of Webelhuth and Mahajan, and it is argued that their apparently inconsistent hypotheses are both necessary for the analysis of scrambling. A modified version is suggested. (59 references) (Author/LB)

  17. Federal agencies active in chemical industry-related research and development

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.

  18. Using non-local databases for the environmental assessment of industrial activities: The case of Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Osses de Eicker, Margarita; Hischier, Roland; Hurni, Hans; Zah, Rainer

    2010-04-15

    Nine non-local databases were evaluated with respect to their suitability for the environmental assessment of industrial activities in Latin America. Three assessment methods were considered, namely Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and air emission inventories. The analysis focused on data availability in the databases and the applicability of their international data to Latin American industry. The study showed that the European EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the U.S. EPA AP-42 database are the most suitable ones for air emission inventories, whereas the LCI database Ecoinvent is the most suitable one for LCA and EIA. Due to the data coverage in the databases, air emission inventories are easier to develop than LCA or EIA, which require more comprehensive information. One strategy to overcome the limitations of non-local databases for Latin American industry is the combination of validated data from international databases with newly developed local datasets.

  19. Associations of food and nutrient intakes with serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, TGF-b1, total SOD activity and sFas levels among middle-aged Japanese: the Japan Collaborative Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Koutatsu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ito, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Inaba, Yutaka; Tajima, Kazuo; Nakachi, Kei; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-12-01

    No observational study has examined whether cancer-related biomarkers are associated with diet in Japanese. We therefore assessed sex-specific food and nutrient intakes according to serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, TGF-b1, total SOD activity and sFas levels, under a cross-sectional study of 10,350 control subjects who answered the food frequency questionnaire in the first-wave nested case-control study within the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. For both men and women, IGF-I levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, fruits, green tea, calcium and vitamin C. IGF-II levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, yogurt, fruits and miso soup, and lower intakes of rice, coffee and carbohydrate. IGFBP-3 levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, yogurt, fruits and vitamin C, and lower intakes of rice, energy, protein, carbohydrate, sodium and polyunsaturated fatty acids. TGF-b1 levels were associated with lower intakes of coffee intakes, and higher intakes of miso soup and sodium. Total SOD activity levels were associated with lower intakes of most nutrients other than energy, carbohydrate, iron, copper, manganese, retinol equivalents, vitamin A, B2, B12, niacin, folic acid, vitamin C and fish fat. sFas levels were associated with higher intakes of manganese and folic acids. The results of the present study should help to account for findings on those biomarkers regarding risks of cancer and other lifestyle-related diseases in terms of dietary confounding as causality. PMID:20553076

  20. In Vivo Anti-Influenza Virus Activity of Japanese Herbal (Kampo) Medicine, “Shahakusan,” and Its Possible Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Hokari, Rei; Nagai, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Background. A Kampo medicine, Shahakusan (SHS), has been prescribed in late phase of infection that causes inflammations in the lung. But effect of SHS on viral infection in respiratory tract has never been reported. Objectives. To evaluate anti-influenza virus activity of SHS and its mode of actions through immune systems. Methods. SHS (0.3 g/kg/day) was orally administered to BALB/c miceforupper (URI) or lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) of influenza virus A/PR/8/34. The virus titer of nasal lavage fluid (NLF) at 5 or 2 day postinfection (p.i.) and cytokine mRNA expressions in mandibular lymph node or lung at 5 or 4 day p.i. were evaluated for URI or LRI, respectively. The histopathological examinations of lung tissue and NK cell activity in the splenocytes were also evaluated at 4 day p.i. on LRI. Results. When SHS was administered from 7 days before to 4 days p.i. for URI, the virus titer was significantly decreased in comparison with water-treated control, and IL-4, IL-1β, and IL-10 mRNA expression was decreased, but IL-12A mRNA expression was increased. Administration of SHS from one day before to one day p.i. for LRI significantly decreased the virus titer. SHS also decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar spaces and damage of desquamated mucosal epithelia of bronchiole, decreased IP-10 mRNA expression, and increased NK cell activity. Conclusion. SHS has no direct effect on influenza virus infection but exerts antiviral effect in mice by its immunomodulating activity through action of NK cells and anti-inflammatory activity in the lung. PMID:23346216

  1. Pair-List Readings in Korean-Japanese, Chinese-Japanese and English-Japanese Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In English and Chinese, questions with a "wh"-object and a universally quantified subject (e.g. "What did everyone buy?") allow an individual answer ("Everyone bought apples.") and a pair-list answer ("Sam bought apples, Jo bought bananas, Sally bought..."). By contrast, the pair-list answer is reportedly unavailable in Japanese and Korean. This…

  2. Japanese encephalitis: the virus and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909

  3. "Death with dignity" in the Japanese context.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Motomu

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, "death with dignity" is a widely known term that is distinguished from "euthanasia." It is generally defined as "the act of letting a terminally ill or a patient in a persistent vegetative state die by withdrawing life-sustaining treatment on request in the form of a living will." Most Japanese people consider death with dignity a desirable way of terminating one's life and it is therefore acceptable as a "natural death" or "humane death." Originally, death with dignity was regarded as a passive intervention, but since the 1990s, its connotations have changed in western countries; people claim that voluntary active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide should be legalized as death with dignity or the "right to die." In this paper, I examine the points and problems of this new type of death with dignity and propose an alternative version of death with dignity especially for the Japanese context, i.e. the end-of-life care process in support of terminal living with dignity. PMID:16637137

  4. Threshold responses of songbirds to long-term timber management on an active industrial forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, D.A.; Wood, P.B.; Keyser, P.D.; Wigley, T.B.; Dellinger, R.; Weakland, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Forest managers often seek to balance economic benefits from timber harvesting with maintenance of habitat for wildlife, ecosystem function, and human uses. Most research on the relationship between avian abundance and active timber management has been short-term, lasting one to two years, creating the need to investigate long-term avian responses and to identify harvest thresholds when a small change in habitat results in a disproportionate response in relative abundance and nest success. Our objectives were to identify trends in relative abundance and nest success and to identify landscape-scale disturbance thresholds for avian species and habitat guilds in response to a variety of harvest treatments (clear-cuts, heavy and light partial harvests) over 14 years. We conducted point counts and monitored nests at an industrial forest in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during 1996-1998, 2001-2003, and 2007-2009. Early successional species increased in relative abundance across all three time periods, whereas interior-edge and forest-interior guilds peaked in relative abundance mid-study after which the forest-interior guild declined. Of 41 species with >10 detections, four (10%) declined significantly, 13 (32%) increased significantly (only three species among all periods), and 9 (22%) peaked in abundance mid-study (over the entire study period, four species had no significant change in abundance, four declined, and one increased). Based on piecewise linear models, forest-interior and interior-edge guilds' relative abundance harvest thresholds were 28% total harvests (all harvests combined), 10% clear-cut harvests, and 18% light partial harvests, after which abundances declined. Harvest thresholds for the early successional guild were 42% total harvests, 11% clear-cut harvest, and 10% light partial harvests, and relative abundances increased after surpassing thresholds albeit at a reduced rate of increase after the clear-cut threshold. Threshold confidence

  5. Arterial stiffness of lifelong Japanese female pearl divers.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirofumi; Tomoto, Tsubasa; Kosaki, Keisei; Sugawara, Jun

    2016-05-15

    Japanese female pearl divers called Ama specialize in free diving in the cold sea for collecting foods and pearls in oysters. Exercising in the water combined with marked bradycardia and pressor responses provides a circulatory challenge to properly buffer or cushion elevated cardiac pulsations. Because Ama perform repeated free dives throughout their lives, it is possible that they may have adapted similar arterial structure and function to those seen in diving mammals. We compared arterial stiffness of lifelong Japanese pearl divers with age-matched physically inactive adults living in the same fishing villages. A total of 115 Japanese female pearl divers were studied. Additionally, 50 physically inactive adults as well as 33 physically active adults (participating in community fitness programs) living in the same coastal villages were also studied. There were no differences in age (∼65 yr), body mass index, and brachial blood pressure between the groups. Measures of arterial stiffness, cardio-ankle vascular index and β-stiffness index were lower (P < 0.05) in pearl divers and physically active adults than in their physically inactive peers. Augmentation pressure and augmentation index adjusted for the heart rate of 75 beats/min were lower (P < 0.05) in pearl divers than in other groups. These results indicate that lifelong Japanese pearl divers demonstrate reduced arterial stiffness and arterial wave reflection compared with age-matched physically inactive peers living in the same fishing villages. PMID:26984889

  6. Effects of a Lifestyle-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Medical Expenditure in Japanese Adults: A Community-Based Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to investigate whether a lifestyle-based physical activity program could contribute to reduced medical expenditure. Methods. The study participants were 60 adults aged 63.1 (standard deviation, 4.4) years in the intervention group; the case-control group consisted of 300 adults who were randomly selected from Japan's national health insurance system. This community-based retrospective study incorporated a 3-year follow-up. Results. The total and outpatient medical expenditure in the intervention group were significantly lower than in the control group: total expenditure, $US640.4/year; outpatient expenditure, $369.1/year. The odds ratio for outpatient visiting was 6.47-fold higher in the control than in the intervention group. Conclusion. Our study suggests that a health program to promote physical activity can result in reduced total medical expenditure, outpatient medical expenditure, and possibly also inpatient medical expenditure. PMID:27493963

  7. Petrochemical industry standards activity aimed at improving the mechanical integrity of process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    This paper will cover numerous changes being made to existing standards and several new standards being created, all focusing on increasing mechanical integrity of petrochemical industry process piping. Those new standards include ones for (1) Risk-Based Inspection (2) Fitness for Service Analysis, (3) Positive Material Identification, and (4) In-service Inspection and Maintenance for Process Piping. A progress report is included for the Process Industry Practices (PIP) being created to consolidate individual company piping standards into one consistent industry set. And finally, recent initiatives toward standards cooperation/coordination between the American Petroleum Institute(API), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), International Standards Organization (ISO) and National Board are highlighted.

  8. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes a study initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  9. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This study was initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  10. 77 FR 6580 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals Surveys (40...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Minerals Surveys (40 Forms) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of a revision... production and consumption data of industrial mineral commodities, some of which are considered strategic and critical. This information will be published as chapters in Minerals Yearbook, monthly Mineral...

  11. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 5: ACTIVITY FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  12. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 7: BLOW AND PURGE ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  13. Japanese carbon storage in materials.

    PubMed

    Gielen, Dolf; Yagita, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    The NEAT model (Nonenergy-use Emission Accounting Tables) has been developed in order to estimate CO2 emissions caused by so-called nonenergy use of fossil fuels. The model is based on material flow accounting. The model has been applied to a number of countries in order to validate and improve its use. This paper discusses the case study for Japan. The NEAT analysis suggests that emissions in 1996 were 23 Mt higher than previously estimated based on the guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This quantity equals 1.9% of the total Japanese greenhouse gas emission. It is recommended to adjust the Japanese emission accounting practice and to apply more detailed emission estimation methods in future years. Given similar results for other countries it is also recommended to improve the IPCC guidelines. PMID:11928351

  14. Effect of long-term industrial waste effluent pollution on soil enzyme activities and bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the influence of exogenous pollutants on microorganisms, the effect of long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) pollution on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria was still unclear. Three soil samples characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) receiving mixed organic and heavy metal pollutants for more than 20 years through IWE were collected along the Mahi River basin, Gujarat, western India. Basal soil respiration and in situ enzyme activities indicated an apparent deleterious effect of IWE on microbial activity and soil function. Community composition profiling of soil bacteria using 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method indicated an apparent bacterial community shift in the IWE-affected soils. Cloning and sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the dominated bacterial phyla in polluted soil were affiliated with Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, indicating that these bacterial phyla may have a high tolerance to pollutants. We suggested that specific bacterial phyla along with soil enzyme activities could be used as relevant biological indicators for long-term pollution assessment on soil quality. Graphical Abstract Bacterial community profiling and soil enzyme activities in long-term industrial waste effluent polluted soils. PMID:26803661

  15. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) in surface soils from coastal cities in North China: Correlation between diastereoisomer profiles and industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueqing; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a brominated flame retardant with a wide range of industrial applications, although little is known about its patterns of spatial distribution in soils in relation to industrial emissions. This study has undertaken a large-scale investigation around an industrialized coastal area of China, exploring the concentrations, spatial distribution and diastereoisomer profiles of HBCDD in 188 surface soils from 21 coastal cities in North China. The detection frequency was 100% and concentrations of total HBCDD in the surface soils ranged from 0.123 to 363 ng g(-1) and averaged 7.20 ng g(-1), showing its ubiquitous existence at low levels. The spatial distribution of HBCDD exhibited a correlation with the location of known manufacturing facilities in Weifang, suggesting the production of HBCDD as major emission source. Diastereoisomer profiles varied in different cities. Diastereoisomer compositions in soils were compared with emissions from HBCDD industrial activities, and correlations were found between them, which has the potential for source identification. Although the contemporary concentrations of HBCDD in soils from the study were relatively low, HBCDD-containing products (expanded/extruded polystyrene insulation boards) would be a potential source after its service life, and attention needs to be paid to prioritizing large-scale waste management efforts. PMID:26841293

  16. Characteristic Chemical Components and Aroma-active Compounds of the Essential Oils from Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus Used in Japanese Traditional Food.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Satoshi; Usami, Atsushi; Yorimoto, Tomohito; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus is an aquatic macrophyte; it is known as a wild edible plant in Japan for a long time. In this study, the essential oils from the fresh and dried aerial parts of R. nipponicus var. submersus were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thus, 98 compounds (accounting for 93.86%) of the oil were identified. The major compounds in fresh plant oil were phytol (41.94%), heptadecane (5.92%), and geranyl propionate (5.76%), while those of. Dried plant oil were β-ionone (23.54%), 2-hexenal (8.75%), and dihydrobovolide (4.81%). The fresh and dried oils had the green-floral and citrus-floral odor, respectively. The GC-O and AEDA results show that phenylacetaldehyde (green, floral odor, FD-factor = 8) and β-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 8) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the fresh oils. β-Cyclocitral (citrus odor, FD-factor = 64) and β-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 64) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the dried oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the flavor of R. nipponicus var. submersus. PMID:25891110

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 59: Japanese Technological Innovation. Implications for Large Commercial Aircraft and Knowledge Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kotler, Mindy L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores three factors-public policy, the Japanese (national) innovation system, and knowledge-that influence technological innovation in Japan. To establish a context for the paper, we examine Japanese culture and the U.S. and Japanese patent systems in the background section. A brief history of the Japanese aircraft industry as a source of knowledge and technology for other industries is presented. Japanese and U.S. alliances and linkages in three sectors-biotechnology, semiconductors, and large commercial aircraft (LCA)-and the importation, absorption, and diffusion of knowledge and technology are examined next. The paper closes with implications for diffusing knowledge and technology, U.S. public policy, and LCA.

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared between native Japanese and Japanese-Americans.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Masayasu; Yamane, Kiminori; Jitsuiki, Kuniaki; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Kamei, Nozomu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2008-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by the accumulation of multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis. Japanese-Americans in the U.S. have a more rapid and intense progression of atherosclerosis than native Japanese in Japan due to a westernization of their lifestyle. We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between 416 native Japanese (194 men and 222 women) in Hiroshima and 574 Japanese-Americans (217 men and 357 women) in Los Angeles, aged 30-89 years. According to the criteria proposed by the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine, the prevalence was 13.9 and 2.7% for native Japanese men and women, and 32.7 and 3.4% for Japanese-American men and women, respectively. According to the IDF or AHA/NHLBI criteria, the prevalence was 20.1 and 6.3%, and 38.7 and 4.5%, or 13.4 and 14.4%, and 30.9 and 27.7%, respectively. Thus, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by all the three criteria. However, the prevalence in women was similar between native Japanese and Japanese-American by the Japanese and IDF criteria, whereas it was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by the AHA/NHLBI criteria. This report demonstrates that a westernization of lifestyle can increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese-Americans as compared to native Japanese. PMID:18006105

  19. Geochemical aspects of some Japanese lavas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpotts, J. A.; Martin, W.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    K, Rb, Sr, Ba and rare-earth concentrations in some Japanese lavas have been determined by mass-spectrometric stable-isotope dilution. The samples fall into three rare-earth groups corresponding to tholeiitic, high alumina and alkali basalts. Japanese tholeiites have trace element characteristics similar to those of oceanic ridge tholeiites except for distinctly higher relative concentrations of Ba. Japanese lavas may result from various degrees of partial fusion of amphibole eclogite.

  20. The Tobacco Industry's Abuse of Scientific Evidence and Activities to Recruit Scientists During Tobacco Litigation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu

    2016-01-01

    South Korea's state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO) report's argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word "deadly" from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:26841882

  1. Americans and Japanese Nonverbal Communication. Linguistic Communications 15 (Papers in Japanese Linguistics 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harvey M.

    Each culture has its own nonverbal as well as its verbal language. Movements, gestures and sounds have distinct and often conflicting interpretations in different countries. For Americans communicating with Japanese, misunderstandings are of two types: Japanese behavior which is completely new to the American, and Japanese behavior which is…

  2. Sialic acids as link to Japanese scientists.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Roland

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript is dedicated to Prof. Tamio Yamakawa and describes my cooperations on sialic acid-related topics with Japanese scientists during the last 40 years. We studied sialic acids and their O-acetylated derivatives in the sea urchin Pseudocentrotus depressus, in Halocynthia species, and in human and bovine milk. In seafood we mainly searched for N-glycolylneuraminic acid. With synthetic substrates it was shown that sialic acid O-acetylation at C-4 hinders the activity of sialidases, with the exception of viral enzymes. The biosynthesis of Neu5Gc was discussed and the distribution of this sialic acid in dogs followed in modern literature and reviewed regarding their migration. An excellent source of sialic acids is edible bird nest substance (Collocalia mucin) which was used for the synthesis of sialylation inhibitors. PMID:27063181

  3. An experience in Japanese academic medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, L M

    1994-01-01

    The Japanese health care system has been highly praised for its universal access, freedom of patient choice, maintenance of a private system, and creative funding. Japanese citizens enjoy general good health, low infant mortality, and long life expectancy. Nevertheless, aspects of Japanese medical education, both graduate and undergraduate, and the structure of academic departments differ from those seen in the United States. A sabbatical spent teaching general internal medicine in Japan provided the experience for this review of the Japanese system. I describe the structure and function of departments of medicine and observations made at daily clinical teaching exercises in hospitals throughout the country. PMID:8160464

  4. The Role of Education in Reinforcing the Group Model in Japanese Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kevin

    Many attempts have been made to explain how modern Japan has, with speed and minimal stress, become competitive with Western nations in terms of military strength and industrial productivity. One factor commonly mentioned is the "groupishness," the collective orientation,that is basic to Japanese society. Some research has suggested that the…

  5. Creative Management as a Strategy for Breakthrough Innovation. Lessons from Basic Research Projects of Japanese Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, K. T.

    1997-01-01

    Japanese science/technology policies emphasize creative research management for strengthening breakthrough innovation. Key lessons include the following: cultivation of creative researchers, clear strategic directions, systematic teamwork and collaboration, focus on strategic industrial relevance, balance between autonomy and control, and the need…

  6. Experimental parameters optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis in order to determine selected elements in some industrial soils in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay; Nur Esen, Ayse; Erenturk, Sema

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is optimization of the experimental parameters for analysis of soil matrix by instrumental neutron activation analysis and quantitative determination of barium, cerium, lanthanum, rubidium, scandium and thorium in soil samples collected from industrialized urban areas near Istanbul. Samples were irradiated in TRIGA MARK II Research Reactor of Istanbul Technical University. Two types of reference materials were used to check the accuracy of the applied method. The achieved results were found to be in compliance with certified values of the reference materials. The calculated En numbers for mentioned elements were found to be less than 1. The presented data of element concentrations in soil samples will help to trace the pollution as an impact of urbanization and industrialization, as well as providing database for future studies.

  7. Active vision system for planning and programming of industrial robots in one-of-a-kind manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Ulrich; Schmidt, Achim

    1995-10-01

    The aspects of automation technology in industrial one-of-a-kind manufacturing are discussed. An approach to improve the quality and cost relation is developed and an overview of an 3D- vision supported automation system is given. This system is based on an active vision sensor for 3D-geometry feedback. Its measurement principle, the coded light approach, is explained. The experimental environment for the technical validation of the automation approach is demonstrated, where robot based processes (assembly, arc welding and flame cutting) are graphically simulated and off-line programmed. A typical process sequence for automated one- of-a-kind manufacturing is described. The results of this research development are applied to a project on the automated disassembling of car parts for recycling using industrial robots.

  8. [Medicinal roles tea--a non-essential beverage--played in forming the Japanese culture during the Japanese middle ages (12th-16th AD)].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    The term "culture" generally refers to practices and customs including clothes, food and housing as well as various arts, ethics, religions, politics and economies that support them, with the more refined formats such as tea ceremony or flower arrangement being more dependent on the maturity of the society at the time. Among these, tea may be especially noteworthy as it has been widely used as a favored beverage in various scenes in daily life, playing an important role in the development of Japanese society. As a medicinal agent, tea has psychotropic functions that activate senses, thoughts or association of ideas, and remove or alleviate drowsiness and fatigue. While alcohol, coffee or narcotics also have mind-altering effects, tea has been more widely accepted, possibly because of its milder effect and its adaptability to cultivation in different climate zones, leaving broad and deep impressions in the forming of the culture. In the fifth century, the rulers in Japan started opening state-run ranches throughout the country to raise horses and cattle, which drove population growth, spurred a commodity economy and gave rise to an associated birth of logistics providers. The ranch administrators, however, gradually built up political and economic power over the years to become samurai, who would eventually come to rule the country. In the Japanese Middle Ages, many merchants who had accumulated wealth in trades, finance, sake breweries or leather industries enjoyed gatherings with tea, which became the very popular tea ceremony. From these occasions, many of the now so-called classic arts with top-class artists were born. The popularity of the tea ceremony eventually produced SADO, the way of tea. Tea thus provided a cradle for many cultural elements as social barriers were often disregarded at such gatherings so that many artists and men of stature were able to emerge regardless of their backgrounds. PMID:20527289

  9. The evolution of Japanese employer-sponsored retirement plans.

    PubMed

    Rajnes, David

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the development of Japanese voluntary employer-sponsored retirement plans with an emphasis on recent trends. Until 2001, companies in Japan offered retirement benefits as lump-sum severance payments and/or benefits from one of two types of defined benefit (DB) pension plans. One type of DB plan was based on the occupational pension model used in the United States before the adoption of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), but lacked the funding, vesting, and other protective features contained in ERISA. The other type of DB plan allowed companies to opt out of the earnings-related portion of social security, commonly referred to as "contracting out." Landmark laws passed in 2001 introduced a new generation of occupational retirement plans to employers and employees. One law increased funding requirements and enhanced employee protections for employer-sponsored DB plans, while a second law introduced defined contribution (DC) plans for several reasons, chiefly to increase retirement savings and help boost Japanese financial markets. These laws complemented earlier changes in the tax code and financial accounting standards already affecting employer-sponsored retirement plans. As a result, new retirement plan designs will replace most prereform era company retirement plans by 2012. In 2001, the experience of 401(k) plans in the United States, where 42 million participants had accumulated more than $1.8 trillion in assets over 20 years, attracted considerable attention among Japanese lawmakers finalizing provisions of the DC pension law. Even with government support and encouragement from the financial services industry, Japanese companies have not adopted these new DC plans in large numbers. As a result, occupational retirement plans in Japan have remained predominantly DB-a surprising development in light of the shift in a number of countries from DB to DC plans observed in recent decades. However, recent proposals to

  10. Future of the world's automobile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kagawa, T.

    1989-03-01

    The author feels that the Japanese automobile industry is approaching a turning point. But it is not enough to refer only to the changing structure of the Japanese automobile industry when similar structural changes are taking place on a worldwide scale. Therefore he first comments on the current state of the automobile industry of the world, and then reviews the reasons for the gap between automobile production and demand and the historical background of this phenomenon. Then, finally, he discusses the current progress of and future challenges in the structural adjustment of the global automobile industry. He notes the very close relation of the battery industry to the automobile industry, and hopes the former will prosper hand in hand with the latter. 6 tables.

  11. Standardization of Weed Pollen Extracts, Japanese Hop and Mugwort, in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Son, Mina; Choi, Soo-Young; Park, Kyung Hee; Park, Hye Jung; Hong, Chein-Soo; Lee, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Japanese hop (Humulus spp.) and mugwort (Artemisia spp.) are notable causes of autumn pollinosis in East Asia. However, Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts, which are widely used for the diagnosis, have not been standardized. This study was performed to standardize Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts. Materials and Methods Allergen extracts were prepared in a standardized way using locally collected Humulus japonicus and purchased Artemisia vulgaris pollens. The immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivities of prepared extracts were compared with commercial extracts via IgE immunoblotting and inhibition analyses. Intradermal skin tests were performed to determine the bioequivalent allergy unit (BAU). Results The IgE reactive components of the extracts via IgE immunoblotting were similar to those of commercial extracts. A 11-kDa allergen showed the strongest IgE reactivity in Japanese hop, as did a 28-kDa allergen in mugwort pollen extracts. Allergenic potencies of the investigatory Japanese hop and mugwort extracts were essentially indistinguishable from the commercial ones. Sums of erythema of 50 mm by the intradermal skin test (ΣED50) were calculated to be 14.4th and 13.6th three-fold dilutions for Japanese hop and mugwort extracts, respectively. Therefore, the allergenic activity of the prepared extracts was 90827.4 BAU/mg for Japanese hop and 34412 BAU/mg for mugwort. Conclusion We produced Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts using a standardized method. Standardized Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts will facilitate the production of improved diagnostic and immunotherapeutic reagents. PMID:26847293

  12. Acrylamide: update on selected research activities conducted by the European food and drink industry.

    PubMed

    Taeymans, Dominique; Andersson, Anders; Ashby, Peter; Blank, Imre; Gondé, Pierre; van Eijck, Paul; Faivre, Virginie; Lalljie, Sam P D; Lingnert, Hans; Lindblom, Marianne; Matissek, Reinhard; Müller, Detflef; Stadler, Richard H; Studer, Alfred; Silvani, David; Tallmadge, Dan; Thompson, Geoff; Whitmore, Tricia; Wood, John; Zyzak, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made by the European food and drink industry (CIAA) on acrylamide with regard to analytical methods, mechanisms of formation, and mitigation research in the major food categories. It is an update on the first CIAA review paper, "A Review of Acrylamide: An Industry Perspective on Research, Analysis, Formation and Control." Initial difficulties with the establishment of reliable analytical methods, in most cases, have now been overcome, but challenges remain in terms of the need to develop simple and rapid test methods and certified reference materials. Many trials have been conducted under laboratory and experimental conditions in a variety of foods, and a number of possible measures have been identified to relatively lower the amounts of acrylamide in food. Promising applications were studied in reconstituted potato models by addition of amino acids or use of asparaginase. In bakery wares, predictive models have been established to determine the role of ammonium carbonate and invert sugar in acrylamide formation. Studies in several commercial foods showed that acrylamide is not stable over time in roasted and ground coffee. Some progress in relatively lowering acrylamide in certain food categories has been achieved, but at this stage can only be considered marginal. Any options that are chosen to reduce acrylamide in commercial products must be technologically feasible and must not adversely affect the quality and safety of the final product. PMID:15759746

  13. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.

    PubMed

    Slater, Sandy; Giovino, Gary; Chaloupka, Frank

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and the interest in studying tobacco harm reduction, sound research and surveillance are needed to examine and understand the distribution and availability of PREPs in communities, as well as the tobacco industry's marketing practices surrounding these products. We examined the availability and marketing of PREPs in a national sample of tobacco retail stores. We also compared the price of PREPs to those of premium brand cigarettes and examined the distribution of PREPs in comparison with premium brand cigarettes by store type, urbanization, region, and race/ethnicity. We found that PREPs are not widely available, are priced similarly to leading cigarette brands, and have few promotional offers. We also found some significant differences in the distribution of PREPs and cigarettes, as well as in the distribution of Ariva and Omni, by store type and community demographics. The fact that this study used data collected nationally emphasizes the importance of these findings and helps shed some light on the tobacco industry's PREP marketing strategies. This study's national sample provides a unique perspective that needs to be replicated if and when other PREPs are widely marketed. PMID:18188759

  14. Free radical activity of industrial fibers: role of iron in oxidative stress and activation of transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, P S; Brown, D M; Beswick, P H; MacNee, W; Rahman, I; Donaldson, K

    1997-01-01

    We studied asbestos, vitreous fiber (MMVF10), and refractory ceramic fiber (RCF1) from the Thermal Insulation Manufacturers' Association fiber repository regarding the following: free radical damage to plasmid DNA, iron release, ability to deplete glutathione (GSH), and activate redox-sensitive transcription factors in macrophages. Asbestos had much more free radical activity than any of the man-made vitreous fibers. More Fe3+ was released than Fe2+ and more of both was released at pH 4.5 than at pH 7.2. Release of iron from the different fibers was generally not a good correlate of ability to cause free radical injury to the plasmid DNA. All fiber types caused some degree of oxidative stress, as revealed by depletion of intracellular GSH. Amosite asbestos upregulated nuclear binding of activator protein 1 transcription factor to a greater level than MMVF10 and RCF1; long-fiber amosite was the only fiber to enhance activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B). The use of cysteine methyl ester and buthionine sulfoximine to modulate GSH suggested that GSH homeostasis was important in leading to activation of transcription factors. We conclude that the intrinsic free radical activity is the major determinant of transcription factor activation and therefore gene expression in alveolar macrophages. Although this was not related to iron release or ability to deplete macrophage GSH at 4 hr, GSH does play a role in activation of NF kappa B. Images Figure 1. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 6. A Figure 6. B PMID:9400744

  15. The Japanese Positron Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, S.; Sunaga, H.; Kaneko, H.; Takizawa, H.; Kawasuso, A.; Yotsumoto, K.; Tanaka, R.

    1999-06-01

    The Positron Factory has been planned at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The factory is expected to produce linac-based monoenergetic positron beams having world-highest intensities of more than 1010e+/sec, which will be applied for R&D of materials science, biotechnology and basic physics & chemistry. In this article, results of the design studies are demonstrated for the following essential components of the facilities: 1) Conceptual design of a high-power electron linac with 100 MeV in beam energy and 100 kW in averaged beam power, 2) Performance tests of the RF window in the high-power klystron and of the electron beam window, 3) Development of a self-driven rotating electron-to-positron converter and the performance tests, 4) Proposal of multi-channel beam generation system for monoenergetic positrons, with a series of moderator assemblies based on a newly developed Monte Carlo simulation and the demonstrative experiment, 5) Proposal of highly efficient moderator structures, 6) Conceptual design of a local shield to suppress the surrounding radiation and activation levels.

  16. Investigation of the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum-industry activities on feeding humpback whale behavior. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Malme, C.I.; Miles, P.R.; Tyack, P.; Clark, C.W.; Bird, J.E.

    1985-06-01

    An investigation was made of the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum-industry activities on the behavior of feeding humpback whales in Frederick Sound and Stephens Passage, Alaska in August, 1984. Test sounds were a 100 cu. in. air gun and playbacks of recorded drillship, drilling platform, production platform, semi-submersible drill rig, and helicopter fly-over noise. Sound source levels and acoustic propagation losses were measured. The movement patterns of whales were determined by observations of whale-surfacing positions.

  17. Perception of a Japanese Vowel Length Contrast by Japanese and American English listeners: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Measures

    PubMed Central

    Hisagi, Miwako; Shafer, Valerie L.; Strange, Winifred; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of automatic selective perceptual processes in native and non-native listeners' perception of a Japanese vowel length contrast (tado vs. taado), using multiple, natural-speech tokens of each category as stimuli in a “categorial oddball” design. Mismatch Negativity (MMN) was used to index discrimination of the temporally-cued vowel contrast by naïve adult American listeners and by a native Japanese-speaking control group in two experiments in which attention to the auditory input was manipulated: in Exp 1 (Visual-Attend), listeners silently counted deviants in a simultaneously-presented visual categorial oddball shape discrimination task; in Exp 2 (Auditory-Attend), listeners attended to the auditory input and implicitly counted target deviants. MMN results showed effects of language experience and attentional focus: MMN amplitudes were smaller for American compared to Japanese listeners in the Visual-Attend Condition and for the American listeners in the Visual compared to Auditory-Attend condition. Subtle differences in topography were also seen, specifically in that the Japanese group showed more robust responses than the American listener's at left hemisphere scalp sites that probably index activity from the superior temporal gyrus. Follow-up behavioral discrimination tests showed that Americans discriminated the contrast well above chance, but more poorly than did Japanese listeners. This pattern of electrophysiological and behavioral results supports the conclusion that early experience with phonetic contrasts of a language results in changes in neural representations in auditory cortex that allow for more robust automatic, phonetic processing of native-language speech input. PMID:20816759

  18. A Confirmatory Model for Substance Use Among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanese American adolescents. Significant associations for substance use and impairment included culturally intensified events and Japanese cultural identity- behavior subset. Models had good overall fits and suggested that conflict surrounding cultural identity may contribute to substance use. PMID:23480213

  19. A confirmatory model for depression among Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R N; Hishinuma, Earl S; Goebert, Deborah A; Chang, Janice Y; Andrade, Naleen N; Nishimura, Stephanie T

    2005-02-01

    A confirmatory model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, and depression was developed (N = 140). The model incorporated the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Major Life Events Scale, and Japanese Cultural Scale. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Cultural Scale and reported fewer depressive symptoms on the CES-D total and on 2 of the 3 CES-D factors than part-Japanese American adolescents. Predictors for depression were being Japanese American vs. part-Japanese American, female gender, and culturally intensified events. A significant interaction of behavior by self-identification was noted. The model had good overall fit and suggested that the formation of cultural identity may contribute to depressive symptoms experienced by adolescents, particularly adolescents of mixed heritage. PMID:15727494

  20. Linde FUSRAP Site Remediation: Engineering Challenges and Solutions of Remedial Activities on an Active Industrial Facility - 13506

    SciTech Connect

    Beres, Christopher M.; Fort, E. Joseph; Boyle, James D.

    2013-07-01

    The Linde FUSRAP Site (Linde) is located in Tonawanda, New York at a major research and development facility for Praxair, Inc. (Praxair). Successful remediation activities at Linde combines meeting cleanup objectives of radiological contamination while minimizing impacts to Praxair business operations. The unique use of Praxair's property coupled with an array of active and abandoned utilities poses many engineering and operational challenges; each of which has been overcome during the remedial action at Linde. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) and CABRERA SERVICES, INC. (CABRERA) have successfully faced engineering challenges such as relocation of an aboveground structure, structural protection of an active water line, and installation of active mechanical, electrical, and communication utilities to perform remediation. As remediation nears completion, continued success of engineering challenges is critical as remaining activities exist in the vicinity of infrastructure essential to business operations; an electrical substation and duct bank providing power throughout the Praxair facility. Emphasis on engineering and operations through final remediation and into site restoration will allow for the safe and successful completion of the project. (authors)

  1. Overview of demonstrator program of Japanese Smart Materials and Structure System project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Naoyuki; Sakurai, Tateo; Sasajima, Mikio; Takeda, Nobuo; Kishi, Teruo

    2003-08-01

    The Japanese Smart Material and Structure System Project started in 1998 as five years' program that funded by METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) and supported by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). Total budget of five years was finally about 3.8 billion Japanese yen. This project has been conducted as the Academic Institutions Centered Program, namely, one of collaborated research and development among seven universities (include one foreign university), seventeen Industries (include two foreign companies), and three national laboratories. At first, this project consisted of four research groups that were structural health monitoring, smart manufacturing, active/adaptive structures, and actuator material/devices. Two years later, we decided that two demonstrator programs should be added in order to integrate the developed sensor and actuator element into the smart structure system and verify the research and development results of above four research groups. The application target of these demonstrators was focused to the airplane, and two demonstrators that these shapes simulate to the fuselage of small commercial airplane (for example, Boeing B737) had been established. Both demonstrators are cylindrical structures with 1.5 m in diameter and 3 m in length that the first demonstrator has CFRP skin-stringer and the second one has CFRP skin. The first demonstrator integrates the following six innovative techniques: (1) impact monitoring using embedded small diameter optical fiber sensors newly developed in this program, (2) impact monitoring using the integrated acoustic emission (AE) systems, (3) whole-field strain mapping using the BOTDR/FBG integrated system, (4) damage suppression using embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) films, (5) maximum and cyclic strain sensing using smart composite patches, and (6) smart manufacturing using the integrated sensing system. The second one is for demonstrating the suppression of

  2. Vertical distribution of AhR-activating compounds in sediments contaminated by modernized pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Ratia, H; Oikari, A

    2014-03-01

    Increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity is a sensitive biomarker of exposure to the chemicals which activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induce the cytochrome P450 system, such as many polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Pulp bleaching was one of the main sources of PCDDs and PCDFs until elemental chlorine free (ECF) and total chlorine free bleaching processes since 1990s have remarkably decreased but not completely eliminate discharges of these chemicals. In addition, historically contaminated sediments may act as a source of these persistent contaminants. In this study, the contamination history and recovery of a watercourse heavily loaded by the chemical wood industry were studied by analyzing PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs from vertical sediment samples and by measuring hepatic EROD activity from rainbow trout intraperitoneally dosed with the sediment extracts. No PCDDs or PCDFs were found above the chromatographic limit of detection from the study area and only small amounts of PCB congeners 101, 138, 153, and 180 were present. No increased EROD activity was observed in fish indicating the absence of any AhR-activating compounds in the surface sediment, to about 15 cm depth, representing about the last 20 years when kraft pulping and ECF bleaching with activated wastewater treatment have been used. It can be concluded that nowadays organochlorines and other AhR-ligands do not harm the previously heavily polluted watercourse. PMID:24361517

  3. Microwave-assisted preparation and adsorption performance of activated carbon from biodiesel industry solid reside: influence of operational parameters.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon has been attempted using KOH as activating agent by microwave heating from biodiesel industry solid residue, oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFBAC). The significance of chemical impregnation ratio (IR), microwave power and activation time on the properties of activated carbon were investigated. The optimum condition has been identified at the IR of 1.0, microwave power of 600 W and activation time of 7 min. EFBAC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. The surface chemistry was examined by zeta potential measurement, determination of surface acidity/basicity, while the adsorptive property was quantified using methylene blue as dye model compound. The optimum conditions resulted in activated carbon with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 395.30 mg/g and carbon yield of 73.78%, while the BET surface area and total pore volume were corresponding to 1372 m2/g and 0.76 cm3/g, respectively. PMID:22050840

  4. The Teaching of Japanese in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Helen E.

    1992-01-01

    The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…

  5. Classroom Silence: Voices from Japanese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harumi, Seiko

    2011-01-01

    This article explores Japanese EFL learners' classroom silence in a Japanese EFL context. The existence of silence in second language learning contexts can be a source of conflict between students and teachers and even among students themselves. It can also be an obstacle to acquiring the target language. In order to tackle this problem and to…

  6. Interpersonal Mistrust and Unhappiness among Japanese People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Inoguchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Our main objective in this paper is to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness among Japanese people. Based on cross-sectional data for the Japanese general population from the Asia Barometer Survey (2003-2006), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness using a logistic…

  7. Are "Powerless" Communication Strategies the Japanese Norm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Patricia J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines strikingly parallel claims concerning Japanese communication strategies, and female communication strategies in the West. Miscommunication between Japan and the West resembles miscommunication between the sexes in the West, suggesting not that Japanese linguistic behavior is not feminine but that it is indicative of the problems inherent…

  8. Principles of Japanese Discourse: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Senko K.

    This handbook offers a detailed description of the structure and rhetorical effects observed in various genres of Japanese discourse. Drawing on Japanese "bunshooron" and incorporating results of Western discourse studies, the book covers principles of overall rhetorical organization, including"ki-shoo-ten-ketsu," topic structure, "danraku," and…

  9. READINGS IN JAPANESE HISTORY. PART I, SELECTIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YAMAGIWA, JOSEPH K.

    INCLUDED AMONG THE 18 SELECTIONS IN THIS READER FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS OF JAPANESE ARE SUCH ARTICLES AND EXCERPTS FROM BOOKS AS "THE TAIKA REFORMS" BY SAKAMOTO TAROO (1935) AND "THE SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT OF INCOME BY KOKU AND FEUDALISM" BY NAKAMURA KICIJI (1960). THESE TEXTS ARE REPRODUCED EXACTLY AS THEY APPEARED IN JAPANESE-LANGUAGE PUBLICATIONS…

  10. Japanese Childrearing: Two Generations of Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwalb, David W., Ed.; Shwalb, Barbara J., Ed.

    The context of Japanese childrearing has changed during the postwar era. Noting that "new" observations concerning childrearing and socialization may not actually be new, this volume establishes continuity with past researchers by integrating the past half-century of cross-cultural research on Japanese childrearing and socialization, placing…

  11. Functions of Discourse Markers in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Yasuko

    2001-01-01

    Through an examination of the discourse markers "ano" and "sono" in Japanese (commonly characterized as demonstrative adjectives but which cannot be used interchangeably in a context), this paper explores how these linguistic devices function in conversation found in Japanese writings. The focus of this analysis is the mental and social functions…

  12. Japanese American Studies in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okutsu, Jim

    This paper reviews the results of a survey of institutions of higher education which offer coursework focusing on Japanese Americans and emphasizes the program in Japanese American Studies at San Francisco State University. The results showed a distribution of twenty-eight courses offered at fifteen institutions in California, Washington and…

  13. BASIC JAPANESE FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS. REVISED EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIWA, TAMAKO; MATSUDA, MAYAKO

    THE 24 LESSONS IN THIS TEXT ARE DESIGNED FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS BEGINNING JAPANESE LANGUAGE STUDY. THE SELECTION OF VOCABULARY AND THE PRESENTATION OF GRAMMAR ARE DIRECTED TO THE GOAL OF ACQUIRING FACILITY IN SPEAKING RATHER THAN WRITING. FOR A READING TEXT RECOMMENDED FOR USE WITH THIS SPOKEN LANGUAGE TEXT, SEE HIBBETT AND ITSAKA "MODERN JAPANESE,…

  14. Study on Japanese Cornmint in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese cornmint (Mentha canadensis L.) is a subtropical essential oil crop grown in Asia and South America. The essential oil of Japanese cornmint is the source for production of crystal (-)-menthol, which is a major aromatic agent used as a flavor, fragrance, and cooling sensation vector in the ...

  15. Contemporary Japanese Attitudes toward Honorifics (keigo).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Patricia J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the results of a subjective reaction test of over 700 Japanese college students' and office workers' attitudes toward honorifics (keigo) in Japanese. It found that subjects from higher socioeconomic classes were more outspoken and ready to judge incompetent or insufficient keigo more negatively than individuals from lower socioeconomic…

  16. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  17. Inside a Japanese Transplant: A Critical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Laurie

    1993-01-01

    A hidden participant/observer working in a Japanese auto plant in the United States discovered worker resistance to Japanese management practices in the form of sabotage, protest, agitation, and confrontation. Results questioned assumptions that participatory techniques increase worker control and decentralized authority increases worker autonomy.…

  18. Japanese encephalitis virus in meningitis patients, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Masaru; Ito, Mikako; Takao, Shinichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Fukuda, Shinji; Miyazaki, Kazuo; Kurane, Ichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2005-03-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 57 patients diagnosed with meningitis were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and amplified. Two products had highest homology with Nakayama strain and 2 with Ishikawa strain. Results suggest that Japanese encephalitis virus causes some aseptic meningitis in Japan. PMID:15757569

  19. Japanese Children's Understanding of Notational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology," 2000, Vol. 76, pp.…

  20. Respect in Japanese Childhood, Adolescence, and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugie, Shuji; Shwalb, David W.; Shwalb, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    The meaning of respect changed historically in postwar Japan, and respect as a concept is important yet unnoticed in postmodern Japanese society. Contrary to the perception of Japanese socialization as instilling conformist respect and obedience in children and adolescents, this chapter shows why one commentator predicts that Japan may be changing…

  1. Literature Review of Japanese Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Brett

    2012-01-01

    This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…

  2. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  3. Japanese Flagship Universities at a Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The increasing pace and scope of global structural change has left Japanese flagship universities at a crossroads. Reflecting upon historical trends, current policy changes and respective institutional strategies for global marketing among Japanese top research universities, the author discusses possible future directions for these institutions…

  4. Englishized Style Repertoire in Modern Japanese Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Reiko

    1992-01-01

    The roles played by English borrowings in modern Japanese literary works are examined. After a brief summary of previous studies, this paper describes the style repertoire and the kinds of stylistic effects produced in Japanese literature by English borrowings, such as attention attractors and in-group-identity markers. (23 references) (Author/LB)

  5. Japanese Moral Education Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Yoshimitsu

    For generations, moral development has been both a conscious aim and a formal process in Japanese education. This book investigates the history and development of Japanese moral education and analyzes and compares current moral education with the concepts of the Imperial Rescript on Education (1890) and the "shushin" moral education of prewar…

  6. Database of Industrial Technological Information in Kanagawa : Networks for Technology Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akira; Shindo, Tadashi

    This system is one of the databases which require participation by its members and of which premise is to open all the data in it. Aiming at free technological cooperation and exchange among industries it was constructed by Kanagawa Prefecture in collaboration with enterprises located in it. The input data is 36 items such as major product, special and advantageous technology, technolagy to be wanted for cooperation, facility and equipment, which technologically characterize each enterprise. They are expressed in 2,000 characters and written by natural language including Kanji except for some coded items. 24 search items are accessed by natural language so that in addition to interactive searching procedures including menu-type it enables extensive searching. The information service started in Oct., 1986 covering data from 2,000 enterprisen.

  7. NMR-based analysis of the chemical composition of Japanese persimmon aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Shoraku; Furihata, Kazuo; Koda, Masanori; Wei, Feifei; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2016-03-01

    Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) is recognized as an outstanding source of biologically active compounds relating to many health benefits. In the present study, NMR spectroscopy provided a comprehensive metabolic overview of Japanese persimmon juice. Detailed signal assignments of Japanese persimmon juice were carried out using various 2D NMR techniques incorporated with broadband water suppression enhanced through T1 effects (BB-WET) or WET sequences, and 26 components, including minor components, were identified. In addition, most components were quantitatively evaluated by the integration of signals using conventional (1) H NMR and BB-WET NMR. This is the first detailed analysis combined with quantitative characterization of chemical components using NMR for Japanese persimmon. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26482562

  8. Preliminary Results form the Japanese Total Lightning Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobara, Y.; Ishii, H.; Kumagai, Y.; Liu, C.; Heckman, S.; Price, C. G.; Williams, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the initial observational results from the first Japanese Total Lightning Detection Network (JTLN) in relation to severe weather phenomena. The University of Electro-Communications (UEC) has deployed the Earth Networks (EN) Total Lightning System over Japan to carry out research on the relationship between thunderstorm activity and severe weather phenomena since 2013. In this paper we first demonstrate the current status of our new network followed by the initial scientific results. The lightning jump algorithm was applied to our total lightning data to study the relationship between total lighting activity and hazardous weather events such as gust fronts and tornadoes over land reported by the JMA (Japanese Meteorological Agency) in 2014. As a result, a clear increase in total lighting flash rate as well as lightning jumps are observed prior to most hazardous weather events (~20 min) indicating potential usefulness for early warning in Japan. Furthermore we are going to demonstrate the relationship of total lightning activities with meteorological radar data focusing particularly on Japanese Tornadic storms.

  9. SURVEY OF INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF VAPOR-PHASE ACTIVATED-CARBON ADSORPTION FOR CONTROL OF POLLUTANT COMPOUNDS FROM MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study covers industrial use of activated carbon for vapor-phase applications. A listing of over 700 applications of vapor-phase carbon systems is made available for use in identifying sites where a given compound is being removed.

  10. Alkali-activated binders by use of industrial by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Buchwald, A.; Schulz, M

    2005-05-01

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) materials are used as alkaline accelerators for latent hydraulic substances and as alkali activators for different alumosilicate materials, including ground-granulated blast furnace slag, low-calcium fly ash and metakaolin. The dusts differ in their phase composition, especially in the amount of reactive phases and the kind and amount of alkali salts. The quantitative phase composition, pore solution composition and strength behavior of the activated blends is reported.

  11. [Japanese college students' pessimism, coping strategies and anxiety: validation of the Japanese Defensive Pessimism Inventory (JDPI)].

    PubMed

    Araki, Yukiko

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese Defensive Pessimism Inventory (JDPI), which measures defensive pessimism in an academic achievement situation for Japanese undergraduate students and differentiates between those who are realistically pessimistic and those who are defensively pessimistic. In Study 1,695 undergraduates completed the JDPI. A factor analysis revealed that the 24 items of the JDPI comprised four factors: Pessimism, Past experience, Positive reflectivity, and Effort. In Study 2, 618 undergraduates completed the JDPI, the Test Coping Strategy Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The JDPI had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Defensive pessimists and strategic optimists had higher scores on the active coping strategy and lower scores on the avoidant-thinking coping strategy than did realistic pessimists. Furthermore, defensive pessimists and realistic pessimists had higher scores on the state anxiety and lower scores on the optimistic-thinking coping strategy than did strategic optimists. The results indicate that the JDPI had high concurrent validity. PMID:18516953

  12. Effective removal of tetracycline from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) industrial processing waste.

    PubMed

    Sayğılı, Hasan; Güzel, Fuat

    2016-09-01

    Activated carbon (TAC) prepared under optimized conditions with ZnCl2 activation from a new precursor; tomato industrial processing waste (TW), was applied as an adsorbent to remove tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solution. The factors (TAC dosage, initial TC concentration, contact time, ionic strength and solution temperature) affecting the adsorption process were examined at natural pH (5.7) of TAC-TC system in aqueous solution. Kinetic data was found to be best complied by the pseudo-second order model. The isotherm analysis indicated that the equilibrium data could be represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity was identified as 500.0mgg(-1) at 308K. PMID:27177317

  13. Methanol Synthesis over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3: The Active Site in Industrial Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, Malte

    2012-03-28

    Unlike homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts that have been optimized through decades are typically so complex and hard to characterize that the nature of the catalytically active site is not known. This is one of the main stumbling blocks in developing rational catalyst design strategies in heterogeneous catalysis. We show here how to identify the crucial atomic structure motif for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol synthesis catalyst. Using a combination of experimental evidence from bulk-, surface-sensitive and imaging methods collected on real high-performance catalytic systems in combination with DFT calculations. We show that the active site consists of Cu steps peppered with Zn atoms, all stabilized by a series of well defined bulk defects and surface species that need jointly to be present for the system to work.

  14. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature. PMID:26041208

  15. Using Medium Resolution Earth Observation Data to Monitor Sensitive Industrial Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, M. M.; Hunt, L. A.; Gonçalves, J.

    2008-12-01

    Space-borne Earth Observation (EO) techniques have been used for decades to monitor climate and environmental processes, but the application of these tools to quantitatively characterize sensitive industrial complexes and especially to monitor safety - or security - related sites is still in its infancy. Photo- interpretation of very high spatial resolution imagery (from 1 to 10 m sampling frequency) for specific, pre- defined sites by specially-trained operators remains the main (or only) approach so far. This paper shows that medium resolution EO sensors (spatial sampling of the order of 250 m) and modern physically-based techniques of data analysis may prove complementary to these traditional techniques, as the radiometric, spatial, temporal, spectral and directional signatures of targets of interest can help characterize their nature, properties and structure, and differentiate them from ambient background. The re-processing of existing archives will be shown to be useful for the documentation of events, and possibly processes, that have remained hitherto unknown. The preliminary results that will be presented concern the construction time-line of an alleged (undeclared) nuclear facility. Comparing the performance of the MISR and MODIS sensors that implement quite different technologies leads to suggestions concerning the specifications of future EO sensors.

  16. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership.

    PubMed

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally. PMID:23788606

  17. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally. PMID:23788606

  18. Decision Making. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.; Combs, Paul William

    This learning activity package (LAP) on decision making is designed for student self-study. It is intended to help students clarify their values as well as lead them through the steps of making a decision. Following a list of learning objectives, the LAP contains a pretest (answer key provided at the end of the LAP). Ten learning activities…

  19. PRODUCTION OF HIGHLY ACTIVE LIGNOCELLULOSE-DEGRADING ENZYMES OF ANAEROBIC FUNGI BY INDUSTRIALLY RELEVANT FUNGI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most anaerobic fungi isolated from the digestive tracts of herbivorous animals secrete highly active lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, but the levels of production are usually low (e.g., <50 mg per liter). Fungi such as Trichoderma and Aspergillus, that are commonly used for commercial production o...

  20. Dialectal differences in hemispheric specialization for Japanese lexical pitch accent.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yutaka; Utsugi, Akira; Yamane, Naoto; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Mazuka, Reiko

    2013-12-01

    Language experience can alter perceptual abilities and the neural specialization for phonological contrasts. Here we investigated whether dialectal differences in the lexical use of pitch information lead to differences in functional lateralization for pitch processing. We measured cortical hemodynamic responses to pitch pattern changes in native speakers of Standard (Tokyo) Japanese, which has a lexical pitch accent system, and native speakers of 'accentless' dialects, which do not have any lexical tonal phenomena. While the Standard Japanese speakers showed left-dominant responses in temporal regions to pitch pattern changes within words, the accentless dialects speakers did not show such left-dominance. Pitch pattern changes within harmonic-complex tones also elicited different brain activation patterns between the two groups. These results indicate that the neural processing of pitch information differs depending on the listener's native dialect, and that listeners' linguistic experiences may further affect the processing of pitch changes even for non-linguistic sounds. PMID:24139706

  1. The Semantics and Pragmatics of Japanese Focus Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasegawa, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Japanese has a rich set of focus particles, several exclusive and additive particles, and, in addition, contrastive particles. This thesis provides a formal description of the meanings of Japanese focus particles and addresses two general questions: "What kinds concepts do Japanese focus particles express?" and "Why does Japanese have a larger…

  2. Some Design Issues for an Online Japanese Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagata, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…

  3. Dynamics of microbiological parameters, enzymatic activities and worm biomass production during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge of bakery industry.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anoop; Suthar, S; Garg, V K

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the changes in microbial parameters and enzymatic activities during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETPS) of bakery industry spiked with cow dung (CD) by Eisenia fetida. Six vermibins containing different ratios of ETPS and CD were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions for 15 weeks. Total bacterial and total fungal count increased upto 7th week and declined afterward in all the bins. Maximum bacterial and fungal count was 31.6 CFU × 10(6) g(-1) and 31 CFU × 10(4) g(-1) in 7th week. Maximum dehydrogenase activity was 1921 μg TPF g(-1) h(-1) in 9th week in 100 % CD containing vermibin, whereas maximum urease activity was 1208 μg NH4 (-)N g(-1) h(-1) in 3rd week in 100 % CD containing vermibin. The enzyme activity and microbial counts were lesser in ETPS containing vermibins than control (100 % CD). The growth and fecundity of the worms in different vermibins were also investigated. The results showed that initially biomass and fecundity of the worms increased but decreased at the later stages due to non-availability of the palatable feed. This showed that quality and palatability of food directly affect biological parameters of the system. PMID:25982984

  4. Drawing disability in Japanese manga: visual politics, embodied masculinity, and wheelchair basketball in Inoue Takehiko's REAL.

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    This work explores disability in the cultural context of contemporary Japanese comics. In contrast to Western comics, Japanese manga have permeated the social fabric of Japan to the extent that vast numbers of people read manga on a daily basis. It has, in fact, become such a popular medium for visual communication that the Japanese government and education systems utilize manga as a social acculturation and teaching tool. This multibillion dollar industry is incredibly diverse, and one particularly popular genre is sports manga. However, Inoue Takehiko's award-winning manga series REAL departs from more conventional sports manga, which typically focus on able-bodied characters with sometimes exaggerated superhuman physical abilities, by adopting a more realistic approach to the world of wheelchair basketball and the people who play it. At the same time REAL explores cultural attitudes toward disability in Japanese culture-where disability is at times rendered "invisible" either through accessibility problems or lingering associations of disability and shame. It is therefore extremely significant that manga, a visual medium, is rendering disability visible-the ultimate movement from margin to center. REAL devotes considerable attention to realistically illustrating the lived experiences of its characters both on and off the court. Consequently, the series not only educates readers about wheelchair basketball but also provides compelling insight into Japanese cultural notions about masculinity, family, responsibility, and identity. The basketball players-at first marginalized by their disability-join together in the unity of a sport typically characterized by its "abledness." PMID:24213739

  5. Collection and utilization of Japanese scientific and technological information in Europe and U.S.A. - Report on the Berlin Conference 1989 -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Takayasu; Miwa, Makiko; Obara, Michio

    The 2nd International Conference on Japanese Information in Science Technology and Commerce was held on October 23-25, 1989 at Japanisch-Deutsches Zentrum Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany. During two years since previous Conference at Warwick, England, in 1987, much progresses were made in collecting, using and evaluating Japanese scientific, technological and industrial information in Western countries. On the other hands, overseas supply of Japanese databases and information by Japanese governmental and private organizations have been improved in many aspects. There occurred presentation of papers and valuable exchange of opinions and experiences. The Conference consisted of II Sessions which covered trends and policies, various information sources, analysis and distributions, Japanese language and Kanji processings and direct connection with Japan.

  6. The effects of five different glycans on innate immune responses by phagocytes of hybrid tilapia and Japanese eels Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Way-Shyan; Hung, Shao-Wen; Lin, Yu-Hsing; Tu, Ching-Yu; Wong, Min-Liang; Chiou, Shiow-Her; Shieh, Meng-Tong

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune responses in hybrid tilapia (Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Mozambique tilapia O. mossambicus) and Japanese eels Anguilla japonica after treatment with five glycans: barley, krestin, MacroGard, scleroglucan, and zymosan. The effects of the glycans on the innate immune responses of the fish were investigated using the phagocytic index (PI), lysozyme activity, complement opsonization, and activation assay. The results of the lysozyme assay demonstrated that the lysozyme activities increased after treatment with glycans. Moreover, based on the PI, treatment with each of the five glycans resulted in increased phagocytic activities in anterior kidney and peripheral blood phagocytes in both tilapia and Japanese eels. The opsonic effect of complement on phagocytosis in tilapia and Japanese eels were investigated using baker's yeast, which served as the activator in the classical complement pathway (CCP) and in the alternative complement pathway (ACP). Tilapia and Japanese eel sera that were treated with glycans greatly enhanced phagocytosis. The classical pathway--hemolytic complement titer (CH50) of Japanese eels treated with glycans was slightly increased in vitro and in vivo. While glycan treatment enhanced the CCP of both species in vitro and in vivo, the alternative pathway-hemolytic complement titer (ACH50) was only increased in vitro and in vivo in glycan-treated tilapia. Thus, it follows that the ACP must have been activated in tilapia treated with glycans. However, in Japanese eels, the ACH50 of the ACP activation assay was undetected in vitro or in vivo due to possible unknown factors in the Japanese eel serum that caused lysis of the rabbit red blood cells. Our study investigated the effects of glycans used to enhance phagocytosis and activate both of the complement pathways involved in stimulating the innate immune responses of Japanese eels and tilapia. PMID:18236632

  7. Japanese submersible explores the North Fiji Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipboard Scientific Party; Auzende, J.-M.; Urabe, T.; Tanahashi, M.; Ruellan, E.

    1992-03-01

    Since 1987, Japanese and French geologists, geophysicists, and biologists have been studying the North Fiji Basin Ridge within the framework of a joint project named STARMER (Science and Technology Agency of Japan—IFREMER of France). This ridge was first geologically, geophysically, and geochemically surveyed during the 1985 SEAPSO 3 cruise of the R/V Jean Charcot [Auzende et al., 1988]. At that time, water sampling and morphotectonic analysis indicated that the North Fiji Basin Ridge was technically and hydrothermally active. Within the STARMER project, four surface ship cruises have been conducted {Kaiyo 87-88-89 and Yokosuka 90).One significant result of these surveys is the complete mapping of the entire ridge between 14°S and 22°S (Figure 1), an area approximately 900 km long and more than 50 km wide (Sea Beam and Furuno multibeam swath-mapping systems were used). During the Kaiyo 87 cruise, the presence of active hydrothermalism (sulfide deposits, chimneys expelling shimmering water, and associated living animal colonies) was discovered through water sampling and video deep towing.

  8. IPEC Gels for Remediating Soils Contaminated as Result of Nuclear and Industrial Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheykin, S.V.; Anciferova, E.Yu.; Simonov, V.P.; Zezin, A.B.; Rogacheva, V.B.; Bolusheva, T.N.

    2006-07-01

    be highly erosion-resistant. It showed that new kinds of IPECs based with micro-gels are very useful as soil stabilizers and applicable as activating agent of grass vegetation in the remediation activities. It may successfully apply also in the post-accidental activities in the case of spray radioactive materials onto topsoils. (authors)

  9. Metaproteomics Applied to Activated Sludge for Industrial Wastewater Treatment Revealed a Dominant Methylotrophic Metabolism of Hyphomicrobium zavarzinii.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Carlo; Benndorf, Dirk; Kluge, Sabine; Palese, Luigi Leonardo; Reichl, Udo; Pollice, Alfieri

    2016-07-01

    In biological wastewater treatments, microbial populations of the so-called activated sludge work together in the abatement of pollutants. In this work, the metabolic behavior of the biomass of a lab-scale plant treating industrial pharmaceutical wastewater was investigated through a metaproteomic approach. The complete treatment process included a membrane biological reactor (MBR) coupled with an advanced oxidation process (AOP) for partial breakdown of non-biodegradable molecules. Proteins from biomass samples collected pre- and post-AOP application were investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), mass spectrometry (MS), and finally identified by database search. Results showed that most proteins remained constant between pre- and post-AOP. Methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) belonging to Hyphomicrobium zavarzinii appeared as the most constantly expressed protein in the studied consortium. Other identified proteins belonging to Hyphomicrobium spp. revealed a predominant methylotrophic metabolism, and H. zavarzinii appeared as a key actor in the studied microbial community. PMID:27090901

  10. Carotene-degrading activities from Bjerkandera adusta possess an application in detergent industries.

    PubMed

    Linke, Diana; Leonhardt, Robin; Eisele, Nadine; Petersen, Laura M; Riemer, Stephanie; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

    2015-06-01

    Four extracellular enzymes, a versatile peroxidase, a manganese peroxidase, a dye-decolorizing peroxidase and a lignin peroxidase were discovered in liquid cultures of the basidiomycete Bjerkandera adusta. All of them cleaved β-carotene effectively. Expression was enhanced in the presence of β-carotene or Coomassie Brilliant Blue and peaked after 7-9 days. The monomeric proteins were purified by ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography and exhibited molecular masses of 41, 43, 51 and 43 kDa, respectively. The coding sequences showed homologies from 61 to 89 % to peroxidases from other basidiomycetes. The novel enzymes retained strong activity even in the absence of hydrogen peroxide and at alkaline pH. De-staining of fabrics using detergent-tolerant enzymes may help to save the most important bio-resources, energy and water, in washing processes and led to green processes in textile cleaning. PMID:25614450

  11. Mechanistic investigation of industrial wastewater naphthenic acids removal using granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm based processes.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-01-15

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) found in oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) have known environmental toxicity and are resistant to conventional wastewater treatments. The granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm treatment process has been shown to effectively treat OSPW NAs via combined adsorption/biodegradation processes despite the lack of research investigating their individual contributions. Presently, the NAs removals due to the individual processes of adsorption and biodegradation in OSPW bioreactors were determined using sodium azide to inhibit biodegradation. For raw OSPW, after 28 days biodegradation and adsorption contributed 14% and 63% of NA removal, respectively. For ozonated OSPW, biodegradation removed 18% of NAs while adsorption reduced NAs by 73%. Microbial community 454-pyrosequencing of bioreactor matrices indicated the importance of biodegradation given the diverse carbon degrading families including Acidobacteriaceae, Ectothiorhodospiraceae, and Comamonadaceae. Overall, results highlight the ability to determine specific processes of NAs removals in the combined treatment process in the presence of diverse bacteria metabolic groups found in GAC bioreactors. PMID:26410699

  12. Distribution coefficient of selenium in Japanese agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Nakamaru, Yasuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2005-03-01

    In order to evaluate the selenium (Se) sorption level in Japanese soils, soil/soil solution distribution coefficients (K(d)s) were obtained for 58 agricultural soil samples (seven soil classification groups) using 75Se as a tracer. Although several chemical forms of Se are present in agricultural fields, selenite was used, because it is the major inorganic Se form in acid soils such as found in Japan. The Kd values obtained covered a wide range, from 12 to 1060l/kg, and their arithmetic mean was 315l/kg. Among the soil groups, Andosols had higher Kd values. The Kd values for all samples were highly correlated with soil active-aluminum (Al) and active-iron (Fe) contents. Thus, active-Al and active-Fe were considered to be the major adsorbents of Se. Then, a new sequential extraction procedure was applied to 12 soil samples in order to quantify the effect of soil components on Se adsorption. The sequential extraction results showed that 80-100% of the adsorbed Se was recovered as Al-bound Se and Fe-bound Se. The amount of Al-bound Se was the highest in the soils that showed high Kd values, though the relative contribution of Fe-bound Se tended to increase with decreasing Kd values. The high values of Kd seemed to be caused mainly by the adsorption of Se onto active-Al in Japanese soils. PMID:15686752

  13. Active slag filters-simple and sustainable phosphorus removal from wastewater using steel industry byproduct.

    PubMed

    Pratt, C; Shilton, A

    2010-01-01

    Active filtration, where effluent is passed through a reactive substrate such as steel slag, offers a simple and cost-effective option for removing phosphorus (P) from effluent. This work summarises a series of studies that focused on the world's only full-scale active slag filter operated through to exhaustion. The filter achieved 75% P-removal during its first 5 years, reaching a retention capacity of 1.23 g P/kg slag but then its performance sharply declined. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and chemical extractions revealed that P sequestration was primarily achieved via adsorption onto iron (Fe) oxyhydroxides on the slag's surface. It was concluded that batch equilibrium tests, whose use has been repeatedly proposed in the literature, cannot be used as an accurate predictor of filter adsorption capacity because Fe oxyhydroxides form via chemical weathering in the field, and laboratory tests don't account for this. Research into how chemical conditions affect slag's P retention capacity demonstrated that near-neutral pH and high redox are optimal for Fe oxyhydroxide stability and overall filter performance. However, as Fe oxyhydroxide sites fill up, removal capacity becomes exhausted. Attempts to regenerate P removal efficiency using physical techniques proved ineffective contrary to dogma in the literature. Based on the newly-developed understanding of the mechanisms of P removal, chemical regeneration techniques were investigated and were shown to strip large quantities of P from filter adsorption sites leading to a regenerated P removal efficiency. This raises the prospect of developing a breakthrough technology that can repeatedly remove and recover P from effluent. PMID:20962385

  14. [Selective internationalization: foreign workers and Japanese society].

    PubMed

    Ito, R

    1990-01-01

    Japan's December 1989 revision of the law on immigration and recognition of refugees was intended to provide greater felxibility for employment of foreigners with specialized skills or professional qualifications while excluding migrant workers. This policy, referred to as selective internationalization by the author, represents an effort by the government to early 1980s and to changes in the Japanese economy which after decades of rapid growth is entering a new phase of diversification. The ideal of national homogeneity has prevented formulation of any coherent policy of integrating Japan's foreign born population, mostly descendents of laborers from Japan's former colonies. In 1988, Japan's 677,000 Korean residents constituted 72% of the foreign population registered in Japan. As of 1988, some 40,000 foreigners were registered as residents and permitted to work in any of several well-defined areas. The number, while small, is growing. Illegal migrants are defined essentially as foreigners exercising economic activities not authorized by their visas. The number of such workers is notoriously difficult to estimate, but the number of expulsions for labor violations increased by 4700 in 1989 to 22,600, suggesting that the problem is growing. The Ministry of Justice estimated the number of foreigners in irregular situations at 70,000 in 1988, and it has probably reached 120,000 at present. The number of foreign workers, authorized or not, is estimated at 150-160,000 or .3% of the active population. The 1989 revision of the immigration law does not constitute a foreign labor policy, but it does clearly signal the end of complete protectionism vis a vis the labor market which characterized Japan's period of rapid growth. Internationalization of the labor market reflects 2 concerns, provision of highly qualified employees to enable large enterprises to adapt more readily to changing international conditions, and continued control over the foreign labor supply of small

  15. Phytochemistry, biological activities and potential of annatto in natural colorant production for industrial applications – A review

    PubMed Central

    Shahid-ul-Islam; Rather, Luqman J.; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2015-01-01

    Bixa orellana commonly known as annatto is one of the oldest known natural dye yielding plants native to Central and South America. Various parts of annatto have been widely used in the traditional medical system for prevention and treatment of a wide number of health disorders. The plethora of traditional uses has encouraged researchers to identify and isolate phytochemicals from all parts of this plant. Carotenoids, apocarotenoids, terpenes, terpenoids, sterols, and aliphatic compounds are main compounds found in all parts of this plant and are reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. In recent years annatto has received tremendous scientific interest mainly due to the isolation of yellow–orange natural dye from its seeds which exhibits high biodegradability, low toxicity, and compatibility with the environment. Considerable research work has already been done and is currently underway for its applications in food, textile, leather, cosmetic, solar cells, and other industries. The present review provides up-to-date systematic and organized information on the traditional usage, phytochemistry and pharmacology of annatto. It also highlights its non-food industrial applications in order to bring more interest on this dye plant, identifies the existing gaps and provides potential for future studies. Studies reported in this review have demonstrated that annatto holds a great potential for being exploited as source of drugs and a potential natural dye. However, further efforts are required to identify extract biomolecules and their action mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities in order to understand the full phytochemical profile and the complex pharmacological effects of this plant. PMID:27222755

  16. Biomonitoring of cadmium, chromium, nickel and arsenic in general population living near mining and active industrial areas in Southern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Hammami, Bouthaina; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2014-02-01

    The human health impact of the historic and current mining and industrial activities in Tunisia is not known. This study assessed the exposure to metals in the population of Southern Tunisia, using biomonitoring. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate metal exposure on 350 participants living near mining and active industrial areas in the South of Tunisia. Blood specimens were analyzed for metals (Cd, Cr, As, and Ni) by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer equipped with Zeeman background correction and AS-800 auto sampler by graphite furnace and graphite tubes with integrated L'vov platform. The sample population was classified according to different age groups, sex, smoking habit, sea food and water drinking consumption, occupational exposure, amalgam fillings and place of residence. The blood As, Cd, Cr and Ni values expressed as mean ± SD were 1.56 ± 2.49, 0.74 ± 1.15, 35.04 ± 26.02 and 30.56 ± 29.96 μg/l, respectively. Blood Cd and Ni levels in smokers were 2 and 1.2 times, respectively, higher than in non-smokers. Blood Cd levels increase significantly with age (p = 0.002). As, Cd and Ni were significantly correlated with gender and age (p < 0.05). Cd level in blood samples of subjects occupationally exposed was 1.3 times higher than that of non-exposed. Blood metals were not significantly affected by amalgam fillings, place of living and sea food and drinking water consumption. This first biomonitoring study of metal exposure in the South of Tunisia reveals a substantial exposure to several metals. The pathways of exposure and health significance of these findings need to be further investigated. PMID:24078049

  17. Cold-active antibacterial and antifungal activities and antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from an alpine hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial site.

    PubMed

    Hemala, Lydia; Zhang, Dechao; Margesin, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Selection pressure in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils may lead not only to increased microbial resistance to antibiotics, but also to increased capacity of the soil indigenous population to produce antimicrobial compounds. Therefore, we studied the antibiotic resistance pattern and antibacterial and/or antifungal activities of 47 bacterial strains isolated from an industrial alpine site heavily polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. Resistance to penicillin was more widespread (49%) than resistance to chloramphenicol or rifampicin (28%) or streptomycin (26%). Only 9% of the strains were resistant to tetracycline. The ability to produce cold-active (10 °C) antimicrobial compounds was tested by using human pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus) and yeasts (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans) as indicator microorganisms. About two-thirds of the 47 tested strains produced compounds that inhibited growth of at least one indicator microorganism. Six strains inhibited growth of both bacteria and yeast indicators; 12 and 16 strains showed either antibacterial or antifungal activity, respectively. The most versatile bacteria with regard to multiple antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial activity belonged to Actinobacteria or Gammaproteobacteria. The antimicrobial compounds produced by three Pseudomonas spp. and two Serratia spp. strains were characterized in more detail by TLC and HPLC. Depending on the sensitivity of growth inhibition to enzymes, the compounds produced by the three pseudomonads contained a proteinaceous component. PMID:24880083

  18. Aum Shinrikyo and the Japanese law on bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Sugishima, Masaaki

    2003-01-01

    Before the sarin incidents in Tokyo and Matsumoto, the Aum Shinrikyo (now Aleph) had tried to conduct bioterrorism with botulinum toxin and Bacillus anthracis. Followers of the Aum could not overcome technical difficulties inherent in developing biological weapons, and the perpetrators had not been prosecuted for their failed attempts of bioterrorism. But the Aum's biological attack revealed several shortcomings in the Japanese law that regulated biological weapons. Since the missile experiment of North Korea conducted in 1998, the Japanese government has come to consider the threat posed by biological weapons more seriously. In 2001, after the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks and the series of anthrax letter scares in the United States of America, the Japanese government established its Five Basic Principles for Chemical and Biological Weapons Terrorism and several measures were taken at the central and local levels. Activities of the Aum have been monitored by the Public Security Investigation Agency and the National Police Agency under the Anti-Aum Law since 2000. PMID:15141855

  19. An epidemiologic review on occupational sleep research among Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuriko

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic sleep research on Japanese workers has been increasing in recent years. It is timely to give an overview of the sleep issues facing the Japanese working population by reviewing the accumulated epidemiological evidence, which will contribute to the promotion of a sound occupational health policy and the development of occupational sleep research in epidemiology. This paper reviews 24 studies, 13 for non-shift and 11 for shift Japanese workers, identified by using MEDLINE and Japan Cetra Revuo Medicina. The results reviewed are as follows: 1) the prevalence of insomnia and other sleep problems is substantially varied, 5 to 45% for non-shift and 29 to 38% for shift workers, 2) poor sleep quality is related to health, occupational activities and personal relations, 3) the risk or associated factors are identified in pathophysiology (e.g., hypertension), lifestyle behaviors (e.g., diet, alcohol, tobacco), job-related conditions (e.g., job stress, social support, job dissatisfaction, workload, shift schedules) and psychopathology (e.g., depressed mood). The methodological limitations found in the studies and the strategies of future epidemiologic sleep research in workers are discussed. PMID:15732297

  20. Abstracts of Innovative/Exemplary Activities in Industrial Teacher Education in the State of Michigan (MCITE Report-G Rev. 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, Johm G., Comp.; Matson, Johm H., Comp.

    This report is composed of a series of abstracts describing innovative/exemplary activities in industrial education in Michigan. The activities included (1) projects which invent a creative solution to a problem; (2) projects which demonstrate an exemplary program suitable for widespread use or a model to emulate; and (3) adoption of an exemplary…

  1. The super-elastic Japanese NiTi alloy wire for use in orthodontics. Part III. Studies on the Japanese NiTi alloy coil springs.

    PubMed

    Miura, F; Mogi, M; Ohura, Y; Karibe, M

    1988-08-01

    Closed and open Japanese nickel titanium (NiTi) alloy coil springs were fabricated from the Japanese NiTi alloy wire. The closed coil springs were subjected to a tensile test and the open coil springs were subjected to a compression test to evaluate the mechanical properties. At the same time, a test with the commercially available steel coil springs also was done. It was clearly established that the Japanese NiTi alloy coil springs exhibited superior springback and super-elastic properties similar to the properties of the Japanese NiTi alloy arch wires. In addition, it was shown that the load value of super-elastic activity can be effectively controlled by changing the diameter of the wire, the size of lumen, the martensite transformation temperature, and the pitch of the open coil spring. The most important characteristic of the Japanese NiTi alloy coil springs is the ability to exert a very long range of constant light, continuous force. It is possible to use this coil selectively to obtain optimal tooth movement. PMID:3165245

  2. Guide to federal export assistance activities applicable to the US coal and coal technologies industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The federal government provides a complete range of programs and services that can assist United States (US) coal and coal-technology firms as they expand into the foreign marketplace. These programs cover the spectrum of business export needs, which include: providing assistance in identifying target markets, locating specific business opportunities and foreign joint-venture partners, arranging business appointments, organizing trade missions, sponsoring feasibility studies, conducting trade analyses, providing financing, insuring investments, and providing in-country training and assistance. Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), this Guide has been developed to address this problem. It is intended to provide coal and coal technology firms with a single reference source for identifying US government agencies, programs, and contacts that might aid in exporting. The Guide contains an in-depth discussion of the eight major agencies offering export assistance: the Agency for International Development (AID), the Departments of Commerce (DOC) and State (DOS), the Export-Import Bank (Eximbank), the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), the Small Business Administration (SBA), the Trade and Development Program (TDP), and the Office of the US Trade Representative (USTR). In addition, this guide identifies pertinent activities performed by other federal agencies that might assist coal and coal-technologies exporters, including the Departments of Defense (DOD), Education, Energy (DOE), and Labor (DOL).

  3. Japanese male gay and bisexual identity.

    PubMed

    Harada, M

    2001-01-01

    Few studies have ever dealt with Japanese male gay and bisexual identity. This exploratory study investigated gay and bisexual identity through interviews of 34 Japanese gay and bisexual men. Though Japan has unique cultural aspects that are different from Western countries, it can be shown that Western concepts or models of homosexual identity are applicable to a considerable extent to Japanese gay and bisexual men. The results of this study suggest that there are two distinct types of Japanese men sexually interested in men, which the author will call "bisexual" and "gay." These two types are compared in terms of three aspects: self-identity, sexual preference, and social identity and role. A significant number of respondents have careers or vocations in the arts. This study touches on the correlation between art and male-male sexual orientation in Japan. PMID:12013576

  4. Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

  5. A proposed approach to systematically identify and monitor the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health using publicly available information.

    PubMed

    Mialon, M; Swinburn, B; Sacks, G

    2015-07-01

    Unhealthy diets represent one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There is currently a risk that the political influence of the food industry results in public health policies that do not adequately balance public and commercial interests. This paper aims to develop a framework for categorizing the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health and proposes an approach to systematically identify and monitor it. The proposed framework includes six strategies used by the food industry to influence public health policies and outcomes: information and messaging; financial incentive; constituency building; legal; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilization. The corporate political activity of the food industry could be identified and monitored through publicly available data sourced from the industry itself, governments, the media and other sources. Steps for country-level monitoring include identification of key food industry actors and related sources of information, followed by systematic data collection and analysis of relevant documents, using the proposed framework as a basis for classification of results. The proposed monitoring approach should be pilot tested in different countries as part of efforts to increase the transparency and accountability of the food industry. This approach has the potential to help redress any imbalance of interests and thereby contribute to the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. PMID:25988272

  6. Activated-charcoal filters: water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. January 1970-July 1988 (citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated-charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, industrial leaching, and filtration of toxic gases and pollutants are described. Applications include drinking water purification, filtering beverages, production of polymer materials, solvent and metal recovery, swimming pool filtration, waste conversion, automobile fuel and exhaust systems, and footwear deodorizing. (Contains 129 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  7. Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the Patent Bibliographic database with exemplary claims. ) Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, industrial leaching, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications include drinking water purification, filtering beverages, production of polymer materials, solvent and metal recovery, waste conversion, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, swimming pool filtration, tobacco smoke filters, kitchen ventilators, medical filtration treatment, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic File with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications are discussed, including drinking water purification, air and water pollution control, manufacture of industrial materials, materials recovery, waste treatment, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, cigarette filters, ventilation systems, medical filtration, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains a minimum of 125 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications are discussed, including drinking water purification, air and water pollution control, manufacture of industrial materials, materials recovery, waste treatment, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, cigarette filters, ventilation systems, medical filtration, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater Athens, Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT

    SciTech Connect

    Mirasgedis, S. Hontou, V.; Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Gakis, N.; Lalas, D.P.; Loukatos, A.; Gargoulas, N.; Mentzis, A.; Economidis, D.; Triantafilopoulos, T.; Korizi, K.; Mavrotas, G.

    2008-01-15

    Attributing costs to the environmental impacts associated with industrial activities can greatly assist in protecting human health and the natural environment as monetary values are capable of directly influencing technological and policy decisions without changing the rules of the market. This paper attempts to estimate the external cost attributable to the atmospheric pollution from 'medium and high environmental burden' industrial activities located in the greater Athens area and the benefits from Best Available Techniques (BAT) introduction. To this end a number of typical installations were defined to be used in conjunction with the Impact Pathway Approach developed in the context of the ExternE project to model all industrial sectors/sub-sectors located in the area of interest. Total environmental externalities due to air pollutants emitted by these industrial activities were found to reach 211 M Euro per year, associated mainly with human mortality and morbidity due to PM{sub 10} emissions, as well as with climate change impacts due to CO{sub 2} emissions for which non-metallic minerals and oil processing industries are the main sources. The results obtained can be used as the basis for an integrated evaluation of potential BAT, taking into account not only private costs and benefits but also the environmental externalities, thus leading to policy decisions that maximize social welfare in each industrial sector/sub-sector.

  11. "This Guy Is Japanese Stuck in a White Man's Body": A Discussion of Meaning Making, Identity Slippage, and Cross-Cultural Adaption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William S.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses two issues within a general theory of cross-cultural adaption. One concerns the extent to which cross-cultural adaption is activated by the ability to make meaning in Japanese as a foreign language; the second investigated the phenomenon of identity slippage. Six life histories of informants who had learned Japanese after age 11 are used…

  12. Comparison of raw and modified activated carbon and rice industry wastes for methylene blue sorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befani, Maria; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Quintero, César E.

    2015-04-01

    In Argentina the average paddy rice production was 1.3x106 tn/year in the last decade. Entre Ríos province (E.R.) accounts for 60% of national milling, resulting in a significant accumulation of waste in the local environment; husk and ashes are used as fuel in drying grain plants. The use of rice wastes, as low-cost sorbents for the removal of synthetic dyes and other contaminants may be a sustainable option. The aim of this work is the investigation of the removal capacity of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions using: (a) rice husk from a rice mill located in E.R. of size between 0.15 to 1.18 mm (RH2), (b) ash from rice husk burned at 800°C in oven for the grain drying unit of the rice mill (RHA800), and (c) biochar obtained from pyrolysis of RH2 material at 850°C (RHA4). Commercial activated carbon (AC), which is a porous material of high sorption capacity, was also used to compare its sorption capacity with the rice husk products. Furthermore, the incorporation of iron in the AC was studied using two different AC/Fe weight-by-weight ratios (AC-Fe and AC-0.5 Fe). The solution pH effect was studied in a range from 2 to 6.9. The maximal MB removal was achieved at pH of 6.8 to 6.9 for all materials studied, and at pH of 6.4 for AC. Kinetic experiments were conducted for a period of 48 h at pH 7 and C0 = 50 mg MB/L. Equilibrium was reached after 24 h and the adsorption capacity was 156, 104, 90, 79, 26, and 9 mg/g for AC, AC-Fe, AC-0.5 Fe, RHA4, RH2 and RHA800, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model expressed better the sorption kinetics of MB for all adsorbent materials. The AC-based materials presented better performance. The experimental data were fitted with the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The Langmuir model fits the data better in all cases. The maximum adsorption capacity was 238, 125, 92, 91, 46 and 9 mg/g for AC, AC-Fe, AC-0.5 Fe, RHA4, RH2 and RHA800, respectively. Agricultural wastes can be considered low-cost sorbents, but

  13. Stability of active prophages in industrial Lactococcus lactis strains in the presence of heat, acid, osmotic, oxidative and antibiotic stressors.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chun-Hoong; Stanton-Cook, Mitchell; Beatson, Scott A; Bansal, Nidhi; Turner, Mark S

    2016-03-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a starter bacterium commonly used in cheese making where it has an important role in acid-mediated curd formation as well as the development of flavour compounds. Industrial L. lactis strains can harbour one or more inducible prophages which when induced can affect cell growth and possibly lead to cell lysis. This is undesirable during growth and fermentation, but can beneficially lead to faster release of enzymes during cheese ripening. Lactococci can encounter multiple stress inducing conditions during the production of cheese, such as low and high temperatures, low pH, high osmotic pressure and long-term incubation. In this study, we tested the effect of these industrial stressors on prophage induction in two cheese making L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains (ASCC890049 and ASCC890310) as well as the laboratory strain L. lactis MG1363. Firstly, in order to identify inducible prophages in these strains we exposed them to the prophage inducing chemical mitomycin C (MMC) for 1 and 2h and then subjected the total genomic DNA to next-generation Illumina sequencing. Mapping of sequence reads back to the genome sequences revealed regions which contained a much higher fold coverage indicating DNA replication. These regions were amplified by up to 332-fold per cell (relative to the control tufA gene) and were identified as having similarities to different subgroups of P335 phages including MG-5, TP901-1, ul36.k1, bIL286, TP712 and BK5-T. Next, quantitative PCR was used to confirm the strong induction of prophages by MMC and then determine the copy number of the inducible prophages following exposure to various growth inhibitory levels of HCl, lactic acid, high temperature, NaCl, hydrogen peroxide and bacitracin. With the exception of a slight induction (2 to 4-fold) with hydrogen peroxide and long-term incubation after 21days in one industrial strain, none of the other stressors induced prophage DNA replication. These findings show that the repression

  14. Pretreatment of furfural industrial wastewater by Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate processes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Yang, C W; Wang, D; Tang, Q

    2014-01-01

    The Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate (PDS) processes have been applied for the treatment of actual furfural industrial wastewater in this paper. Through the comparative study of the three processes, a suitable pretreatment technology for actual furfural wastewater treatment was obtained, and the mechanism and dynamics process of this technology is discussed. The experimental results show that Fenton technology has a good and stable effect without adjusting pH of furfural wastewater. At optimal conditions, which were 40 mmol/L H₂O₂ initial concentration and 10 mmol/L Fe²⁺ initial concentration, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate can reach 81.2% after 90 min reaction at 80 °C temperature. The PDS process also has a good performance. The COD removal rate could attain 80.3% when Na₂S₂O₈ initial concentration was 4.2 mmol/L, Fe²⁺ initial concentration was 0.1 mol/L, the temperature remained at 70 °C, and pH value remained at 2.0. The electro-Fenton process was not competent to deal with the high-temperature furfural industrial wastewater and only 10.2% COD was degraded at 80 °C temperature in the optimal conditions (2.25 mA/cm² current density, 4 mg/L Na₂SO₄, 0.3 m³/h aeration rate). For the Fenton, electro-Fenton and PDS processes in pretreatment of furfural wastewater, their kinetic processes follow the pseudo first order kinetics law. The pretreatment pathways of furfural wastewater degradation are also investigated in this study. The results show that furfural and furan formic acid in furfural wastewater were preferentially degraded by Fenton technology. Furfural can be degraded into low-toxicity or nontoxic compounds by Fenton pretreatment technology, which could make furfural wastewater harmless and even reusable. PMID:25098869

  15. Global emissions of hydrogen chloride and chloromethane from coal combustion, incineration and industrial activities: Reactive Chlorine Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, Archie; Aucott, Michael L.; Benkovitz, Carmen M.; Graedel, Thomas E.; Kleiman, Gary; Midgley, Pauline M.; Li, Yi-Fan

    1999-04-01

    Much if not all of the chlorine present in fossil fuels is released into the atmosphere as hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chloromethane (CH3Cl, methyl chloride). The chlorine content of oil-based fuels is so low that these sources can be neglected, but coal combustion provides significant releases. On the basis of national statistics for the quantity and quality of coal burned during 1990 in power and heat generation, industrial conversion and residential and commercial heating, coupled with information on the chlorine contents of coals, a global inventory of national HCl emissions from this source has been constructed. This was combined with an estimate of the national emissions of HCl from waste combustion (both large-scale incineration and trash burning) which was based on an estimate of the global quantity released from this source expressed per head of population. Account was taken of reduced emissions where flue gases were processed, for example to remove sulphur dioxide. The HCl emitted in 1990, comprising 4.6 ± 4.3 Tg Cl from fossil fuel and 2 ± 1.9 Tg Cl from waste burning, was spatially distributed using available information on point sources such as power generation utilities and population density by default. Also associated with these combustion sources are chloromethane emissions, calculated to be 0.075 ± 0.07 Tg as Cl (equivalent) from fossil fuels and 0.032 ± 0.023 Tg Cl (equivalent) from waste combustion. These were distributed spatially exactly as the HCl emissions, and a further 0.007 Tg Cl in chloromethane from industrial process activity was distributed by point sources.

  16. Re-Examining Patriotism in Japanese Education: Analysis of Japanese Elementary School Moral Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    In 1947 the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) defined the pacifist principles for post-war Japanese education and was revised in 2006 for the first time in nearly 60 years. The revised FLE stipulates the importance of teaching love for country and region and Japanese culture and traditions with special emphasis on moral education. Today, this…

  17. Distributive Quantifier Scope in English-Japanese and Korean-Japanese Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an experimental investigation of knowledge of distributivity in nonnative (L2) Japanese learners whose first language (L1) is English or Korean. The availability of distributive scope in Japanese is modulated by word order and the semantic features of quantifiers. For English-speaking learners, these subtle interpretive…

  18. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  19. Ordinal Expressions in Japanese. Papers in Japanese Linguistics, Vol. 2, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backus, Robert L.

    The varied forms and semantic factors of Japanese ordinal expressions are related to one another in a coherent system. In Japanese, the cardinal number form is a numeral compound in construction with a referent. The numeral compound consists of a number and a numeral adjunct. Numeral adjuncts are derived from bound forms, or numeral suffixes, and…

  20. The Japanese in Hawaii: An Annotated Bibliography of Japanese Americans. Hawaii Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Mitsugu

    This revision of Mitsugu Matsuda's Japanese in Hawaii, 1868-1967: An Annotated Bibliography of the First Hundred Years, calls attention to writings which are available to students and individuals interested in Americans of Japanese ancestry. The materials range from scholarly pieces based on traditional academic sources for documentation to…

  1. Pretending to Be Japanese: Artistic Play in a Japanese-American Church and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Courtney T.

    2008-01-01

    With high rates of out-marriage and dwindling need for bilingual worship, Japanese-American churches face a critical question: "Why retain the Japanese part of our identity?" This article explores how one layperson (Naomi Takahashi Goto) draws from her experience as an artist, teacher, and mother to help her congregation answer this question.…

  2. Characteristics of Japanese and Japanese Americans in Psychotherapy in Japan and the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishio, Kazumi

    In spite of the growing volume of research on Asian Americans since the late 1960's, very little examination in the mental health field has been done of specific groups of Asian Americans. To compare the mental health treatment characteristics of Japanese in Japan and Japanese Americans in the United States, 27 Tokyo therapists and their 120…

  3. Neuromyelitis optica in Japanese sisters.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuji; Yoshikura, Nobuaki; Harada, Naoko; Yamada, Megumi; Koumura, Akihiro; Sakurai, Takeo; Hayashi, Yuichi; Kimura, Akio; Hozumi, Isao; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We report cases of Japanese sisters with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The elder sister was 25, when she was diagnosed with right optic neuritis. After 3 months, she developed left optic neuritis and myelitis. At age 27, she had the second relapse, but she has been free from episodes thereafter. The younger sister was 26, when she was diagnosed with optic neuritis. Thus far, she has 9 relapses, comprising both myelitis and optic neuritis. Both sisters had normal brain MRI scans, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis over 3 vertebral segments, and positive results for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQAP4Ab). They fulfilled the Wingerchuk criteria for definite NMO. Both sisters shared some immunogenetic factors, but they were not exposed to the same environmental factors after their early twenties. The final disability status was almost the same in both cases, and both showed a very benign course. These data suggest that genetic factors affect the age at onset and environmental factors may affect the frequency of relapse. PMID:22082898

  4. Sedation in Japanese dental schools.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Zac; Sano, Kimito; Fujii, Kazuyuki; Kanri, Tomio

    2004-01-01

    There is very little information about the practice of sedation in Japan. Despite the remarkable advances in dentistry, fear and anxiety continue to be significant deterrents for seeking dental services. Most dental procedures can fortunately be undertaken with the aid of sedation. A comprehensive survey of all the dental schools in Japan was carried out to determine what sedation practices were used in Japan. All 29 dental schools in Japan possessed a dedicated department of anesthesiology at the time of this survey. The survey attempted to determine the specific sedation methods (techniques, routes of administration, and agents used in sedation) as well as practices (monitoring, fasting, location, education, and fees involved in sedation). The results indicate that there was a broad range in sedation practices. The Japanese Dental Society of Anesthesiology may wish to examine the findings of this study and may wish to formulate guidelines appropriate for the practice of sedation in Japan. Others may also wish to compare their own practices with those of Japan. PMID:15497299

  5. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans With Whites Surrounding World War II

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War II with homogamy and intermarriage with Whites for the prewar (1930–1940) and resettlement (1946–1966) marriage cohorts. The authors applied log-linear models to census microsamples (N = 1,590,416) to estimate the odds ratios of homogamy versus intermarriage. The unadjusted odds ratios of Japanese Americans declined between cohorts and appeared to be consistent with the assimilation hypothesis. Once compositional influences and educational pairing patterns were adjusted, however, the odds ratios increased and supported the heightened exclusion hypothesis. PMID:21116449

  6. Risk of Cholera Among Western and Japanese Travelers.

    PubMed

    Wittlinger; Steffen; Watanabe; Handszuh

    1995-09-01

    Background: There has been concern about an increased risk of cholera in travelers to Latin America since the spread of the pandemic to this part of the world. Additionally, before this study the continuous high incidence of imported cholera to Japan had so far not been analyzed. Methods: A retrospective analysis of cases notified in 1991 to national surveillance centers in industrialized countries and to the World Health Organization was carried out. Denominator data were obtained by the World Tourism Organization. Results: The reported rate of imported cholera in European and North American travelers visiting endemic areas remains in the range of 0,2 per 100,000, as was observed 10 years ago. This rate is, however, is manyfold higher in Japanese travelers, with a highest value of 13,0 per 100,000 reported in those returning from Indonesia, usually Bali. No secondary outbreaks were observed in those countries to which cholera was imported. Conclusions: It is assumed that the higher rates in Japanese travelers are mainly due to more intensive surveillance. On Bali and elsewhere, further studies are needed to determine both the role of V. cholerae as a cause of traveler's diarrhea in tourists and to re-evaluate the need for cholera vaccination at specific high-risk destinations. PMID:9815376

  7. Evaluation of waste activated sludge as a coagulant aid for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing mixed surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sriwiriyarat, Tongchai; Jangkorn, Siriprapha

    2009-04-01

    Wastewater generated by the industry manufacturing detergents and various kinds of consumer products normally contains very high contents of mixed surfactants, organic matters expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD), and phosphates that must be treated prior to discharge to the aquatic environment. In this study, jar-test experiments were conducted to evaluate the waste activated sludge (WAS) as a coagulation aid in the coagulation-flocculation process with ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate as a coagulant for the treatment of wastewater collected from the aforementioned industry. The WAS was selected because of its adsorption capability of anionic surfactants and its availability from the wastage stream of biological wastewater treatment process. The effective dosages of both coagulants with and without the WAS additions were determined in this study. Without the WAS addition, the concentrations of 800 mg/L aluminum sulfate at the optimum pH value of 8 and 2208 mg/L ferric chloride at the optimum pH value of 12 were the optimum chemical dosages. It appears that aluminum sulfate was more effective than ferric chloride based on the chemical dosage and removal efficiency. The turbidity, suspended particles, anionic surfactants, COD, and phosphates removal efficiencies of aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride under the optimum dosage were 95.6, 88.2, 78.4, 73.5, 47.3% and 98.8, 92.0, 72.7, 67.5, 53.1%, respectively. The addition of 200 mg/L WAS was sufficient to reduce the optimum dosages of both chemicals by 200 mg/L. The cationic surfactant existing in the wastewater worked as a flocculating agent leading to the flocculation of waste activated sludge resulting in the enmeshment of the suspended particles and colloids on which the COD, anionic surfactants, and phosphates were adsorbed. However, the substances removal efficiencies of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate were slightly enhanced and reduced, respectively. It is possibly explained that the settling time

  8. Needs Analysis: Planning a Syllabus for a Series of Intensive Workplace Courses at a Leading Japanese Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowling, Jeremy David

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the needs analysis (NA) stage in the development of a set of English language intensive courses at a large Japanese industrial firm. The case study highlights the NA practices of using multiple sources and multiple methods in the data gathering stage and uses triangulation in order to validate results.…

  9. Mutagenic activity at different stages of an industrial ammonia caramel process detected in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 following pre-incubation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, N J; Willumsen, D; Knudsen, I

    1983-10-01

    Mutagenic activity of a commercial ammonia caramel colouring was demonstrated in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 without metabolic activation. The activity in strain TA100 was increased using a 10-min pre-incubation, and a clear dose-response relationship was seen using this method. Investigation of samples taken from the different stages in the industrial process showed a constant level of mutagenic activity in samples from the middle to the end of the heating process with a steep increase in the sample taken after the end of heating. No mutagenic activity was seen in assays with S. typhimurium strains TA1535 and TA98. PMID:6360827

  10. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere. PMID:26853846

  11. Cross-cultural comparison of concrete recycling decision-making and implementation in construction industry.

    PubMed

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Tam, Leona; Le, Khoa N

    2010-02-01

    Waste management is pressing very hard with alarming signals in construction industry. Concrete waste constituents major proportions of construction and demolition waste of 81% in Australia. To minimize concrete waste generated from construction activities, recycling concrete waste is one of the best methods to conserve the environment. This paper investigates concrete recycling implementation in construction. Japan is a leading country in recycling concrete waste, which has been implementing 98% recycling and using it for structural concrete applications. Hong Kong is developing concrete recycling programs for high-grade applications. Australia is making relatively slow progress in implementing concrete recycling in construction. Therefore, empirical studies in Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan were selected in this paper. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. Power spectrum was used for analysis. It was found that "increasing overall business competitiveness and strategic business opportunities" was considered as the major benefit for concrete recycling from Hong Kong and Japanese respondents, while "rising concrete recycling awareness such as selecting suitable resources, techniques and training and compliance with regulations" was considered as the major benefit from Australian respondents. However, "lack of clients' support", "increase in management cost" and "increase in documentation workload, such as working documents, procedures and tools" were the major difficulties encountered from Australian, Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. To improve the existing implementation, "inclusion of concrete recycling evaluation in tender appraisal" and "defining clear legal evaluation of concrete recycling" were major recommendations for Australian and Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. PMID:19854634

  12. Linkages between coastal and open-ocean habitats and dynamics of Japanese stocks of chum salmon and Japanese sardine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsu, Akihiko; Kaeriyama, Masahide

    2005-03-01

    Coastal-ocean-open-ocean migrations, prey-predator relations and long-term population dynamics of chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) and Japanese sardine ( Sardinops melanostictus), associated with large-scale climate and oceanographic conditions, are reviewed. After early marine life in coastal waters in northern Japan, chum salmon of Japanese origin spend their first summer in the Okhotsk Sea, then move to the Western Subarctic Gyre for the first winter at sea. Thereafter, they migrate between summer feeding grounds in the Bering Sea and wintering grounds in the Alaskan Gyre for a period of usually up to four years, and finally return to their natal rivers to spawn. Carrying capacity ( K) for chum salmon at an unfished equilibrium level was estimated from a Ricker spawner-recruitment curve, and the residual carrying capacity ( RCC=(K-abundance)K-1). was positively correlated with body size at age 4, and negatively correlated with age at maturity. Marine survival of Hokkaido chum populations was affected by body size at release, but neither by Aleutian low pressure activity nor sea-surface temperature (SST) around coastal Hokkaido in spring, although there is some correlation between survival rate and coastal SST. Juveniles of the Pacific stock of Japanese sardine become broadly distributed in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) as far east as 180° longitude during spring. Adults disperse as far as the central Pacific and the southern areas of the Okhotsk Sea and Western Subarctic Gyre in years of high abundance. Somatic growth and age at maturation of sardine are density-dependent. We used catch, biomass and residuals of observed recruitment numbers from a Ricker curve (LNRR) as a measure of sardine population dynamics. LNRR was highly correlated with SST of KE in winter, which shifted in 1970 and 1988. Recent biomass and catch remain at extremely low levels due to a combination of adverse environmental conditions and intensive fishing. We suggest that Japanese

  13. Advanced treatment of effluents from an industrial park wastewater treatment plant by ferrous ion activated persulfate oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Songmei; Zhou, Zhen; Jiang, Haitao; Ye, Jianfeng; Ren, Jiamin; Gu, Lingyun; Wang, Luochun

    2016-01-01

    The advanced oxidation technology, ferrous ion (Fe(II)) activated persulfate (PS) producing sulfate radicals, was used for the advanced treatment of effluent from an integrated wastewater treatment plant in a papermaking industrial park. Separate and interactive effects of PS dosage, Fe(II)/PS ratio and initial pH on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that Fe(II)-PS system was effective in COD removal from the secondary effluent. PS dosage was the most dominant factor with positive influence on COD removal, followed by initial pH value. The optimum conditions with COD removal of 54.4% were obtained at PS/COD of 2.2, initial pH of 6.47 and Fe(II)/PS of 1.89. UV-visible spectrum analysis showed that after RSM optimization, Fe(II)-PS system effectively degraded large organic molecules into small ones, and decreased humification degree of the effluent. Three-dimensional fluorescence analysis demonstrated that aromatic protein and fulvic substances were fully decomposed by the Fe(II)-PS treatment. PMID:27438260

  14. The assessment of human health impact caused by industrial and civil activities in the Pace Valley of Messina.

    PubMed

    Morra, P; Lisi, R; Spadoni, G; Maschio, G

    2009-06-01

    The impact of industrial and civil activities on an agricultural and residential area is presented in a detailed and global analysis. The examined area is the Pace river valley situated in the northern zone of Messina (Italy). The sources of pollution present in the area are: a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator operating since 1979, a disused urban solid waste landfill which was used for 30 years, an urban solid waste treatment facility with heavy vehicles traffic, and two open pits for the production of bitumen. Large quantities of toxic, carcinogenic substances and criteria pollutants are released into the environment and represent potential hazards to human health. The analysis is performed using the EHHRA-GIS tool which employs an integrated, multimedia, multi-exposure pathways and multi-receptor risk assessment model that is able to manage all the steps which constitute the human health risk analysis in a georeferenced structure. The transport of pollutants in different environmental media is assessed applying models (AERMOD, GMS, CALINE) that take into account the particular three-dimensional morphology of the terrain. The results obtained, combined with a probabilistic risk assessment and a sensitivity analysis of calculation parameters, are a comprehensive assessment of the total human health risk in the area. Finally human health risks caused by toxic and carcinogenic substances are compared with acceptable legal limits in order to support environmental managers' decisions. PMID:19344932

  15. Adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions from industrial effluents using activated carbon derived from waste coconut buttons.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Sreekumari, S S

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) derived from waste coconut buttons (CB) was investigated as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions such as Pb(II), Hg(II) and Cu(II) from industrial effluents through batch adsorption process. The AC was characterized by elemental analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, surface area analyzer and potentiometric titrations. The effects of initial metal concentration, contact time, pH and adsorbent dose on the adsorption of metal ions were studied. The adsorbent revealed a good adsorption potential for Pb(II) and Cu(II) at pH 6.0 and for Hg(II) at pH 7.0. The experimental kinetic data were a better fit with pseudo second-order equation rather than pseudo first-order equation. The Freundlich isotherm model was found to be more suitable to represent the experimental equilibrium isotherm results for the three metals than the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacities of the AC decreased in the order: Pb(II) > Hg(II) > Cu(II). PMID:22432329

  16. Verification of biological activity of irradiated Sopoongsan, an oriental medicinal prescription, for industrial application of functional cosmetic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Young; Park, Tae-Soon; Ho Son, Jun; Jo, Cheorun; Woo Byun, Myung; Jeun An, Bong

    2007-11-01

    Sopoongsan is an oriental medicinal prescription including 12 medicinal herbs. Sopoongsan is known to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-allergic, and anti-cancer effects on human skin. To use Sopoongsan extract for functional cosmetic composition, its dark color should be brighter for seeking consumer demand, clear products, without any adverse change in its function. Irradiation with doses 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy was applied to improve color of ethanol- or water-extracted Sopoongsan and also superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO), melanoma cell growth inhibition, and anti-microbial activity was investigated. Generally, ethanol extract was better than water extract in function and irradiation up to 20 kGy did not change any functional effect. Especially, the inhibition of melanin deposition on skin measured by inhibition of B16F10 (melanoma) cell growth was as high as arbutin, commercially available product, when the ethanol-extracted Sopoongsan was irradiated for 20 kGy. Results showed that when irradiation technology is used, the limitation of addition amount of natural materials for food or cosmetic composition caused by color problem can be decreased significantly with time saving and cost benefit compared to conventional color removal process. Therefore, irradiation would be one of the good methods to pose an additional value for related industry.

  17. The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Margherita; Nardelli, Claudia; Castegna, Alessandra; Arnesano, Fabio; Carella, Nicola; Depalo, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, affect female reproductive function. A biological sensor of the signals of many toxic chemical compounds seems to be the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Previous studies demonstrated the environmental of heavy metals in Taranto city (Italy), an area that has been influenced by anthropogenic factors such as industrial activities and waste treatments since 1986. However, the impact of these elements on female fertility in this geographic area has never been analyzed. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the AHR pathway, sex steroid receptor pattern and apoptotic process in granulosa cells (GCs) retrieved from 30 women, born and living in Taranto, and 30 women who are living in non-contaminated areas (control group), who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol. In follicular fluids (FFs) of both groups the toxic and essential heavy metals, such as chromiun (Cr), Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), were also analyzed. Higher levels of Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb were found in the FFs of the women from Taranto as compared to the control group, as were the levels of AHR and AHR-dependent cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1; while CYP19A1 expression was decreased. The anti-apoptotic process found in the GCs of women fromTaranto was associated with the highest levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a novel progesterone receptor, the expression of which is subjected to AHR activated by its highest affinity ligands (e.g., dioxins) or indirectly by other environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals. In conclusion, decreased production of estradiol and decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes found in women from Taranto could be due to chronic exposure to heavy metals, in particular to Cr and Pb. PMID:27008165

  18. Japanese management philosophy: can it be exported?

    PubMed

    Kono, T

    1982-06-01

    Japanese companies have many characteristics common to innovative organizations. Missions and goals are clearly stated. These motivate the employee and make it easier to introduce innovation. They also encourage more of a sense of involvement with the organization. Japanese corporations have growth oriented and long-range goals. This derives from the expectation of life-time employment. And pressure from shareholders is not as strong as in the U.K. The separation of management from ownership is well advanced with a management committee being in effective control. Group decisions tend to be innovative, in part due to the high number of university graduates. Japanese management thus remains sensitive to new technology and new ideas. Many characteristics of Japanese management do not originate in the uniqueness of their culture but rather in the positive introduction of new theory. Strategic decisions are made by top management. Formal long-range planning has a very high diffusion among large Japanese companies. Strategies are competition oriented. There is a long-term co-operative relation between the final products manufacturer and the parts manufacturers. There is also more use of internal growth and less use of acquisition. PMID:10298731

  19. Adult perceptions of phonotactic violations in Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, Laurel; Kajikawa, Sachiyo; Werker, Janet; Amano, Shigeaki

    2001-05-01

    Adult Japanese speakers ``hear'' epenthetic vowels in productions of Japanese-like words that violate the canonical CVCVCV form by containing internal consonant clusters (CVCCV) [Dupoux et al., J. Exp. Psychol. 25, 1568-1578 (1999)]. Given this finding, this research examined how Japanese adults rated the goodness of Japanese-like words produced without a vowel in the final syllable (CVC), and words produced without vowels in the penultimate and final syllables (CVCC). Furthermore, in some of these contexts, voiceless vowels may appear in fluent, casual Japanese productions, especially in the Kanto dialect, and in some, such voiceless vowels may not appear. Results indicate that both Kanto and Kinki speakers rated CVC productions for contexts in which voiceless vowels are not allowed as the worst; they rated CVC and CVCC contexts in which voiceless vowel productions are allowed as better. In these latter contexts, the CVC words, which result from the loss of one, final, vowel, are judged to be better than the CVCC words, which result from the loss of two (final and penultimate) vowels. These results mirror the relative seriousness of the phonotactic violations and indicate listeners have tacit knowledge of these regularities in their language.

  20. Are Australian Fans of Anime and Manga Motivated to Learn Japanese Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William S.; Iida, Sumiko

    2016-01-01

    Recent research into Japanese as a foreign language education has strongly emphasized the link between Japanese popular culture and learning Japanese. However, these studies have only targeted Japanese language learners in formal education contexts and have largely ignored those who are not studying Japanese or studying Japanese informally. This…